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An informAtive diplomAtic publicAtion of the ministry of foreign AffAirs And cooperAtion

the minister of foreign AffAirs And cooperAtion offers some reflections in An interview deAling with the strAtegic Aspects of spAin's foreign policy And mAjor internAtionAl chAllenges

MORATINOS An overview of Spanish ‛

foreign policy

The Middle East enters a cycle of hope

Europe must offer a single voice in the world

We have a global strategy for Africa

 foreign affairs

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● the interview


“Europe needs

a single voice “ in the world

— Felipe Sahagún: You are already the second longest-serving Minister of Foreign Affairs out of the ten Spain has had as a democracy, and you may soon take first place. What is the secret of your longevity? — Miguel Angel Moratinos: The confidence, firstly, of the citizens in the Socialist Government to give us a second term, and, secondly, the confidence of the Prime Minister, who has seen fit to keep me at the helm of Spanish diplomacy. I imagine that the excellent team that Spain has had in Foreign Affairs and the good image Spain currently enjoys in the world have been decisive influences on this confidence. — What has been the principal change in the diplomatic agenda since the eighties, when you led the Directorate General for the Maghreb and the Middle East? — There has been a revolutionary, fundamental change, although it has taken time to have an effect on the main players concerned with international affairs. Previously, as my predecessor the former minister Fernando Morán described it, we had Spain in its place, the position it had occupied traditionally in Europe, Latin

It's not easy to find an hour or two for a relaxed discussion with the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Miguel Angel Moratinos, who is constantly on the move. At the beginning of the new Legislature, we managed to arrange a meeting with him in his office in Serrano Galvache, in the north of Madrid. INTERVIEW BY FELIPE SAHAGÚN (UNIVERSITY PROFESSOR AND JOURNALIST)

America, the Mediterranean, the special relationship with the United States… Today we have Spain in a global world, in which the traditional relationships -whether bilateral or regional- do not affect us so much as the major goals or challenges shared globally. This completely changes the everyday priorities of a minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation. From immigration to energy policy, and including terrorism and the environment, the agenda is filled with global issues that have changed the traditional management of diplomacy in use until the end of the 20th century. — The resources available for the management of this agenda have always been quite limited. To cover this deficit, a Foreign Service reform has been in effect since 2004-2005. What has this reform achieved so far and what will you seek to achieve in your second term? — I believe we have improved a great deal. The budget for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation has grown exponentially, by almost 230 percent from 2004 to 2008. We have increased the numbers of diplomatic staff and officials, and the organizational structure of both embassies and consulates has been strengthened.


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● the interview

— Could we specify this increase in figures? — Thirteen new embassies in four years and a significant number of consulates, although I acknowledge that we still have a long way to go, as we need to continue adapting to what we are: the eighth largest economy in the world. We need to move forward with the Foreign Service reform and give our diplomatic personnel and our officials and hired workers inducements and incentives in keeping with the change that Spain has undergone. It would be significant if in this new legislature we could pass the Foreign Action and Service Law, develop the measures adopted by the Council of Ministers in September 2006 and, finally, inaugurate the headquarters that the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation of 21st Century Spain truly deserves. — Four years is enough time to take stock of your progress, but perhaps, rather than listing successes and failures, I could ask you to present it in terms of satisfactions and frustrations. — The first satisfaction comes from all the work we have done in multilateral relations: Spain's increased contribution to the main mechanism of global governance, which is the United Nations. This includes both our initiative of the Alliance of Civilizations, which has had most weight in the UN, and our presence in agencies like the UNDP, which has made us a clear point of reference - and the Secretary General of the United Nations has acknowledged it on repeated occasions - in crucial issues such as climate change, the Alliance of Civilizations, the fight against terrorism and the millennium objectives. A second source of satisfaction would be our European contribution. — What stands out, above all else, in that contribution? — First of all, Spain's work in helping to clear away the obstacles to the constitutional treaty, although the "No" votes of France and the Netherlands ended up blocking its ratification; but it was us, a country that said "yes" in the referendum, that helped France, who said "no", to establish what ultimately became the simplified treaty. Besides this, Spain facilitated the agreement on new financial perspec-

The confidence of the electorate and of the Prime Minister, the Foreign Affairs team and Spain's good image in the world today are the keys to continuity Since 2004 the budget for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation has grown exponentially by almost 230%, thirteen new embassies (six in Africa) have been opened along with a large number of consulates

tives, which enabled us to continue as a recipient of European aid until 2013 in spite of having a gross domestic product (GDP) growth higher than Italy's. We have also been the country that has put the immigration issue on the European agenda. — Any frustrations? — For someone as close to the Mediterranean and the Maghreb as I am, to see that region, so essential to our interests, unable to find a way for its regional integration, without resolving the issue of the Western Sahara and without peace in the Near East - an issue that I follow daily, almost constantly. These are the issues that I would have liked to have seen more progress on during our first legislature, but, in any case, now we have another window of opportunity. — From which country and from which minister have you received the most support? — Perhaps, in Europe, due to our proximity, mutual understanding and personal friendship, from Luis Amado, the Portuguese minister, with whom we share a plan and many other things. What I appreciate most about him is his strategic vision, his capacity for conceptual analysis of the state of the world. I also must express my thanks to Jack Straw for his help in setting up the dialogue forum with Gibraltar. Otherwise, in Europe, as in Latin America and the Arab world, we have many friends. Of these, I would mention in particular the minister of Luxembourg, another fellow socialist who has collaborated on a number of small confidential schemes. — Morocco seems to have disappeared from the news headlines as a source of tension. Not even the visit of the King and Queen to Ceuta and Melilla seriously disrupted the reestablished calm, which is exceptional if compared with recent years. What is the secret of this miracle? — Rather than a miracle, I would call it a necessity, and the secret is that trust has been reestablished. There have been earnest talks, and a very close relationship based on personal, individual and institutional contacts has been established. This enables us now to understand that we need to move forward together, to

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work together to build a special relationship between Morocco and the European Union. The way forward to this advanced statute, as the Moroccans themselves call it, must include a relationship without the slightest breakdown in trust, and with an eye to the future, between Morocco and Spain. — How is this relationship achieved from day to day? — I believe that the personal and political understanding that the Prime Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero and His Majesty King Juan Carlos share with the government and the King of Morocco is essential, but this understanding also exists between the Foreign Affairs ministers. Hardly a week passes without our speaking on the telephone, and not because there are problems, but to share policies, opinions and initiatives on questions that might affect the two countries - immigration, for example - or to prepare for the Mediterranean summit on July 13. — To what would you attribute the origin of this new relationship? — I believe that the storming of the fences of Ceuta and Melilla by the sub-Saharans was the catalyst for the move towards coresponsibility in the management of this issue, in collaboration with the European Union, and what could have been a crisis turned into improved coexistence and solidarity in important matters for the security and development of both nations. — When you took over the Foreign Affairs portfolio, you were one of the European diplomats who had dedicated the most time and effort to peace in the Near East. The context has not helped, of course, but you have been personally involved in some of the most serious conflicts in the region. As a good follower of the Atletico Madrid soccer team would put it... give us the score. — Don't forget that Atletico Madrid always gives us something to cheer about in the end, and I'm sure that the same will ultimately happen in the Near East. I'm optimistic. I just came back from the region. It's true that it goes through these cycles of hope and discouragement, but we are beginning one of hope now, as always, of course, with all the necessary caveats. — And the reasons for this optimism?

— All the parties concerned are reaching the conclusion that there is no other way forward or solution for the region than politics and diplomacy. I believe that we are seeing a new paradigm in the Near East. It is not the paradigm of 1991, of the Madrid Conference. Nor is it the Oslo paradigm. Nor even the paradigm of Prime Minister Ehud Barak's efforts in 2000. It is a new reality. The Arab communities and families themselves are divided between Sunnis and Shiites. It is no longer simply an Arab-Israeli conflict, as there are other players, like Iran, with a powerful influence on peace of the region. We are also faced with the fact that the United States cannot achieve this peace without a multilateral effort of support from the main international players. The European Union is beginning to understand that it has greater weight in the region. All of this is causing a reshuffling of the diplomatic cards in the region. The best proof of this is the recent Doha Agreement - perhaps, the first agreement achieved by the Arab League. It is a solution proposed by the Arabs, who are conscious of the risks involved. — What are those risks? What conditions are necessary to prevent the Doha Agreement from becoming just another piece of wastepaper? — The essential condition is for the Lebanese to understand that they can be leaders of their own destiny. Although it is true that there is external interference, political life in the 21st Century is much more complex, and the players, in spite of the difficulties, can dictate their own agenda if they are convinced that, with dialogue and compromise, they are capable of implementing the agreement. If, once again, they allow themselves to be swayed by doubt, fatalistic notions and external meddling, we will fall again into conflict and stagnation, which is absolutely the last thing that Lebanon needs. — I'm afraid that there are many people convinced that the idea of two states one Palestinian and the other Israeli, approved in Annapolis in 2007, will be very difficult to make a reality. Is it possible to advance even one step if the construction of new housing in the occupied territories isn't stopped? — There is no doubt of that and we

● the interview

have said as much to our Israeli friends and to the U.S. administration. Construction of the settlements must be frozen because they form part of the negotiation itself. The issues of the final statute, as everyone will recall, are refugees - a complex problem - Jerusalem, borders, territory, water (which is partially related to the question of territory) and settlements. In order to ensure future negotiation on the dismantling of the settlements, unilateral acts of expansion of the settlements must not be allowed to continue. — What is the fundamental problem posed by the settlements in any negotiation process? — I'll always remember an anecdote, or rather, a historical fact that occurred at the end of the Taba negotiations (January, 2001) with my good friend Shlomo Ben Ami, who was then Israel's Foreign Affairs Minister. We are talking about January, and the elections, which the Labor Party lost, took place in February. I went to visit him in his office on the last day of his term; he was moving out after losing the elections, and Sharon was forming a government. Ben Ami said to me: ‘Look, Miguel, I want you to do something for me: keep an eye on the expansion of the settlements, because my experience as a negotiator in Taba is that the cartographers, when they came to the secret meetings to map out the borders, had huge difficulties and, if this continues, even with the best political will of any Israeli government, it will be almost impossible to establish clear borders. This is why it is a question that we need to be extremely tough on. Not only for the Palestinians, but also so that Israel can reach a definitive peace agreement with them.’ — Does Spanish diplomacy support France's secret contacts with Hamas? — I believe that there needs to be dialogue between Palestinians. We support it fervently. But we Europeans have maintained an attitude that has not clearly understood Arab public opinion, or even European public opinion on this point. Why have we not had contacts with Hamas? We Europeans have called upon Hamas -I have been very clear on this point- to do something that we require of any negotiator seeking peace and reconciliation in



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● the interview

the region: to renounce violence, to recognize the agreements negotiated by Israel with the Palestinian Authority and, thirdly, to recognize Israel. Why? Because if there is even a minimal desire for reconciliation, declaring a 40-year truce is not enough. A truce does not reflect enough desire for peace. This is what we have asked of Hamas. — What has been Hamas' response? — That it would recognize the State of Israel only with the 1967 borders. We need to leave the Palestinians to find their own terms of unity, which we will encourage, as we support Palestinian unity and respect for Palestinian institutions and the legitimate authority of the President of the Palestinian Authority. I believe that there now is talk, especially after the Doha Agreement, of again opening up the channels of dialogue within Palestine. — At present, this reconciliation looks as difficult as the reconciliation between Sunni Arab powers and Iran, and it will not prove easy to move forward towards peace after the disaster in Iraq, which has given Iran so many strategic advantages, if the open chasm between Sunnis and Shiites is not closed. Even Henry Kissinger, in the next-to-last weekend of May in the Financial Times, acknowledged the need for a global agreement with Iran. — I have just returned from the Gulf countries, in the company of His Majesty the King, and I can confirm that it's true. In Lebanon and in Palestine, we can also see Iran's influence through Hezbollah and Hamas, respectively. There is no doubt that Iran wants the international community to recognize it as a regional player of some weight. — Has this desire been specifically expressed in any diplomatic action? — Iran just recently sent to several different European countries, including Spain, an offer that its leaders call a 'global negotiation package', in which they speak of establishing a system of regional security that recognizes Iran's role at the diplomatic table of the region. We are studying it, and the European Union is studying it. It encompasses the whole nuclear issue and Iran's position in the region, but I agree with Kissinger that Iran needs to be

given a positive regional role. Naturally, Iran also has to respond to our request that, in exchange for this recognition, it shall act responsibly, starting with not creating further tension by developing a military nuclear capacity. As a responsible and constructive player, Iran needs to generate trust, and it hasn't done this as yet. This is the goal of the diplomatic route and the efforts of the European Union. And Spain, as part of the EU, will work to create the conditions that allow the opening of some kind of political and diplomatic channel between the moderate Arab countries, which are deeply worried about the situation, and Iran. Without forgetting that, although they are worried, all these countries (the Emirates, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Iraq...) have good relations, at least formally, with Teheran. — I remember that, after the victory of the PSOE (Spanish Socialist Workers' Party) in 2004, every time that somebody asked about the future of the international forces in Iraq, the response was always the same: withdrawal, and the sooner the better. Is this still your position five years later? — This has always been a question with a catch. Our withdrawal was, first of all, the response to an overwhelming demand in Spanish public opinion and a commitment made in the electoral campaign of the PSOE and of the government. In the years since, it has been clear that the situation has not improved, that it continues to be highly unstable and that all the efforts -and Spain has made them on political, diplomatic and financial levels- have not produced the desired results. This is why we fully respect the position of each country. Many countries have now withdrawn, but we will not make judgments on whether it would be better or worse. We have our convictions and they are known by those who need to know them, but we do our best to respect the convictions of others. Today, we need to look more to the future, to keep seeking political reconciliation between Iraqi communities, and this is what we are trying to do. — How is Spain preparing for the new U.S. Administration? — I believe we're preparing well. We sent a preliminary mission, led by the previ-

ous Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, Bernardino León, and last week I was in Washington, where I also had the opportunity of speaking with the teams of all three candidates. All three meetings were highly beneficial, and all share a desire to strengthen relations with Spain. The team of Republican John McCain expressed the desire to maintain the best possible level of communication with a faithful ally like Spain and with the Spanish prime minister, and I found very similar attitudes from the Democratic candidates Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama, just as the latter was being hailed as the winner in the primaries. — If the next U.S. Administration measures its relationship with Spain with the measuring stick of Afghanistan, has the response been decided? Can we assume an increase in the number of Spanish soldiers in Afghanistan, and in higher risk zones, as it appears that the French and Italians are going to accept? — If Spain is measured by its role in Afghanistan, I believe we deserve an outstanding grade, practically a pass with honors. We are the country with the tenth largest force deployed and the ninth largest of the NATO members, but the solution in Afghanistan -reconstruction and promoting stability- will not be achieved by military efforts alone. This was acknowledged in the political-military strategy approved at the last NATO summit in Bucharest. As such, we need to examine what the future economic and financial efforts will be. We are at the forefront of the contributors, as we declared at the meeting in London in 2005, and we continue to be committed to the task. The follow-up conference on June 12 in Paris was called to improve the coordination of aid and to strengthen the role of the UN, but above all to establish a political strategy. — Any specific initiative of Spain's? — Spain, Poland and the United Arab Emirates have presented an innovative proposal for agricultural development that will help to fight effectively against opium cultivation and trafficking, which is poisoning and hindering reconstruction in the country. I believe, given all of this, that the U.S. Administration has to assess our contributions positively. It is impos-

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sible to predict the future, but on May 29, in the parliamentary headquarters, the representative of the PSOE, who had just returned from the NATO Parliamentary Assembly, indicated that both the Secretary General of the Alliance and the delegates from the U.S. Congress had praised the Spanish PRT in Qala-i-Nau. We therefore have no need to worry about how our contribution in Afghanistan will be evaluated. More can be done, of course, but what we are doing is good work. — If Nicolas Sarkozy fulfills his promise to reincorporate France into NATO's military command in exchange for serious U.S. support to a truly European defense policy, what can and should Spain do to make a real contribution to this project of Europeanization? — Sarkozy is doing what Spain did some time ago, and we welcome the arrival of rational thought. I believe that it makes this an important moment, as we are on the verge of celebrating NATO's 60th anniversary, and there is a will, a critical, political mass, which is mature enough to build a European pillar of defense. At last, we can break with the reluctance and doubts that existed between Atlanticism and Europeanism. Spain, at least its Socialist governments, has maintained that these two concepts are not contradictory. We can and must defend an Alliance capable of addressing the risks of the 21st Century, but to deal with them more effectively, it must be supported by a European security and defense policy that is still non-existent at present. Spain will participate in the conceptual debate. We will work with France and with our most interested partners, such as Portugal's Foreign Minister, Amado, and the British, so that by the end of the current French presidential term we will have a strategic concept of this European pillar of defense and the mechanism for linking it to the Alliance. — Will the new strategic concept of the Alliance be defined within a year? — It will not be possible to adopt it by April 2009, as the new U.S. Administration will have only just been inaugurated at that time, but in the declaration that is adopted at that summit the essential principles will be established, and among those principles will be the new complementary

In the new Legislature, we need to pass the Foreign Action and Service Law, and develop the measures approved in 2006 that have not yet been developed I am satisfied with what we have achieved so far from the change with Cuba, as without dialogue we weren't getting anywhere, but there is still much to be done

● the interview

relationship that can and should be established between European security and defense policy and the Atlantic Alliance. — Cuba and Venezuela will continue to be stumbling blocks in relations with Washington. Are you satisfied with Cuba's response to the new direction that you have initiated in relations with Cuba since 2004? Do you consider their response to be a variable of the internal changes on the island, or is it independent of them? — I am satisfied. Commander Raul Castro has done what he indicated to me confidentially and more publicly that he was going to do when I visited him in Havana: he has assumed political leadership and initiated economic reforms, measures that change past attitudes... I am also satisfied with the mechanism of political dialogue and human rights, although, logically, we would like to obtain the maximum number of releases of political prisoners. Our friends in Cuba know this and we have said as much at every opportunity, but this is the way of working that we believe is most appropriate at times like these: with mutual respect, monitoring the decisions that they adopt. Some welcome decisions and announcements have been made, such as the signing of the UN pact on civil and political rights, and the pact on economic, social and cultural rights, which we view as significant. — Is this also the policy of the European Union? — The European position was approved before any of these measures, which show our European partners who were most skeptical of the Spanish change of direction that it has been appropriate and that we are witnessing a time of reforms in Cuba. As such, it is a different moment. The change initiated by Spain stemmed from the fact that we had absolutely no capacity for influence. Our ambassadors, including the Spanish ambassador, were not even received at the Cuban Ministry of Foreign Affairs. There was no dialogue. Neither critical nor constructive - nothing. Relations were, quite simply, frozen. How was Spain going to move forward, at a time of reform, in such a situation? To be able to have some influence, we needed to return to being players engaging in re-



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● the interview

spectful relations, both with Cuban authorities and with Cuban society, a society for which Spain's lack of presence would be incomprehensible. We continue, then, with this policy of dialogue, and we hope, with mutual respect, to keep moving forward. — Have the crises with the Hugo Chávez government now been overcome? — The alarmists who called for a break-off of relations were not very sensible. Imagine if we had fallen into that temptation, due to pressure, to recall our ambassador! A good deal of calm has been necessary, a strong will to defend our interests intelligently, and in this way we have been able to normalize the relationship once again, to maintain good dialogue and fully protect Spain's interests in Venezuela. This is a clear example of good 20th Century diplomacy, 21st Century diplomacy, or diplomacy of any kind. It is the "ABC" of politics. I am not a great fan of recalling ambassadors for consultation and in this case I was even less so. It would have been absolutely counterproductive and subsequent events have proved us right. . — Have you achieved the 2004 objective of investing Latin American relations with much more political content in order to mitigate the troubles that some Spanish companies suffer day in and day out under the new leftist leaders in the region? — We have been behind our companies one hundred percent, especially when they have faced difficulties in the region. Rather than defend their interests - which, belonging to the private sector, only they can establish, and, when necessary, protect - the Spanish government has assumed the role of protecting the economic rights of our companies. For this reason, we have continued building the network of conventional instruments that provide them with legal security (agreements on promotion and reciprocal protection of investments) and that remove obstacles (agreements to prevent double taxation). It should also be remembered that, in the contracts regulating their activities, the contracting parties are the companies on the one hand, and the local governments on the other; the Spanish govern-

For the first time we have a global strategy for sub-Saharan Africa and the Africa Plan 2006-2008 will be followed by a Plan II 2009-2012. For the Asia-Pacific region we are preparing a Plan 3 In the Spanish presidency of the EU in 2010, we will seek to strengthen European leadership in the fight against climate change, in economic growth and in improving the collective management of immigration

ment can only collaborate at the request of the companies (and it has done so), in resolving any disputes that may arise. In this sense, I believe that we can all agree that the best way to defend Spanish interests in Latin America is achieved by maintaining open and continuing dialogue with all governments. This has been the primordial political objective of the Spanish government in the previous legislature, and we have made every effort to achieve it. — How can we take advantage of the bicentennials of independence in Latin America to build and strengthen ties, without suffering further setbacks? — The bicentennial celebrations constitute an opportunity to consolidate the kind of relations we have been developing in Latin America. These are relations based on harmony, collaboration and cooperation, with partners and allies with whom we can agree on bilateral and multilateral policies. Naturally, we can't overlook the fact that there is a risk of politicization. However, while we are conscious of that risk, we view as more important the opportunity of working on a plan for the future, with goals such as improving the living conditions of all Latin Americans, strengthening the presence and influence of Latin America in the world and building a truly Latin American civic consciousness. We are convinced that we can approach the bicentennial celebrations without worries or fears, fully conscious of the opportunity that they offer and deeply respectful of their significance. Furthermore, the bicentennial celebrations are happening at a time when all kinds of relations with Latin America in every field of endeavor have been increasing and developing: the presence of Spanish companies in Latin America, and the scientific, cultural and academic networks have fostered an extraordinary level of exchange of every kind. Another influential factor has been the migration phenomenon, which brings with it mutual enrichment. The bicentennials are an opportunity to promote these factors, both old and new, to recall the many things that unite us, and with these in mind to work together to overcome our problems and reaffirm our

