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Overview of Professional Music Training System in Brazil Last update

October 2007

In general

The educational system of Brazil has been divided into three levels: fundamental, intermediate and higher education. The language of instruction, as required by law, is Portuguese. In Brazil, formal education is the responsibility of the government and all institutions, public and private, depend on the central government for the final answer on educational questions. Educational programs must be approved by the appropriate government agencies. In Brazil, the higher education is composed of Universities, Specialized Universities, University Centers, Specialized University Centers, Faculties (and Integrated Faculties), Higher Education Institutes (and Higher Education Schools) and Technological Education Centers.1,2,3 After the conclusion of the intermediate level, a student who wishes to continue in higher education at the undergraduate level must pass an entrance examination (vestibular) for each program. Each institution of higher education administers its own entrance examinations, which cover the following subjects: language (Portuguese), humanities (history, geography, social studies), natural sciences (biology, chemistry, physics), mathematics and one foreign language. Students choose their specialization through these exams and cannot change it once they enter college, without be submitted to another new vestibular. Some programs, among them music, demands specific examination in order to evaluate specific skills required for the course. Undergraduate degree programs leads to a bacharel (non-teaching) degree, licenciado (teaching), or a professional title (title of architect, for instance.). The length of the academic courses in institutions of higher education varies from four to six years.4 Music course usually lasts four years. There is little uniformity regarding the number of credits granted per course. The weight or credit attached to each class varies with the

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Available in: http://www.educacaosuperior.inep.gov.br/educacao_superior.stm. Available in: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001393/139317por.pdf. 3 Universities (Universidades) offer a multitude of degree programs and develop regular activities in teaching, research and extension. The same is valid for Specialized Universities, but in these case, there is specialization in a specific domain (Health, for instance). University Centers and Specialized University Centers are also institution devoted to many degree programs, but do not need to carry on research and extension activities. Faculties (Faculdades) and Integrated Faculties are isolated schools, which offer only a few programs of study. Research and extension activities are not compulsory in such institutions. Higher Education Institutes (and Higher Education Schools) aim at the initial, continuing and complementar pedagogical formation for fundamental and intermediate education teaching formation. Finally, the Technological Education Centers are specialized in professional qualification and are devoted to technological development of new process, products or services, in strict articulation with productive sectors and society, including continuing education 4 For instance: medicine (six years); law (five years); engineering (five years); teacher education (four years); business administration (four years); nursing (four years) and dentistry (five years). 2

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institution, as does the total number of credits required per semester. Generally, a full-time student will take between 25 and 35 credits per semester. As above mentioned, the inscription at a music course in undergraduate level demands a specific examination to evaluate skills such as elementary principles of music literacy and instrumental performance, for instance. It is worth noting that in Brazil there is no compulsory music education at school.5 Instrument classes are usually taught in private schools or through private classes. Therefore, this specific examination is crucial to evaluate a minimal formal music knowledge basis that allows the student to follow a music undergraduate program. The criteria established by the Governmental agencies to evaluate music programs demands some levels of skills and capacities of specific knowledge to be attended. Therefore, the education of a professional musician aims at developing skills and competence in6: a) Thinking critically about the role of musical art in the Brazilian culture, b) Showing artistic sensibility in the creation and expression of music, c) Showing command of musical language, expressing it by means of composition, conducting, vocal and/or instrumental performance, d) Showing knowledge of repertoire, musical styles and genders, e) Showing ability to perform professionally with social responsibility, f) Showing ability to work with music from a scientific and technological point of view, g) Showing ability to act in different socio-educational contexts, h) Showing ability to act in an interdisciplinary manner.

