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Taking stock of the Spanish presidency of the EU

An Informative Diplomatic Publication of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation APRIL-JUNE 2010. N˚14.

The Sixth Annual Bi-regional Summit held in Madrid is one of the most important achievements of the six-month Spanish presidency of the EU

TheEuropean Union, Latin America and the Caribbean establish a new global relationship FOREIGN AFFAIRS > The European Union and the Western Balkans meet in Sarajevo > Interview with the Belgian ambassador to SpainCOOPERATION> A study of European press coverage of development cooperation CULTURE AND SOCIETY > Sol Meliá, the value of experience and innovation in tourism INTERVIEW > Carmen Iglesias: “History teaches, but I'm not so sure we learn from it”

the facts and the image THE DATA



750.000 18 million euros. This is the sum that

June 2010. In this month the last


the European Financial Stabilization Mechanism can mobilize to support EU Member States in economic difficulty.

Spanish troops deployed in Bosnia left Sarajevo after an 18-year presence in the region.

9 was the anniversary of the surrender of Nazi troops, which put an end to the world's largest and bloodiest conflict.

anniversary of World War 2. May

The image

June 12 (above) saw the commemoration of the 25th anniversary of Spain and Portugal's entry into the EEC. The occasion was marked with ceremonies in the Jerónimos de Lisboa Monastery and the Royal Palace in Madrid, in the same setting as when Felipe González (right) and Mario Soares's signatures brought their respective countries into the European Community in 1985.



EDITORIAL OFFICE > Director: Julio Albi de la Cuesta. Editor-in-Chief: José Bodas. Art Director and Editor: Javier Hernández. Editors: Beatriz Beeckmans. Contributors: María Pilar Cuadra, Arturo Carrascosa, Begoña Lucena, Ignacio Gómez, Paloma Portela, Arturo Parrés y Jacobo García. MANAGEMENT > Directorate General of Foreign Communication. Serrano Galvache, 26. 28033 MADRID. Published and printed by the Directorate General of Foreign Communication and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation. Total or partial reproduction prohibited without the express consent of the publisher. Miradas al Exterior is not responsible for the editorial content or for the opinions expressed by the authors. EMAIL CONTACT> > NIPO: 501-10-013-7

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68 > Carmen Iglesias: “History teaches, but I'm not so sure we learn from it”

culture and society

38 > Moratinos opens the Development Conference "Cooperation in Times of Crisis’. 41> Interview with Eduardo Sánchez, President of CONGD.

the interview

36 > A study of European press coverage of development cooperation.


14 > The EU and the Western Balkans meet in Sarajevo. 16 > Results of a Presidency that laid the foundations of the European Economic Union. 18 > Political agreement on the new European External Action Service. 22 > Senegal, the Country of "Teranga" 26 > Interview with Casa de América's Director.

foreign affairs

on the cover

6 > The European Union, Latin America and the Caribbean: international partners. The meeting held in May saw the achievement of several objectives and cemented a thoroughly biregional relationship as it welcomed in another as international strategic partners.

42 > Gavinet: a proudly unsociable Ángel. 44 > Spain: at the forefront of fine cuisine. 48 > Sol Meliá, the value of experience and innovation in tourism. 56 > Iberia and British Airways unite to create the world's fifth largest airline.

EDITORIAL BOARD > President: Deputy Secretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation. First deputy chair: Director General of Foreign Communications. Second deputy chair: Technical Secretary General. Members: Cabinet Chiefs of the State Department of Foreign Affairs, the State Department for International Cooperation, the State Department for the European Union and the State Department for Ibero-America, and the Cabinet of the Director of the Spanish Agency for International Development Cooperation.



A new way of running Europe Miguel テ]gel Moratinos


The fourth Spanish Presidency of the Council of the EU has come to an end. Belgium now takes up the baton for our community and faces the complex task of continuing to build Europe, just as we did on January 1, 2010. It is at this time that we can look back at the achievements made during the last six months, as well as those still in progress that our Belgian, and also Hungarian, colleagues will inherit, and seriously and realistically take stock of what this Presidency has done. Assuming the Presidency of the Council of the EU is never a simple task. I'm sure you will agree that assuming this role within the framework of one of the most revolutionary treaties in our shared history requires an extra dose of commitment to the project as well as a greater work capacity. Not to mention a lot of patience. When the Lisbon Treaty came into effect, it marked the end of a long stage of "constitutional community reform" that, having overcome considerable obstacles (from the rejection of the Treaty establishing a European

constitution in referendums in France, Holland and Ireland, to the euroskepticism of countries such as the Czech Republic) finally bore the fruits of our labor: a new, stable legal framework for the European Union. Thus, Spain became the country destined to initiate the process of institutional transition. The "europeanism" which has always characterized our country has sustained our calling in the service of those who believe in the common cause. From the very first day, our Presidency offered its full support and collaboration to the new President of the Council, Herman Van Rompuy, and the High Representative, Catherine Ashton, in joining forces and sharing responsibilities in a task that is destined to forge a more internally coherent and externally effective Europe. The final objective had already been decided: Lisbon was to consolidate European Unity. However, the consolidation of new European institutions went hand in hand with a much more immediate and tangible challenge. From its very first day,

our Presidency was marked by the severe economic crisis which is still battering economies, and more importantly, European citizens today. Spain defended the necessity for greater coordination of the EU's economic policies from day one. The way that events transpired, especially the Greek crisis, and the tensions of sovereign debt in financial markets highlighted the need to move towards economic governance of the Economic and Monetary Union. The approval of instruments such as the European Financial Stabilization Mechanism, an unprecedented initiative that has had a positive impact on the markets and demonstrated the EU's ability to mobilize up to 竄ャ750,000m in support of countries in difficulty, has been of great qualitative value in this respect. Nevertheless, long-term solutions are needed: solutions designed to avoid and correct the effects inherent in the excesses of a global market. In this sense, I feel the impetus given by the Spanish Presidency is fundamental to establishing new community supervisory bodies - among which the European Systemic Risk Council and the European Supervisory Authorities deserve special mention - and fulfilling the aims of the European Council by having them fully operational by January 2011. This evolution in which the EU finds itself immersed, and whose foundations can be expressed in a New Growth and Employment Strategy and 2020 Europe, will become a reality with an impact at both the macroeconomic and the financial level, as well as on the real-life, day-to-day

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economy of Europe's citizens: the environment, energy, research, education and employment. Our Presidency has gone to great lengths to support the new figures within the EU and to confirm Europe's role in the world. This has been especially visible in difficult times, such as the response to the humanitarian crisis in Haiti. But, most of all, it can be seen in the constant support to maintaining the essential objectives of European foreign policy. Thus, the enlargement process has continued; relationship with eastern neighbors have been deepened, and a new relationship with Morocco has strengthened relations with our southern neighbors; the pulse of European perspectives on the Balkans has once again been taken; we have reached important agreements

with the USA; the relationship with Russia has been given new direction; we have made a special effort in relations between Europe and Latin America and the Caribbean, and, finally, we have contributed to the consolidation of the European agenda for development cooperation. All of this while achieving one of the prime institutional advances during our Presidency: the draft agreements for the next step in the forming of the European External Action Service. As I have had the opportunity to say on many occasions: we have always placed the European citizen at the center of our efforts during the Spanish Presidency. This is true whether the citizen has been the direct beneficiary of economic measures, or more particularly, the beneficiary of the

numerous measures which we have been able to implement in a wide range of community policy areas with the commitment of our partners in the Commission and the Parliament. These measures have been especially important in the fields of security and justice: most of all when related to gender equality and the fight against gender-based violence, but also in health policy, consumer affairs, education, transport and the environment. As a corollary, we have passed the European Citizens Initiative in the Council: proof of our willingness to involve citizens directly in creation of future community policy. I am fully confident in the consolidation of the program of our presidential trio, which will provide the necessary continuity to the achievements that now define the identity of our community, and of the future fulfillment of these aspirations. As we pass on the torch to Belgium, I feel particularly proud that our country, our Government, our Administration, our Foreign Office, has risen to meet expectations, been able to face the challenges of a complex time in very special circumstances, and that we have been able to contribute, with the help of the Commission and the Parliament, to setting the program of decisions and proposals required by the future of Europe and its people.



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“A summit of successes and results." With these words Spanish prime minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero summed up the accomplishments of the event that brought the leaders of sixty countries of Europe and Latin America and the Caribbean together in Madrid between 17 and 19 May. During the sixth biannual EU-LAC summit, one of the major events of Spain's halfyear term in the rotating presidency of the European Union, all the objectives set by both sides were achieved, objectives that serve to close an era of strictly biregional relations and open a new one of global strategic partnership. By Arturo Carrascosa

The European Union and Latin America and the Caribbean, Global Partners


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Evidence of the success achieved at the meeting held in Spain's capital was the fact that for the first time an EULAC Summit succeeded in focusing its debates on the fundamental issues initially foreseen: on this occasion, the new global financial architecture and the challenge of climate change. A very noteworthy contribution to this collective success was the political momentum provided by Spain's presidency of the European Union, which involved the entire government in the effort to move forward on a wide-ranging and diversified relationship between the two regions, in order to make Latin America and the Caribbean "part of Europe, and Europe part of Latin America and the Caribbean," as was emphasized by, among others, European Commission President JosÊ Manuel Durao Barroso at the summit's opening ceremony. This ceremony was also noteworthy for the presence of the Prince of Asturias, who acted as host of the more than 80 delegations attending the summit. Don Felipe de Borbón passed on to his guests a message from his father - convalescing from an operation in which he wished "the summit the greatest success.�

Madrid Declaration. The incorporation 0.7% of its GDP to development aid in of the global agenda into the strategic 2015; confirm their commitment to relationship between the two regions the promotion of renewable energy, was evident in the final declaration exchanging experiences in the areas of that resulted from the Madrid summit. biofuel technology and hydroelectric In line with previous meetings, energy and supporting sustainable the Madrid Declaration reiterates development strategies with low the signatories' commitment to emissions of greenhouse gases; and the treasury of shared principles, unequivocally reject terrorism in all values, and interests of the biregional its forms and manifestations. "strategic association," and the first As something new, the Madrid part of the text assigns the highest rank Declaration is accompanied by a to the dialogue of global partners with 2010-2012 Action Plan that sets out the will to coordinate their response a concrete, practical, and futureto great challenges. Among these are oriented agenda for biregional a commitment to multilateralism, cooperation in priority areas such the United Nations, support as the development of for nuclear disarmament the "EU-LAC Knowledge and non-proliferation, the The Sixth EUSpace," the encouragement fight against impunity, a Latin America of interconnectivity, the commitment to the defense Summit development of social and and protection of human culminated with economic networks, and the rights and to democracy, the ratification intensification of dialogue and the intensification of by all attendees on particular issues and of cooperation in order to of what has cooperation on migration, confront the consequences been named drugs, education, and social of the world economic and the Madrid cohesion. Due to its greater Declaration, a financial crisis. specificity, this Action Plan Likewise, the signatories reflection of the will enable more precise highlight the importance of solid strategic tracking of goals and the fight to eradicate gender- relationship commitments, with the based violence; reiterate the between the corresponding evaluation EU's commitment to dedicate two regions. of the results ahead of the



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Member countries Non-member countries







First EU-LAC Summit. Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). June 1999. Was proposed as an exceptional occasion to advance bilateral relations and extend them beyond the year 2000. The agenda was centered on three items: political dialogue, economic and trade relations, and cooperation.

Second Summit. Madrid (Spain). 17 and 18 May 2002. Marked the establishment of a new biregional framework for relations with two large blocks. In fulfillment of the Madrid Declaration, political dialogue and cooperation agreements with Central America and the CAN would be signed in Rome on 15 December 2003.

Third Summit. Guadalajara (Mexico). 28 May 2004. Firm and specific commitments were made on the three basic and fundamental components of the strategic association: social cohesion, the consolidation of multilateralism, and regional integration.

Common Market of the South

Andean Community of Nations

Union of South American Nations

Community of Latin American and Caribbean States

Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America, Peoples' Trade Treaty


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CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA IN OUTLINE Guatemala Mexico President Felipe Calderón President Álvaro Colom 14.017.000 107.750.000 2.601 $ 8.040 $

Honduras President Porfirio Lobo 7.828.000 1.862 $ Nicaragua President Daniel Ortega 6.329.000 995 $

El Salvador President Mauricio Funes 5.824.000 3.806 $

Venezuela President Hugo Chávez 28.611.000 12.354.000 $

Costa Rica President Laura Chinchilla 4.605.000 6.361 $ Panama President Ricardo Martinelli 3.465.000 7.144 $

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX 44th Chile 49th Argentina 50th Uruguay 53d Mexico 54th Costa Rica 58th Venezuela 60th Panama 75th Brazil 77th Colombia 78th Peru 80th Ecuador 101st Paraguay 106th El Salvador 112th Honduras 113th Bolivia 122d Guatemala 124th Nicaragua Source: UN

Colombia President Juan Manuel Santos 49.043.000 4.661 $ Ecuador President Rafael Correa 14.117.000 3.939 $ Peru President Alan García 29.101.000 4.376 $ Chile President Sebastián Piñera 16.984.000 8.852 $ Argentina President Cristina Fdez. de Kirchner 40.134.000 7.508 $

Brazil President L.Inacio Lula da Silva 191.481.000 7.737 $

Bolivia President Evo Morales 10.227.000 1.715 $ Paraguay President Fernando Lugo 6.227.000 2.168 $ Uruguay President José Mujica 3.345.000 9.448 $

Population GDP per capita

Fourth Summit. Vienna (Austria). 12-13 May 2006. Agreement was reached on the need to give visibility to the strategic relationship between the EU and Latin America and the Caribbean.

Fifth Summit. Lima (Peru). 16 and 17 May 2008. “Responding Together to the Priorities of Our People.” Adopted the "Lima Agenda for Joint Action," with commitments and concrete actions on two major issues: poverty and the environment.

Sixth Summit. Madrid (Spain). 18 May 2010. "Toward a New Stage of Biregional Association: Innovation and Technology in Favor of Sustainable Development and Social Inclusion."

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Objectives Met Juan Pablo de Laiglesia


Within a few years, the Madrid summit will be remembered as a turning point in relations between LAC and the EU. When we began Spain's half-year term in the rotating presidency of the European Union, the outlook for EU foreign policy with regard to LAC was pessimistic. A general apathy dominated the relationship between two regions that, very much to the contrary, should have been setting out to work together for the global common good. The Spanish government saw very clearly the need to reactivate our traditional role in order to infuse momentum and political vigor into biregional relations, especially during this presidential term. We set ourselves the objective of maturing the biregional relationship, raising it to the level demanded by the present international circumstances. Two partners like the EU and LAC could not circumscribe either their relationship or their agenda to matters of strictly biregional interest. The global agenda today is dominated by issues that require responses far transcending the national sphere: the new financial architecture, the way out of the financial crisis, climate change, etc. ... For the first time, an EU-LAC summit focused its discussions on two topics from this agenda. On the one hand, the ways out of the financial crisis and the design of a new financial architecture for market regulation were discussed, a set of problems that has so far found no resolution in the G-20 and that is

the cause of no little dissatisfaction. On the other hand, climate change also formed part of the summit's agenda. The differences in the positions of the two regions were made clear, but it was agreed to prepare for the Cancun summit on climate change on the basis of biregional coordination. In order to bring this prior phase to a complete conclusion, we were clear that it would be necessary to make a serious political effort if definitive advances were to be made on the open issues we inherited at the start of this presidential term. When we spoke at the beginning of the term about concluding the association agreement with Central America and the multiparty agreement with Colombia and Peru, and even suggested the possibility that Ecuador might join, we observed a certain skepticism among our audience, a skepticism that increased when we announced our intention that the EU and MERCOSUR reopen negotiations, in order to put an end to a situation of lack of agreement that benefited no one. Madrid also served as the setting for a reactivation of the political dialogue with the Caribbean, a region that has not enjoyed all the attention it deserves and that has acquired particular relevance now as consensus is being sought on the best formulas for the real and effective rebuilding of Haiti. The political and technical work that we had to carry out in order to succeed in giving these issues the momentum they needed was not

We set ourselves the objective of maturing the biregional relationship, raising it to the level demanded by the present international circumstances.

easy, nor was it a small undertaking. However, thanks to Spanish political and diplomatic capital, we achieved the objectives we had set for ourselves. The Sixth EU-LAC Summit had concrete results, a constant and justified demand, especially on the part of civil society, to which we were able to respond. As the objective of the summit was to advance EU-LAC relations without a look back, it was absolutely necessary to put in place the basis for this new relationship among global partners, creating and making available new instruments that will make it possible to add lyrics and a melody to the new rhythm marked by the status of global partnership. The declaration puts in writing this will to address matters on the global agenda, from climate change to UN reform, by way of the fight against organized crime. The Action Plan creates a mechanism through which six areas are determined for which financing is foreseen. For each area, objectives to be met within two years, a work program, and the expected results are established. In this way, monitoring and follow-up will be much more flexible and much simpler. A financing instrument, the LAIF, has been created, which is modeled on the mechanisms that finance the EU's neighborhood policy and will dedicate 125 million euros to infrastructure in LAC, drawn from the 2009-2013 EU Community Budget, and which we estimate will ultimately mobilize up to 3 billion euros. Three projects have already been approved for 2010. We have strengthened our bilateral relationships with Mexico and Chile,

P giving the green light to new formulas for moving forward: the Strategic Plan with Mexico and the new Association for Development and Innovation with Chile. Beyond the updating of these instruments related to the EU's relations with LAC subregions and countries, we have staked a great deal on the new EUROLAC Foundation. This foundation, about which it took a great deal of effort to reach consensus, will serve to advance discussion of shared strategies and actions that can strengthen the biregional relationship and improve its visibility in both regions. It will strengthen the biregional relationship process and further its new global character, involving civil society and diverse social actors through critical dialogue, debate, research, and study and promoting its work on the internet. There is a commitment to reach agreement on the EUROLAC Foundation's headquarters in the immediate future, this being the only detail that remains pending. This choice to invest our efforts in the foundation fits within a more open model of the biregional relationship, in which we are convinced that civil society should have increasing room for debate, in order to influence decisionmaking with its plural, diverse, and innovative voices. Not without reason, during the Spanish presidency we have promoted the holding of civilsociety forums. More than ten have taken place during these months, and representatives from each of them passed on their conclusions to the Sixth Summit through the meeting of political directors. It is beyond doubt that this Sixth EU-LAC Summit marks a change in the rhythm of relations between the European Union and Latin America and the Caribbean and that it has opened new perspectives for work and progress for the two regions, and more importantly, for us citizens living in them.


Bilateral trade 160.000 million euros

Imports 74.000 million euros

Exports 66.000 million euros

LATIN AMERICA-EU TRADE 14% of exports from Latin America go to the EU

19% of exports from the Caribbean go to the EU

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next biregional and biannual EU-LAC summit, to be held in Chile in 2012. EUROLAC Foundation. On a different front, an agreement was reached on the creation of the EUROLAC Foundation, which had previously been announced at the Vienna summit in 2006. This project, on behalf of which Spanish diplomats had to engage in intensive dialogue with various EU member states, will serve to advance discussion of shared strategies and actions that can strengthen the biregional relationship and improve its visibility. The foundation, which will be financed on a voluntary basis, will make it possible to strengthen the biregional relationship process and further its new global character, involving civil society and diverse social actors through critical dialogue, debate, research, and study and promoting its work on the internet. It is also expected to be an instrument for following up on agreements reached at the biregional summits. Nonetheless, agreement was not reached on its headquarters; three candidates have been put forward, Hamburg, Milan, and Paris. The Sixth Summit saw the approval of a new financing instrument, called LAIF and dedicated to financing broadly defined infrastructures. Only qualified agencies and financial institutions may submit projects, not states. This new investment mechanism will provide financing at below-market rates and will be able to mobilize up to 3 billion euros. Its current funding consists of 125 million euros drawn from the 2009-2013 EU Community Budget, and its first three projects, focused on Central America and on the energy sector, have already been decided. Seven summits in one. Piggybacking on the Sixth EU-LAC Summit, six other meetings also took place, two bilateral and four subregional, each of which produced significant results. A Business Summit was also


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held, attended by more than 700 entrepreneurs from both sides of the Atlantic, and ten civil-society forums met to discuss their strategies for the future and to bring their conclusions and proposals to the attention of decision-makers.

Mexico, a priority partner. The first summit to be held was the EU-Mexico Bilateral Summit, at which the Spanish prime minister emphasized the high level of collaboration achieved between the 27 EU member states and the Mesoamerican country. Among the

issues discussed were the economic situation and the economic crisis, the financial system, the challenges facing the G-20, security, and climate change. Both José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero and Felipe Calderón, the president of Mexico, agreed to further promote commercial exchange and investment flows, to strengthen efforts to fight organized crime, and to establish a highlevel political dialogue on human rights.


Development and Innovation with Chile. In the second meeting, the EUChile Summit, climate change - the Chilean government has committed to reducing its CO2 emissions - and the world economy were also discussed, along with bilateral affairs such as the Association for Development and Innovation, an agreement that should make it possible to expand cooperation in areas as diverse as education and trade, and Chile's upcoming incorporation into the OECD. At the same time, the European leaders reiterated their solidarity and commitment with regard to Chile's rebuilding efforts following the earthquake that struck the country on 27 February. Chilean president Piñera emphasized that he has two major challenges ahead of him: “rebuilding the country and transforming it over the next decade in order to overcome underdevelopment.”

H.R.H. PRINCE FELIPE ACTED AS HOST The opening ceremony of the Sixth EU-LAC Summit was noteworthy for the presence of the Prince of Asturias as host of the more than 80 delegations in attendance. Accompanied by Princess Letizia, Don Felipe passed on a message from H.M. King Juan Carlos wishing those present "the greatest success" at the meeting. In the photographs, above an image of the salon in the Palacio Real where the formal dinner was held, the Prince of Asturias greets José Sócrates, the Portuguese prime minister, German chancellor Angela Merkel, and the president of Mexico, Felipe Calderón, and shares a toast with Argentine president Cristina Fernández de Kirchner.