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shared values in a changing world. We are all conscious of this and I am convinced that we will be able to make the most of the occasion. — Although it's still a year and a half away, do you already have any specific goals in mind for the Spanish presidency of the European Union in 2010? — We have been preparing for the upcoming Spanish presidency for some time now. We have been keeping in close contact with our partners to work as a troika in preparing the draft of the program, the methodology and the objectives. We are also in touch with the presidency that will pass the torch onto us. The Treaty of Lisbon is still alive and the ratification process will continue. The European Union is looking for effective solutions to the issue raised by Ireland. I am convinced that Spain will initiate its presidency with the new Treaty of Lisbon in effect, and so one of the first goals will be to implement and consolidate the interesting panorama that will open up with the new Treaty. Among the objectives that we will outline for our presidency will be strengthening European leadership in the response to climate change and laying the groundwork for the development of an integrated and interconnected energy market. But above all, how to prepare the Union to face the challenges of competitivity and growth. On this point, we hope to give particular attention to Research, Development, and Innovation issues and to promote every part of the Lisbon Agenda. Other aspects that we would like to focus on -and we are working on these intensely- will be the defense of gender equality and how we can work together to address the challenge of immigration so as to consolidate a shared space of legal and police cooperation. In terms of foreign affairs, we also want to promote new initiatives to foster European Union relations with Latin America and the Caribbean. The Spanish Presidency for 2010 will get underway with new travel companions, with the newly appointed European Commission and European Parliament, and with new partners, new structures and new institutions, but with the same spirit: to work together to breathe new life

into the European Union and to speak with a unique voice in the world. — We finally have a policy for Africa that is not neo-colonial and we are conscious of the time lost with regard to the main emerging powers of Asia. You have visited at least thirty countries that a Spanish Minister of Foreign Affairs has never set foot in before, and your agenda is suitably loaded up with the new global goals that today shape the foreign affairs of any world power. What are the next steps in both Africa and Asia? — In Africa, we are not only going to consolidate the considerable efforts made in the previous legislature, but also continue strengthening and widening our spheres of cooperation. To do this, we are creating all the necessary resources. In addition to the opening of new embassies (six in the last few years), cooperation and trade offices and other ministerial departments, we have created in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation a new Directorate General of Foreign Policy for Africa, which expresses, in practical terms, the priority that the Spanish government will continue giving to the sub-Saharan region. For the first time, the Spanish government has a long-term global strategy for sub-Saharan Africa. The Africa Plan 20062008, which constitutes a turning point in Spanish foreign affairs on the continent, responds to certain strategic interests and will therefore be continued under an Africa Plan 2009-2012, as Prime Minister Rodríguez Zapatero announced in his inaugural speech, and it will be completed before the end of this year. In short, Spain cannot go on as it has in the past with its back turned on the great challenges of Sub-Saharan Africa, which are by definition ours as well, and which are related to the triumph of peace and security, the fight against poverty, the advance of democratic principles, the improvement of the status of women, the mitigation of and adaptation to climate change and the orderly and coordinated management of migration flows. — And how can the time lost in Asia and the Pacific be recovered? — It is a region of enormous dynamism, vitality and increasing global presence. Our

● the interview

objective is to continue responding to the legitimate demands of the different sectors of society, supporting the initiatives in the region of the local and autonomous administrations, entrepreneurs, and cultural and social agents. — In what way? — We are preparing an Asia-Pacific Plan 3 with the threefold objective of continuing to increase our presence and visibility in the region, consolidating the achievements made during the previous legislature and looking for new ways of promoting Spain's image and activities in the region. We will continue to promote an agenda of trips and high level visits, to strengthen our network of political dialogue, to open new embassies, consulates and sector offices and to increase the number of officials assigned to and working in Asia and the Pacific. Other areas that will be given special attention are support for our entrepreneurs, promotion of Asian tourism to Spain, the opening of new Cervantes Institute centers, university student exchanges, scholarship and grant policy, our cooperation in development and humanitarian aid in the region, and the promotion of human rights, with particular attention to the status of women and the policies of equality. At the same time, we want to get more involved in the dialogue between cultures and religions, in the development of cooperation on technological innovation, new energy sources and climate change, and in the promotion of the mechanisms for relations between societies, such as Casa Asia, the round tables and forums. We will also continue to work with our EU partners to promote more open dialogue with Asian nations in the context of EU-ASEAN and the ASEM process, the summit for which will take place in Beijing this October and will be attended by our Prime Minister. Finally, we must not forget -as I have explained previously- our significant political and military commitment to the stability and development of Afghanistan, and our cooperation in the fight against terrorism, drugs and human trafficking, which we have firmed up in these last few years with a good number of countries in the region.



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● foreign affairs

The 5th EU-LAC Summit has created new expectations for this bi-regional relationship that is now almost ten years old. The next EU-LAC in 2010 will be held in Spain during Spain's EU Presidency. We have two years ahead of us to make the commitments adopted in the Lima Declaration a reality, as well as the EU Presidency, in which Spain must lead the European efforts directed towards Latin America. This is a commitment that Spain has made its own, demonstrating responsibility as it has done since taking part in the Lima Conference.

EU-LAC TEXT: natividad isabel peña. PHOTOS : efe

● When you think of Peru's past, your mind takes you back to rich thousand-year-old cultures and the legendary era of the Inca Empire. The journey continues with conquered Peru and colonial Peru, two visions of the world, of time and of the scared; the Peru of the battles for independence and the Republic built from blood and fire. Five hundred years have passed since then, five centuries of fusing a pre-Hispanic vision with Western ways. This period has left behind beautiful pictorial and architectural traces in monuments that synthesize the spirituality, imagination and creativity of the Peruvian people. Just like its citizens, Lima, the City of Kings, is a mix of different cultures, styles and customs. Compared

9 years of Strategic Partnership

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eu-lac summit

with other major cities in Latin America, Lima's urban landscape has managed to conserve the ancestral feel of its rich tradition. The Historic Center of Lima, popularly known as the "Damero de Pizarro" (Checkerboard of Pizarro) due to the highly characteristic layout of the old vice-regal cities, is today a World Heritage Site. And in the Museo de la Nación (Museum of the Nation), one of the city's most emblematic museums, the European, Latin American and Caribbean Heads of State and Government have arranged to meet in order to analyze, consolidate and continue this bi-regional partnership, which began to take shape in the 1960s and today, forty years later, stands out because of its broad potential and strategic nature. The 5th EU-LAC Summit, held on May 15-17, 2008, has concluded successfully. Following in the footsteps of the previous meetings in Río de Janeiro (1999), Madrid (2002), Guadalajara, Mexico (2004) and Vienna (2006), the Lima Summit has concluded with a Declaration reflecting a joint plan that encompasses over 1 billion inhabitants and a quarter of all the world's nations. It is an ambitious plan for whose success Spain, as a result of its commitment and responsibility, can claim much of the credit. “The unrelenting globalization process, in an ever-more complex world, draws its members toward the need to face up to general problems and challenges that are growing ever-more difficult to tackle from an exclusively nationalistic standpoint". These words delivered by the Spanish Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Miguel Ángel Moratinos, during his speech at the Summit, perfectly sum up one of the challenges that must be tackled by contemporary international society. And it is with this purpose -the minister continued"that the EU must take on its increasing responsibilities with vigor and effectiveness as a global player in the international community". This is commitment in which Latin America and the Caribbean must play a part. “Responding together to the priorities of our people”. The Lima Declaration begins with this title; a statement that dem-

The EU-LAC Strategic Partnership fits within the framework of European efforts directed towards Latin America, which gained great momentum when Spain and Portugal entered the European Community onstrates that the EU, Latin America and the Caribbean are aware of the challenges faced by contemporary international society. And in this 5th bi-regional conference, the priorities that heads of state from both sides of the Atlantic wanted to deal with were: eradicating poverty, inequality and exclusion; as well as sustainable development from the perspective of the environment, climate change and energy. The EU-LAC Strategic Partnership fits within the framework of European efforts directed towards Latin America, which gained great momentum when Spain and Portugal entered the European Community in the 1980s, along with an added awareness of the American side of the Atlantic, from Tierra de Fuego to the Gulf of Mexico, of the need the strengthen ties with European partners faced with the rise of Asia and emerging countries, and the increasing network of regional interdependencies arising from the current dynamics of globalization. In this context, it is vital to improve the way in which shared interdependencies are managed and to promote democratic government, improve global and regional public goods and move forward in partnership towards effective multilateralism. Worthy of particular mention are three of the proposals that Spain took to Lima

Three of the proposals that Spain took to Lima are worthy of special mention: the EUrocLIMA initiative, the Euro-LAC Foundation and a Spanish-Brazilian aid proposal to Haiti

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in order to realize these aims. The first ---coming from France and Great Britain and backed by the European Commission--, was the drawing up of an EU-LAC Action Plan on Climate Change as strategic partners. The commitment adopted, as set out in Point 52 of the Final Declaration, has settled on "promoting bi-regional environmental cooperation, with a particular focus on climate change, notwithstanding respective national policies". All of this has given rise to a specific environmental initiative; a joint project as ambitious as it is innovative known as EUrocLIMA. EUrocLIMA aims to "regulate at all levels and to ensure synergy and coordination of current and future actions in this field" –that is, the environment-- on both sides of the Atlantic. At the same time, EUrocLIMA includes the development of the EU's Global Climate Change Alliance, recently launched by the 27 Member States and aimed at less developed countries and small insular states. The second proposal championed by Spain, also expressly included in Point 53 of the final Lima Declaration, was to create the Euro-LAC Foundation. The idea to create a foundation to promote joint action on matters of common interest, from a dynamic and flexible center that is financially and institutionally sustainable was already outlined by the Spanish President, José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero at the 5th EU-LAC Summit in Vienna 2006. The work done by Spanish diplomacy over the last two years has finally achieved its inclusion in the Lima Declaration, thus reflecting the way in which Spain's commitment to the Strategic Partnership on both sides of the Atlantic aims for specific expression in the form of action rather than well-versed, but shallow and indulgent, speeches. The foundation –whose viability must be studied by a bi-regional Work Group which will present a report at the first 2009 Meeting of Senior Civil Servants--, aims to increase the international profile of the EU-LAC Partnership. Only in this way will the political and cultural cooperation, currently underway, be strengthened. Finally, Spain and Brazil led a joint humanitarian aid initiative to Haiti. It aimed to turn the attention of the Heads



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of State and Government of the 60 countries that make up the bi-regional partnership to the serious humanitarian emergency afflicting Haiti. This initiative was set out in a paragraph of the Declaration stating "the need for continued, urgent and effective action by the international community to help the regeneration and development of the country (Point 9). The unstable political and social situation experienced by Haiti over recent years has been a particular focus for the team lead by Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation Miguel Ángel Moratinos. This has been translated into both an internal and international agenda led by the Spanish Foreign Minister, consisting of: treating Haiti as a "priority country" for Spanish Cooperation since 2005; holding the International Conference for the Development of Haiti in Madrid on 30 November 2006; and the visit to Haiti by the minister at the end of April 2008 to meet the government and the United Nations Secretary General's Special Representative for Haiti, Mr. Annabi, all of which is encompassed within the bi-regional EU-ALC agenda. Point 9 of the Declaration thus reflects this joint commitment --thanks to the hard work of Spanish diplomacy--, to "attend to the country's urgent and long-term food security needs" and announces that Spain will hold a conference in July 2008 with the purpose of preparing a food security and rural development program within the framework of Haiti's national plan and the efforts of the international community. It will be presided over by France and Argentina as part of their role in the EU-LAC co-presidency”. This stands as another example of "effective multilateralism" inspired by Spanish diplomacy. These events demonstrate how Spain --aware of its privileged position as negotiator between the EU and Latin America and the Caribbean--, is committed to consolidating the strategic bi-regional partnership in a responsible manner. The proposal from EUrocLIMA and the Euro-LAC Foundation are just some of the examples of this responsible commitment, though there have been others. Spain went to the Lima Summit with the objective of tackling gender equality,

José L.Rodríguez Zapatero and Alan García, President of Peru, at the entrance to the Government Palace of Lima.

Spain took to Lima the objectives of dealing with gender equality, the rights of indigenous peoples and the coordination of migratory flows the rights of indigenous peoples and the necessary coordination of migratory flows on both sides of the Atlantic. And it has achieved this through Points 20, 25 and 27 of the Declaration. In the same way, the efforts of Spanish diplomacy to maintain the European Investment Bank's (EIB) pledge to Latin America –2.8 billion Euros between 2007-2013— have borne their fruit; Point 22 of the Final Declaration includes the express mention of the EIB's mandate to increase investment in LAC. However, despite the progress made, there is still much to be done. The Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Miguel Ángel Moratinos, put it like this. "Bi-regional dialogue between the EU and Latin American and Caribbean countries up to now has not paid enough attention to the so-called "intercultural dialogue", or at least not as much as our rich and diverse cultures deserve". Spain

has been making a huge effort since the end of the 1980s so that the EU sees the LAC region as a political, economic and cooperative ally. Faced with the strength of other geographical regions such as Asia, and the attention paid by the EU to central and eastern European countries as well as to current EU members, Spain has not only managed to keep its European partners focused on its sister republics, but also established itself as a vital negotiator. The 6th EU-LAC in 2010 will be held in Spain during its EU Presidency. With over three decades of history, this bi-regional relationship can only become stronger and mature as a necessary agenda for all involved. In remains in everybody's hands to design the new instruments for this relationship. Pizarro founded Lima in 1535; today, almost 500 years later, Spain is united with its sister republics in a way that the conqueror could never have imagined. This is a conscious and responsible commitment adopted with pride, with full awareness that in Latin America, universal Spanish roots have grown deep, both from historic ties and modern day Spain. In short, from a Spain that aspires to project its dual identity as a European and Ibero-American country in order to foster a deeper relationship between the European Union, Latin America and the Caribbean.

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Anunciada Fernández de Córdova general director for ibero-american multilateral organizations

Responding together to the needs of our people ❖ With this title, the Lima Summit has become an integral part of the process for the EU-LAC Strategic Partnership. This process reflects both European efforts directed towards Latin America and the EU's intention to consolidate these ties. In this way it contributes to overcoming political and social fragmentation, the equality gap and lack of integration, as well as working towards strengthening stable democracies, cohesive societies and solid integration processes, for the benefit of its citizens. ❖ Without a doubt, the drive that motivated and still motivates Spain's American orientation since it joined the European Community has been decisive. At that point there was a qualitative and quantitative change to the EU's level of commitment to Latin America. The most obvious outcome of this was the creation of the EU-LAC Biennial Summits in 1999. Following that first Rio Summit, the impetus has been maintained for the four subsequent summits. ❖ The Lima Summit took place at a time of important change for Latin America and Europe. Nine years since this Strategic Partnership was first created, Lima has given us the opportunity to take stock of the development of our relations and propose new approaches in the face of a greatly changing world. ❖ This summit focused on two themes: poverty, inequality and exclusion, and sustainable development. Fighting poverty, inequality and exclusion are three fundamental compo-

nents for achieving social cohesion. Climate change is a shared challenge that requires an urgent and collective response, and dealing with climate instability is a central factor in the reduction of poverty. At the 2006 Vienna Summit it was decided to launch a political dialogue on this issue and since then, environmental issues have been taking on more and more importance on the international agenda. This has meant that bi-regional cooperation in this field has become a shared strategic objective for Lima. ❖ The Lima Declaration adopts an agenda covering the main themes of the Summit. Thus, the Summit demonstrates the inextricable interdependency between poverty and the effects of climate change and environmental deterioration. ❖ A consensus was quickly reached between the two regions on the Agenda for poverty, equality and exclusion. As part of the agenda, a commitment was established to identify new channels for bi-regional cooperation for promoting the development of effective social policies, economic growth with distributive impact, social involvement and a sense of ownership. Upon Spain's initiative, other important issues will be addressed, such as migration, where it has been agreed that we will begin a structured and comprehensive dialogue, promote gender equality and the rights of indigenous peoples, confront food prices and commit to the Euro-social program.

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❖ The Environmental Agenda The Environmental Agenda is an innovative element of the Summit process, achieving specific results and financial commitments. LAC is the region that displays the greatest convergence with the EU on climate change issues at international forums. Included in the declaration are the great global challenges of climate change, cooperation in sustainable energy, environmental protection, focus on biodiversity, water resource management and access to drinking water. It also contains a mandate for drawing up an Action Plan on climate change and an environmental initiative known as "EUrocLIMA", with an initial funding of 5 million Euros. ❖ Regional Partnership processes were also covered by the Declaration, where both the progress made and the need to take into account the imbalances within the different processes (EUMERCOSUR, EU-CAN and EU-Central America) are recognized. ❖ Finally, thanks to intense negotiations carried out by Spain, the political commitment to consider creating a EU-LAC Foundation was included, as the Spanish President had already suggested in Vienna. The bi-regional Work Group was created with this purpose. This group is to present a report at the beginning of 2009, in which it must define specific alternatives for start-up and funding. ❖ So, building upon previous declarations, Lima has served as the starting point for the first steps towards achieving concrete results. Agreements have been reached on aims and objectives and several specific initiatives have been set up. ❖ All of thisallows us to face the future with some optimism. Spain will host the next EU-LAC Summit in 2010, where it will face up to the important challenge of continuing on the path to bi-regional partnership and will provide the required impetus for the summit to produce concrete results and benefit citizens more and more on both sides of the Atlantic.



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Created in 1942, The School of Diplomacy in Spain is a center of higher education. Its role is to prepare the next generation of public servants, through its academic and research work, for careers in Spanish diplomacy and the Foreign Service. This organization is run by the Undersecretariat of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation

SCHOOL OF DIPLOMACY changing with the times TEXT: mª pilar cuadra/sergio cuesta. PHOTOS : a. zorita

● Enormous tapestries, engravings from past eras, portraits of former directors in their 19th century-style diplomatic uniforms and large heavy armchairs that seem to want to swallow up anyone who sits in them, all contribute to the School of Diplomacy's solemn, almost hieratic air. However, to think that this is an institution stuck in the past would be a mistake. All you have to do is watch how, throughout the day, it is filled with the lively comings and goings of professors and students, demonstrating that it is actually a school; a living entity, which has been able to adapt to the challenges of the 21st century. In 1942, Spain was one of the first countries to create a school of diplomacy, although its precursor dates back to 1911, when the 'Free Institute of Teaching for Diplomatic and Consular Careers and Moroccan Studies Center', was created under the patronage of the Royal Academy of Jurisprudence and Legislation with the assistance of the then-Ministry of State. Its most constant denizens, due to the months that they spend there, are undoubtedly the Masters in Diplomacy

and International Relations students. The Class of 2007-2008 has brought together 121 young university students and diplomats, half of whom have come from abroad; Guatemala, Mongolia, Armenia, Kenya, Palau, Japan, Peru, the list goes on... over the last academic year students of up to 49 different nationalities have lived alongside Spanish students, not only to learn about international law, negotiation techniques and protocol, but also about different cultures and world views. In short, it's a microcosm where students experience international relations and the results of globalization firsthand. However, in reality, the appeal and motivation for participating in the course varies: “I chose to do it because I think it has the best teachers, it's an inter-university Masters course with state backing and they also give you a series of grants", explains one of the 2006-2007 graduates. However, having the word "diplomacy"

During the last academic year students of up to 49 different nationalities have attended its lecture halls

in its name wouldn't mean a thing if the school didn't, in fact traditionally revolve around foreign affairs professionals. Year after year Spanish diplomats have passed through its doors, initially to get trained and then again to get retrained. This will be the 62nd graduating class, and of the 47 students graduating, 15 are women. Proof that, although much slower than some people would hope for, diplomatic careers are becoming more female-friendly and gradually moving towards parity. During the coming years, when graduates are just about to leave to represent Spain abroad, they will return to the school to get up to speed with cultural, foreign aid, consular, administrative and community-related issues, depending on where they are being posted. There are also courses for other civil servants who are posted abroad as attachés, to train them in Spanish foreign policy and protocol. Furthermore, to provide continuous training to those already abroad, the regular course on Islam and the specialized Civil Registry course were offered on line for the first time this year.

● Spanish officialsare not the only ones attending the school. In addition

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â—? foreign affairs

Images of various rooms in the School of Diplomacy located in the Paseo de Juan XXIII in the Moncloa district of Madrid.



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to the foreign diplomats participating in the Masters program, a course is offered every year for Arab diplomats, under the auspices of the Spanish Agency for International Development Cooperation (AECID). Also being promoted by the AECID this June is a course being held for diplomats and civil servants from the Balkan countries on financing mechanisms, with funding from the European Union. Of the courses open to the general public, the most established is on the European Union, which has been offered three times a year since 1977 as an introduction to European issues. A course has also been set up on development cooperation, as an introduction to the world of cooperation, which has been warmly received. Another recent addition is the seminar on human rights, which is already being held for a second time.

● The School of Diplomacy's contribution to Spanish foreign policy is not limited to training professionals or disseminating subjects that it considers to be of interest. It also offers several courses to support the presence of Spanish citizens in international organizations. One of the most popular is the course on election observation, which helps people involved in missions run by organizations such as the OSCE. “The course is fundamental, because it provides you with a sense of what election observation is, its legal instruments and the procedure and method of observing", states Cristina Borreguero, who took the course in May 2005 and was an election observer at the Ukrainian parliamentary elections in March 2006. For those who want to take part in the selection process for international organizations, there are also intensive sessions on how best to do this, and for those people who have already passed the first selection phase for the European Union, there are preparatory seminars for the specific community tests. The school also carries out off-campus activities. For example, the course on Current Spanish Foreign Policy is given every April at the Center for International Studies in Barcelona. Also in collaboration with the Complutense University of

The school is an instrument at the service of the state's foreign policy in its broadest sense Madrid, a course on International Relations, Diplomacy and the Media is being held on its campus. Those who attend the School of Diplomacy recall not only its lecture halls, but also many of its emblematic nooks and crannies. One of these, for the diplomats at least, is the corridor leading to the "fearsome" hall where the examination board for entrance to the diplomatic corps assembles. It is a corridor where, for hours on end, one can hear the nervous pacing of those awaiting to be summoned for oral examinations. The hours of study invested, as well as the student's rhetorical capacity and a stroke of luck will determine who makes it into the diplomatic ranks. In addition to the corridor "of the lost footsteps" and the examination hall, the library on the ground floor is another emblematic place. It's home to a healthy collection of specialized works and also an unusual lecture hall. Cavernous, covered in wood paneling and slightly gloomy, it has the vague feel of an English gentleman's club from bygone times. Inside, future diplomats and Masters students rub shoulders with one another along with some attendee of one of the schools many activities, who inspects the shelves with the curiosity of a new arrival. Students and professors also converge in the café, where Rufino, in charge of the café and one of the school's "institutions," attends to them, serving coffee. Rufino has been at the school since the Class of 1969-70, and has witnessed several changes in the curriculum and the type of exams included in the diplomatic degree: “before, the selection process lasted two years, which when added to

One of the institution's most popular courses is the 'election observation' course

the time required for the exams and practical training, resulted in many students remaining at the school for over three years... we would all end up being like a family”. Due to his extensive experience, Rufino is part of the school's "living memory". He anecdotally tells of two academic directors who were there during his initial years and went on to become government ministers. He is talking about José Pedro Pérez-Llorca, who occupied several ministerial portfolios with UCD governments, including Foreign Affairs Minister, and Carlos Westendorp, who was also Foreign Affairs Minister, in his case with the PSOE. The café opens out onto a terrace and some gardens, which reach their full splendor at the beginning of spring, when almond and plum trees are covered in white and pink blossoms. The café's terrace has beautiful views and is not only a meeting place for students after classes, but also a setting for receptions after solemn ceremonies, such as the Swearing-in-Ceremony by His Majesty the King for the recently enrolled diplomats. This ceremony itself takes place in the elegant Salón de Actos (Hall of Ceremonies), dominated by portraits of the King and Queen of Spain and a tapestry with the Spanish coat of arms. It reads: “legatione pro patria fungimur tanquam patria exhortante per nos”. This Latin quote is a slight modification of a phrase from the New Testament and in just a few words it sums up the main role of a diplomat: “we transmit the nation's messages as if the nation itself were speaking through us”. The School of Diplomacy has been built, therefore, as an instrument at the service of the state's foreign policy in its broadest sense. On the one hand, it selects and completes the training of future diplomats; on the other hand, through its Masters course, it opens itself up to Spanish and foreign graduates interested in completing a postgraduate course in international relations. It also enables diplomats from other countries to experience the reality in Spain first-hand and serves as a forum for many different academic activities, projecting a dynamic image of Spain's foreign policy, both abroad and within its own society.