In order to practice music on a professional level, the musician must be enrolled in the Brazilian Musicians’ Association (local acronym “OMB”7). OMB is the body which supervises the music professional practice on a national level. This entity is entrusted with the issuing of professional identification cards for composers, conductors, instrumentalists, singers, teachers and arrangers, among others, enabling them to practice their profession8. In addition to this requirement, there are two further cases in which specific education is necessary to professionally work with music: primary and 5

For the schools which offer music classes, there are National Curricular Standards which guide music teaching in fundamental and intermediate levels. Nevertheless, it is up to the school (which offers music classes) to decide the frequency and the levels for which music classes are supposed to be offered. Therefore, there is diversity in music teaching in the Brazilian schools: Some do not offer music classes at all. Others offer as a complementary activity, which is paid apart. Other schools offer in the elementary classes or even all long the school education. 6 Criteria established by the Brazilian National Students Performance Examination – local acronym “ENADE” (INEP/2006) 7 The OMB was created by law (1960). In its first article, it is stated that the OMB is supposed to carry out the selection, the discipline, the defense of the musicians and the supervision of the practice of professional musicians, all over the country, excepting those case which are competence of the musicians syndicate. 8 Available at: http://www.funarte.gov.br/canal/downcanal/informaVI.doc

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secondary education teaching, for which the professional needs a specific credential in teaching (the Brazilian equivalent is the "licenciatura em música"); and higher education teaching, for which the teacher needs a graduate degree. While a graduate degree equivalent to the American Doctorate’s degree ("doutorado") is specifically required by the federal higher education institutions, other institutions often have different requirements. Total number of institutions

The total number of professional music training institutions in Brazil is presented in the following discussion. Data are gathered in terms of type of educational level (undergraduate study, graduate study and technical), distributed among the five Brazilian geographic regions, namely, the North, Northeast, Southeast, South and Central-West. For the sake of clarity, Figure 1 shows the 5 regions, including the federal state belonging to each one of them.

Figure 1. Map of Brazil showing the five geographic regions: North, Northeast, Southeast, South and CentralWest.

Table 1 shows the total number of institutions that offer undergraduate studies in Music, distributed among the five geographic regions. Table 1. Brazilian Institutions offering Music undergraduate studies, divided according to type of institution and geographic region.

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Geographic regions North

Northeast

Central-

Total

Southeast South

West Total

4

12

4

29

18

67

Source: http://www.educacaosuperior.inep.gov.br/cur_pesq_regiao.stm

According to Table 1, there are 67 Brazilian institutions which offer Music courses. Figure 2 shows the distribution of these Institutions in the five geographic regions.

Figure 2. Percentage of Brazilian institutions offering Music undergraduate programs in the five geographic regions.

According to Figure 2, 43 % of all undergraduate studies in Music are offered in the Southeast region, the most economically developed region, followed by the South region. The amount Brazilian institutions that offer undergraduate studies in Music can be correlated to population density, expressed by number of people per unit of area (Figure 3).

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Institutions (no.)

40 35

SE 30 25

S

20 15

NE

10

N

C-W

5 0 0

20

40

60

80

100 2

Population density (inhab/km )

Figure 3. Correlation between population density of the Brazilian regions and the number of institutions that offer music undergraduate studies. C-W: Central-West; N: North; NE: Northeast; S: South; SE: Southeast.

According to Figure 3, there is a linear correlation (R = 0.9971) between population density and number of institutions which offer music undergraduate programs. Another indicator which describes the standard of living and the degree of development is the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. This indicator is calculated by taking account expenditure on final goods and services produced in a given region, within a certain period and divided by the population. Figure 4 represents the relation between GDP per capita of each region by the number of this institutions that offer undergraduate music programs.

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Institutions (no.)

40 35

SE

30 25

S

20

NE 15 10

N

C-W

5 0 4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

9000

10000

11000

12000

13000

GDP per capita (R$)

Figure 4. Relation between GDP per capita of the Brazilian geographic region and the number of institutions that offer music undergraduate studies. C-W: Central-West; N: North; NE: Northeast; S: South; SE: Southeast.

