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The Ginna Kanda group is a specialized team within the Urbanism Research Group of the School of Architecture of Barcelona, Polytechnic University of Catalonia. The Ginna Kanda group has been working since 2005 in the field of cultural landscape in slower development² During this time, the group has gained experience in the analysis of management, planning and designing cultural landscape as a resource for economically sustainable development. This experience has been stated in Section 2 of “Studio cases in faster and slower development” The Asia Link Project, The University Network for Sustainable Architectural Design and Urban Planning, was an agreement between the Hanoi Architecture University, the Politecnico de Milano and the Polytechnic University of Catalonia. The Asia Link Project was coordinated by the Polytechnic University of Catalonia and financed by United European, and I was the coordinator of the sustainable landscapes development branches. Within the context of the Asia Link Project, I had an intensive experience in the faster developing country of Vietnam. This experience introduced me to the enormous conflict of preserving cultural landscape identity within the accelerated changes of faster development. The Asia Link Project worked specifically with Hanoi´s historic city center and with Phant Thiet, a tourist city within 200 km from Ho Chi Min City in a very sensitive dune landscape. (See Section 1 in “Studio cases in faster and slower development.”) Sustainability, cultural landscape and faster development have been addressed in different editions of The project of Sustanability doctorate, a course that I coordinate.

¹Faster development: a term used to refer to countries that are in an accelerated process of transformation ²Slower development: a term referring to countries where development either does not exist or is very slow

The justification for this collaborative initiative is based upon: 1. An interest in both gaining mutual knowledge and in continuing in collaboration with the academic relationship that began in last year's course between The Architecture School of Barcelona and the Architecture School of Tsinghua University, in which I participated as a tutor assigned by the ETSAB. 2. The fact that the People's Republic of China is a country in which there are intense and rapid territorial transformations occurring due to its very dynamic development as a faster developing country while the country possesses a millennial tradition and cultural territorial configuration ranging from the Hangchow imperial gardens from the Sung dynasty to the rice field terraces across the Huyi mountains patronizing human heritage since 1999. This study proposal arose from three circumstances. Firstly, there is a desire to continue research and to share our research about the difficult dialogue between cultural landscape and faster development with a university already engaged with the topic. Secondly, it arises from a desire to apply Ginna Kand's group's experience accumulated in the interpretative analysis of territories of cultural landscapes which are usually much different than conventional landscape due to their intangible value and in some cases due to the absence of territorial information. And thirdly, the international character of the study is very important for the exchange of knowledge between professors and students of the two schools. Additionally, it is important for the discovery of different approaches and interpretations of the world through the relationship between the chinese culture with an extraordinarily sensitive relationship with landscape and the more pragmatic European landscape vision. It can help Spanish students to overcome a european-centric vision of the world.

THE FOCUS OF THE STUDY According to the Asia Link experience and research developed in The Project of Sustainability doctorate course, concisely the most important reasons that explain the difficulty of dialogue among cultural landscape and faster development are: 1. Accelerated development, without time for reflection. In this context the universities are excellent thinking tanks for elaborating and offering society new ideas. The transformation of territory produces in some cases the necessity to give an answer to urgent questions. 2. New demands, new typologies, and new scales over the territory. They are the most difficult problems encountered in balancing the relation between change and landscape coherence. The survival of the original identity, or its sensitive evolution, when faced with its new uses demands an appreciation of the cultural landscape's capacity to assume new uses.

The goal of this study proposal is to reinvent new strategies and include all types of artistic expression for preserving or designing the sensitive transformation of cultural landscape identities. The proposal takes into consideration the following: 1. The intangible value of cultural landscapes 2. Reflecting about the capacity of the holistic and multidisciplinary approximations to respond to new challenges for analysis, mapping, and projects pertinent to the transformation of the cultural landscapes. Similarly, it will be considering the possibility of reinventing new tools for the transformation

STUDY GOALS, DEFINITIONS AND STRUCTURE. General Polemic. The big transformation of the territory due to new demands like: housing, infrastructure, etc. normally is an accelerated process that destroys the original identity of the site and its landscape coherence. Core Delivery. Confronted with the previous loss, it is necessary to give the territory a new identity to perceptibly relate with the origin, through a cultural process using either conventional tools from architecture, landscape and urban/territorial planning or reinvented tools. In this way, the French philosopher Alain de Roger's proposal considering new infrastructures an exceptional occasion to make new landscape is very interesting and adequate. Themes of Focus. 1. Analysis, creative interpretation and mapping of the territory and its intangible values of cultural landscape when faced with fast development. 2. Evaluation of the cultural landscape's capacity to absorb the changes according to their dimensions. 3.Developing territorial planning, landscape architecture and architecture projects using conventional or reinvented tools inspired by the landscape's cultural identity or the evolution of the landscape's cultural identity. Study Structure. Schedule July. 2011. International Study on site in China, with the Tsinghua University. July. 2012. International Study on site in Catalonia's (Spain), with the Polytechnic University of Catalonia.

