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Eighth report

Patterns of higher education institutions in the UK


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Patterns of higher education institutions in the UK: Eighth report

This is a report by Professor Brian Ramsden on behalf of the Longer Term Strategy Group of Universities UK

The copyright for this publication is held by Universities UK. The material may be copied or reproduced provided that the source is acknowledged and the material, wholly or in part, is not used for commercial gain. Use of the material for commercial gain requires the prior written permission of Universities UK.


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Introduction

p This report is the eighth in a series published annually by Universities UK, with the

support of GuildHE, updating and expanding a rich variety of data through which to understand higher education institutions in the UK. The Patterns series

p The Patterns series, since its first report in 2001, has examined the trends in UK higher

education at both the sector and institutional level. We have built up a 10-year time series of information that has proved to be very useful to senior managers in the sector as well as being drawn upon by many outside higher education. In addition, each report has focused in its final section on a particular issue of immediate interest. In 2001 that was consolidation and collaboration within the higher education sector following the abolition of the binary line. The particular issues in subsequent reports have covered diversity in the sector’s activities and provision; differentiation – in other words, the planned positioning of institutions within the higher education sector; regional issues; the relationship between UK higher education institutions and those of other countries; and the student experience and how it has changed over time. The seventh report was published last year, and included an analysis of the issues relating to strategic and vulnerable subjects.

The eighth report

p This eighth report follows the established format of the Patterns series. Section A looks

at sector-level trends over the 10-year period from 1997/98 to 2006/07 and provides the context for the findings about institutions. Section B looks at patterns of institutional diversity and updates information on higher education provided in the earlier Patterns reports. Section C focuses on some of the financial aspects of diversity and provides a time series analysis. A wide range of fascinating data is presented in this report. I shall draw attention to some of the key findings here. Growth in higher education enrolments

p Across the UK, enrolments in higher education institutions have increased by 31 per

cent overall in the 10-year period from 1997/98 to 2006/07. Undergraduate numbers have increased by 28 per cent, but there has been even stronger growth of 45 per cent at postgraduate level. It is a trend that has been maintained over the last two years, between 2005/06 and 2006/07, and one which both student and employer demand is likely to strengthen. It remains to be seen, however, whether this trend will be affected by the first graduates emerging from the majority of UK institutions with the loan debt associated with variable fees. It is also of interest that the number of part-time enrolments at undergraduate level has grown more rapidly than full-time ones over the last decade, amounting to more than 50 per cent. How are students choosing to study?

p The increase in part-time student numbers relates to an extent to changes in

definitions and data collection, but it is clear that those institutions which already have significant part-time numbers have expanded their part-time provision. As earlier Patterns reports noted, there is no typical part-time student. They include those on undergraduate and postgraduate degree programmes as well as students following courses of personal and professional development that may be at either level. Parttime study plays an increasingly important role in meeting the higher-level skills agenda and contributes to lifelong learning. This trend will need to continue if the sector is to expand to the extent proposed by the Leitch review, particularly when the decrease in the number of 18-year-olds in the decade after 2009 is taken into account. As the projections in Universities UK’s recent reports on the Future size and shape of the higher education sector in the UK show, the 30-50 age group from which part-time students are largely drawn will continue to grow while the size of the younger age group declines in the period up to 2019/20. Universities UK

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What are students choosing to study?

p Over the decade from 1997/98 to 2006/07 there have been significant changes in the

subjects that students are studying. In particular, we see enrolments increasing in subjects allied to medicine (much of it accounted for by the shift of the funding of nursing courses into higher education), biological sciences (primarily microbiology and psychology), mathematical sciences, law, mass communication and documentation, historical and philosophical studies and creative arts and design (which also includes music, drama and film). The data for 2006/07 for the first time show an above-average growth in student numbers in education and social studies over the preceding decade. It will be interesting next year to see whether this shift in interest has been sustained. In social studies, there has been particularly strong growth in social work, social geography and politics.

p We find enrolments growing more slowly than average in architecture, building and

planning, agriculture, the physical sciences and engineering and technology. But there are recent hopeful signs for physical sciences where there has been a picking up of enrolments in physics (but not chemistry), and even more so for mathematical sciences where the recovery (especially in mathematics itself) first seen three years ago has been sustained. In physics it is interesting to note that fewer institutions have provision in the subject but that these have higher average numbers of students. There have, of course, been trends that are masked by simply looking at the start and end years of the decade: the recent downward trend in computer science student numbers may leave them still significantly above those 10 years ago but that has not prevented concern about whether the supply of graduates can match the demand from employers. EU and international students

p It is clear from the analysis in this report that the UK is continuing to attract students

from across the world. In the 10-year period from 1997/98 to 2006/07 non-EU international student enrolments have more than doubled. China remains the most significant provider of students to UK higher education across most levels of study. India features very strongly among taught postgraduate students, and students from the United States are also prominent, especially amongst undergraduate visiting and junior year abroad students and at postgraduate levels. The decline in the number of undergraduate students from Africa reported in last year’s Patterns appears to have been arrested, as enrolments at taught postgraduate level are strong. In all these areas UK higher education is, of course, facing increasing competition. The market for transnational education is, however, expanding, and it will be interesting to see in future Patterns whether the growth in non-EU international student numbers is sustained.

p Enrolments by students from other EU countries have also seen a greater rate of

growth in 2006/07 than that of UK-domiciled students, something which is due in part to the enlargement of the EU. There are many students from the Republic of Ireland, especially at taught postgraduate level, although enrolments at undergraduate level have declined, presumably in response to the changed tuition fee system in the Republic of Ireland.

p The number of institutions with very large numbers of students from outside the UK

has grown significantly. In 2001/02, there were just three institutions with more than 5,000 students from outside the UK. By 2006/07 that had risen to 14. UK universities are becoming increasingly international in their composition, a development that embraces EU as well as non-EU students.

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Diversity in the student population

p The increasing diversity of the student population is something that has been seen

across successive issues of Patterns. This year’s report confirms the trend of an increasing proportion of mature students, and a slight increase in the latest data from 2006/07 in the proportion of students from minority ethnic groups and from lower socio-economic groups. The concentration of UK-domiciled ethnic minority students has been maintained but not increased in the latest data, and virtually all of these institutions with a high level of concentration are to be found in London.

p Women are accessing higher education significantly more than their male

counterparts. We once again see that female students are in the majority at all modes and levels. The proportion of male students enrolled in higher education institutions has declined by at least three percentage points – and in some instances considerably more – over the 10-year period from 1997/98 to 2006/07. This is an international phenomenon that in many ways reflects the differential progression and achievement levels of boys earlier in the educational system. The considerable variations between institutions will to a significant extent reflect their different subject mix. It is only among full-time postgraduates (who are dominated by non-UK students) that male students approach parity.

Financial aspects of higher education institutions

p From 2000/01 to 2006/07 the sector as a whole has seen an increase of more than 50

per cent (not corrected for inflation) in its overall income and in most of its components: only endowment and investment income shows a markedly lower rate of growth, but the income from these sources has improved compared with previous years. The significant increase in tuition fee income is, to a considerable extent, attributable to the fees of international (non-EU) students, which have doubled over the period and now amount to £1.7 billion. In addition public funding has been stabilised following the erosion in the unit of funding that took place in the 1990s. Across the sector as a whole the median figure of 2.3 per cent surplus was generated. As in previous years, this continues to be well below the 3 to 5 percent level which is judged necessary in order to ensure the sustainability of institutions to invest in their infrastructures and for the management of risk.

p The analysis of long-term borrowing in relation to institutional income shows a very

large range from zero to above 80 per cent of annual income. Will the level of borrowing by the sector increase over the next few years? The increasingly diverse income portfolio of 21st century universities and improvements in risk management, together with the greater attractiveness of universities in the eyes of financial institutions, in principle provides more opportunities for institutions to borrow to support significant infrastructure projects.

p The process of differentiation of income streams amongst institutions continues. We can

see, for example, a widening spread in the importance of teaching grants for individual institutions, and a greater unevenness in the importance of funding councils’ grant for quality-related research (QR). On the latter, half of institutions receive less than 2 per cent of the total QR grant distributed. It is interesting to note that once again the majority of higher education institutions receive more income from research grants and contracts than from research funding provided through the funding councils. There is also a wide variation in the dependency on health service income, though an increasing number of institutions were recipients of NHS fees and grants in 2006/07 than in 2002/03.

p This issue of Patterns provides a more extensive financial analysis by reviewing some

additional aspects of university financial diversity. Universities UK’s Longer Term Strategy Group held a seminar earlier this year to explore the possible changes in the financial environment for higher education over the next 10 to 20 years and how these might influence the future business models and management of institutions. A report on the key issues and challenges for institutions as they develop their business models will be published separately.

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p The final section of Patterns compares a number of financial indicators for the period

between 2002/03 and 2006/07, and some clear changes can be seen even over this relatively short period. The analysis shows that in 2006/07 50 per cent of the sector’s total income came from funding council teaching and research grants and from tuition fees from home and EU students. Total fee income from the latter was double that for non-EU students. However, teaching grant income has increased less than the overall income of higher education institutions in this period, something confirmed by the fact that there has been a decrease in the number of institutions receiving more than 50 per cent of their income from the teaching grant.

p Research grants from the funding councils on the other hand have increased more than

the overall income level. The largest relative increase in income, however, is seen in the fees from international students. Over the five-year period from 2002/03 to 2006/07, fees from international students have increased by 58 per cent, compared with an overall increase in institutional income of 37 per cent, expressed in cash terms. Fees from international students have become a more significant income source for most institutions than research grants from the funding councils. There has been a marked increase in the number of institutions receiving more than 15 per cent of their total income from international student fees.

p The analysis provides evidence of the sector’s efforts to diversify its income sources as

part of a wider strategy to reduce its dependence on public funding. There is increasing emphasis on raising funds through endowments, a priority supported by government through its new matched funding scheme. While the income from endowments is currently relatively small in the overall revenue of universities, they are one element in the efforts of higher education institutions to diversify their income streams and to increase their sustainability.

p Much more rich material is to be found in Patterns 8, and readers will certainly find

much of interest beyond the highlights that I have been able to point to in this brief introduction. I would like once again to thank Professor Brian Ramsden for continuing to provide this fascinating insight into the patterns of higher education institutions in the UK.

Professor Geoffrey Crossick Warden, Goldsmiths, University of London, and Chair, Universities UK Longer Term Strategy Group September 2008

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Contents

6 Index of tables 7 Index of charts 8 Index of institutional distribution charts 9 9 12 14 19 22 22 25

Section A Trends in UK higher education Enrolments Enrolments by gender Enrolments by subject Subject coverage Changes in subject balance of full-time first-degree students Trends in EU and international enrolments Trends in income

27 27 27 28 32 38 40

Section B Patterns of institutional diversity Number of institutions in the sector Institutional charts Balance of provision Student characteristics and outcomes Aspects of staffing in higher education institutions Financial issues

51 51 57 58 59 60 61 63

Section C Financial aspects of diversity Revenue Expenditure Capital investment in the estate Endowments Liquidity and borrowing Liquidity ratio Surpluses and deficits

65 Conclusion 66 Appendices 67 Appendix 1: Total enrolments by subject of study, 1997/98 and 2006/07 71 Appendix 2: Enrolments of students from outside the UK, by country and level of study, 2006/07 74 Appendix 3: Trends in sources of income to higher education institutions, 2000/01, 2005/06 and 2006/07 77 Appendix 4: Mergers within the higher education sector, 1994/95–2006/07 79 Appendix 5: HESA cost centres

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Index of tables

9 Table 1 Enrolments in higher education institutions by country on higher education and further education programmes, 1997/98-2006/07 10 Table 2 Enrolments in higher education level courses within higher education and further education institutions, 2005/06 11 Table 3 Enrolments by mode and level, 1997/98, 2005/06 and 2006/07 12 Table 4 Overall change by mode and level, 1997/98-2006/07 13 Table 5 Enrolments by level and gender, 2006/07 13 Table 6 Enrolments by level and gender, 2005/06 13 Table 7 Enrolments by level and gender, 1997/98 15 Table 8 Enrolments by subject area, 2005/06 and 2006/07 16 Table 9 Enrolments by subject area, 1997/98 and 2006/07 (adjusted) 21 Table 10 Numbers of institutions making provision for teaching of major subjects, 1997/98 and 2006/07 23 Table 11 Enrolments of students by domicile, 1997/98, 2005/06 and 2006/07 24 Table 12 Major countries supplying students to UK higher education institutions, by level of study, 2006/07 25 Table 13 Main sources of income received by UK higher education institutions, 2000/01, 2005/06 and 2006/07, ÂŁK (cash terms) 35 Table 14 Classification of national statistics socio-economic groups 64 Table 15 Surpluses and deficits recorded annually between 2002/03 and 2006/07 64 Table 16 Percentage return on net assets, 2002/03 to 2006/07

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Index of charts

14 Chart 1 Percentage male students by mode and level, 1997/98 and 2006/07 17 Chart 2 Percentage change in enrolments by subject area, 1997/98-2006/07 22 Chart 3 Percentage of full-time first degree students in each subject area, 1994/95-2006/07 51 Chart 4 Major income sources of UK higher education institutions, 2006/07 52 Chart 5 Teaching grant as a percentage of all income: institutional distribution, 2006/07 52 Chart 6 Change in teaching grant as percentage of total income, 2002/03-2006/07 53 Chart 7 Histograms showing distribution of teaching grant as percentage of all income, 2002/03 and 2006/07 53 Chart 8 Research grant as a percentage of all income: institutional distribution, 2006/07 54 Chart 9 Histograms showing distribution of research grant as percentage of all income, 2002/03 and 2006/07 54 Chart 10 Percentage income from non-EU students’ fees, 2006/07 55 Chart 11 Histograms showing distribution of non-EU student fees as percentage of all income, 2002/03 and 2006/07 56 Chart 12 Health service income (fees and grants £K) as a percentage of total income 2002/03 and 2006/07 57 Chart 13 Histograms showing health service income (fees and grants) received by higher education institutions, 2002/03 and 2006/07 57 Chart 14 Ratio of payroll costs to total income, 2006/07 58 Chart 15 Histograms showing the ratio of payroll costs to all income, 2002/03 and 2006/07 58 Chart 16 Histograms showing the percentage expenditure on repairs and maintenance, 2002/03 and 2006/07 59 Chart 17 Percentage of non-residential accommodation classified as new or refurbished, 2001/02 59 Chart 18 Percentage of non-residential accommodation classified as new or refurbished, 2005/06 60 Chart 19 Histogram showing institutions’ endowments assets, £K, 2002/03 60 Chart 20 Histogram showing institutions’ endowments assets, £K, 2006/07 61 Chart 21 Days of net liquid assets to total expenditure less depreciation, 2002/03 61 Chart 22 Days of net liquid assets to total expenditure less depreciation, 2006/07 62 Chart 23 Long-term borrowing as a percentage of total income, 2006/07 62 Chart 24 Histograms showing borrowing as a percentage of income, 2002/03 and 2006/07 63 Chart 25 Histograms showing institutional distribution of absolute borrowing (£K), 2002/03 and 2006/07 63 Chart 26 Increase/decrease in interest payments as percentage of income, 2002/03 to 2006/07 64 Chart 27 Average percentage ratio of historical surplus/(deficit) after tax to total income, 2002/03 to 2006/07 65 Chart 28 Percentage return on net assets, 2002/03-2006/07

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Index of institutional distribution charts

28 Institutional chart 1: 29 Institutional chart 2: 29 Institutional chart 3: 30 Institutional chart 4: 30 31 31 32 33 33 34

Institutional chart 5: Institutional chart 6: Institutional chart 7: Institutional chart 8: Institutional chart 9: Institutional chart 10: Institutional chart 11:

35 Institutional chart 12:

36 Institutional chart 13: 36 Institutional chart 14: 37 Institutional chart 15: 37 Institutional chart 16: 38 Institutional chart 17: 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 43

Institutional chart 18: Institutional chart 19: Institutional chart 20: Institutional chart 21: Institutional chart 22: Institutional chart 23: Institutional chart 24: Institutional chart 25:

44 Institutional chart 26: 44 Institutional chart 27: 45 Institutional chart 28: 46 Institutional chart 29: 46 47 48 48

Institutional chart 30: Institutional chart 31: Institutional chart 32: Institutional chart 33:

49 Institutional chart 34: 49 Institutional chart 35: 8

Percentage of students following postgraduate programmes, 2006/07 Absolute numbers of postgraduate enrolments, 2006/07 Absolute numbers of undergraduate enrolments, 2006/07 Percentage of enrolments in undergraduate programmes not directly leading to first degrees, 2006/07 Percentage of part-time enrolments, 2006/07 Enrolments of all non-UK-domiciled students, 2006/07 Enrolments of international (non-EU)-domiciled students, 2006/07 Enrolments of EU (excluding UK)-domiciled students, 2006/07 Percentage of mature full-time undergraduates, 2006/07 Percentage of male students, 2006/07 Percentage of UK-domiciled first-year students from ethnic minority groups, 2006/07 Percentage of young full-time first-degree entrants from national statistics socio-economic classification classes 4, 5, 6 and 7, 2006/07 Percentage of young full-time first-degree entrants from low participation neighbourhoods, 2006/07 Average tariff points of entrants to full-time undergraduate courses, 2006/07 Percentage of first-class degrees awarded, 2006/07 Percentage of first and upper second class degrees awarded, 2006/07 Percentage of first degree full-time graduates not unemployed, 2005/06 Number of cost centres within which staff are employed, 2006/07 Percentage of female academic staff, 2006/07 Percentage of ethnic minorities among academic staff, 2006/07 Surplus/deficit as a percentage of income, 2006/07 Days ratio of net liquid assets to total expenditure, 2006/07 Days ratio of total general funds to total expenditure, 2006/07 The security index, 2006/07 Percentage ratio of total long-term borrowings to total income, 2006/07 Funding council income as a percentage of all income, 2006/07 Funding of research through the dual support system (£K), 2006/07 Funding of research through the dual support system as a percentage of all income, 2006/07 Research grants and contracts as a percentage of funding council research grant, 2006/07 Income for other services rendered (£K), 2006/07 Income from international (non-EU) student fees (£K), 2006/07 Administrative costs per full-time equivalent student (£), 2005/06 Academic departmental costs per full-time equivalent student, excluding academic staff (£), 2005/06 Total academic services expenditure per full-time equivalent student (£), 2005/06 Premises expenditure per full-time equivalent student (£), 2005/06