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Ignacio Sagaz Temprano director of the school of diplomacy

A school open to civil society ❖ In recent years the School of Diplomacy has become a vital meeting point for those interested in diplomatic and international relations, thanks to a broad range of academic, teaching and research activities that are transforming it into a national and international point of reference. ❖ Since 1942, the School of Diplomacy has been working as a unit attached to the Undersecretariat of the Ministry, although its history goes back much further. King Fernando the Catholic already had permanent Ambassadors in numerous European capital cities and under his leadership, the King's Secretaries began specializing in foreign affairs. During the 16th century, Spain had the most extensive diplomatic network in Europe and Emperor Carlos I institutionalized the foreign service bodies, creating the Spanish Council of State in 1526. Spain was one of the first countries in the world to have a School of Diplomacy; in 1911 it had already created a training center for people involved in diplomatic and consular careers, under the patronage of the Royal Academy of Jurisprudence and Legislation, and with the help of the Ministry of State, it created the Free Institute of Teaching for Diplomatic and Consular Careers and Center of Moroccan Studies, an immediate precursor of the school. ❖ Currently, the School of Diplomacy offers a broad range of training courses that are open to all civil society. Housed in a single building designed by Martínez Feduchit on the Paseo Juan XXIII in Madrid, it has occupied the same campus since 1942.

❖ The school's work initially focused on training career civil servants, both in the examination and practical phases, before they became a part of the Ministry. It now also offers a considerable number of specific courses for diplomats, within the framework of a continuous training program. These began during the previous legislature and cover different subjects and languages for diplomats heading to their new postings abroad. ❖ Three years ago, with the aim of promoting renewed interest in diplomatic careers and extending the range of teaching that was being offered, the school started offering the Inter-university Masters in Diplomacy and International Relations. It did this through the Collaboration Agreement signed by six state Universities on July 11, 2005. The course responds to the interest that the School of Diplomacy has, through its academic and research work, in becoming a center of reference for the training of international relations analysts and specialists. In the same way, it wants to prepare people for the diplomatic career entrance examination and, therefore, in part, the course content is the same as for diplomatic career entrance examinations. ❖ The Masters Program is offered each year and its terms and conditions, published in the BOE (official state bulletin), regulate the admission policy, the curriculum and the grants available, both for Spanish and foreign students. After passing the necessary entrance examinations, students enroll in the School of Diplomacy and remain there

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for a full academic year to study the curriculum. After students have passed the relevant exams and tests, the School of Diplomacy and the universities confer the title of “Inter-university Masters”. It is worth pointing out that almost half of the 150 enrolled students come from abroad, possessing many different nationalities, and that a third of them are already diplomats. ❖ The school also runs an external cooperation program with major Universities and Diplomatic Academies, particularly in the Latin American world. In collaboration with various Spanish universities, the school is involved in offering Masters in International Relations courses given at the Pontifical Catholic University in Lima. Soon agreements will be signed both with the Pontifical Xavierian University in Bogota and the Global Foundation for Democracy and Development in the Dominican Republic, enabling them to offer similar Masters programs. Training and exchange agreements are also being negotiated with the Matías Romero Institute in Mexico, the Foreign Service Institute in the Philippines and the Latin American Association of Academies, Institutes and Schools of Diplomacy. ❖ Finally, we should highlight the substantial number of courses and seminars on international relations that are already established and held regularly. Of these, the following courses and seminars stand out: Islam, Human Rights, Development Cooperation, International Election Observation, Diplomacy and the Media, Management of International Crises, The Current Role of Diplomacy, and the Aula International lecture series, as well as the commencement, a few months ago, of virtual online courses that can be taken from all over the world. ❖ This glimpse of the School of Diplomacy reflects the ways in which it has developed throughout its already long history and how it responds to the changing demands of Spanish society, having always remained at its service.


 foreign action in brief 100 Spanish Soldiers to Contribute to the Stability in Darfur ● On May 29 the Congress approved sending 100 troops to the European Union mission in Chad -EUFOR CHAD-RCA. The mission the EU will deploy in the area is meant to contribute to the stability in a territory that has suffered through various confrontations that have displaced more than 180,000 persons. Stationed in Chad and the Central African Republic, the force will support the UN contingent in Darfur that protects Sudanese refugees. The Spanish troops make up the crew of two planes that will transport UN blue helmets and evacuate the wounded. This is our troops' fifth mission abroad, and is added to the service of Spanish soldiers in Afghanistan, Lebanon, Kosovo and Bosnia. The European Union's total contingent of troops in Chad numbers 2,400.

Spain and China Strengthen Military Cooperation ● The Chief of Staff of the Spanish Armed Forces, Sebastián Zaragoza Soto, made an official visit to China in April to increase bilateral ties and cooperation between the military forces of both countries; his visit included a meeting with the Chinese Defense Minister, Liang Guanglie. After the meeting Minister Liang stressed the solid recent development of Chinese-Spanish military relations, while Admiral Zaragoza expressed the desire to increase exchanges and cooperation in the future, and he took the opportunity to wish China great success when it hosts the Olympic Games in Beijing.

Spain earmarks 150 million for Afghanistan ● Spain promised to earmark 150 million Euros over the next two years for the reconstruction of Afghanistan at the International Support Conference held in Paris on June 12. The funds will serve to ensure stability, as well as the social, economic and institu-

Antonio Zurera explains the project to the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation in Cordoba. EFE.

A Children's Film will promote the Alliance of Civilizations

● The film Al-Andalus, from Cordoban director Antonio Zurera, will be “the children's calling card” of the Alliance of Civilizations, announced the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation on March 5 in Cordoba, the city in which the film is set. The film tells the story of three characters, a Muslim boy from a Persian family named Reza, a Jewish girl, Miriam, and an ex-guard of the Caliph, who all live in Cordoba in the eleventh century. The three will have to protect a small chest with a treasure, which will turn out to be the book by Aristotle, "On Poetry", translated into Arabic in Cordoba, although Al-Andalus places this fact a century before it happened, a "creative liberty that I have taken", according to Zurera.

tional development of Afghanistan through the Afghan Government's National Development Strategy. Spanish civilians and soldiers have been working in the country since 2005 to establish basic infrastructure that will help improve the people's living conditions. Spain's main lines of activity in Afghanistan center around communica-

tions, health, education, agricultural development and support for the empowerment of women.

Accord against cluster bombs ● One hundred ninety countries, among them Spain, approved the text of an international agreement in Dublin on May 30 that bans the use, manufacture, acquisition and storage of cluster bombs. This agreement is in harmony with the one reached in Ottawa in 1997 that proscribed anti-personnel mines, since both types of weapons result in indiscriminate victims, often civilians. The Dublin Treaty does not allow the signatory nations to include reservations to the treaty, and for it to take effect, the instrument must be ratified by at least 30 nations.

The Prince and Princess of Asturias visit Poland ● Don Felipe and Doña Leticia made an official visit to Poland from May 6 through 8, where they met with high-level government bodies. They participated in a SpanishPolish economic and business forum and opened the new facilities of the Cervantes Institute in Warsaw. Spain considers Poland a strategic partner, and both countries hold bilateral summits each year. The economy of the Central European country, whose GNP will rise 6%

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this year according to estimates, has experienced great growth since its entry into the European Union. The expansion of the Cervantes Institute of Warsaw, which occupies the old United States Embassy building, will make it the largest Cervantes Institute in the world.

ern and North African nations to promote dialogue in the region. Headquartered in Alexandria (Egypt), it is the first common institution shared by the 37 member states of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (27 from the European Union and 10 from the southern Mediterranean shore). Its main mission is to promote understanding among its peoples. The name Ana Lindh honors the Swedish Minister of Foreign Affairs who was assassinated at a shopping center in her country in 2003.

Casa Árabe in Madrid moves to the Escuelas Aguirre ● Casa Árabe and its International Institute of Arabic and Muslim World Studies (IEAM) moved on March 26 to new headquarters located in the Escuelas Aguirre de Madrid next to Retiro Park, thanks to the capital's city's council, which transferred ownership of the building. The organization's aim is to organize cultural, scientific and diplomatic activities that contribute to strengthening the relationships of the Muslim Arab world with Spain and Europe. This emblematic Neomudejar building has a usable floor space of 2,646 square meters and includes exhibit halls, a media library, conference room, Ambassadors Hall and several classrooms. In addition, the building's two external wings will be dedicated to the exhibition and sale of publications. Casa Árabe also houses a document center, an Arabic language center and a specialized bookstore. Casa Árabe, which has headquarters in Madrid and Cordoba, is made up of a consortium that includes the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, which provides 60 percent of its funds, the regional

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Socialist Lluís María de Puig, President of the Assembly of the European Council Group photo of the transfer of title of the Escuelas Aguirre as headquarters for Casa Árabe. EFE/ E.Naranjo.

governments of Madrid and Andalucia, and the city councils of Cordoba and Madrid.

Andreu Claret, Director of the Ana Lindh Foundation ● Catalonian journalist Andreu Claret is the new director of the Fundación Euromediterránea Ana Lindh para el Diálogo entre Culturas (Ana Lindh Euro-Mediterranean Foundation for Dialogue between Cultures), created in 2004 within the framework of the Barcelona Process by the European Union and ten Middle East-

● A politician and historian, Socialist Lluís María de Puig is the President of the Assembly of the European Council, the institution headquartered in Strasbourg which next year will celebrate its sixtieth anniversary in the defense of human rights. The Council is the only European institution in which all European nations are represented. Its aim is to promote a common European legal and democratic forum that follows the precepts of the Human Rights Treaty. Lluís Maria de Puig had earlier been President of the Assembly of the Western European Union (1997-2000) and President of the Cultural Commission of the European Council (2002-2005). He is the third Spaniard to chair the Chamber, after José María de Areilza and Miguel Ángel Martínez.

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A publication of the Dir. General of Foreign Communication for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation (MAEC). Total or partial reproduction prohibited without the express consent of the editor. Miradas al Exterior is not responsible for editorial content or opinions expressed by the authors.

President: Deputy Secretary of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs and Cooperation. First deputy chair: Director General for Foreign Communication. Second deputy chair: Technical Secretary General. Members: Cabinet Chiefs of the State Department of Foreign Affairs, the State Department for Cooperation, State Department for the European Union, State Department for Latin America, and the Cabinet of the Secretary General of the Spanish Agency for International Cooperation (AECI).

Editorial StaFF

Management: Manuel Cacho. Editor-in-Chief: José Bodas. art direction and Editor: Javier Hernández. Contributors to this issue: Natividad Isabel Peña, David Merino, Noelia Monge, Jacobo García, Ángel Zorita, Jorge Fernández, María Pilar Cuadra and Sergio Cuesta. address: Dirección General de Comunicación Exterior. Serrano Galvache, 26. 28033 MADRID.

Nº 6. 2nd Quarter 2008. NIPO: 501-08-029-7. Legal depository: AS-3417-07 Marketing, Printing and Distribution: Miradas al exterior is an open forum and welcomes your suggestions and comments:



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Israel will propose three Spanish diplomats as Righteous Among the Nations

Lluís María de Puig welcomes German Chancellor Angela Merkel at the European Council in Strasbourg (France). EFE

Spain continues to promote access to potable water as a human right ● The Human Rights Council of the United Nations will now have an independent expert specializing in the matter of human rights obligations related to access to potable water and sanitation. This specialist will undertake dialogues with governments and other parties to identify, promote and exchange good practices, pursuant to the third resolution promoted by Spain and Germany and approved last March with the support of 46 co-sponsors. This expert will have a three-year mandate and be in charge of conducting an in-depth study of human rights obligations, including non-discrimination, as well as formulating suitable recommendations to contribute to the achievement of the Millennium Goals, particularly the seventh, which includes a 50% world-wide reduction in the number of persons without sustainable access to potable water and sanitation. This is the third resolution that Spain and Germany have had approved in Geneva, with the ultimate goal of ensuring that access to potable water and sanitation be recognized as a human right. It is an objective on which the Ministry's Office of Human Rights and our Permanent Representative to the UN continue to work.

● The Raoul Wallenberg Foundation will propose Spanish diplomats Julio Palencia, Bernardo Rolland de Miota and Sebastián de Romero Radigales as Righteous Among the Nations for their aid rendered to thousands of Jews persecuted by the Nazis during the Second World War in Bulgaria, France and Greece, respectively. This is a recognition that the Holocaust Museum grants to those who, although not Jews, offered help in a singular and altruistic manner to the persecuted. This non-governmental organization, founded ten years ago in homage to a Swedish diplomat who disappeared in January of 1945 after helping tens of thousands of Jews flee the Nazis, has spent months gathering information, and when the research is concluded, it will present its results to Yad Vashem, the official Israeli institution in memory of the Holocaust victims. The Spaniards who have been named righteous to date are the diplomats Ángel Sanz Briz, Eduardo Propper de Callejón, José Ruiz Santaella and his wife, Carmen Schrader.

Javier Jiménez-Ugarte publishes ‘Práctica Consular e Inmigración’ ● Diplomat Javier Jiménez-Ugarte, Spain's current Consul General in Nador (Morocco) is the author of the work ‘Práctica Consular e Inmigración’ (Consular and Immigration Practices). Along with an autobiographical “Introduction”, and a list of "Limitations of the Work”, Javier Jiménez-Ugarte devotes a highly schematic chapter to the “Consular Problem”. The rest of the work consists of an orderly "Formulary on Visas”, followed by two chapters on "Visa Denial Notifications", and on "Resource Resolutions". This valuable work is supplemented by an important "List of Appendices", mostly dedicated to reproducing approaches considered appropriate by the author for

handling various specific, practical cases that were resolved more or less successfully in light of the provisions of Royal Decree 2393/2004, which expounds the current Law on Alien Status.

Meeting of Donors for Palestine ● Minister Miguel Angel Moratinos attended a meeting of the Ad Hoc Liaison Committee in London on May 2 that coordinates cooperative policies with Palestine. The group is co-sponsored by the United States and the European Union, and it is the first time that Spain has participated at one of its meetings. After the last Donors Conference for Palestine, our country became the second European donor with a contribution of 240 million Euros between 2008 and 2010. The final aim of the process is to reach a just and lasting solution between the parties, based on the existence of two sovereign and viable states (Israel and Palestine), that will coexist in peace within the recognized borders.

The Economic, Social and Cultural Rights Pact and its Optional Protocol ● The Human Rights Council of the United Nations has adopted the Facultative Protocol to the International Economic, Social and Cultural Rights Pact. Spain has been an active part of the Friends Work Group that has been working to achieve this Protocol since 2002. The text includes not only all the rights of the Pact, but also individual reports, national queries, a research procedure and a fiduciary fund. This protocol tries to bring the protection of the Economic, Social and Cultural Rights closer to that of Civil and Political Rights. The next step is for it to be legally adopted so it will be binding and so that groups or individuals can count on a complaint mechanism within the United Nations System that protects these rights once they have exhausted the remedies of their internal courts.

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Spanish Embassy in London awards a Prize for Journalism ● British journalist Graham Keely, born in 1967 and established in Barcelona since 2003, has won the "Leonor de Castilla" First Prize for Journalism for his article "Spanish Eyes", published in the newspaper The Independent. The Spanish Embassy in London awarded this prize for the first time, worth 2,000 pounds sterling, and which is awarded to the best work published in the United Kingdom "that contributes to communication and mutual understanding between the British and Spanish peoples". The prize's name is linked to the figure of Leonor de Castilla (1244-1290), sister of Alfonso X The Wise, and married to King Edward I of England. This marriage is an historical example of the good understanding that existed then between Castille and England and now between Spain and the United Kingdom. Graham Keeley, who has his degree in History and Political Science from the University of Manchester, has collaborated on a number of British publications.

Casa Asia and Casa África spoke about development microfinancing at CaixaForum ● Her Majesty the Queen was responsible for chairing the June 14 opening of the conference entitled "Microcredit for Development: Asia y Africa’ organized by Casa Asia and Casa Africa, in close cooperation with the Spanish Agency for International Development Cooperation (AECID) and Microbank, the “la Caixa” Business Bank. Held at Caixaforum's headquarters in Madrid, the workshops were attended by the most prominent figures in Spain's cooperation effort and representatives of Asian, African and Spanish institutions dedicated to microfinancing. Spain is the world's number three donor in microcredit, after only the World Bank and Germany.

Her Majesty the Queen and Nobel Prize Winner Muhammad Yunus at the CaixaForum in Madrid. EFE

The workshops revolved around microfinancing, economic development, and the erradication of poverty in Asia and Africa. The participants also debated what role institutions from European countries should play to achieve these objectives, in addition to serving as an international forum to exchange experiences and good practices in the realm of microfinancing and occasionally as a point of engagement between the principal Asian, African and Spanish institutions linked to the application of microfinancing mechanisms to economic development. At the opening ceremony Bangladeshi banker and economist Muhammad Yunus, winner of a Nobel Peace Prize in 2006 for his work in leading the Grameen Bank, delivered a master class. Yunus is one of the most important international figures in developing the concept of microcredit, and he won Nobel in recognition "for his efforts in promoting the social and economic development from the ground up", as well as the Prince of Asturias Prize for Concord in 1998.

U.S. Hispanic Leaders in Madrid ● Sixty Hispanic leaders from the United States visited Spain between June 6 and 8 to celebrate the Tenth Anniversary of the Young Hispanic Leaders Program, which since 1998 has allowed 150 young North American professionals of Hispanic origin to travel to Spain, with the support of the government and different Spanish institutions. The Association took the opportunity to hold its Third Convention in Madrid. The initiative's aim is to bring the reality of the Hispanic community in the

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United States closer to Spanish society, government, and media. Among the 60 Hispanic leaders visiting Spain were the Governor of the State of New Mexico, Bill Richardson; President of the Congressional Hispanic Caucus Institute, Esther Aguilera; Vice President of the Harris Bank, Ramiro Atristaín-Carrión, and President of the Liberty Power Electric company, David Hernández. Hispanic leaders met with the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Miguel Ángel Moratinos, visited the Zaragoza International Exposition and participated in several round tables.

MAEC organizes the Euro-Asian Meeting Against Terrorism ● European and Asian experts on the fight against terrorism met in Madrid last April within the framework of the informal dialogue process known as ASEM that was started between Europe and Asia in 1996. The purpose of the meeting was to strengthen counter-terrorist cooperation between Asia and Europe though the exchange of experiences. Discussed at the meeting were counterterrorism measures; cooperation; assistance, support and solidarity with victims of terrorism; and dialogue between cultures and religions. Through the contributions of specialists from the two continents, ideas were gathered for the next formal review of the Global Strategy on Terrorism by the United Nations to be held in September. The event, which Spain is organizing this time, is a continuation of those held in Beijing (2003), Berlin (2004), Semarang, Indonesia, (2005), Copenhagen (2006) and Tokyo (2007), which involve implementing the 2002 ASEM Program for Cooperation, co-sponsored by Spain.

The Primer Minister Announces Foreign Policy Priorities ● On June 16, the Prime Minister threshed out Spain's foreign policy priorities for the coming years during a ceremo-



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Ex-UN Secretary General Kofi Annan and President José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero chat at the Prado Museum. EFE

ny organized by the Real Instituto Elcano at the Prado Museum. He stressed his commitment to Human Rights, the fight against poverty and the promotion of peace. The aim is for Spain's image to be synonymous with "justice and solidarity" in consonance with the Millennium Goals. In fact, the President made this announcement accompanied by the exSecretary General of the United Nations, Kofi Annan. José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero wants to strengthen foreign policy towards Africa and Asia. In order to do so, he will made three tours through each continent -and a seventh through the Middle Eastand will open new embassies. Regarding Spain's traditional priority areas, he said among other things that the Spanish Presidency of the EU in 2010 will promote relations with the United States and that he will "step up" his trips to Latin America. He also stressed Spain's focus on getting immigration under control and on leading the fight against climate change.

The Minister visits Latin America ● The Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Miguel Ángel Moratinos, travelled recently to Venezuela and Colombia, countries where he held meetings with their respective Presidents, Hugo Chávez and Álvaro Uribe, as well as his counterparts Nicolás Maduro and Fernando Aráujo. During the meetings the diplomatic leaders discussed issues concerning regional stability and bilateral relations. Miguel Ángel Moratinos

also discussed the push for negotiations between the European Union and the Andean Community with his Colombian colleague. This trip by the Minister to Latin America took place several weeks after the fiveday tour on which he visited Haiti, Peru, Argentina and Brazil accompanied by Secretary of State, Trinidad Jiménez. That trip also had the purpose of strengthening bilateral relations and promoting that region's relationships with the European Union.

and private investments of upwards of 160,000 million Euros over the next six years. Mexico is the number two economic power in the Latin American region, with good economic prospects for the coming years. Spanish companies also have an added advantage with the Spain brand, which is recognized and valued in Mexico, along with a common language.

Latin American Jewish Congress selects Spain for European Gathering ● The Latin American Jewish Congress (CJL) met in Madrid in June for the purpose of encouraging this community's integration into the region. It is the first time that this Congress has been held in Europe. Specifically, it was at the headquarters of the Latin American General Secretariat (SEGIB), where the present and future of the 411,000 Jews living in 20 Latin American countries was discussed along with the best way of building bridges between the Spanishand Portuguese-speaking Jewish communities.