According to Figure 4, in the NE region, although bearing the lowest GDP per capita, there is a larger number of music undergraduate studies in comparison to those offered in North and Central-West regions. These data suggest that the economical development seems not being a driving factor for the creation of higher education programs of music. Other factors, such as historical (NE was chronologically the first geographic region colonized by the Portuguese) and the higher population density seems to have promoted a large number of music undergraduate programs, in comparison to the number existent in the North or Central-West regions. Another indicator that could be employed in the analysis of the distribution of undergraduate programs along the Brazilian geographical regions is the human development index (HDI). HDI is a development indicator that measures the average achievements in a country in three basic dimensions of human development: (i) a long and healthy life, as measured by the life expectancy at birth; (ii) knowledge, as measured by the adult literacy rate (with two-thirds weight) and the combined primary, secondary and tertiary gross enrolment ration (with one-third weight) and (iii) a decent standard of living, as measured by GDP per capita. Figure 5 represents the relationship between HDI of each region and the number of institutions that offer music undergraduate program.

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Institutions (no.)

40 35

SE

30 25

S

20 15

NE

10

N

5 0 0,60

0,62

0,64

C-W

0,66

0,68

0,70

0,72

0,74

0,76

0,78

0,80

0,82

HDI

Figure 5. Relation between HDI per capita of the Brazilian geographic region and the number of institutions that offer music undergraduate studies. C-W: Central-West; N: North; NE: Northeast; S: South; SE: Southeast. The blanket line delimits the region of medium HDI (0.500-0.799) from high HDI (> 0.800).

It is worth noting that all the Brazilian regions are classified as médium HDI, excepting the South one. According to Figure 5, there is no clear trend between HDI and number of institutions that offer music undergraduate programs. For instance, in spite of the C-W region presents a HDI (0.792) higher than that of NE (0.683) and SE (0.791), the number of institutions is comparable to that existent in the N region (0.642). These data suggest that the number of music undergraduate programs is not directly connected to the human development. Other factors, probably historical and political ones, might be influencing on these results. It is worth noting that taking into account the 67 Institutions (Table 1), a total of 169 courses are offered, of which 59 are undergraduate studies in music (Bachelor’s degree or the Brazilian equivalent “bacharelado”) and 106 are courses for music teaching undergraduate degree (teaching credential or the Brazilian equivalent “licenciatura”). Only one course awards the degree of “technologist”.9 A smaller number of institutions offer graduate studies in Music. Table 2 shows the number institutions in the five geographic regions.

9

The technological musical course last two years and is devoted to the formation of a professional to work in the formation, production and diffusion of music, dealing with modern multimedia resources, incorporating technological innovations, without neglecting cultural traditions.

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Table 2. Brazilian higher education institutions which offer graduate studies in music in the five geographic regions.

Geographic regions

Total

North

Northeast

CentralWest

0

2

2

Total

Southeast South 6

3

13

Source:http://servicos.capes.gov.br/projetorelacaocursos/jsp/areaIesDet.jsp?cd_area=80300006&grande Area=LINGÜÍSTICA,%20LETRAS%20E%20ARTES&areaConh=ARTES

As shown in Table 2, there are only 13 institutions offering graduate courses in Music. Most of them are located in the Southeast region. There are none in the North region. In the Northeast and Central-West regions, all Music graduate studies are offered by federal institutions. Table 3 shows data about programs offering graduate studies, expressed in terms of type degree. Table 3. Brazilian institutions which offer Music graduate studies, distributed among the 5 geographic regions, expressed in terms of degree.

Degree

Geographic regions

Total

North

Northeast

CentralWest

Southeast South

Master’s

0

2

2

6

3

13

Doctorate’s

0

1

0

3

1

5

Total

0

3

2

7

4

18

Source: http://servicos.capes.gov.br/projetorelacaocursos/jsp/areaIesDet.jsp?cd_area=80300006&grande Area=LINGÜÍSTICA,%20LETRAS%20E%20ARTES&areaConh=ARTES

According to Table 3, most of the institutions that offer graduate studies have a master’s degree program (2nd cycle). There are only five graduate studies program with a doctorate’s degree (3rd cycle). It is worth noting that in some institutions, both degrees are offered. Therefore, there are 18 graduate studies courses offered by 13 Institutions. In the North region no graduate In Brazil, it is also possible to obtain a degree in music on a technical level as vocational studies, as shown in Table 4.

