research colloquium A closer look at how safe sex is packaged guided by shilpa das three weeks semester four
mira malhotra | pgdpd graphic design â€˜09 | s0901109 | email@example.com | +91 91735 57406
A Closer Look at how Safe Sex is Packaged scope To study imagery on male condom packaging in India from the vantage point of the consumer at the point of purchase. This would involve a study of the semiotics across four popular brands that cater to an urban middle class audience: Durex, Kohinoor, Kama Sutra and Moods through a feminist lens. Most of the questions I asked myself personally revolved around the sexual power play and my feeling of being deliberately left out as a consumer, as their packaging did not appeal to me. The female condom is specifically targeted towards the female, for obvious reasons, but will deliberately be left out of this study on account of it being more expensive, not as freely available, perceived as being difficult to use and consequently it being less popular. The audience was specifically chosen as urban and middle class, because the packaging developed for the brands that they buy are specifically strategised and photographed by a team, after a background study.
operationalising definitions Condoms The mass-produced, modern-day condom, made out of polyurethane, that can be purchased over the counter at chemists shops, or at a grocery store. More on it below. Packaging The outer protective covering, on which is imagery designed by a graphic designer, that not only protects but also helps promote or call to attention the product inside, whilst viewed on the shelf. S.T.D. or S.T.I. Sexually Transmitted Diseases or also known as Sexually Transmitted Infections. Advertiser A person or group of persons employed for promoting and increasing consumption of, usually commercially, the sale of a product, a service or an idea. Designer A person who devises designs; plans and executes forms, structures, patterns either as works of art or for machines/products. (Random House Dictionary) L.G.B.T. The term LGBT stands for Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender, and includes gender-identified groups or groups that fall outside of the two typical biological heterosexual groups i.e. straight male & straight female. Male Gaze A term used extensively in feminist theory, specially in reference to film, when the audience is put into the perspective of a heterosexual man as a matter of habit. Fetishism In this case, sexual, also known as erotic fetishism, is when sexual arousal is only brought on by a certain object, situation, fantasy or body part not conventionally viewed as being sexual in nature. Voyeurism The act of viewing unbenownst to the subject who is being viewed. Erotica This refers to works of art, including literature, photography, film, sculpture and painting, that deal substantively with erotically stimulating or sexually arousing descriptions. It is a modern word describing the portrayal of human anatomy and sexuality with high-art aspirations, differentiating such work from commercial pornography. research colloquium | a closer look at how safe sex is packaged | page one
Pornography Also known as porn for short, is the portrayal of explicit sexual subject matter for the purposes of sexual excitement and erotic satisfaction and is highly commercial. Asexuality A term used to describe, in its broadest sense, the lack of sexual attraction and the lack of interest in and desire for sex. Sexual Desire A want characterised by sexual attraction towards a person or an object or a fantasy, as opposed to a sexual need, which is a want characterised by its imperative to survive by propagating one’s own species. Pansexuality A term referring to those who have the potential for sexual attractions, sexual desire, or romantic love, towards people of all gender identities and biological sexes.
research questions • Despite the packaging showing heterosexual relations, does this package only target the heterosexual man and alienate the heterosexual woman? If so, what are the repercussions of doing so? • Is it reminiscent of other imagery we as part of the larger public see all around us? Is it too predictable? • Is it limiting, considering the implications of what is inside it? Even to communities that exist outside the heterosexual community? • Could this packaging even be detrimental to its end purpose, i.e. the purpose of the condom, towards the goal of safe sex? • Is this packaging adequate or is it not standing up to what it should and could be? • Would the existing imagery on the packaging be any different if done by a designer rather than an advertiser? • Is this imagery the only way to sell condoms? What can be suggested as alternatives to remedy the issues that crop up as a result of this imagery?