Spanish-Mexican Business Forum Generates Business Opportunities ● The Spanish-Mexican Business Investment and Cooperation Forum will open its doors on June 30 in the Aztec country's capital to facilitate identification of business investment and cooperation opportunities as well as potential business partners in Mexico for Spanish companies. The meeting is taking place shortly after the State Visit by President Felipe Calderón to Spain, at which time he invited Spanish companies to join the new National Infrastructure Plan recently launched by the Mexican government, which plans public sector

Ángel Lossada, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, during the meeting in Madrid.

International Meeting in Madrid Against Nuclear Terrorism ● In June Spain welcomed the Fourth Plenary Meeting of the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism at the Palacio Municipal de Congresos in Madrid. There the Nuclear Security models from each country were discussed. The goals were to improve procedures for control, eliminate illegal trafficking, and exchange procedures so as to be better prepared to respond internationally and to manage the consequences of an attack with these types of weapons. The Spanish government prepared an exercise that simulates a nuclear threat to examine and improve the exchange of information on this subject. Domestically, several departments will come into play, among which are Foreign Affairs, the Office of Secretary of State for Security, Customs and the Council on Nuclear Safety. The Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism was launched by the President of the United States, George W. Bush, and the President of the Russian Federation, Vladimir Putin, at the G-8 Summit in St. Petersburg.

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M A E C A ppearance at the C ongressional C ommission on F oreign A ffairs

Ten points for consensus on foreign policy and cooperation 1 Lisbon Treaty Ratification, Spanish Presidency of the EU. On the European stage, Spain should ratify the Lisbon Treaty and prepare the objectives and priorities of the Spanish Presidency of the Union that is anticipated for the first half of the year 2010. We should build a more effective, relevant and unified Europe in the world, one that is more articulate in political matters and more prosperous and unified in the social area.


Common and Integral Immigration Policy Among European goals is the establishment of a common and comprehensive immigration policy that expresses the unified will of the member countries and tackles this challenge that affects not just the Mediterranean area.


0.7% in Official Development Aid, driven by the Doha Round. We can lead the fight against hunger and poverty in the world and contribute 0.7% of

our Gross National Revenue in the form of official development aid; at the same time that our joint responsibility requires us to give new impetus to the Doha Round of negotiations so they effectively promote global development, ensure social standards, the protection of the world environment and the sustainability of the rural environment.


Multilateralism and United Nations Reform. As a global protagonist, Spain should firmly commit itself to the reforms of multilateralism, which requires us to be more involved in current international relations as well as the corresponding mechanisms and institutions. The United Nations processes of reform, modernization of multilateral bodies and the international financial system will be supported.


UN Peacekeeping Operations and European Security and Defense Policy We will contribute in both the civilian and military aspects to international stability in peacekeeping operations directed

by the United Nations, and we will promote an authentic European security and defense policy that contributes to preservation and international peace and security in accordance with the United Nations Charter.


Mediterranean, Barcelona Process, Union for the Mediterranean. Our outward-looking foreign policy leads us to the consolidation of a Euro-Mediterranean area as a region of peace, prosperity and progress through the development of the Barcelona Process, which is part of the proposal for the Mediterranean Union.


Middle East, Maghreb, Western Sahara. We will contribute our political and diplomatic efforts to the achievement of a visible and lasting peace in the Middle East, as well as effective collaboration to create a united Zagreb, together with dialogueand consensus-based solutions to definitively resolve conflict in the Western Sahara through a just agreement that respects the principle of self-determination within the framework of the United Nations.


Ibero-America, Ibero-American Community of Nations, Reform Process in Cuba. The deepening of relations between the European Union and Latin America is a goal that will stimulate the strengthening of the Ibero-American Community

of Nations, to be achieved with the support of the Latin American General Secretariat, the implementation of agreements adopted at the Santiago de Chile Summit and the preparation of the next Summits as a place of meeting and agreement. The processes of regional and subregional integration will also be supported, the reform process opened in Cuba will be supported through mutual respect and constructive dialogue, and commemoration of the Bicentennials of the Latin American Republics will be promoted as opportunities to give a new impetus to political, social, economic, cultural and scientific relations in Latin America.


Environment, Energy. International agreements and bilateral and multilateral activities will be advanced as part of the fight against climate change, thus promoting an environmental policy with a European dimension, a shared policy for energy sustainability based on the security of supplies, solidarity and the diversification of sources of renewable energies in the European Union.


Government action and foreign service. Legal codification of domestic and foreign policy will be undertaken, including the aspects of planning, coordination of the different players participating in international relations, and the modernization and strengthening of the foreign service.

 spain abroad Made up of ten provinces and three territories, and governed as a parliamentary constitutional monarchy, Canada is the second largest country in the world in land area. Although separated by physical distance and diverse histories, Canada and Spain are part of the same cultural heritage and share the same social and political values.


the largest country on the American continent TEXT: miradas al exterior. PHOTOSÂ : archive and embassy

â—? The name Canada comes from the Iroquois word, "stadacona", which means village, settlement or collection of huts, and initially referred to the settlement where modern-day Quebec now lies. The French

explorer Jacques Cartier, was the first to use the word Canada. By 1534, he had used it not only to refer to Stadacona, but also to the other indigenous settlements around the Saint Lawrence river and the surrounding region. Ten years later, books and maps created by some of the first European explorers had already started re-

ferring to this region as Canada. However, Native American tradition maintains that the first nations had lived in Canadian territory since long before. Some archeological studies have confirmed that humans were present in the region north of the Yukon River and in southern Ontario, going back 26,500 and 9,500 years, respectively.

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spain's embassy in canada

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> facts on canada Capital: Ottawa Area: 9,970,610 km2 Population: 31,612,897 (2006 census) Currency: Canadian dollar Languages: English (73% first official language), France (23.6% first official language), Inuktitut (official language in the Arctic territories). Pop. density (/km²): 3,5 (2005) Urban population (total %): 81 (2005)

Left: Building that houses the Parliament of Canada. Above: Images of the Spanish Embassy in Ottawa.

in 1497, an expedition led by English and italian seafarer Giovanni caboto (John cabot) explored the atlantic coast, claiming the island of newfoundland as English territory. in 1534, Jacques cartier explored the Gulf of saint lawrence, claiming the territories for France. The French colonized the province of new France in 1663, after founding Quebec in 1608 and montreal in 1642. competition for territories, naval bases, and

Birth rate: 1,61 (2005) Infant mortality rate (1/1000): 5 (2005) Life Expectancy: 80.7 years (2005) Population growth (annual %): 1,1 Illiteracy rate: 0,1% (2005) Inhabitants per medical doctor: 476 (2004) Health expenditure (% GDP): 9 (1997.2004) HDI (numeric value/world ranking) (2006): 0,950/6 Domestic income per capita in PPP dollars: 35.494

the leather and fish trade became more and more intense, leading to conflicts between the French, the dutch and the English, with the american indian tribes as allies. There were four French-iroquois wars between 1689 and 1763 battling for sovereignty over newfoundland. in april 1713, the Treaty of Utrecht was signed, establishing a territorial agreement between France and Great britain. Peace was maintained until 1744, when the british invaded louisburg. in 1763, the british took control of new France, forcing the French military out of Quebec. The 1867 british north america act (bna) created the dominion of canada. The bna established a parliamentary federal government under the british crown. canada was declared an autonomous dominion within the british Empire in december 1931: the sovereign became the monarch of canada, advised in this role by the canadian Parliament. This meant the british Parliament no longer had direct authority over canada, although fundamental legal decisions were still made in the United Kingdom. Eventually, canada gained constitutional autonomy in 1982 with the Patriation of the constitution. Today, canada belongs both to the Francophonie and the british commonwealth of Nations. It is officially a bilingual country with French spoken broadly across the eastern provinces of Quebec and new brunswick, East ontario and in specific communities along its western side. Economically, canada is an industrial and technologically advanced nation, and is largely energy self-sufficient thanks to its vast resource of fossil fuels, and its nu-

Spain and Canada are two countries with a strong focus abroad, who defend democratic values and world security within the framework of international cooperation. clear and hydroelectric power generation. its economy has traditionally been based on its abundant natural resources and trade, particularly with the United states. With its wealth of natural resources, skilled labor force and the capital city's modern layout, canada enjoys solid economic prospects. canada holds an important status on the international stage, due to its active involvement in a variety of multilateral forums and organizations and its contribution to worldwide geopolitical stability. its foreign policy is marked, even today, by the legacy of lester b. Pearson; a canadian diplomat who ran the department of Foreign affairs and Trade between 1946 and 1957 and was Prime minister between 1963 and 1968. during this period, Pearson positioned canada as a defender of multilateralism and the use of diplomatic channels for conflict resolution.

â—? Relations between Canada and Spain. although canada and spain have traditionally been separated by physical distance and their diverse histories, both countries are part of the same Western cultural heritage and in essence share the same social and political values. nevertheless, there has been no shortage


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spain's embassy in canada

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Natural resources and tourism are the top-ranked assets in the Canadian economy.

of historical encounters, some of these lasting for many years. Spanish fishermen, especially Galicians and Basques, have frequented the waters and shores of Canada's coastal provinces since the 16th century, and have even ventured down the Saint Lawrence Seaway. Later on, Canada's western coasts were explored by Spanish sailors, who arrived at the shores of what is now known as British Columbia. The names and memories of those seafarers can still be found there. In the 20th century, Canada established its embassy in Madrid in 1953, following the revocation of a United Nations recommendation which, since 1946, had demanded the breaking-off of diplomatic relations with the Spanish regime. Nevertheless, the Canadian government had kept a trade representative in Madrid during this period. Today, Spain and Canada are two countries with a strong focus abroad. They both defend democratic values and world security within the framework of international cooperation. They closely collaborate in the fight against terrorism; they are committed to rebuilding countries, such as Afghanistan; they have been firm supporters of banning anti-personnel mines and of creating an International Criminal Court, and they are great allies in the multilateral arena, working within the United Nations, the Atlantic Alliance, the OECD and the WTO. They also share a common interest in developing relations with Latin America. In addition, Spain and Canada have excellent cultural and academic relations.

Spain is interested in the innovative and original nature of Canadian art and culture, and its cultural and social diversity. Issues related to nationalism, multilingualism and immigration are studied in Spanish universities and research institutes. Bilateral economic relations have seen a significant increase in recent years and currently have great growth potential. Spain and Canada are working closely together in science and technology, giving rise to joint initiatives of great strategic interest. Both countries cooperate closely and productively in the area of fisheries, and their governments regularly meet to promote initiatives for achieving the common goal of conserving fish populations and marine ecosystems. The bilateral trade value between the countries has been gradually increasing over the last ten years. It increased to 1,816 billion Euros in 2006. Canadian exports to Spain amounted to 833 million Euros in 2006. Currently, the most noteworthy are exports from the aeronautical sector, agri-food products and telecommunications. In 2006, Spain exported goods worth a total of 983 million Euros

Both countries cooperate closely on fisheries and their governments promote initiatives for achieving the common goal of conserving fish populations and marine ecosystems

to Canada. Its main exports were electrical machinery, iron and steel, footwear, vehicles, fossil fuels, and iron and steel products. In 2006, Canada's direct investment in Spain was 2,155 billion Euros, a 19% increase from the previous year. This confirms the continuous growth trend of Canadian investment in Spain, with the overall figure increasing four-fold over the last five years. Around 45 Canadian companies currently have investments or a trade presence in Spain. Canadian investment in Spain is focused on the energy and mining sectors, information technology, transport, printing, packaging and other services. According to a study by the Exporters and Investors Club, Canada is the most highly valued location for investment outside of the EU for Spanish companies. In recent years there have been significant Spanish investment projects in Canada in the transport, communication, renewable energy production, gas, chemical industry and information technology sectors. In short, Spain and Canada are two countries committed to active cooperation based on common interests in the international arena, bilateral exchanges at a political and economic level, as well as collaboration on security, science, and academic and cultural relations. The dynamism of the exchanges at a regional level should also be pointed out. There are powerful reasons to believe that bilateral cooperation can and should provide significant benefits in the future.


miradas al exterior spanish economy abroad

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The Spanish civil electronics, defense and IT services company, Indra, is the number one information technology multinational in Spain and one of the leading companies in Europe and Latin America. It is the second largest European company in terms of market capitalization in its industry and one of the top three Spanish companies investing in R&D. In 2007, its sales exceeded 2.167 billion Euros, a third of which came from the international market. It currently has more than 23,000 employees with clients in over 82 countries. One of its main achievements is that a third of world air traffic is managed by countries using systems developed by Indra. Also, some of the world's largest subway systems -Madrid, Paris, Shanghai- use the most up-to-date ticketing systems developed by Indra.

INDra, a world leader in technology

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TEXT: miradas al exterior. PHOTOSÂ : archive

â—? Indra's commercial offering is aimed at energy and industry companies, telecommunications and the media, financial and insurance institutions, government departments and health, transport and traffic, the defense sector and the armed forces. Year after year, Indra has been developing a deep business understanding and establishing strong links with its clients. This

knowledge, along with the most cutting edge technology, enables Indra to create a distinctive commercial offering that encourages the development of unique solutions for each market segment. As a result, Indra has achieved a complete and valuable product and service offering, from consultancy, project development, and systems and applications integration, to the outsourcing of IT systems and business processes. Indra is a leader in the markets it operates in, both domestically and internationally. With a presence in over 80 countries on the five continents, roughly a third of its annual income comes from international markets.

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If you had to list the company's main areas of activity in the global market, you would have to highlight that a third of the world's air traffic is managed by countries using systems developed by Indra; some of the largest subway systems in the world, such as Madrid, Barcelona, Paris, Shanghai, Athens and Santiago, Chile, use the ultra-modern ticketing systems developed by the company; there are many countries that have entrusted Indra with their electoral processes; Spain's air defense network was developed using Indra technology; the flight simulators developed by the company have been rated as the best in world by their users. Some of the market's leading companies rely on Indra for their development, integration, and systems consultancy processes, and more than 120 utility companies have implemented its technology solutions.


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● Company history. Currently, Indra is the leading Spanish company in information technology. Before it achieved this, the company passed various milestones that defined its history, mirroring Spain's technological development. The start of Indra's activities dates back to 1921 in Aranjuez, when the first company was created that would later form the foundation of what became Indra in 1993. By that year, Indra included businesses from a broad range of companies and from both the public and private sectors. These companies represented a large proportion of the traditional Spanish product and service offerings in the field of information technology. Between 1996 and 1999, Indra pushed forward its consolidation and growth process, firming up its leading position in the Spanish market, along with an attractive international presence, all of which culminated in its going public in 1999. During the 2000-2005 period, Indra experienced strong growth above the industry average, thanks to a distinctive business model and greater presence in international markets. This was supported by creating subsidiaries in countries such as the United States, China, Portugal and Brazil. In 2006 Indra, successfully acquired the companies Azertia and Soluziona. ● Main figures. During 2007, Indra maintained the profile of rapid growth that it had demonstrated over recent years. In the last five years it achieve an average sales growth rate of 10%, substantially above that of the industry and its main competitors. At the same time, contracting increased more than sales, which enabled Indra to significantly increase its portfolio, which at the end of 2007 had reached 2.242 billion Euros. The company is currently enjoying a healthy financial position. Moreover, Indra has increased its human capital in accordance with its strategic and geographic expansion. By the end of the 2007 fiscal year, the company's total workforce had reached 23,483, with 22% of its personnel working in the international market.

The Paris Metro uses technology developed by the Spanish company.

INDRA'S SHAREHOLDERS Others Unión Fenosa Caja Madrid Casa Grande de Cartagena CajAstur

59,49% 15% 14,83% 5,68% 5%

● Latest figures. Indra has completed the first quarter of the 2008 fiscal year with net profits of 42.4 million Euros, an increase of 25% compared with the same period last year. Sales have risen to 581.7 million Euros, an 11% increase, and operating income (EBIT) has increased by 25%, to 62.7 million Euros. Contracting figures have trended upward to 837.8 million Euros, 12% more than that of the previous year and 44% above sales figures for the same period.

Indra's presence in the foreign market is outstanding in countries such as the United States, China, Portugal or Brazil

The operating margin (EBIT/Sales) was 10.8%, meaning a considerable increase from the first quarter of 2007, when the figure was 9.6%. This was partly due to the costs related to the integration of Azertia and Soluziona incurred in the previous financial year. The cash flow generated over this period has developed very favorably, with a 22% increase. 73% of sales are in the solutions segment and 27% in the services segment, with the later having seen a 20% increase during the first financial quarter. In terms of geographic area, the international market has grown by 15% and the domestic market by 10%. Activity in terms of vertical markets, characterized by good growth in all markets, showed a particular increase in Public Administration and Health (+20%) and Finance and Insurance (+16%). The modernization process that various government departments are currently involved in, together with the electoral process modernization activity in this first quarter of the year, explains the significant increase in Public Administration and Health. At the same time, the increased level of investment from large Spanish financial institutions, both in the national and international market, are the basis for Finance and Insurance.

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Regino Moranchel managing director of indra

Our goal is to become a global company ❖ Indra is the premier information technology multinational in Spain and one of the market leaders in Europe and Latin America. It is the number two European company in terms of market capitalization in its industr y and one of the three leading investors in R&D. In 2007, its sales reached 2.167 B€. It has over 24,000 employees and operates in over 90 countries. ❖ Indra is a business firm with a long histor y, conceived and developed on the basis of dreams and ambition. The target we have set for ourselves of becoming a global company has led us to develop and consolidate a company that is capable of competing anywhere in the world. In order to do this we've had to develop a first class and highly competitive distinctive offering, the necessar y commercial strength and, to the same extent, a proven track record for delivering projects in diverse and complex environments. Today we have become a leading multinational in our industr y, with a major presence in all the important economic regions and with great future potential. ❖ Innovation is the foundation of Indra's business, and it's also key to our responsibility as a company and for differentiating our solutions and ser vices. Our commitment to innovation has meant that we've invested over 680 million Euros in R&D&I since 2000. Furthermore, the nature of a company with a global offering like Indra's, means that its innovation is focused on identifying and developing business solutions for its clients,

which go beyond mere technological solutions. ❖ A large part of Indra's innovation is linked to specific projects with a clear focus on solving the emerging technological demands in the market, that is, those of the end-user. However, the company also innovates with its own internal processes. Proof of this is the Software Labs network, both in Spain (Madrid, Malaga, Ciudad Real, Gijon, Lerida, Badajoz, Salamanca, A Coruña), and worldwide (Argentina,

Our commitment to innovation has lead us to invest more than 680 million Euros since 2000 Panama, Slovakia, and the Philippines), which operate like a virtual factor y 24 hours a day, 365 days of the year. Furthermore, at Indra we have made this vision of innovation the basis for the company's economic sustainability and the key for its social and environmental sustainable management. With this in mind, Indra will continue working towards developing solutions and ser vices which solve the new challenges of our clients, bringing together and combining the skills and competencies of the entire organization. ❖ Indra's of fering is based on innovation and creating value and is aimed at various areas of activity both in the public and private sector: public

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administration, health, defense and security, telecommunications and the media, energy and utilities, transportation and traffic, trade and industr y, and finance and insurance. It's a company with a global offering. ❖ If you had to list the company's main contributions, one would be that a third of the world's air traffic is managed by countries using systems developed by Indra and that some of the largest subway systems in the world, such as those in Madrid, Barcelona, Paris, Shanghai, Athens, and Santiago, Chile, among others, use the ultra-modern ticketing systems developed by the company. Also, some of the market's leading companies have relied on Indra for their development, integration and systems consultancy processes, as well as outsourcing. ❖ Furthermore, over 120 companies have implemented its technological solutions. It is also worth pointing out that Indra has taken part in more than 200 electoral processes all over the world and, as the Spanish leader in digital health, it has developed innovative projects on digital imaging diagnosis. In fact, health management systems implemented by Indra have now provided ser vices to two-thirds of the Spanish population. Finally, the Spanish air defense network was developed using Indra technology and some of the flight simulators Indra has developed have been rated as the best in the world by their users. ❖ Thanks to all of this, today Indra is a global company, with over 5,000 employees at its head offices and subsidiaries outside of Spain, and with international business contributing a third of the company's sales. Based on strong organizational growth and our highly competitive solutions and ser vices, international expansion is our greatest challenge, and to achieve this goal we not only invest our professional and technological know-how, but also our dreams.


 get to know Spain

The success of the high-speed trains is overwhelming. With the commissioning of three new lines, Spain now has over 1,500 kilometers of high-speed rail lines and a network that benefits 19 million people living in the provinces with access to the AVE. Furthermore, another 11 million can use high performance trains that can adapt to traditional and European gauge railways, with the resulting improvements in travel time.


cuts down the distance with high speed TEXT: miradas al exterior. PHOTOS : efe

● These new line openings, the culmination of painstaking civil works projects such as the Guadarrama tunnel -whose 28 kilometers represent a true world first, are in line with Spain's firm commitment to public transport and high-speed rail, an infrastructure that serves as a model

to many countries. In this regard, the Ministry of Development's plans are extremely ambitious: by 2010 Spain will be at the international forefront of high-speed rail (with 2,200 kilometers) and by 2020 this service will have been extended throughout the entire country. 90% of citizens will live a maximum of 50 km from a station where

the AVE (Spain's high speed train service) passes through.

● Strategic Plan for Infrastructure and Transport. However, the opening of these three new high-speed rail services is just the first stage of the ambitious program approved in 2005: the Strategic Plan for Infrastructure and Transport

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> high-speed rail lines





Euros- to the railroads so that the AVE can progress towards its 2020 goal. MADRID As a form of transport, rail travel is the most ecological, most harmonious with the surrounding landscape, the best inteTOLEDO grated with urban areas and causes the least damage to the fauna and CIUDAD REAL flora in its sphere of influence. In various comparative studies, the quantitative and qualitative differences CORDOBA between rail travel and other modes of transport have been shown to be considerable. Scientific studies indicate that MALAGA when compared to other options, trains SEVILLE emit fewer harmful gases, save energy and reduce noise pollution. Statistics from the International Union (PEIT). This program is based on a firm of Railways show that in high-speed rail, commitment to quality trains as a future the energy cost per traveler and kilometer mode of transportation that is competi- is 3.5 times less than that of a car, and 5 tive, sustainable and efficient, and is ca- times less than that of an airplane. pable of stimulating economic growth, High-speed railroads need half as social cohesion and national unification. much space as a freeway. The trains emit 48% of the planned investment in this up to 40 times less CO2 than cars and long-term program will go to improving trucks and there are studies estimating and extending the existing rail network. that, in the long-term, the AVE will save In 2008, the Ministry of Development will 85,000 tons of greenhouse gases. Comassign 25% of its budget -over 4.6 billion pared with other fuels, electrical energy

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contributes to the fulfillment of the Kyoto commitments and the fight against climate change.