Reactivation of the EU-Caribbean dialogue. Climate change was the primary issue addressed at the summit between the EU countries and the 18 countries that make up the Cariforum, a group of Caribbean nations created in 1992, and the rebuilding of Haiti was at the center of every meeting. In this regard, Prime Minister Rodríguez Zapatero recalled the commitment of both the EU and Spain "to play a leading role in the effort and the economic support for the rebuilding that has already begun." Agreements with the Andean Community. The fight against drug


Reestablishment of negotiations with Mercosur. As an example of the fact that the most significant progress was achieved in the area of association agreements and trade relations, the decision stands out to resume negotiations, stalled since 2004, between the European Union and Mercosur, a market of 700 million people, with bilateral exchanges worth more than 5 billion euros a year. The signs are hopeful that the negotiations will reach a conclusion before the end of the year. Although difficulties remain in some sectors, especially in agriculture and livestock, both sides are reviewing their positions, and there is clear political will to try to settle this pending issue in the biregional relationship as soon as possible. A date has already been set for the first round of negotiations: the beginning of July. “Historic” agreement between the EU and Central America. The negotiations on the association agreement with Central America, the first signed by the European Union with another regional block, also came to a successful conclusion. Beyond its importance in itself, this agreement has enormous symbolic weight from the perspective of the EU's support for Central American integration, and it reveals that the European strategy continues to be relevant. The agreement, in addition to an ambitious trade component,

includes other aspects intended to further relations and emphasizes the objective of promoting respect for and the application of international standards in the areas of human rights, workers' rights, and democratic institutions, at the same time that it advocates in favor of environmental protection. In Prime Minister Rodríguez Zapatero's opinion, this association agreement "strengthens Central America and the European Union politically, economically, and socially." For the president of Panama, the current holder of the rotating presidency of the Central American Integration System, the agreement is "historic" insofar as it establishes a basis on which to increase cooperation on security issues and the fight against drug trafficking. The Spanish presidency's commitment. Definitively, the sixth biannual summit between the European Union and Latin America


and the Caribbean succeeded in unblocking the situation of relative stagnation in which relations had been since the beginning of the twentyfirst century. In practically every area, significant advances were made that make it possible once again to look forward to the future of the biregional relationship with a certain degree of optimism. Although the summit was centered on the theme "Toward a New Stage of Biregional Association: Innovation and Technology in Favor of Sustainable Development and Social Inclusion," the majority of the advances achieved will impact other areas, in many cases deriving from commitments and objectives set out years ago. Despite rather pessimistic initial predictions, the Madrid summit, drawing momentum from the Spanish presidency of the European Union, ended with important results that make it, without doubt, one of the most significant summits in recent years.


trafficking dominated the EU-Andean Community Summit, a fight with foundations in the European decision to give considerable financial backing to the four countries that make up this group, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Human rights were also discussed, and a trade agreement foreseeing the liberalization of commercial exchange in sectors such as agriculture, services, and industrial products was signed with Peru and Colombia.

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‘HISTORIC’ EU - CENTRAL AMERICAN AGREEMENT After three years of negotiations, the European Union concluded its first association agreement with a block of countries, the six that make up the Central American region. Until now, all the association agreements signed by the EU had been with individual countries. Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama signed an agreement with the EU that all sides characterized as “historic” and that, without doubt, is one of the great achievements of the Sixth European Union-Latin America and the Caribbean Summit. With this agreement between regions, a privileged relationship comes into being, especially in the trade arena. In the photograph, Spanish Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation Miguel Ángel Moratinos presides over the meeting of his European and Latin American counterparts.

5.5 > Rótulos y carteles señalizadores / Arquitectura en interiores > Roller evento FORMATO 2x 1 m

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Spain's EU Presidency | in brief


Cartel tipo Roller para promocionar y señalar la entrada de un determinado evento. Aunque este tipo de soportes tienen unas medidas fijadas por los diferentes fabricantes las imágenes que se muestran en esta página pueden servir como modelo a la hora de plantear su diseño.

10 years after the meeting that saw the EU establish the path towards Europe to be followed by Balkan States, Bosnia and Herzegovina's capital hosts a high-level meeting to consolidate the regional reconciliation process as well as the European perspective of the countries of that region. Organized and chaired by Spain, the meeting was attended by more than 40 delegations. By María Pilar Cuadra

The European Union and the Western Balkans meet in Sarajevo There are many traces of the past in Sarajevo: the old Bašcaršija quarter, built by the Turks in the 16th century; the Sephardic synagogue, reflecting the substantial community of Spanish Jews that were present until the beginning of the 20th century; the national theater, city hall and other public buildings dating from the Austro-Hungarian Empire; the raised village that housed the athletes during 1984's Winter Olympics; but bullets, shells and shrapnel have also left their mark on buildings across the city: evidence of the wars that tore the old Yugoslavia apart in the early 1990s. Like the rest of the region, this Balkan city wants only to turn a page in its history and look to the future: a future that is founded on stability and facing Europe. On June 2nd Sarajevo hosted the EU Western Balkans High Level Meeting, organized by Spain and Italy and attended by representatives from EU Member States, local countries, and community institutions (the Enlargement Commissioner, Stefan Füle, and the High Representative for Foreign Affairs, Catherine Ashton). Other participants of note were the USA, Russia, Turkey, the Council

of Europe, the OSCE, parties' requests. Part of NATO and the Regional Serbia and such diplomacy was that Cooperation Council. The Kosovo at the no flags or country names meeting's main objective was same table for were used to identify to reaffirm EU commitment the first time participants. Finally, to the European perspective since the latter's among the more than 40 of Western Balkan nations unilateral delegations attending within the new framework declaration of the meeting were Serbia of the Lisbon Treaty, ten independence. and Kosovo, the latter years after the Zagreb being accompanied by Summit which outlined the The EU reaffirms Lamberto Zannier, the path of structural, political its commitment head of the UN Mission and economic reforms to the Balkan to Kosovo, as required. which these countries had states' European It was the first time to undertake to move closer perspectives. that representatives to Europe. from Belgrade and As part of its role as the Regional Pristina have sat at the rotating EU President, it cooperation same table since the was Spain's responsibility and the reforms unilateral declaration to make sure that the necessary to of independence meeting went well. This move closer to on February 17th was the result of the Europe were 2008. Three hundred difficult task of organizing the focus of accredited journalists an inclusive meeting the meeting in were there to record the where nobody should be Sarajevo. event's significance for left out: not even Kosovo, the region. whose independence is not In addition to the recognized by five Member States presence of all of the representatives, including Spain and, among its closest which marked an important step neighbors, Bosnia and Herzegovina forward for regional reconciliation, and Serbia itself. Spanish diplomacy the meeting served to dispel doubts did, however, manage to fulfill all about supposed "enlargement

5.5 > Rótulos y carteles señalizadores / Arquitectura en interiores > Roller evento


Cartel tipo Roller para promocionar y señalar la entrada de un determinado evento.

FORMATO 2 x 1 m


Aunque este tipo de soportes tienen unas medidas fijadas por los diferentes fabricantes las imágenes que se muestran en esta página pueden servir como modelo a la hora de plantear su diseño.

Spain's EU Presidency | in brief 15

Miguel Ángel Moratinos, together with the Bosnian Minister of Foreign Affairs, Sven Alkalaj (left) and the European Commissioner for Enlargement, Stefan Fule (right) during the press conference that followed the meeting organized as part of Spain's EU Presidency. PHOTOS JAVIER HERNÁNDEZ

fatigue". In fact, some in the region feared that after the enlargement to include ten new countries in 2004 and two more in 2007, the process of the Western Balkan states' accession to the EU would be carried on indefinitely. What is certain is that each country's situation is different: from Slovenia, which is already a member of the EU, and Croatia, whose negotiations have already reached an advanced stage, to Bosnia and Herzegovina, who's accession process has not begun and is still under international supervision. In spite of the differences between the states, the President's declaration at the end of the meeting shows the genuine will within the EU to work with the region to bring it closer to Europe. The text recognizes that Western Balkan States have made "important advances in economic and political reform", but at the same time point to some areas which require improvement: judiciary and administrative reform, the fight against corruption and organized crime, the process of returning refugees and displaced peoples to their own lands, and freedom

of speech. All Balkan participants voiced their commitment to the above issues. The union also sought to deal with the state of regional cooperation. In this context, the President's declaration is a call for greater efficiency of the Council of Regional Cooperation, created in 2008 to replace the South-eastern Europe Stability Pact which had been establish at the end of the wars of the

90s. A results-oriented strategy with clearly defined priority actions, and the supply of bases to organize the various initiatives within the region have been called for. The number of reforms necessary for full integration into the EU remains no doubt large, but in Sarajevo no one doubts, as affirmed in the President's declaration, that “the future of the Western Balkans still lies within the European Union”.

A CITY HEALING ITS WOUNDS Many of Sarajevo's cemeteries with their white Muslim tombstones date from before the last Balkan war, which saw the city besieged for three years. The historic Turkish quarter, Bašcaršija, has been restored and is today one of the city's main tourist attractions, but there is still a lot to be done. The reconstruction of the famous Sarajevo library, for example, has already received Spanish funds.

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Spain's EU Presidency | in brief


Cartel tipo Roller para promocionar y señalar la entrada de un determinado evento. Aunque este tipo de soportes tienen unas medidas fijadas por los diferentes fabricantes las imágenes que se muestran en esta página pueden servir como modelo a la hora de plantear su diseño.

Spain handed over the Presidency to Belgium in a week in which the economic crisis dominated the European agenda. The Spanish Presidency has promoted the strengthening of economic union for six months. A "historic moment", in the words of Diego López Garrido, Secretary of State for the EU, but a moment that should not obscure the advances made during the sixmonth term. By Begoña Lucena

The Spanish Presidency lays the foundations for European economic union "The European Union must make approving the mechanisms that will progress in economic union and consolidate economic union. What cooperation, beginning with the is more, this has been achieved in a States' sense of responsibility, but time marked by deep crisis, during also ensuring that community which the Spanish President has had institutions have new capabilities to manage additional, unexpected in both management and in the crises such as those in Haiti and Chile achievement of goals". These and the ash of an Icelandic are the words of José Luis volcano, and during which Rodríguez Zapatero, Spain's he had to dedicate a great Prime Minister, in his first Europe's new deal of energy and work appearance before the diplomatic body to the new institutional European Parliament during (the European structure defined by the his rotation as President of External Action Lisbon Treaty. the EU. The date was January Service) could be in place 20, 2010. Towards economic Six months have passed, by December governance of the EU. Diego and the intentions outlined 1st following López Garrido, Spanish during the President's the political Secretary of State for the EU, speech are now a reality. agreement stated that one of the worst The European Union, under achieved by moments in this Presidency Spanish coordination, has the Spanish of the EU was the Greek taken a giant step towards Presidency crisis. “What was in danger

was not only the Greek economy, but rather the Euro and the European project itself”. For the first time, the Heads of State and of Government of the 27 Member States of the EU have agreed to regulate financial markets, increase transparency of financial entities, establish European supervision of national budgets, approve a rate or tax on financial institutions and protect the Euro zone against speculation through the creation of the European Mechanism of Financial Stabilization, which will be able to call upon €750 billion to support countries in times of extraordinary difficulty. Together with these measures, the new EU Strategy for growth and job creation over the next decade, the Europe 2020 Strategy, has been given the green light under the Spanish Presidency. The strategy will, from

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now on, serve as a Road Map for the economic modernization of the EU. All of this was achieved upon a base of greater cooperation in economic and financial policy of the Member States, which will move the EU towards economic governance, thus fulfilling article 136 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. A Presidency for Citizens “The second important move forward is that the Spanish Presidency has placed citizens and their everyday problems at the forefront of EU policy," highlights the Spanish Secretary of State for the EU. The fight against gender-based violence is now on the European agenda, thanks to the approved creation of the European Observatory against Gender-based Violence and the promotion of the European Order of Victim Protection. In these six months, the European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) has also begun to take shape. The ECI will allow at least one million citizens from at least nine Member States to urge the European Commission to propose a standard governing some issue related to its powers. The Transplant Directive will have the most immediate effect, and the "Spanish model" will be implemented across the EU. The Spanish Presidency also promoted its position on the Directive regarding cross-border assistance, which offers greater guarantees to patients. With the aim of improving quality of life for all citizens of the EU as well that of our cities, the 27 Member States have promised to heavily promote the electric car.

Spain's six-month term ended with the Open Sky Agreement between the EU and the USA, which will improve air traffic between the two areas and reduce the cost of flights. Citizens' security, on the ground as well as in the air, was another issue in which progress has been made during this period. The adoption of the Stockholm Program Action Plan, the signing of the Toledo Declaration for the fight against international terrorism and the approval of the SWIFT agreement, which allows the bank details of European citizens to be sent to the USA as part of the war on terror, have all increased citizens' security.


Aunque este tipo de soportes tienen unas medidas fijadas por los diferentes fabricantes las imágenes que se muestran en esta página pueden servir como modelo a la hora de plantear su diseño.

Spain's EU Presidency | in brief 17

has opened negotiations with Iceland. A foreign policy that will include, from December onwards, an essential instrument: the new European diplomatic corps, the European External Action Service, which has taken its first steps during the Spanish Presidency.

Institutional unity. The collaboration developed with all of the institutions, and especially the High Representative, has been ever-present during the Spanish Presidency and has allowed the implementation of the new figures and mechanisms included in the Lisbon Treaty. “We were committed to giving Spain's Presidency abroad The USA, in the greatest possible visibility to spite of the cancelled summit, was one the Council's permanent President, of the EU's strategic partners during Herman Van Rompuy, and the High the Spanish Presidency. Important Representative, Catherine Ashton. It progress has also been made with wasn't a matter of who was in which Latin America and the Caribbean. photo, but rather one of strengthening The summit held in May closed with their role and providing the EU with the EU-Central America Association a stronger voice abroad," stated the Agreement: two trade agreements Secretary of State for the EU, Diego with Colombia and Peru and the re- López Garrido. launching of EU-Mercosur The premise of close negotiations. collaboration with EU Another first under the Together with institutions and other EU Spanish Presidency was a the financial States was especially wellsummit between the EU and crisis, Spain's maintained with Belgium an Arab country (Morocco), EU Presidency and Hungary, with whom which led to important has had to Spain forms the Presidential progress in the consolidation manage other Trio: a new format which of Morocco's "advanced unexpected gives greater continuity to the status". The Presidency also crises such rotating Presidents' work and directed its attention towards as the allows them to meet objectives. EU enlargement, closing two humanitarian The Spanish Presidency has chapters with Croatia, and crises in Haiti ended its fourth encounter pushing forward the process and Chile, and with the history of European of Turkish accession, and the Icelandic construction, but the work future Serbian accession, and volcano. goes on.

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Spain's EU Presidency | in brief

Presidency Objectives. After months of negotiations, the Spanish Presidency of the EU has managed to accelerate the implementation of the European External Action Service (EEAS), which could be up and running by the end of the year.

Political agreement on the new European External Action Service This is one of the major innovations introduced by the Lisbon Treaty, and one of the priorities developed during the Spanish Presidency's term. The European diplomatic corps will be formed from government employees from compatible services such as the Secretary General of the Council of Ministers and the Commission, and from personnel drawn from national diplomacy services. The service will work in collaboration with Member States' own diplomats. The General Affairs Council (GAC) on April 26th reached a compromise regarding the draft decision on the EEAS, and the declaration of the High Representative's political accountability. Since then, talks with the European Parliament have intensified and amendments to the text have been proposed so that positions are clear and so that a report may be published as soon as possible. Likewise, the GAC


on June 14th was informed of the progress made, and on June 21 held the final talks in which the representatives of the three institutions and the High Representative reached an agreement. The agreement must now be endorsed by the European institutions. The Coreper (Permanent Representatives Committee) held on June 23 has already endorsed the agreement on behalf of the Council, and if the Parliament does so in the first week of July, then the decision may be formally adopted in July's GAC. The Personnel and Financial Regulation Statute has shown considerable progress. However, there will likely be matters pending after the summer due to the formal proposals' late presentation by the Commission, and then further delays due to the slow pace of parliamentary work in both matters. It is hoped that the total package will be approved by October at the latest.

More than 8,000 detentions in COSI's first operation  The director general of Spain's police and Civil Guard, and the current President of the EU's Internal Security Committee (COSI), Francisco Javier Velázquez, cited more than 8,000 police detentions made during Operation Global Europe, the results of which were presented in Brussels.

Various Spanish monuments awarded the European Cultural Heritage Prize  The European Cultural Heritage Prize, created in 2002, recognizes efforts made in the recovery and rehabilitation of our monuments and landscapes. Among the Spanish monuments awarded the prize are the Roman Theater in Cartagena, the "Los Descalzos" Church in Écija, and the San Ildefonso Royal Palace.

The Commission opens an inquiry into children's rights  The European Commission, as part of a new strategy in children's rights, has opened an inquiry that seeks to collect feedback from citizens, organizations, associations, institutions and experts during the 2011-2014 period. The inquiry's focus will be: children's participation in the legal system; legal policies for better child protection; protection of the most vulnerable groups and children's participation in developing policies that affect them most.

Scientix,a new European network for teaching science  Aiming to provide a platform to facilitate the dissemination and exchange of information, knowledge and experience in the teaching of science, the European Commission has set up Scientix: a new online portal aimed at anyone interested in the teaching of sciences.

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Cartel tipo Roller para promocionar y señalar la entrada de un determinado evento.

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Aunque este tipo de soportes tienen unas medidas fijadas por los diferentes fabricantes las imágenes que se muestran en esta página pueden servir como modelo a la hora de plantear su diseño.

Spain's EU Presidency | in brief 19

Function in Casa de América. On June 30th, Miguel Ángel Moratinos, together with Diego López Garrido, the Secretary of State, presented the results of Spain's six-month term as president of the EU Council.

Diego López Garrido, Secretary of State for the EU and the Turkish Secretary General for the EU, Haluk Iliciak, in Cordoba.

Cordoba hosts the High Level Meeting on religious freedom  The Secretary of State for the EU attended the High Level Meeting on "Religious freedom in democratic societies", which was held in Cordoba in early May. The meeting, held as part of Spain's Presidency of the EU and in partnership with Alliance of Civilizations, included two full meetings and four panel discussions, with participants including political representatives, experts and leaders of various faiths.

The Minister presents the results of the Presidency to civil society Accompanied by Diego López Garrido, Secretary of State for the EU, the Minister explained the progress made during the six month term, especially that related to the citizens of Europe, one of the Spanish Presidency's priorities. Present at the event were representatives of academia, the business world and trade unions, as well as members of various NGOs and women's, citizens' and disabled persons' groups who had been

Spain welcomes the European Women's Lobby Assembly

Trio of Presidencies Meeting: Spain, Belgium and Hungary

 The European Women's Lobby held the opening of their General Assembly in Madrid, coinciding with Spain's EU Presidency. The EWL represents more than 3000 associations that work towards gender equality. The Director of the Women's Institute reminds us that "only one in ten executives on a European company's board is a woman".

"A success story": the week's agenda in RDI  The Secretary of State for Research, Felipe Petriz, presented the European Parliament with the effects of Spain's EU Presidency on science and innovation: fields in which planned objectives were met. “The Presidency has successfully achieved the objectives and political agenda that were initially planned”, stated Petriz, who was also quick to remind all that the Ministry had developed an "ambitious and proactive" program.

working closely with the Spanish Presidency from the preparation stage. Among the various initiatives launched by the Presidency, some particularly worthy of mention include the European Observatory for Gender-based Violence and the European Order of Victim Protection, the European Citizens' Initiative, the Transplant and Crossborder Assistance Directives, and the Internal Security Strategy and promoters of the electric car.

Europe Day Celebration  May 9th marked Europe Day. The event included a ceremony in which the EU flag was raised in San Vicente Square, making Madrid the first European city where the flag permanently flies.

The evolution of the first Trio of Presidencies with a common program has been "an excellent experience that will continue during the Belgian and Hungarian Presidencies," stated the Secretary of State for the EU, Diego López Garrido on June 28th in Madrid at a meeting with the Belgian and Hungarian Secretaries of State for European Affairs, Olivier Chastel and Enikö Györi. The pair also stated that the joint meeting "proves that the Trio of Presidencies has worked very well". López Garrido confirmed that during the Belgian Presidency "some of the most important priorities of the Spanish Presidency will be completed or continued".

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Cartel tipo Roller para promocionar y señalar la entrada de un determinado evento.

FORMATO 2x 1 m

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Aunque este tipo de soportes tienen unas medidas fijadas por los diferentes fabricantes las imágenes que se muestran en esta página pueden servir como modelo a la hora de plantear su diseño.

Spain's EU Presidency | in brief

European Citizens Initiative moves closer Bringing Europe closer to its citizens has always been one of the main goals for the Spanish Presidency of the Council of EU. The implementation of a concrete plan to do so is a good sign. Thanks to the European Citizens Initiative (the discussion of which was launched by Spain in January), one million citizens from one third of the Member States will be able to urge the Commission to present proposals for legislation in areas over which it has competency. In this way, an instrument of direct democratic participation will be forged which will bring Europe closer to its citizens and galvanize trans-European social issues. Taking into account that the Member States' census systems are highly varied, it must be highlighted

that the Commission's proposed Regulation has found an approach acceptable to all and that does not entail additional expenses in bureaucratic management. Likewise, great effort has been made to facilitate the citizens' use of electronic media. It has simultaneously tried to make the presentation of initiatives as accessible as possible. This new way of participating in EU democracy is a real step forward and could play a key role in citizens' ability to make themselves heard and express their concerns. At the same time, mechanisms have been provided to ensure that any given initiative proposal respects the fundamental values and rights within the European project.

EU and USA sign an agreement on the transfer of bank details The Spanish Minister for the Interior, Alfredo Pérez Rubalcaba, representing the EU and Michael Dodman, the charge d'affaires of the American Embassy to the EU, signed the agreement on the transfer of bank details (SWIFT) in June, with the aim of being better able to track the finances of suspected terrorists. Rubalcaba showed


his "satisfaction" at reaching a "good agreement" with Washington that is "a major step" towards "preventing and combating terrorism". This agreement between Brussels and Washington, a previous text of which was vetoed by the European parliament last February, was one of the Spanish Presidency's priorities.

Espinosa stresses the importance of the Common Agricultural Policy being included in the 2020 Strategy.  In June, Elena Espinosa, the Spanish Minister for the Environment and Rural and Maritime Areas, argued that the inclusion of agriculture in Strategy 2020 would give Europe a Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) that is "strong and suitably funded" past 2013. Espinosa's comments were aimed at laying out before the European Parliament's commission on Agriculture and Rural Development the accomplishments of Spain's six-month Presidency, during which time "important achievements" had been made in fostering competitiveness and productivity in the sector.

European bathing water in fine health  98.6% of all Spanish bathing water fulfills EU quality requirements. Water from both coastal areas and the interior are in fine health, the European Commission and European Environment Agency's annual report on bathing water reveals. Using data collected from 20,000 bathing zones (two thirds being coastal regions and the rest consisting of rivers and lakes), the report also shows that 96% of the coastal bathing areas and 90% of the rivers and lakes in Europe meet the minimum requirements of the directive on bathing water quality.

EU approves opening negotiations with Iceland  European leaders, meeting in the European Council, approved the opening of accession negotiations with Iceland, which applied for accession in July 2009. Negotiations will begin once the Council has given them the green light. It is the Council who must approve a "negotiation timetable", which will be the basis for developing dialog.

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Cartel tipo Roller para promocionar y señalar la entrada de un determinado evento.

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Cultural closing ceremony of the Spanish Presidency of the EU.  The Presidency's cultural program culminated in an event open to all citizens. Around 40 Belgian, Hungarian and Spanish musicians took part in the "Europa en vivo 2010" festival that marked the end of the Presidency with a free concert in Madrid. The closing gala was attended by various Spanish Ministers, as well as several Secretaries of State and the Belgian and Hungarian Ambassadors: the two countries which, together with Spain, form the Trio of Presidencies. The musicians arrived in Madrid having spent the previous three days together in a musical workshop in the Real Sitio de San Ildefonso (Segovia).