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Table 4. Brazilian institutions which offer Music vocational studies, according to type geographic region.

Geographic regions

Total

North

Northeast

CentralWest

3

2

2

Total

Southeast South 64

2

73

Source: http://siep.inep.gov.br/siep/owa/consulta.inicio

Taking into account the data presented in Table 4, almost all Music vocational courses are offered by institutions located in the Southeast region. Figure 6 shows these data expressed as percentages for each geographic region.

South 3%

North 4%

Northeast 3% CentralWest 3%

Southeast 87%

Figure 6. The percentage of Brazilian institutions that have a Music vocational studies program for each geographic region.

According to Figure 6, 87% of these institutions are located in the Southeast region. It is worth noting that the majority of these institutions belong to the state department of S達o Paulo, one of the most developed regions in Brazil.

Total number of students

Table 5 shows the total number of students enrolled and completed the 1st cycle.

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Table 5. Total number of students enrolled and completed the 1st cycle in the period 2001-2005.

Year 2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

enrolled

4998

5654

6311

6944

8297

completed

527

607

807

826

761

Source: http://www.inep.g

ov.br/superior/censosuperior/sinopse/default.asp

Number of students

According to Table 5, the number of enrolled students in music courses is increasing in the period 2001-2005, while the proportion of students, who completed the courses remains around of 10% of the total number of enrolled students in the same period. Figure 7 show this behavior.

9000 8000 7000

enrolled

6000 5000

800

graduated

600 400 200 0 2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

Year

Figure 7. Number of enrolled and graduated students in the period 2001-2005. Source: http://www.inep.gov.br/superior/censosuperior/sinopse/default.asp

The total number of students enrolled in the 2nd and 3rd cycles is not available. Such information was already requested for the institutions and might be provided for the final report. Nevertheless, data of the number of students, who completed each cycle, is available and shown in Table 6. Table 6. Total number of students who completed music higher education courses.

Year

1st cycle

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

527

607

807

826

761

10


2nd cycle

40

79

61

89

115

3ed cycle

7

4

12

18

17

Source: http://www.inep.gov.br/superior/censosuperior/sinopse/default.asp and http:// capes.gov.br

Figure 8 shows the number and the relative percentage of students, distributed among the three cycles, in the period 2001-2005.

Figure 8. Number of students who concluded the three cycles in Brazil. Relative percentage value insert on the columns. Source: http://www.inep.gov.br/superior/censosuperior/sinopse/default.asp

According to Figure 8, the percentage of students who complete their formation in a 2nd cycle is low (ca. 10%), and even lower in a 3rd cycle (ca. 1%). Funding

There are two types of Brazilian higher education institutions: public and private. The public institutions are those “created or incorporated, maintained and managed by public authorities10”, and may be managed by either the federal or the state government. Private institutions are those “maintained and managed by individuals or legal entities of private law11”. In other words, the education in public higher education institutions is entirely free for the students, while the student in a private institution has to pay monthly fees or get a scholarship from the government agencies. Table 7 shows the number of institutions distributed in federal, state and private funding. Table 7. Brazilian Institutions offering Music undergraduate studies, divided according to the nature of funding and geographic region. 10 11

Brazilian Education Guidelines and Framework Law (local acronym “LDB”) No. 9394/96. Ibid.