â—? The AVE fleet. This infrastructure program will be of little use if it isn't accompanied by an investment in rolling stock. A brief comparative study of Renfe's fleet of trains over the last three years shows the substantial progress made. In 1992, Renfe's fleet of high-speed trains totaled 18 and remained at this level for the next 13 years. However, by March 2008 the total had reached 110. Once the manufacture of the contracted vehicles has been completed, the railway will have 231 highspeed trains; 129 international gauge trains (UIC) and 102 variable gauge (UIC and Iberian gauge). The oldest UIC gauge AVE is the 100 series manufactured by Alstom, which began running on the Madrid-Seville line in 1992. It has a maximum speed of 300 km/h. The trains are made up of 2 tractor heads and 8 carriages with a total length of 200 m. They have 329 seats divided into three different classes; Turista, Preferente and Club (Standard, Business and First Class). The train has 8 engines and is equipped with an automatic electric holding and parking brake, as well as a pneumatic braking system. Fourteen years after they were commissioned, the AVE S100 trains have

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Fifteen years separate these two images: the AVE's maiden voyage to Seville and the arrival of the first AVE at the Barcelona Sants Station.

reached the halfway point of what in railway terms is considered to be the useful life of the trains. The Euromed trains are part of the same series. They have Iberian gauge and run on the Mediterranean corridor between Alicante and Barcelona. These trains, known as S101s, will be incorporated into the AVE fleet in 2009, after they have been redesigned and fitted out to run on international gauge tracks. On February 26, 2005, the AVE S102 trains built by the Talgo-Bombardier consortium started running on the MadridZaragoza-Lleida line. The fleet is made up of 46 vehicles. Each train can reach a maximum speed of 330 km/h and has an autopilot system supported by modern signaling systems. The AVE S103 is built to reach a speed of 350 km/h, meaning that this train is the fastest on the Spanish high-speed network. The train has a distributed traction system, which means that the traction equipment is spread out along the underside of the carriages. This allows almost the full length of the train to be used for travelers and on-board services. This also enables full advantage to be taken of traction capacity, as half of the axles are motor-driven.

● Traveler profile. AVE customers have a clearly defined profile that has changed little since it was first commissioned. The parameters that have changed the most are the sex of the travelers, tending towards an equal number of men and women, and their reasons for travelling. In 1992, these were above all for leisure purposes, whereas now over half of AVE

customers travel for work purposes and 29% for family reasons.

● 15 years of high-speed rail in Spain. The history of high speed rail began between on the route between Madrid and Seville on April 21, 1992. On that day, at seven in the morning, both of Renfe's so-called AVE trains departed from Santa Justa in Seville and Puerta de Atocha in Madrid. In less than three hours and travelling at 250 km/h, they covered the 471 km of the new international gauge rail line linking Seville with Madrid and Andalusia with the Meseta, using a different route than the traditional line through Despeñaperros. High-speed rail had arrived in Spain. The commissioning of the MadridSeville AVE would later create a specific demand for the towns located en route such as Ciudad Real and Puertollano. This led to another specific service being created; a high-frequency service that linked La Mancha's provincial capitals with Madrid. This service was originally given the name “Lanzaderas” and is currently known as “Avant”. On December 29, 2004, the SevilleCordoba line was opened. It had trains specifically designed for mid-range distances: the S104 manufactured by Alstom-CAF, today exclusive to the "Avant" service.

The AVE reaches 19 million people and a further 11 million benefit from a significant reduction in travel times

On November 15, 2005, the MadridToledo line opened, a mid-range high speed service that has been a resounding success: 2 million people have travelled on this Avant train since it opened. Making use of infrastructure from the Madrid-Seville line, the extension project to connect the Spanish capital with Malaga began in Cordoba. In December 2006, the Cordoba-Antequera section opened, which reduced the travelling time from Madrid to Malaga to 3 hours and 50 minutes. With the construction of the Madrid connection, Valladolid has become an important junction for accessing northeast Spain and the Cantabrian coast. The trains arrive there on the high-speed rail line and then continue on to the conventional rail line using the variable gauge axles. On October 11, 2003, the 175 km/h commercial service between Madrid and Lleida started. The service combined both AVE S100 and Altaria trains. The rolling stock tests didn't begin until midway through 2004, after an agreement was signed between Renfe and the then Gestor de Infraestructuras Ferroviarias (Spain's railway infrastructure operator). This gave the green light to the S102 approval tests on the Madrid-ZaragozaLleida line. At the same time, the tests for the ERTMS signaling system were initiated. These had to combine the equipment installed on the ground with the on-board equipment and the outcome was, in May 2006, that the S102 commercial speed increased to 250 km/h. With the S102 trains already running at 250 km/h on the Madrid-Lleida line, midway through December 2006 a new and important milestone took place when the Lleida-Camp de Tarragona section opened. This meant that AVE trains had extended their route to within less than 100 km from Barcelona. May 2007 saw another milestone when the ERTMS safety system was adopted as the standard. This enabled the commercial speed of the S102 trains to be increased to 300 km/h. Since February 2008, the AVE has connected Madrid and Barcelona on a route that rarely takes longer than two and a half hours.

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José salgueiro Carmona chAirmAn of rEnfE opErAdorA

Spain, a world leader in high-speed rail ❖ The arrival of high-speed railto Barcelona, Malaga and Valladolid over the recently commissioned lines has been the culmination of an extremely important public works effort and marks a new historical milestone in Spanish railroad history. With the new lines, over 29 million people have access to safe, quick, efficient and environmentally friendly transportation, thanks to the versatility of Renfe's fleet of trains, some of which can run on both international gauge or Iberian gauge tracks using their variable gauge axles. ❖ This feature is especially important for Valladolid, a vital nexus for new railroad traffic between central Spain and the Cantabrian coast. Now it's not just AVE trains that go to Madrid. Variable gauge trains known as Alvia are now running as well, taking an hour off the travel time between Madrid and cities such as Gijon, Santander and Bilbao. ❖ These new ser vices are not the end of the line. More new high-speed lines will continue to be built and we can guarantee that in 2010, Spain will be the world leader in high-speed rail, with a railroad network of 2,200 kilometers. The firm backing for this mode of transport will improve national cohesion, bring it closer to citizens and companies and be a powerful impetus for economic relations in different sectors.

❖ For all of these reasons, this is, more than ever, the time of the train. The new Madrid-Barcelona connection enables people to travel between the two main Spanish cities in little over two and a half hours, with no stops and in comfort, from city center to city center. On May 6 of this year, only two and a half months after the AVE came to the Catalonian capital, Renfe had

clocked one million passengers on the Madrid-Zaragoza-Barcelona corridor. Of those, 403,000 made the full trip from Madrid to Barcelona, which is a 75% increase in rail travel between the two capitals. ❖ Similar, and even higher increases have been recorded on the new highspeed lines. For example, the MadridValladolid-Cantabrian coast north corridor has seen a 100% increase in train use and an 89% increase for the Madrid-Malaga line. This demonstrates the great enthusiasm with which highspeed rail services have been received

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in Spain, an country ideally suited for this fast, secure, ecological, reliable and punctual mode of transportation. ❖ One of the keys to its success is its punctuality. The punctuality rating for Renfe's high-speed trains in 2007 was 98.54%, the highest in Europe and second in the world behind Japan Railways. In Europe, Renfe is miles ahead of the British, German and Swiss rail operators and even France, the pioneer and champion of European high-speed rail. ❖ The new era for trains in Spain is accompanied by a reorganization of Renfe's long distance services. Now customers can choose different types of fares, in line with a flexible system that brings rail travel closer to citizens. This is complemented by better Internetbased ticketing facilities, to make the whole process of rail travel a more comfortable and direct experience. ❖ The high-speed rail lines have also helped to create new services in the public interest: the Avant trains, providing mid-range high-speed rail services. The CórdobaMalaga, Madrid-Segovia, Lleida-TarragonaBarcelona and ZaragozaHuesca lines have joined the already established lines of Madrid-Ciudad Real-Puertollano, Seville-Cordoba and Madrid-Toledo. These trains are used by travelers who regularly use the train to for their day-to-day trips and the fare system offers very affordable prices based on a flexible season ticket system. ❖ High-speed rail in Spain began in 1992. Since then, Renfe trains have become an international benchmark for quality, efficiency, customer service and punctuality. Our experience and level of quality are the best guarantee for tackling the challenges that we have to face in the future.


miradas al exterior the way of st. james

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sT. JaMes WaY 1,200 years walking together

miradas al exterior

the way of st. james

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There was a time when all roads led to Santiago de compostela. on sea and land, from the north and the South and above all the East, via the camino Francés (The French Way), the route par excellence. For the last twelve centuries, millions of pilgrims from all corners of Europe have shared a common mission: to complete the old World's first cultural itinerary, a route that contributed to the forging of the current European consciousness. TEXT: daVid mErino. PHoTos : EfE and arCHiVE

● The Ruta Jacobea (Way of st. James) involved an indefatigable transfer of ideas along an extraordinarily long network of roads. In Spain, its influence can be found in music, literature and art. The Order of Cluny and its monasteries, in addition to spreading roman orthodox worship to the detriment of the traditional Mozarabic Rite, brought with them the new pan-European Romanesque style, the first style after the fall of the roman Empire that managed to establish itself throughout the whole of Europe. Goethe affirmed that “Europe was created on a pilgrimage to Compostela”. a merit recognized by the Council of Europe in 1987, which conferred upon it the title of 'First European Cultural Itinerary' for "constituting a model of tolerance, shared knowledge and solidarity, as well as a forum for dialogue and the consolidation of the idea of Europe." Five years later, UNESCO declared it a World Heritage site for “having played a fundamental role in encouraging cultural exchange between the iberian peninsula and the rest of Europe". In 2004, the Way of st. James also received the Prince of asturias award for Concord for being a "symbol of fraternity and a unifying force for European consciousness". ● From Jaffa to Iria Flavia. Christian tradition holds that upon the death of Jesus, the Apostles spread out over the Roman provinces to preach the Gospel and by chance, St. James the Greater was given spain. after only a few years and having had little success, he returned to Palestine where he was decapitated. The legend tells how two of his disciples took his body from Jaffa Port up to Iria Flavia, via the Mediterranean, to bury him in Hispania. Once in Galicia, the oxen that were pulling his funeral cart stopped in libredón forest, which was interpreted as divine intention indicating that this was to be his

place of burial. on this site today is the city of santiago de Compostela. The Galician capital takes its name from the name of the saint and ‘campus stellae’ (field of stars), a reference to the discovery of the tomb. This took place in the 9th century when a hermit saw shooting stars above the exact location of santiago's remains. The region was part of the dominion of Alfonso II, the King of Asturias. It was a small State, isolated from the rest of Christianity and which shared the iberian Peninsula with a moorish Emirate of Cordoba in the midst of full economic and cultural expansion. oviedo's dynasty would take advantage of the pilgrimages to santiago to consolidate its power and form alliances with other European kingdoms.

● The Camino Francés (French Way) or the route of King Sancho. around the year 1000, other Christian kingdoms in addition to asturias began to emerge within the region known as the marca Hispanica, territories that Charlemagne favored as a buffer between his empire and al andalus. one of the regions became the Kingdom of Nájera-Pamplona and its sovereign, Sancho III the Great, declared himself Emperor of all Spain, unifying all of the Christian territories of the peninsula under his control. King Sancho's influence enabled him to establish the Camino francés as we know it today. The spanish part of the route begins in somport and roncesvalles and crosses Navarra, La Rioja, Castile, León and Galicia, ending up at the Cathedral de santiago de Compostela. After the Camino Francés, the Camino del norte (northern route) is the second most popular route to santiago; this route passes through Galicia after running along the Cantabrian coast. Pilgrims from the British isles arrived on the Camino inglés (English Route), which took them across the sea to the ports in la Coruña. also commonly used were the Camino Portugués (Portuguese route) and the ruta de la Plata

projEcT oiTokEn Oitoken is a program set up by the Belgian government in 1982 as an alternative penalty for young prisoners who have been convicted of minor offenses. This initiative makes use of the Way of St. James as a form of reeducation and reintegration. More than 60% of these prisoners that traveled to Spain to trek the Way of St. James have experienced a highly positive reintegration into society.

ThE FirST EVEr TouriST guidE The Calixtinus Codex contains the impressions of the priest of Poitou, Aymeric Picaud, during his visit to Santiago in 1140, and it is considered as the first-ever tourist guide. Picaud divides the Camino Francés into three stages and details the distances between the towns, the sanctuaries and the monuments he encounters along the way. Despite not offering a very favorable view of some of Spain's towns, the monks of Cluny attributed the work to Pope Calixto II, hence its name.


miradas al exterior the way of st. james

● get to know spain

(silver route) that approached Compostela from the south. ● Who makes the pilgrimage to Santiago? Each year millions of pilgrims visit Santiago de Compostela, although only around one hundred thousand get there by the traditional means: on foot, bicycle or horseback. In 2007, for the first time in recent history, more than half of the 114,000 pilgrims that traveled there in this way were from abroad. Of the European countries, most pilgrims came from Germany, Italy, france and Portugal. of the countries on the other side of the Atlantic, most came from the United states and Canada. in total there were pilgrims from 122 countries. There were 55,326 people from Spain that embarked on the route. The region with the most travelers was Madrid, followed by Catalonia, Andalusia, the Valencian Community and the Basque Country. The Camino Francés has an extensive network of lodgings, the vast majority of which are free. it is also the route chosen by 80% of pilgrims. in order to gain access to the lodgings you just need to show a 'credencial del peregrino' (Pilgrim's Passport). This is a document that you get stamped as you traverse the Way of St. James, proving that you've actu-

> The CaMino franCés (frenCh WaY) To sanTiago

león founded new cities and encouraged the holding of fairs and markets. The medieval customs duties bear witness to a trade of international proportions, which included the selling of spices, oil and cloth from Al Andalus, the Flemish Region, England, and Byzantium. They also ordered the repair of Roman roads and bridges, and had new ones built; as well as hospitals, inns and government buildings. The need for infrastructure was such that the main saints that the route had provided, santo domingo de la Calzada and san Juan de Ortega, focused their energy on building new bridges and hospitals. The proliferation of new churches was equally spectacular. Through 1300 AD, a large number of hermitages, churches, monasteries and cathedrals were built. some careful studies calculate that at the height of its splendor, between the 11th and 13th centuries, as many as 500,000 pilgrims per year traveled the route, at a time when there were no more than 60 million people in Europe. In fact, “the true pilgrims,” as Dante stated in his writings, are those that travel the Way of st. James (in Spanish, "peregrinos"). Those that went to rome or Jerusalem would be called

ally done the route. it is this document that enables you to receive the ‘Compostelana’ upon arriving in Santiago, which for Catholics means that the time the soul spends in purgatory is halved. in a Jacobean Holy Year, it amounts to a full indulgence. In the Middle Ages, religion and politics were inextricably joined and it was not unusual that Pope Calixto II, who awarded the Holy Year to Santiago, was the uncle of Alfonso VII, King of León. This decision meant that pilgrims who visit the tomb of the apostle on a year when July 25 (santiago day) falls on a sunday can receive plenary indulgence: a full pardon from the punishment due for sins. it was a unique privilege in Christianity. Rome itself, Caput mundi, only holds a Holy Year every twentyfive years. The Jacobean Holy Year takes place following a regular pattern of 6, 5, 6 and 11 years. They most recent holy years were 1993, 1999 and 2004; and the next ones will be in 2010 and 2021. In these years, the number of pilgrims is many times larger. In 2004, over six million people visited santiago.

● Land of opportunity. For centuries, the kings of Aragon, Navarra, Castile and














PALENCIA p O r t u g A l




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the way of st. james

'romeros' and 'Palmeros' respectively (all three terms translate to pilgrim). many pilgrims stayed on to live in Spain. Builders, carpenters and glaziers, as well as butchers, shopkeepers and jesters. its estimated that by 1200 ad one in every four people living in the many enclaves along the route came from beyond the Pyrenees. The route is populated with symbols. Some serve to direct the pilgrims, including yellow arrows or different versions of the viera (scallop shell emblem of st. James) on roads, milestones and walls. The GR 65 markings can also be useful to the walkers. These mark a hiking route that follows the same course as the Way. its symbol consists of two white and red horizontal lines that. Going beyond Compostela, some pilgrims embark on another route after paying homage to the saint. It leads to Finisterre, which was at one time the end the known world. There they perform a purification ritual from ancient times, which includes bathing in the Costa da Morte (Coast of Death), burying one's clothes and watching the sunset in what for many years were known as the "dark waters of the Atlantic" to watch it rise again the following morning.





some people interpret the Way of st. James as the legacy of a tradition that predates Christianity, a west-bound journey for personal growth, whose symbols would have been Christianized by the religious orders along the Way, in particular those of Cluny and the Templars. In fact, there are those who believe that the Templars had a highly refined coded language and claim that they invented the Game of the Goose to create an enemy-proof map of the Way. Legends, miracles and a history full of anecdotes have fascinated pilgrims from all over the world. Towards the end of the 16th century, Spain and England were irreconcilable enemies and the spanish Armada had just been defeated, when felipe ii had used it to try to invade Great Britain. In revenge, 23 English ships, at the command of Sir Francis Drake, left Plymouth bound for the Galician coast and destroyed la Coruña. once inside the city, Drake threatened to destroy the Cathedral of santiago de Compostela and the saint's remains. At that point, archbishop Juan de sanclemente hid the shrine with the apostle's bones and took this secret with him to the grave for 300 years. They were not found until 1879.



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 culture and society PhotoEspaña 2008 reinvents itself with more photography, music and screenings ● June saw theopening of the eleventh edition of PhotoEspaña, Spain's largest photography festival, featuring 69 exhibits with works by over 200 artists from 25 different countries. It will be open to the public through July 27th. The theme of this year's PHE 2008 is ‘Lugar’, or 'Place'; sometimes understood from an ideological, poetic or even metaphysical point of view, other times as something purely geographical. ‘The home’, a masterpiece by the highly influential figure in British photography Bill Brandt, will be on display in Spain for the first time. Other artists such as Javier Vallhonrat, Florian Maier-Aichen, Roni Horn, David Claerbout, Robert Smithson and Cristina García Rodero will fill the streets of Madrid, the walls of the Reina Sofía Museum and the Museum of Contemporary Art and other spaces with images. PhotoEspaña 2008 will also feature A Night of Photography (La Noche de la Fotografía) in the capital's Barrio de las Letras, with a marathon of photographs, film screenings and music. There will also be workshops, master classes and seminars, as well as a viewing of portfolios and lectures on photography. Foreign activity in last year's event took place in France. This year, the event is being taken to Portugal with multiple exhibits in Lisbon and the Algarve.

Spanish producer at the cutting edge of digital cinema ● The Spanish animated film producer, Dygra Films, has started using the latest system for digital 3D filming, placing it at the cutting edge of cinematic technology. It joins major audio-visual groups such as Dreamworks, Disney, Sony, Warner and Fox, and directors like Steven Spielberg, George Lucas and James Cameron, who have also recently announced their inter-

est in three-dimensional digital films. This new system allows the spectator to receive two images at the same time, which the brain then interprets and converts into three dimensions thanks to the use of polarized lenses. Unlike current analog 3-D systems that emit 24 frames per second, the new digital method can produce 144 images per second. The company is preparing its fourth film, Holy Night!, the only film in this new format to have its European premiere in 2009. Other films by Dygra Films include ‘The animated forest’, ‘Dream of a night in San Juan’ and ‘The spirit of the forest’, which will be released on September 5 this year.

S.M. la Reina Sofía y el Ministro de Cultura griego, Mijalis Liapis durante la inauguración de la Casa de la Lengua de España en Rodas. EFE

Opening of the Casa de la Lengua de España in Rhodes ● In the presence of Her Majesty QueenSofía, the Greek Minister for Culture, Mijalis Liapis, presided over the reopening of the ancient Albergue de la Lengua Española de los Caballeros Hospitalarios de San Juan de Jerusalén in Rhodes, known by the Greeks as the House of Spain. It is the most important medieval building in the historic centre of this Greek city after the Palace of the Great Master. The restoration of the building has been

carried out on behalf of the Greek Ministry for Culture by architects and archeologists from the Fourth Ephoreia of Byzantine Antiquities of the Dodecanese, and financed in part by European funds. According to the Spanish historian and researcher Daniel Durán Duelt, who carried out the historical study on the Casa de la Lengua de España, the building was a meeting point and the administrative and social nerve centre for Spanish Knights of Hospital who built national residences, known as "casas de la lengua," or houses of the language, in Rhodes. The largest was the one known as the Casa de España. The knights who visited the residence came from the priories of Catalonia, Castilla y León, Portugal, Navarra and the Castellanía of Amposta and the Balearic islands. In professor Durán's opinion, the restoration has remained faithful to the original: "it is the first time that we can actually see what buildings of that time were like, as this is the only one that has been conserved whole without ever being restored". Another example of the Spanish presence in Rhodes is the Casa Catalana, built by Catalonian and Valencian artisans next to the synagogue. During their three-century presence in Rhodes, the Spanish left a legacy of major construction projects, such as walls and buildings. There were also three masters of Spanish origin, Juan Fernández de Heredia (1376-1396), Antoni de Fluviá (1421-1437) and Pere Ramón Sacosta (1461-1467) who stand out for their legislative work and administrative reform. Queen Sofía listened to the talks given on the history of this citadel, which is closely related to mythology as are many other such places in Greece. The monarch also unveiled a commemorative plaque. This ceremony was followed by a concert of music of the Crown of Aragon from the 18th and 19th Centuries given by the Valencian musical group, Capella dels Ministrers.

‘Spain 1957-2007’, An exhibition of Spanish Art in Palermo ● The best of modern Spanish art can

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be seen at the Palacio Sant’Elia in Palermo through September 14. Spain 1957-2007 is a monumental exhibit that brings together 77 works by the best contemporary Spanish artists since 1957, when the El Paso group was founded. This celebration of Spanish art includes works by Picasso, Miró, Dalí, Chillida, Gordillo, Canogar, Barceló, Tàpies, Millares and Equipo Crónica. The exhibit is divided into five sections: Tragic Quixotism features works by Daniel Canogar, Rafael Canogar, Equipo Crónica, Esther Ferrer, Juan Muñoz, Dionisio González, Francisco Leiro, Txomin Badiola and Jordi Colomer; Pagan Mysticism brings together Jordi Bernadò, Antonio López, Carlos Pazos and José Suárez; Barroque Existentialism displays art by Eduardo Arroyo, Miquel Barceló, Carmen Calvo, Dalí, Perejaume, Picasso, Jaume Plensa and Isidoro Valcárcel; Hispanic Darkness exhibits creations by Millares, Palazuelo, Hernández Pijuan, Manuel Rivera, Saura and Tàpies, and Symbolic-Formal Abstraction presents works by Chillida, Equipo 57, Luis Gordillo, Miró, Jorge Oteiza, Susana Solano and Juan Uslé.