background Usage of Condoms The condom is a protective sheath, made of polyurethane, goat’s skin or latex, that acts as a barrier between specific skin to skin contact or exchange of bodily fluids. Three kinds of physical sex can require the use of condoms— Peno-Anal, Peno-Vaginal and Peno-Oral sex. Three orifices act as receivers for the penis or phallic object, the anus (male and female), the vagina (female) and the mouth (male and female). A condom is worn on the penis, but a foreign object acting as a penis would also require a condom on it, if it is to be inserted into the body. Purpose of Condoms Condoms are used for two purposes: contraception and prevention of STDs. Condoms are not used for pleasure, in fact it is less pleasurable to indulge in sexual intercourse with a condom. This is why most condom manufacturers develop certain aspects of the product to keep the focus on pleasure, and not on discomfort. The condom product is therefore specifically enhanced by dotting, ribbing, or adding textures and ‘flavours’ to it so it enhances pleasure. This is a good tactic, rather than to focus on the discomforts of wearing a condom, safety of sex, or the mandatory use of a condom, the advertisers/packaging designers turns to something the consumer would like to expect during the act of sex: enjoyment and sexual pleasure. Users of Condoms Any person having sexual intercourse (several kinds) with another person would need a condom. Besides heterosexual sex that could require contraceptives, during the act of sex, bodily fluids (blood, research colloquium | a closer look at how safe sex is packaged | page two
semen, vaginal lubrication fluids) that carry pathogens may be exchanged or skin-to-skin contact may also result in transmission of STDs. Therefore heterosexual, homosexual, or any other group under the umbrella of LGBT can be a potential user of a condom.
image study across brands Characteristics to Consider What are the criteria which affect the viewing of the spectator? In other words, how do we read these images? 1. Colour & Treatment of Image and Crop 2. Location and Setting (if any) 3. Posture and Position of Male & Female Model/s, if present (in relation to each other, in the case of plural) 4. Physical characteristics of Model/s if present 5. Facial expression, mood of Model/s if present 6. Costume of Model/s if present A literal understanding with visual cues is presented below, which is later used to deduce scenarios for comparison between brands.
Durex ‘The Clinical Approach’
• Abstract, colour-centric, gradients seen • Indicative of texture or features of product • Act of sex/foreplay, model/s completely absent. • Photographs of objects related to the product’s features, not the act of sex.
Kama Sutra ‘Man/Woman on Top’ • Black & white imagery, neutral, no remarkable differentiation by colours. • Indoors/outdoors, not a bedroom. • Mostly man is on top, rarely the woman, however one interesting shot shows woman being aggressively sexual and man passive.
research colloquium | a closer look at how safe sex is packaged | page three
• Focus is more on the faces than bodies, or the way the packaging is opened positions the crop to frame the faces before opening • Both male & female ideal models with well-toned bodies, typically like fashion models seen on runways. • Eyes of both are always closed. • Man and woman are dressed in loose-fitting clothing, sometimes even similarly, you can see both man and woman in different images wear the same unisex white vest, and in one shot the woman is wearing a man’s shirt which is wet. • The words on the packaging clearly refer to the woman using the condom as ‘her’ and the man as ‘you’ thus establishing the target audience for whom it was created.
Kohinoor ‘Look at Her’
• Image is in full, vibrant colour. • Bedroom scenes only. • Man’s face always shown in profile/or from behind. • Woman’s face shown full frontal /three fourths or from lower vantage point, but always more is seen than the face of the man. • Man’s body is not the focus, woman’s is. • Woman is fair, delicate, ideal— Man is not, he would not necessarily conform to the standards of beauty or more appropriately handsomeness that many women would admire. • Eyes of both models are always closed. • Man is shirtless, woman is in racy, brightly coloured lingerie (more contrast).
research colloquium | a closer look at how safe sex is packaged | page four
• Only one shot shows the man’s face and not the woman’s, but still the focus is largely on the woman’s body, though the woman’s head is quite inhumanly cut in such a way only to exhibit her breasts. The man is depicted as he always is, but here he is provocatively touching her breast with his hand.
Moods ‘She’s All Woman’
• As a result of a very diluted brand image, some of the packs imitate Durex and do not exhibit any photographic imagery. However, some of the others are almost opposite in nature, with graphic images. We shall examine these. • In case of imagery, exotic locale. • Only female model, suggestive, not in the sex act but welcoming the sex act, so it seems. • Mostly reclining poses, deliberately fashioned for the male viewer and to exhibit the female body while amplifying it’s curves. • Bordering on nudity, very titillating. • Woman is ideal, though not delicate, she is far more buxom and voluptuous than her Kama Sutra and Kohinoor counterparts, no particular bias towards a particular skin colour. • She is looking directly at the imagined viewer of the image. • Exotic, unrealistic costumes.