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Nature of

Geographic regions

Total

funding North

Northeast

Central-

Southeast South

West Federal

2

6

4

6

4

22

State

2

3

0

5

6

16

Private

0

3

0

18

8

29

Total

4

12

4

29

18

67

Source: http://www.educacaosuperior.inep.gov.br/cur_pesq_regiao.stm

As shown in Table 7, the higher education institutions can be federal, state or private. Figure 9 shows the percentage of Brazilian universities maintained by federal, state and private fundings, as well as their distribution among the five Brazilian geographic regions.

100%

PERCENTAGE

(%)

80% 60%

Private State Federal

40% 20% 0%

NORTH

NORTHEAST

CENTRALWEST

SOUTHEAST

SOUTH

GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS

Figure 9. Percentage of Music undergraduate studies in Brazil expressed in terms of nature of funding, distributed among the geographic regions.

Taking into account the data presented in Figure 9, the percentage of federal and state universities is roughly the same in the North region. There

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is no private institution which offers music graduate studies. In the Northeast region, 50% of all music studies programs are offered in federal universities. The remaining 50% are almost equally distributed between state and private institutions. In the case of Central-West region, there are only federal universities. Contrary to the others, in the Southeast region there is a predominance of private music studies courses. The percentage of courses in federal universities is the lowest one. In the South region, federal institutions are also a minority. Nevertheless, the amount of music studies offered by state and private institutions is practically the same. Table 8 express the number of graduate courses, according to the nature of the funding (federal or state). Table 8. Brazilian federal and state institutions which offer graduate studies in music in the five geographic regions.

Nature of

Geographic regions

Total

funding North

Northeast

CentralWest

Southeast South

Federal

0

2

2

3

2

9

State

0

0

0

3

1

4

Total

0

2

2

6

3

13

Source: http://servicos.capes.gov.br/projetorelacaocursos/jsp/areaIesDet.jsp?cd_area=80300006&grande Area=LINGĂœĂ?STICA,%20LETRAS%20E%20ARTES&areaConh=ARTES

According to Table 8, out of the 13 institutions which offer graduate courses in Music, 70% are federal institutions. Table 9 expresses the distribution of vocational studies, according to the nature of the funding. Table 9. Brazilian institutions which offer Music vocational studies, according to the nature of funding and geographic region.

Nature of

Geographic regions

Total

funding North

Northeast

CentralWest

Southeast South

Federal

1

2

1

0

0

4

State

1

0

0

4

0

5

13


Municipal

0

0

0

5

0

5

Private

1

0

1

55

2

59

Total

3

2

2

64

2

73

Source: http://siep.inep.gov.br/siep/owa/consulta.inicio

These studies are offered by federal, state, municipal and private institutions, as shown in Table 9. Figure 10 shows the percentage of such institutions according to the nature of the funding.

100% Percentage (%)

80% 60% Private

40%

Municipal

20%

State Federal

0%

North

Northeast

CentralWest

Southeast

South

Geographic regions Figure 10. Percentage of music vocational studies programs in Brazil divided into

nature of funding in each of the five geographic regions.

As shown in Figure 10, contrary to what is observed in the case of undergraduate and graduate studies, almost all the numbers in the Southeast correspond to private institutions. Meanwhile, in the Northeast region, the numbers refer to federal institutions. The private institutions are commonly named “ConservatĂłrio Musicalâ€? (or Music Conservatory in English). It is worth noting that originally, such institutions were devoted to teaching music to children and teenagers. More recently, such institutions began assuming the vocational formation of technicians in Music, which comprises different domains such as instrumental music, popular music, arranging and musical instrument repairing, just to mention a few.

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Curricula

The state does not control the universities’ curricula. The universities have the autonomy for designing their courses and they only have to comply with the general guidelines offered by the Ministry of Education. These guidelines are established by a committee formed by specialists in each field of knowledge, and may “be a reference for the institutions as regards the organization of their education programs, allowing flexibility and prioritization of the fields of knowledge for the development of the curricula12”.