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Section A Trends in UK higher education

1 This section sets out some of the major trends in higher education in the United Kingdom (UK) during the last 10 years from 1997/98 to 2006/07, drawing on data published by the Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA).1 Table 1 Enrolments in higher education institutions by country on higher education (HE) and further education (FE) programmes, 1997/98–2006/07

1997/98

Enrolments 2 Before looking at enrolments on higher education programmes, it should be noted that there is a small percentage of students in higher education institutions who are following programmes at further education level. Table 1 shows the figures for enrolments at higher education and further education levels in 2006/07 and comparisons with 1996/97 and 2005/06. United Kingdom

England

Wales

Scotland

Northern Ireland

Total all students

1,842,332

1,537,360

94,381

168,184

42,407

Total HE students

1,800,064

1,496,889

92,939

167,829

42,407

Total FE students

42,268

40,471

1,442

355

0

2.3%

2.6%

1.5%

0.2%

0.0%

FE students as % of total 2005/06

Total all students

2,459,895

2,051,625

137,760

215,880

54,625

Total HE students

2,336,110

1,936,420

129,230

215,830

54,625

Total FE students

123,785

115,205

8,530

50

0

FE students as % of total 2006/07

5.0%

5.6%

6.2%

0.0%

0.0%

Total all students

2,478,425

2,060,400

144,140

223,560

50,325

Total HE students

2,362,815

1,957,190

131,765

223,530

50,325

Total FE students

115,610

103,210

12,375

25

-

4.7%

5.0%

8.6%

0.0%

0.0%

30%

29%

39%

29%

29%

FE students as % of total HE percentage change 1997/98 to 2006/07 HE percentage change 2005/06 to 2006/07

1%

1%

2%

4%

-8%

FE percentage change 1997/98 to 2006/07

174%

155%

758%

-93%

n/a

FE percentage change 2005/06 to 2006/07

-7%

-10%

45%

-50%

n/a

1 Almost all the statistical information in this report is drawn from HESA publications: in particular, the CD-Rom publications HE Finance Plus and HE Planning Plus, and also the Higher Education Management Statistics at institutional level and the volumes of Students and Resources of Higher Education Institutions. The presentation of figures within the tables conforms to HESA’s conventions for the year in question: for example, numbers for the year 2006/07 are rounded to the nearest five. All HESA publications are published by the Higher Education Statistics Agency Limited, 95 Promenade, Cheltenham, GL50 1HZ, telephone +44 (0) 12 4225 5577: further details are available at http://www.hesa.ac.uk/product s/pubs/home.htm

3 As was noted in previous Patterns report, the growth in the numbers and proportion of students following further education programmes in higher education institutions in England and Wales (in which it is exclusively concentrated) over the last 10 years arose partly because of the incorporation of former further education institutions within a small number of higher education institutions, and partly from a data definitional change adopted by HESA in consultation with the UK education departments and funding councils. This change to the definition of the standard population, introduced in 2000/2001 and used in analysis by HESA, involves counting more students following short courses. It is believed to be a better way of capturing the totality of provision within higher education institutions.2 4 As we pointed out in Patterns 7, the increase in enrolments in further education courses at higher education institutions is now seen to have been reversed in England, although there is still some growth in Wales. 5 Enrolments of higher education students have increased by 30 per cent overall over the 10-year period 1997/98–2006/07, but by a greater percentage in Wales. Last year however, enrolments in Northern Ireland declined. 6 Changes in data definitions have also had an impact on the counting of higher education students across years. If consistent definitions are used, the growth in higher education enrolments overall amounts to approximately 27 per cent over the period 1997/98–2006/07.

2 For more information, see http://www.hesa.ac.uk/holisdoc s/pubinfo/student/changes.htm Universities UK

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Table 2 Enrolments in higher education level courses within higher education and further education institutions, 2005/06

Country

England Wales Scotland Northern Ireland United Kingdom

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7 Although this report analyses students enrolled within publicly-funded higher education institutions, it does not generally cover students following courses at higher education level in further education institutions or in privately funded higher education institutions. 3 8 Consequently, a significant number of students following higher education programmes in Scotland and Northern Ireland are excluded from this analysis, since there is a far higher proportion of students within those countries who begin or undertake their higher education experience within further education colleges, as is illustrated in table 2.

Higher education institutions

Further education institutions

All institutions

Full-time

Part-time

Full-time

Part-time

Full-time

Part-time

Total student enrolments

% in FE institutions

1,173,550

762,870

31,425

90,725

1,204,975

853,595

2,058,570

5.9%

74,990

54,245

380

705

75,370

54,950

130,320

0.8%

148,825

67,005

25,830

24,055

174,655

91,060

265,715

18.8%

35,675

18,950

3,990

8,815

39,665

27,765

67,430

19.0%

1,433,040

903,070

61,625

124,300

1,494,665

1,027,370

2,522,035

7.4%

3 The exception is the University of Buckingham, which has been included in HESA data since 2004/05. There is also no analysis of students following courses in privately funded higher education institutions, because there is currently no process for collecting data consistently from those institutions.

9 This table is not available for 2006/07 but, as for last year, the clear trend in the provision of higher education courses is that a smaller proportion is being provided directly in further education colleges. Overall, the percentage of higher education students being taught in further education colleges across the UK as a whole has reduced from over 9 per cent in 2001/02 to 7.4 per cent in 2005/06. The absolute numbers of higher education students in further education institutions declined overall by 3 per cent in the last year, and this reduction is consistent in all countries of the UK, with the exception of Wales, which has seen a small increase from a very low base. 10 Overall, across the UK, 12.1 per cent of part-time higher education enrolments are in further education colleges; in Scotland, the figure is 26 per cent (compared with 30 per cent in 2004/05). However, the definitions of full-time study in further education colleges varies across the four countries of the UK. The statistics would be more robust if common definitions were adopted. 11 Registrations on programmes at further education level within higher education institutions and on programmes at higher education level within further education institutions are excluded from the further analyses within this report, which concentrates on higher education enrolments at higher education institutions. 12 Table 3 shows enrolments at undergraduate and postgraduate level, by UK country of institution and by mode of study in 2006/07, comparing them with 1997/98 and 2005/06.

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Table 3 Enrolments by mode and level, 1997/98, 2005/06 and 2006/07 United Kingdom

England

Wales

Scotland

Northern Ireland

Full-time

143,521

117,577

7,151

14,909

3,884

Part-time

243,480

206,069

9,728

21,965

5,718

Year

Level

Mode of study

1997/98

Postgraduate

Total Undergraduate

All students

387,001

323,646

16,879

36,874

9,602

Full-time

1,022,606

826,386

58,281

113,428

24,511

Part-time

390,457

346,857

17,779

17,527

8,294

Total

1,413,063

1,173,243

76,060

130,955

32,805

Full-time

1,166,127

943,963

65,432

128,337

28,395

Part-time

633,937

552,926

27,507

39,492

14,012

1,800,064

1,496,889

92,939

167,829

42,407

Total Percentage Postgraduate 2005/06

Postgraduate

21.5%

21.6%

18.2%

22.0%

22.6%

Full-time

234,220

196,735

10,210

23,290

3,990

Part-time

311,150

257,705

15,065

30,695

7,680

Total Undergraduate

All students

545,370

454,440

25,275

53,985

11,670

Full-time

1,198,820

976,815

64,780

125,535

31,690

Part-time

591,925

505,165

39,175

36,310

11,270

Total

1,790,745

1,481,980

103,955

161,845

42,960

Full-time

1,433,040

1,173,550

74,990

148,825

35,680

Part-time

903,075

762,870

54,240

67,005

18,950

2,336,115

1,936,420

129,230

215,830

54,630

Total Percentage Postgraduate 2006/07

Postgraduate

23.3%

23.5%

19.6%

25.0%

21.4%

Full-time

243,070

201,830

11,175

26,680

3,390

Part-time

316,320

260,605

16,490

32,350

6,880

Total Undergraduate

All students

559,390

462,430

27,665

59,025

10,270

Full-time

1,208,645

985,810

66,005

126,115

30,720

Part-time

594,780

508,955

38,095

38,390

9,335

Total

1,803,425

1,494,760

104,100

164,505

40,060

Full-time

1,451,715

1,187,640

77,180

152,795

34,110

Part-time

911,100

769,560

54,585

70,740

16,215

2,362,815

1,957,190

131,765

223,530

50,325

23.7%

23.6%

21.0%

26.4%

20.4%

Total Percentage Postgraduate

13 The change over time in these enrolment statistics is summarised in table 4.

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Table 4 Overall change by mode and level, 1997/98–2006/07 United Kingdom

England

Wales

Scotland

Northern Ireland

percentage change in enrolments of postgraduates, 1997/98 to 2006/07

44.5%

42.9%

63.9%

60.1%

7.0%

percentage change in enrolments of postgraduates, 2005/06 to 2006/07

2.6%

1.8%

9.5%

9.3%

-12.0%

27.6%

27.4%

36.9%

25.6%

22.1%

Overall changes

percentage change in enrolments of undergraduates, 1997/98 to 2006/07 percentage change in enrolments of undergraduates, 2005/06 to 2006/07

0.7%

0.9%

0.1%

1.6%

-6.8%

percentage change in all students, 1997/98 to 2006/07

31.3%

30.8%

41.8%

33.2%

18.7%

percentage change in all students, 2005/06 to 2006/07

1.1%

1.1%

2.0%

3.6%

-7.9%

percentage change in enrolments of part-time postgraduates, 1997/98 to 2006/07

29.9%

26.5%

69.5%

47.3%

20.3%

percentage change in enrolments of part-time postgraduates, 2005/06 to 2006/07

1.7%

1.1%

9.5%

5.4%

-10.4%

percentage change in enrolments of part-time undergraduates, 1997/98 to 2006/07

52.3%

46.7%

114.3%

119.0%

12.6%

percentage change in enrolments of part-time undergraduates, 2005/06 to 2006/07

0.5%

0.8%

-2.8%

5.7%

-17.2%

percentage change in enrolments of full-time postgraduates, 1997/98 to 2006/07

69.4%

71.7%

56.3%

79.0%

-12.7%

percentage change in enrolments of full-time postgraduates, 2005/06 to 2006/07

3.8%

2.6%

9.5%

14.6%

-15.0%

percentage change in enrolments of full-time undergraduates, 1997/98 to 2006/07

18.2%

19.3%

13.3%

11.2%

25.3%

percentage change in enrolments of full-time undergraduates, 2005/06 to 2006/07

0.8%

0.9%

1.9%

0.5%

-3.1%

Change in part-time numbers

Change in full-time numbers

14 Overall, there has been an increase of 31 per cent in all student enrolments from 1997/98 to 2006/07. 15 This compares to a corresponding increase of 45 per cent at postgraduate level and 28 per cent at undergraduate level over the same period. The increase is rather less marked at both levels than was the case in the 10 years up to 2005/06, as reported in Patterns 7. Student enrolments in Wales, however, have increased markedly over the 10-year period, 1997/98–2006/07. 16 When the figures are disaggregated by mode, it can be seen that there is a noticeably greater increase in the number of part-time enrolments than full-time enrolments at undergraduate level, and it is particularly in this area that the increases in Wales are recorded. However, the increase in the number of full-time postgraduates significantly exceeds that of part-time postgraduates. 17 While a significant proportion of the growth in part-time undergraduates can be attributed to a structural cause (the mainstreaming of the former continuing education courses in the pre-1992 universities in 1994/95), there is in fact a generally greater increase across the whole of the period in part-time enrolments as compared with fulltime enrolments. Again it is important to take into account the redefinition of the HESA standard population, which reports greater numbers following short part-time courses. This has had a major effect on the year-to-year shift since the year 1999/2000. 18 The percentage change in enrolments at all levels from 2005/06 to 2006/07 has been small, although the reduction in enrolments of full-time students in Northern Ireland is worth noting. Enrolments by gender 19 The last two Patterns reports provided information about the trend in student enrolments in higher education institutions by gender, and this information is now updated. Table 5 looks at enrolments by level and gender for 2006/07. 12


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Level and mode of study

Total

Female

Male

Percentage male

243,070

123,065

120,005

49.4%

1,086,080

590,825

495,255

45.6%

Full-time students Postgraduate First degree Other undergraduate

122,570

83,555

39,010

31.8%

1,451,720

797,445

654,270

45.1%

Postgraduate

316,320

175,715

140,605

44.5%

First degree

201,145

121,990

79,160

39.4%

Other undergraduate

393,630

257,270

136,360

34.6%

911,095

554,975

356,120

39.1%

Total full-time Part-time students

Total part-time

20 Female students outnumber males at all modes and levels, and it is only among fulltime postgraduates (which are dominated by non-UK students) that male students approach parity. 21 Comparative figures for the previous academic year – 2005/06 – are set out in table 6. There is very little change, although the proportion of males has slightly increased among part-time undergraduate students. Table 6 Enrolments by level and gender, 2005/06

Level and mode of study

Total

Female

Male

Percentage male

Full-time students Postgraduate

234,220

118,675

115,550

49.3%

1,073,775

582,950

490,825

45.7%

125,040

85,675

39,365

31.5%

1,433,035

787,300

645,740

45.1%

Postgraduate

311,150

172,640

138,505

44.5%

First degree

205,080

125,130

79,950

39.0%

Other undergraduate

386,840

254,105

132,735

34.3%

903,070

551,875

351,190

38.9%

First degree Other undergraduate Total full-time Part-time students

Total part-time

22 Finally, in order to assess the long-term trend, table 7 shows the situation in 1997/98. Table 7 Enrolments by level and gender, 1997/98

Total

Female

Male

Percentage male

Postgraduate

143,521

66,947

76,574

53.4%

First degree

899,719

464,535

435,184

48.4%

Level and mode of study Full-time students

Other undergraduate Total full-time

122,887

74,278

48,609

39.6%

1,166,127

605,760

560,367

48.1%

243,480

118,653

124,827

51.3%

89,670

51,734

37,936

42.3%

300,787

179,191

121,596

40.4%

633,937

349,578

284,359

44.9%

Part-time students Postgraduate First degree Other undergraduate Total part-time

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23 A comparison of tables 5 and 7 shows that at all modes and levels, the proportion of female students enrolled in higher education institutions has increased by at least three percentage points – and in some instances considerably more – over the 10-year period 1997/98–2006/07. Chart 1 illustrates the changes.

p p

Chart 1 Percentage male students by mode and level, 1997/98 and 2006/07 1997/98 2006/07

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0% Full-time other

Full-time first

Part-time other

Part-time first

UG

degree

UG

degree

Full-time PG

Part-time PG

Enrolments by subject Methodological considerations 24 Previous Patterns reports have described, on a time series basis, the trends in student enrolments by subject, and in each of the major subject area groupings. As was the case last year, this exercise involves two complications. 25 The first is that, in 2002/03, HESA introduced a new subject classification, which had the effect of aligning its subject codes with those used by the Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS). In the process, a precise correspondence with the codes used in previous years was lost. At the aggregated subject area level, the categorisations are very close, with one exception: introducing the new subject coding, together with a new (and improved) methodology for calculating principal subjects of study, had the effect of significantly reducing the ‘combined’ subject area. No adjustments will be made for this change. However, it should be taken into account that the precise components of each subject area are somewhat different in 2006/07 compared to the equivalent components before 2002/03. 26 The second complication is more significant. Historically, the Open University, which is the largest provider of undergraduate higher education, reported all of its students within the ‘combined’ subject area. In 2002/03 for the first time, many of the university’s students were reported according to the main subject of the qualification for which they were enrolled. It follows that, both at individual subject level, and also at the level of aggregated subject areas, there has been a major shift from the ‘combined’ subject area into the other subjects and subject areas. The new position gives a better picture of the overall enrolment by subject; but the time series comparison with previous years is distorted considerably. We described the effect of this change in Patterns 7, which set out a new baseline for timescale comparisons. 27 Consequently, table 8 shows the absolute and relative enrolments in each of the 19 conventional subject areas in the most recent two years, and the percentage change. The figures include all students, irrespective of level, mode or domicile.

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28 In table 9, the figures for 2006/07 are re-presented alongside the 1997/98 figures adjusted according to the new subject definitions to enable comparisons, except that the ‘combined’ subject area (which showed a 64 per cent reduction primarily as a result of the redistribution of the Open University students) is shown below the sub-total of other subject areas. In this way it is possible to identify a meaningful comparative percentage change for the sum of the other subject areas over the period in question.