Agreement on the content of the new pharmacovigilance directive  June saw the confirmation of the agreement between the Council of the EU and the European Parliament on the text which will regulate the EU's pharmacovigilance proceedings. The regulation's fundamental aim is to reinforce vigilance, transparency and communication of a medication's safety once it is on the market. Furthermore, it plays a key role in the protection of public health, as it aims to warn, detect and evaluate a given medication's adverse effects, as well as to take the necessary measures to maintain a favorable benefit:risk ratio.

Common strategy against international terrorism receives a boost  The EU and the USA repeated their commitment to the fight against international terrorism through a declaration approved in the last Council of Ministers of the Interior held during Spain's EU Presidency. The declaration's text sends out a firm message "against terrorism" and for "tolerance of other cultures", two ideas which, as pointed out by the Spanish Minister of the Interior, Alfredo Pérez Rubalcaba, are "entirely compatible".

Cristina Garmendia opens the "All's Design" exhibition

One of the pieces in the exhibition.

 In June at the Círculo de Bellas Artes in Madrid, the Minister for Science and Innovation, Cristina Garmendia opened the "All's Design" exhibition organized by the State Society for the Development of Design and Innovation and the International Council of Graphic Design Associations as part of the Spanish Presidency's program of events. The exhibition, commissioned by the well-known designer and illustrator Oscar Mariné, brings together a selection of posters, publications, typography, containers, and other pieces from 40 Spanish and 20 European designers.

Spain hosts the third European Pact for mental health and wellbeing conference  In Madrid on June 28, José Martínez Olmos, Secretary General for Health, opened the "Mental Health and Wellbeing of Elderly People" conference, organized by the Ministry of Health and Social Policy and the European Commission, and carried out as part of the Spanish Presidency's program of events. The conference is the third out of a total of five planned conferences under the European Pact for Mental Health and Wellbeing. Each conference is dedicated to a specific priority: depression and suicide prevention; mental health in young people and in education; mental health in elderly people; the fight against stigmatization and social exclusion, and mental health in the work environment.


Aunque este tipo de soportes tienen unas medidas fijadas por los diferentes fabricantes las imágenes que se muestran en esta página pueden servir como modelo a la hora de plantear su diseño.

Spain's EU Presidency | in brief 21

Commitment to patient mobility The EU Ministries of Health have backed the Spanish proposal regarding the movement of patients within the Union during the Employment, Social Policy, Health and Consumer Affairs Council (EPSCO) held in Luxemburg in June. In the public debate, most Member States supported the new draft directive on cross-border medical care proposed by the Spanish Presidency, a proposal which is halfway between various countries' own interests and the initial European Commission (EC) proposal. The new proposal establishes the general rule that the patient's country of residence should pay for the treatment, the obligation to obtain previous authorization from the country of origin's health system for patients who receive certain types of medical care in another Member State, and the ability of patients to receive treatment from any public or private health center in all EU Member States.

European boost to the electric car Ministers of Industry, meeting in Brussels, approved certain conclusions requiring European Commission to present proposals to promote the manufacture and marketing of electric vehicles, without reference to any specific technology. The meeting also made public a joint communiqué signed by France, Germany, Portugal and Spain in support of an electric vehicle that calls upon the commission to speed up efforts to achieve an electric automobile standard by 2011.

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foreign affairs

Senegal, the Country of "Teranga" DISCOVER YOUR EMBASSY Senegal, vibrant and fertile in essence, offers the attractions of its natural beauty and cultural vitality, whether you want to shop till you drop, practice your bargaining skills in the country's markets, or lose yourself in the capital's noise and bustle, or enjoy a "flag" in the tranquility of one of the southern beaches. Senegal, moving at the rhythm of the "tam tam,� has come to stay By Paloma Portela

Seven o'clock in the evening at the Fishermen's Market in Dakar, the sun is starting to sink into the sea, and the first canoes are starting to arrive to unload their fish. On the shore, strikinglydressed women in eye-catching prints, a festival of elegant colors in the middle of Corniche-Ouest, come to collect the day's catch, which they will then sell right on the beach. In the distance, across from the Mamelles Lighthouse, the recently inaugurated Monument to the African Renaissance can be seen. Erected on one

of Dakar's hills, the bronze colossus, fifty meters in height, is taller than New York's Statue of Liberty. Made in North Korea, it seeks to represent the determination of a continent eager to escape the oblivion in which it has been submerged. Such has been the intention of Senegal's octogenarian president, Abdulaye Wade, in his interest in leading what has come to be called "the United States of Africa." Nevertheless, at present, what the monument has chiefly achieved has been to unleash a storm of polemics, probably because, despite Senegal's openness, an

effigy of a seminude woman remains a surprise in a country where 95% of the population is Muslim. Dakar, the capital, is a feverishly active, marvelously chaotic city. Characterized by constant street bustle, rickety taxis and 'car rapides' (minibuses picturesquely painted yellow and blue, with dozens of passengers and various sacks of rice), it leaves few visitors indifferent. Dakar's markets are one of the city's most important elements. Nothing else is like the crowded Sandaga market, the most animated and centrally located market in Dakar; here, literally, everything is available. Another highlight is the Kermel market - Eiffel designed the building - but its most spectacular components are the stalls in the fish area, piled with enormous lobsters and fresh shellfish. It feels like entering the sea, because in addition, it smells exactly like that, like the sea. In the fruit and


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Images of women crossing the Casamance River, Gorée Island in Dakar, and the Oukama Mosque in the Senegalese capital.

vegetable area, the harmonious heaps of produce look like still-life paintings become real, in living color. Nighttime, however, is when Dakar is truly vibrant. This is the place to find some of the continent's most avantgarde night clubs and live-music venues. And suddenly, in a burst of euphoria, the mbalax begins, that typically Senegalese rhythm that makes it impossible to sit still and produces the most blatantly sensual of hip movements. The mbalax is the soul of Senegalese music, but so are legs, thighs, hips, and buttocks. It became famous thanks to Youssou N´dour, the indisputable champion of the genre, as well as one of the great icons of African music. The city's constant ferment contrasts with the tranquility one finds upon disembarking on Gorée Island, declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1978. This island, with narrow streets overflowing with bougainvillea and colonial houses, was during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries an enclave for the slave trade. The Maison des Esclaves (Slave House) is an important symbol and reminder of

SENEGAL: QUICK FACTS Area: 197,000 km2 Population: 12.4 million inhabitants Population density: 62.8 inhabitants per km2 Annual population growth: 2,7% Life expectancy at birth: 63 years HDI ranking (2005): 166 GDP (millions of dollars): 13.024 (2007) Inflation rate: 5,7% (2007) Main export partner: Mali Main import partner: France Main exports: Fuel and minerals Main imports: Capital goods Spanish trade presence: Spain is the 5th-largest importer and the 7th-largest exporter Resident Spaniards (2007): 470 Source: Min. of Foreign Aff. & Coop.

the horror of the culture built around slavery. What is certain is that when you manage to cross the crowded Rufisque highway and leave Dakar, the tranquility and amiability of the Senegalese people become even more evident. Glancing through any book on the country, you are sure to find the word "teranga," which means "hospitality" and is used above all as a kind of tourism slogan. The land of the Wolof, whose language is Senegal's most widely spoken, is proud to be the country of "teranga." To the north, a highway lined with baobab trees, of all ages and sizes, leads to Saint Louis. Exploring the city allows the visitor to get an idea of what Senegal was like during the colonial period. At present, nevertheless, Saint Louis is a city that appears to be crumbling, as if some mysterious force were dragging its buildings downward, and they were

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foreign affairs

Images of the Spanish Embassy in Dakar, the Embassy Hall, and participants in the First Literary Competition in Spanish organized by the Cervantes Institute branch in the Senegalese capital.


struggling to remain upright. In its heyday, Saint Louis was the capital of West Africa, and this is precisely what can still be discerned amid the decay and the odor of fish being smoked. Splendid old mansions, with their wrought-iron grilles and wooden balconies, can be seen, and here too, there is a festival of colors: blue houses with red doors, yellow houses with blue windows, green houses with pink balconies. The landscape of southern Senegal is different, more tropical than the savannah of the north. Although the news coming from the Casamance region has often been negative, the area has fertile soil, navigable rivers, and the unique culture of the Diola people. The course of the Casamance River is lined by mangrove swamps and palm groves, to which one must add the beauty of the beaches of Cap Skiring. Nevertheless, in the country of "teranga," along with the beauty of its

When and why did you decide to move to Senegal? In June 1992. I'd been feeling "the call" of Africa for some time. When I was little, it was movies about Tarzan and Orzowei, and when I was older, it was music, from blues to reggae, with their African roots, that made me want to travel to Africa. I always felt that this was the cradle of humanity, its essence ... although it was in California, in my student days, that I had my first contact with people who were natives of Africa, their ritual art and their music, and I became convinced that I had to go there. I came to Senegal because I had friends and contacts here who could give me a place to stay in Dakar. What has your experience of the country been like, in general? It's been very positive. I've grown as a person here and have incorporated the values of another, very different culture into my Spanish values. I've integrated well, and I've always

landscapes and the amiability of its people, there are children holding out tin cans and forced to beg by some marabouts, people who live and die in the streets, groups of invalids in wheelchairs due to polio (an illness thoroughly eradicated in the First World), a country that, in the end, is in 166th place on the Human Development Index, out of 182 countries, and in 124th place on the Human Poverty Index, out of 135 countries. All this explains why Senegal has been a priority country for Spanish cooperation since 2001 and continues to be so in the 2009-2012 Management Plan. Senegal remains a country full of more or less drastic contrasts, of overlapping images, and of landscapes impossible to reconcile into a single portrait. Nevertheless, despite or perhaps because of all this, it represents the most attractive and hopeful face of a continent that is rewriting predictions for its future every day.

found reasons to stay on. I feel well, alive ... and every day is a surprise. To what degree are our compatriots integrated into Senegalese life? It runs the gamut. In general, the people who live in the interior of the country and who have chosen to do so are happy and well-integrated into the rural environment. In cosmopolitan, urban cities like Dakar, there's less integration, since many of the Spaniards who are in the capital are here temporarily, on short-term postings ... they haven't chosen to be here. In general, I believe that Spaniards adapt well and are very well received and accepted thanks to their open and sympathetic character. As a group, do the Spaniards resident in Senegal engage in any kind of activity in order to keep in touch with one another? Not officially, except for some special occasions, like Hispanic Heritage Day (DĂ­a de la Hispanidad), when

the Embassy organizes a gathering for the community. Nevertheless, there are a lot of activities organized by the Embassy's cultural section - festivals, summer film series, exhibits - that allow the members of the Spanish colony to meet one another and to participate in events together with the Senegalese public. Give us a reason to choose Senegal, either for a vacation or as a career destination. There are many reasons, from its geographical closeness - two hours from Las Palmas and slightly more than four hours from Madrid - to the openness, beauty, and humanity of its people. In addition, Senegal has good infrastructure and, on the tourist level, is very well prepared for visitors. It's a tranquil country with security and a great deal of tolerance, with political stability, with extensive cultural offerings, and with codes of behavior that are very accessible for Western travelers.


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Senegal, Spain's Gateway to West Africa Jorge Toledo


The intensity and importance of Spain's current bilateral relations with Senegal are a relatively recent phenomenon. Though the two countries have maintained relations since the 1960s, their ties were of little significance. Africa, and subSaharan Africa in particular, played a secondary role in our foreign policy. This situation changed with the decision beginning in 2005 to increase development aid substantially and, at the same time, to expand the geographical area of our priority cooperation activities to include sub-Saharan Africa. The publication of the First Africa Plan marked Spanish foreign policy's first attempt at a strategic approach to the African continent. Senegal from then on became the spearhead and model of this new approach. In 2006, the "migration crisis" broke out, with the arrival on the shores of the Canary Islands of more than 30,000 African emigrants, the majority of them from Senegal, in a human tragedy that only reinforced and accelerated Spain's determination to increase its presence in West Africa. Since then, Senegal has become the proving ground for what has come to be called the "global approach to migration," promoted by Spain and subsequently adopted by the EU. This is a consistent approach to addressing the migratory phenomenon, in dialogue and cooperation with the sending

countries, from an integrated perspective: that is, not only preventing clandestine emigration, but also offering the sending countries a series of mechanisms and instruments to encourage and channel legal emigration. In order to implement this policy, the Spanish Embassy's human and material resources have been increased considerably in the last few years: the Chancellery and the Trade Office, which have also been strengthened, have been joined by an Interior Department, a Consulate-General in Dakar, a Labor and Immigration Department, and an important Technical Cooperation Office, and a local branch of the Cervantes Institute is about to open, the first in sub-Saharan Africa. To these must be added the important resources that the Civil Guard and the National Police have put at the disposal of the European Union's HERA-FRONTEX operation in Senegalese waters and territory. Meanwhile, Spain's development cooperation in Senegal has gone from token amounts in the first half of the decade to more than 80 million euros in 2009. Spain is now Senegal's second-largest bilateral donor, behind France, the former colonial power. The result of these policies could not be more positive. From nearly 30,000 people who arrived in the Canaries in 2006, on more than

In only four years, Senegal and Spain have gone from giving one another the cold shoulder to becoming good neighbors, but there is still a long way to go, and great opportunities are within the two countries' reach

600 small boats coming from Senegal, the numbers have fallen to zero in 2009, and all this has been achieved in perfect harmony and cooperation with the Senegalese authorities, who have collaborated in an exemplary way to prevent this inhumane phenomenon. However, Senegal is also a country of opportunities and one with untapped economic potential, especially in the tourism and agricultural sectors. It is a solid and stable democracy, with sustained economic growth and very moderate inflation. Senegal is, in sum, an excellent gateway to West Africa. For the Senegalese, with around 60,000 of their compatriots living and working in our country, Spain is in no way an unknown. It is the rare Senegalese who does not have a friend or relative in Spain. Spanish league soccer is passionately followed, and our language is spoken or mangled by ever more Senegalese. In four years, Senegal and Spain have gone from giving one another the cold shoulder to becoming good neighbors, but there is still a long way to go, and great opportunities are within the two countries' reach. For this reason, our next objective should be to take advantage of our presence and our excellent image in this country in order to exploit these opportunities in areas with which Spanish entrepreneurs are very familiar.

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New projects for Casa de América. In 1992, Casa de América was established in Madrid as a forum for debate regarding the economic, political, scientific, and cultural aspects of Ibero-America. In this interview, the General Director of Casa de América reflects on its "very simple mission: to disseminate and promote Latin American thought and culture in Spain and vice versa”. Its next great project: the upcoming virtual Casa de América.


“We hope that the virtual Casa de América will become a reference point for Ibero-American thought and culture” — Colloquiums, presentations, forums... The Casa hosts so many events every day. What sort of concrete projects come out of these activities? —All sorts of projects! For example, we hold a film script development course that is now in its tenth year, and every year we produce, as a result, some 30 scripts. We're talking about some 300 films, of which 90% have made it to production. Many of these films were first shown here, and some have gone on to win awards such as Berlin's Golden Bear; others have received special mention at Sundance or been featured during the Cannes' Director's Fortnight. With regard to literature, we also hold conferences for young writers. Since there is no clear cultural capital of Latin America, that has become kind of our role: probably the easiest way for, say a Bolivian scenographer and a Honduran playwright to meet, is in Madrid. Obviously there are other cultural capitals for certain times and events, such as the Book Fair in Guadalajara, the Mar del Plata Film Festival, and the music festivals in Miami, but Madrid, at Casa de América, is one place that also allows and promotes interdisciplinary crosspollination. These are projects that extend beyond the moment--that truly

take advantage of the networks and stimulus of Latin America's tightly-knit associations. These projects also enjoy a leadership with highly-valued opinions, which is also very important. We have established a literature prize with Planeta, a thought award with Debate... With regard to thought and philosophy, we also have all the Tribuna Americana publications, which are backed by the EFE and TVE agencies, and which are issued throughout Latin America with an impressive readership. We hold four public events every day, and we also rent out the Palacio de Linares to help support our activities. A good portion of our funding -nearly 50%- is public funding, basically from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs through the AECID. We also receive donations from the City and Autonomous Community of Madrid, and I should also mention that the building itself was a gift from the City of Madrid to the Casa de América Consortium. The rest of our funding comes from sponsors, rent and other gifts. — In what ways have both Spanish and Latin American businesses become involved in the operation of Casa de América? — We have a General Sponsorship fund that receives contributions from many of Spain's most important companies, as well as the Modelo Group from

Mexico -the ones who make Corona beer- and we are working to get many other Latin American companies on board. For example, we held a seminar on infrastructures in Latin America and were able to acquire additional funding from Abertis. We are hoping that the Repsol Foundation will be one of the sponsors for the next VIVAMERICA festival, because the central theme of the festival will be biodiversity, which is an area of significant interest to them. We try to ensure that the content of our activities is appropriate for our sponsors, while keeping the ideas and opinions presented independent. — You are a journalist and writer. What is it like to take the reins of project like this one? — I studied journalism and starting working as a journalist in Gerona when I was very young. Once I graduated, I was immediately hir ed by a multinational culture and recreation firm to work in the department of communication and cultural management. I lived in Paris and in Lisbon, I was responsible for the expansion into Italy and Switzerland... Fortunately, I had the opportunity to travel quite a bit to handle the exhibits they were doing and deal with all the cultural policy throughout the Mediterranean region. That was the refiner's fire where I was first introduced to cultural management.


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PROFILE. Imma Turbau was born in Girona in 1947. She is a journalist, writer and specialist in cultural management. She has been a journalist for a variety of Catalan media centers and, since 1996, has held several leadership and influential positions in cultural management throughout Spain and Portugal. Anthologies of her writings have been published in Spain, Mexico, France, Germany, and Portugal, among other countries. She is the author of 'El juego del ahorcado' (hangman), which was published by Editorial Mondadori and has been translated into several languages. The book was recently taken to the silver screen by director Manuel Gómez Pereira. She has served as General Director of Casa de América since 2009.

— And now that you're here, what do you want Casa de América to become? — Casa de América is already so many things. Our first objective is to keep it where it is right now. We have the huge advantage of being in the Cibeles square, so all of our events generally have great publicity. But our next big project is the virtual Casa de América. There is very little I can do to bring more fame to Casa de América, and it would be presumptuous to think that I could somehow increase the prestige of the institution. But what I can do, and what is currently in the works, is the virtual Casa de América; because, in this digital age, it really should not be so hard to get access to our schedule of events. If you're lucky enough to be

in Cibeles square at 7 o'clock in the evening, then it's pretty easy to find out what's going on, but the majority of our potential audience doesn't have that opportunity. We are, little by little, converting our amphitheater into a film set, preparing everything we need to be able to film our events in the highest possible quality. We are also making huge changes to the content and design management. With the new virtual Casa de América, it won't matter if you're in Aviles, Spain or Helsinki, Finland. You will be able to feel like you're actually at the live event. That is very important to us. And the site itself is a very ambitious project as well. We are very excited, because it's something we've needed to do for a while now, and we've been paying close attention to what's been

done with the sites for the Tate and the Barbican Centre in London... We are currently getting pretty good web traffic, with some 300,000 new visitors every month. Our goal is to get to 2 million per month. That is the goal we have set for ourselves, not something that is being required of us. We would like to become a great information center, with a lot of exclusive content that you can only find here. We want to become the site for Ibero-American thought and culture. The physical Casa de América will eventually become the content generator for the virtual Casa de América, which will become a platform that is completely open to social networking--where you will be able to put things on Facebook and other networking sites that may come about in the next generation of virtual connectivity. We will have a platform that is prepared to work with this new type of interpersonal relations. I have the feeling that this will be my opportunity, and I am very excited to make it work.

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foreign action in brief

He was a Diplomat in Athens between 1944 and 1945. As Righteous among the Nations, he will join Spanish diplomats Ángel Sanz Briz, Eduardo Propper de Callejón, and José Ruiz Santaella

International University Dean Retreat  Emilio Botín, president of the Santander Bank, announced in Guadalajara, Mexico, his plan to invest 600 million euros in Ibero-American university projects over the next five years. He reiterated this plan to 985 university deans attending the 2nd annual International University Retreat.

Government supports Nobel Prize for Vicente Ferrer Foundation Sebastián de Romero Radigales (at center holding an image of a Byzantine icon), during a tribute ceremony held in Athens in 1954 for his services to the Jews in Thessaloniki.

Diplomat Romero Radigales named Righteous among the Nations After an exhaustive investigation, the Raoul Wallenberg Foundation has recognized Spanish diplomat Sebastián Romero Radigales as Righteous among the Nations, a distinction granted by the State of Israel to individuals not of Jewish ancestry or faith who assisted Jewish victims of persecution during the Third Reich. Spanish diplomats Ángel Sanz Briz, Eduardo Propper de Callejón, and José Ruiz Santaella have also been named Righteous among the Nations. Sebastián Romero Radigales, General Diplomat of Spain to Athens between 1944 and 1945, is now a worldwide hero thanks to the efforts of the U.S.

Foundation that has researched his work during the Second World War. Against the directions of the Franco regime, and at great risk to his own life, he was able to save 600 Sephardic Jews in Thessaloniki from Nazi extermination. Sebastián Romero and other Spanish diplomats like him helped the Jews to flee from the Holocaust and were rescued from oblivion in the year 2000 when the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs put up a web page titled 'Spanish Diplomats during the Holocaust' in their memory. Later, in the year 2007, they were recognized in the exhibit ‘Visas to Liberty’, which was organized by Casa Sefarad-Israel.

United States joins the Group of Friends of the Alliance of Civilizations On May 14, the United States announced its membership in the Group of Friends of the Alliance of Civilizations, as it feels -in the words of the State Department Spokesperson- that the initiative coincides with President

Barak Obama's vision of the world. The addition of the United States brings membership in this group, which was launched by Spain and Turkey in 2004, to a total of 119 countries and international organizations.

 Miguel Ángel Moratinos pledged his support for the nomination of the Vicente Ferrer Foundation for the Nobel Peace Prize in Brussels. The Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation commented on the life of the "great humanist" and underscored the work of his Foundation as an "example of how development aid should be done".

Spain to advise Turkey in trade of endangered species  Spain, through the FIIAPP, has been chosen to advise Turkey in implementing the International Agreement on Regulation of Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna that regulates trade and promotes conservation of these species. The project, which will begin in 2011, is financed by the EU, will last 24 months, and has a budget of 1 million euros.

Conference for women entrepreneurs in Spain and Africa  Over 100 women entrepreneurs and representatives of women's organizations from more than 30 countries attended the African and Spanish Women Entrepreneurs Conference held in Madrid. The conference was organized by the Women's Foundation. The purpose of the conference is to establish a stable network of alliances to facilitate cooperation and execution of projects by these organizations, as well as improve the situation of women in SubSaharan Africa.


Moratinos receives the Jan Karski Prize from the Jewish American Committee

Executive Director of the Jewish American Committee, David Harris, presents the Jan Karski Award to Minister Miguel Ángel Moratinos. PHOTO AJC

 Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Miguel Ángel Moratinos, was awarded the Jan Karski Prize at the annual meeting of the American Jewish Committee in Washington. This prize recognizes individuals who have played leading roles in the global fight against anti-Semitism. While in the U.S., Moratinos also attended the opening session of the Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference that was held in New York.