Process 1. The Department of Landscape Architecture of Tsinghua University, provides the site for the development of the study. 2. Chinese and Spanish students with professors of the two school develop the study analysis and the interpretation of the site with: 2.1. Documentation of the site 2.2. Presentation of future projects 2.3. Elaboration of analysis documents, diagnostic conclusions, establishment of the program. 3. Developing the projects. 4. Public presentation of the projects 5. Elaboration of the paper and electronic publication The Study is developed on the site. Preparation phase Introduce the Spanish students to Chinese culture, developments, landscape and knowledge of the site.


I. CULTURAL LANDSCAPE, LANDSCAPE COHERENCE. Ia. The cultural landscape concept. The cultural landscape is an expression of man's relationship with its territory. Factors that determine intangible and tangible 1. Intangibles: The religious beliefs, legends and myths. 2. Tangibles: The relationship and understanding the territory, technological development, the concept of landscape coherence, The declaration of the world heritage by the Unesco, typologies established their planning and management, case studies. Ib. The concept of sustainable development. Conflicts between cultural landscapes and developments. Cultural landscapes in the slower development. Stagnation in time, crisis in the processes themselves, external interference, economic globalization, crisis of ancestral values, insertion of the population Cultural landscapes in the faster development Accelerated development, changed of scale, lost of identity reference, no reflection on the transformation landscape coherence and capacity, the insertion of identity II. CULTURAL LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS ON THE TERRITORIAL LEVEL. IIa. Functional territorial structure. Lines. Areas. Nodes.Lines: Boundaries, roads, highways, canals. Areas: settlements: dense, sparse, scattered. Water reservoirs: dams, farming. Nodes, small spaces strongly characterised by functionality: crossroads, well, etc. Landmarks: buildings, signs, fetiches. Summary document assessing the permanence of identity and landscape coherence. IIb. Natural territorial structure. Lines. Areas. Nodes.Lines: limits that distinguish physiographic areas, specific topographic lines.Areas: distinguished physiographic areas, lakes and ponds. Nodes: field of small size and strongly characterised by its natural identity. Landmark: unique element, natural character.Summary document assessing the permanence of identity and landscape coherence.


II.CULTURAL LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS OF SETTLEMENTS. Lines. Areas. Nodes.Lines: local, interior roads and connectors. Areas: groups of settlements and associated typologies. inhabitable, uninhabitable, re-habitable or not. Nodes: indoor emptiness, crossing urban routes and others. Characterized by their functionality or mysticism. Landmarks: architecture or urban singular element Overall summary document assessing the permanence of identity and landscape coherence of the cultural landscape on the scale of the settlements. The formulation of a diagnosis. IV. ARCHITECTURAL ANALYSIS OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES. Typologies.Rehabilitation.Technology Architectural typologies; its connectedness and beliefs. Rehabilitation interpretation or reinterpretation. Case Studies Architecture, technology and identity. V. THE INTANGIBLE’S STUDY ON CULTURAL LANDSCAPES The concept of intangible. Origins : religion, history, myths The footprint of intangible ,coherence and incoherence, the discourse. the identity Identity's capacity in front of the changes Transforming process of the identity, study cases. Tools and strategies. VI. DYNAMIC AND STATIC PERCEPTIONS CULTURAL LANDSCAPES. The static perception. The dynamic perception The static perception. The static perception of the landscape's features. The concept of visual basin. Observatories and their selection. Plans, groups, lines, shapes and landmark horizons. Definition of identity and landscape coherence. The dynamic perception of landscape. The dynamic perceptions of the landscape's features. The visual sequence concept. The notion of visual field their elements and structure. Meaning, rhythm, continuity. Components of visual structure; ways, areas, nodes and landmarks. VII .THE DOCUMENT SUMMARY OF VALUES OF TANGIBLE AND INTANGIBLE CULTURAL LANDSCAPES POTENTIALITIES AND CONFLICTS. Mapping the information obtained from work fields. Application of protocols and updated methods of Ian L, Mac Harg, Richard TT. Forman, the study of landscape catalogues and similar instruments.