The Facade of Palacio Sant’Elia in Palermo where the exhibition ‘Spain 1957-2007 is on display. EFE

Bid for a cultural television channel in Spanish and Portuguese ● Televisión Educativa y Cultural Iberoamericana, a Cooperation program undertaken by the Ibero-American Summits of Heads of State and Government,

● culture and society


Francesc Torres at the MACBA ● The pioneer of the language of art installation, Francesc Torres (Barcelona, 1948) takes a critical look at the different manifestations of culture, politics, memory and power through the multimedia installations that have given him a unique place in art over the last few decades. The retrospective, on display in Barcelona's Museum of Contemporary Art (MACBA) through September 28, includes a selection of works dating from the late 1970s through the present day. The exhibition also deals with unpublished and little-known aspects of Torres' work, such as the influence of poetry and the central role played by drawing and working on the image, linking the artist to the language of painting. The exhibition reveals an artist who is much like a painter, concerned with the image. It is as if Torres paints history through the

has recently introduced a new channel featuring Ibero-American cultural news (NCI - Noticias Culturales Iberoamericanas) created by 22 Spanish and Portuguese -speaking countries, and the United States. NCI's programming is centered around daily news programs focusing on cultural and educational activity in Ibero-America and some fifteen television

themes that are a constant in his vocabulary: the machine, velocity blurring the landscape, the pre-historic figure. Alongside these images, Torres synthesizes the vocabulary used in his installations and sculptural work by associating different objects. We see an artist who is profoundly concerned with the physical qualities of his work: the tones of colors, the ways in which the image is created and material links with particular artistic traditions. The exhibition's title is a clear indication of the artist's position following his long career. Torres associates his family's experiences of resisting the fascism of Franco's dictatorship with the subject of collective memory and involvement in the war as an expression of a clash of ideologies; velocity as a condition of battle and competition as the sublimation of animosity during times of peace.

programs dealing with similar material such as cooperation, creativity, science, opinion, cinema, theatre, dance, music, literature and debate, but seen through the eyes of those responsible for it and from the viewpoint of Ibero-American citizens; in other words, programming of the people and by the people. NCINoticias Culturales Iberoamericanas can currently be viewed online anywhere in

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the world through the TEib website. It is also broadcast globally by Spain's national television network (TVE), in Latin America by the partners of Televisión Educativa y Cultural Iberoamericana, and in the US by New York's HITN-TV.

‘Spanish Spring’ at the Museum of Fine Art, Boston ● Boston's Museum of Fine Art (MFA) is hosting two exhibitions celebrating the wealth of Spanish art through July 27. 'From El Greco to Velázquez: Art during the reign of Felipe III' focuses on the masterpieces of 17th Century Spanish masters, while for the first time in a North American museum, 'Antonio López García' offers a retrospective of the contemporary realist. Both exhibits have been organized by the MFA in collaboration with the Spanish State Corporation for Cultural Action Abroad (SEACEX). 'From El Greco to Velázquez' presents 60 paintings and sculptures, eleven of which are by El Greco and seven by Velázquez. The exhibit includes key masterpieces from private collections and European and North American musems, together with works from the MFA's own collection, such as the portrait of Fray Hortensio Félix Paravacino (1609) by El Greco and Luís de Góngora y Argote (1622) by Velázquez. The retrospective dedicated to Antonio López (Tomelloso, Ciudad Real, 1936) features 55 works including canvases, sculptures and drawings from private collections and those belonging to various international museums and institutions. It follows the artistic life of the painter through three sections representing the most important themes in his work: landscape, still life and figures.

‘Latin America: the urgent gaze’ covers 25 years in the region ● A collection of thirty striking photographs characterized by drama and

condemnation make up this exhibit that pays homage to photojournalism and the courage of professional photographers. The exhibit “Ibero-America: the urgent gaze” features distinguished images from 25 years of the Rey de España International Prizes for Journalism; awards used by the Efe agency and Spanish Cooperation agencies to encourage excellence in journalism and communication in Spanish and Portuguese-speaking countries. Among these remarkable images is the photo by the Brazilian Sebastiao Salgado, which won the award in 1987, and is part of a series dedicated to those working in the gold mines of the Sierra Pelada.

Dining Hall of Ferrán Adriá's ‘El Bulli’ restaurant in Roses (Girona).

Eleven Spanish Restaurants in the top 100 ● Following in the footsteps of trail blazer Ferrán Adrià, manager of El Bulli, Spanish haute cuisine is fast becoming one of the best in the world. Proof of this can be found in the annual rankings published by the trade magazine Restaurant, where 11 Spanish restaurants are named among the top 100 on the planet. El Bulli (first), Andoni Luis Aduriz's Mugaritz in Rentería (fourth) and Arzak belonging to the veteran Juan Mari Arzak (eighth place) feature among the top ten. Other stars include El Celler de Can Roca, belonging to Joan Roca and brothers (26th); Martín Berasategui in Lasarte (29th); Santi Santamaría's Can Fabes in Sant Celoni (31th) and the Asador Etxebarri in Axpe (44th). Further down the classification are El Poblet in Denia (66th); el Akelarre in San Sebastián (74th); Carme Ruscalleda's Sant Pau in Sant Pol de Mar

(75th), and el Àbac, Barcelona (100th). Adrià's restaurant El Bulli is considered a gastronomic landmark, having been voted best restaurant in the world for the third year running, and for the fourth time since the awards were founded in 2002. The restaurant in Roses (Gerona) shared the top spot with British chef Hestor Blumenthal's The Fat Duck and the establishment belonging to the French chef Pierre Gagnaire. The list of the best restaurants is voted upon annually by 650 international experts and a jury on which 30 Spaniards sit.

Spanish wines promoted in Poland ● 30 Spanish wine producerswho do not yet distribute in Poland took part in the 4th Spanish Wine Fair held in Warsaw on June 10 to promote their produce in the central European country. Events included a seminar on Spanish wine attended by numerous importers, distributors, restaurateurs and journalists, and a tasting session of Spanish dishes involving participating wineries and a select group of Polish professionals. The fair was organized by the Spanish Institute for Foreign Trade (ICEX), in collaboration with the Economic and Commercial Office of the Spanish Embassy in Spain and the Cámara de Navarra.

Carreras celebrates 50 years since his debut at the Liceo ● The Barcelona-born tenor Josep Carreras celebrated the 50th anniversary of his debut at the Teatro del Liceo (Barcelona) in style with the public. The free open-air concert was broadcast over an enormous screen measuring 36 square meters, on San Sebastian Beach, next to the Barceloneta Swimming Club. The singer performed a varied and popular recital that ranged from baroque music to Neapolitian song, without forgetting tango. Josep Carreras sang at el Liceu for the first time in 1958 in Manuel de Falla's El re-

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Spain, France and Italy moving forward with solar energy

Emesa will build Calatrava's transport hub in New York ● The transportation hubdesigned by Santiago Calatrava for New York's Ground Zero will be built, at least in part, by the Spanish company Emesa, a subsidiary of Isolux. The company won the first of the three contracts for the construction of a hub that will be used daily by some 250,000 people. The hub is part of a future transport network for the city that will cost more than 1.3 billion euros. The New York authorities plan for the network that will connect south Manhattan with New Jersey to be functional by 2009. The Valencian architect Calatrava explained that his designs will resemble a bird, acting as a symbol of vitality, hope and freedom for millions of New Yorkers.

tablo de maese Pedro. Carreras has sung in the world's greatest theatres, and he, together with Luciano Pavarotti and Plácido Domingo, sent opera to stratospheric heights as one of the Three Tenors. But as Carreras recently commented, singing in his native city is always "special". One of his most moving concerts was given on La Rambla in front of the Liceu after the theatre was destroyed by fire in 1994. Another unforgettable moment was the concert he gave at the Arc de Triomphe in July 1988, as a sign of his gratitude to the great solidarity he was shown during his eleven-month struggle with leukemia; an experience that changed his life and led him to create a foundation to which he dedicates a great deal of his time.

● The organizers of Intersolar, Europe's most important solar energy event, have indicated that Spain, France and Italy are leading the way in the development of thermal solar technology. Only last year, the three Mediterranean countries installed a total of 210,000 square meters of new thermal solar panels. On June 12 through 14, the 2008 edition of Intersolar was held in Munich and attended by 21 Spanish companies from the solar technology sector. It was established at the event that Germany was leading the European market with its installed power of 6,500 megawatts. However, this number has not increased for years. Luckily, countries in the south of Europe, including Spain, are growing rapidly in a short space of time.

The 2nd Literary Competition for young people in Ibero-America ● Casa América has announced the second edition of the "Los jóvenes cuentan" (Young people count) prizes for stories written by young people from Ibero-America, with the aim of building inter-cultural bridges on both sides of the Atlantic and to bring together the concerns of the youth in Latin America and those of young people living in the Iberian peninsula. These prizes also aim to discover young Spanishlanguage literary talent and to offer the authors the opportunity to see their work recognized and distributed. The competition is open to all young Ibero-Americans between 15 and 18 years old. They can send their original texts to the following email address:concursoderelatos@casamerica.esAll entries must be received before August 31 2008. First prize is a cultural trip to a Latin American city if the winner is Spanish, or to Spain if the winner is Latin American. The trip will be sponsored by Casa de América and BBVA. The competition is run in collaboration with Editorial

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SM, which will publish a collection of the winning stories.

RTVE goes global, again ● In May, the new websitefor Spanish radio and television was launched, giving global online access to information and programs in both formats. This new online service allows the audience to watch Spanish television or listen to Radio Nacional at a time that suits them best. With access to the Internet, one can watch all programs shown on TVE 1 and La 2 over the course of one week from any corner of the planet. On the website www. one can also watch news programs that have already been broadcast, as well as 4-minute news summaries. The user can now download the programs that they want to see, have access to Canal 24 Horas and even watch the games of the Spanish national soccer team. This is television a la carte with space for blogs both from the anchormen and women who bring us the news such as Lorenzo Milá, Ana Blanco, María Casado and David Cantero, and our correspondents in Beijing, New York, Rome, London and Berlin. The new RTVE website will also allow access to archived TVE content once over a million hours worth of historic RTVE footage has been converted to digital.

The Government and Autonomous regions pledge to improve the education system ● The Ministry for Education, Social Policy and Sport recently reached an agreement with the Educational bodies of the autonomous regions regarding the 10 priority objectives for the Spanish education system. According to Minister Mercedes Cabrera, speaking after the Education Conference, the majority of these goals are based on the crusade against school failure, "or in other words, ensuring that students are successful in their education". These ten priority objectives include increased enrollment in pre-school education, a reduction in

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Images from the night shows of the opening ceremony EFE

ExpoZaragoza begins ● In June the starting gun was fired for Zaragoza's International Exposition, which aims to raise awareness about the value of water and find solutions for a world where millions of people live without drinking water. Aragon's capital city is hosting exhibitions on water from 105 different countries and will be the backdrop for some 5,000 musical and theatre performances through mid-September. And so, Zaragoza has become the city of water, life's basic resource. The Expo highlights the importance of access to water as a universal Human Right and shares the United Nations' objectives that the planet's entire population should have a water supply that is sufficient, safe, accessible, inexpensive, and high quality. The Expo, which is expected to receive up to 6 million visitors, has organized a forum on 'Water and Sustainable Development'. More than 300 experts will take part in the Water Forum led by the Mexican Eduardo Mestre. The forum's activities will eventually lead to the drawing up of the Zaragoza Charter, detailing global solutions for better water management to which they will then ask governments to commit. The goal is to improve the situations of more than a billion people worldwide living without potable water. International expositions transform the cities that host them. We have these

expositions to thank for many architectural treasures, such as the Atomium in Brussels, the Eiffel Tower in Paris and the restoration of the Cartuja in Seville for the universal exposition of 1992. ExpoZaragoza, built over 62 acres, boasts a number of emblematic buildings like the Water Tower and the Bridge Pavilion by Iraqi architect Zaha Hadid. New bridges and buildings have been built alongside squares, an amphitheatre and even the largest river aquarium in Europe. Once the exposition closes, many of the new buildings will be used to support Aragon's business infrastructure or will become headquarters for public institutions and universities. In addition to the 900 million euros invested in the exhibition itself, another 1.5 billion have been used to improve the city's infrastructure.

His Majesty the King meets the President of México, Felipe Calderón at the exhibition's opening ceremony.

the number of students dropping out of school, an increase in the percentage of adults receiving continuing education, and increased spending on education as a reflection of the country's GDP. The administrations also agreed to promote the Programs for Primary Professional Qualifications, guarantee a sufficient number of places at institutions offering professional training and to carry out the necessary campaigns to encourage an increase in the number of students going on to and finishing mid-level education. At the other end of the spectrum, all children between 3 and 5 years old will have a guaranteed free pre-school education for the academic year 2008-9. The Government will invest 428 million euros to achieve this goal, equivalent to a 145% increase over the last three years. Thanks to joint funding offered by the Autonomous Communities and central Government, the three courses in the second cycle of pre-school education will, for the first time, be offered free of charge in 2008-2009.

Indigenous Brazilians in Spain to save Amazonia ● Two Brazilian indigenous leaders from the Raposa Serra do Sol Indigenous Territory in the state of Roraima, visited Spain during their "Anna Pata, Anna Yan" (Our Earth, Our Mother) campaign, with which they hope to gather support for their bid to protect their land in the Amazonian rainforest. During their visit to Madrid, the two indigenous representatives from the Makuxi and Wapichana tribes met with Government representatives and members of Spain's Congress of Deputies' Cooperation Commission. They used this opportunity at the Brazilian Embassy to pass on a letter of support signed by the organizations Caritas, Entreculturas, Manos Unidas, Survival International and Uyamaa. The Makuxí, Wapichana and another three indigenous tribes have been fighting for decades to convince the Brazilian Government to protect their lands. The President of Brazil, Lula da Silva, officially recognized these territories in 2005, but

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a group of powerful rice cultivators who occupy a significant section of the east of the country refuse to leave the area. Research carried out by Brazilian and American scientists show that the most effective way to stop the destruction of Amazonia is to protect indigenous territory, which represents one fifth of Brazilian Amazonia.

‘The Beauty of the Urushi’ reaches Madrid ● From June 13 to 27, the Japanese Lacquerware Association, Nihon Shikko Kyokai, in collaboration with the Catalonian association Urushi 21, presented a selection of its works at the National Museum of Decorative Arts in Madrid, entitled ‘La belleza del Urushi’. The association represents the Japanese artisans who continue to dominate the field of lacquering of art objects and furniture with their traditional techniques. ‘Urushi’ is the name of a particular kind of lacquer and, by extension, it has been applied to the technique used to apply it and the resulting objects. Its shine, quality and the tone it brings to the pieces have long been treasured. The works on display fuse tradition with a logical evolution of style. The pieces were chosen for the annual exhibition held in Japan and have also been on show in Barcelona at the headquarters of Artesania Catalunya. This exhibition aims to unite two very different cultures, those of Japan and Spain, by means of this particular discipline and by displaying creations by artists from both countries.

Cristina Garmendia presents the Government's I+D+I plan to Spain's business community ● The Minister for Science and Innovation, Cristina Garmendia, attended the board meeting of the Spanish Confederation of Business Organizations (CEOE) to announce the Government's I+D+I plan as one of the axes of this legislation. The

minister spoke of the need to "coordinate university teaching, research, development and innovation, while strengthening industry and working in close collaboration with the Ministries of Health, Industry and Education". Cristina Garmendia used her visit to the CEOE headquarters to bid farewell to the board of directors, of which she had been a member since 2006. During her speech she spoke of how the business community "would play a leading role in the future of the economy," noting also that for the first time in the history of Spanish democracy, "research, technological development and business innovation would be represented by one single ministry". The Minister for Science

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and Innovation also said she would be supporting "real action" in emerging sectors such as energy, nanotechnology, biotechnology, and information technology. She also highlighted the Ministry's support for "innovation in mature sectors of the economy as an opportunity to reinvent production processes, so as to allow our country to compete on both quality and value added".

Flamenco returns to Beirut ● On June 14, Flamenco returned to Beirut with a performance at the UNESCO

Madrid's Book Fair becomes an international reference point for the publishing industry ● The 67th Madrid BookFair, held between May 30 and June 15 in the Parque del Retiro, was the backdrop for over 450 cultural activities, such as book presentations, lectures, award ceremonies, meetings, practical workshops, exhibitions and approximately 3,000 book signings. At Spain's most important book fair, readers had access to literature by new Ibero-American fiction writers through a full program of activities, in which more than 30 authors from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador,

El Salvador, Spain, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Peru, Portugal and Venezuela took part. Mario Vargas Llosa, Julia Navarro, Matilde Asensi and Rosa Montero were just some of the authors present. British writer Ken Follet, author of such bestsellers as 'The Pillars of Earth', also attended the Madridbased event, signing more than two thousand books over three hours. The novel and short story are the genres that are most popular with Spanish readers, followed by child and teenage literature.

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Palace of the show ‘Tan Sólo Flamenco’ by Isabel Bayón's company, marking the start of the Instituto Cervantes' new cultural season in the Lebanese capital. At the end of the performance the audience gave a standing ovation. The director of the Instituto Cervantes in Lebanon remarked that "Spanish artists, regardless of whether they specialize in flamenco, jazz or Latin music, are always warmly received; the Lebanese are great lovers of culture". This explains why 1267 students enrolled in the institute between January and June of this year, nine more than during the same period in 2007, despite political instability and outbreaks of fighting. ‘Tan Sólo Flamenco’'s success is the best indicator that normality has returned to Beirut.

The Ministry of Health launches the program ‘Health travels too’ ● Before the onset of summer,the Ministry for Health and Consumption has launched the 'Health Travels Too' program for another year, to remind those travelling abroad to visit an international vaccination center before they leave. This recommendation is particularly important for those visiting tropical countries or less frequented destinations. In order to avoid unnecessary waiting time and to provide the best medical attention, these centers use an advance booking system. Travelers are also advised to inform themselves of the vaccines required in advance, as some prophylaxis may require a certain period of time to pass before they are effective. The Ministry of Health and Consumption also advises travelers upon their return to check any symptoms with their family doctor, as some diseases take a while to manifest themselves. During 2007, the centers for international vaccination authorized by the Ministry for Health and Consumption attended to 238,600 travelers, almost 20% more than in 2006. In order to advise the traveller, experts must consider a number of personal factors, such as

age, gender, medical history and current vaccination status, together with aspects associated with the trip (destination, length of stay and type of travel, time of year, etc.). Once this information has been obtained, they will recommend preventative measures to avoid risks relating to food and drink, the environment (sun, altitude, insects), personal hygiene and sexually-transmitted diseases. They will also recommend and administer the necessary vaccines and, if necessary, they will advise the patient on the most suitable anti-malarials.

Second Hispano-French Cinematography Summit ● In June, Madrid played host to the second Hispano-French Cinematography Summit, which was attended by more than 150 professionals from the film production, distribution and exhibition industries. The summit was brought to a close with a meeting of (notably the youngest) actors from both countries led by Carmen Maura and José García. The event was held in Madrid's Hotel Palace. Here, the current state of the cinematic markets in Spain and France was discussed, together with the advantages and disadvantages of co-productions. A third of the 172 Spanish films made in 2007 were co-productions. This formula guarantees a high level of funding and the possibility of reaching more varied markets. The meeting was organized jointly by the Spanish Institute of Cinematography and the Audio-Visual Arts (ICAA) and the agency responsible for promoting French film abroad (Unifrance).

Spain continues to be the country with the highest number of blue-flag beaches ● Once again, 2008 seesSpain leading the rest of the world in its number of blue-flag beaches. It has a total of 455 beaches and 72 ports that have been

awarded the international sign of meeting high standards of accessibility, water quality, environmental information for visitors and respect for relevant legislation. The provinces with the highest number of blue beaches are Alicante, Tarragona, A Coruña, Pontevedra, Baleares and Girona. As regards Autonomous Communities, Catalonia is in first place, followed by Galicia, the Valencian Community, and the Balearic Islands. Only one in 7 Spanish beaches, less that 5% of Spain's coastline, have been awarded the Blue Flag. However, almost 1 in 6 of all Blue Flags worldwide can be found in Spain. The Blue Flag campaign is carried out on a yearly basis by more than 40 countries on 4 continents. It is an independent and voluntary organization involving some two thousand coastal areas, thanks to the support of the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and the World Tourism Organization (WTO). The initiative was started in France in 1985 by the Foundation for Environmental Education, and it was then developed on an international scale beginning in 1987, the European Year of the Environment.

Barcelona hosts the Sonar Festival ● The 15th edition of Barcelona's SonarFestival, or International Festival for Advanced Music and Multimedia Art, kicked off on June 19. More than 500 artists from 40 different countries took part in the event, with 174 musical performances. This year's edition was heavily influenced by cinema, new technologies and the female factor. The eclectic line-up featured such legends as Yazoo, Soulwax, Madness, Ben Watt and the North American duo, Matmos. There was also an emphasis on the feminine with artists such as Goldfrapp, Camille, Roísin Murphy and Yelle, a large Catalonian presence with CaboSanRoque and Suite on Clouds, and an African vibe from Konono N. º 1 and Buraka Som Sistema.