Percentage of total

Student enrolments, 2006/07

Percentage of total

Percentage change, 2005/06 to 2006/07

59,585

2.6%

63,245

2.7%

6.1%

Subjects allied to medicine

309,405

13.2%

300,900

12.7%

-2.7%

Biological sciences

155,220

6.6%

164,215

6.9%

5.8%

4,465

0.2%

4,875

0.2%

9.2%

Subject area

Student enrolments, 2005/06

Medicine and dentistry

Veterinary science Agriculture and related subjects

17,275

0.7%

16,085

0.7%

-6.9%

Physical sciences

82,740

3.5%

83,905

3.6%

1.4%

Mathematical sciences

32,425

1.4%

33,790

1.4%

4.2%

Computer science

120,150

5.1%

106,910

4.5%

-11.0%

Engineering and technology

136,695

5.9%

140,580

5.9%

2.8%

56,445

2.4%

60,525

2.6%

7.2%

201,075

8.6%

201,720

8.5%

0.3%

89,580

3.8%

90,845

3.8%

1.4%

304,405

13.0%

310,255

13.1%

1.9%

Architecture, building and planning Social studies Law Business and administrative studies Mass communications and documentation

47,805

2.0%

47,935

2.0%

0.3%

Languages

139,190

6.0%

139,715

5.9%

0.4%

Historical and philosophical studies

101,445

4.3%

103,215

4.4%

1.7%

Creative arts and design

156,180

6.7%

160,525

6.8%

2.8%

Education

207,705

8.9%

216,330

9.2%

4.2%

Combined

114,315

4.9%

117,245

5.0%

2.6%

2,336,105

100%

2,362,815

100%

1.1%

All subjects

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Table 9 Enrolments by subject area, 1997/98 and 2006/07 (adjusted)

Student numbers 1997/98 (adjusted)

Subject area Medicine and dentistry Subjects allied to medicine Biological sciences Veterinary sciences

Percentage of total excluding combined

Student numbers 2006/07

Percentage of total excluding combined

Absolute change, 1997/98 to 2006/07

Percentage change, 1997/98 to 2006/07

41,959

2.8%

63,245

2.8%

21,286

50.7%

164,899

11.2%

300,900

13.4%

136,001

82.5%

96,337

6.5%

164,215

7.3%

67,878

70.5%

3,348

0.2%

4,875

0.2%

1,527

45.6%

Agriculture and related subjects

15,184

1.0%

16,085

0.7%

901

5.9%

Physical sciences

72,285

4.9%

83,905

3.7%

11,620

16.1%

Mathematical sciences

21,184

1.4%

33,790

1.5%

12,606

59.5%

Computer science

77,987

5.3%

106,910

4.8%

28,923

37.1%

130,926

8.9%

140,580

6.3%

9,654

7.4%

Engineering and technology Architecture, building and planning Social studies Law Business and administrative studies

45,002

3.1%

60,525

2.7%

15,523

34.5%

122,390

8.3%

201,720

9.0%

79,330

64.8%

57,441

3.9%

90,845

4.0%

33,404

58.2%

222,137

15.1%

310,255

13.8%

88,118

39.7%

Mass communications and documentation

20,718

1.4%

47,935

2.1%

27,217

131.4%

Languages

91,989

6.2%

139,715

6.2%

47,726

51.9%

Historical and philosophical studies

61,288

4.2%

103,215

4.6%

41,927

68.4%

Creative arts and design

93,650

6.4%

160,525

7.1%

66,875

71.4%

135,416

9.2%

216,330

9.6%

80,914

59.8%

1,474,140

100.0%

2,245,570

100.0%

Education Sub-total excluding combined Combined Total all subjects

771,430

52.3%

325,924

117,245

-208,679

-64.0%

1,800,064

2,362,815

562,751

31.3%

29 It should be noted that the large increase in the numbers of enrolments in subjects allied to medicine (predominantly nursing) has an obvious (compensatory negative) effect on the proportions of the sector made up by the other subject areas, since the increase in this subject area constitutes a quarter of the overall change in student enrolments. 30 The percentage change in the numbers within each subject area is therefore illustrated in chart 2.

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140% Chart 2 Percentage change in enrolments by subject 120% area, 1997/98-2006/07 100% 80% 60% 40% 20%

Agriculture and related subjects

Engineering and technology

Physical sciences

Computer science

Architecture, building and planning

Business and administrative studies

Veterinary sciences

Medicine and dentistry

Languages

All subjects average

Law

Mathematical sciences

Education

Social studies

Historical and philosophical studies

Biological sciences

Creative arts and design

Subjects allied to medicine

Mass communications and documentation

0%

31 There have been above average increases in enrolments since 1997/98 in subjects allied to medicine, biological sciences, mathematical sciences, law, mass communication and documentation, historical and philosophical studies, and creative arts and design. This year, for the first time, education and social studies are also seen to show an above average increase. 32 Changes in enrolments in languages, veterinary science and medicine are broadly in line with the average increase. 33 While no subject area has seen a significant absolute reduction in student numbers from 1997/98 to 2006/07, there have been only low levels of increase in enrolments in architecture, building and planning, engineering and technology, the physical sciences, agriculture and business and administrative studies (the last of which has been one of the most popular subject areas in recent years).

4 We are looking here at the principal subject of qualification aim, as identified by HESA.

34 This simple analysis by broad subject group however does not do full justice to the very significant shifts in emphasis in higher education courses during the 10 years under investigation. It is important to consider the specific subjects4 being studied in order fully to assess the nature of the changes. 35 As part of this analysis, it is necessary to be aware of the significant changes that took place in the categorisation of subjects in 2002/03. Examples of these changes include:

p psychology is now classified as a single subject, whereas it was previously identified as two separate subjects, depending on whether its major orientation was scientific or social;

p physical geography is now combined with the former environmental sciences subject; p electronic engineering and electrical engineering have merged into a single subject ‘electronic and electrical engineering’;

p sports science is identified as a subject in its own right, having previously been split 5 A full explanation of the changes in the subject classification is available at: http://www.hesa.ac.uk/jacs/ja cs.htm

between other related subjects;

p pharmacy and pharmacology have merged; p history of art is no longer identifiable, having been subsumed within history by topic.5 Universities UK

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36 The table in Appendix 1 sets out the numbers of students following individual subjects as their main qualification aim in each of the years 1997/98 and 2006/07, subject to the caveats listed above. This table is limited to subjects that can be clearly identified, and generally ignores ‘balanced combinations’, ‘broadly-based programmes’, and so on. The table does not distinguish by mode, level or intensity of study: it simply reports on the numbers of enrolments within each subject. 37 The populations and definitions used in Appendix 1 and in the following analysis are based on those in the relevant HESA publications. A more detailed analysis shows that:

p Enrolments within medicine and dentistry have risen by 51 per cent, in line with the

overall increase of 52 per cent. Changes in the structure of clinical degrees have led to a shift from pre-clinical to clinical studies.

6 Under the new subject classification it is no longer possible to distinguish between pharmacy and pharmacology.

p Within subjects allied to medicine, nursing has seen an increase of over 82 per cent.

7 Psychology is now classified as a single subject including both scientific and social psychologies: the figures have been adjusted to recognise this.

p Within biological sciences most subjects show a below average increase in student

This is largely a product of the shift of funding of nursing courses into the higher education sector. Significant increases are also reported in pharmacy and pharmacology6 (81 per cent), nutrition (205 per cent), aural and oral sciences (464 per cent though from a low base), anatomy, physiology and pathology (212 per cent) and medical technology (148 per cent).

numbers, except microbiology, which shows an increase of 87 per cent, and psychology, which shows a 99 per cent increase7. Botany shows an actual reduction in enrolments of 18 per cent.

p There has been an increase in enrolments in veterinary science of 46 per cent, slightly below the average.

p Reclassifications within agriculture and related subjects make time series comparisons impossible at the detailed subject level for this subject area.

p Within the physical sciences area, chemistry has seen a reduction of 11 per cent and

physics an increase of only 7 per cent (compared with an actual reduction reported in the previous 10-year comparison). However, there have been large increases in astronomy (176 per cent) and ocean sciences (75 per cent). Geology shows a slightly below average increase (47 per cent).

p Subjects within the area of mathematical sciences generally show increases in their

recorded student populations, thus confirming a trend that was tentatively identified three years ago. It can be argued, however, that these increases are partly a result of the changing definitions and apportionment algorithms adopted by HESA over the period. For the third time since these figures were first published, mathematics itself again shows an above average increase in enrolments (70 per cent). Statistics and operational research show modest absolute increases.

p After adjusting for new definitions, we see a rise of 37 per cent in enrolments in

computer science, significantly below the norm, after several years in which it showed above average increases over a 10-year period, for example in the 10-year period 1996/97–2005/06.

p Enrolments in most subjects in the engineering and technology subject area have

decreased, or show below average increases. There have, for example, been significant absolute reductions in enrolments in minerals technology, production engineering and polymers and textiles. Electronic and electrical engineering shows an increase in enrolments of only 11 per cent, general engineering 27 per cent and civil engineering 28 per cent, compared with the mean of 52 per cent. Only aerospace engineering has shown a significant increase in enrolments (91 per cent) over the 10-year period.

p Within the architecture, building and planning area, enrolments in architecture have

increased by 51 per cent, which is in line with the average rise, but it is offset by a below average increase in the numbers of students following courses in building (28 per cent) and planning (22 per cent).

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p Most aspects of social studies report an improved situation compared with earlier

years, with percentage increases in enrolments generally at or above the average level. Notable increases are found in social work (117 per cent), human and social geography (69 per cent), and politics (85 per cent).

p There has been a 58 per cent increase in enrolments in law, slightly above average for the sector as a whole.

p The business and administrative studies subject area – as now reclassified – presents some difficulties in analysis over time. The combined areas of business and management studies show an average increase of 50 per cent, although this may overstate the position, as some other aspects of management are not separately recorded now. While accounting shows an increase of only 33 per cent, enrolments in finance have more doubled: marketing also shows an above average rise.

p Within the area of mass communications and documentation, media studies shows an

increase of 296 per cent between 1997/98 and 2006/07 while journalism has increased by 48 per cent. On the other hand, information services, including librarianship, only shows an increase in enrolments of one per cent.

p The languages area has seen some significant reclassifications of subjects, and

comparisons are difficult. Major increases are seen for English studies (96 per cent), and French studies (86 per cent), the latter being a reversal of an earlier relative decline, although derived partly perhaps from a transfer from the combined group. Among less popular languages, Italian and Spanish continue to show very large percentage increases (over 100 per cent). Celtic studies and classical studies also show marked increases.

p All subjects within the areas of historical and philosophical studies continue to be

relatively buoyant in terms of overall enrolments, with the exception of history itself, which is now showing an increase slightly below the average. Theology and religious studies have shown an increase of 72 per cent, while archaeology and philosophy have increased beyond the average: indeed, enrolments in philosophy have almost doubled.

p Creative arts and design subjects also continue to show a significant increase (71 per cent overall): enrolments in music have almost doubled, those in drama have more than doubled, and there is an increase of 296 per cent in cinematics.

p The rise in enrolments in education is, for the first time in many years, above the

average increase across all subjects. Teacher training programmes however show a below average increase.

38 In summary, there have been major changes in the subject enrolments of students on higher education courses in the UK between 1997/98 and 2006/07. Subject coverage 39 This section considers the spread of teaching provision throughout the UK as represented by the numbers of institutions teaching specific subjects. 40 Some earlier Patterns reports suggested that there was little correlation between the number of students studying a subject nationally and the number of institutions which made provision for this subject as a ‘principal subject of qualification aim’. As a consequence, the average population of subjects within institutions varied widely. The fifth and sixth Patterns reports suggested that the number of institutions teaching particular subjects was coming more closely into line with movements in student numbers. The seventh Patterns report did not include this particular analysis, because its focus was on strategic and vulnerable subjects.

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41 This year our analysis resumes. It follows broadly the approach in Patterns 6. Table 10 shows the number of institutions teaching a subject to more than 20 students, in order to eliminate data deficiencies, and shows all subjects which, in the most recent year, attracted more than 12,000 students across all of the higher education institutions in the United Kingdom. No distinction is made between modes, levels or domicile of students in this analysis. The table therefore shows comparative information for 1997/98 and for 2006/07. In total there were 174 higher education institutions in 1997/98 and 169 in 2006/07. 42 Analysis of changes in subject coverage is of course complicated by the new subject classification’s changed definitions, referred to above. As far as possible, the figures in table 10 have been adjusted to make it possible to compare from year to year, but there is not always a precise correspondence.

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Table 10 Numbers of institutions making provision for teaching of major subjects, 1997/98 and 2006/07 1997/98

1997/98 to 2006/07 percentage change in average number of students per higher education institution

Student numbers

Number of higher education institutions

Average number of students per higher education institution

percentage change in student numbers

Percentage change in number of higher education institutions teaching the subject

1,116

200,330

134

1,495

50%

12%

34%

1,184

183,580

85

2,160

82%

0%

82%

115

678

105,625

121

873

35%

5%

29%

66,369

95

699

94,340

109

866

42%

15%

24%

27,339

98

279

87,210

111

786

219%

13%

182%

Student numbers

Number of higher education institutions

Average number of students per higher education institution

Business and management studies

133,925

120

Nursing

100,640

85

Computer science

77,987

Training teachers Academic studies in education

Subject

2006/07

Law

57,441

86

668

86,010

101

852

50%

17%

27%

Psychology

36,483

100

365

72,475

113

641

99%

13%

76%

English studies

30,747

97

317

60,310

116

520

96%

20%

64%

Design studies

42,819

74

579

59,345

86

690

39%

16%

19%

Social work

27,263

107

255

59,190

100

592

117%

-7%

132%

Medicine

36,611

32

1,144

55,475

43

1,290

52%

34%

13%

History

37,205

108

344

53,510

108

495

44%

0%

44%

Sociology

22,816

102

224

32,845

104

316

44%

2%

41%

Politics

17,703

78

227

32,760

88

372

85%

13%

64%

Electronic and electrical engineering

29,219

95

308

32,345

92

352

11%

-3%

14%

Accounting

23,508

71

331

31,310

90

348

33%

27%

5%

Economics

21,789

80

272

30,225

74

408

39%

-8%

50%

Mathematics

16,801

86

195

28,590

86

332

70%

0%

70%

Biology

23,100

91

254

27,580

99

279

19%

9%

10%

Media studies

6,873

38

181

27,225

102

267

296%

168%

48%

Music

13,377

68

197

25,560

93

275

91%

37%

40%

Drama and Dance

11,172

67

167

24,560

97

253

120%

45%

52%

Building

18,696

51

367

23,990

58

414

28%

14%

13%

Marketing

13,119

59

222

23,895

90

266

82%

53%

19%

Mechanical engineering

21,983

83

265

22,600

81

279

3%

-2%

5%

Civil engineering

17,319

66

262

22,115

63

351

28%

-5%

34%

Pharmacology, toxicology and pharmacy 11,959

41

292

21,675

52

417

81%

27%

43%

General engineering

17,027

72

236

21,665

77

281

27%

7%

19%

9,199

52

177

20,690

76

272

125%

46%

54%

Physical and terrestrial geographical and environmental sciences

23,839

102

234

20,530

82

250

-14%

-20%

7%

Architecture

13,406

43

312

20,295

57

356

51%

33%

14%

Fine art

15,161

69

220

20,185

85

237

33%

23%

8%

Chemistry

22,010

80

275

19,585

70

280

-11%

-13%

2%

Theology and religious studies

10,009

53

189

17,255

51

338

72%

-4%

79%

Anatomy, physiology and pathology

5,431

36

151

16,930

64

265

212%

78%

75%

Cinematics and photography

4,057

33

123

16,055

74

217

296%

124%

76%

13,982

64

218

14,935

51

293

7%

-20%

34%

Human and social geography

7,894

56

141

13,325

71

188

69%

27%

33%

French studies

6,994

59

119

12,975

66

197

86%

12%

66%

Social policy

8,600

54

159

12,870

71

181

50%

31%

14%

Planning

9,900

41

241

12,080

41

295

22%

0%

22%

Finance

Physics

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43 There is now a fairly close correlation between the movements in student numbers and the numbers of institutions making provision for particular subjects. There are however a few notable outliers to this: for example, both social work and theology show significant increases in student enrolments, alongside a reduction in the numbers of institutions making such provision. Changes in subject balance of full-time first-degree students 44 Longer-term trends in the enrolment of full-time first degree students may provide an interesting commentary on the trends presented above. These can be tracked with some degree of confidence over the 12 years since the data for higher education institutions throughout the UK was first collected on a consistent basis.

14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2%

Combined

Education

Creative arts and design

Historical and philosophical studies

Languages

Mass communications and documentation

Business and administrative studies

Law

Social studies

Architecture, building and planning

Engineering and technology

Computer science

Mathematical sciences

Physical sciences

Veterinary science

Agriculture and related subjects

Biological sciences

0% Subjects allied to medicine

p 1994/95 p 1995/96 p 1996/97 p 1997/98 p 1998/99 p 1999/00 p 2000/01 p 2001/02 p 2002/03 p 2003/04 p 2004/05 p 2005/06 p 2006/07

16%

Medicine and dentistry

Chart 3 Percentage of fulltime first-degree students in each subject area, 1994/95– 2006/07

45 Chart 3 shows the trends in each subject group, continuing the series that has appeared in previous Patterns reports.

46 In considering chart 3, it is important to remember that there has been a major movement away from the ‘combined’ subject group in the last four years from 2002/03, for purely structural reasons. Allowing for this, the graph shows a consistent reduction in enrolments in physical sciences (marginally reversed in 2005/06 and 2006/07) and in engineering and technology. As noted previously, the reduction in enrolments in languages appears to have been arrested and indeed reversed. However, this may be partly because of the reassignment of courses from the ‘combined’ subject group. The same may be true of mathematical sciences. 47 Computer science continues to experience a negative trend in enrolments, as do agricultural subjects. 48 On the other hand, there has been a consistent increase in enrolments in subjects allied to medicine, biological sciences (primarily because of the effect of increasing enrolments in psychology) and creative arts and design. Education appears also to show a modest proportional increase. Trends in EU and international enrolments 8 In this report ‘international’ refers to non-EU domiciled students and ‘EU’ refers to EU (excluding the UK) domiciled students. 22

49 Turning now to the domicile of students, table 11 shows absolute and relative numbers of students from the UK, other EU countries and countries from outside the EU (international)8, for 2006/07, with comparisons for 2005/06. It also provides the change in student numbers over the 10-year period 1997/98–2006/07.