Comparative Strategy Most of these brands have a different strategy, just enough, however to keep them apart, except for Durex. However they all conform to one formula, or if not they avoid it altogether. Durex (‘The Clinical Approach’) opts out of the formula of showing any imagery, and so avoids showing any person on its cover. It focuses on the product features very literally with the textures etc. but the imagery generated is more abstracted. Being a global brand, with an already established reach, it may be able to be research colloquium | a closer look at how safe sex is packaged | page five
more subtle and not titillating. Given its longevity and its experience to deal with the complexity of the global market, its imagery is far more well thought out. Even if it uses imagery involving persons in the sex act, it will use it in different media such as print advertising but it seems that it does not wish the consumer to get embarrassed when picking up a pack of condoms at the pharmacy or that its consumer already knows what he/she wants. Kama Sutra (‘Man/Woman on Top’) uses the formula but does it very carefully. The imagery clearly shows a more equitable relationship between the man and woman. There is a balance of power. The black and white or sepia tones help neutralise the image and the way they are dressed is similar. Both women and man have been seen in aggressive sexual positions as well as passive positions, though many more feature men as the aggressor. The man and woman both are the typical runway fashion model and though they have ideal bodies, not much focus is given on showing them off, let alone one more than the other. Despite having literal, graphic imagery, these images seem far less offensive to the general public and are considered more ‘tasteful’ than the norm. Despite its balance of power, the message on the Kama Sutra box is replete with assurances that it is pleasurable “for you and her” and helps “you multiply her pleasure”. Kohinoor (‘Look at Her’) seems to have a clear double standard. The woman and man are shown in advanced stages of foreplay but the message is clear. The imagery shows the true nature of the strategy. The man has been thrown into the mix, but that the focus is on the woman is quite apparent. She is singled out by her costume, her features and her idealness as compared to her male partner who seems to be present only because a male also plays a role in the sex act (heterosexual, in this case). Even the colours in the image put her in the foreground. Moods (‘She’s All Woman’) is outright, direct and frank in its depiction of the formula or it goes the Durex way, depending on which type of packaging we are talking about. It shows the female alone, and not the fruition of the sex act. It shows the precursor stage, which is far more tempting than the actual act. The female is ideal, her body is voluptuous, seems crafted for sex, and she is awaiting and wanting it. Dressed in more exotic clothes, placed in unrealistic locales, she is completing and pandering to the quintessential male fantasy. Above all these she is looking straight at her consumer. This is the final sealing of the deal. In all the others all the models have closed eyes. But here you can be sure she is looking boldly at the imagined heterosexual male consumer.
so what is the formula? What is the formula that all these brands (Durex being the exception) are conforming to? And why do all of these conform to only one? Every single package depicts, in one way or another, to some degree or the other, a phenomenon entrenched in our modern day culture, known as the male gaze. The approaches on these packages are all different in ways that matter little because the central concepts from which they stem are all the same. The concept of the male gaze was introduced in an essay Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema (1973) by Laura Mulvey. At its very basic, the male gaze is a how an image is viewed when an image is constructed assuming that it is for a heterosexual male audience. (We can also say that this applies to the copy, as in the case of Kama Sutra). It is considered acceptable to both sexes because as John Berger says in Ways of Seeing, “This unequal relationship is so deeply embedded in our culture that it still structures the consciousness of many women. They do to themselves what men do to them. They survey, like men, their own femininity.” This formula has existed for centuries. As we can see the advertisers/agencies that put out these packages are not just packaging condoms but also are packaging the male gaze formula, just that they are doing this slightly differently from their competitors. Despite the market surveys and background studies the basic factors for research colloquium | a closer look at how safe sex is packaged | page six
differentiation remain superficial and the fundamental approach the same. The images of the woman on the Kama Sutra cover are not challenging this concept but just stretching it to see how far it will go, if it were to. Durex opts out of it, but does not challenge it or offer another alternative as adequate replacement.