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k s t o .. . w it h t h a n punset eduardo t) o u r n a l is g a r c ía (j o b o c ja by

the good advisors' club ❖ In the late 1950s and 1960s, economists had an enormous advantage over other college graduates. It was as if they were coming out of the university with a bible that would never fail them. Rather than handing it down to Moses as he did with the Ten Commandments, God passed it onto a German economist named Karl Mar x. Evidence of divine inspiration was especially notable in the fact that Das Kapital explained the workings of the world in a frankly cr yptic language. ❖ Armed with Marx's dogma, economists, sociologists and political scientists calmly went out into the world, safe in the knowledge that, essentially, everything could be explained through the difference between use value and exchange value. The downside was that those blindingly obvious yet terribly abstract truths lacked positive applications in the real world. Their effect, instead, was to turn everything on its head, but then, after a rather long period of time, they had to start again from point zero. Or worse still, from somewhere below zero. ❖ Eduardo Punset was one of a long list of angry young men who wanted to change the world with theories. Far be it from us to reproach him for trying to improve the state of things through policy, and after all, it was Punset him-

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From economics to politics and from politics to biology, this indefatigable supplier of information would not know how to stop proselytizing for science, as he is convinced that this is the best way to change the world.

self who, when the time came, realized that particular path would never allow him to reach his goals. Be that as it may, his time in politics was hardly brief and took him through a number of parties, from the Communist Party, the CiU and Adolfo Suarez' CDS. But a moment arrived when his idealism disappeared, and from that time on his life took on a singular aspect. When he left politics, Eduardo Punset dedicated himself to a completely different, luckily for us. ❖ The path chosenby this optimist, who was born in Barcelona in 1936, was science, the very roots of economics. In any other country, this choice would not have been particularly remarkable, but in Spain it takes a certain strength and substance; as much or perhaps more than politics. Punset must be made of steel, because not only did he try, he succeeded. ❖ Science, something that very few people in Spain believed in, became an unclaimed treasure from the moment he laid his hands on it. I believe the secret of his success must be far more complex than the ability to explain highly complicated concepts in simple terms, because other scientists with this gift have not reached the same giddy heights as Punset. Having a familiar face and being comfortable in front of a camera certainly has its advantages. However, his success is most likely due to the fact that he believes in what he does. ❖ The modesty and candor with which he talks are worth their weight

in gold; his audience loves him more and more, and that includes all of us. This, in my opinion, is due to his extraordinary emotional intelligence; a relatively recent discovery that his daughter Elisa also recognizes in her father and would have certainly picked up on when she was a child. ❖ His is a question of faith (in science and himself), intellectual ability, emotional intelligence and, frankly, a personal interest in improving our lives. Punset must wonder why people are constantly fighting among themselves, when deep down, as biology shows us, ever ything comes down to lasting longer than anyone or anything else. In our case, that of the most complex of all organisms, we must simply keep on going to wherever our path may lead us. And for this endeavor, the best company is an advisor who doesn't make us keep looking back.

 cooperation The AECID, the Carolina Foundation, the Spanish Youth Institute and the Ibero-American Youth Organization (OIJ) hosted and organized the conference, entitled "Strengthening the Fabric of Youth Associations as an Instrument of Development," which took place in Cartagena de Indias to promote the participation of Ibero-American youth in regional policy-making.

Leire Pajín, Secretary of State for International Cooperation, and Eugenio Ravinet, Secretary General of the Ibero-American Youth Organization, took an active part and brought the event to a close. PHOTO AECID.

The youth of Ibero-America unite their voices TEXT: noelia monge. photos: aecid

● “We're worried that they're not listening to us”, “we have a lot to offer in the area of youth policy,” “we know what we want and how to achieve it, all we need is for them to give us some space to work”. These were the feelings expressed by 110 young people to the 29 presenters and various authorities associated with inter-generational policy who attended the conference entitled "Strengthening the Fabric of Youth Associations as an Instrument of Development." Young people constitute the largest demographic group in Ibero-America. In some countries of the region, this sector represents almost 70% of the population. Nevertheless, there is one common feature that characterizes Ibero-American youth: they are under-represented in the political and decision-making arenas, and they have

The conference brought together more than 100 young people.

little access to spheres of influence and to the development of public policy, including policy formulated specifically for them. At the same time, this generation is characterized by a desire to participate, and they do it through local associations and organizations where they identify the problems that they face and propose solutions to those problems. The conference brought together in one place representatives of youth initiatives and experts in youth-related fields.

The rights of youth, a generational focus from a multicultural, ethnic, and gender perspective, development cooperation, and the definition of the roles of youth in the Ibero-American Community of Nations were the main areas around which the four days of activities revolved. The conference was structured in the form of a series of round tables dealing with the instruments that are required to develop youth policy, youth associations as a development instrument, and discussions concerning culture as an ideological engine. The discussion forums and the constant interchange between participants, presenters, panelists and organizers were designed as a way to strengthen the associations in attendance.

● Youth networking. The creation of a platform of Ibero-American youth associations that leverages civil society, that does not discriminate based on the ethnicity, gender, or ideology of the participants and that achieves the promotion of ongoing youthoriented public policy was one of the main achievements of the conference. This IberoAmerican youth network is designed and interconnected through various multimedia and everyday tools typically used by this demographic, such as SSSqFacebookSSSq. It was hoped, also, that the Cartagena de Indias conference would become an annual event beginning in 2008, the Year of Ibero-American Youth. This is the time for young people to make their voices heard at a higher level. The potential impact of the initiatives presented at the next Ibero-American Summit of Heads of State and Government, to be held in El Salvador, will depend on the ability to create a single, collective voice at the grass-roots level, and it should be a voice that represents youth. The achieving of these goals depends on the actual performance of the organizing bodies, cooperation agencies and government entities who manage public youth policy, and who must demonstrate their commitment to Ibero-American youth.

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Inés Alberdi, new Executive Director of the United Nations Development Fund for Women ● Inés Alberdi, a Spanish sociologist, has been named Executive Director of the United Nations Development Fund for Women, UNIFEM, succeeding Noeleen Heyzer in the post. This is the first time that a Spanish national has taken the reigns of a United Nations development fund, agency, or program. UNIFEM was created in 1976, in response to a call from women's organizations who attended the first United Nations World Conference on Women held in Mexico City in 1975. The purpose of the fund is to provide technical and financial assistance for the development of innovative initiatives promoting the empowerment of women and gender equality throughout the world. Currently, the Fund's efforts exert an influence in the lives of women and girls in more than 100 countries. It also makes it possible for women's voices to be heard within the United Nations, all of which helps ensure that current commitments in behalf of women's rights are kept. UNIFEM promotes the recognition of women's fundamental rights and safety, in the form of activities oriented towards four strategic objectives: reducing poverty and exclusion of women; putting and end to violence against women; reducing the spread of HIV/AIDS among women and girls, and supporting leadership roles for women in public management and in post-conflict reconstruction. UNIFEM, whose headquarters are in New York, has fifteen regional offices from which it manages projects in Asia, Latin America, the Caribbean, Africa, and Eastern Europe. Spain is the second-largest contributor to the Fund, which operates with voluntary contributions from the member states of the United Nations. Spain contributed 11 million Euros in 2007, of which 3 million Euros were earmarked for the Fund to Eliminate Violence against

Women. During 2008, UNIFEM will operate on a budget approaching one hundred million dollars. The possessor of a solid academic background, Inés Alberdi (Seville, 1948) brings together international experience, both in teaching and relevant field research, combined with broad domestic political experience. Her knowledge of the workings of the United Nations will also be of tremendous value, as she has served as advisor to the International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW).

Inés Alberdi. PHOTO EFE.

Twelfth Edition of the ‘Juan Carlos I’ Judicial School ● The Training Center of the Spanish Cooperation agency in La Antigua (Guatemala) hosted the twelfth edition of the “Juan Carlos I” Judicial School, a threeweek program held within the framework of the Ibero-American Specialized Technical Training Program. More than 200 judges and magistrates from Central America and the Caribbean took part in the educational activities, whose purpose is to update and strengthen their legal knowledge in crucial areas such as violence against women, illegal trafficking in human beings, environmental protection, and judicial inspection and performance evaluation of judicial bodies. The aim of these courses is to ensure that judges and magistrates provide citizens with better access to justice and that they fulfill their role in strengthening the Rule of Law. The “Juan Carlos I” Judicial School,

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which has been attended by more than 2,000 students since 1997, enjoys the support of the most prominent judicial institutions of Central America and the Caribbean, the General Council of the Judicial Branch of Spain (CGPJ), and the Spanish Agency for International Development Cooperation (AECID). The Spanish delegation was made up of magistrates, prosecutors, university professors, attorneys from the Constitutional Tribunal, and coroners. The faculty from the Central American-Caribbean region consisted of eminent judges and jurists from Guatemala, Panamá, Costa Rica, El Salvador and the Dominican Republic. In the words of Juan Pablo González González, spokesman for the CGPJ, “the ‘Juan Carlos I Judicial School’ makes a decisive contribution to reaffirming the basic principle that ongoing education is not only a right, but also a duty of every judge, and a responsibility of the governing bodies of the judicial branch”.

Spain is the country that has shown the greatest increase in Official Development Aid ● The Development Aid Committee (DAC) of the OECD, made up of the 22 largest donors in the world, submitted a report with data concerning official world development aid for 2007. According to this document, Spain occupies first place in annual growth, which last year grew 33.8 per cent compared to 2006. In absolute terms, Spain occupies seventh place among the 22 member states of the DAC, with a contribution of 5.744 billion dollars (almost 4.2 billion Euros). Spain moved up one place compared to 2006. As a proportion of Gross National Product (GNP), our country dedicated 0.41% to the fight against poverty, which puts us in ninth place in this category (in 2006 we were in fourteenth place). This percentage places us above the mean of the member states of the European Union who belong to the DAC, which is 0.4 per cent, and far above the members of G-7 (0.23 per cent). According to the report, the principal

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Images of the aircraft and freight handling at the Torrejón Air Base; joint press conference at the airport, attended by the AECID Director and China's Ambassador to Spain. PHOTOS JAIME MIRA.





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donors in the world contributed 103.7 billion dollars in aid last year, a figure that represents an 8.4 percent drop from the previous year. The OECD points out that this drop was expected, and is explained by the reduction in debt relief operations by the Paris Club, especially in Iraq and Nigeria. In fact, if debt relief contributions are excluded, aid actually increased slightly by 2.3 percent. Specifically, aid from Spain, excluding these contributions, grew by 47.6 percent. Nevertheless, the DAC warns that in order to fulfill their commitments, donor nations will need to make a concerted effort in the coming years to increase development aid. In spite of this overall drop in aid, the

report does recognize that there are nine DAC community members who have, in fact, increased their aid, among them Spain, which increased the resources targeted to this area by 33.8 percent. The other countries, in addition to Spain, were Germany, Ireland, Luxembourg, Austria, Denmark, Finland, Greece, and the Netherlands. Spain will continue to make development cooperation a political priority, with the goal of eventually assigning, within this legislative period, 0.7 percent of GNP to the fight poverty.

Oran opens a Business Facilitation Center ● Last May 25 saw the opening, in Oran (Algeria) of a Business Facilitation Center, funded by the Spanish Agency for International Development Cooperation (AECID) and implemented by Algeria's Ministry of Small and Medium-sized Firms and Craftsmen, and the CIREM Foundation of Barcelona. The AECID has been working in this sector of the Maghreb nation since 2004, supporting modernization and the creation of new jobs by small and mediumsized Algerian firms. A working relationship between the business promotion group of Oran and that of Valencia had existed since 2007, along with many professional exchanges. Since 2004, the AE-

CID has earmarked nearly a million Euros to this field. The Algerian authorities have asked the Spanish cooperation agency to export the Oran pilot program to another 14 facilitation and business promotion centers throughout the country, within the framework of its national small and mediumsized business development plan.

Santiago de Compostela Prize for Urban Cooperation 2008 ● A consortium consisting of the City of Santiago de Compostela, the Spanish Agency for International Development Cooperation (AECID) and the General Foreign Cooperation Bureau of the Council of Galicia have issued a call for nominations for the 2008 Santiago de Compostela Prize for Urban Cooperation. The purpose of the prize is to underscore the qualitative importance of urban space as a catalyst in urban life, and to recognize and promote public initiatives for the creation and restoration of public gathering spaces in the historic cities of Latin America by means of the transformation and improvement of urban space. The award brings a monetary prize of 180,000 Euros, and the period for submission of projects runs from June 15 through September 15, 2008.

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Aid for the victims of the earthquake in China ● A Ministry of Defense aircraft, chartered by the AECID, left the Torrejón de Ardoz airbase on May 16 loaded with medical supplies to meet the needs of victims of the earthquake that shook the south of China, and especially the Szechuan province. Days later, another airplane took off from the Barajas Airport with five tons of blankets and bedding. The shipment, provided by the

Casa África awards the Griot de Ébano prize at the African Film Festival in Tarifa

● Casa África awarded the Griot de Ébano prize for the best documentary at the African Film Festival in Tarifa to the Franco-Malinese co-production “Victimes de nos richesses”, directed by Kal Touré and filmed in 2006. The Griot de Ébano is the highest distinction awarded within the "Beyond the Straits" category of the competition, and is accompanied by a prize of 10,000 Euros and a trophy, provided by the institution. Over the course of ten days, the African Film Festival brought together almost a hundred African films and drew more than 5,000 spectators. The exhibit has become a reference point for African cinema, bringing in more than 150 professionals from the world of film to participate in its professional development sessions and other activities.

Spain will contribute 500 million Euros to alleviate the food crisis ● Prime Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero attended the Rome Summit of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), where he stated that,

faced with a food crisis that affects more than 800 million people, it is deeds that are required, not words, after which he announced that Spain will provide 500 million Euros over the next four years. He also stated that he hoped that this crisis would be a "wake-up call" for the most powerful nations, "since it is up to them" whether many children will "die of hunger." During his address to the Plenary Session, the Prime Minister affirmed that the Summit must fulfill two objectives: the first is to strengthen the leadership role of the United Nations with respect to the various organizations, countries, and societies who are looking for a solution to the grave food crisis, while the second is to ensure that developed countries increase their development cooperation aid. The President said that he cannot understand how, with "so much hunger," certain OECD countries can reduce their development cooperation aid. In this regard, he emphasized Spain's commitment to the weakest nations, and proposed a high-level meeting to be held this autumn in Spain to evaluate the recommendations of the Rome Summit and to create a "Charter of Food Security Rights". Meanwhile, Spain's Cooperation agencies will implement immediate measures in the form of programs to extend social protection to small farmers and their families, particularly in the poorest countries of the Sub-Saharan region, as well as

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Humanitarian Aid Offices of the Spanish Agency for International Development Cooperation (AECID), was sent at no transportation cost on a commercial flight of Air China, through the assistance of Chinese authorities. Spain had also made a million Euros available to the Chinese Red Cross at the beginning of this emergency, thus responding to a call for 20 million dollars issued by the International Federation of Red Cross. From the outset, the AECID has been monitoring this emergency through its Humanitarian Action Office, and through Spain's embassy in China.

The Spanish Prime Minister addressing the FAO Summit. PHOTO EFE.

specific programs directed towards children under five years of age, who are the most vulnerable in this crisis. In addition, within the framework of the Spain-UNDP Fund for the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, Spain will open a specific window targeted to Nutrition, Childhood, and Food Security, which will fund projects with all of the agencies within the United Nations system. It was also determined at the FAO meeting held in Rome that there is a lack of agreement as to the causes and solutions to the world food crisis. The Secretary-General of the United Nations, Ban Ki-Moon, added that "it is urgent that the world produce more food", and he called for a 50 percent increase in food production by 2030. In addition, he called for consensus on biofuels, a subject that has divided political and economic leaders worldwide.



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This is the section where all readers are invited to contribute, a forum where our readers can share reviews of common interest. Institutions, organizations, and Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation (MAEC) officers who wish to contribute to this section may submit their work to the following address: Revista “Miradas al exterior”. Dirección General de Comunicación Exterior. Serrano Galvache, 26. 28034 MADRID

> ‘How the Expo was won. The diplomatic battle for Expo Zaragoza 2008', José Manuel Paz Agüeras. Ediciones elazar. Particulares Collection. This work brings together the living chronicle of the fifteen months of intense diplomatic campaigning which culminated in Zaragoza being named as the venue for Expo 2008. The book gives an account of the ups and downs of a campaign in which a small team, “the ZH2O team”, led by Ambassador for the Expo, José Manuel Paz Agüeras, was able come in ahead of the campaigns from Trieste and Thessaloniki in a hardfought and complicated battle, where the lack of resources was made up for by the enthusiasm of those involved. The book tells of the support given to the Spanish Expo by the Aragonese and Spanish national institutions, the contacts with the BIE, the strategy of Spain's rivals and its country-by-country fight to win support in Latin America, the Caribbean, Europe, Africa and the Middle East, as well as the perseverance and tenacity shown by the

Aragonese people in their bid to host Expo 2008, which has just recently opened. Jose Manuel Paz Agüeras began his career as a diplomat in 1973. He held various diplomatic and consular positions in Bolivia, Germany and the United States until 1985, when he was appointed as Technical Secretary General for the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs. He has been Spanish Ambassador to Zimbabwe and the Principality of Andorra, and is currently the Spanish Ambassador to the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. He has written various publications on the Foreign Service as well as historical and political essays.

> ‘Boquerones en Brooklyn’ Juan Fernández Trigo. Editorial Seix Barral. From the moment that Fernando meets María at a nightclub and invades her love affair with Barnaby, the harmony in their world is broken and will only return when one of them vanishes from the scene. The plot is complexly strung together in

this thriller, as none of the characters agree on which of them is superfluous in the game, although they all agree that someone has to go. Sex, intrigue, mafia, crime and… "boquerones" are deftly combined in this story by diplomat Juan Fernández Trigo, Spanish Ambassador to Portau-Prince (Haiti). A thriller that gets you hooked from the offset and will surprise you with an unexpected ending.

> ‘Salir del Callejón del Gato’, Manuel Montobbio. Editorial Icaria. The European Commission, the Fride Foundation, the Elcano Royal Institute and CIDOB have come together to launch ‘Salir del callejón del Gato. La deconstrucción de Oriente y Occidente y la gobernanza global’ (Leaving the Callejón del Gato. The deconstruction of East and West and Global Governance). In his book, the current Spanish Ambassador to Albania pleads for a new world order in which the Earth is viewed as a spaceship upon which humanity is traveling, entrusted with the difficult task of conserving itself for future crewmembers.

The author proposes a search for new paradigms for "this journey" using foundational concepts upon which this world order should base itself. There are four in total; democracy, development, peace and culture. As the author sees it, these ideas should be redefined while eliminating any preconceived ideas about the East that are distortions of the truth. He explains this through the use of concave and convex mirrors -like those found at the Callejón del Gato- which prevent us from seeing the situation clearly. In order to show us a way out of the Callejón del Gato, he also offers us his "glue" concepts, consisting of perspectives, viewpoints, values, principles, values, attitudes and the tools to build them with. These include highlighting tolerance as the antithesis of fanaticism. The author has a clear and optimistic vision for the future where The Alliance of Civilizations, dialogue and the drive for multilateralism prevail over the clash of civilizations and other attitudes. In any case, this intense read provides an extremely useful intellectual toolbox for analyzing the journey of "spaceship Earth." The book has the added value of providing a multitude of quotes and commentaries made by the author and countless references to authors as diverse as María Zambrano, Amin Maalouf, Samuel P. Huntington and Robert A. Dahl.

> ‘Discurso del oso’ (Discourse of the Bear), Julio Cortázar. Editorial Libros del Zorro Rojo. The Casa de América in


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actively involved in evaluating humanitarian aid programs and offers an example of the lessons learned during these processes. It covers the evaluation of nine humanitarian aid operations on the five continents with studies in places

Madrid hosted the launch of a children's book written by Julio Cortázar and with illustrations by Emilio Urberuaga. ‘Discurso del oso’ is the only children's book that the Argentinean author ever wrote. It was actually written for "two children", the children of his friend; painter and poet, Eduardo Jonquières, and until now had only been published as an additional text to his famous ‘Historias de Cronopios and Famas’ (Stories of Ill Depute, 1962). The editor, Alejandro García Schnetzer, has salvaged it as a stand-alone text and has transformed it, with the help of Emilio Urberuaga -into one of his most brilliant illustrative works, a beautiful story for children six year of age or older. A clever and fun story about the unusual nocturnal adventures of a charming bear that lives among the plumbing of a large building, causing mysterious noises which can often be heard at night in people's houses.

> ‘Evaluating humanitarian action. Reflections from Practitioners, Various authors. Editorial Icaria. This book, published in its day by the Active Learning Network for Accountability and Performance in Humanitarian Action (ALNAP), for the first time gathers together a collection of experiences of people

as diverse as Nicaragua, the Balkans, Tajikistan and New Guinea. The English and French versions of this book are used as a working tool by a large number of humanitarian bodies. The Spanish translation of this work, funded by the Institute of Studies on Conflict and Humanitarian Action (IECAH), will serve, among other things, to publicize the benefits and need for evaluating projects in the humanitarian sector.

> ‘La casa de Dostoievsky’ (The House of Dostoyevsky), Jorge Edwards. Editorial Planeta. IberoAmerican Narrative Award. The Chilean writer Jorge Edwards feels “optimistic” about the current situation in Cuba and thinks that the changes that are taking place, although "they seem small from outside" represent "progress" and "are important". “These changes are creating a historical dynamic that I don't think is reversible", said Edwards

when launching his novel "The House of Dostoyevsky" which won the 2008 PlanetaCasamérica Ibero-American Narrative Award and has just reached bookstores in Spain and many Latin American

countries. The winning novel, which to a certain extent suggests Edward's literary return to Cuba, recreates a fictional account of the "Padilla case" and the schism among the intelligentsia of the time that led to the persecution of the dissident poet. The Padilla case caused a rift between Edwards and some of his friends such as Mario Vargas Llosa and Julio Cortázar. The book was launched at the Casa de América through a discussion with journalist and writer Nativel Preciado, who also spoke with Colombian writer Fernando Quiroz about his novel “Justos por pecadores” (Just for Sinners), a finalist for the same award. In this novel, Quiroz, cultural editor and columnist for the daily newspaper “El Tiempo”, recreates some of his own experiences with Opus Dei, which he was a part of as a young boy, and the recruitment methods it uses.

> ‘Viaje al Sudán’ (Journey to Sudan), Pablo de Jevenois. Cuadernos de Exilios (Notebooks of

Exile). Editorial Luis Llera Libros. In 'Viaje al Sudán' three friends must face a virtually unknown country with only their hopes and willpower behind them. Without books, maps or references, without schedules, without bookings or guaranteed transportation, they throw themselves into a world that opens up before them as they move through endless deserts, mythical landscapes, villages, towns and shady oases. It is the "anti-journey" of modern times. Travelling on an almost entirely unknown route through the landscapes of Nubia, letting fate take its course, and relying on the generosity and sympathy of certain people who embrace a considerably different viewpoint from that normally portrayed by the media. It will be a journey not

only through deserts, but also through time. An unexpected encounter with the people, history and culture of Sudan.

> ‘Portugal, Iraq and Russia. Diplomatic biographical sketches of some sensitive missions'. José Antonio de Yturriaga Barberán. Editorial DosSoles. José Antonio de Yturriaga has chosen the three periods of

experis en la carrera de un iza en cada caso la situación

jo y la del jurista y el desparpa

os en la pluma.


Barberán José A. de Yturriaga


el Presidente Aznar.



din su dilatada experiencia con el claveles”, que culminó que n Lisboa, acontecimiento la durante misión en Bagdad Rusia mo, su embajada en la époconcierto postcomunista, a ecibe, entre otras, las visitas

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s cogido para estas memoria


greatest interest during his extensive diplomatic career for these memoirs. He begins with Portugal and the “Carnation Revolution”, which culminated in the attack on the Spanish Ambassador to Lisbon. The author experienced this event first hand as well as the democratic process that came out of the revolution. Then Ambassador Yturriaga writes about his mission in Baghdad during the Iran-Iraq War and the development of the different phases of the conflict. Lastly, he tells of his experience during his ambassadorship in Russia, which was still traumatized by postcommunist chaos. A period in which President Boris Yeltsin received, among others, visits from Their Royal Highnesses King Don Juan Carlos and Queen Doña Sofía and the Spanish President, José María Aznar.