2-cycle system

Undergraduate music education (similarly to all other undergraduate courses in Brazil) is developed in a single cycle lasting from 4 to 5 years, which eventually grants the title (degree) of bachelor of music or a music teaching credential. Undergraduate education lasts 4 years for the music teacher education (teaching credential) and bachelor of music performance, and 4 to 5 years for the degree in composition and conducting. Undergraduate degree programs may lead to a Master degree or a Doctor Degree, which are equivalent to the 2nd and 3rd European cycles, respectively. The Master's of Arts degree programs take a maximum of three years. In addition to the theoretical credit courses, a dissertation is required. The Doctorate degree, which is a maximum of five years in length, requires a thesis incorporating original research in addition to the theoretical credit-courses and the qualifying examination.

Qualifications

All conservatoires offer a Bachelors degree at the end of the 1st cycle. The Bachelors degree offered by conservatoires is called a Bachelor of Music (BMus), rather than the generic Bachelor of Arts (BA) offered by most universities, although the music degrees offered by some of these also carry the title BMus. BMus degrees usually offer some opportunities to specialise during the later years of study but this does not normally inflect the title of the award offered. As already indicated, the most common titles for the 2nd cycle are Postgraduate Diploma (PGDip) and Masters. The latter, like its 1st-cycle equivalent in conservatoires, is usually a Master of Music (MMus), rather than a Master of Arts (MA). At postgraduate level, most award titles refer to the specialism studied. For example, performance is differentiated from composition, vocal performance from other performance and opera training from vocal performance.

Entry requirements for the 2nd cycle

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In order to begin the Master’s degree program in music, equivalent to the 2nd cycle in Brazil, it is necessary to have an undergraduate degree in music. Additionally, the institutions administer an entrance examination

Guidelines offered by Ministry of Education (No. CES/CNE 0146/2002).

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specific for the specialization subfields (Music Education, Performance Practices, Musicology, Composition, Conducting, etc).

% of students who continue with 2nd cycle

These data are not available. Available data are those regarding the number of students who concluded the 1st and 2nd cycle. The number of students who enrolled in the 2nd cycle was already requested for the institutions and it might be available for the final report. Taking into account data presented in Table 5, the following percentage can be estimated, as shown in Table 10. Table 10. Estimated percentage of students who completed the 1st cycle and continued with the 2nd cycle.

Year

Number of students (%) 2001

7.6

2002

13.0

2003

7.6

2004

10.7

2005

15.1

According to Table 10, the minority (ca. 10%) who concluded the 1st cycle continues one’s formation in the 2nd cycle. Considering the last three years, it seems that there is a trend in increasing the percentage of students who continue their formation in the 2nd cycle. It is worth noting that there is no direct relation between the students who concluded the 1st cycle and those who enrolled in the 2nd cycle, because there is no compulsory demand or fixed deadline to begin a 2nd cycle. Data in Table 10 is just an estimative, which might contain some bias. 3rd cycle

There is a third cycle, whose admission requirement, in most of the higher education institutions, is a master’s degree. The student is admitted through an admission process that, most of the time, involves two or three days of written examinations, interviews and two foreign language proficiency.

Credit point system

In general, credits are associated with weekly hours in class or activities outside class, in accordance with criteria established by each Institution. The aggregate sum of credits shall correspond to the amount of credits required for completing the course. The higher education institutions may adopt the following academic

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regimes: annual series regime, semester series regime, credit systems, modular systems or systems of academic modules or prerequisite and credit system with enrollment in each course of instruction13. Quality assurance