consequences of the male gaze formula The purported purpose of the condom is to prevent pregnancy and transmission of STDs. Given that only women can get pregnant, women have a more urgent, two-fold use for condoms and there is a dire need to target them, as women have little or no control over their bodies and contraception has major repercussions, especially in Indian society. However, despite Berger’s statement that women survey, like men, their own femininity, one cannot assume that they are anxious or especially motivated to do that. They are supposed to as they have been conditioned to do so. That many men are the ones who truly enjoy such imagery (fetishistic or voyeuristic) is no secret. Women are forced to accept the prevalence of this imagery, it being so widespread, and are thereby accustomed to it. Therefore while they do not object to being left out by it and sometimes even do participate heavily in their dual role of surveyor/surveyed, this does not necessarily mean they enjoy it (though they may at times enjoy themselves being surveyed, individually), and therefore we can safely say this imagery doesn’t cater to them. Most of the women who I interviewed during my course of writing this paper are not just uncomfortable or embarrassed by the imagery, but more importantly, feel ‘shut out’ by the imagery and are not motivated at all by the imagery on the packaging. And one cannot blame them, as the imagery offers no reward for their eyes. The male gaze has repercussions on our society in more ways than one. It sets up a structure in which the woman is the surveyed and the man is the surveyor. But things are a little more complex than that. Women, on account of seeing such images repeatedly, begin to see themselves even through the eyes of the man, and so are split into two roles: that of the surveyed and of the surveyor. Man being the surveyor, woman being the surveyed as well as putting herself in the place of the ‘male-surveyor’ sets up a power-play. Woman is subjected to man’s surveying gaze and is offered reward for it. Therefore to gain it, she must do as the gazer/surveyor wants, and the surveyor in her, men around her, or even other women can subject her to that control. It may destroy her, even without the outside interference of men in her own life. A curious parallel between the concept of the male gaze, (which was originally written for and within the context of film) and what happens when a man is expected to carry a condom can be seen. If the man is the target audience for a condom, and he is supposed to carry it, the decision to have safe sex or not lies with him, that is, he has the control over that decision, not the woman he is having sexual intercourse with. If he fails to do so, the woman cannot have safe sex. The other alternatives within the condom industry aren’t as viable for the woman, so we can say that this formula is vastly putting this control in the man’s hands, and is playing its role in curtailing the woman’s. There is also a backlash that can be seen. When women’s control is curtailed, she can also spread STDs to her male sexual partner. This in turn can be spread or passed on again. Another extremely important point to note is the exclusivity of condoms. Was it anyway ever meant to be just for the heterosexual male or female? We did cover, before, that condoms were meant for homosexual sex as well, and therefore we can say the same consequences of the spread of diseases can be felt here as when the heterosexual female is left out of the communication. To a certain degree, the imagery (where both female and male models are shown) can appeal to the bi/ homosexual male consumer. This is not the topic of this study however, but just as important a point to note and a topic well worth probing further.
research colloquium | a closer look at how safe sex is packaged | page seven
advertiser versus designer The role difference between the advertiser and the designer becomes evident now. The advertiser‘s objective is to sell condoms and the designer’s is to propagate and teach safe sex practices. The advertiser is trained to look at the market survey and his/her competitors while the designer will build up a comprehensive idea of the context she/he is looking at and the purpose of using a condom, not the purpose of using ‘so-and-so brand’ of condom. The advertiser right now is seemingly focusing on the condom from the point of view of the mechanics of sex alone, and not the culture of sex (and hence targeting only the male) and is not or only half-heartedly adhering to the responsibility of promoting safe sex. As a designer, I know that ideally one should not create a solution that fulfils its primary objective while sacrificing secondary and tertiary objectives within its context. We can see that the advertiser is doing just that, they could very well be saying ‘we can put any kind of image on the box, as long as it makes men buy condoms’ but this kind of statement helps disregard any argument that such images have other consequences detrimental to the concept of safe sex. It is equivalent to saying ‘Boys will be Boys’. Perhaps though we could even let it be, in the light of a supposedly uneducated audience, but in the case of the urban middle class, there is much less of an excuse. Conversely, one can argue that if all men carried condoms then we can be successful, still only in the realm of heterosexual relations, but that is highly unrealistic and improbable. We do need to understand that safe sex is even more important an issue because of the contraception aspect, women being the child bearer and traditionally looked at as child-rearer as well. Therefore our society and consequently our media cannot afford to turn a blind eye to such an issue.