“Thailand in crisis: Is there a way out?" lecture held at Casa Asia  On June 21, Juan Manuel López Nadal, former Spanish Ambassador to Bangkok and current Ambassador on Special Mission to Asia, gave a lecture analyzing the crisis in Thailand, which has existed for nearly five years. The last confrontation between pro-government forces and the so-called Red Shirt protesters left 88 dead and nearly 2,000 wounded.

Commemoration of the 65th Anniversary of the liberation  The First Vice President of the Government traveled to Mauthausen (Austria) to take part in the commemoration of the 65th Anniversary of the liberation of the Concentration Camp and pay tribute to the over 9,000 Spanish victims of the Nazi extermination. María Teresa Fernández de la Vega walked through the National Monument area, visited the camp quarry, and presided over the tribute and received the floral offering to the Spanish republics before the Monument to Spain.

Number of Spanish companies in international bidding on the rise  The Chambers of Commerce have launched an international bidding initiation program in an attempt to cover the demand for Spanish companies in the foreign market. It is estimated that some 200 Spanish companies compete in the foreign market, which moves about 60 billion euros each year. Spain is an important participant in bids in market sectors such as engineering, consulting, and public works.

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Cervantes Institute initiative

Spanish as a foreign language certification system approved At the beginning of June, a majority of the university community, as well as academics from various academies in Spanish-speaking countries signed the framework agreement regulating the International Spanish as a Foreign Language Certification System (SICELE). The purpose of this mechanism, which has been promoted by the Cervantes Institute, is to regulate and ensure quality in Spanish language teaching, learning, and certification for those who do not speak it as a first language. This agreement will reinforce the importance of the Spanish language throughout the world. The Cervantes Institute acts as executive secretary for the SICELE and issues, in the name of the Spanish Ministry of Education, the Spanish as a Foreign Language Diploma sought by over 50,000 students taking the exam each year in more than 100 countries.

Use of new technologies

Spain receives the United Nations Public Service Award

International ‘Think in Spanish’ Conferences in Chicago  In May, the Cervantes Institute of Chicago hosted the International 'Think in Spanish' Conferences, which are organized by the Ministry of Culture and the National Autonomous University of Mexico to address the challenges to the language and find common strategies with regard to industry, communication, and new information technologies.

Immigration seminar in Barcelona  A seminar focusing on the principal points outlined by the Stockholm Program and examining various key elements for developing a common European immigration policy was held in Barcelona. The seminar was organized by the European Institute of Public Administration, the European Center for the Regions and the CIDOB Foundation.

On June 23 in Barcelona, Secretary of State for Public Service, Consuelo Rumí, received the United Nations Public Service award in recognition of the General State Administration's improved quality of service to its citizens through the Internet. This award, the most prestigious in the public service sector, recognizes Spain's advancement from 11th place in a worldwide ranking of electronic government services to ninth place.

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Two Spaniards of international renown recognized. The Golden Fleece is one of the oldest and most prestigious distinctions in the world.

The King awards Golden Fleece to Javier Solana and Víctor García de la Concha It has been nearly 30 years since His Majesty the King Juan Carlos has held a public ceremony to award this distinction, which has become one of the oldest and most prestigious in the world. Thus, in a ceremony held in the Zarzuela Palace, Javier Solana, former Secretary General of NATO and former Head of European diplomacy, and Víctor García de la Concha, Director of the Spanish Royal Academy for the Language, were awarded this recognition by the King. The Order of the Golden Fleece was established in 1430 by Felipe III and was reinstated by King Juan Carlos who presents the award as a demonstration of "my sincere appreciation and in recognition of dedicated service to Spain and the Crown". To date, His Majesty the King has awarded 22 Golden Fleece collars, although nearly all were awarded in private ceremonies. The last time a public ceremony was held was 29 years ago when the award was given to José María Pemán, President of the Private Council of the Duke of Barcelona. Of Javier Solana, King Juan Carlos stated that he "is one of Spain's modern citizens who has done more to ensure

 A delegation of politicians and experts from the border region between Sweden and Norway visited the Los Arribes del Duero region of Salamanca to study the Duero-Douro European Grouping, which consists of 176 Spanish and Portuguese towns.

Foreign Ministry among the most appreciated ministries in the government  A recent study by the Center for Sociological Research (CIS) shows that the Interior Ministry, the Ministry of the Economy, the Foreign Ministry, the Defense Ministry, and the Presidency were "systematically most appreciated" by citizens in the history of Spanish democracy. The study also shows that the highest approval ratings are generally the "most well known", according to center president Belén Barreiro.

Orders for Spanish exports increase in 2010

Víctor García de la Concha and Javier Solana receive the Golden Fleece from His Majesty the King. PHOTO EFE

that Spain remains an influence in the world and the world remains an influence in Spain" Of Víctor García de la Concha he emphasized “his drive and vision of the future, as well as his deep sense of obligation and commitment”

Global India Business Meeting chose Spain for its annual summit This year, the largest Indian business meeting in the world chose the city of Madrid as the locale for its annual summit, organized by various Indian and Spanish institutions. This event has become a unique platform for Indian companies seeking to extend their operations into

Sweden and Norway study the Spain-Portugal border model in Salamanca

western economies, in the context of an emergent country whose economy is expected to grow on the order of 8.6% this year. His Royal Highness the Prince of Asturias took advantage of the occasion to meet with the members of the SpainIndia Council Foundation Sponsorship.

 According to a survey published by the Industry Ministry, 43% of Spanish companies increased their earnings from exports during the initial months of 2010, which is confirmed by the increase in commercial activity. Likewise, this renewed market vigor is reflected in the year-to-year increase in new businesses, which has reached 3.8%.

Jerusalem opens terrace dedicated to the King and Queen of Spain  Spanish Minnister of Culture, Ángeles González-Sinde, and her Israeli counterpart, Limor Livnat inaugurated a terrace dedicated to the King and Queen of Spain on May 2 in Jerusalem. The terrace is located in a public tourist area near a well-known mill symbolizing the expansion of the city beyond the walls half a century ago.


Presentation of the Bicentennial Seal  Juan Pablo de Laiglesia, Secretary of State for Iberoamerica, and José Luis Fernández, Director of Postage Stamp Collecting, presented a stamp commemorating the Bicentennial of the Independence of the IberoAmerican Republics. The stamp, with a face value of 2.49 euros, entered circulation on April 7 with an initial printing of 320,000 copies.

Meeting with the Foreign Minister of Bangladesh  Miguel Ángel Moratinos and Dipu Moni, Minister of Foreign Affairs for Bangladesh, discussed items of common interest in their bilateral and international agendas and examined new opportunities for both countries to increase cooperation in economic and development matters at their meeting in Madrid.

Headquarters Agreement between Spain and the Union for the Mediterranean Signed  Miguel Ángel Moratinos, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, met with Ahmed Masa'deh, Secretary General of the Union for the Mediterranean in the Viana Palace to sign the Headquarters Agreement between Spain and the Secretariat of the Union for the Mediterranean, which is based in the Pedralbes Palace in Barcelona. The Agreement will regulate relations between Spain, as the host country, and the Secretariat, granting the latter the legal capacities necessary to carry out its functions.

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Public diplomacy. Casa África hosted a program featuring debates on African independence and climate change, contemporary dance, film, soccer, and games

África Vive comes to Madrid On May 25, Madrid became the center for the celebration of Africa Day, a holiday surrounded by a wide range of political, sporting, and cultural activities and games all designed to bring us closer to a reality that is becoming clearer and clearer: Africa and Spain are getting closer every day. A seminar on the 50th anniversary of African independence with heavyweights from African intellectual and political circles, such as Achille Mbembe and Makhily Gassama, and a reception hosted by the accredited African ambassadors to Spain were the main events prepared by Casa África. In addition, a fun run was held at the Casa de Campo park in Madrid, followed by a contemporary dance spectacular and various events scattered around the soccer field featuring actors from Sierra León with physical disabilities who starred in 'One goal', a documentary by Sergi Agustí from Barcelona about conflict resolution and self improvement through sports.

Image from seminar held in Madrid. From left to right, journalist Binyavanga Wainaina; Senegal's Director of Art and Intellectual Property; Angola's Vice Minister of Culture; the Director of Scheduling for the Secretary General of Mauritania; and the Director General of Casa África. EFE

Likewise, in collaboration with Casa Asia, Casa África organized an advanced seminar on climate change and renewable energy that brought together experts from three continents to discuss the future of the planet. All these events culminated in a huge África Vive party at the University Campus featuring workshops, music, dance, and above all, chances for interaction and bonding between Spaniards and Africans.

Spain reinforces its commitment with operation Atalanta Beginning on September 1, Spain will be doubling the naval resources taking part in operation Atalanta, which were deployed to fight piracy in the Indian Ocean. The amphibious assault ship 'Galicia' (equipped with four helicopters and four rafts) and a corvette will be joining the effort for three months. These reinforcements

are necessary because the ocean in the region is at its calmest during the months of September through November, leading to an increase in piracy. The Spanish ships, which have been involved in this mission since the beginning of 2009, will be patrolling the ports in Somali waters where pirate vessels launch.

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foreign action in brief

MAEC takes part in the publication of

A guide disseminating the Rights of Individuals with Disabilities “States Parties recognize that all persons are equal before and under the law and are entitled without any discrimination to the equal protection and equal benefit of the law.” So states the first article of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The remainder of the text describes the reasons it is critical to have a legal instrument protecting the rights of this group of individuals. To further disseminate the contents of this Convention, the Spanish Down's Syndrome Federation, with the support of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation and Caja Madrid, has published a guide in which the subjects of the Convention attempt to explain their special view of their own rights.

Public Diplomacy

Casa Árabe celebrates Iraq Week Casa Árabe organized six days of activities focused on Iraq in order to publicize through conferences, music, and film, the diverse and complex realities of this cast down country that continue to inspire the best efforts and hope for the future in its intellectuals and artists. The activities, which took place from June 20 to the 25 in Madrid, included three concerts, showings of the films 'Objetivos abiertos en Iraq' (Open Objectives in Iraq) and 'Guerra, amor, dios y locura' (War, Love, God, and Insanity) with the directors in attendance, and two conferences on the current situation of women and contemporary art in Iraq.

President of the Government José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, during his meeting with Libyan President Muammar al-Gaddafi near the outskirts of Tripoli. PHOTO EFE

President of the Government travels to Libya to meet with Gaddafi  In his first visit to Libya, Prime Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero was received by Libyan President Muammar al-Gaddafi in the Bedouin tent at his official residence. Both leaders discussed their opinions on bilateral relations with regard to economics and immigration cooperation. Other items of discussion included the summit between the EU and Africa to be held in Libya and the situation for aid workers Albert Villalta and Roque Pascual. In this regard, Rodríguez Zapatero emphasized that Libya has always assisted Spain in "delicate" matters of security.

Fourth meeting of the Bicentennial Commission  The latest meeting of the Bicentennial Commemoration Commission discussed Spain's involvement in the various events and initiatives surrounding the celebration of these important dates. The year 2010 is the Bicentennial year for Argentina, Colombia, Mexico, Chile, and Venezuela. Among other activities, Spain has promoted a Seminar titled "Latin America, the Caribbean, and Europe: Common Roots for a 21st Century Alliance" and the Euro-Latin American Forum Analysis Centers.

The 'North-American Youth Leaders" program enters its 10th year.  The 10th annual session of the program organized by the Spain-U.S. Council Foundation was held in Madrid and Barcelona last April. Through this initiative, over 100 American youth with promising professional futures have had the opportunity to discover Spain through contact with representatives from political, business, academic, and journalistic spheres.

Spain mobilizes 131 million euros for new Eureka projects  The 25th Eureka Ministerial Conference, which brought together the Ministries responsible for the Pan-European Eureka Technology Collaboration Initiative on June 25 in Berlin, made significant strides both in governance for the initiative as well as in approved projects. Spanish entities are involved in 89 inter-business collaboration projects, Eurostars projects, and projects linked to the Eureka Cluster, thus mobilizing nearly 131 million euros.

Spain made member of the UNESCO Intangible Heritage Committee  Spain was chosen as a member of the UNESCO Intangible Heritage Committee in Paris. The next meeting of the Committee, which will be held in Nairobi, Kenya, Spain will present Flamenco, Palma de Mallorca's Chant of the Sybil, and the Castellets (human towers) as its national candidates for the Representative List of Intangible Heritage.


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Belgium assumes its 12th Presidency of the Council of the European Union. Belgium's Ambassador to Spain, Johan Swinnen, reflects on the priorities of his 6-month term at the head of the 27 and on the repercussions of the internal state of his country on the effectiveness of its EU Presidency. By Beatriz Beeckmans


— What will be the focus of the Belgian Presidency of the Council of the EU? — I believe that every moment of a Presidency is important. The Spanish Presidency was critical, as it was the first Presidency after the Treaty of Lisbon entered into force. Now the important focus is on consolidation and implementation of institutional relations. Also, another important focus is the new EU2020 program for a growth and joboriented economy that will also modernize and update the knowledge economy. This will be an absolute priority for the Belgian Presidency, because European citizens are expecting a response from Europe. If there is anywhere that Europe can demonstrate its credibility, it is in the economic sphere. I even believe we could begin to evolve into an economic government. — Is it possible to focus on economic recovery without abandoning social issues? — Social aspects have not received sufficient attention as of yet, and we are now in the Year for Fighting Poverty and Social Exclusion. It is impossible to credibly work toward economic growth and stability without a greater focus on social problems. Another significant challenge is the fight against global warming. During the Copenhagen Summit, the EU did not play the role it should have; we should be able to get more operative results in Cancun this November. Europe has important answers and we must try to integrate them into the fight against climate change dynamic.


“With the Spanish Presidency as our inspiration, the Belgian Presidency must help consolidateinter-institutional relations”

A We will also continue with the Stockholm Program: the fight against terrorism, human trafficking, drugs... there are many, many challenges. It is a very important process, because Europe is synonymous with freedom of circulation, but to manage it correctly we need to have controls in place and a good immigration policy. Naturally we will be looking at expansion as well. We have been in the negotiation stage with Turkey and the Western Balkans for many years, and we are now beginning talks with Iceland. We cannot underestimate the aspirations of countries both in and out of Europe, but we must act carefully to ensure that we expand without compromising the strength of our integration. The negotiations that Belgium would like to accelerate and advance must be based on the merits of each country individually, both in the interest of the countries in question and in the interest of the entire Union. Another important point: Integration into the European Union must strengthen the role of Europe in the world. For this to work, we need the European Foreign Action Service. Lady Ashton is working very hard, there have been many talks and reports on the matter, and the Belgian Presidency is very motivated to make advancements, because the need is urgent. However, we have to work pragmatically, because it is a very delicate operation. To do it, we are drawing our inspiration from the Spanish Presidency, which occurred during a very difficult time, and I feel that Spain played its role very well: It very successfully opened up dialog with the new institutions. We are living in the new Europe, with new players. The Trio is very important to the

Belgian Presidency, because it forms an integral part of our program and each of the three countries has invested quite a lot in these negotiations. In December of last year, the Trio program was initiated, and for Belgium not a lot will change. There will not be a lot of announcements and priorities. This is Belgium's 12th time in the Presidency. Our previous presidencies were filled with news and announcements, but this time we are not going to reinvent the wheel. The goal of the Belgian Presidency is to sustain the dynamics of the Trio of Presidencies, the Rotating Presidency, the Permanent Presidency, and High Representative, the Commission, and dialog with the European Parliament. — How might the internal state of affairs in Belgium affect its handling of the Presidency? — In Belgium there is political consensus regarding Europe: We are Europists. When we talk about internal policy, there are constant references to Europe. Even between parties there is true consensus on the fundamental objectives of Europe. It is a comfortable situation, even for an resigning government. In any case, our government is not paralyzed. The winner of the elections in Flanders has said he expects to have a government by September. In that case, we would only be under a resigning government during the Belgian Presidency for one month, barring some sort of international crisis as happened in Georgia or Kuwait fifteen years ago. But in any case, an resigning government does not prevent Belgium from being active in Europe. Another factor that prevents skepticism is that the rotational Presidency is not the sole player or the

analysis 35

most important. The Presidency forms an important part of the dynamics, because an active Presidency can contribute much to the Union, but it is certainly no the only contributor. Interaction between institutions is also very important. Spain made it happen, and Belgium must follow in its footsteps. We have been preparing for the Presidency for several months. The Ministers have been gathering public opinions -up to 7 seminars have been heldand even holding individual meetings with the public. There is an Internet site for dialog with political and social players and with the Belgian regions and communities. There are also ongoing deliberation and advisement sessions. It is a system that we have been developing very enthusiastically for several years. In the Presidency itself, there are regions and communities that preside over the Ministry meetings, because we have incorporated task distribution for exclusive competencies. For example, the Agriculture and Fishing Council is presided by the Flamenca Community, which presents and defends the Belgian points of view. Our 12 terms in the Presidency has given us a great collective memory. Our officials and businesses have a lot of experience and understand the workings of the system, and this really makes our job much easier, although every Presidency has its own challenges. The challenges to the Spanish Presidency were very specific and unexpected: The volcano incident, for example. The lack of a permanent government is not as great a handicap as it might seem, because we can continue to work for all of the reasons I have mentioned.

PROFILE. A diplomat since 1977, Johan Swinnen began his career as an intern at the Belgian Consulate in Barcelona. “Since that time I have always felt attracted to Spain, and I am very happy to be back”. In addition to his various positions in the Belgian Ministry of Foreign Affairs -including spokesman for two different ministers-, Swinnen has served in New York and Greece, and has also been assigned to the three former Belgian colonies: Rwanda, Burundi, and Congo. "I was Ambassador to Rwanda for the first time from 909 to 94, during the genocide--it was a tragic experience." The father of four children and with a seventh grandchild on the way, he says he loves Spain "for its rich history, its national heritage, its magnificent towns and cities, and for its people, its culture, and its language".

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Analysis. Cooperation exists in the media, although the public cannot identify it as such. The fight against poverty is not a priority in the European press's agenda.

Coverage of cooperation in the press In May, Periodistes de Catalunya (a Catalonian Journalists Association) hosted the presentation of the research study entitled "The Press and International Cooperation: Coverage of Development Cooperation in Nine European Dailies." Over a period of three months, coverage of international cooperation has been analyzed in nine daily newspapers in Spain, France and the UK. The study, carried out by a group of Communication specialists at the Autonomous University of Barcelona, forms part of the actions taken by AECID and the press agency IPS that aim to make information about development a priority in the press's agenda. The primary conclusion that the study draws is that the press regularly reports on themes related to cooperation, but dedicates little space to the stories: in total only

PERCENTAGE OF NEWS ABOUT COOPERATION IN THE NEWSPAPERS ANALYZED Liberátion El País The Guardian Le Monde The Times La Vanguardia Le Figaro ABC The Daily Telegraph % of total piecespublished in 12 weeks

8.0% 5.2% 4.3% 3.3% 3.2% 3.1% 2.9% 2.7% 1.5%

3.5% of content. It is only in the International News section that development cooperation reaches a noteworthy level of coverage: 14.7%. The media studied devote more space to political content, to the detriment of other important topics such as the fight against poverty, which is only mentioned in 8.1% of the pieces on cooperation in spite of this being a central theme in the national agendas of Spain, France and the UK. Of the analyzed content, only 3.2% question cooperation and development aid. 76.5% of these articles are published in center-right publications. In country-specific analysis, it was observed that in Spain and the UK, the center-right press publishes a greater number of critical

stories; while in France the centerleft press is the most critical. The results support the hypothesis that development cooperation, because of its great importance in the political agenda, is used in a partisan manner, in particular in political and media opposition. Editorials dealing with cooperation are rare, but their qualitative value is shown when analyzing the stance taken by major media toward vital issues in international cooperation. Among the Spanish dailies analyzed, ABC was most critical of cooperation, especially within the institutional sector, as it places greater value on the role of NGOs and the humanitarian efforts launched by famous people. La Vanguardia adopts a more favorable editorial opinion on acts of international cooperation and is in favor of the fight against climate change. El País is strongly in favor of defending conflict resolution processes and peace talks, strengthening democracy and the fight for human rights. Examining the front pages shows three primary themes: humanitarian assistance in emergencies and natural disasters; protection of the environment, and good world governance, with specific emphasis on major international events.

ccooperation 37

"Stolen Childhood" film festival organized by Casa de América  On June 1, La Casa de América hosted the Sixth Documentary Film Series "Stolen Childhood", organized by SCREAM (Supporting Children's Rights through Education, the Arts and the Media) and the ILO. The film "Luces Escondidas" (Hidden Lights), which is part of the Guatemalan "La Cambalacha" education project, was shown. .

Santiago de Compostela Prize for Urban Cooperation  Entries are accepted until September 24th for the Urban Cooperation Prize created by the Santiago de Compostela Consortium in association with AECID (Spanish Agency for International Development Cooperation) and the Xunta de Galicia. The award aims to recognize and foster public initiatives for the creation and recovery of cohesive spaces in historic Latin American cities, within the framework of cohesion. Both recently-created projects and those yet to be implemented are eligible for the €180,000 award in the field of redevelopment, rehabilitation and restoration. Learn more:

2011 Global Microcredit Summit  Her Majesty Queen Sofia presided at the founding of the National Committee for the 2011 Global Microcredit Summit in Valladolid, an event which ended in a conference with Nobel Peace laureate Muhammad Yunus. The National Committee will fulfill an advisory role in the organization of the Global Microcredit Summit to be held in Valladolid the November 14-17, 2011. In her speech, Queen Sofia urged those present to give their continued unconditional support to the global microcredit movement.

Proposals for migration that aids development  On July 17, Casa Árabe hosted a debate centered around themes related to the promotion of Migration and Development programs and policies, as well as other burning issues such as the training and employment of young and female emigrants, the challenges of illegal migration, legal migration as a development tool, remittances, Diaspora, and managing migration. The issues dealt with during the debate will be compiled for a publication to be released by FIIAPP (International and Ibero-American Foundation of Public Administration and Policies) in partnership with Casa Árabe.

Prince of Viana Prize for Solidarity  Isabel Martín, Spanish missionary and founder of the Fair Trade organization Creative Handicrafts, was presented with the Prince of Viana Prize for Solidarity by the Prince and Princess of Asturias in Pamplona. The prize, created in 2001 by the Government of Navarra and Caja Laboral, recognizes the work of institutions and individuals who work in the development of the underprivileged and the promotion of voluntary work. Born in Guijuelo (Salamanca) in 1926, Isabel Martín founded Creative Handicrafts in 1984: an organization that works to socially and vocationally reintegrate the marginalized women who live in Mumbai's slums. The organization currently supports 1200 women, half of whom are organized in 12 textile craft cooperatives that sell their wares to western countries through Fair Trade.