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Table 11 Enrolments of students by domicile, 1997/98, 2005/06 and 2006/07

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Year

Domicile

1997/98

UK EU

2006/07

88.2% 5.4% 6.5%

All

1,800,064

100.0%

UK

2,006,035

85.9%

EU

106,225

4.5%

International

223,855

9.6%

All

2,336,110

100.0%

UK

2,011,345

85.1%

EU

112,260

4.8%

239,210

10.1%

All

2,362,815

100.0%

UK

27%

EU International

Percentage change 2005/06 to 2006/07

1,586,800 96,424

International

Percentage change 1997/98 to 2006/07

percentage of total

116,840

International

2005/06

Student numbers

16% 105%

All

31%

UK

0%

EU

6%

International

7%

All

1%

50 From 1997/98 to 2006/07, there has been a considerably greater increase in the number of students from non-EU countries than from the UK or the other countries of the EU. Non-EU international student numbers have more than doubled over the 10-year period, and increased by 7 per cent since 2005/06. Enrolments from other countries of the EU continue to show a greater increase than UK-domiciled students, and, as noted in the last Patterns report, this is to a considerable extent related to the enlargement of the EU. 51 Appendix 2 contains more detailed information about the enrolment of students from particular regions and countries. From this it is possible to see which countries are the major suppliers of students to the UK. This information is summarised in table 12.

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Table 12 Major countries supplying students to UK higher education institutions, by level of study, 2006/07 Country China

First degree 18,410

Malaysia

7,710

Country

Other undergraduate

Country

Post graduate degree (taught)

Country

Post graduate degree (research)

United States

3,620

China

21,620

China

5,170

China

3,245

India

15,500

United States

3,480

Republic of Ireland

7,600

France

2,395

Greece

7,095

Greece

3,085

Hong Kong

6,660

Republic of Ireland

2,125

Nigeria

5,440

Germany

2,525

Germany

6,050

Germany

1,870

United States

5,250

India

1,985

France

5,930

Spain

1,605

Pakistan

4,870

Malaysia

1,880

Cyprus

5,580

India

1,380

Taiwan

4,260

Italy

1,845

Greece

4,890

Poland

920

Republic of Ireland

3,525

France

1,330

India

4,080

Japan

915

Germany

3,120

Canada

1,300

Poland

3,900

Zimbabwe

785

France

2,940

Taiwan

1,270

Nigeria

3,550

Nigeria

720

Thailand

2,285

Republic of Ireland

1,235

United States

3,120

Italy

595

Cyprus

2,130

Thailand

1,155

Pakistan

2,720

Greece

565

Canada

1,845

Saudi Arabia

1,000

Spain

2,385

Hong Kong

450

Japan

1,715

Pakistan

960

Sweden

2,175

Philippines

445

Malaysia

1,575

Mexico

875

Japan

2,050

Pakistan

395

Italy

1,490

South Korea

865

Singapore

1,990

South Korea

370

Ghana

1,415

Portugal

855

Norway

1,795

Saudi Arabia

365

Hong Kong

1,410

Spain

845

South Korea

1,760

Taiwan

360

Poland

1,270

Japan

820

Italy

1,755

Malaysia

335

South Korea

1,235

Nigeria

775

Sri Lanka

1,580

Cyprus

315

Spain

1,170

Iran

760

Kenya

1,540

Australia

295

Turkey

1,055

Hong Kong

720

Belgium

1,510

South Africa

265

The Netherlands

920

Egypt

685

Portugal

1,355

Canada

265

Saudi Arabia

900

Libya

650

Canada

1,315

Sweden

245

Russia

870

Cyprus

565

9 Note that Hong Kong, Taiwan and Macao are distinguished from China in this analysis.

52 China9 continued to be clearly the most significant provider of students to UK higher education across most levels of study, although its absolute numbers have declined at first-degree level since 2005/06. India features very strongly among postgraduate taught degree students. Students from the United States are also prominent, especially at other undergraduate and postgraduate levels. 53 Undergraduate enrolments of students from the Republic of Ireland have declined somewhat, presumably in response to the changed fee regime in the Republic. 54 The decline among undergraduate students from Africa noted in last year’s Patterns report appears to have been arrested and enrolments at taught postgraduate degree level are strong. 55 Countries of the Middle East and South Asia feature prominently among postgraduate research students, including students from India, Malaysia, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Libya, and Egypt.

24


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Trends in income 56 Finally, this section concludes with trends in the sources of income received by higher education institutions. The data is presented for the latest year, 2006/07, the previous year 2005/06, and for the financial year 2000/01 as a baseline: it cannot be analysed Table 13 Main sources of income over a longer timescale because of changes in data definitions. received by UK higher education institutions, 2000/01, 2005/06 and 2006/07, ÂŁK (cash terms)

57 Table 13 summarises the main sources and levels of income for these three years, for the United Kingdom as a whole and for its four constituent countries, and also shows the percentage changes. Appendix 3 contains more detailed data about the individual components of each income stream. UK

England

Wales

Scotland

Northern Ireland

Funding council grants

5,355,777

4,299,885

286,350

632,513

137,029

Tuition fees, education grants and contracts

3,048,579

2,589,365

131,262

275,368

52,584

Research grants and contracts

2,207,228

1,812,384

78,807

278,265

37,772

Other income

2,589,948

2,121,062

132,108

296,152

40,626

2000/01

Endowment and investment income Total income

292,387

245,949

12,533

30,948

2,957

13,493,919

11,068,645

641,060

1,513,246

270,968

2005/06 Funding council grants

7,544,078

6,121,045

376,813

854,985

191,235

Tuition fees and education grants and contracts

4,640,799

3,941,168

199,399

434,585

65,647

Research grants and contracts

3,120,606

2,540,013

121,321

389,220

70,052

Other income

3,854,546

3,223,825

204,996

350,320

75,405

343,083

288,917

15,013

35,226

3,927

19,503,112

16,114,968

917,542

2,064,336

406,266

Funding council grants

8,030,651

6,454,407

432,766

942,699

200,779

Tuition fees and education grants and contracts

5,413,985

4,649,073

214,995

470,144

79,773

Research grants and contracts

3,376,991

2,744,893

131,334

431,071

69,693

Other income

4,077,385

3,416,751

209,967

371,536

79,131

390,841

326,494

15,984

43,124

5,239

21,289,853

17,591,618

1,005,046

2,258,574

434,615

6%

5%

15%

10%

5%

Endowment and investment income Total income 2006/07

Endowment and investment income Total income Percentage change, 2005/06 to 2006/07 Funding council grants

17%

18%

8%

8%

22%

Research grants and contracts

Tuition fees and education grants and contracts

8%

8%

8%

11%

-1%

Other income

6%

6%

2%

6%

5%

14%

13%

6%

22%

33%

9%

9%

10%

9%

7%

Endowment and investment income Total income Percentage change, 2000/01 to 2006/07 Funding council grants

50%

50%

51%

49%

47%

Tuition fees and education grants and contracts

78%

80%

64%

71%

52%

Research grants and contracts

53%

51%

67%

55%

85%

Other income

57%

61%

59%

25%

95%

Endowment and investment income

34%

33%

28%

39%

77%

Total income

58%

59%

57%

49%

60%

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58 Since 2005/06, the sector has seen an increase in income of the order of 9 per cent, achieved partly through increases in tuition fee income, especially in England. Endowment and investment income also shows an improvement as compared with earlier years. Most of this increased income, especially that for research grants and for research and educational contracts, will have resulted in commensurate increases in expenditure. 59 Since 2001 there has been an increase in total income, and of most income components, of more than 50 per cent. 10 Universities UK (2007) Higher education pay and prices index London: Universities UK. Available at http://bookshop.universitiesu k.ac.uk/downloads/HEPPIJuly 07.pdf

26

60 Over the seven-year period – 2000/01–2006/07 – the total number of students in the UK (full-time equivalents) increased by 16.6 per cent and general inflation in the UK economy (measured by the GDP deflator) increased by 17.2 per cent. During this period the Higher Education Pay and Prices Index which measures price increases within the higher education sector (including pay increases), showed an increase of 23.3 per cent.10


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Section B Patterns of institutional diversity

61 Section B shows, in graphical form, the distribution of various features across higher education institutions. It points out time series comparisons and trends, where possible. 62 Not all institutions are included within all the charts. Some institutions recently joining the sector do not have available data. In those charts that are derived directly or indirectly from Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS), data from institutions that do not admit students through UCAS are excluded. The student population in these charts is limited to those who are admitted through the UCAS (and related) systems and any students directly admitted to the institution are therefore omitted, although they are included in charts that are not directly derived from UCAS data. 63 Four main themes are addressed:

p balance of provision; p student characteristics and outcomes; p aspects of staffing in higher education institutions; p financial issues. 64 Throughout this section, unless otherwise indicated, HESA publications are the source of the data. Number of institutions in the sector 65 Before addressing the balance of provision in higher education, it should be noted that, since the publication of the last Patterns report, the structure of the sector has changed slightly. 66 A number of mergers have taken place since 1994/95. The common pattern for institutional mergers in recent years has been the absorption of specialist colleges into the pre-1992 universities, although this pattern is not universal. 67 Since 2005/06, no new institutional mergers have taken place, although there has been a transfer of a campus from De Montfort University to the University of Bedfordshire. Two institutions, both specialist colleges in the performing arts, have joined the sector. 68 In total, therefore, this report describes the features of 169 higher education institutions. Since 1994/95, the number of institutions within the sector has reduced from 186, a decline of 10 per cent. 69 Appendix 4 lists the mergers that have taken place since 1994/95. Institutional charts 70 Several charts show the distribution of institutions in relation to various features. Within them, the median position and the upper and lower deciles are shown for each chart, with last year’s figures in parentheses where these can be directly compared. The text also comments on changes since the first Patterns volume was published, using data from 1998/99. 71 There is no suggestion that these charts are in any way “performance indicators�: rather, they are designed to illustrate the shape of the sector as it changes over time.

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Balance of provision 72 The balance of provision within higher education institutions is considered in four aspects:

p different levels of study; p full-time and part-time provision; p UK, EU and international students; p subject. 73 The following charts analyse the balance by level of study. Institutional chart 1 Percentage of students following postgraduate programmes, 2006/07

Lower decile 10%

Median 23%

(10%)

(22%)

Upper decile 40% (40%)

100%

80%

60%

40%

20%

0%

74 Institutional chart 1 cannot be directly compared with those in early Patterns reports, which include data from 1998/99, due to a change in methodology. Since 2001/02 there has been an increase of two percentage points in the median. However, in recent years the lower decile has declined slightly following that some former further education institutions have been absorbed into the higher education sector. The typical higher education institution has almost a quarter of its higher education students following courses at postgraduate level. 75 To put these figures into context, institutional charts 2 and 3 show the distribution of absolute numbers of enrolments at postgraduate and undergraduate levels within UK higher education institutions with the figures for 2005/06 in parentheses.

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Institutional chart 2 Absolute numbers of postgraduate enrolments, 2006/07

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Lower decile 183

Median 3016

Upper decile

(174)

(2843)

7221 (7123)

18,000 16,000 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0

Institutional chart 3 Absolute numbers of undergraduate enrolments, 2006/07

Lower decile 572

Median 9111

Upper decile

(644)

(9668)

19232 (20080)

180,000 160,000 140,000 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 0

76 These two charts show a clear increase in postgraduate enrolments across the sector as a whole, and a fall in undergraduate enrolments, again across the whole sector, so confirming the aggregate figures reported in Section A of this report. 77 Institutional chart 4 shows those undergraduate programmes which lead to qualifications other than first degrees.

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Institutional chart 4 Percentage of enrolments in undergraduate programmes not directly leading to first degrees, 2006/07

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Lower decile 0%

Median 15%

Upper decile 38%

(0%)

(16%)

(38%)

90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0

78 Since 1998/99 the median has declined by one percentage point, the upper decile is down one percentage point and the lower decile is unchanged. Change in 2006/07 has been slight, but shows a modest dip as compared with each of the last two years. The modest reduction in sub-degree qualifications shown in this chart replicates the overall trend in undergraduate qualifications generally. 79 Turning now to the balance between full-time and part-time enrolments, institutional chart 5 analyses the balance by mode of study. Institutional chart 5 Percentage of parttime enrolments, 2006/07

Lower decile 7%

Median 29%

Upper decile

(7%)

(28%)

48% (49%)

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0

80 Since 1998/99 the median is up 11 percentage points, the upper decile is up 20 percentage points and the lower decile is down 2 percentage points. Because of changes in definitions we should treat the figures with caution, although there has undoubtedly been a marked increase in part-time numbers. There are different categories of part-time students. They include not only those on undergraduate and postgraduate degree programmes, but also students following courses of personal and professional updating that may be at either level, and that encompass a broad range of structures and content. 30


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81 Institutional chart 5 and its predecessors have tentatively suggested a trend for greater differentiation in the provision of part-time higher education courses, with institutions that already have significant part-time provision expanding it; although the most recent figures show an increase in the median, implying a further movement towards parttime provision within the sector as a whole. 82 As the previous Patterns report identified and as noted in Section A, the growth of student numbers coming from countries outside the EU has significantly outstripped the growth in enrolments of home and EU-domiciled students during recent years. We now address the institutional distribution of EU and international students. Institutional charts 6, 7 and 8 show the numbers of EU and non-EU students enrolled on programmes of study at higher education institutions in the UK, both in total, and disaggregated between students from other EU countries and from outside the EU (international). Institutional chart 6 Enrolments of all non-UK-domiciled students, 2006/07

Lower decile 106

Median 1758

Upper decile

(101)

(1509)

4711 (4330)

9,000 8,000 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0

83 Since 1998/99 the median is up by 55 per cent, the upper decile is up by 65 per cent and the lower decile is up by 280 per cent, although of course from a low base. 84 Clearly, institutions across the spectrum have seen significant increases in the numbers of students from outside the UK. Since 2001/02, the number of institutions with more than 5,000 students enrolled from outside the UK has risen from three to 14. Institutional chart 7 Enrolments of international (non-EU)domiciled students, 2006/07

Lower decile 59

Median 1034

(47)

(1007)

Upper decile 3435 (3185)

8,000 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 Universities UK

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85 Since 1998/99 the median is up by 112 per cent, the upper decile is up by 110 per cent and the lower decile is up by 145 per cent. The growth in international student numbers is clear across the sector as a whole. What is new compared to the situation reported in previous Patterns reports is that it is now clear that there is no differential increase among the institutions in the middle of the chart. Institutional chart 8 Enrolments of EU (excluding UK)domiciled students, 2006/07

Lower decile 44

Median 577

Upper decile 1512

(45)

(555)

(1439)

3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0

86 Since 1998/99 the median is up by 3 per cent, the upper decile is up by 18 per cent and the lower decile is down by 4 per cent. In previous Patterns reports we observed a reduction in the enrolment of students from other EU countries. This has now been reversed and numbers have increased across the spectrum of institutions. The enlargement of the EU is obviously relevant here, and the institutional figures accord with the totals reported in Section A. Student characteristics and outcomes 87 The following paragraphs address some aspects of student characteristics and outcomes within higher education institutions. 88 Previous Patterns reports we have drawn attention to the growing significance of mature student enrolments in UK higher education. The percentage of full-time mature undergraduates is shown in institutional chart 9.

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Institutional chart 9 Percentage of mature full-time undergraduates, 2006/07

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Lower decile 10%

Median 26%

Upper decile 47%

(11%)

(25%)

(44%)

100%

80%

60%

40%

20%

0%

89 Since 1998/99 the median is up three percentage points, the upper decile is up eight percentage points and the lower decile has reduced by one percentage point. The figures show a continuing increase in the proportion of full-time mature undergraduates, and a concentration in institutions which already had a significant proportion. 90 As noted in Section A female students are in a majority among all modes and levels. There are, however, considerable variations between institutions, which are shown in institutional chart 10. Institutional chart 10 Percentage of male students, 2006/07

Lower decile 29%

Median 43%

Upper decile 52%

(28%)

(42%)

(52%)

100%

80%

60%

40%

20%

0%

91 In the large majority of institutions male students make up from 30 per cent to 50 per cent of the total, although there are some obvious exceptions: these are chiefly specialist institutions. The subject specialisms of these institutions include nursing and education at the lower end of the chart, and engineering and technology at the other end. 92 Since this is only the third time that this chart has been presented within the Patterns series, comparisons over the longer term cannot yet be made. Universities UK

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93 Institutional chart 11 shows the percentage of UK first-year students who are reported as belonging to ethnic minority groups. Institutional chart 11 Percentage of UKdomiciled first-year students from ethnic minority groups, 2006/07

Lower decile 3%

Median 11%

Upper decile 39%

(3%)

(10%)

(39%)

100%

80%

60%

40%

20%

0%

94 Since 1998/99 the median is up four percentage points, the upper decile is up 16 percentage points and the lower decile remains unchanged. Previous Patterns reports suggested there was evidence of an increasing concentration of students from ethnic minority groups in a limited number of institutions. These are, above all, institutions located in London. There is now a modest indication of an increase in the median, implying a more general increase in the proportion of students from minority ethnic groups across the sector as a whole. There continue to be outliers at both ends of the spectrum, being generally specialist institutions; for example, pharmacy features at the higher end and agriculture at the lower end. (The overall percentage of entrants to higher education institutions from ethnic minority groups is 17 per cent.)