VIII. TERRITORIAL MANAGEMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES. The morphological interpretation of the territorial space determined by the topography. The formation of differentiable units. The dynamic and static perception; road network and observatories. The landscape management. The perception and the design of the landscape in the context of the overall planning. Validation of conventional instruments' capacities and the need for new ones. IX. THE DESIGN OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES. The dual scale of territorial and local projects. The establishment of intervening levels. The cultural landscape projects as engines for sustainable development. The landscaping project and landscape architecture, tools and components: water, land, architecture, vegetation. The architecture as reasoning and the physical presence. X. TECHNOLOGY: PROBLEM OR SOLUTION. The landscape coherence of cultural landscapes and their relationship with faster developments and slower developments . The management of intangibles in disagreement with the developments and the roles of technology. The territorial capacity and the objectives of the planning, the design and the management of landscapes: re-integration of society in its territory with slower development and re-integration of identity in the territories with faster development. XI. MANAGEMENT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES OF NEW USES. The introduction of new uses derives from landscape coherence as a catalyst for development.

Old City of Hanoi




The following case study exemplifies the target of the research and proposal. It exemplifies the territorial or local analysis; capture the intangible, the soul of the cultural landscape; and elaborate territorial and local scale interventions. SECTION 1.


Developed in the Asia Link Project. The University Network for Sustainable Architectural Design and Urban Planning was an European project with the participation of Politecnico di Milano (Italy), The Hanoi Architectural University (Vietnam) and Polytecnich University of Catalonia of Spain was a coordinator. The main objective of Asia Link was to introduce sustainability parameters in the architectural planning and landscape studies. The most important studies developed by Vietnamese and Spanish students have been related with the studies of the Old City of Hanoi's typologies and new proposals for an alternative and new sustainability city resort in Phan Thiet.


II.CASE STUDIES. OLD CITY OF HANOI TYPOLOGIES. Vietnam TUBE HOUSE Typologic origin in the Hanoi center. Hyper densification Commercial Vocation Constant migration Close block system


Hồ Linh Quang, Ngõ Văn Chương, Dong Da, Hanoi, Vietnam



The Research Project Guidelines for the Organization of the Cultural Landscape Territory in the Bandiagara's cliffs on a territorial scale is financed by the Agència de Gestió d'Ajuts Universitaris i de Recerca (The Manegement of University Aide and Research Agency) and its objective is to preserve the landscape coherence when faced with unwanted collateral effects like trivialization and unjustified change derived from the rapid increasing of the cultural tourism in a territory with slower development. The development of the project The Research Project Guidelines for the Organization of the Cultural Landscape Territory in the Bandiagara Cliffs on a Territorial Scale is based on the availability of documentation of the area in conjunction with its physical and human characteristics. These are used with the objective to establish territorial organization of the most important cultural landscapes south of the Bandiagara Cliff. The project determines the sites and character of the interventions that will allow for the identity and the development to compatibly coexist; the cultural landscapes become a catalyst for sustainable development. The project is sensitive to the local cultural idiosyncrasies through dialogue with the community's representative people, “chef du village” or “hogon”, and the institutions linking the Dogon's country like Mission Culturelle de Bandiagara o Ecole Superiure d' Ingenieurs of Bamako's University. The project is especially characterized by the incorporation of 1) the analysis and the proposal of valuing the intangible and 2) the perception of the landscape morphology, its dynamic perception, sequence and static observatory.

The project is divided in the following stages: 1. Construction of Cartography 2. The territorial analysis, interpretation 3. The intangible expressions 4. The local analysis, interpretation 4.1 Niongono Study Case 5. Territorial Proposal 6. The local proposal

1. 1. Construction Construction of of the the Cartography. Cartography.

The available maps of the area are not adequate for the needs of the study and new, contemporary maps will need to be constructed with the help of previously drafted cartographic maps, large scale cartographic maps and aerial and satellite views provided by Google Earth and others. For the development of this documentation it is necessary to work with 3.200 pictures from Google earth gathering in 32 squares of 100 pictures, complemented with 60 aerial views from Institute Geographique du Mali--it is necessary to digitize the French cartography from 1957 reprinted in 1970 and the Russian cartography from 1972 reprinted 1978, both by a scale of 1.200.000. The construction or reconstruction of a cartography that is useful to the project's objectives requires the creative development of basic material from various fields and the application of diverse methods and strategies. The management of the territorial representation and the creation of the topography are pertinent to both slower and faster developments because in both cases it is necessary to have an holistic knowledge of the site which considers both the conventional physical form and the unconventional intangible form.