Millennium Foundation

Institutional Presentation of the "Massivegood" Campaign In Casa América, the Millennium Foundation unveiled the "Massivegood" campaign, which aims to secure private and voluntary funding for the implementation of Millennium Development Goals in the field of Health. The concept is that Spanish travelers, when buying an air ticket, reserving a hotel room or renting a car, will click on Massivegood. This gesture then donates two euros to the fight against AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis, to improve the health of mothers or to reduce infant mortality in the least developed nations. Among other personalities, the Spanish Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation: Miguel Ángel Moratinos, the former French Minister of Foreign Affairs and the President of the Millennium Foundation: Philippe Douste-Blazy, and the High Representative to the EU for CFSP: Javier Solana, were present.

With the support of AECID

Exhibition in East Timor The ‘Las Casas Sagradas de Ainaro: Identidades sociales y rituales (Ainaro's Sacred Houses: social and ritual identities)" exhibition was opened at the Casa Europa headquarters in Dili. The project falls within the framework of the Spanish Presidency of the EU, and has enjoyed the support of AECID. Aurora Bernáldez, Spanish ambassador to Indonesia and East Timor, was present. The exhibition aims to promote respect for and the protection of Timor's cultural heritage, and focuses on the sacred houses of the Ainaro district. The exhibition includes photographs, drawings, and a representation of anuma lulik.

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Ayuda en Acción and the Madrid daily "Público" organized the "Solidarity and Sport" photography contest, whose central theme was the relationship between the sporting world and all forms of solidarity. Three prizes were awarded to the three images which won the most votes in an online poll. First place was awarded to (see below) “Cualquier cosa con la que jugar" (You can play with anything) by Javier Martínez de la Varga, taken in a refugee camp in northern Uganda. The photo shows that it is possible to play sports even when you have nothing: in this case, a ball made from plastic bags.

With the UNDP Administrator in attendance

Millennium Development Goals

Moratinos opens the Conference on Development ‘Cooperation in times of crisis’

Spain signs Global Health Pact

On June 9 in Santa Cruz Palace, the Spanish Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Miguel Ángel Moratinos, opened the Conference on Development "Cooperation in times of crisis" as part of the Spanish EU Presidency. Helen Clark, United Nations Development Program (UNDP) Administrator, was also present. The Conference focused on four themes: the role of Development Cooperation in times of crisis; the players in the Development Cooperation system; the structure of

The signing of the International Health Partnership (IHP) marked a milestone in Spain's Master Plan for Cooperation III, and gives a qualitative boost to health aid efficiency. In 2007 IHP was charged with speeding up the progress towards the Millennium Development Goals for health. Special attention was to be given to improving coordination between donor countries and developing nations with an ultimate goal of improved health services and indicators.

the Cooperation system's government, and mechanisms to increase aid efficiency. The participants also discussed the best way to move towards fulfillment of the Millennium Development Goals, and the key to expanding development funding mechanisms within the context of the new international funding framework. Soraya Rodríguez, Secretary of State for International Cooperation, and José Antonio Ocampo, a professor from the University of Colombia, closed the conference.

ccooperation 39

2010 Tirso de Molina Prize The Sevillian Carmen Losa Pérez won the Tirso de Molina Theater Prize for her work Proyecto Expreso, awarded annually by the AECID, by unanimous decision of the judges.. The work was chosen from a total of 109 works by authors from several Ibero-American countries. The holder of a degree in philology who went on to work as an actress and director, Carmen Losa has worked with the La Cubana company at the Edinburgh Festival, as well as directing and adapting works by Shakespeare and Chekhov.

Fundación Carolina launches a network in Spain that will bring together 10,000 Latin American youth. Around 10,000 of Fundación Carolina's current and former scholarship holders will be able to access a private platform of services available to all members: a social network, a virtual library, a wiki, a day planner and a forum, among other features. In the next phase, the Fundación Carolina's other activities are also expected to have access to online services: networks of researchers, the International Visitor Program, promoters of Social Responsibility and associated Foundations.

A new era for Awraq magazine  April 21 in Madrid saw the presentation of a new plan for "Awraq: a review of thought and analysis of the Arab world and contemporary Islam", published by Casa Árabe and AECID. The publication will continue its focus on the contemporary Arab and Muslim world while giving greater attention to its international science council and seeking to highlight the magazine's character as a forum for critical analysis. Awraq seeks to maintain its status as an indispensable source of knowledge that contrasts ideas and personalities, with the sole common denominator being scientific rigor.

"Fair Trade. One product, one story", in Caixaforum, Madrid  CaixaForum Madrid is hosting an exhibition about the history and production process of Fair Trade through August 28. The exhibition has already proven a success in Barcelona, and will travel to Palma after Madrid. The educational exhibition focuses on the production process and marketing of Fair Trade products, and aims to provoke a thoughtful approach to responsible consumption and the producers' quality of life. The exhibition includes the documentary "Las Chicas Dulces (The Sweet Girls)": the story of seven women from Santo Domingo de los Colorados (Ecuador) who form a cooperative for making jams and preserves.

Aid to promote exchanges between Paraguayan and Spanish universities  AECID granted $124,130 (of a total of €401,620 earmarked for the project) to support projects by Spanish and Paraguayan universities that promote specialized technical education and training initiatives. Spanish Cooperation supports these exchange projects, with emphasis on research programs.

Restoration of the Cervantes Theater in Buenos Aires  On June 17, in the Sala Dorada of the Cervantes National Theater in Buenos Aires, a cooperation agreement was signed by AECID, the Spanish Ministry of Culture, the Argentinean Secretary for Culture and the Cervantes National Theater. Proposals are now being received for restoration proposals in association with the Argentinean Central Society of Architects.

Raising of funds for Ecuador

Concert for solidarity "Voices for Peace (Voces para la Paz)" More than 250 musicians from Spain's finest orchestras and choirs came together under Miguel Roa on June 13 in Madrid's National Music Auditorium as part of a solidarity project. "Voces para la Paz (musicians for solidarity)" and the NGO Ayuda en Acción set a new challenge: the construction of a bridge over the Apaquí river in Bolívar Canton in Carchi (Ecuador). The current, single lane bridge, has undergone intense and progressive deterioration and can no longer ensure the movement of people and goods. The new bridge will directly help 1,100 families across the region's eleven communities. This infrastructure will improve communications and help to counteract the current inadequate sanitation system, difficult access to schools and poor distribution of farm produce. This new project becomes one of eight that have been funded thanks to "Voces para la Paz's" collections at their concerts for solidarity. These include a mountain road in Nepal; a school for more than 400 children in Mozambique; the improvement of irrigation systems in Piura, Peru; two health clinics in Wichaca province, Peru, and a children's center for orphans and other children affected by AIDS in Tete, Mozambique.

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Interaction with business. The President of the Coordinating Body for Development NGOs (CONGDE) stated his hope that in the current climate of economic crisis, budgets dedicated to cooperation would not be affected; the President also defended the participation of civil society, with transparency and accountability, and was in favor of NGOs and businesses working together, highlighting that greater mutual understanding was necessary.

Eduardo Sánchez "The first challenge for Spanish cooperation is to avoid undoing what has been achieved so far" CONGDE PRESIDENT

— Let's talk about the CONGDE; what are its origins, its roles... — In 1986, a small group of NGOs involved in development joined forces in order to establish a common work and coordination space. One of the first priorities was to draft a Code of Conduct which would define the collective's identity. In the 24 years since, the CONGDE has evolved into an institution with 15 work groups, 17 Autonomous Coordinating Bodies and 400 development NGOs. The Coordinating Body provides services to its members and to society in general, as well as representing the Development NGO sector on both a national and international level. — From the standpoint of NGOs, what are Spanish cooperation's main challenges? — In a context of economic and political crisis, the first challenge is to avoid undoing what has been

achieved so far. Spain has doubled its development aid budget in the last six years to approach the goal of 0.7% of Gross National Income (GNI), and has established an advanced 2009-2012 Outline Plan. However, all of this is at risk if budgets are cut and cooperation policy is no longer a political priority. There is also the challenge posed by aid effectiveness: achieving better results using fewer resources. Beyond the scope of Cooperation, we must improve the consistency of development policy, so that migration, commercial, agricultural and security policies, to name but a few, are in line with the fight against poverty. — What have been the primary actions taken by CONGDE in the most recent rounds of reform for Spanish Cooperation? — The CONGDE has been very active in monitoring sector strategies and the 2009-2012 Outline Plan for Spanish

cooperation. The Coordinating Body provides information from the State Council for Cooperation on all budgetary and legal regulations, such as Annual International Cooperation Plans (PACI) and the reform of the Development Aid Fund. We have not had many opportunities to participate in AECID reforms, and it is a shame because it's one of the system's pending issues. — What is the future of NGOs? Is Spain moving towards a stronger


analysis 41

PROFILE. Eduardo Sánchez (Salamanca 1966), Industrial Engineer, was the coordinator of the ‘0,7 Reclámalo’ campaign. He has worked on cooperation projects in Nicaragua and Bosnia-Herzegovina and on the Spanish Foundation Board of Support for Refugees' (FCEAR) Refugee Resettlement program in Namibia. After spending three years as Secretary of the Council of Government for CONGDE-Spain, Eduardo Sánchez assumed the role of President during 2009's General assembly. Currently in charge of the Research and Campaign Department of the NGO Engineers Without Borders, since 2004 he has also been a member of the Council for Development Cooperation, where he represents the whole sector.

NGO sector? — In Spain, NGOs are a fundamental pillar of Cooperation because of the thousands of projects and programs carried out every year and, most of all, by being the channel that allows millions of citizens to participate in this field. The Coordinator's NGOs have adopted a very advanced model for transparency and good governance. Furthermore, they are working to increase efficiency and improve communication and the

participation of their social base. All of these processes will lead to a stronger sector. — The Millennium Development Goals are the subject of an important awareness campaign on the part of the Coordinator. Do they have confidence in its viability? Is it really so difficult to put an end to poverty, or is it due to a lack of motivation? — The UN's latest report on achieving the MDGs shows that, overall, there is a huge delay. However, a close reading shows that there is a considerable disparity in achievement with respect to objectives, countries and regions. In those areas where governments have done what is expected of them, progress is clear. This shows that the fight against poverty is basically political in nature. — What actions do you believe to be priority in achieving the MDGs? — There are five years left until 2015, the date given to achieve the MDG. During these five years we have to make up for lost time: launching specific action plans on both a national and international level aimed at the most vulnerable populations, and that fully incorporate the focus on Human Rights and gender equality. It is crucial that these plans are made with the participation of civil society, with transparency and accountability. — It has always been said that NGOs and businesses are destined

to collaborate in the fight to end poverty. What is your opinion as President of CONGDE? What conditions will be imposed by NGOs? — When mentioning business, there is a tendency to think of large multinational corporations, however, the business sector is a vast resource. There are multinationals listed on the stock market, as well as medium-sized and small businesses who operate locally. Most are private companies, but there are also public ones, or socalled social economy businesses such as cooperatives. Business is the primary promoter of economic activity and employment: two of development's basic components. But at the same time, business activity can have negative impacts on the environment, as well as in the social field, labor, and protection of human rights. NGOs are aware of this duality, and that is why the relationship between NGOs and business has been difficult so far. To increase interaction between NGOs and business, we need greater mutual understanding. Under the umbrella of Corporate Social Responsibility, a theoretical and analytical framework has developed in recent years that allows us to measure the conduct and impact of business on human development and, from this point on, to work towards maximizing positive results and minimizing the negative ones.

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culture and society

During the 61 years separating Larra's gunshot (1837) from Ganivet's splash into the cold waters of the Dwina (1898), Spain seemed to drift aimlessly through history. But the two most famous suicides in Spanish literature have more to do with personal circumstance than with collective disgrace.

WRITER DIPLOMATS (3rd Installment)

By Jacobo García


Ángel fiercely shy Born in the very romantic Granada of 1858, his childhood was spent immersed in the Rivadeneyra Collection of Spanish classics. While he was still a student of Philosophy and Letters he passed the examinations for the Archivers', Librarians' and Anticuerians' Corps. He was assigned to the Agricultural Library of the Ministry of Public Works. His doctoral thesis on Contemporary philosophical Spain was rejected, so he wrote another on The importance of the Sanskrit language, which was accepted and he received a degree in law. With little talent for legal practice, he attempted to find work as a professor. He did not pass the examinations for Greek professorship, but he did meet Miguel de Unamuno, who was given a position as a professor of Greek in Salamanca. One year later, in 1882, Ganivet passed the Consular Corps exams. His course of life was set, at least from a professional standpoint. But for him, the importance of the practical side of life was measured by the freedom it gave him to write. By the time he reached his first assignment, Antwerp, he had a liaison that he refused to sanction through either the Church or the State. Two children were born to that free union: a girl that

C the mother gave away to a country family and who died soon after, and a boy who was raised by the mother. In February of 1896, Ganivet was assigned as second class consul to Helsinfors (known today as Helsinki), capital of the Great Dukedom of Finland, which at the time was a Russian protectorate. There, in nearly complete isolation and with work that required his attention for less than two hours a day, it can be said that his literary career began. So fresh are the style and tone of his first work, Granada la bella (Granada the Beautiful, 1896), that at times one gets the misleading sensation of reading the work of a happy man. The young Ortega must have been captivated by those pages, not only because he mentions reading them in the first tribute to Ganivet published in 1905, but also because the prose of both authors at times feels very, very similar. It is not long before his obsession with preventing Spain from departing from tradition -from what he calls its "territorial spirit", begins to darken his palette. The country he laments looks more like Goya's Spain than the Spain that was about to drop its colonial burdens and enter a new stage in its history. His Ideárium español (Spain, An Interpretation, 1897) is written with dark humor and lack of confidence in the nation; it is closely tied to Unamuno (En torno al casticismo (The Return to the Love of Purity), 1895) and would eventually have a powerful influence on Ortega y Gasset (España invertebrada (Invertebrate Spain), 1921), Ramiro de Maeztu (Hacia otra España (Toward another Spain), 1899; Defensa de la Hispanidad (In Defense of Spanish Character), 1934), Ernesto Giménez Caballero (Genio de España (Genius of Spain), 1934), and the José Antonio associated with the Teatro de la Comedia Theater (1936). In August of 1898 he came to Riga, the capital of Latvia, with stormclouds in his heart and manuscripts in his suitcase. His literary activity was feverish. The majority of his work was written during these last two years of his life.

He is sure of what he says, and he says it with precision and elegance; however, the modern reader may get the impression that his ideas were impractical even before they were formulated. This is quite evident in his most ideological works, such as the Idearium and El porvenir de España (The Future of Spain), and somewhat less so in Cartas finlandesas (Letters from Finland, 1897) and in his novels: La conquista del reino de Maya por el último conquistador español Pío Cid (The Conquest of the Mayan Kingdom by the Last Spanish Conqueror, Pio Cid, 1897) and Los trabajos del infatigable creador Pío Cid (The Works of the Tireless Creator Pio Cid, 1898), but nearly all his works contain thorny conceptual paths that are difficult to navigate. Perhaps he was a writer unable to find the territory that would have allowed him to blossom. His poetry is that of an enthusiast with no sense of style. As a novelist he lacks vision and imagination to develop convincing arguments that lead the reader cleanly from one situation to another and he is incapable of making his characters speak naturally. His Pío Cid is none other than himself transmutated into a fictional character, and always speaks ex cathedra, sometimes over the course of several pages. Two exceptional literary critics, Manuel Azaña and Julián Marías, have peered into the heart of Ganivetian thought. The former with the cold scrutiny of a forensic detective, and the latter with truly saintly charity. But in the opinion of both experts, there is no doubt that Ganivet began to express his opinions before he was prepared to do so, and at a time when, in Spain at least, there was no sufficiently developed critical theory regarding the society and the culture. Tormented by persecutory delusions and diagnosed by his physician with "general progressive paralysis", whatever that may mean, the unfortunate writer never gave himself the time or opportunity to find out how things would turn out either in his love life or in the

culture and society 43

The country he laments looks more like Goya's Spain than the Spain that was about to drop its colonial burdens and enter a new stage in its history. He did not pass the examinations for Greek professorship, but he did meet Miguel de Unamuno, who was given the same position in Salamanca. One year later, in 1892, Ganivet passed the Consular Corps exams. He did not live to see the Disaster of 98, which occurred just a few months after his death, but that also prevented him from tasting the fruits of the second golden age of Spanish literature, known today, perhaps too modestly and practically, as the Generation of 98. country he so longed for. His voluntary death, at the age of 33, took away that possibility and at the same time, due to human weakness for those who choose to leave this life, granted him a privileged spot in the history of the end of the century. He did not live to see the Disaster of 98, which occurred just a few months after his death, but that also prevented him from tasting the fruits of the second golden age of Spanish literature, known today, perhaps too modestly and practically, as the Generation of 98.

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discover spain

According to 'The world's 50 best places to eat', the latest ranking from the British magazine Restaurant, three of the five best restaurants on the planet are in Spain: Ferrán Adrià's El Bulli, the Roca brothers' Celler de Can Roca, and Andoni Luis Aduriz's Mugaritz. These restaurants, together with other names like Arzak, Santamaría, Berasategui, Dacosta, and Roncero, have made Spanish cuisine one of the most admired in the world. By Beatriz Beeckmans

Spain, at the forefront in the kitchen

In the kitchen, Spain is always welcome. According to the latest verdict by the British magazine Restaurant, three of the top five restaurants in 'The world's 50 best places to eat' are in Spain. Four -with Arzak- if we extend our view to the top ten spots. Led by Ferrán Adrià, our chefs have revolutionized the sector and have brought about the birth of a cutting-edge Spanish cuisine that goes far beyond paella, ham, and wine. Together, they have circled the globe and have become improvised ambassadors for our country, creating a true Spanish culinary brand that exudes modernity and quality of life far beyond our borders. For a country that welcomes some 50

million tourists every year, all this translates to big business. Therefore, they say, it is crucial that the greats are not the only ones: motivated by the popularity of our cuisine, a new generation of Spanish chefs has embraced experimentation as a way of developing new gastronomical concepts that will keep Spain on the forefront of world gastronomy. At least, this is what we assume. Adrià's El Bulli has lost its coveted place as the best restaurant in the five continents. However, it is also true that Restaurant's international classification has once again placed vanguard Spanish cuisine at the top. As stated by the best chef in the world up to now, "having four restaurants among the top 10 restaurants in the world is a historic event. If we keep this up, in 10 or 15 years, Spanish haute cuisine will be the best in history”. These words, spoken by someone that Time Magazine considers one of the 100 most influential people in the world, are part of an intense debate about the great revolution of Spanish cuisine and what the future may hold. The problem is that today, to reach the summit of the Olympus of gastronomy, you need much more than to simply know the little tricks to the culinary art. Technique, creativity, and 'know how' are the essential qualities the great masters of world gastronomy look for year after year. “Maintaining this level of elite talent" says Adrià, "is not easy, but I am increasingly amazed by the work of young chefs who really want to do good work in traditional or modern kitchens, or even in tapas bars.”


One key to success '70s”, says Andoni Aduriz. is the camaraderie that Spanish chefs To veteran master chef exists between top chefs. have become Juan Mari Arzak, who will Something that happened spontaneous "die with his apron on", because "first we were ambassadors according to his colleagues, friends, then we were for our country the secret is clear: research important" says Adrià of his and have is fundamental. And colleagues in his generation. created a true he is the best example: Martín Berasategui (Lasarte culinary brand “Probably a good part of the restaurant) agrees: “Before, international prestige of my when you wanted to learn to restaurant is due to what cook, the chef hid about 90% of what goes on in the experimental kitchen: he was doing from you. Today, the every day we experiment with flavors, great chefs disseminate their work textures, and preparation processes. and that has allowed Spanish haute That is where we get the gastronomical cuisine to take giant steps forward”. scores that, once placed on the menu, These advances have not gone our chefs will interpret to the delight unnoticed by the rest of the world. of tongue”. Everyone agrees that that is We are respected everywhere, and our the secret to the great Spanish miracle: proposals generate huge expectations. Innovation is what distinguishes Spain “We are to the point that Japan and from the rest. Furthermore, here we the United States look at Spain the work in a methodical and disciplined same way we looked at France in the manner. We document rigorously and

discover spain 45

explore new products. Techniques and concepts are invented in laboratories such as elBullitaller, where over 20 tests are done each day. Adrià is quite convinced that he will always feel a commitment to Spanish cuisine: “This has to last. It is important for the country. It means tourism and investment. That is why I want to teach a new generation of chefs how to think.” With this goal in mind, in 2013 he hopes to establish the elBulli foundation, a think tank that will allow a younger generation of chefs to experiment and produce new culinary concepts and techniques. “It will be a hotbed of ideas”. To Spain, to learn to cook. The worldwide interest in Spanish gastronomy becomes very clear, among other ways, in the demand for training. One example is the Spanish Gastronomy

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discover spain

THE WORLD'S TOP 10 RESTAURANTS Place Restaurant Country 1 Noma Denmark 2 El Bulli Spain 3 The Fat Duck United Kingdom 4 El Celler de Can Roca Spain 5 Mugaritz Spain 6 Osteria Francescana Italy 7 Alinea United States 8 Daniel United States 9 Arzak Spain 10 Per Se United States Source: The World´s 50 Best Restaurants.

Training Program for Young Foreign Professionals organized by the ICEX, which brings professionals to Spain from places as diverse as Switzerland, Mexico, and India. As its vice president, Ángel Martín Acebes explains, the course was created with a three-fold objective: “First, to familiarize students with the star products and foods in Spanish cuisine in order to achieve greater international demand for

Sergi Arola CHEF

Times of commitment

such products and thereby increase exportation. Second, to create an international network of professionals with contacts in Spanish haute cuisine that can serve as a support network for future internationalization of the sector. Finally, we hope to transmit a modern, current image of Spain through its cuisine by taking advantage of the excellent opportunity and international reach of a sector like the culinary sector,

I will state up front that I truly enjoy and love my job as a chef every day. Since I came to Madrid in '97, my personality has developed, with love and passion, around a kitchen table, and I am proud of everything I have done. If someone had told me when I started out in this career 27 years ago, that in a few years the Ministry responsible for projecting the image of my country to the world would ask me to write a few words for a publication, I would have called them crazy. But it is true that much has changed in Spain for the better, and it is also true that riding the crest of a wave

which has had an enormous worldwide impact in recent years”. Thus, at the outset of the three-month course, students undergo an immersion-type training period in Spanish gastronomical culture. During this first phase, they visit food production companies of international fame, attend tastings of typical products -wines, oils, etc. and attend popular parties and events that by nature will help the students better understand the reality of our products -such as pig slaughtering or the grape harvest. A galaxy filled with Stars. According to Michelin, the most prestigious gastronomical guide in the world, Spain is home to 7 of the best restaurants in the world. In 2010, the publication awarded all of them its greatest distinction: 3 ‘stars for top table’: These restaurants are the Roca brothers' ‘El Celler de Can Roca' in Gerona, Ferrán Adrià's ‘El Bulli’ in Rosas, Santi Santamaría's ‘Can Fabes’ in Sant Celoni, Carme Ruscalleda's ‘Sant Pau’ in Sant Pol de Mar, Pedro Subijana's ‘Akelarre’ in San Sebastián, and Juan Mari Arzak's ‘Arzak’ in San Sebastián.

as important as eating and the social habit of going to restaurants, a good number of colleagues and friends and I have had the responsibility of acting, in our own way, as "ambassadors", both inside and outside our country for a movement that -why look for strange and exotic names?- can only be defined as a regeneration and generation of a new Spanish cuisine. Every path has its sunlight and shadows, its moments of sheer joy and of intense worry. It is practically obligatory to mention that the crisis hit us as well and continues to do so, but, as I see it, the best way to worry is to get

to work, and as time marches on it requires all of us to overcome our fear of the unknown and go out and sell the good things we have, the wonders of our country, and not worry about what people might say or what our families will think of us, but rather go forth with the conviction that selling Spain to foreigners is simply our obligation and duty as Spanish citizens. We are facing the challenge to come out of this mess strengthened both morally and socially. No one can deny the global nature of the decisions we will make in the near future. In the face of all this, the only real answer is our own personal commitment.