11 The Office for National Statistics has further information about the NS SEC classification available at: http://www.statistics.gov.u k/methods_quality/ns_sec /default.asp

95 The first few Patterns reports analysed the participation of students from ‘underrepresented groups’, as identified within the funding councils’ performance indicators. Two indicators were used: first, the percentage of young full-time first-degree entrants from social classes IIIM, IV and V; and secondly, the percentage coming from ‘low participation neighbourhoods’, as identified by the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE). There was a close correlation between the institutional ranking on each of these measures (while not assuming that the measures themselves closely correlated) and non-traditional entrants to full-time undergraduate courses (again, at institutional level). 96 In the most recent years, following the 2001 Census, a new categorisation of socioeconomic groupings has been adopted, the national statistics socio-economic classification.11 97 In place of the six categories used in the earlier definition of social class, the new classification has seven categories as follows:

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Table 14 Classification of national statistics socio-economic groups

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NS SEC group

Description

1

Higher managerial and professional occupations

2

Lower managerial and professional occupations

3

Intermediate occupations

4

Small employers and own account workers

5

Lower supervisory and technical occupations

6

Semi-routine occupations

7

Routine occupations

98 The last four of these categories have been identified as being the lower socioeconomic groupings for the purpose of constructing performance indicators for the higher education sector. While this definition will be followed in this report, it should be noted that it includes small employers and own account workers, which may include a wide variety of occupations. For example, it includes many people engaged in farming (and so agricultural college figures are very high) and also many contractors in the computing industry. 99 The analyses of socio-economic groupings are available only for students entering through the UCAS system. While this covers the large majority of all entrants to fulltime undergraduate courses (85 per cent), it is possible that it understates the percentage of entrants from lower socio-economic groups. The data for the year 2006/07 is presented in institutional chart 12. Institutional chart 12 Percentage of young full-time firstdegree entrants from national statistics socioeconomic classification classes 4, 5, 6 and 7, 2006/07

Lower decile 18% (19%)

Median 33% (32%)

Upper decile 45% (43%)

100%

80%

60%

40%

20%

0%

12 In essence, the new definition of low participation neighbourhoods, using the “POLAR2� categorisation (based on analysis of previous experience of data within the higher education sector) is very different to the earlier categorisation, which was based on super profiles categories.

100 The lower decile has increased by one percentage point since 2005/06 but the median and upper deciles show increases of three and four percentage points. The overall impression therefore is that there is an increase in the proportions of students entering higher education from social classes 4, 5, 6 and 7, and that this increase is concentrated in institutions which are already showing a high proportion of students from the lower social classes. 101 There is a major issue arising from the new definition of low participation neighbourhoods adopted by the performance indicators steering group in the most recent year12. Due to the change in definition, it is not possible to produce a chart comparable with earlier charts.

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102 Institutional chart 13 shows the distribution of students from low participation neighbourhoods, using the new definitions: this will form the basis of comparative analysis in future years. Institutional chart 13 Percentage of young full-time first-degree entrants from low participation neighbourhoods, 2006/07

Lower decile 3.4%

Median 7.6%

(3%)

(10%)

Upper decile 16.1% (39%)

30 25 20 15 10 5 0

13 A full description of the tariff is given at: http://www.ucas.ac.uk/can dq/tariff/. 14 The full definition is, ‘average tariff points for full-time, first year, undergraduate students whose highest qualification on entry was 'A' level equivalent qualification not elsewhere specified, or any combinations of GCE 'A'/SCE 'Higher' and GNVQ/GSVQ or NVQ/SVQ at level 3’.

103 Earlier Patterns reports included information about new students’ entry qualifications, based on their A-level points, but this time series was discontinued because the structure of reporting changed significantly. Applicants and acceptances to full-time undergraduate courses are now recorded in relation to UCAS’ tariff points, which include not only conventional academic qualifications but also many vocational qualifications.13 104 This is the third year in which we show entry qualifications to higher education institutions recorded according to the new UCAS tariff as shown in institutional chart 14.14 Lower decile 199

Median 273

(209)

(275)

Upper decile 406 (416)

600

Institutional chart 14 Average tariff points of entrants to full-time undergraduate courses, 2006/07

500 400 300 200 100 0

105 It is too early to provide longer-term time series comparisons, although there is a marginal decrease in the average points scores, as compared with last year.

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15 The denominator in this and the following chart is all classified degrees. It therefore excludes most clinical degrees, which are awarded without classification. Many Scottish universities award a significant proportion of their degrees without classification.

Institutional chart 15 Percentage of firstclass degrees awarded, 2006/07

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106 We now turn to the outcomes from higher education study as represented by the degree classifications awarded to qualifiers from first-degree programmes and the subsequent graduate employment rates. Institutional chart 15 shows the percentage of first-class honours degrees awarded.15 Lower decile 7%

Median 12%

(7%)

(11%)

Upper decile 20% (19%)

40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

107 Since 1998/99 the median is up four percentage points, the upper decile is up six percentage points and the lower decile is up three percentage points. There has been a noticeable increase in the proportion of students awarded a first-class degree from 1998/99 to 2006/07. Institutions at the upper end of the scale show the greatest level of increase, i.e. some institutions that have historically awarded a high percentage of firstclass degrees have increased their proportion. 108 It is also relevant to look at the combined total of firsts and upper seconds, which are presented in institutional chart 16. Institutional chart 16 Percentage of first and upper second class degrees awarded, 2006/07

Lower decile 46%

Median 59%

Upper decile 76%

(47%)

(58%)

(77%)

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

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109 Since 1998/99 the median is up six percentage points, the upper decile is up eight percentage points and the lower decile is up five percentage points. Again, there has been a significant increase in the proportion of students gaining good honours degrees, although there is a modest decline at the upper and lower ends of the spectrum. Throughout the sector, however, it continues to be the case that the award of a first- or upper second-class degree is the norm rather than the exception. 110 Finally, we turn to graduate employment. Institutional chart 17 shows the percentage ‘employment rate’ (i.e. all activities except unemployment) for full-time UK-domiciled first degree students who graduated in the academic year 2005/06, as reported approximately six months after graduation. Institutional chart 17 Percentage of first degree full-time graduates not unemployed, 2005/06

Lower decile 90% (89%)

Median 94% (94%)

Upper decile 96% (97%)

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

111 There has been no significant change since the last year: the chart continues to show a very low level of unemployment among first-degree graduates. 112 It is too early to show longer-term changes and indeed these would need to be set in the context of the overall labour market. However, there are no significant changes in the reported figures as compared with 2004/05. Aspects of staffing in higher education institutions 113 Institutional chart 18 updates the analysis of the number of academic cost centres within which staff of higher education institutions were undertaking teaching and research (see Appendix 5 for a list of HESA academic cost centres).

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Institutional chart 18 Number of cost centres within which staff are employed, 2006/07

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Lower decile 1

Median 16

Upper decile 23

(1)

(16)

(23)

30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

114 As reported in the previous Patterns reports both the median and the upper decile have reduced by one cost centre since 1998/99, perhaps reflecting a reduction in spread of subject provision. However, there is no change in the most recent year. 115 Three years ago, for the first time, it was possible to include an analysis of the gender balance of all academic staff. Institutional chart 19 updates this, showing the percentage of female academic staff in higher education institutions in 2006/07. Institutional chart 19 Percentage of female academic staff, 2006/07

Lower decile 34%

Median 44%

(33%)

(43%)

Upper decile 57% (55%)

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

116 The gender balance of academic staff within higher education institutions varies markedly between institutions, and the issue of subject distribution is relevant here. 117 The median and the upper decile show a slight increase as compared with 2005/06, and across the spectrum of institutions there has been a modest increase in the proportion of female academic staff recorded in the last year. 118 Institutional chart 20 continues the analysis of the ethnicity of members of the academic staff for the third year. There is a slight discontinuity, however, for technical reasons, which leads to a greater number of institutions apparently showing a zero return. Universities UK

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Institutional chart 20 Percentage of ethnic minorities among academic staff, 2006/07

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Lower decile 0%

Median 8%

(2%)

(7%)

Upper decile 17% (17%)

40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

119 While the median has increased slightly, the lower decile has reduced by two percentage points while the upper decile is unchanged. It is relevant to note that, across all higher education institutions, the percentage of academic staff from ethnic minority groups is 10 per cent, as compared with the median institution’s figure of seven per cent. This draws attention to the concentration of staff from ethnic minority groups: unsurprisingly, as in the last two years, only one of the 10 institutions at the upper end of the graph is located outside London. Financial issues 120 The previous Patterns reports included some analysis of financial security, and of costs and “efficiency”, together with an analysis of sources of income. 121 This year’s report adopts the same approach. Several of these issues in this section are elaborated upon in Section C, which discusses some financial aspects of diversity. Financial security 122 The following paragraphs address some of the measures of financial security of higher education institutions, reported in previous Patterns reports. 123 Institutional chart 21 shows the historical surplus/deficit for each institution in 2006/07 as a percentage of income.

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Institutional chart 21 Surplus/deficit as a percentage of income, 2006/07

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Lower decile 7.3%

Median 2.3%

Upper decile -1.1%

(8.7%)

(2.1%)

(-1.3%)

25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% -5% -10% -15%

124 Since 1998/99 the median is down 1.2 percentage points, the upper decile is up 1.3 percentage points and the lower decile is down 0.1 percentage points. There is a slight improvement as compared with the figures given last year, although there are fewer outliers at the upper end. Across the sector as a whole, the median figure of a 2.3 per cent surplus continues to be quite low. 125 However, the current year out-turn is only one relevant measure, and one that should be seen in a wider context. Institutional charts 22 and 23 show two other security measures, relating to liquidity and the retention of reserves respectively. Institutional chart 22 Days ratio of net liquid assets to total expenditure, 2006/07

Lower decile 139 days

Median 62 days

(131 days)

(56 days)

Upper decile 15 days (12 days)

350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 -50

126 Since 1998/99 the median has increased by four days, while the upper decile is up by nine days and the lower decile is up by four days. The latest year’s figures show, for the first time, a modest improvement in this measure across the spectrum of institutions. 127 The days’ ratio of general funds to total expenditure is a measure of the ability of institutions to invest in the future as illustrated in institutional chart 23.

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Institutional chart 23 Days ratio of total general funds to total expenditure, 2006/07

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Lower decile 237

Median 103

Upper decile 13

days (224 days)

days (85 days)

days (8 days)

600 500 400 300 200 100 0 -100

16 In 2005/06 institutions were, for the first time, required to include net pensions assets or liabilities within their general funds as set out in the FRS17 accounting convention. Most institutions have a net pensions liability, which means that there was a significant overall reduction in general funds. The large reduction in this indicator is therefore, primarily due to new accounting conventions: the pensions liabilities existed in the past, but were not previously counted.

Institutional chart 24 The security index, 2006/07

128 Because of a change in definitions comparisons with years before 2005/06 cannot be made16. However, there is a modest improvement compared with 2005/06. 129 The previous Patterns reports set out an index of financial security based on three factors (equally weighted):

p the average of the last two years’ percentage ratios of historical surplus/(deficit) after tax to total income;

p the days ratio of general funds to total expenditure; p the days ratio of net liquid assets to total expenditure. 130 The security index for 2006/07 is set out in institutional chart 24.

600 500 400 300 200 100 0

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131 This index does not reflect the financial security of the sector as a whole, but simply on the relativities within the sector. It provides a basis for analysing aspects of institutional provision against a single measure of financial security, but a quantification of change from year to year within the sector as a whole cannot be derived from it. It does nevertheless provide a basis for disaggregation of the sector and an assessment of comparative financial security among individual institutions and groupings of institutions. 132 In 2005/06 four of the top 20 institutions in the index were comparatively small colleges, mostly of a specialist nature, that number having reduced from six in 2004/05. The latest figures show a return to the earlier position with six small specialist colleges being within the top 20 in the security index. In previous years, the post-1992 universities appeared to be more prominent at the head of the index than the pre-1992 universities, but that is no longer the case. 133 At the lower end of the index, five of the bottom 20 institutions are specialist colleges of performance arts, with the other places being shared evenly across the sector. 134 Last year, for the first time, in response to suggestions by some users of the Patterns series, an additional analysis to show the ratio of borrowing by institutions as a percentage of total income. Institutional chart 25 presents this for the second time. Institutional chart 25 Percentage ratio of total long-term borrowings to total income, 2006/07

Lower decile 0%

Median 14%

(0%)

(15%)

Upper decile 40% (42%)

140% 120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%

135 The chart continues to show a very wide variation in long-term borrowing in relation to institutional income, ranging from many institutions that report zero borrowing to above the level of 80 per cent of annual income. The chart shows that borrowings as a percentage of income have fallen slightly over from 2005/06 to 2006/07. The change since last year suggests that there is now slightly less exposure to long-term borrowing as a percentage of income across the sector, even though the total borrowing may have risen. The level of absolute borrowings should also be considered. This is described in paragraphs 205 to 207. 136 As indicated in the last Patterns report, this ratio is being published separately for two years, and will be considered for inclusion as a component of the security index in the ninth Patterns report.

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Patterns of income 17 The background to the development of performance indicators is described in a paper by the Higher Education Funding Council for England available at: http://www.hefce.ac.uk/pub s/hefce/1999/99_11.rtf

Institutional chart 26 Funding council income as a percentage of all income, 2006/07

137 The Joint Performance Indicators Working Group and the Higher Education Management Statistics Group, which defined the financial indicators published by HESA, proposed that dependence on funding council income is a further aspect of financial security17. It is also, of course, an issue of inherent interest in the context of the diversity of the sector. 138 The percentage of income from the funding councils is shown in institutional chart 26. Lower decile 29%

Median 45%

(30%)

(46%)

Upper decile 59% (62%)

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

139 Since 1998/99 the median is unchanged, while the upper decile is down three percentage points and the lower decile is down one. At some points in the graph in previous reports, we pointed out that funding council income was increasing slightly compared to income from other sources. This trend appeared to have been arrested last year, and has now been reversed, no doubt partly due to the recent introduction of variable tuition fees in England. 140 Institutional chart 27 shows the distribution of the public funding of research through the dual support system, that is to say the combination of funding council research income and research grant and contract income from the research councils. Institutional chart 27 Funding of research through the dual support system (ÂŁK), 2006/07

200,000 180,000 160,000 140,000 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 0

44

Lower decile 0

Median 2,467

Upper decile

(21)

(2,508)

51,660 (48,350)


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141 Since 1998/99 the lower decile is unchanged (at zero), the median is up 48 per cent and the upper decile is up 89 per cent. It is only in the upper decile that we see an increase in research funding in the last year. The short- and long-term trends demonstrate the concentration of research funding in a small number of higher education institutions. 142 Institutional chart 27 expresses public funding of research in absolute cash terms. Institutional chart 28 shows the relationship between public research income through the dual support system and all income. Institutional chart 28 Funding of research through the dual support system as a percentage of all income, 2006/07

Lower decile 0%

Median 3%

Upper decile 21%

(0%)

(4%)

(21%)

30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

143 There is a steep gradient here above the upper decile. The extent of concentration of research funding is demonstrated by the fact that the overall ratio of public research income to overall income is 13 per cent (16 per cent in Scotland): in this chart the median institution is on three per cent (down from four per cent last year). 144 As in the previous two Patterns reports, we also set out data about the relationship between the income received by institutions from research grants and contracts, and the research income from the funding councils, which is designed to underpin the development of research. 145 In institutional chart 29, institutions are mapped showing the income from research grants and contracts as a percentage of the funding councils’ research grant. The chart only includes institutions that have research grant income of at least £100,000.

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Institutional chart 29 Research grants and contracts as a percentage of funding council research grant, 2006/07

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Lower decile 443%

Median 176%

(419%)

(166%)

Upper decile 61% (58%)

1200% 1000% 800% 600% 400% 200% 0%

146 The chart shows that the large majority of institutions receive more income from research grants and contracts than from the research funding provided by the funding councils. There is also an increase across the whole spectrum of institutions compared with the data presented in the last year’s Patterns report. 18 One extreme outlier has been excluded from this analysis.