alternatives to the male gaze formula – suggestions Are there other ways of targeting the condom consumer, regardless of their sex or sexual preference? As a designer, how can anyone specifically use methods and media to change the formula? It is definitely not fair or wise, for that matter, to fight fire with fire and put out packaging with a converse female gaze formula. What other approaches can be explored in the visual medium and why? The following ideas can benefit the designer as starting points for exploration. Inspirations from Eastern art forms The male gaze has stemmed mainly from historic European painting traditions and was so legitimised that it made its way into classical art, never being questioned. Most modern media in India follows as a given that which we have learned from the West. The solution to the imagery we currently have, however, could be right in our own backyard. Eroticism and sexuality as seen in nonEuropean historic traditions including our own has imagery that shows “active sexual love as between two people, the woman as active as the man, the actions of each absorbing the own” ( John Berger, Ways of Seeing). research colloquium | a closer look at how safe sex is packaged | page eight
The result is a less posed appearance, a less obvious nudity, instead more a natural nakedness, not objectified for the sake of the viewer. A most commonly known example is our very own temples of Khajuraho which depict sculptures like this on the walls. Could the study of these images and what makes them so different from what we are accustomed to benefit our woman consumer? Illustration versus Photography Besides what John Berger states, the sculptures of Khajuraho and similar Indian art forms are stylised representations of humans indulging in different kinds of sex. This stylisation makes them identifiable and relatable, but surprisingly, not half as shocking. A contemporary Indian example of the same was the Lee Jeans campaign for straight leg jeans (Alok Nanda & Company), which showed two women in an embrace, ready to kiss. The image is undeniably erotic. The inflammatory nature of the content didn’t generate much controversy though, probably because there was no actual person being photographed and the images thereby were not realistic. In fact it seems hardly offensive despite its content. Could it perhaps be that this quality gives us a chance for an illustrative approach for condom packaging? What are the benefits of an approach like this? Photography, of course, is highly realistic, captured quite literally from the world around us. Illustration has the advantage of being easily manipulated and evident of multiple realities. Is this a bad thing? Not quite. In Understanding Comics, Scott McCloud ponders the nature of the illustrated, simplified and abstract human form known as the cartoon and asks, “Why would anyone, young or old, respond to a cartoon, as much or more than a realistic image? Why is our [American, also possibly Japanese] culture so in thrall to the simplified reality of the cartoon?” He goes on to explain, “When we abstract an image through cartooning, we’re not so much eliminating details as we are focusing on specific details. By stripping down an image to its essential ‘meaning’, an artist can amplify that meaning in a way that a realistic image can’t.” In fact, by lowering the visual detail in the image and simplifying and abstracting, the viewer is able to more easily ‘become’ the illustrated/cartooned personality and the message is far more easily communicable and is much more involving. Marshall McLuhan, in Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man calls these cool media (low definition) in which one literally fills in the gaps, as opposed to hot media (high definition), like photo-realistic media. It is generally found that women engage themselves more easily with cool media. Perhaps then, this is a route that would benefit some exploration? This just goes to show that imagery created through illustration, especially with sexual content, can offer the designer more control and thereby more influence over the way it is represented. Objectifying the object: Sexuality extended to objects instead of people A great liberty can be taken with an audience such as the urban middle class. Since exposed to certain types of media, meanings have been established and extended to beyond the literal imagery of man-woman engaged in sexual encounter. Instead of objectifying the woman which is the common, easy way out, or objectifying the man, why not objectify objects? Objects have the ability take on sexual meanings due to repeated associations, some of these include certain flowers, lace, blindfolds, satin, etc. One very classic yet accidental example of these is the paintings by American painter Georgia O’Keeffe. Although the painter confessed to have not intended to be erotic, the magnified, larger-than-life paintings of the flowers are visually akin to female genitalia. The treatment is light and smooth, feminine, and far from objectification. Imagery like this benefits in more ways than one, for example children would not be able to see beyond that it’s a flower. Erotica versus Pornography A clearer understanding of the difference between erotica and pornography can also help. Most women report to feel far more comfortable with erotica than pornography (Ogi Ogas and Sai Gaddam, A Billion Wicked Thoughts) Many find pornography offensive to their own kind. While we can say that they feature much of the same content i.e. sexual poses, nudity, etc. the treatment varies greatly. While too research colloquium | a closer look at how safe sex is packaged | page nine