> ‘Rojo y verde. Alimentación y cocinas en Marruecos’ (Red and Green. Food and Cookery in Morocco). Isabel González Turmo, Fatima El Ouardani and Abdeslam El Aallali. Ediciones Trea. Casa Árabe in Madrid and the European Institute in Barcelona have both hosted launches of this book, a result of research that was carried out between 1998 and 2001 in twelve Moroccan towns. It aims to study


Morocco's food and culinary reality in depth at a time when the country is experiencing significant changes to its food production and distribution, with the resulting opening up to globalization and the alteration of its market networks and selling systems. In addition, it discusses changes to how cuisine is conceptualized in the wake of the development of tourism and the dissemination of ethnic cuisine. This book analyzes the development, pace and seasonality of diets; the preparation and conservation of food; culinary training; ritual meals and cookery; and people's behavior, attitudes and opinions towards food, while providing us with greater insight into the traditions and contemporary nature of the cuisine currently found in Morocco. The study was carried out by Isabel González Turmo, Doctor in Social Anthropology and food anthropology specialist as well as Fatima El Ouardani and Abdeslam El Aallali, both Ph.D.s in biological sciences and members of the International Commission on the Anthropology of Food.

(GraJosé Antonio de Yturriaga en Derecho nada, 1936) se licenció Sevilla y es por la Universidad de se de MaDoctor por la Compluten Ayudante Profesor drid de la que fue al Privado y de Derecho Internacion y Encargado de Derecho Diplomático Invitado Consular así como Profesor Internaen la Academia de Derecho cional de La Haya.

Autor de numerosas publicaciolas NU en el nes (“Participación de ación”, “Reproceso de descoloniz protection gional conventions on the t”, “Straits of the marine environmen navigation”, used for international of fishe“The international regime en la ries”, “Ámbitos de jurisdicción sobre el DeConvención de las NU sido Embarecho del Mar”, etc.) ha Moscú y Dublín, Bagdad, en jador e ante las Representante Permanent NU en Viena.

> ‘Daños Colaterales. Un español en el infierno iraquí (Collateral Damage. A Spaniard in Iraqi Hell). Ignacio Rupérez. Editorial Planeta.

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The conflict in Iraq has unfolded so incessantly and absurdly that it has ended up engulfing the entire country and affecting the rest of the world. The author, Spanish Ambassador to Iraq until February 2008, gives an account of the events with the benefit of having lived right in the heart of the conflict and having gotten to know the country, currently caught up in a painful and unpredictable spiral of deterioration, in better times. Ignacio Rupérez's account and opinions are presented simply and sincerely, as if in his delicate postings in Havana and Baghdad, nobody had asked him to get into trouble. However, once involved, his only solution was to tell people about it.

world population and severe political and cultural conflicts. This book presents a vision of how economic thinking and action can be reformulated to respond to the global reality. It demonstrates how local governance can be strengthened to face up to global challenges. It explains how global cooperation can coexist alongside market competition in order to tackle the challenges related to population, environment, poverty and human rights. And above all, it demonstrates that society as a whole, companies, religious and political leaders, and individuals must start thinking in line with the global realities of the 21st century and admit that the economic rules of the game have changed.

> ‘Economía para un planeta abarrotado' (Economics for a Packed Planet. Jeffrey Sachs. Editorial Debate. Our ideas about markets, power and national sovereignty have still not come to terms with the realities of a packed planet. We are trapped in a battle between opposing ideologies, neither of which tackles the real challenges of preserving and maintaining economic prosperity in a world suffering from immense disparities, unprecedented environmental pressure, a rapidly increasing

> ‘El libro del agua' (The Book of Water). Félix Romeo, Arundhati Roy, Francisco García Olmedo, Pedro Arrojo Agudo, Habib Ayeb, Miguel Solanes, Andrei Jouravlev. Editorial Debate. Two thirds of the human body and the same proportion of Planet Earth is made of water, the liquid element that makes life possible and controls harvests, floods, communication and many other areas. However on certain occasions, in addition to being odorless, colorless and tasteless, it is sometimes invisible. Climate change, desertification, droughts and marine pollution, among other phenomena, should warn us of the need to rationally and sustainably manage our water resources, which are vital for life. For this reason and in connection with the celebration of ExpoZaragoza, several experts have come together to inform the public and raise awareness of the water issue.

 interview

Carlota Castrejana and Jesús España show passion for their sport and reaffirm the equality of men and women in track and field. With the approach of the Beijing Olympics, both athletes defend the Olympic spirit and the competition among athletes. They both speak out against doping and discuss the chances of Spanish athletes at this summer's premier sporting event




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TEXT: Pepe Bodas PHOTOGRAPHY: javier Hernández

With the start of the Beijing Olympic Games only two months away, the track and field facilities at the Consejo Superior de Deportes in Madrid are humming with activity. Two of Spain's best-known athletes, Carlota Castrejana (Logroño, 1973) and Jesús España (Madrid, 1978) train there daily as they await the final word about their qualification for the Olympic Team. Beijing 2008 awaits them. — It won't be until the end of July, when the Spanish track and field championships are held in Tenerife, that they will know whether they are making the trip to Beijing. As of now, the only athletes who have made the team with certainty

are the race-walkers and the marathoners. Do you have a chance of making the Olympic team? — Jesús España: Well, no final selections for the team will be made until July 27. In order to go to Beijing you have to meet a qualifying mark. Carlota met her requirement in 2007, but I haven't achieved mine yet. In addition, we have to prove that we're in shape, since there could be more than three candidates in some events, and three athletes is the maximum per event. For example, in the 5000 meters, which is my event, more than three athletes are sure to meet the qualifying time. — Carlota Castrejana: I can relax a little bit more. I've already met the qualifying mark, and it's unlikely that there will be more than three triple-jumpers who qualify. As a result, I can make plans for the Games with a lot more confidence, although of course I have to prove at the Spanish Championships that I'm still in shape. My mission now is to keep going strong. Also, the Olympic Games represent the maximum demand placed on an athlete. You might be the best Spanish or European athlete, and still have fight to make it to the Games. — I mean, to actually find yourself on new Beijing Stadium track. — J. E.: Although right now I see myself run-

ning at Beijing, sometimes I struggle with doubts. Right now I'm training very hard, and if things go as they have in years past and I don't suffer any injuries that prevent me from being in top form, I'll be there, and I'll have a chance of achieving a good result. Although, really, it's pretty dangerous to make predictions. I've already had one bad experience, at the 2004 Olympics. I had already qualified to travel to Athens, but sustained a fairly serious injury that took me out of the competition. Right now that's what most worries me. But on the other hand, for now the injuries seem to be under control and my preparation is proceeding on pace. — C. C.: Sometimes we talk about the huge let-down that you feel when you have to deal with a big disappointment like missing the Olympics after preparing for years. At times like that, all you can do as an athlete is learn from experience and try to make sure that it doesn't happen again. Athletes have to learn every day that you win some and you lose some. You fall down and get up again. Sure, a bad experience is bound to affect you, but it also makes you stronger. — José María Odriozola, president of the Spanish Track and Field Federation, recently stated that the Beijing Olympics will probably see more Spanish track and

PROFILE OF CARLOTA CASTREJANA Born in Logroño in 1973, Carlota Castrejana is not your typical Spanish athlete, since she now has a chance to compete in two Olympics in widely divergent sports: basketball and track and field. At Barcelona '92 she was part of the women's basketball team, which took fifth place. A lawyer by profession, she wasted

no time in switching to track and field, and by the year 2000 she was the Spanish champion in triple jump, a title that she has defended since then, thanks to superb technique and her 6 foot 3 inch frame. She has competed internationally 41 times, won the National Sporting Prize in 2002, and is the current European

indoor champion and a finalist at multiple world championships. Considering her progress in recent years, she has a real chance

of medaling in Beijing. Pictured, from left to right, the podium at the most recent European indoor track championships, and

several international appearances, including the 2005 European Championship in Madrid, where she took silver.

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field athletes than any previous Olympics. What are the chances for our athletes at these Olympic Games? — J. E.: If that's the case, we can already call it a success. And I should add that President Odriozola doesn't make predictions lightly. He might be erring a bit on the side of optimism, but the numbers have been analyzed many times, and I'd say his estimate is well-founded. In my opinion, the only sure success will be Paquillo Fernández. He has us spoiled by now. He has been medaling on a regular basis for years. I think he could even win the gold. And he deserves it. Along with the Ecuadorean Jefferson Pérez, he is the currently the best race-walker in the world. Not just because of the great career he has established, but because of the way he trains. For the rest of us, things aren't quite so easy. To talk about medals at this point becomes a little complicated. People go to the Games very well prepared, and there could be a lot of fourth and fifth places, which would also be great... The difference between winning a medal and a lower placing is minimal. There's a big difference in terms of recognition, but the actual performance difference is very small. I believe the level of the athletes should be measured by placing achieved, and even by the level we have achieved prior to the

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competition. — Was Barcelona 92 really the turning point for Spanish sport? Where do you think Spanish track and field finds itself today? — C. C.: Oh, absolutely. Not just because of the success of the Barcelona Games themselves, but as a result of the four years of preparation that preceded them. One of the outstanding results was the creation, in 1988, of the ADO sport assistance program. Especially its presence in smaller locations. I've felt it and lived it personally in my own city, Logroño, where the promotion of sport has been spectacular. — J. E.: In recent years track and field has become highly professionalized, but it hasn't reached the level of other sports. In fact, a lot of really high-level people are able to dedicate themselves to sport thanks to programs like the ADO. They give you some stability and security. Because no matter how much you love the sport, to reach a level where you can compete at the Olympics or the European Championships, you have to have a specialization. And the only way to do that is to go professional. There is no way that you could dedicate yourself completely to something, body and soul, if you didn't have the help that these programs provide to athletes.

CARLOTA CASTREJANA "The Olympics are not the property of China. They belong to all countries and to the athletes who compete." "You've got to look for balance when it comes to freedom of expression... And that point of balance is found in the competition itself and in the spirit that permeates the Games." “The current level of Spanish track and field is the highest it's ever been” “The Olympic Games must not be politicized, although many would like to do just that"

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— C. C.: We really are privileged. In addition to the ADO, we have Federation grants and private sponsorship. But there are a lot of people who work just as hard as I do, but don't have the resources to back their efforts. — J. E.: Hardly anybody is in track and field for the money. In this sport, you have to be motivated by love for the sport itself and by your own goals to achieve your best. If you have some financial backing, so much the better; you can take things a little more calmly. Currently, the global level of Spanish track and field is higher than ever. Spanish athletes used to stand out if a few specific events, but now we could medal in anything. Also, we have achieved true equality between male and female athletes. A medal won by a female athlete is just as important as a medal won by a man. We are equals. Track and filed is an egalitarian sport. And in the jumping events, our women are competing at a higher level than the men. In every event, there is an athlete that has a chance at winning a medal. Carlota Castrejana in the triple jump; Concha Montaner in the long jump; Naroa Agirre in the pole vault, and Ruth Beitia in the high jump. Ruth might have the best chance of all, because she always performs well at world-level competitions. In my opinion,

she has the best chance of medaling at Beijing. — C. C.: I didn't want to bring up Ruth Beitia, to avoid putting pressure on her... When it comes to gender equality in track and field, I totally agree. We are equals. The grants are the same, the prizes… — J. E.: Ruth couldn't have any more pressure than she already does… In the final analysis, the only real pressure is what you put on yourself. Take Paquillo, for example. Right now he is probably one of the few athletes that wouldn't settle for a runnerup spot at the Olympics. Because he has a real chance to earn a gold medal. — Is Francisco Javier “Paquillo” Fernández the best track and field athlete in Spanish history? — J. E.: For a distance runner like me, Paquillo and Fermín Cacho are the standard of excellence. Paquillo has been the European champion... He has been successful in every competition he has gone to. Judging by his results, I think he deserves to be called the best Spanish track athlete of all time. And if he wins gold at Beijing, there will be no doubt about it. — C. C.: Fermín Cacho represented a real turning point in Spanish track and field. Since the Barcelona Olympics, his image in this sport has been unparalleled. His 92 victory is without equal. In women's track

and field, Marta Domínguez has been our top athlete. — Have better techniques helped to improve performances and times? And what about cases like that of the South African Oscar Pistorius, who competes with prosthetic legs? — C. C.: Technical advances tend to play a big part in the hype and marketing that surround the Olympic Games. Obviously, everything develops and improves. And that is reflected in the marks we achieve as athletes. However, the only way to get better results is through personal training. That is what really counts. — J. J.: Beijing is not going to be a revolution. The track will be pretty much the same as it has always been. Regarding the case of Oscar Pistorius, I want to say that I am very happy for him. His spirit and determination are enviable and admirable. Most people in his situation wouldn't even attempt to compete in sports. In addition, he is defending a group - people with disabilities which is a very good thing. However, allowing him to compete in the Olympic Games is quite controversial. Other factors have to be taken into account. — Do you think Oscar Pistorius might have some advantage? — J. E.: I think so. His running form is very different. It's rather mechanical, it is not

PROFILE OF JESÚS ESPAÑA This athlete from Madrid is a long-distance and middle-distance runner who will turn 30 during the Beijing Games. Coached by Dionisio Alonso, he competes in a discipline where he faces the strong disadvantage of competing against elite runners from Africa. Even so, he has a sterling international record,

as demonstrated by his seventh place in the 5,000 meters at the last World Championships in Osaka, where he had the honor of being the first white athlete to place in the finals. He was the European champion in the 5,000 meters (photo at left) in 2006. His chances of winning a medal at the Olympics are slim, considering

the African presence, but his time of 13:15.44 in the 5,000 should get him into

the finals. He has held the title of Spanish champion since 2003 in the indoor 5,000

and 3,000 meters, and two European bronze medals in the indoor 3,000 meters.

miradas al exterior carlota castrejana and jesús españa

normal. There is less wear and tear on the muscles… particularly the soleus, the gastrocnemius, the joints... On the other hand, I think far too much has been made of this. What's more, Pistorius still hasn't even met the qualifying mark to run at Beijing, which is 45:55. Though if he did, he could participate. And if he doesn't achieve it, he could still be chosen for the 4x400 relay, whatever his time is. — C. C.: Sport is competition, and it shouldn't reward cases like that of Oscar Pistorius. And the matter is still not resolved. Following the decision of the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS), the South African athlete could compete in Beijing with his prosthesis. The CAS ruling surprises me. They ruled unanimously in favor of Pistorius, who had a spectacular defense team, with the best technical experts. And a great corps of lawyers backing them up. And very good medical reports. Actually the ruling sets a precedent, but it is not applicable to everyone else. It is an arbitration ruling from an international court. — By the way, how do you feel about doping in sports? — J. E.: We athletes are under a lot of scrutiny. The fight against doping is very intense and things are getting better all the time. In track and filed, athletes who use illegal substances are the minority. Although, no

matter how hard they clamp down, there will always be someone looking for a way to cheat, to take the easy way out, like in any other endeavor in life. The Spanish Track and Field Federation, which is part of the IAAF, has anti-doping programs. I think we are headed in the right direction, although I don't understand the philosophy of the Americans in judging doping cases like that of Marion Jones. In the United States the penalty for lying is greater than the penalty for doping. — C. C.: The Marion Jones case really makes me angry. She was an athlete who had everything. And she really let me down. I followed her closely, I competed with her, I saw her in warm-ups... When you look at her case, you can see what a big problem doping is, and how serious it can be. It can turn an average person into a world-class idol... With million-dollar contracts... It turns you into something that you aren't. — J. E.: The best part of the sport is the competition. And the struggle between several athletes that are very close to each other in ability. Athletes who dope always claim that they didn't know about it. Very few admit to it. In an individual sport like track and field, the athlete is solely responsible for what goes into his or her body. — Another controversy leading up to the Olympic Games is the human rights situ-

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JESÚS ESPAÑA “We should be evaluated based on placing, and even on our pre-competition records, not only on medals won” “Paquillo Fernández deserves to be called the best Spanish track and field athlete of all time" “The fight against doping is intense, and things are getting better and better ... but there is always someone looking for a way to cheat, to take the easy way out" In an individual sport like track and field, the athlete is solely responsible for what goes into his or her body"



miradas al exterior carlota castrejana and jesús españa

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madrid 2016 makes the first cut Madrid is drawing ever-nearer to realizing its Olympic dream. The Madrid candidacy met its first major objective by being selected by the Evaluation Committee of the International Olympic Committee as a candidate city to host the 2016 Olympic Games. It will compete with Tokyo, Chicago, and Rio de Janeiro. In the plan evaluation component, Madrid achieved a maximum score of 8.4 points, only two tenths less than the leader, Tokyo, with 8.6, and ahead of Chicago (7.4) and Rio de Janeiro (6.8). In addition, Madrid came out on top in seven of the eleven categories, including popular support, legacy, and transportation. After hearing the news, Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón, the mayor of Madrid, proclaimed that "the capital city is still in the Olympic race, and coming on stronger than ever." Mercedes Coghen, managing director of Madrid 2016, expressed her gratitude to all of the people who have worked on the project. “I'm very happy because we have improved in the technical planning area, and that is great news." Meanwhile, Jaime Lissavetzky, Secretary of State for Sport, also expressed his enthusiasm on hearing the news: “We've made it to the Final Four to host the 2016 Olympics. We are ready to accept that great honor”. The next key dates for the Madrid project are Spring-Summer of 2009, when the Olympic Evaluation Committee will visit the Spanish capital to examine every aspect of what the city has to offer, and October 2 of that same year, when the city chosen to host the Games will be announced in Copenhagen.

a day of training The recent rainfall in Madrid provided a respite from the intense training sessions. First thing in the morning, Carlota Castrejana and Jesús España welcomed ‘Miradas al exterior’ for a morning interview session. Then two hours of training, lunch, a siesta, and back to the track. The countdown to Beijing requires an extra effort from both athletes, as the distance runner logs more miles than ever and the triple-jumper hones her technique.

ation in China, and specifically the case of Tibet. What is your opinion on the matter? — J. E.: Personally, I think it's a very bad thing. China's attitude is nothing new. When the Olympic Games were awarded to Beijing, everyone was aware of this situation. If the Olympics shouldn't be held in Beijing for non-sport reasons, that decision should have been made long ago. — C. C.: I really don't think you can politicize the Olympic Games. Nor should they be used to whitewash a country's image, or to draw maximum attention to subjects other than sport itself. Of course we all support Tibet and we are opposed to this disregard for human rights. But that is not what the Olympic Games are about. They are a competition. The Olympics are not the property of China. They belong to all countries and to the athletes who compete. They are going to be held on Chinese soil, but from the time they begin on August 8, 2008, the Olympic Games will be nothing more or less than a competition held for all the athletes who will be there. — Have the athletes thought about carrying out any sort of significant protest

action? — J. E.: It's possible that there could be some sort of demonstration, but personally I would prefer that it didn't take place, since there are better places for that sort of thing. I don't think the athletes themselves will carry out a protest. After working so hard and long to compete at the Olympics, to refuse to participate over an issue like this, I just don't think that's the athletes' place. — C. C.: A balance has to be found in regard to freedom of expression. Everyone has his or her ideas and the right to express them, but always with proper respect for the Olympic games and the Olympic spirit. We as athletes must find that point of equilibrium. Not just about Tibet, but also many other issues that have affected China for years. The way I see it, that point of balance regarding freedom of expression is found in the competition itself and in the spirit that permeates the Games. — Carlota, you switched from basketball to track and field, and have been successful in both sports. What are the basic differences between a team sport like basketball and a very individual sport

miradas al exterior carlota castrejana and jesús españa

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spain, at the olympics At eight a.m., on the eighth day of the eighth month of the year 2008, the opening ceremonies of the Beijing Olympic Games will begin. The Spanish delegation that will travel to China probably won't be quite as numerous as the team that went to Athens four years ago, where 332 Spanish athletes competed. Even so, Spain could well have the fifth- or sixth-largest delegation. Our teams, perhaps the best ever in our nation's history, are realistic about their chances to medal, but maintain the goal of surpassing the 19 they won in the Greek capital (three gold, eleven silver and five bronze), and even the 22 from Barcelona 92 (thirteen gold, seven silver and two bronze), the all-time record.

like track and field? — C. C.: Basketball and track and field are two completely different worlds. A team sport teaches you discipline, dedication, strength, and of course teamwork. My experience in basketball taught me to put a lot of faith in teamwork. Also, if you happen to be tired or having a bad day, your teammates can pick up the slack for you. On the other hand, in track and field you can't depend on anything or anybody. Nobody can help you, and you have nobody to blame. Individual sports allow you to be yourself in everything. You are the one who must always take responsibility, and you can't share it, either in good times or bad. I love all sports, and for me, to be able to participate on the Olympic basketball team in Barcelona at age eighteen was an incredible experience. It was like a first stage in my career. Then I threw myself into track and field, another of my favorite sports. Now I think that when you're that age, you don't really think things out, and you go with your heart more than with your head. And so I turned down good offers to play basketball in the United States and on Spanish and European teams, and started

again from scratch. I even turned down a scholarship to an American university. — What experiences can you share with us about your dealings with Spain's representatives and expatriates in foreign countries? It wasn't that long ago that the Spanish women's tennis team had to deal with a very difficult situation in Beirut. — J. E.: I hope I never find myself in a situation like that, although I'm sure that the support provided by the Spanish Embassy in such situations can help a great deal. Normally we don't have any dealings with the Spanish embassy in the countries that we visit, although we do feel the presence of other Spaniards when we compete. They come up to us and encourage us, they pass their excitement along to us. — C. C.: In my case, I can also say that I've seen more Spanish expatriates in foreign countries than I have embassy personnel. The more distant and foreign the culture of the country we travel to, the more we feel the support of our compatriots. And we return the favor, by transmitting a certain something that we bring from Spain... after all, we're the national team.

The excellent results achieved at meets held during 2007 and early 2008 give Spanish sporting officials reason for optimism. In this regard, the Secretary of State for Sport, Jaime Lissavetzky, recalled recently that last year Spain won 18 medals at the World Championships in Olympic events. Based on those results, the men's basketball team is given a good chance to win a medal. Other sports in which Spain's chances are good are hockey, water polo, and synchronized swimming. Also tennis, cycling and rhythmic gymnastics. And as always, the Spanish sailing team. Without a doubt, Spain finds itself at the peak of its history in sport. And the Olympics could confirm that judgment. By August we'll know for sure.

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