Institutional chart 30 Income for other services rendered (£K), 2006/07

147 Following changes in the HESA finance record in 2004/05, institutional chart 30 shows for the third time the institutional distribution of income from ‘other services rendered’; which broadly amounts to commercial contracts of a non-research nature.18 Lower decile 0 (0)

Median 3100 (2782)

Upper decile 15219 (13821)

50,000 45,000 40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0

148 There is a similar, though less extreme, level of differentiation between institutions, as seen above in relation to research. In the last year higher education institutions have received significantly more income from ‘other services rendered’. 149 In view of the importance of income from international student fees, institutional chart 31 looks at income from this source. Fees derived from international (non-EU) students are once again by far the largest component of international income for UK higher education institutions. 46


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Institutional chart 31 Income from international (non-EU) student fees (£K), 2006/07

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Lower decile 262

Median 5,852

(273)

5,018)

Upper decile 24,615 (21,056)

60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0

150 Here again, as noted previously, there is a highly differentiated position, with many institutions earning less than £5 million from the fees of international (non-EU) students, while a few earn over £30 million per year. 151 The median and upper decile have increased significantly since last year. Only the lower decile shows no increase: this last point may be due to the change in the constituency of higher education institutions, as new institutions have joined the sector. As noted in the previous Patterns report, there appears to be an increasingly broader distribution of the income from international student fees, and there is clearly an increase in the income from international student fees among most of the higher education institutions. 19 For technical reasons, the latest year for which these figures are available is 2005/06.

Costs and efficiency 152 Finally, in this section of the report, we update information about expenditure per fulltime equivalent student, which was published in the previous Patterns reports.19 153 For comparison with the rates of change shown in parentheses in the following paragraphs, it should be noted that the increase in the GDP deflator over the period 1998/99 to 2005/06 was 21 per cent.

20 The University of Wales Registry and the University of London’s central institutes and activities have been excluded from this and the following charts, together with a small number of outliers.

154 It should also be noted that the calculation of full-time equivalent students has changed, with the exclusion of students following non-credit-bearing courses: there will therefore, inevitably, be an increase in the costs per full-time equivalent student, as compared with the earlier Patterns reports. 155 Institutional chart 32 shows the cost per full-time equivalent student of central administrative services, including staff and student facilities.20

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Institutional chart 32 Administrative costs per full-time equivalent student (£), 2005/06

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Lower decile £1,009

Median £1,520

(£920)

(£1,419)

Upper decile £2,898 (£2,936)

£18,000 £16,000 £14,000 £12,000 £10,000 £8,000 £6,000 £4,000 £2,000 £0

21 For technical reasons, the latest year for which these figures are available is 2005/06.

Institutional chart 33 Academic departmental costs per full-time equivalent student, excluding academic staff (£), 2005/06

156 Since 1998/99 the median has increased by £576 (61 per cent), the upper decile is up £867 (42 per cent) and the lower decile up £361 (54 per cent). As in the last three Patterns reports, it appears to be the case that institutions generally have increased their administrative expenditure per full-time equivalent student by more than the rate of inflation. It is important to recognise that institutional structures vary, which will significantly affect where costs are recorded across an institution. Central administrative costs should be considered alongside the non-academic costs within academic departments, since in several institutions the administrative costs will fall also within academic departments. This is shown in institutional chart 33.21 Lower decile £658

Median £1,331

(£638)

(£1,299)

Upper decile £3,637 (£3,526)

£20,000 £18,000 £16,000 £14,000 £12,000 £10,000 £8,000 £6,000 £4,000 £2,000 £0

157 Since 1998/99 the median is up by £306 (30 per cent), the upper decile is up £1,436 (65 per cent) and the lower decile is up £148 (30 per cent). There is a marked increase in the unit costs of administrative activities within academic units, especially at the higher end of the distribution. This may reflect a shift from central administrative cost centres to academic cost centres as a result of reorganisation. It may also reflect a reallocation of budget codes to areas closer to the students. 48


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22 For technical reasons, the latest year for which these figures are available is 2005/06.

Institutional chart 34 Total academic services expenditure per full-time equivalent student (£), 2005/06

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158 For the third year, in institutional chart 34, we present a further ratio, about the cost per full-time equivalent student of academic services, including expenditure on libraries, computing facilities, museums, galleries and observatories (except those run by academic departments)22. The ratio also covers expenditure on any other general academic services not covered above including, for example, radiation protection, international liaison office and industrial liaison. Lower decile £435

Median £751

(£426)

(£710)

Upper decile £1,490 (£1,386)

£7,000 £6,000 £5,000 £4,000 £3,000 £2,000 £1,000 £0

159 The figures show modest increases as compared with the previous year; in future reports we will show a time series comparison. 160 Finally, as in previous years, institutional chart 35 shows the spread of premises expenditure per full-time equivalent student. Institutional chart 35 Premises expenditure per fulltime equivalent student (£), 2005/06

Lower decile £520

Median £890

(£469)

(£819)

Upper decile £2,000 (£2,008)

5,000 4,500 4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0

161 Since 1998/99 the median has increased by £243 (37 per cent), the upper decile by £682 (52 per cent) and the lower decile by £136 (35 per cent).

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162 As noted in previous Patterns reports, there has been a continuing increase in premises costs. This has been concentrated at the upper end of the graph, reflecting the fact that institutions with already high costs have seen these rise disproportionately. However this trend is reversed in the latest figures, which show a marginal reduction in premises costs at the upper end of the scale.

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Section C Financial aspects of diversity

163 This year’s themed section of Patterns goes into more detail about some of the sector’s financial indicators. It elaborates on some of the financial indicators and trends described in section A and B with the aim of providing a more comprehensive assessment of the financial diversity of the UK higher education sector. The new section compares a number of financial indicators for the period between 2002/03 and 2006/07 and identifies the main trends. It looks at the following aspects of the finances of higher education institutions:

p revenue p expenditure p capital investment in the estate p endowments p liquidity p surpluses and deficits 23 In this chart, the ‘Other’ category includes otherwise unattributed items in the funding councils’ grants, and also includes catering, etc.

Chart 4 Major income sources of UK higher education institutions, 2006/07

Revenue 164 The following pie chart shows the major sources of income across all higher education institutions in the UK in the most recent year, 2006/07.23

Endowments & investments 2%

Other 13%

Other operating income 5%

Funding council T grant 25%

Other services 6%

Other RGC 4% Funding council R grant 8%

Research grants from government 3% Research grants from UK charities 4% Research grants from Research councils 5%

UK/EU student fees 17% Non-EU student fees 8%

165 This chart shows that almost exactly 50 per cent of the income of higher education institutions in the United Kingdom currently comes from the teaching and research grants of the funding councils, together with fees from UK and EU students. The total income from research grants from the research councils, UK charities and the government (excluding the funding council research grant) and from contracts constitute 16 per cent of all income. However, there is a great deal of variation in the significance of different income sources from one institution to another. Funding council teaching grant as a percentage of total income 166 As chart 4 above indicates, the teaching grant from the funding councils represents the largest single source of income to higher education institutions, making up almost

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exactly a quarter of their income in 2006/07. 167 In 2002/03, teaching grant from the funding councils constituted 26.8 per cent of the total income to UK higher education institutions. In 2006/07, the equivalent figure was 25.2 per cent. Over the period 2002/03–2006/07, the teaching grant itself increased by 28 per cent, compared with the overall increase in institutional income of 37 per cent (both expressed in cash terms). 168 The teaching grant makes up a larger percentage of some individual institutions’ total income than others. The institutional distribution of these funds in 2006/07 is shown in the following chart.

80% 70% T grant as % of income....

Chart 5 Teaching grant as a percentage of all income: institutional distribution, 2006/07

60%

Median = 35%

50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

169 Chart 5 shows a broadly even spread across institutions of income from the teaching grant, ranging from less than 10 per cent to over 60 per cent, with the median at 35 per cent. 170 There has however been significant change in teaching grant as a percentage of total income at the level of individual institutions. The following chart shows the change over the last five years across all institutions expressed in percentage points of the teaching grant within overall income.

Chart 6 Change in teaching grant as percentage of total income, 2002/03–2006/07

15 10 Median = -1.2 percentage points

5 0 -5 -10 -15

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Chart 7 Histograms showing distribution of teaching grant as percentage of all income, 2002/03 and 2006/07

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171 A more detailed analysis of institutional changes over time is shown in the following histograms, which show that the number of institutions relying on the grant for teaching as 50 per cent or more of total income have dropped slightly. Teaching grant, 2002/03

Teaching grant, 2006/07

50

50

40

40

30

30

20

20

10

10

0

10 20 30 40 50 60 More %age income from funding councils teaching grant

0

20 30 40 50 60 More 10 %age income from funding councils teaching grant

Funding council research grant as a percentage of total income 172 In 2002/03, the research grant from the funding councils constituted 7.6 per cent of the total income to UK higher education institutions. In 2006/07, the equivalent figure was 7.9 per cent. Over the period, the research grant increased by 42 per cent, compared with the overall increase in institutional income of 37 per cent (both expressed in cash terms.) 173 There is, of course a very wide variation in the significance of the research grant in the income of individual institutions. The institutional distribution of the research grant in 2006/07 is shown in chart 8.

20 18 Research grant as % of income....

Chart 8 Research grant as a percentage of all income: institutional distribution, 2006/07

16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

Institutions 174 The chart shows a sector within which almost a half of institutions receive either no research grant or less than 2 per cent of the total institutional income. A second group receives between 2 per cent and 14 per cent of its income from the funding councils’ research grants, while a small group receive a greater proportion. 175 A summary of the situation in both 2002/03 and 2006/07 is given in the following histograms, which show the number of institutions receiving particular percentages of their total income from the funding councils research grant. Universities UK

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Chart 9 Histograms showing distribution of research grant as percentage of all income, 2002/03 and 2006/07

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Research grant, 2002/03

Research grant, 2006/07

60

60

50

50

40

40

30

30

20

20

10

10

0

0 2 5 10 15 20 %age income from funding councils research grant

0

0 2 5 10 15 20 %age income from funding councils research grant

176 Over the last five years there has been a small but perceptible increase in the number of institutions receiving more than 15 per cent of their total income from the funding councils’ research grant, offset by a reduction in all other groups, except the lowest two – a graphical representation of the increasing concentration of research funding. Non-EU student fee income as a percentage of total income 177 In 2002/03, income from non-EU overseas students’ fees was 7 per cent of the total income of UK HEIs. In 2006/07, the equivalent figure was 8 per cent. During that time, international students’ fees increased by 58 per cent, compared with the overall increase in institutional income of 37 per cent (both expressed in cash terms.) During the last five years, fees from non-EU students have come to represent a bigger share of higher education institutions’ income than the funding councils’ research grants. 178 Chart 10 shows the different dependency of individual higher education institutions depended on non-EU students’ fees in 2006/07.

Chart 10 Percentage income from non-EU students’ fees, 2006/07

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

179 The chart shows a generally even distribution except at the higher end, where we see a very small number of institutions generating more than 20 per cent of their total income from non-EU students’ fees. 180 The following two histograms, chart 11, show the change over the last five years.

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Chart 11 Histograms showing distribution of nonEU student fees as percentage of all income, 2002/03 and 2006/07

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Non-EU student fees, 2002/03

Non-EU student fees , 2006/07

80

80

70

70

60

60

50

50

40

40

30

30

20

20

10

10

0

2 5 10 15 20 More Percentage income from non-EU student fees

0

2 5 10 15 20 More Percentage income from non-EU student fees

181 Chart 11 shows that the numbers of institutions recording less than 5 per cent of their income coming from non-EU student fees has been reduced, and there has been a marked increase in the number recording more than 15 per cent from this source. The significance of this source of funding is plainly increasing for many institutions. Health service income 182 Another major provider of income to the higher education institutions is the NHS. What follows is only partial, because it cannot include research grants received from the NHS (they cannot be disaggregated from other central and local government funding). It does however include fee income from the Department of Health (and its territorial equivalents) and also income received from UK strategic health authorities and NHS trusts for the funding of any employees of the institution, including posts in academic teaching (except for those relating to the provision of a service, and except for research). 183 In 2002/03 the total identifiable funding from the health service, therefore, was ÂŁ797 million. In 2006/07, it was ÂŁ1,062 million, an increase of 33 per cent, slightly less than the increase in total income over the period. 184 Higher education institutions vary widely in the extent to which they receive NHS income, as the following charts and histograms demonstrate.

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Chart 12 Health service income (fees and grants) as a percentage of total income 2002/03 and 2006/07

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2002/03

30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

2006/07

30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

185 A comparison of the two charts shows that the number of institutions receiving some income from the health service has increased significantly during the period 1997/98–2006/07. 186 The same tendency is also illustrated in the histograms in Chart 13. In 2006/07 only half as many institutions were receiving less than £100,000 compared to 2002/03.

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Chart 13 Histograms showing health service income (fees and grants) (ÂŁK) received by higher education institutions, 2002/03 and 2006/07

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Health service income, 2002/03

Health service income , 2006/07

100

100

80

80

60

60

40

40

20

20 0

0

100

500

1000 5000 10000 20000 More Income from NHS (ÂŁK)

100

500

1000 5000 10000 20000 More Income from NHS (ÂŁK)

Expenditure 187 We now turn our attention to two aspects of expenditure, concerned with staffing and the estate. These are:

p the percentage ratio of total payroll costs to total income; p repairs and maintenance as a percentage of total expenditure. Payroll costs as a percentage of total income 188 In 2002/03, the ratio of expenditure on staff to total income across all higher education institutions in the UK was 57.7 per cent. In 2006/07, the equivalent figure was 57.1 per cent, representing a small reduction overall. 189 However, there is a wide distribution across the higher education sector, as the chart 14 illustrates.

Chart 14 Ratio of payroll costs to total income, 2006/07

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

190 The chart shows, in 2006/07, a distribution in this ratio of between 40 per cent and 70 per cent, but with most institutions clustering between 55 per cent and 65 per cent of income spent on staff costs. The following histograms show the change in this distribution over the last five years.

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Chart 15 Histograms showing the ratio of payroll costs to all income, 2002/03 and 2006/07

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Ratio of payroll costs to income, 2002/03

Ratio of payroll costs to income, 2006/07

80

80

70

70

60

60

50

50

40

40

30

30

20

20

10

10

0

40

45 50 55 60 65 70 Percentage expenditure on staff

More

0

40

45 50 55 60 65 70 Percentage expenditure on staff

More

191 When comparing the figures for institutions which have provided data consistently for the last five years, we see that there has been a reduction in the number of institutions devoting more than 60 per cent of their income to staff costs, as other costs have been incurred. Repairs and maintenance as a percentage of total expenditure 192 In 2002/03, the expenditure of UK higher education institutions on repairs and maintenance was 3.37 per cent of the total expenditure. By 2006/07, that figure had increased marginally to 3.4 per cent, but the distribution had changed significantly, as more institutions appeared to be spending an above average amount on repairs and maintenance. Chart 16 Histograms showing the percentage expenditure on repairs and maintenance, 2002/03 and 2006/07

Percentage expenditure on repairs and maintenance, 2002/03_____

50

50

40

40

30

30

20

20

10

10

0

Percentage expenditure on repairs and maintenance, 2006/07_____

0

1

2 3 4 5 6 More % expenditure on repairs and maintenance

1

2 3 4 5 6 More % expenditure on repairs and maintenance

Capital investment in the estate 24 Estates management statistics provides higher education institutions with information to help them improve their property management. See http://www.opdems.ac.uk/

193 The proportion of the (non-residential) estate which is classified as newly built or refurbished – groups A and B in the annual estates management statistics – gives a measure of investment in the estate in the higher education sector. 24 Proportion of non-residential estate classified as newly built or refurbished 194 Data about the estate is collected on a voluntary basis from institutions, and some have not made a return consistently over the last five years. Time series comparisons are therefore difficult. 195 There are 132 institutions which have made apparently robust returns over the five years 2001/02 to 2005/06. Subject to the limitations, the following charts show the distribution of these institutions according to the percentage of gross internal area (GIA), which is classified as either new or refurbished (groups A and B).

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Chart 17 Percentage of nonresidential accommodation classified as new or refurbished, 2001/02

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100% 90%

Median = 67%

80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Chart 18 Percentage of nonresidential accommodation classified as new or refurbished, 2005/06

100%

Median = 70%

90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

196 Charts 17 and 18 show a clear increase over the five years in 2001/02-2005/06 in the numbers of institutions reporting the estate to be in good condition. Endowments 197 Institutional finance returns report on the level of financial assets in the form of endowments. While these are, overall, comparatively small in terms of the overall balance sheet of universities, they are potentially important as institutions seek to diversify their income streams in the future. 198 Charts 19 and 20 show the change in the number of institutions holding endowment assets at particular levels in 2002/03 and again in 2006/07.

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Chart 19 Histogram showing institutions’ endowments assets, £K, 2002/03

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50 40 30 20 10 0

Chart 20 Histogram showing institutions’ endowments assets, £K, 2006/07

0

1000

10000

50000

100000

500000

More

0

1000

10000

50000

100000

500000

More

50 40 30 20 10 0

199 We see here a movement towards the upper end of the chart. There are more institutions with endowment assets in excess of £100 million and between £50 million and £100 million than was the case five years ago, providing some evidence to suggest that institutions are being increasingly successful in raising endowment income. Liquidity and borrowing 200 We now turn to the relationship between assets and liabilities in institutions’ finances. 201 The days of net liquid assets to total expenditure, is an indicator of liquidity; charts 21 and 22 shows the institutional distribution in 2002/03 and in 2006/07.

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Liquidity ratio

Chart 21 Days of net liquid assets to total expenditure less depreciation, 2002/03

400 350 300 250 200

Median = 45 days

150 100 50 0 -50

Chart 22 Days of net liquid assets to total expenditure less depreciation, 2006/07

400 350 300

Median = 55 days

250 200 150 100 50 0 -50

202 Although the two charts are of broadly similar shape, it is clear that the overall position is more positive in the most recent year, as the median has increased from 45 days in 2002/03 to 55 days in 2006/07. Borrowing 203 Chart 23 shows the institutional distribution of long-term borrowing as a percentage of total income in 2006/07.