TOKYO / BCN: RUSCALLEDA TO CONQUER THE LAND OF THE RISING SUN One of the countries where Spanish cuisine has gained the greatest acceptance is in Japan, which also has an extraordinary gastronomical tradition of its own. In fact, the city of Tokyo has a total of 227 Michelin stars, nearly twice that of Spain. Curiously, two of them have been awarded to Carme Ruscalleda's restaurant Sant Pau, which opened its doors in the Coredo-Nihonbashi area in April of 2004. “The opportunity to serve our cuisine in Japan is truly an exciting challenge”, says a proud Ruscalleda. “Our objective, both

‘COOKING IN SPANISH’ THE BEST SPANISH RECIPES REACH ASIA The Miguel de Cervantes Library in Shanghai was chosen for the presentation of a book titled 'Cooking in Spanish'. The book, which is written in Spanish and Chinese, contains a collection of traditional Spanish

Juan Mari Arzak CHEF

Experimental, evolutive, leading-edge Basque chef's cuisine

In order to define the culinary art of Arzak, we necessarily must refer to five factors that contribute in equal measure to his unique style. It is a chef's cuisine, with a very specific personality that satisfies the tastes and expertise of the cast that experiments in this kitchen. It is a Basque cuisine, with specific roots and above all a desire to eat, which we could define as a idiosyncratic taste for, a specific food type, in this case Basque cooking, which should be respected. Another key to the culinary arts of this San Sebastian kitchen is

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here and there, now and always, is to transmit all the emotional and cultural content that can be communicated through gastronomy, once the fire has been lit through organization, excitement, and respect”. The restaurant is a true replica of the Sant Pau restaurant in Sant Pol de Mar, and part of Ruscalleda's team has been transferred there as well. In the restaurant, the Japanese can enjoy traditional Catalan cuisine made with fresh Japanese products seasoned with oil from Siurana and salt from Mallorca. In addition to the 350 wines selected from the best Spanish cellars, the restaurant also serves bread and tomatoes, Joselito Iberian ham, cheese and tapas.

recipes intended to introduce the Chinese public to Spanish cooking. Interest in Spanish gastronomy is on the rise in China, and this book, which was presented by renowned chef Pedro Larrumbe, offers a first look at cooking based on quality ingredients and a perfect balance between flavor and health.

experimentation, an important factor in development in every aspect of business, and especially in the more creative aspects. Arzak is no longer a lone, clairvoyant, precursory, well-traveled, driven, and always intrepid individual. It is a team that researches, tastes, and tests everything, and approves of only a small (minimum, rather) percentage of what it has tried. And precisely because of that, it is a cuisine in evolution. It is not a culinary art that dies of success or survives off the greatness of a series of perfect formulas, whether in technique or in flavor;

rather, it requires constant progress to avoid stagnation. And that brings us to the last of our factors: It is a leading edge cuisine that, because it is not a clone of other leading cuisines, rejects nothing, especially leading the way (with all the risk that implies) alongside other brilliant chefs, to keep Basque, and therefore Spanish, cuisine continually at the bleeding edge of world gastronomy. We have, up to this point, been able to do this fantastically; and this is the path that the upcoming generations of chefs must follow.

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Created during the national tourism boom of the 50s, Sol Melía has gone on to become synonymous with innovation and geographic diversity. A leading company in national hospitality and the flagship of Spanish potential in global tourism. The company's future challenges require expansion into emerging markets, as well as management based on efficiency and sustainability that will allow it to consolidate its position as the world's 12th largest hotel chain. By Javier Hernández

Sol Meliá, the value of experience and innovation in tourism

The company's roots were established available rooms serviced by more in Palma de Mallorca over 50 years than 33,000 employees of 94 different ago, when Gabriel Escarrer Julia, a nationalities. 21-year-old entrepreneur began to run a small establishment in a residential National and international leader. As area of the Mallorcan capital. These well as being a market leader in Spain, beginnings are identical to those of the company is among the world's other large national hotel chains, Riu largest hotel chains, and opened 20 o Barceló, which were also born when new hotels in the past year. Within tourism skyrocketed in the Balearic Europe, it is the third largest hotel Islands. But it would not be until 1987, group and 12th largest worldwide. with the purchase of Meliá Hotels, Latin America and the Caribbean that the company was able are the keystone of its to gain a strong foothold successful international in international tourism. Sol Meliá is the expansion, which began This trend was reinforced world's first in 1985 when the group's with the purchase of the "Biosphere first hotel outside of Tryp hotel chain in 2000, Hotel Spain was opened, on the and today the Sol Meliá Company", a Indonesian island of Bali. hotel group includes more certification The company is currently than 300 hotels across four awarded by focusing on entering the continents, boasting 76,944 UNESCO. emerging Asian market, as

shown by the opening of its first hotel in China last year. The company is also aiming to weather the financial situation with a contingency plan based on diversifying commercial strategies and the rationalization of costs: methods which have allowed the group to reduce its debt by 12.5% within the past fiscal year. Sol Meliá has always been recognized for its ongoing efforts to remain at the forefront of the hospitality sector, both in terms of customer service and management of the group. In addition to optimizing its resources and economic performance in times of global recession, the hotel group has set its sights on another objective, just as important as the former: the protection of the social, environmental, economic and cultural surroundings of all locations


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Image of Gran Melía Palacio de Isora hotel, a model hotel in environmental terms, located on the island of Tenerife. Its construction did not include any marine disruption, and it meets the most stringent energy efficiency criteria while making the most of the surrounding water resources.

where the company is present. The project was formed in 2008, and it is know across the whole group as "Sol Meliá's Global Sustainability Plan". The company has signed numerous collaboration agreements with social and environmental organizations, and is participating in interesting projects such as cleaning beaches. Furthermore, each hotel is making energy savings and improvements aimed at optimizing current resources. As a result of these efforts and ambitious planning, Sol Meliá is now the first "Biosphere Hotel Company", a certification granted by the Tourism Institute and organized by UNESCO. Focus on the client. Sol Meliá´s attentive customer relations are the hallmark of the company's

commitment to excellence that is present in its image and policies. It was with this in mind that between 2004 and 2005 the company launched a new economic and corporate strategy aimed at optimizing the company's resources from a customer service perspective. The company thus invested in the promotion of its quality brands. The different brands within the company cover specific criteria, which vary according to the profile of potential customers. All human and material resources belonging to each establishment are associated with a brand that is focused on achieving a specific environment, leisure type, restoration, or even architectural and decorative unity. The company's current brands are divided into four basic groups: TRYP Hotels, ME by Meliá and Innside,

aimed at a practical-minded, urban clientele; Gran Meliá & Resorts and Meliá, focused on mid-range relaxing vacations for couples or families; Sol Hotels, the company's most affordable brand, and, finally, Paradisus Resorts, the company's most luxurious brand. As well as its quality brands, the Sol Meliá Group also boasts Sol Meliá Vacation Club: a vacation club created with the aim of providing its members with all the services one would expect of a vacation club, in the most exotic and spectacular destinations. The Sol Meliá Vacation Club has become a business of strategic importance for the group, and has developed as a fully self-sustaining and integrated business unit within the company. Sol Meliá summarizes its company policy and management in the expression "working for excellence".

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FIGURES 303 2009: hotels across 26 countries and 4 continents. 75,022 rooms which generate a total of 28.6 million overnight stays. 32% of the group's hotels are 5 star or luxury hotels. 38.1 million Euro profit in 2009. 33.378 employees of 94 different nationalities.

Above, the terrace at the Hotel ME Madrid Reina Victoria, a new concept in luxury hotels. In the images to the right, the recently opened Hotel ME Barcelona is the fourth-tallest building in the city, a room in a resort in Punta Cana (Dominican Republic), Hotel Meliรก Berlin and the facade of Gran Meliรก Shanghai: the company's first hotel in China. PHOTO SOLMELIร

This goal was present even in the company's beginnings in 1956, and has been present throughout the company's history when facing interesting challenges, some of which are now historic milestones for both the industry and the country, such as when the company went public in 1996, becoming the first Spanish hotel company to do so. The group is also currently at the forefront of the industry, having established the first global reservations webpage, and is the first hotel company to have an R&D department. All of these achievements, alongside the group's

business philosophy of sustainability and quality, and its support for internationalization, led to the group being awarded the Prince Felipe Prize for Tourism Excellence 2009 by the Ministry of Industry, Business and Tourism at the beginning of this year, the second time it has been awarded this honor. The award is fit recognition for a company that has managed to make the quality of its services, facilities and customer service its hallmark, and that is a fundamental part of the past, present and future of an industry of great economic importance to the country.

ALLIANCE WITH THE WORLD'S LEADING HOTEL COMPANY At the beginning of June Sol Meliรก signed a strategic alliance with Wyndham Hotel Group that means that they will work together to develop the TRYP brand, and jointly market hotels. Wyndham Hotel is the world leader in the hotel industry, with 7,100 hotels in 65 countries. The agreement is especially important as it supports the group's geographic diversification policy by promoting expansion by the Spanish company into the USA and Canada.


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Geographic diversity is key to competitiveness in tourism Sebastián Escarrer


Globalization has broken down barriers to tourism, democratized the act of traveling, and has made us more savvy travelers, but it has also given rise to more competition. For decades Spain has been the second-leading global force in tourism, and our hotel companies are important players on the world stage. Along with tourism's ability to generate employment and redistribute wealth, it is also without question one of the businesses that can facilitate the implementation of a more sustainable economic model. Furthermore, tourism is a priority business activity in those countries with which Spain has the strongest ties, such as Latin America. It must not be forgotten that when a tourism company opens a new destination, we bring with us complementary industries which leverage growth. Our potential for excellence and innovation in tourism is huge, but we also need internationalization and worldwide competitiveness. Both companies and destinations need to adapt to the new social, economic and technological reality which will emerge from this second global recession. There are three factors to this "competitive" evolution in tourism: the quality of the customer's overall experience, sustainability, and geographic diversification. Customers will continue to travel after the crisis, but will demand added value in experiences

that we must provide through greater quality, cultural activities, sports, leisure and physical, spiritual and sensory well-being; through natural and architectural surroundings, through discovery of the destination, through solidarity and being environmentally friendly, etc. Regarding sustainability, tourism drives development in human communities, and its environmental impact is relatively small, but it is a delicate sector, since without sustainability there is no tourism. And this is another point on which to compete: customers demand sustainable products and services, and a substantial number are willing to pay more to have them. As for geographic diversification, we are witnessing the formation of a new order across the world, with the economic center of gravity shifting away from Europe and even North America towards the emerging economies in Asia, the Middle East and Latin America. We call this group the "BRIC countries" (Brazil, Russia, India and China), and it illustrates the challenges faced by our companies and countries in a global market: in demographic terms, within only the BRIC countries, 90 million people every year become middle class, and so acquire the ability to travel, stay in hotels, dine out, etc. The challenge posed by internationalization requires innovative strategies, and in line with this Sol Meliá has recently

While tourism has always been a way for Spain to "export services" within the country, now we must venture out and use our know-how and our values to take advantage of the growth of other markets.

opened its first hotel in China (Gran Meliá Shanghai), and has confirmed an alliance with the world's largest hotel company, Wyndham, in order to jointly develop the TRYP brand in various international markets and to grow in the USA. Diversification and growth are nourished by great alliances: between private parties, public and private parties, etc. While tourism has always been a way for Spain to "export services" at home, we now have to venture out with our know-how and values into other markets in order to take advantage of their growth. I remember in 1985 when Sol Meliá opened its first international hotel in Bali, many branded us as reckless: today, 76% of Sol Meliá's EBITDA is generated overseas, thanks to growth in Latin America and other markets. Two thirds of our customers are abroad, and during the past year we have opened new markets such as Austria, Colombia, Luxembourg, Cape Verde and China. Spain is internationally recognized for tourism and its beaches: far from turning our backs on this, we must use it as our basis in order to continue strengthening the internationalization of our tourism companies; we want to continue to contribute to the prestige and recognition of Spain through our international presence, and ensure that the word "tourism" continues to be synonymous with "Spain", all over the world.

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The Ibero-American Educational and Cultural Television Association has spent 18 years working to promote education and culture on the medium of television with its highly diverse content.

When television is the result of Ibero-American cooperation We watch television for very different reasons but one of those that is gaining impetus in the 21st century is the search for an educational and cultural side to programs; keeping ourselves informed and learning something new that can be of use in our daily lives. This philosophy

and editorial line is part of the ideology of the Ibero-American Educational and Cultural Television Association. The ATEI (Ibero-American Educational and Cultural Television Association), through its management of the TEIb (Ibero-American Educational and Cultural Television) cooperation program, which was created at the Ibero-American Summit of Heads of State and Government in 1992, has been promoting the development of IberoAmerican educational, scientific and cultural content for the last 18 years, using television and new information technologies. The ATEI, with 136 member institutions, is a pioneer in audiovisual cooperation in IberoAmerica. Its aim is to be a communication network where educational, scientific and cultural content is created, coproduced, and distributed. NCI, cultural information on IberoAmerica. One of the most successful aspects of the TEIb program is NCI ‘Ibero-American Cultural News’, a broadcast platform for news on education, culture and science in Ibero-America. Thanks to the affiliated organizations, NCI undertakes its own production and co-production, education and cultural dissemination projects within the framework of IberoAmerican cooperation.

SEVILLE HOSTED THE FIRST EUROPEANIBERO AMERICAN MEETING. About 30 European television companies, several independents and around a dozen Latin American stations took part in the 1st Euro-Ibero American Meeting of Educational and Cultural Television Companies. The resulting agreements, which will affect more than 1 billion people across both continents, focused on implementing various co-production and collaboration projects for training and retraining professionals from both regions.

C Through the broadcasting done on NCI by local and regional channels, this news can be seen across 21 countries in Ibero-America, the United States, Canada and England. Television networks such as ABEPEC in Brazil -which has 23 channels- or local television networks in Chile -15 channels- have shown interest in starting to broadcast NCI, as well as a large number of television companies across Latin America and Europe. You can also watch NCI on the Internet and through TVE's international channel in America, Asia, Europe and Africa. NCI has a perfectly interwoven network, which in order to function relies on the news sent in by its associates and collaborators. This Ibero-American cooperation network has been growing since its inception in October 2007, having received 47 news items in the latter months of 2007 compared with 648 in 2008 and 1491 in 2009; figures that reveal the growth in influence and importance of the NCI network. In a truly audiovisual world which is so heavily linked to the Internet, it is essential to offer audiences a tool that unites both media. The TEIb program, aware of this new communication reality and the need for media convergence, is creating NCI WEB TV. NCI WEB TV is a huge platform for cultural, educational and scientific content based on à la carte Internet television with broadcast-quality audiovisual content, with over 20 channels and 1000 hours of content, 24 hours a day. Its main objective is to enable users to plan their programs themselves according to their interests and the cultural, educational and scientific content that they offer. This way, at any time, they can access content on channels such as NCI en Corto (short features), Canal Alfabetización Digital (Digital Literacy Channel), Canal Ciencias Sociales (Social Sciences Channel), Canal Experiencias Docentes (Teaching Experiences Channel) or Canal de la Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos (Ibero-American States Organization Channel).

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Haiti. the destination for a virtual arch Alberto García Ferrer GENERAL SECRETARY OF ATEI.

During the night of June 21, rain assaulted the city. Weather forecasts warned of a storm in the Caribbean. There were landslides and a state of emergency was declared. A team of technicians had been working throughout the weekend and beyond to set up a satellite signal between Arganda del Rey and the assembly room of the Autonomous University of Santo Domingo, at four in the afternoon on the 22nd. One hour before the link-up, which was attended by around 500 people, the long list of technical hiccups, on top of the precarious weather conditions, had injected an intense feeing of doubt into the technical team. While the stage was being set I recalled Nicholas Negroponte, who in his “Digital World” -in which he outlined, at the start of the nineties, the connectivity scenario that was awaiting us in the following decadeswarned that it wouldn't be fiber optics that would change our lives but rather our imagination. And we were there; moved more by our imagination than by technology, we wanted to demonstrate how the cooperation project would work, in which the TEIb, the Ibero-American Summit's

program for educational and cultural television, was working to help the rebuilding process in Haiti, based on the restoration of its education system. We were in close cooperation with Hispasat and the proposal for suitable content: a class on the cycle and purification of water run by a teacher with the help of a broad range of teaching resources: videos, an electronic whiteboard, PowerPoint and a teaching tool for distance learning. And a fundamental question: interactivity. In the 16 minutes that followed the moment when the clocks struck 4.05 pm in Dominicana -10.05 pm in Arganda del Rey- the demonstration was executed with absolute precision and the dialogue between the university's assembly room and the Arganda del Rey set, situated 6,691 kilometers away, went according to plan. In the hours that followed, what had initially been conceived as an idea to help restore the education system for the children of Haiti, began to grow and take shape as a contribution to university teaching based on the desire and willingness of various universities to contribute, through cooperation, the necessary human resources to set up this virtual arch of knowledge dissemination for the rebuilding of Haiti.

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From left to right: ‘Sea Concert’ (1971) by Eustachy Kossakowski, ‘Super Blonde’ (2008) by Andrea Lucía and Aragón Mejicano, and ‘Potsdamer Platz, Berlin, 1997-1998’ by Michael Wesely. PHOTOESPAÑA

The image of time in the work of photographers and visual artists is the common theme for the 69 exhibitions that make up the 13th edition of the international photography festival, PhotoEspaña 2010. The renamed international photography forum is open to visitors until July 25 in Madrid, Lisbon and Cuenca. By Beatriz Beeckmans

Time, captured at PhotoEspaña 2010 Instants, intervals, moments … Can you capture time? Yes, you can. An example: by combining strobe lighting with the photographic flash, professor of electrical engineering Harold

Edgerton was able to photograph moving objects and see things beyond the perception of the naked eye. The result can be seen at “Anatomy of Movement”, which is open to the

GRACIELA ITURBIDE, 2010 PHOTOESPAÑA AWARD. In recognition of her 40-year plus career, the 2010 PhotoEspaña Baume&Mercier Award went to photographer, Graciela Iturbide (Mexico City, 1942). The jury valued the beauty and power of her images, which have captured people and places from all over the world. “This award is a great incentive to keep on working with even more enthusiasm, if possible”, said the winner after hearing the decision. The award, which comes with a purchase prize of 12,000 euros, a trophy designed by Eduardo Arroyo and a company watch, has previously been given to photographers such as William Klein, Helena Almeida, Chema Madoz and Malick Sidibé, in recognition of their role on the international photography scene.

public until July 25 at the BBVA Foundation in Madrid. This is just one of the exhibitions from PhotoEspaña 2010, one of the biggest visual arts events in Spain. With the notion of time as the main protagonist, the exhibition can be enjoyed at a large number of different galleries, museums, cultural centers and institutions. “We have chosen this theme because of the intrinsic relationship between time and photography, which has always been used to immortalize important moments, both of collective memory and of people's private lives”, said Sergio Mah from Lisbon, the


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exhibition organizer. This edition is made up of 69 exhibitions distributed between Madrid, Lisbon and Cuenca which attempt, in the words of their director Claude Bussac, “to help to train the human eye in a world full of images, since it is intrinsically linked to the mind and therefore, culture”. “What we want is for this festival to contribute something to society, and so we have put on a wide range of different activities aimed at different audiences”. And that is how it is, because PhotoEspaña isn't only about exhibitions. With the aim of helping to inspire reflection on photography, this 13th edition has planned for lots of free guided tours, workshops and interactive seminars. These include the Night of Photography held in Madrid on June 18. During this event, the exhibition halls that are taking part in PhotoEspaña 2010 organized countless visits and meetings with artists. In the Sala Canal de Isabel II, photographer Isabel Muñoz joined visitors for a walk-through of her exhibition ‘Love and Ecstasy’. At the Cervantes Institute, the artists Arelí Vargas and Sebastián Friedman launched the ‘Encubrimientos’ exhibition and the Círculo de Bellas Artes played host to a visit from the ‘Lázsló Moholy-Nagy. The Art of Light’ exhibition. Created in 1998, the PhotoEspaña Festival attracts over 600,000 visitors every year, making it one of the largest cultural events in Spain. The renamed international forum of photography has been recognized by the most renowned critics, and year after year it has represented a unique opportunity for finding out about the latest photographic projects, films and installations of the most distinguished photographers and audiovisual artists.

Photography opens its doors to society Claude Bussac DIRECTOR OF PHOTOESPAÑA

For the last 13 years, PhotoEspaña has been striving towards excellence and gaining international notoriety, while never losing sight of the objective of being a festival that is deeply rooted in society. This year, more than ever, we have tried to offer a more open, interactive and sustainable festival with an increased commitment to society. Sérgio Mah, the festival organizer, is concluding his three-year tenure with an edition dedicated to the theme of time and is offering a top quality program based on a theoretical reflection from the book ‘Expanded Time’, published by PHEbooks; the new collection of books from PHotoEspaña. Aside from the exhibitions, we have developed international programs with the aim of creating work networks. Setting up ‘Transatlantic’, a photography and visual arts forum in Ibero-America, has allowed us to promote professional networking. For its part and for the second year running, OpenPHoto Cuenca is putting on a selection of exhibitions proposed by foreign cultural institutions and embassies. By doing this PHotoEspaña is opening itself up to the world. This year we have also increased the number of interactive events. We have offered the professional audience glimpses of portfolios, workshops and seminars throughout the year. During the

year, all photography lovers can take part in the PHotoMaratón, the Photography Gymkhana and the photoblogs. For the second consecutive year, with the assistance of the Banco Santander Foundation, we have organized an educational program at nine secondary schools in Madrid. Outside of education, we have launched another program in conjunction with the City Council of Alcalá de Henares aimed at young people. Similarly, the Saturday Workshops have established themselves at the Canal Foundation as a children's activity. The PHE Master's in Photography, offered by the European University of Madrid, is now being run for the third time. The fact is that thinking about the audience of the future and being involved in training the photographers of tomorrow means that this festival is committed to society. Free entry to the exhibitions together with an extensive program of guided tours and family workshops, make PhotoEspaña a platform for meeting people and bringing different sections of the community together. In addition to the Ministry of Culture, the Community of Madrid and Madrid City Council, 60 public and private organizations joined us in the task of organizing this fantastic photography event. Now what we would like is for lots of you to enjoy the result.