Google Earth Image


2.Territorial Analysis, Analysis, Interpretation. Interpretation. 2.Territorial The aim of the analysis is the spatial comprehension of the territory, the diversity of the spaces and the relationships between them, and the characteristics of full earth and empty water. The earth is a passive and static element while water is dynamic, establishes relationships and allows for the understanding of the past and the present of the Bandiagar Cliff 's landscapes.

2.1Territorial structure

The relationship between earth and water explains the physical structure. The physical structure of the Dogon Country is supported by the cliff of Bandiagara , which expands in the south west--north east direction, from Kani Kombole to Yendouma, with a height that varies between 50 and 200 m. The cliff is the final step of the Dogon plateau with a gentle slope that turns into the Niger's Delta. A precarious road follows the bottom of the cliff and connects a section of the village which is receiving a growing influx of cultural tourism. In the territorial structure of the Bandiagara cliff, it is possible to differentiate three locations. The first is in the top of the cliff: Dogon Plateau. In this plateau, the water has been creating a succession of cuts all in the same direction, wherein the small valleys retain water and allow the cultivation of the wellknown Maliens' s onion. When the cuts reach the edge of the cliff, the water rains down onto the village at the bottom of the cliff. The second is the Gondo Plain with small settlements that are integrated in a polycentric net surrounding dry crops. The third area is the transition between the Dogon Plateau and the Gondo Plain. It is the most important part of the Dogon Country's cultural landscape where the extraordinary mud architecture of the houses have are formed by their incredible integration directly into the cliff. The sublime landscape includes architectural forms that are integrated into the cliff at the base, the middle mid-section, or in the entire vertically wall section.

2.1Territorial structure

2.2. 2.2. Limits Limits and and sectors. sectors.

The establishment of limits is determined for nonfragmenting the territory and using clear, recognizable lines in the site.

2.2. 2.2. Limits Limits and and sectors. sectors.

2.3. 2.3. Tissue's Tissue's analysis. analysis. The analysis is based in three representations of the territory: 1.The aerial or satellite picture. 2.The interpretation of this pictures, indicating their more important categories of natural elements 3.The superimposition of the CAD's plans The analysis considers: a. Zones: Zones of cultural landscape's interest. unproductive soil, farming soil, stone outcrop or dramatic topographical changes, settlements, dams. b. Lines: Plot limits, water lines, permanent/impermanent and typology ways.




2.3. 2.3. Tissue's Tissue's analysis. analysis.

2.3. 2.3. Tissue's Tissue's analysis. analysis.

2.3. 2.3. Tissue's Tissue's analysis. analysis.

2.3. 2.3. Tissue's Tissue's analysis. analysis.

2.3. 2.3. Tissue's Tissue's analysis. analysis.

2.3. 2.3. Tissue's Tissue's analysis. analysis.

2.4. Tridimensional model. 3D






3D Modeling Roads

2.4. Tridimensional model. 3D

3D Model and its analitical layers Utilizing the Google earth map, a volume of every 10 m was used to create a topography adequate enough to work with the visual perceptions of the landscape. The superimposition of the CAD's documents relate spatial morphology and settlements and ways. This allows the project to work with static and dynamic visions.

3. 3. The The Intangible Intangible Expression Expression For Dogons, water is the origin of everything and the silure is the sacred fish

The intangible expression is preserved by means of the free use of diverse techniques of expression that evoke the intangible values that are recognized on territorial scales.

Black is the color of death, white is the color of the soul and red is the color of blood.

The myths and the territorial character determines the human expression

3. 3. The The Intangible Intangible Expression Expression

‌the real, the death and the spirits three in the same space...

The abstraction of the man and its shadow over the land…

…for the Dogons the cliffs is more than home, more than a geographical accident…..

…the continuity of the man and the earth...

…the shroud, reflects the light of the terraces and the shadows of the yards….

4. 4. The The Local Local Analysis, Analysis, Interpretation Interpretation The local analysis is necessary for the development of the landscape perception studies and for the knowledge of architectonical heritage. The local studies have three parts: 1) The development of the local complementary studies and opinion poll from a previous designed protocol 2) The recognition of the building heritage, defining different values likes symbolic values or conservation state and 3 ) Valorization of the empty spaces according their representations or functions. When faced with the absence of high definition cartography all information is localized with GPS and mapping in the precedent described cartography . 4) Dynamic and static perception. 5) The intangible presences.