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80

Chart 23 Long-term borrowing as a percentage of total income, 2006/07

60

Median = 14%

40

20

0

204 There is a very wide range here, with several institutions reporting no borrowing, while others show a considerable level of debt. More details are given, together with a fiveyear comparison, in the following two histograms. Chart 24 Histograms showing borrowing as a percentage of income, 2002/03 and 2006/07

Borrowing as percentage of income, 2002/03

Borrowing as percentage of income , 2006/07

50

50

40

40

30

30

20

20

10

10

0

0

10

20

30

40

More

0

0

10

20

30

40

More

205 Chart 24 shows that while a minority of institutions record no long-term borrowing, the number recording borrowings of up to 10 per cent of income has increased. However, fewer institutions are now borrowing over 20 per cent of income. 206 In absolute terms, long-term borrowing across the sector increased from ÂŁ3.1 billion in 2002/03 to ÂŁ4.2 billion in 2006/07. When adjusted for inflation, the real-terms increase was 24 per cent. 207 The two histograms in chart 25 show the distribution of long-term borrowing across institutions in the years 2002/03 and 2006/07, adjusted to 2006/07 price levels using the GDP deflator.

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Chart 25 Histograms showing institutional distribution of absolute borrowing (ÂŁK), 2002/03 and 2006/07

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Absolute borrowing, 2002/03

Absolute borrowing , 2006/07

80

80

60

60

40

40

20

20

0

0

1,000

10,000

40,000 100,000

More

0

0

1,000

10,000

40,000 100,000

More

208 While the figures at the lower end of the charts are broadly similar, it is clear that there has been a shift towards the higher level of borrowings, especially in the range over ÂŁ100 million. 209 Chart 26 shows the change in annual servicing costs, expressed as a percentage of income, between 2002/03 and 2006/07.

Chart 26 Increase/decrease in interest payments as percentage of income, 2002/03 to 2006/07

2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4

210 A complex picture is presented here. As we have noted, an increase in the number of institutions borrowing up to ten per cent of income has been accompanied by a reduction in those borrowing over twenty per cent. The costs of servicing the borrowing have similarly changed over time, and are no doubt related to the timescales associated with the borrowing. Broadly, there is an even balance between those institutions which have experienced an increase in their interest charges and those which have seen a decrease. Surpluses and deficits 211 This section addresses the question of institutions’ surpluses and deficits. Institutions need adequate surpluses for investment to ensure their long term sustainability. Ratio of surplus/(deficit) to total income 212 Consideration of the surplus or deficit of individual institutions in a single year is not a useful approach here, and therefore, the following table shows both the average surplus after tax and the number of institutions across the whole sector which recorded a deficit. Universities UK

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Table 15 Surpluses and deficits recorded annually between 2002/03 and 2006/07

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2002/03

2003/04

2004/05

2005/06

2006/07

2.42

3.13

2.88

3.28

2.93

29

27

29

29

23

Average surplus/deficit (percentage) Number of institutions recording deficit

213 While the average surplus/deficit has increased slightly over the period, the number of institutions recording a deficit in each year has been broadly the same, except in the most recent year. The institutional distribution of the average surplus/deficit as a percentage of total income over the five years is shown in the following distribution chart.

Chart 27 Average percentage ratio of historical surplus/(deficit) after tax to total income, 2002/03 to 2006/07

15 12

Median = 2.46%

9 6 3 0 -3 -6

214 It is clear that the average surplus of higher education institutions over the last five years from 2002/30 to 2006/07 has been less than the 3 to 5 per cent that would be needed to maintain sustainable investment. Return on net assets 215 To show the relationship between the outturn and the asset base, table 16 gives the percentage return on net assets for the sector as a whole. Table 16 Percentage return on net assets, 2002/03 to 2006/07

Average return on net assets

2002/03

2003/04

2004/05

2005/06

2006/07

1.5%

2.6%

1.6%

2.5%

2.2%

216 The institutional spread of the return on net assets in the most recent year is given in the final chart.

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Chart 28 Percentage return on net assets, 2006/07

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35% 30% 25% 20%

Median = 1.4%

15% 10% 5% 0% -5% -10% -15%

Conclusion 217 This report has been prepared as the latest in a series of yearbooks about higher education in the UK in order to meet the expressed wishes of the higher education sector, through Universities UK and GuildHE. It has expanded the data contained in its previous Patterns reports, as a basis for subsequent comparisons. 218 It is hoped that it will also be of interest to a wider audience, as setting out a range of facts, trends and ratios for the universities and colleges in the United Kingdom.

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Appendices

Appendix 1: Total enrolments by subject of study, 1997/98 and 2006/07 Appendix 2: Enrolments of students from outside the UK, by country and level of study, 2006/07 Appendix 3: Trends in sources of income to higher education institutions, 2000/01, 2005/06 and 2006/07 Appendix 4: Mergers within the higher education sector, 1994/95-2006/07 Appendix 5: HESA cost centres

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Appendix 1 Total enrolments by subject of study, 1997/98 and 2006/07

Subject group and subject

1997/98

Subject

2006/07

Percentage change

63,245

51%

Medicine and dentistry

41,959

Pre-clinical medicine

12,037

Pre-clinical medicine

15,495

29%

Pre-clinical dentistry

2,036

Pre-clinical dentistry

1,245

-39%

Clinical medicine

24,574

Clinical medicine

39,980

63%

Clinical dentistry

3,312

Clinical dentistry

5,830

76%

300,900

82%

Subjects allied to medicine

164,899

Anatomy and physiology

5,431

Anatomy, physiology and pathology

16,930

212%

Pharmacology

3,464

Pharmacology, toxicology and pharmacy

21,675

81%

Pharmacy

8,495

Nutrition

1,915

5,845

205%

Ophthalmics

2,293

Audiology

723

Nursing

100,640

Medical technology

3,353

Nutrition Ophthalmics

3,290

43%

Aural and oral sciences

4,080

464%

Nursing Medical technology Complementary medicine Others in subjects allied to medicine

183,580

82%

8,325

148%

6,765

Other medical subjects

37,918

49,450

30%

Biological sciences

96,337

164,215

70%

Biology

23,100

Biology

27,580

19%

Botany

950

Botany

775

-18%

Zoology

3,581

Zoology

4,040

13%

Genetics

2,134

Genetics

2,240

5%

Microbiology

2,608

4,880

87%

Molecular biology and biophysics

1,462

Biochemistry

8,338

Psychology (not solely as social science) Psychology (without significant element of biological science) Other biological sciences

28,133

30,835

Molecular biology, biophysics and biochemistry

10,460

7%

Psychology

72,475

99%

9,495

-39%

4,875

46%

8,350 15,665

Veterinary sciences

Microbiology Sports science

Others in biological sciences

3,348

Agriculture and related subjects

15,184

Agriculture

9,080

Forestry

731

Food science

2,888

Agricultural sciences

524

Other agricultural subjects

1,926

Physical sciences

72,285

Chemistry

22,010

Materials science

471

Physics

13,982

Agriculture Forestry Food and beverage studies Agricultural sciences

16,085

6%

7,295

-20%

790

8%

2,650

-8%

360

-31%

Animal science

3,220

Others in veterinary sciences, agriculture and related subjects

1,770

Chemistry Materials science Physics

-8%

83,905

16%

19,585

-11%

650

38%

14,935

7%

Archaeology as a physical science

2,134

Forensic and archaeological science

9,115

327%

Astronomy

1,069

Astronomy

2,950

176%

Geology

6,226

Geology

9,145

47%

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Subject group and subject Oceanography Geography studies as a science Environmental science and other physical sciences

1997/98 724 9,844

Subject Ocean sciences Physical and terrestrial geographical and environmental sciences

Mathematical sciences

21,184

Mathematics

16,801

Statistics

703 2,419

Computer science

77,987

Computing science

77,987

Engineering and technology General engineering

Percentage change

1,265

75%

20,530

6%

13,995 Others in physical sciences

Operational research

2006/07

33,790 Mathematics Operational research Statistics

70%

795

13%

3,550

47%

106,910

37%

Computer science

72,810 26,615

Software engineering

6,200

General engineering

60%

28,590

Information systems

130,926 17,027

4,695

140,580

7%

21,665

27%

Civil engineering

17,319

Civil engineering

22,115

28%

Mechanical engineering

21,983

Mechanical engineering

22,600

3%

Aeronautical engineering

4,311

Aerospace engineering

Electrical engineering

6,990

Electronic and electrical engineering

Electronic engineering

22,229

Production engineering

11,908

Chemical engineering

91% 11%

Production and manufacturing engineering

6,850

-42%

Chemical, process and energy engineering

6,845

10%

Minerals technology

799

Minerals technology

205

-74%

Metallurgy

844

Metallurgy

670

-21%

Ceramics and glasses

228

Ceramics and glasses

120

-47%

Polymers and textiles

4,197

Polymers and textiles

2,710

-35%

Other materials technology

2,815

Materials technology not otherwise specified

2,935

4%

Maritime technology

2,412

Maritime technology

1,455

-40%

205

-72%

9,570

287%

Biotechnology Other technologies

6,237

8,220 32,345

727 2,474

Industrial biotechnology Others in technology

Architecture, building and planning

45,002

60,525

34%

Architecture

13,406

Architecture

20,295

51%

Building

18,696

Building

23,990

28%

Environmental technologies

2,405

Town and country planning

9,900

Other architectural studies

595

Landscape design

Social studies

Planning (urban, rural and regional) Others in architecture, building and planning

22%

2,265

201,720

65%

Economics

21,789

Economics

30,225

39%

Politics

17,703

Politics

32,760

85%

Sociology

22,816

Sociology

32,845

44%

8,600

Social policy

12,870

50%

27,263

Social work

59,190

117%

4,930

35%

Social policy and administration Social work Anthropology 68

122,390

1,880 12,080

3,657

Anthropology


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Subject group and subject

1997/98

Geography (unless solely as a physical science)

7,894

Other social studies

12,668

Law

57,441

Business and administrative studies

222,137

Business and management studies

133,925

2006/07

Percentage change

Human and social geography

13,325

69%

Others in social studies

14,270

13%

90,845

58%

Subject

Law by area

33,065

Law by topic

52,945

Others in law

2,955

Business studies Management studies

Financial management

9,199

Accountancy

125,520

50%

74,810

Finance

20,690

125%

Accounting

31,310

33%

Marketing

23,895

82%

Human resource management

16,325

Marketing and market research

13,119 10,869

Catering and institutional management

18,928

Land and property management

2,922

Transport, other business and admin studies

3,081 Office skills Tourism, transport and travel Others in business and administrative studies

20,718

Librarianship

1,161

Information science

4,172

Communication studies

5,094

Media studies

6,873

Publishing

40%

23,508

Industrial relations

Mass communications and documentation

310,255

343

1,240 13,590 2,450

47,935

131%

Information services

5,360

1%

Publicity studies

4,075

-20%

27,225

296%

Publishing

Media studies

1,145

234%

Journalism

8,955

248%

139,715

52%

Journalism

2,575

Languages

91,989

Linguistics

4,128

Linguistics

5,820

41%

Comparative literature

2,902

Comparative literary studies

1,900

-35%

English

30,747

Celtic languages, literature and culture

1,095

60,310

96%

Celtic studies

English studies

3,640

232%

Latin language and literature

145

Latin studies

265

83%

Ancient Greek language and literature

140

Classical Greek studies

165

18%

Classics

2,596

Other ancient languages and related studies

491

Classical studies

4,730

82%

Others in linguistics, classics and related subjects

2,215

351%

French language, literature and culture

6,994

French studies

12,975

86%

German language, literature and culture

2,923

German studies

5,590

91%

Italian language, literature and culture

1,432

Italian studies

Spanish language, literature and culture

2,657

Spanish studies

Portuguese language, literature and culture

197

Latin American languages, literature and culture

406

Portuguese studies

Scandinavian languages, literature and culture

496

Scandinavian studies

Russian languages, literature and culture

991

Russian and East European studies

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Patterns of higher education institutions in the UK: Eighth report

3,585

150%

10,530

296%

675

243%

455

-8%

2,160

118%

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Subject group and subject

1997/98

Slavonic and East European languages, literature and culture Other European languages, literature and culture

Subject

2006/07

493 4,885

Percentage change -100%

Others in European languages, literature and related subjects

12,200

150%

Chinese languages, literature and culture

641

Chinese studies

1,665

160%

Japanese languages, literature and culture

784

Japanese studies

1,720

119%

Other Asian languages, literature and culture

304

South Asian studies

360

18%

Other Asian studies

260

African languages, literature and culture

165

Modern Middle Eastern languages, literature and culture

1,110

American studies

2,679

African languages, literature and culture

165

Historical and philosophical studies

61,288

History

27,468

Economic and social history

1,540

History of art

7,849

History and philosophy of science

250

52%

Modern Middle Eastern studies

African studies

2,020

82%

American studies

3,580

34%

35

-79%

103,215

68%

41,015

57%

Australasian studies

History by period History by area

2,140

History by topic

12,500

28%

348

Archaeology

4,126

Archaeology

7,250

76%

Philosophy

6,031

Philosophy

11,885

97%

Theology and religious studies

17,255

72%

Others in historical and philosophical studies

10,570

480%

160,525

71%

Theology and religious studies Other humanities

10,009 1,823

Creative arts and design

93,650

Fine art

15,161

Fine art

20,185

33%

Design studies

42,819

Design studies

59,345

39%

Music

13,377

Music

25,560

91%

Drama

11,172

Drama

20,915

120%

Dance Cinematics Crafts

Art and design other

Education

4,057 343

5,500

Cinematics and photography

66,369

Academic studies in education

27,339

Techniques in teaching adults Education for those with special needs Technology in education Management and organisation of education Other topics in education

70

353%

Crafts

1,555 6,465

Others in creative arts and design

6,760

Training teachers Research and study skills in education

Techniques in teaching children

296%

Imaginative writing

135,416

Teacher training

3,645 16,055

23%

216,330

60%

94,340

42%

3,670

Academic studies in education

87,210

Others in education

31,035

1,272 10,596 4,430 673 3,870 14,460

115%


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Appendix 2 Enrolments of students from outside the UK, by country and level of study, 2006/07

First degree Total

Postgrauduate Other degree undergraduate (research)

Postgraduate degree (taught)

Postgrauduate degree Other (research) postgraduate

Other postgraduate First degree

Other Total undergraduate

Total non-UK domiciled

351,470 135,195

50,460 32,030

120,255

13,530 50,460

135,195 13,530

32,030 351,470

European Union countries excluding UK

Domicile

112,260 51,840

15,450 12,395

27,705

4,870 15,450

51,840 4,870

12,395 112,260

Austria

1,430 675

255 130

310

60 255

675 60

1,430 130

Belgium

2,560 1,510

310 165

490

85 310

1,510 85

2,560 165

Cyprus

8,710 5,580

565 315

2,130

125 565

5,580 125

8,710 315

Czech Republic

1,150 670

100 140

215

25 100

670 25

1,150 140

Denmark

1,565 645

245 140

435

105 245

645 105

1,565 140

Estonia

535 350

35 80

65

355

350 5

535 80

Finland

1,700 1,095

195 110

245

55 195

1,095 55

1,700 110

France

13,070 5,930

1,330 2,395

2,940

475 1,330

5,930 475

13,0702,395

Germany

14,010 6,050

2,525 1,870

3,120

450 2,525

6,050 450

14,0101,870

Gibraltar Greece Hungary Republic of Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg

635 475

15 40

55

45 15

475 45

635 40

16,050 4,890

3,085 565

7,095

415 3,085

4,890 415

16,050 565

540 1,040

135 145

185

145 35

35 540

1,040 135

7,600 16,255

2,125 1,235

3,525

1,235 1,765

1,765 7,600

16,2552,125

1,755 5,990

595 1,845

1,490

1,845 305

305 1,755

5,990 595

610 880

85 30

145

30 10

10 610

880 85

1,150 1,485

105 40

170

40 15

15 1,150

1,485 105

585 880

35 95

145

95 15

15 585

880 35

190 815

30 195

360

195 40

40 190

815 30

The Netherlands

1,020 2,810

220 490

920

490 160

160 1,020

2,810 220

Poland

3,900 6,770

920 550

1,270

550 130

130 3,900

6,770 920

Portugal

1,355 3,010

215 855

515

855 75

75 1,355

3,010 215

Slovak Republic

615 890

105 60

100

60 20

20 615

890 105

Slovenia

90 285

30 65

90

65 10

10 90

285 30

Spain

2,385 6,350

1,605 845

1,170

845 345

345 2,385

6,3501,605

Sweden

2,175 3,380

245 340

515

340 105

105 2,175

3,380 245

European Union 2007 accession countries

510 1,450

190 325

355

325 65

65 510

1,450 190

Bulgaria

325 710

65 125

170

125 25

25 325

710 65

Romania

185 740

125 205

185

205 40

40 185

740 125

1,895 3,420

230 260

955

260 85

85 1,895

3,420 230

90 390

10 75

195

75 20

20 90

390 10

Malta

Other European Economic Area countries Iceland

155

50

0

55

55

Norway

1,795 3,015

220 185

760

185 60

60 1,795

3,015 220

Other Europe

3,150 8,620

625 1,370

3,105

1,370 370

370 3,150

8,620 625

Albania

105 240

25 30

70

30 15

15 105

240 25

Croatia

55 250

10 65

100

65 15

15 55

250 10

Russia

1,125 2,580

190 305

870

305 90

90 1,125

2,580 190

90 340

20 105

115

105 10

10 90

340 20

Liechtenstein

Serbia and Montenegro

15

0

Switzerland

800 1,895

125 300

540

300 135

135 800

1,895 125

Turkey

545 2,235

190 390

1,055

390 55

55 545

2,235 190

Ukraine

180 495

30 80

185

80 20

20 180

495 30

Other countries not listed

245 585

40 100

170

100 30

30 245

585 40

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First degree Total

Postgrauduate Other degree undergraduate (research)