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Airline merger. 10 years after British Airways first bought a stake in Iberia and nearly two years since negotiations began for their merger, the final contract to integrate the two airlines was signed in early April. A long process lies ahead toward the birth of Europe's second largest airline in terms of passenger numbers under the name International Consolidated Airlines Group, although both companies will retain their own brands and operations.

Iberia and British Airways unite to create the world's fifth largest airline The winds of merger in European airspace and the recession hitting the airline industry have led to an ambitious plan to create the world's fifth biggest airline in terms of revenue, behind Air France-KLM, Lufthansa, UnitedContinental and Delta. Iberia and British Airways are merging under the name International Consolidated Airlines Group, whose capital will be shared out with 45% going to Iberia, and whose Board of Directors will be chaired by Antonio Vázquez. Although the merger was agreed on in early April, there is still a long

process ahead, including agreement between the two airlines on a pension deficit reduction plan, authorization by the regulators and approval by the shareholders, before they begin trading as a single company in December. In reality, the merger will not unify the two brands, as both companies will continue operating under their own business name, although areas such as IT, financial and commercial departments will be merged. Both airlines have announced that the staff cutbacks arising from the merger will be minimal. The big opportunity for more competitive

air space will consist in making the most of the business volume and synergies of each company. In this sense, more routes will be offered, service at hubs will be strengthened and each airline will focus on its strong points: British Airways on flights to North America and Iberia on flights to Latin America. At the same time, the fleets of both airlines will be simplified and joint acquisitions will be made, like the one just completed in June with the purchase of five Airbuses. With this merger, 83 year-old Iberia strengthens its position in an unstable airline industry in which low-cost companies have revolutionized the way to travel. According to Iberia's current president, Antonio Vázquez, “the new company will be better prepared to compete with other major airlines and to participate in future advances in the consolidation process.” The new corporation will have its operational headquarters in London and its legal headquarters in Madrid.


Turnover 15.5 billion euros Aircraft 408 • Destinations 200 Passengers 58 million • Employees 64,000 6.771 billion euros Turnover 4.409 billion euros 42 million Passengers 20.4 million 43,000 Employees 20,500 239 Aircraft 109 (plus 65 Air Nostrum)



Legal HQ Madrid


Spain is the preferred country for Erasmus students.

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Balance sheet 2009

 Our country remains the favorite for students in the Erasmus Program. During the last school year, a total of 33,200 students (16.7%) studied in Spanish centers, according to data from the European Commission. At the same time, Spain is also among the countries sending the most students abroad, holding third place with a total of 27,400. The countries preferred by Spanish students are, in order of preference, Italy, France and Germany. Currently, 4% of European students receive Erasmus scholarships at some time in their academic careers.

FCC secures a 935 million euro railway contract in Algeria  In its international expansion, the Spanish construction company FCC has secured one of its most important international contracts in Algeria. The company will be responsible for the construction of a 185 kilometer (115 mile) railway line linking the cities of Relizane and Tissemsilt. FCC is also working in Algeria on major projects related to transportation infrastructures, water management facilities, construction and the energy sector.

Calatrava to revitalize Río de Janeiro with the Museum of Tomorrow  Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava will be entrusted with the creation of the flagship project to revitalize the dilapidated port district of Rio de Janeiro, in preparation for the 2016 Olympic Games. The "Museum of Tomorrow" is to be the flagship project which, with a budget of US$74 million, will become a new symbol of the city. The facility will house exhibition halls and research rooms, an auditorium, an observation window and restaurants, and will be energy self-sufficient, as well as being built using recyclable materials.

Model of the future Museum of Tomorrow on Guanabara Bay in Rio de Janeiro.

The Confucius Institute comes to Barcelona  The Confucius Institute, the purpose of which is to promote Chinese language learning and culture in the world, will begin operating as of September following an agreement signed between the Institute's head office, Casa Asia, the Autonomous University of Barcelona and the University of Barcelona. This center, one of 282 Confucius Institutes around the world, will be the fourth in Spain, the others being in Madrid, Granada and Valencia.

Banco Santander, rated best in stress tests of Europe's biggest banks  The bank Santander has come out on top in tests of the EU's 30 biggest banking institutions. The stress tests are being conducted by national supervisors based on a single methodology designed by the Committee of European Banking Supervisors. The aim of the tests is to assess the health of the financial system as a whole and its degree of resistance to a worsening of the crisis.

Still from ‘Planet 51’, the highest grossing Spanish film outside Spain in 2009.

Spanish films sell more outside our borders The latest balance sheet issued by the Federation of Associations of Audiovisual Producers reveals that Spanish films are more successful abroad than at home. This fact is reflected by the 144.6 million euros earned last year by Spanish films in 18 countries, compared to 104.3 million earned in Spain. At the same time, the number of copies distributed abroad has seen a 70% increase over the figures recorded for 2008. The United States, Canada, France, Italy and Mexico are the countries where the most Spanish films were released in 2009. The Spanish film with the biggest earnings outside Spain last year was ‘Planet 51’, followed by 'Broken Embraces’ and ‘Ché: A Revolutionary Life’. In terms of the number of films produced, Spain holds seventh place in the world and third place in Europe. The worldwide ranking is headed by India, the U.S. and China. With regard to the proportion of viewers watching films from their own country, Spain holds 22nd place with a screen quota of 15.89% of movie-goers who go to see Spanish films in our theaters. The countries that are the biggest consumers of their own productions are India and the United States.

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National Statistics Institute Census Data 2009 . With this increase, Spain now has over 1.5 million expatriates, of which more than 60% reside in the Americas. Meanwhile, there has been only a 1.1% increase in the number of foreigners registered in our country.

The number of Spaniards in the world increases by 100,000 The most recent census conducted by the National Institute of Statistics reveals some interesting information in terms of the picture it presents of the Spanish population. Notable among the revelations is the slowing rate of growth








36.9% 580,063 Europe

16,1% Asia 17,416


6.1% Oceania 15,783

10.3% Africa 14,160

IMMIGRANT POPULATION 87.9% 41,242,292 Spaniards

12.1% 5,708,940 Foreigners

in the number of foreigners registered in the country, which in 2009 rose by a mere 1.1%, or a total of 60,269 people. This increase contributes to the total of 5,708,940 registered foreigners, which represents 12.1% of Spain's total of 46,951,532 registered residents. This significant drop in the number of registered foreigners is less pronounced in the Autonomous Communities of the Balearic Islands, Valencia and Madrid, which all record a larger immigrant population. In terms of countries of origin, the nations contributing the largest proportion of the foreigner population are Romania, Morocco, Ecuador, the United Kingdom and Colombia, in that order. Spaniards abroad. Another significant revelation of the report is the rise in the number of Spaniards who have emigrated to other countries since the last census. In all, a total of 102,432 people have left our shores since last year. The continent experiencing the largest increase in Spanish emigration was Asia, which registered a total of 17,416 emigrants. However, the Americas remain the region with the largest number of Spaniards, with a figure edging towards the one million mark. Meanwhile, the population recorded in Spain increased by 0.4% over the previous year. The Autonomous Communities seeing the largest increases were Madrid, Andalusia and Catalonia, while those suffering the biggest falls were Castile and León, Asturias and Aragón.

‘Nude, Green Leaves and Bust’ (1932) by Pablo Picasso

Picasso ‘sells’ the priciest painting in the world  Pablo Picasso's work ‘Nude, Green Leaves and Bust’ has become the most expensive work ever auctioned, at a price of US$106 million, purchased by an anonymous buyer at an auction at Christie's in New York. The painting, one of the finest works of the Málaga-born artist, is a portrait of Marie-Therese Walter, who was the painter's lover.

The Spanish Royal Academy presents its new grammar  Following its publication in late 2009, the ‘Manual of the New Grammar of the Spanish Language’ has now been republished in concise form. The 1,000-page book, published by Spain, is of vital importance for the teaching of the second most widely spoken language in the world.

Manuel Leguineche receives the Luca de Tena Award  The newspaper ‘Abc’ has given the Luca de Tena Award - one of the most important prizes in Spanish journalism - to war reporter and founder of the Colpisa agency, Manuel Leguineche. At the same ceremony, journalist Ignacio Camacho and photographer Marcos Moreno also received awards.


The Ortega y Gasset Awards recognize courageous journalism  The Ortega y Gasset Awards, among the most prestigious awards in Spanish journalism, recognized bold and courageous reporting this year. The best work of printed journalism went to the newspaper ‘El País’ for its investigation into the Gürtel case, while the award for best photography went to José Cendón for his report ‘Somalia at the end of the world’. Algerian-born French journalist Jean Daniel, founder of ‘Le Nouvel Observateur’, received the award for best professional career.

Spain's per capita GDP above the European average  According to data from the European statistics office, Eurostat, the Spanish economy's per capita GDP in 2009 remained at the same level that it held in 2008, in spite of the economic and financial crisis. Spain is positioned at 103% of the EU average (12th place), one percentage point above Italy. The richest country per person in the EU is Luxembourg (268%), while the poorest is Bulgaria (41%).

Premiere of ‘Out of Córdoba’, a film that fosters understanding.  Coinciding with the inter-ministerial meeting of the Alliance of Civilizations held in Córdoba was the premiere of the Spanish-U.S. co-production ‘Out of Córdoba’, a documentary directed by Jacob Bender. The film posits Averroes and Maimonides, two wise men of medieval Córdoba, as a solution to the so-called “clash of civilizations”. The production of this film, which was shot in eight countries, enjoyed the support of organizations in the Middle East, the United States and Spain.

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Archeological treasure . The caves of Altamira (Cantabria), whose paintings are referred to as the 'Sistine Chapel of cave art’, dating back to between 14,000 and 20,000 years, will be open to visitors again, on a restricted basis.

Altamira to open its doors to the public with restrictions The decision was agreed on by the members of the cave's Board of Trustees, headed by the President of Cantabria, Miguel Ángel Revilla, and the Minister of Culture, Ángeles González Sinde, at a recent meeting held at the headquarters of the National Museum and Research Center in Santillana del Mar. Revilla stated that he was very happy with the decision, and emphasized the need to ensure that the conditions meet “all the requirements and guarantees for an exceptional asset that must be looked after and cared for.” He also expressed his intention to invite the U.S. president, Barack Obama, to be Altamira's first visitor after its reopening, once his interest in visiting the cave has been established. Altamira, which has been closed since 2002 to ensure its continued preservation, will be the object of study by a work group which, together with the Spanish National Research Council, will establish a visiting schedule within

Bison on the Cave of Altamira.

certain microenvironmental parameters that must never be exceeded and must be reviewed periodically, in order to guarantee the full preservation of the cave and its paintings. The caves were found in 1879 by Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola and represented the discovery of Paleolithic cave art. In 1917 they were opened to the public. They were closed sixty years later due to their deterioration. In 1982, they were reopened under a regime of restricted visits and then in 2002 the original cave was closed once again. They have been a World Heritage Site since 1985.

The world's biggest event in biotechnology

Spain stands out at Chicago's ‘biotech’ fair In early May, the U.S. city of Chicago was host to the BIO Convention, the largest showcase of biotechnology companies in the world. At the event, the Spain Pavilion was the biggest of all participating countries, housing more than 100 Spanish companies and institutions to promote the technological advances of our country in this sector. Biotechnology is one of

the sectors in which Spain is growing at a higher rate of scientific production than the EU average, and efforts are being made to boost its international profile and visibility. In fact, this year in Pamplona this new industry will hold its first national fair to publicize the advances of the more than 300 companies currently working in this area of technology.

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culture and society

Toursim promotion. The government is launching the ‘I need Spain’ campaign in more than 40 countries with a target audience of 400 million and the support of soccer players, basketball players and Ferrán Adrià.

Spain reaches out to the world with the slogan ‘I need Spain’ The Spanish government presented a new international promotion campaign under the slogan ‘I need Spain’, while maintaining Miró's sun as the Spanish tourism logo. The initiative has been supported by an investment of 7.5 million euros in its development, plus 42 million per year for advertising placements. The campaign, according to Secretary of State for Tourism, Joan Mesquida, has “one common denominator: our lifestyle”, and is already being launched in more than 40 countries, with a target audience of 400 million people. This campaign aims to reach every region of the world, with an emphasis on those regions where Spain's image is weakest, such as China, India, the Middle East and the U.S. The objective is to “consolidate and strengthen” Spain's top position as a holiday destination and to “diversify the huge existing offer” to reflect the sensations that “tourists will take home

 After a decade of constant growth, 2009 broke the trend of the birth rate with a fall of 5% (10.73 births per 1,000 inhabitants), according to data from the National Institute of Statistics. The report also indicates that for the first time weddings by civil ceremony outnumbered religious weddings, although there was an 11% drop in the number of marriages.

Grifols makes the biggest buyout in Europe in 2010

Image of the campaign at a recent tourist fair held in Germany.

in their suitcase.” The ambassadors of the Spain brand accompanying this campaign include the chef Ferrán Adrià, kitesurfing champion Gisela Pulido, the Spanish soccer and basketball teams, Spain's MotoGP riders and the Spanish players in the Liverpool Football Club. The campaign is to appear in all media forms, with four commercials to be aired on international television, 50 posters and radio commercials.

International tribute to one of the masters of popular music

50th anniversary of José Padilla Songs like ‘Valencia’, ‘La violetera’ and ‘El Relicario’ form part of Spain's collective sentimental memory. These songs evoke many moments of our childhood and youth. Their author was José Padilla, a musician from Almería who passed away 50 years ago. Writing these songs not only earned him a living; they placed him among the icons of popular culture. In fact, UNESCO has declared Padilla's music to be an “asset of universal interest”.

Birth rate falls by 5% after a decade on the rise

His cosmopolitan life, his international profile and the success of his music in the countries where he lived form the basis for this declaration. In commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of his death, concerts, exhibitions and talks have been scheduled in places as disparate as Damascus, Lisbon, Havana, Buenos Aires, Moscow and Oslo. His fame continues to this day in particular in Japan and India.

 Grifols, Europe's biggest manufacturer of blood products, has announced an agreement to buy out its U.S. rival Talecris for 3.34 billion euros. Of this amount, it will pay 2.8 billion in cash and shares, and assume the company's 540 million euro debt. The buyout, the biggest made in Europe in 2010, makes the Catalan firm the third biggest blood products manufacturer in the world.

Casa Árabe presents Arabic documentaries  In Madrid in May, Casa Árabe organized the fourth edition of its Panorama of contemporary Arabic documentaries, with which it participated in Madrid's International Documentary Festival for 2010. The cycle of films, selected by Egyptian Basel Ramsis, went by the title “Spaces of the Middle East”, and offered seven documentaries with a common theme: the use of space and of places in the region.

The Spain Pavilion triumphs at the Shanghai Expo  According to the records for the first 50 days of the Shanghai Expo, the Spain Pavilion has been visited by more than two million people, placing it among the six most visited pavilions at the event.


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All those who had to face the Franco regime remember with emotion the goal that two American teenage girls and a 22 year-old Spaniard scored against the dictatorship in 1948. by Jacobo García. JOURNALIST

With thanks to... Barbara Probst Solomon

We'll get you out of there How it was possible that a young Jewish girl from New York, recently graduated from an elite progressive school, should take part in an operation to liberate two students working in forced labor conditions on the construction of the basilica at the Valley of the Fallen from the prison that was Spain in 1948 is not easy to explain in a few words. The version given of the event by one of the two girls is fortunately recorded in the book she wrote twenty years later about that period of her life. After searching for herself all over the world and in several different languages, Arriving Where We Started (1972), a moving and ironic incursion into the past that is also an educational novel, a book of memoirs and a memorandum for the psychoanalyst, tells of the rather romantic dreams that led its author, at the age of eighteen and without meaning to, to become a heroine of the Anti-Franco resistance. The book is also a tribute to the memory of the main hero

of the adventure, Francisco Benet, the young man who drew her into the saga of the escape from Cuelgamuros, and with whom the author would subsequently live ten intense and ultimately happy years. Benet, who knew her well, once said of her: “She's terrified. She's terrified all the time and about everything. But even so, she never gives up.” Later, new attempts to interpret the events in Spain would come in the form of articles or reports that generally ended up turning into books. Independently of her capacity to penetrate to the very heart of the situation, the book's main value consists in its success in situating the real Spain, which was attempting to escape the long incarceration of the Franco regime, in the context of U.S. public opinion, in general not very interested in what goes on beyond its borders. Barbara Probst, who years later took on the surname of her husband, the lawyer Harold Solomon, represents the A-side of American

democracy. Behind her is a long political history dating back to the signers of the Constitution and an equally long and rich cultural heritage with its roots in Pilgrim’s Progress, Leaves of Grass, Emerson, and Walden by Thoreau. Her political sympathies are with James Madison and Emma Goldman. It would otherwise be impossible to understand why an American girl from a wealthy family would have come to the devastation of post-war Europe to snoop around Dachau and Madrid, to see with her own eyes what was happening and, if possible, to lend a hand. As nearly always happens, here it was not only possible but highly desirable for someone to lend a hand, and this is what she did. For that gesture, which does her credit, she should be thanked. Over time, her decision, somewhere between naive and radical, has allowed for different readings, although the facts remain the same. To explain it in her own words: “Every generation

prides itself on its honesty, and the nature and style of the honesty shifts from generation to generation, and then when you get older you realize that one was not necessarily honest, nor can one be, but when you're young you pride yourself on the attempt.” Thanks to that youthful pride, her lifelong dream to travel to Europe - which would develop into projects as mutually distinct as visiting Germany, working as a secretary in Moscow and enlisting in the Israeli army - turned into something tangible: to free two young dissidents from the captivity to which they'd been condemned by a regime that had half the country in prison, under surveillance or threatened into silence. As she waited for the curtain of her future to rise - a future that would include a brilliant career as a journalist and writer - this young woman with so much promise didn't hesitate to risk her own freedom, even her own skin, to do what she believed morally just and politically necessary.

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● América Latina y

la Unión Europea. Estrategias para una asociación necesaria. Christian Freres and José Antonio Sanahuja (eds.) Editorial Icaria. After three decades of relations, Latin America and the European Union have decided to forge a “strategic association” to promote democracy, social cohesion and economic development. However, both regions are immersed in processes of review of their models of integration. In this context, Latin America seems to lose value as a partner for an EU facing the demands of expansion and the difficulties of maintaining its economic and social “model”. At the same time, Latin America is dealing with a period of political and economic changes and the debate over whether to form closer ties with the United States or pursue the new project of a Union of South American Nations. From this perspective, the twenty analysts from both regions participating in this book discuss the role of the bi-regional relationship between the European Union and Latin America, and the current validity of strategies drawn up several years ago. In doing so, they identify the limitations and obstacles of the European-Latin American relationship, but also propose an ambitious and at the same time pragmatic strategy to give the “strategic association” a new impulse and ensure that it makes a significant contribution to the common goals of democracy, human rights protection,

the fight against poverty, and international peace and security shared by the two regions. ● Comunicación y

Desarrollo. Pasos hacia la coherencia. Raquel Martínez-Gómez and Mario Lubetkin. Ediciones Comunicación Social. This book is a

compilation of talks and debates from the conference held at Menéndez Pelayo International University (UIMP) in Santander in the summer of 2009, and represents above all a union of wills, a dialogue between equals, a need to share, and an attempt to build a space for reflection on theories and practices. It addresses the very nature of communication for development as a process that enables the application of knowledge resulting from the sum of our abilities and facilitates inclusive consensus. Communication is at the heart of cooperation for development, and so the consideration of a Spanish communication strategy requires reflection on the role that communication should play in the coordination of and the search for agreements, particularly bearing in mind the wealth of players that it involves. ● El Estado social.

Ignacio Sotelo. Editorial Trotta. In spite of the formal equality imposed by the State, with the development of capitalism comes an increase in real inequities. The survival of the system necessitates the

control of these inequities within reasonable terms, but the efficiency of the productive order forces a growing division of labor that brings with it increasing social inequality. Viewing the Welfare State as a compromise between formal equality and real inequality, this book by political science professor Ignacio Sotelo examines its origins in the philosophy and social practice of the 17th and 18th centuries and its full development from the end of the 19th century up to the 1980s, to conclude with a formulation of the adverse factors faced by the Welfare State in the current crisis of the production model.

and literary creation. Its protagonists, Filomena Really and her neighbor Dora, learn to weave their tales together to form the web of their story, the story that they would have liked to have lived. And it is this that has enabled them to forget the generation gap that separates them and the rush of the outside world. Exchanging their memories, the two women recover small forgotten stories, while dreaming and inventing others.

● La corrupción de la

democracia. José VidalBeneyto. Los libros de la Catarata

● La señora Really y

otros sueños por soñar. Lola Millás. Editorial Planeta

The second novel by Lola Millás constitutes a toast to friendship, on the passage of time and the need to make the most of every moment and every experience that arises when you know how to listen and to allow life to surprise you. It is also a reflection on the imagination

The texts making up this work by the late José VidalBeneyto have been subjected to a thorough redrafting process to produce, as the author asserts in the introduction, “an instrument of attack, a weapon of war.” A weapon of war against the threats and hazards that may bring down the pillars of our collective existence, especially dangerous at a time when corruption has placed us in a position of helplessness. This corruption perverts the nature and the purpose of political life,


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✱... a must read ● Al servicio de la República. Diplomáticos y Guerra Civil. Various authors. Marcial Pons/ Ministry of Foreign Affairs & Cooperation. Eight renowned Spanish historians, under the direction of Professor Ángel Viñas, reflect on the loyalty of the State's senior diplomats during the Republican regime - loyalty that was severely tested with the outbreak and development of the civil war - and reconstruct the administrative and organic consequences of the military uprising on the Spanish Foreign Service. In addition to examining the activity of the Republic through Spain's most important embassies (London, Paris, Washington, Prague and Bern, on the one hand, and Moscow and Mexico City on the other), the book's authors analyze the effects of the breakdown in the unity of the Foreign Service when the hostilities began, and the efforts of the Republic to create a new diplomatic service practically out of nothing. In the course of the research, along with aspects previously examined to varying degrees in the literature, several completely new aspects have emerged, which are given a thorough first analysis in this work.

the economic reality, social practices, government actions, the sphere of leisure and the working world. In these pages, José VidalBeneyto addresses the issue of the radical corruption of democracy, beginning with its most obvious cause, “the collapse of all public values”, to continue with an analysis of “the breakdown of politics”, “the conflicts and alternatives” and “the vicissitudes of individuals”, and culminating in “the atrocities of capitalism.” This is a book that embodies the force of his critical resistance and the radical independence of his opinion. ● El Periodismo es

noticia. Pascual Serrano. Icaria Editorial. The actionpacked format of news distances the reader from any attempt at detailed analysis that might incorporate the most basic values and ethical principles. Most of the issues addressed in "El periodismo es noticia" ("Journalism is News") have been known to the vast majority of potential readers, yet many have never

between public and private media sources or the way in which journalism conditions political policy and transforms it to serve its interests. ● The European Union

and the Arab World: What Do Arabs Think and Expect from Europe? Various authors. Casa Árabe/CIDOB

stopped to analyze them. With this work, Pascual Serrano makes us stop for a moment and consider different questions related to the mass media which, strangely enough, are not generally addressed by those same media. These questions include the role of the media in the current crisis, the advent of the Internet or the rise of an alternative journalism that must coexist and create synergies with social movements. To these must be added others that have long been debated, such as the objectivity and commitment of the journalist, the dichotomy

This study, published in Spanish, English and Arabic, is a tool for reflection and prediction for Europe presented in the context of Spain's presidency of the European Union. The contributions of Arab authors included in the study contain as core themes the balance of current relations between Europe and the Arab nations, and a critical analysis of the gap between what has been expected of these relations and what they really are today and, based on this, a prediction of their future development in the short- and medium-term. To this end, the book offers an assessment of the current state of relations between the

EU and the Arab world, the perceptions and stereotypes of Europe prevalent in the Arab world as presented in the media, and an analysis of opinion polls conducted and published by different centers that directly address the question of perceptions of Europe and European relations in the Arab world. ● Goya/Clausewitz.