4.1.Niongono 4.1.Niongono The local analysis of dogons settlements started to be developed in 2006 in Tireli. In 2009 was done the analysis of Niogono in the commune of Priganari, near Bandiagara, The Niogono's analysis was made as an experimental prototype for development in the rest of the dogon's settlements. Niongono was chosen because he had a good topographical plan made by the University of Constaza, Germany while we were developing The research's project Guidlines for the cultural landscape's territorial organisation in the Bandiagara's cliffs at territorial scale. This will contribute to the cartographic information needed for the studies of others settlments by applying Niongono's experience. Niongono is an especially important settlement in the Dogon Country because it presents a different structure in comparison with the villages on the cliff. Niongono is situated in the top of a stone hill, like an island in front of the Sahel, whereas the settlements of the Bandiagara cliff are placed in the top or in different positions at the bottom of the cliff. Niongono was studied analyzing their threes neighbors ; Niantagha, Endori and Tangho, utilizing three concepts : the full, the empty and the perception.

4.1.Niongono 4.1.Niongono

4.1.1.Niongono.analasys 4.1.1.Niongono.analasys of of the the tissues. tissues.

4.1.3.Niongono,analysis 4.1.3.Niongono,analysis of of the the perception perception

4.1.3.Niongono,analysis 4.1.3.Niongono,analysis of of the the perception perception

5. 5. Territorial Territorial proposals proposals During the present year 2010 and into the next 2011, the target is to finish the analysis of the village from Kani Kombole to Benigmato. When the analysis of the most important village of this sector affected by tourism is finished, the mapped information will be incorporated into the cartography and the analysis of the territorial scaling interpretation. This incorporation will make it possible to overcome the problematic absence of adequate scale cartography and allow for the development of a morphological cultural landscape's study at the local scale--the new information will permit for a correct territorial planning. The Ginna Kanda group will create the territorial planning of this sector and the Ginna kanda program will be completed in 2013. The Ginna Kanda's program idea of territorial organization is basically to define a general frame for a logical distribution of the actions and intervention and materialize the most important or strategic projects. It also relates sustainable development to the project's cultural landscape.

6. 6. The The Local Local proposal proposal At the moment, the Ginna Kanda Program is constructing, along with the co-direction of the local architect of the Bountawa's project, an architectural or landscape intervention. This intervention established by the territorial and local analysis is a project designed by students and professors in the ETSAB with the objective of creating community shelters. The project is an interpretation of two types of dogon architecture, sonike circular an nuclear structure and mandiga a square plant with the incorporation of the contemporary energies (solar panels like a terrace's roof). The management of the shelter is communal and the benefits are for the community. In parallel, the Ginna Kanda program support the Sensitizing's project for the communitarian management of the shelter developed by the Mission Culturelle de Bandiagara.

6. 6. Local Local proposals proposals

6. 6. Local Local proposals proposals

6. 6. Local Local proposals proposals

6. 6. Local Local proposals proposals

Work-Team Ž Architects and students that has been participated in the development of the study cases: Old City of Hanoi typologies.Fernando Montoya and Victoria Fiol, architects. New proposals for Hanoi Lakes identity 's recuperation. Caterina Anastasia.Nguyen Cong Hung. Dinh Van Binh. Nguyen Kieu Loan. Vu Trong Huy. Pham Trung Tin.Vu Quang Duan. Architects . Sustanaible Tourist City in Phan Thiet, Vietnam. Celia Monfort,Guillem Aloy, Ekam Ollegui. Research project: Guidelines for the organization of the cultural landscape in the Bandiagara’s cliffs/Territorial scale. In process.Angelica Ayala De la Hoz. Arch.Master in Urban and Territorial Planning. The expression of intangible a research process. Dani Navas,EliGronn,Joan Argemi,Maria Majoral,Miquel Vidal,architecs The Local analysis interpretation of Niongono.Quim Pallares-Diana Garcia .Urtza Uriarte,Arnau Bujons,Mamadou Kone, Arch. Ruben Garcia, photograph and Anna Bertan, Irene Perz,David Avila,Anne Jauchs,Lorena Ruiz,Unai Artexte, students and the students of the subject Mali ,territorial planning sustainability and landscape. The Territorial Proposals.Eli Gronn,Antonio Bouza,Dani Navas.Silvia Segura.Architects The Local proposals. Bountawa project. Quim Pallares,Diana Garcia .Urtza Uriarte,Arnau Bujons,Mamadou Kone, Architects

Miquel Vidal Pla PhD. Architect. Msc.Landscape Architecture Barcelona/Espa単a

Research proposal. ETSAB-TSINGHUA