Postgraduate degree (taught)

Postgrauduate degree Other (research) postgraduate

Other postgraduate First degree

Other Total undergraduate

33,355 11,595

4,185 3,185

12,695

1,700 4,185

11,595 1,700

3,185 33,355

475 100

175 15

125

60 175

100 60

15 475

Angola

255 170

455

35

05

170 0

45 255

Botswana

630 385

65 35

130

15 65

385 15

35 630

Domicile Africa Algeria

Cameroon

465 155

50

185

25 50

155 25

50 465

1,205 140

685 25

265

85 685

140 85

25 1,205

Ethiopia

230 45

40 10

120

15 40

45 15

10 230

Gambia

355 180

15 35

115

15

180 15

35 355

Egypt

Ghana

2,675 565

345 210

1,415

140 345

565 140

210 2,675

Kenya

2,760 1,540

200 145

790

80 200

1,540 80

145 2,760

Libya

1,685 95

650 140

720

80 650

95 80

140 1,685

580 190

80 45

240

30 80

190 30

45 580

1,885 1,160

90 180

380

80 90

1,160 80

180 1,885

210 75

30 25

75

5 30

75 5

25 210

3,550 11,135

720 775

5,440

775 650

650 3,550

11,135 720

100 160

5

45

5

5 100

160 5

Malawi Mauritius Morocco Nigeria Seychelles Sierra Leone

85 265

45 30

90

30 20

20 85

265 45

South Africa

440 1,700

265 330

515

330 150

150 440

1,700 265

75 345

20 85

140

85 20

20 75

345 20

420 1,050

70 100

425

100 30

30 420

1,050 70

Uganda

290 910

55 100

430

100 40

40 290

910 55

Zambia

235 605

70

195

70 30

30 235

605 70

Sudan Tanzania

Zimbabwe

1,040 2,475

785 140

440

140 70

70 1,040

2,475 785

Other countries not listed

555 1,295

190 115

380

115 50

50 555

1,295 190

53,220 142,555

9,090 16,710

59,255

16,710 4,275

4,275 53,220

142,555 9,090

Bangladesh

1,185 2,675

145 265

870

265 210

210 1,185

2,675 145

Brunei

865 1,205

90 50

185

50 15

15 865

1,205 90

Asia

Burma China (People's Republic of) Hong Kong

145 255

15 20

65

20 10

10 145

255 15

18,410 49,595

3,245 5,170

21,620

5,170 1,150

1,150 18,410

49,595 3,245

6,660 9,640

450 720

1,410

720 400

400 6,660

9,640 450

4,080 23,835

1,380 1,985

15,500

1,985 890

890 4,080

23,835 1,380

Indonesia

370 1,090

40 190

465

190 30

30 370

1,090 40

Japan

2,050 5,705

915 820

1,715

820 200

200 2,050

5,705 915

390 875

120 35

305

35 30

30 390

875 120

India

Kazakhstan Macao Malaysia

100 205

10 15

80

15 0

0 100

205 10

7,710 11,810

335 1,880

1,575

1,880 310

310 7,710

11,810 335

Maldives

95 195

15 20

65

20 5

5 95

195 15

Nepal

210 635

120 80

210

80 20

20 210

635 120

2,720 9,305

395 960

4,870

960 365

365 2,720

9,305 395

175 825

445 55

130

55 15

15 175

825 445

Pakistan Philippines Singapore

1,990 3,200

85 495

555

495 75

75 1,990

3,200 85

South Korea

1,760 4,310

370 865

1,235

865 80

80 1,760

4,310 370

Sri Lanka

1,580 3,005

145 340

870

340 70

70 1,580

3,005 145

Taiwan

755 6,795

360 1,270

4,260

1,270 150

150 755

6,795 360

Thailand

740 4,545

205 1,155

2,285

1,155 160

160 740

4,545 205

Vietnam

860 1,685

95 195

500

195 35

35 860

1,685 95

Other countries not listed

375 1,160

115 130

485

130 55

55 375

1,160 115

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First degree Total

Postgrauduate Other degree undergraduate (research)

Postgraduate degree (taught)

Postgrauduate degree Other (research) postgraduate

Other postgraduate First degree

Other Total undergraduate

Australasia

440 2,495

395 695

715

255 695

440 255

395 2,495

Australia

325 1,770

295 470

500

180 470

325 180

295 1,770

New Zealand

75 575

70 205

170

60 205

75 60

70 575

Other countries not listed

40 145

25 25

45

10 25

40 10

25 145

5,415 16,120

1,205 4,275

4,690

530 4,275

5,415 530

1,205 16,120

530 955

65 155

200

10 155

530 10

65 955

Iran

750 2,455

170 760

695

80 760

750 80

170 2,455

Iraq

55 330

40 85

140

15 85

55 15

40 330

Israel

190 890

25 415

230

25 415

190 25

25 890

Jordan

360 1,505

40 500

565

35 500

360 35

40 1,505

Kuwait

560 1,165

85 265

215

40 265

560 40

85 1,165

125 670

25 180

330

15 180

125 15

25 670

Oman

445 1,325

115 210

520

35 210

445 35

115 1,325

Qatar

315 600

100 65

100

65 20

20 315

600 100

870 3,250

365 1,000

900

1,000 115

115 870

3,250 365

50 570

25 295

185

295 10

10 50

570 25

1,085 2,220

130 320

555

320 130

130 1,085

2,220 130

80 195

20 35

55

35 10

10 80

195 20

00

00

0

00

00

0

5,850 25,495

4,210 5,925

8,535

5,925 985

985 5,850

25,495 4,210

Bahamas

140 240

10 10

55

10 25

25 140

240 10

Barbados

180 415

20 35

165

35 15

15 180

415 20

Bermuda

145 220

20 15

30

15 10

10 145

220 20

1,315 5,010

265 1,300

1,845

1,300 285

285 1,315

5,010 265

300 805

90 95

270

95 50

50 300

805 90

120 1,665

105 875

530

875 30

30 120

1,665 105

Domicile

Middle East Bahrain

Lebanon

Saudi Arabia Syria United Arab Emirates Yemen Other countries not listed

North America

Canada Jamaica Mexico

85 155

10 10

50

105

5 85

155 10

3,120 15,955

3,620 3,480

5,250

3,480 490

490 3,120

15,955 3,620

Other countries not listed

445 1,030

70 110

335

110 75

75 445

1,030 70

South America

970 4,460

350 1,060

1,770

1,060 305

305 970

4,460 350

45 340

15 120

105

120 55

55 45

340 15

220 1,315

120 385

540

385 50

50 220

1,315 120

Chile

20 380

15 175

160

175 15

15 20

380 15

Colombia

60 550

55 135

290

135 10

10 60

550 55

Peru

50 225

10 45

110

45 10

10 50

225 10

Trinidad and Tobago

390 880

90 55

260

55 90

90 390

880 90

Venezuela

65 350

15 70

135

70 60

60 65

350 15

Other countries not listed

120 425

35 75

170

75 20

20 120

425 35

St Lucia United States

Argentina Brazil

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Appendix 3 Trends in sources of income to higher education institutions, 2000/01, 2005/06 and 2006/07

The following tables shows the sources of income to higher education institutions UK

England

Wales

Scotland

Northern Ireland

i Recurrent (teaching)

3,805,637

3,029,040

213,593

463,603

99,401

ii Recurrent (research)

1,070,580

880,125

46,294

118,792

25,369

408,526

322,265

23,884

50,118

12,259

71,034

68,455

2,579

5,355,777

4,299,885

286,350

632,513

137,029

a Home and EU domicile students

2013648

1686126

101806

180555

45161

b Non-EU domicile students

746,366

648,976

23,851

68,502

5,037

Total higher education course fees

2,760,014

2,335,102

125,657

249,057

50,198

2 Non-credit-bearing course fees

236,782

209,252

4,715

20,697

2,118

3 Further education course fees

26,416

25,975

90

351

4 Research training support grants

25,367

19,036

800

5,263

268

Total tuition fees and education grants and contracts

3,048,579

2,589,365

131,262

275,368

52,584

Total research grants and contracts

2,207,228

1,812,384

78,807

278,265

37,772

2000/01 Funding council grants a Grants for higher education provision (including further education in Scotland)

Other higher education grants b Grants for further education provision Total funding council grants Tuition fees and education grants and contracts 1 Higher education course fees

Other income a Other services rendered

652,262

506,803

50,233

83,378

11,848

925,602

771,461

50,966

93,965

9,210

10,606

10,521

85

200,225

175,523

5,043

14,678

4,981

e Released of deferred capital grants

45,655

37,261

649

7,745

f Income from intellectual property rights

17,828

7,413

3,478

6,906

b Residences and catering operations

(including conferences)

c Grants from local authorities d Income from health and hospital authorities

(excluding teaching contracts)

g Other operating income Total other income Total endowment and investment income Total income

737,770

612,080

21,654

89,480

14,556

2,589,948

2,121,062

132,108

296,152

40,626

292,387

245,949

12,533

30,948

2,957

13,493,919

11,068,645

641,060

1,513,246

270,968

In 2000/01, 2005/06 and 2006/07 (expressed as ÂŁthousand in cash terms).

74

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UK

England

Wales

Scotland

Northern Ireland

i Recurrent (teaching)

4,992,550

4,023,079

256,924

582,395

130,152

ii Recurrent (research)

1,543,826

1,250,423

63,877

187,050

42,476

85,540

18,607

2005/06

Funding council grants a Grants for higher education provision (including further education in Scotland)

Other higher education grants b Grants for further education provision Total funding council grants

897,744

740,887

52,710

109,958

106,656

3,302

7,544,078

6,121,045

376,813

854,985

191,235

2718486

2279096

137307

246066

56017

Tuition fees and education grants and contracts 1 HE course fees a Home and EU domicile students b Non-EU domicile students

1,499,348

1,297,178

50,194

143,896

8,080

Total HE course fees

4,217,834

3,576,274

187,501

389,962

64,097 1,530

2 Non-credit-bearing course fees

314,601

277,917

8,531

26,623

3 FE course fees

23,035

22,589

218

228

4 Research training support grants

85,329

64,388

3,149

17,772

20

4,640,799

3,941,168

199,399

434,585

65,647

3120606

2540013

121321

389220

70052

Total tuition fees and education grants and contracts Total research grants and contracts Other income a Other services rendered b Residences and catering operations

(including conferences)

c Grants from local authorities d Income from health and hospital authorities

(excluding teaching contracts)

e Released of deferred capital grants f Income from intellectual property rights g Other operating income Total other income Total endowment and investment income Total income

Universities UK

1,212,366

1,009,779

92,678

92,974

16,935

1,162,244

973,136

60,045

115,562

13,501

2,446

2,357

82

7

313,575

256,136

15,654

20,191

21,594

87,375

72,344

2,799

11,196

1,036

30,815

24,325

1,425

4,976

89

1,045,725

885,748

32,313

105,414

22,250

3,854,546

3,223,825

204,996

350,320

75,405

343,083

288,917

15,013

35,226

3,927

19,503,112

16,114,968

917,542

2,064,336

406,266

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UK

England

Wales

Scotland

Northern Ireland

i Recurrent (teaching)

5,358,952

4,318,990

273,476

629,779

136,707

ii Recurrent (research)

1,671,653

1,343,770

65,315

215,917

46,651

887,679

689,684

83,571

97,003

17,421

2006/07

Funding council grants a Grants for higher education provision (including further education in Scotland)

Other higher education grants b Grants for further education provision

112,367

101,963

10,404

0

0

8,030,651

6,454,407

432,766

942,699

200,779

a Home and EU domicile students 3,270,707

2,808,414

140,387

252,043

69,863

Total funding council grants Tuition fees and education grants and contracts 1 Higher education course fees

1,712,730

1,472,893

60,110

171,002

8,725

Total higher education course fees

b Non-EU domicile students

4,983,437

4,281,307

200,497

423,045

78,588

2 Non-credit-bearing course fees

307,005

268,910

9,054

27,886

1,155

3 Further education course fees

28,001

26,933

740

328

0

4 Research training support grants

95,542

71,923

4,704

18,885

30

5,413,985

4,649,073

214,995

470,144

79,773

Total tuition fees and education grants and contracts Total research grants and contracts Other income a Other services rendered b Residences and catering operations

(including conferences)

c Grants from local authorities d Income from health and hospital authorities

(excluding teaching contracts)

e Released of deferred capital grants f Income from intellectual property rights

1,313,930

1,108,518

94,378

94,196

16,838

1,233,005

1,034,152

59,402

125,661

13,790

1,464

1,371

77

16

0

330,040

274,921

15,745

20,405

18,969

88,651

71,948

3,121

12,402

1,180

33,871

27,548

1,702

4,611

10

g Other operating income

1,076,424

898,293

35,542

114,245

28,344

Total other income

4,077,385

3,416,751

209,967

371,536

79,131

390,841

326,494

15,984

43,124

5,239

21,289,853

17,591,618

1,005,046

2,258,574

434,615

Total endowment and investment income Total income

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Appendix 4 Mergers within the higher education sector, 1994/95–2006/07

Unless otherwise stated, the merged institution assumed the name of the second named institution. Only publicly funded higher education institutions are included in this list. 1994/1995 Institute of Psychiatry (transition)

and

King’s College London

West London Institute of Higher Education

and

Brunel University

London Hospital Medical College

and

Queen Mary and Westfield College

St Bartholomew’s Hospital Medical School

and

Queen Mary and Westfield College

The Welsh Agricultural College

and

University College of Wales, Aberystwyth

Duncan of Jordanstone College of Art

and

University of Dundee

Salford College of Technology

and

University of Salford

Winchester School of Art

and

University of Southampton

Charlotte Mason

and

St Martin’s College

1995/1996

The British Postgraduate Medical Federation

incorporated into: Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, King’s College London, University College London and London University - Senate institutes

1996/1997 Institute of Psychiatry

and

King’s College London

Royal Postgraduate Medical School

and

Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine

Charing Cross and Westminster Medical School

and

Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine

La Sainte Union College

and

University of Southampton

Coleg Normal

and

University College of North Wales, Bangor

Loughborough College of Art and Design

and

Loughborough University

United Medical and Dental School (UMDS)

and

King’s College London

Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine

and

University College London

Westhill College (‘strategic alliance’)

and

University of Birmingham

Moray House Institute of Education

and

University of Edinburgh

The Scottish College of Textiles

and

Heriot-Watt University

and

University of Glasgow

1998/1999

1999/2000 St Andrew’s College of Education

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2000/2001 Westminster College Oxford

and

Oxford Brookes University

Wye College

and

Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine

North Riding

and

University of Hull

College of Guidance Studies

and

Canterbury Christ Church University College

Bretton Hall

and

University of Leeds

Homerton College, Cambridge (partial merger)

and

University of Cambridge

London Guildhall University

and

University of North London, forming London Metropolitan University

Northern College of Education

and

University of Aberdeen and University of Dundee

and

Conservatoire for Dance and Drama

University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology

and

the Victoria University of Manchester, forming the University of Manchester

Kent Institute of Art and Design

and

The Surrey Institute of Art and Design, forming the University College for the Creative Arts

The University of Wales College of Medicine

and

Cardiff University

Wimbledon School of Art

and

University of the Arts London

Homerton College

and

Anglia Ruskin University

2001/2002

2002/2003 Northern School of Contemporary Dance (Transfer of higher education provision.) 2004/2005

2005/2006

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Appendix 5 HESA cost centres (Excluding non-academic cost centres)

01 Clinical medicine 02 Clinical dentistry 03 Veterinary science 04 Anatomy and physiology 05 Nursing and paramedical studies 06 Health and community studies 07 Psychology and behavioural sciences 08 Pharmacy and pharmacology 10 Biosciences 11 Chemistry 12 Physics 13 Agriculture and forestry 14 Earth, marine and environmental sciences 16 General engineering 17 Chemical engineering 18 Mineral, metallurgy and materials engineering 19 Civil engineering 20 Electrical, electronic and computer engineering 21 Mechanical, aero and production engineering 23 Architecture, built environment and planning 24 Mathematics 25 IT and systems sciences, computer software engineering 26 Catering and hospitality management 27 Business and management studies 28 Geography 29 Social studies 30 Media studies 31 Humanities and language based studies 33 Design and creative arts 34 Education 35 Modern languages 37 Archaeology 38 Sports science and leisure studies 41 Continuing education

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About Universities UK This publication has been produced by Universities UK, which is the representative body for the executive heads of UK universities and is recognised as the umbrella group for the university sector. It works to advance the interests of universities and to spread good practice throughout the higher education sector. Universities UK Woburn House 20 Tavistock Square London WC1H 9HQ telephone +44 (0)20 7419 4111 fax +44 (0)20 7388 8649 email info@UniversitiesUK.ac.uk web www.UniversitiesUK.ac.uk Š Universities UK ISBN 978 1 84036 182 7 September 2008

Patterns of HEIs in the UK Report 8  

Patterns of higher education institutions in the UK Eighth report Patterns of higher education institutions in the UK: Eighth report The cop...

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