Brazil has a National Higher Education Assessment System (local acronym “Sinaes”), which includes three assessment criteria: as regards the institutions, the courses and the students’ performance. • Sinaes assesses all aspects revolving around these three assessment criteria, for instance: education, research, extension, social responsibility, students’ performance and several other aspects. Based on the results of the assessment, it is possible to analyze the quality of the courses and of the higher education institutions in the country. • The information obtained from Sinaes is used by the higher education institutions to guide their institutional efficiency and academic and social effectiveness; by the government departments to guide their public policies; by the students’ parents, academic institutions and the general public, to guide their decisions as regards the reality of the courses and institutions. • The assessment procedures are coordinated and supervised by the National Committee on Higher Education Assessment (local acronym “Conaes”). • The Brazilian Institute for Educational Research and Studies (INEP) is responsible for the operationalization. There are two kinds of Institutional Assessment: 1. Self-assessment – Coordinated by the institution itself [own assessment committee (local acronym “CPA”)] and oriented by the guidelines and by the institutional self-assessment directions by the National Committee on Higher Education Assessment (Conaes). 2. External Assessment – Carried out by committees established by INEP, the references for external assessment are the quality standards for higher education expressed in the assessment instruments and the selfassessment reports. The Undergraduate Education Assessment is a procedure used by the Brazilian government. Before the Brazilian Ministry of Education (local acronym “MEC”) for the recognition or recognition renewal for undergraduate courses, thus representing a necessary measure for awarding degrees. This assessment became periodic, aiming at complying with the provisions of the Brazilian Education Guidelines and Framework Law, in order to ensure the quality of the education provided by the higher education institutions.

13

Ibid.

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For the assessment of the courses, each institution shall fill out an electronic form, which includes three wide dimensions: the quality of the faculty, the didactic and pedagogic organization and the facilities and infrastructure available, specially the library. This information enables the previous analysis of the situation of the courses by the appraisers, allowing a better verification in loco. The general goal of the Brazilian National Students’ Performance Examination (local acronym “ENADE”) is to assess the students’ performance according to the contents foreseen in the curriculum guidelines, the skills and competences for permanently updating and the knowledge of the Brazilian and world reality and of other fields of knowledge. As specifically regards the field of Music, ENADE (2006) will have the following goals: i) Assess sound and the musical sound perception; ii) Assess expression skills through musical writing; iii) Assess the ability of musical creativity; iv) Assess the ability of overcoming problems in musical and educational contexts; v) Assess the competencies in the field of scientific and technological research in music. As specifically regards the field of Music, the ENADE 2006 examination will evaluate if the student has acquired, during the education process, skills and competencies among those described below: i) Performance in musical manifestations and contribution towards the enlargement of these manifestations in the society, ii) Intervention in several social contexts through artistic and educational actions, including musical creativity and performance, iii) Conduction of scientific research, enlarging the production of musical knowledge, while complying with its interdisciplinary nature, iv) Conduction of technological research in music, inserting it in a universe characterized by musical transformations. As specifically regards the field of Music, the ENADE 2006 examination shall be based on the contents described below: i) musical art in different cultures, involving knowledge of Social and Human Sciences, as well as esthetic-philosophical and musicological aspects, ii) perceptive, theoretic and structural aspects of classical and/or popular music, iii) aspects of musical practice, involving performance, repertoire, knowledge of instruments and/or singing, conducting, classical and/or popular music styles and genres,

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iv) aspects of musical creativity, involving skills for composition, educational aspects in music, as well as their implementation in practice.

Employability

These data are not available. In common sense, most of the students work in professional positions different from their specific formation. For instance, students graduated in composition or conducting works as instrument teacher. Cereser (2003),14 in a qualitative survey comprising 16 students of music teaching, observed that there is a shift in the relation specialization– profession: The licentiate, whose formation was devoted for music teaching in schools, acts as an instrument teacher in music schools. On the other hand, the graduated student in instrument eventually works in schools. In a recent survey involving 104 piano teachers in Porto Alegre (Brazil), Oliveira (2007)15 observed that only 48 % are graduated in the Piano. The rest (58%) has no specific formation in piano: 18% is graduated in Music (licenciate or other specificities) 8 % is graduated in other University courses 20% did not conclude the graduation course in Music 12% without University formation.