Paradigmas de la guerra absoluta. Nil Santiáñez. Ediciones Alpha Decay.

In this essay, Professor Nil Santiáñez compares the iconography of war in the prints of Francisco de Goya with the theories of Carl von Clausewitz to argue that in both can be found

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✱... a must read ● Sueños y pesadillas.

Memorias de un diplomático. Máximo Cajal. Tusquets Editores

A finalist for the 11th Comillas Prize, 'Sueños y pesadillas" ("Dreams and Nightmares") is a magnificent exercise in reflection, recounting the details of a diplomatic career of nearly forty years in the most diverse

the origins of a new concept of war that continues to be valid and proves particularly useful for understanding current conflicts. With a multidisciplinary focus, including various illustrations of the works of Goya and other painters and photographers, the book is at once an accessible introduction to the thought of Clausewitz and a reinterpretation of the meaning of Goya's print series "The Disasters of War". As the author asserts, "Vom Kriege" and "The Disasters of War" constitute the first texts to conceptualize and visualize the notion of absolute war, and the two exhibit a symbiotic relationship: "the book by the Prussian general provides a conceptual framework for understanding absolute war, while the prints of Goya lend it a visual form.” ● Nigeria. Las brechas

de un petroestado. Aloia Álvarez. Los libros de la Catarata.

Winner of the Second Casa África Essay Prize, this

locations and situations. A privileged witness to both international policy and the transformations within Spain in the last few decades, Máximo Cajal reconstructs a memorable career as a senior diplomat and sheds light on some critical moments in the recent history of our country. His memoirs allow readers to recall episodes as significant

as the abrupt end of the colonial period in Southeast Asia during his first posting in Thailand, or the bloody attack on the Spanish Embassy in Guatemala in 1980, where he served as Ambassador. Also discussed are the negotiations with the U.S. on the Defense Cooperation Convention and Spain's subsequent entry into NATO.

book is a journey through the history of the Nigerian "petrostate" and a tribute to those attempting to rebuild its foundations. Nigeria is the economic giant of Western Africa, the biggest oil producer on the African continent and home to one of the most impoverished populations on Earth. In the wealth of its oil resources - a crucial element for the construction of the postcolonial nation and the configuration of its collective imagination - lie many of the key factors that make this country a paradigm of inequality. The many gaping holes in its institutional

infrastructure reach as far as the region where the River Niger breaks up into the Delta, where lies the fuel of the national economy. There, the exploitation of black gold and the controversies provoked by its management have created a situation of constant conflict.

its applicability and legal validity. There is little doubt that the Declaration represents a very important milestone in the struggle for the recognition of indigenous rights at national and international levels. Nevertheless, many questions remain unanswered. This book, the result of the 7th Meeting on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, attempts an indepth exploration into the knowledge and application of this international document, and its more practical aspects related to its implementation in specific cases. ● El mal de África.

● Declaración sobre los

Derechos de los Pueblos indígenas. Various authors. Ediciones la Catarata

Since the UN General Assembly approved the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in 2007, there have been numerous debates regarding

Eduardo Garrigues. Ediciones Planeta.

Eduardo Garrigues continues to combine his diplomatic career with his literary vocation and his passion for wide open spaces. With "El mal de África" ("Africa's Malaise"), he returns to the familiar setting of the Kalahari Desert for a tale situated in a fascinating balance between the


countries, and contribute to strengthening the ties between them. Giorgos Georgis, born in Paralimni in 1948, is Adjunct Professor of Modern History at the University of Cyprus. From 2005 to 2009 he was Cypriot Ambassador to Greece, Romania, Bulgaria and Albania, residing in Athens. He has organized conferences and other events for the Press and Information Office of the Government of Cyprus.

✱... a must read ● Nuevas bases para

las relaciones entre la Unión Europea y América Latina y el Caribe. FIIAPP

worlds of fantasy and of the harshest reality. In this book, the narrator ponders whether what he knows as “Africa's malaise” might consist merely in the intensification of sensorial perception combined with a progressive dulling of intellectual capacity. Eduardo Garrigues is the author of ‘The Grass Rain’ and ‘La dama de Duwisib’ ("The Lady of Duwisib"). ● En las antípodas del

Mediterráneo, España Chipre. Relaciones a través de los tiempos. Giorgos Georgis. Editorial en Tipis.

Through this “journey of adventures”, Professor Giorgos Georgis invites readers to discover the little-known but nevertheless intense, complex and multidimensional relationship between Spain and Cyprus, two countries located at the gateways to the Mediterranean Sea that share the same Mediterranean and European culture, and a history of contacts and exchanges that continue to develop today. This journey, bringing together

The International Foundation for IberoAmerican Administration and Public Policies (FIIAPP) has published a book containing the conclusions from the recent conference reflecting on relations between the European Union and Latin America and the Caribbean, held on April 16. Professors and specialists from various countries spoke about relations between the two regions at the 6th EU-LAC Summit. This book compiles ideas and reflections on the EU-LAC bi-regional association, on the new architecture of Latin American integration and the Cancun declaration,

princesses, monks, soldiers and adventurers, begins in ancient times, taking us through the Roman era, along the rough road of the Byzantine Empire, and

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and on the U.S. view of the relationship between the two regions. It also indicates the mechanisms and institutions of relevance to the establishment of a new strategic association model, and addresses other issues of shared interest, such as immigration and the new global financial architecture. The publication can be downloaded from the website:

the conflict between Spain and Venice (a commercial power of the Middle Ages) for control of the sea routes to the East. Finally, it brings us to a fascinating contemporary history, in which Spain and Cyprus have achieved an excellent level of friendship and understanding. This book, with a prologue by the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Spain and Cyprus, could foster knowledge and understanding of the evolution of relations between the two

● Their crises, our

solutions. Susan George. Intermón Oxfam/Icaria Editorial.

Susan George presents the world as a complex prison system in which “we” (i.e. “the good, honest, common people...”) live surrounded by various different levels of walls, watched over by implacable but rather unimaginative prison wardens. Among other points, the author suggests that the current crisis has arisen “from the same neoliberal policies established by the same players; that although they mutually reinforce one another, none is inevitable; that after more than two years of crises, of international summits... life goes on as before; that the reform of the international finance system has not even begun, and that the banks have been rescued at the expense of the society that suffers their blows. In the face of this, she urges us to mobilize and proposes solutions for this multiple crisis situation.

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Carmen Iglesias welcomed us on a sunny June afternoon in her office at Unidad Editorial headquarters, where she has been president since 2007. To her extraordinary list of academic and professional merits, we would add an exceptionally warm and friendly personality. She came to our interview in a hurry, and was scheduled for a dinner appointment immediately afterward. But she remained very calm. We realized instantly that this was a woman whose understanding of History had allowed her to see the relativity of the present. And has made her aware that each conquest, whatever it may be, is "as firm as it is fragile". She states with conviction that “Spain is not different” but has, just like any other country, a special uniqueness. She discussed these and many other ideas with Miradas al Exterior over a pleasant cup of tea. By Beatriz Beeckmans. Photography: Ignacio Gómez

Carmen Iglesias “History teaches, but I'm not so sure we learn from it” — Ms. Iglesias, you tend to refer to knowledge as a personal heritage. Is what you know the only thing you have? — Yes. I always say it is a thought more fitting of the middle classes of our parents' and grandparents' generations, who experienced wars, adversities, ups and downs... We are still a privileged generation that has not had to live through cataclysmic events such as civil war or world war. It is a great teaching: “external wealth can be lost, but what one carries inside will be with you forever”. Also, as I have gained a little more cultural understanding, I have seen that this is clearly a Jewish philosophy, and in

part Greek as well: The importance of knowledge and learning and the idea that what's inside you can take with you is integral to the Hebrew tradition. Steiner has written very explicitly that the most important education one can have is to learn all the languages possible and know how to pack your suitcase in half an hour (laughter). — You have stated that you feel tied to anything that will help empower the State. In your opinion, what is the best way to do that? — For successful community life, you need stable institutions, but not an interventionist State, not at all. I am heir to a liberalist tradition that considers each

individual to be morally independent, and at the same time establishes rules of the game that can only be enforced by the State, to ensure that every individual is free and equal before the law and that the expression of one person's liberty does not infringe on another's. But to me it is also fundamentally important to prevent the State from intervening into private life; thus the importance of setting power against power and establishing weights and counterweights in state institutions. — You have studied nationalism in great depth. How does nationalism influence Spain's foreign image? — Right now, Spain's vision abroad is very weak. The original Autonomous


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State idea was a great invention. During these 30 years of democracy, all you have to do is drive around Spain to get an idea of the important effect it has had on cultural and artistic heritage and on self esteem, in the best sense of the word... But everything in this life has its cost, and in this case it has come about because the need to belong, which is so fundamental to human emotion and the human condition, I feel has been exacerbated by political groups that are playing a different game, namely that of rising to power. And we are beginning to see some of the symptoms. The fact that each autonomous community tries to claim that a river that crosses its boundaries only belongs to that community, or that an ambulance cannot go from one autonomous community to another -these are all signs of severe political illness... and there are so many more examples. Linguistic policy is also too obsessively applied. What worries me most about all of this, the fragmentation, the rigidity, the waste of resources in every sense, of human energy and economic resources, is that it ends up being paid for by the most disadvantaged. Take immigrants for example: rather than learning Spanish and, if they are in a community that speaks a different language, the local language too, if that is possible... We go back to Steiner, the more the better, but to force immigrants to only learn the language of a small region of Spain simply creates cheap labor and turns these people into prisoners of a very small market. Anything that will expand our horizons is good. The problem with political nationalism -that emotional reaction that claims only our way is the right way- since it began to take root along with 19th century Romanticism, is that it must create an adversary: In order to defend what is ours, we must have an enemy, whether imagined or real; and furthermore, all nationalism carries with it an implied victim mentality. In a period of globalization like today, I believe we are going beyond that way of thinking. Also, there is strong feeling, especially among the younger generations, that we are all equal and that different

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Photograph of Carmen Iglesias together with the other members of the judging panel for the Prince of Asturias Prize in Social Science in 1993, presided by Manuel Fraga. Below, photographs of her admission to the Royal Academy of the Spanish Language in 2002, together with Her Majesty Queen Sofia and Their Royal Highnesses the Prince of Asturias and Princess Cristina. PHOTOS EFE

PROFILE Carmen Iglesias Cano is a member of the Royal Spanish Academy and the Royal Academy of History. A Professor of History of Morality and Politics at the King Juan Carlos University, she has worked as director of the Center for Political and Constitutional Studies and, as such, was the first woman to assume a seat in the State Council. She is President of the Grupo Unidad Publishing House, which publishes the El Mundo, Marca, and Expansión newspapers, as well as a variety of widely read magazines and supplemental materials (Descubrir el Arte, Aventura de la Historia, Telva, Yo Dona, and others). She has tutored Princess Cristina since

1984, during her Political Science and Sociology studies, and she was also Prince Felipe's History and Social Sciences professor for nearly two decades. A specialist in 18th century European and American history and in various aspects of modern western history, Iglesias has been awarded several prizes and distinctions throughout her active and prolific research career. She is the author of “El Pensamiento de Montesquieu” (The Thought of Montesquieu, 1984 and 2005); “Individualismo noble e individualismo burgués” (Noble Individualism and Bourgeois Individualism, 1991); “De Historia y Literatura como elementos de ficción” (On History and Literature as Fictional

Elements, 2002) “Razón, sentimiento y utopía” (Reason, Sentiment, and Utopia, 2006) and “No siempre lo peor es cierto” (The Worst Is Not Always True, 2009), among others. The collective work Símbolos de España (Symbols of Spain), which was coordinated by Iglesias, was awarded the National History Prize in 2000. She has also written and coordinated catalogs of various historical exhibits for which she was Commissioner (Carlos III, Felipe II, Spain 1898, Liberal illustration and project, Cervantes, Crossroads of Culture, and others) and has collaborated in TVE history series as well as various programs for Chellomulticanal's History Channel.

cultures can enrich our lives, but not in an attempt to classify and create greater inequality; and so it is still embarrassing that in Spain the rules are different depending on where you are and you have to practically wear your birth certificate around your neck in order to get a position in certain communities, etc. — Now that you have mentioned the rising generations, what is the most important thing they can learn from History for the future? — I always say, only half joking, that History teaches, but I'm not so sure we learn from it. Yes, we learn some things, but we will almost certainly make the same mistakes in other areas. As I said before, everything has a cost. There are no certain answers in History. We rehash the same problems, but undesired effects and the rich interaction between individuals in each society give rise to challenges that no one can predict. One of the good results of this, in my opinion, is that it is impossible to program the history of a society or the lives of its citizens, as was illustrated, albeit at great cost, during the totalitarian regimes of the 20th century. Each of these attempts at a planned society led only to poverty, crime, and genocide. — Have these lessons from history helped you personally to better manage certain aspects of your life? How has your profession affected your private life? — That is a tough question... Quite a bit I would think. First, because without books I would not be able to live. I belong to one of those generational fringes of privileged individuals that have had to live through sometimes difficult circumstances. This understanding has allowed me to see the relativity of the present, and view it from a distance to a certain extent. While I may not have learned my lessons by heart, I have learned to dig deeper and realize that there are many more roads to follow. And that life is the result of need, chance, and will. — Now the obvious question: What was it like to teach History to the Prince? — From a teaching perspective, it was a

 very enriching experience. It is the only time in my life I have given private lessons -I have always been a university professor. I gave exactly the same lessons I taught at the University, attempting to explain as objectively as possible the various interpretations of a given event, and the richness of our reality that the past allows us to appreciate at a much deeper level. So, it was an enriching experience in every sense of the word, and I think it was for the Prince as well; in fact, we continued our lessons for several years after that with seminars and readings. — What do you consider essential knowledge for a student of History? — I am always shocked to find that students have not learned about the origins of our modern era: the difference between the Old Regime and the absolute (and sometimes arbitrary) States, and the transition to democracy. And it is important to remember that each step was taken at a great cost of blood, sweat, effort, and tears, to list Churchill's four principles. Therefore, it is very important not to forget that each of these conquests has a very powerful and solid institutional aspect, but also a very fragile side, because History teaches us that sometimes we go backward. I also feel that understanding the historical mechanisms surrounding the democratic revolutions in the U.S., England, France, and Spain is of fundamental importance; to understand what the United States' Declaration of Independence represents and the elements of modernization that have placed western culture, for better or for worse, in its hegemonic position for a very long time. You have to know all of that in order to truly understand it. — You tend to describe the Spanish Transition as exemplary. Why do you think it is being questioned so much lately? — I believe it is an artificial debate created by interested political groups. I believe there is a growing rift between society and the political class and there are political groups that, in the face of commotion and a power void, regroup their forces in

“Teaching History to the Prince was a very enriching experience, in every sense of the word” “I still believe that the Spanish Transition was exemplary at the time” “In hindsight, we feel the civil war was inevitable, but at the time, Spanish society did not live as if that were the case” “Education is one of our most important ongoing assignments, and we need to make greater efforts”

interview 69

different ways, and I believe it's all about political interest. I still believe that the Transition was exemplary at the time. Naturally, as we talked about before, everything has its cost, and it is possible to die of success. The development of certain very positive elements can lead to other situations that will require reform. Life is continually in motion. But in reality, the Transition was a model, not of "selling ourselves short", which is something that I find truly irritating, but rather, as Hanna Arendt says, at some point you have to break out of the spiral of resentment and balance justice with the future of those to come. Otherwise, you would be facing an interminable war. I feel that the majority of Spanish citizens still take pride and joy in that moment in our history and view it as proof that we as Spaniards are no different than anyone else. Going off the subject, it is also not the first time in Spanish history that an agreement has been made between distinct political groups. The end of the first Carlist war was in part such an agreement, in the 19th century, and the Restoration was another... I always recall a fellow historian who would say that Cánovas calling Sagasta to agree on an alternation -which later had some significant problems, but at the time was a way to end the constant military coupswas as momentous as if Franco in 1947, during the first postwar period, which was still very difficult, had called up Prieto to invite him to join the Government. There have been other times, but here in 20th century Spain we had the bad fortune of a constitutional breakdown in 1923 with the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, who disrupted the order that had been maintained since 1833, since the death of Fernando VII. We had our ups and downs under the 1812 Constitution, but it had remained in force, and that is what foreign historians of Spain have always reminded us. Spain is one of the few countries in the Western world that had maintained liberties. Not democratic liberties, but a liberal constitutional regime and not a democratic parliamentary

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regime as we have today; however Spain managed to maintain liberties throughout the greater portion of the 19th century and part of the 20th century as well. This was broken in '23; and we all know what happened next. We had a Republic unable to pull the various sides together and a civil war that Spanish society wanted to avoid, but that was favored by extremist political groups. I find it interesting that today, looking back, we are able to see everything that was falling apart in the '30s. At the time, Spain was going through the same political upheavals as the rest of Europe. What happened was that Europe had gotten the idea that the Bourgeois liberties were worthless and it was necessary to turn to a leader, an iron chancellor figure, a totalitarian. It is the essence of the revolutionary myth of starting from zero and creating a new man, one of the great collective lies of the 20th century. With everything that was falling apart, it is clear, in hindsight and from certain perspectives, that the war was inevitable; but at the time we were not living as though that were the case. Proof of this is that families, in July of 1936, were captured separately because everyone who had the means to do so had gone on vacation or had sent the kids or the family to the country or the seashore. The problem with totalitarian-minded political groups is that they view the adversary as an enemy that must be defeated. That is a very dangerous situation, as is the political tension that has been increasingly frequent in Spain in recent years. — Do you think Spain will evolve, overcome its current polarization and move toward a saner political scene? — I think we are in a difficult time. Our entire civil society is just sitting back when what it needs is a greater understanding of democracy. I feel that education is one of our most important ongoing assignments, and we need to make greater efforts. There are hints that suggest that it is possible and we are capable of doing it. The fabric of our civil society and our businesses is very strong. We do need some reforms, for example prohibiting political party

“The problem with political nationalism is that it must create an adversary: to defend what is ours, we must have an enemy, whether imagined or real” “I believe there is a growing rift between society and the political class” closed lists. Reforming the electoral law is absolutely necessary and urgent. It is telling that the two largest national parties, both of which have enjoyed absolute majorities and could have made these reforms, have not done so, especially in light of the fact that they would not even have to touch the Constitution; but then, the human condition is complex. — Given that certain authors tend to talk about a 'Spanish complex' or the abnormality of Spain, what is your opinion? In fact, this is exactly what you talk about in your latest book “No siempre lo peor es cierto”… — As my professors taught me and as historians and hispanicists have repeated, Spain is not different. It has its unique aspects, as does any other country, but if you sit down and study, for example, the history of France, of its religious wars, its civil wars, it is absolutely amazing. For my latest book, which is a collection of studies on the history of Spain, I took the title from a comedy by Pedro Calderón, "No siempre lo peor es cierto" (The Worst Is Not Always True) in an ironic sense, because it is our inferiority complex that makes us think that our situation is always the worst. We are neither the worst nor the best. Sometimes we do OK, sometimes not so much, but this happens to everyone, both individuals and groups. The sense of isolation that the Franco regime and 40 years of dictatorship gave us has projected itself into the past in a way that is not entirely true. We're

talking about 40 years of dictatorship, and in spite of the fact that there are vastly different stages in the course of those years, we have inherited a mentality that goes much deeper than we believe, because the dictatorship maintained the division between the conquerors and the conquered to the very end. Franco was signing execution orders on his death bed, and that has left us with a certain mentality that I occasionally see in leaders who, despite being democratic, nonetheless have an authoritarian side that rejects the other who believes differently; in that sense, they share the same mentality -not the same ideology, as the Franco regime was the worst thing we have ever had to go through. — Based on these thoughts, how important is it for us to remember? — Very important. We cannot remember everything -we would go crazy- but it is possible to remember and understand at the same time. And try not to repeat the spiral of resentment, but rather comprehend, with the empathy and compassion taught by the Greeks, that because of the human condition we make mistakes; and thus we must correct our mistakes and learn from History. Not in order to throw them, as Don José Antonio Maravall said, 'like a stone against another', and only recall a series of mistakes out of context. We need to remember the mistakes made on all sides, so as never to repeat them. And I believe that is the essence of the Transition. It is said that the Transition was a forgetting of the past, but that is not true. The Transition occurred because we remembered very well what had happened in the past and refused to repeat it yet again.



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Miradas al exterior is an official diplomatic information publication of the Spanish Government's Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation. About 14,000 copies are distributed worldwide on a quarterly basis, and it has been translated into English and French. Available online at



Para atender a nuestros compatriotas en el extranjero, España cuenta con una amplia red consular dependiente del Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores y de Cooperación, compuesta en la actualidad por 185 Oficinas Consulares y Secciones Consulares de Embajadas, así como cerca de 375 Consulados y Viceconsulados Honorarios. > La función de los Consulados consiste en prestar determinados servicios administrativos a los ciudadanos españoles, ayudar a quienes hayan sido víctimas de delitos o abusos y asistir a quienes se encuentren en situación de necesidad. > Infórmate en





> Expedir pasaportes o salvoconductos en caso de caducidad, pérdida o robo. > Informar sobre los servicios médicos, educativos y legales del país; > Prestar asistencia a detenidos; > Adelantar, de manera extraordinaria, el dinero imprescindible para eventuales casos de necesidad que pudieran surgir, incluída la repatriación. > Realizar inscripciones en el Registro Civil, expedir poderes y actas notariales, legalizar documentos así como otros trámites administrativos.

> Hacer funciones de agencia de viajes; > Conseguir un trabajo en el extranjero; > Garantizar en un hospital o en una cárcel un tratamiento mejor que el otorgado a los nacionales de ese país; > Avalar, prestar dinero o pagar multas; > Hacer de intérprete, guía o asistente social.

> El sistema de registro de viajeros, accesibe desde la web permite a quienes viajen al extranjero facilitar todos sus datos personales, los datos de su viaje (país de destino, lugares que va a visitar y en los que se va a alojar) y los de los familiares que tienen previsto acompañarle, así como los de las personas a las que habría que contactar en caso de emergencia. > Ello permitirá a la Unidad de Emergencia Consular, en caso de crisis, disponer en todo momento de listados actualizados de las personas que se encuentran de forma transitoria en el país o región afecta da por la misma, facilitando la puesta en contacto con los viajeros y su asistencia en caso de necesidad.

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