many people have tried to establish what the difference is, we can say that pornography is more largely based on male fantasy and sometimes goes too far in its depiction of certain fetishes, even some content depicting rape, violence, and paedophilia (or bordering on it). Erotica is more prone to celebrate the female form, sometimes more romantic and gender roles generally more equitable. A shared notion of Sexuality As human beings we are sexual. Whatever our gender or our sexual preferences, barring the community that calls itself asexual, we can safely say that all humans like to enjoy sex and experience sexual attraction. Pleasure experienced by human beings, is sometimes more insatiable a desire than the bodily instinct of needing to propagate a species, i.e. we are not just animals wanting to mate during our mating season or when we are in heat. The sexual drive is far more complex because of the additional factor of pleasure. Are there ways then, to describe this pleasure in a more generalised fashion, not from the point of view of a specific group like what already exists for heterosexual males? A gender-identified community that calls itself Pansexuals, can feel sexually attracted to people of all gender identities or biological sexes. Their experience of sexuality could be called multi-faceted and their understanding of sexuality also very rich, wide and layered. Perhaps they could provide insights into a commonality between sexual desires, that is easily relatable by all groups? Betty Edwards in her book Drawing on the Artist Within conducts a series of exercises with her art students in which they depict typical human states like sadness, happiness, anger or madness in abstract form. Most often there is a common thread between the drawings that are produced for a particular state. Each of these human states and more, based on common perceptions across all students, actually have their own distinct visual character. Closer to the objective of our study is the depictions of masculinity and femininity that were produced by these students. Could it be beneficial to our end that similar exercises are carried out across these groups, heterosexual, homosexual etc. and the visual quality of love-making to one’s own partner be established? This could be the basis, if not just an inspiration, for more successful images that pertain to our objective for women. Questioning the need for titillation Do we need to be titillated at all to buy a condom? A major problem in India at a point in time was the spread of the AIDS virus, not to mention other STDs. When condoms started becoming available, people obviously were not using them much especially since they reduced pleasure and for a variety of other reasons, including a number of misconceptions. To tackle this issue, make them more evident and more attractive, to remind the viewer what they were for, the titillating imagery is used. Durex is a global brand which opts out of our formula. Probably because they don’t need to sell sex, they’re too busy selling condoms! Hopefully as the message about condoms spreads even more amongst this segment of society, titillation could be dropped altogether from the packaging. Given that ‘beautiful’ women are still used to sell furniture, insurance and sometimes even cement, it is unlikely that it can happen completely, but looking at the evolution of Durex, we may be well on that path.
conclusion As noted before, there has been only one way of targeting the consumer of condoms, regardless of their sexual preference. However this formula is outdated, predictable and not working in our modern day scenario. Heterosexual women and other groups, are being left out and the consequences are formidable for the widespread desirable practice of safe sex. The issues of other groups, while not a part of this study needs to be taken up and looked at further. Safe sex is a pressing concern and needs to be dealt with carefully, not haphazardly or in such a biased way. research colloquium | a closer look at how safe sex is packaged | page ten
Instead of the advertising point of view, the designer’s point of view needs to be taken into account to affect the practice of safe sex. Good design has the power and ability to change cultural values and modes of thinking for the better unlike advertising which may/may not since the purpose of the advertiser is different. Understanding that sexuality as we know it today still has its basis in sexual politics that have remained in force for centuries, helps us to put into perspective the issues facing women today and probe on deeper issues regarding the ‘equality’ woman are supposedly being given. By giving women just as much control over their sexuality and their bodies you give women the power to make choices for themselves, giving them freedom and the accompanying responsibility for these choices. It may be one of the most effective ways to give them the equality that is often talked about but hard to achieve. Unconventional methods offer possibilities that are worth exploring and more work needs to be done to make the condom package a tool for safe sex, and eventually one for women and other groups’ sexual empowerment.
bibliography/references Berger, John. Ways of Seeing. New Delhi: British Broadcasting Corporation, 1970. Print. Edwards, Betty. Drawing on the Artist Within: An Inspirational and Practical Guide to Increasing your Creative Powers. New York: Simon & Schuster, 19871986. Print. McCloud, Scott. “The Vocabulary of Comics.” Understanding comics: The Invisible Art. New York: HarperPerennial, 1993. 30. Print. Mcluhan, Marshall. Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1960. Print. Mulvey, Laura. “Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema.” Screen 16.3.Autumn (1975): 6-18. Print. Ogas, Ogi, and Sai Gaddam. A Billion Wicked Thoughts: What the World’s Largest Experiment Reveals about Human Desire. New York: Dutton Adult, 2011. Print.
research colloquium | a closer look at how safe sex is packaged | page eleven