Academic year

The academic school year normally runs from March through November. The year is divided into two semesters with some institutions also offering courses during a summer term (January and February). Normally there is also winter vacation during the month of July. Some institutions, especially those which have large enrollments and are located in urban areas, offer three "shifts" of classes daily - in the morning, afternoon and evening.

Pre-College

There is no compulsory music education at school. Music is taught in private schools or through private tuition and some universities offer continuing education.

Additional comments The Brazilian academic mobility programs are carried on the scope of the Common Area of Higher Education between Latin America & the Caribbean and Europe (ALCUE), which aims at promoting actions that stimulate and facilitate the interchange and circulation of students, professors, researchers, technical and management staff between higher education institutions. The academic mobility programs are accomplished as specific institutional agreements. At institutional level, the academic mobility allows the student who is regularly matriculated in a give University to study at another one. The academic mobility demands the existence of suitable conditions that contribute for the formation and improvement of students and professors 14 CERESER, C. M. I. A formação de professores de música sobre a ótica dos alunos de licenciatura. 2003. Dissertation (Master degree)–Instituto de Artes, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil), 2003. 15 OLIVEIRA, K.D. Professores de piano: um estudo sobre o perfil de formação e atuação em Porto Alegre/RS. Dissertation (Master degree)–Instituto de Artes, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil), 2007.

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aiming at the acquisition of new experiences and the interaction between cultures. The academic mobility program is supposed to take into account the academic calendar, normally not exceeding a year (two semesters). At the University, the inscription for academic mobility is in charged of the university sector responsible for international affairs. Normally, the demand must contain the plan of the courses which are intended to be done abroad. It is up to the supervisor of the course to analyze the demands, especially in terms of equivalence of the demanded course between the two Universities. The supervisor emits a conclusive report for the international affairs bureau of the guest university, which then will contact the host university to accomplish the exchange program. There are some academic mobility programs in music in Brazil. As an example, one can cite the program “Music Alive! A U.S.-Brazil Higher Education Music Arts Consortium.”, between West Virginia University and Federal University of Pernambuco.16 This program aims at celebrating the richness and diversity of music traditions in the United States and Brazil. The consortium combines traditional student and faculty study abroad activities with information technology and the latest web capabilities. The consortium provides a prototype that can transform music education and improve student and faculty mobility between Brazil and the United States and provide fertile multicultural collaboration in four distinct sub-national regions. Computing the total number existing in Brazil would demand an inquiry of each University, since the established programs are made directly between universities. In the present, there are 7 academic mobility programs at UFRGS, namely: (i) ANDIFES (Portuguese acronym for national association of higher education institutions) mobility. Students matriculated to the 51 higher education institutions which belong to ANDIFES have the possibility to attend courses as visiting student at national academic mobility level; (ii) ESCALA-AUGM (Portuguese acronym for Montevideo group university association). Exchange programs for students to complement their formation by doing courses at universities in Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and Chile. (iii) UAM (Universidad Autonoma de Madrid). Scholarships offered by the Santander group and UAM for undergraduate students. (iv) CREPUC (Brazilian and Quebecian Universities). Exchange program devoted for undergraduate, master and doctor degree students who wishes to attend courses disciplinas at Universities in Quebec). (v) Badden-Wurtenberg – Tübingen University. Exchange program devoted for undergraduate, master and doctor degree students who wishes to attend at Universities in Tübingen. (vi) LAE3. Latin American program in engineering. (vii) Móbile. Exchange program with University of Porto. The Institue of Arts of UFRGS has the following mobility academic programs in the moment: (i) Instituto Politecnico (Portugal) – deadline 12/2009 16

Available in http://www.ed.gov/programs/fipsebrazil/brazilabstracts2006.doc.

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(ii) Universidad del Pais Basco (Spain) – deadline 10/2009 (iii) University of Georgia (USA) – deadline 09/2009 (iv) Westminster choir college of Rider University (USA) – under procedure

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Brazil - Professional Music Training System