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aus;Zl;pum; t*FvdyfvlrsKd;pma&;q&m AGD-tufpf-y&Dcsuf (V.S. Pritchett) u vD,dkawmfvfpwGdKif;ta=umif;a&;om;cJh &mwGif/ ol.0wˆKrsm;u&k&Sm;EdkifiH. tcuftcJrsm;ta=umif;yHkazmfa&;om;cJh+yD;/ Todk@azmfjyzl;aom&k&Sm;vlrsKd; [lI olrSvGJI tjcm;olrsm;&SdtHhrxif[k a&;om;csD;usL;cJhygonf? awmfpwGdKif;.0wˆKwckcsif;u vltrsm;qufqH a&;ESifh rdwfaqGtaygif;toif;qufqHa&;udpPrsm;udk azmfjycJh+yD;/ trsKd;tpm;tm;jzifhvnf; xl;xl;jcm;jcm; uGJjym; pHkvifvSygonf? xdk@tjyif trsKd;om;a&;vuQ%mxl;xl;jcm;jcm;ay:vGifvSygonf? Tpmtkyfrsm;u usaemfwdk@udk tawG@t=uHKay;ygonf? rdrdwdk@taejzifh TpmtkyftwGufjyifqif&m/ a&;om;&m/ jyefvnfwnf;jzwf&mudpPrsm; wGif rsm;pGm taxmuftuljzpfapcJhygonf? rdrdwdk@tcuftcJr&Sdatmif jzpfapcJh&+yD;/ Todk@tcGifhtvrf;xl; twGuf 0rf;ajrmufyDwdjzpf&ygonf? rdrdwdk@onf rdwfaqGvkyfazmfudkifzufrsm;.ycHk;rsm;ay:wGif &yfcJh=u&ygonf? Tpmtkyfxkwfa0csdefY wcsdefwnf;xkwfvkyfEdkifcJhaom&kyfjrifo=H um; Zmwfvrf;wGJtwGuf zefwD;ay;cJhaom rdwfaqGrsm;/ Tpmtkyfa&;om;&mwGif okawoevkyfief;rsm;Y yg0ifaqmif&Gufay;&efawmif;qdkcJh=uolrsm;/ tcef;rsm;cGJ&m/ tjcm;vdktyfcsufrsm;jznfhpGuf=u&mY ulnDcJh=uolrsm;a=umifhom ,ckvdkjzpfajrmufvmcJh&jcif; jzpfygonf? xdkolrsm; .0dkif;0ef;yHhydk;r_rsm; r&&Sdygu/ Tvkyfief;taumiftxnfay:&eftwGuf +yD;ajrmuf jynfhpHkEdkifvdrfhrnf r[kwfyg? pwda,mhuf (Steve York) u “ydkI}uD;rm;aom tiftm;tpGrf;wck”&kyfjrifoH=um;rSwfwrf;Zmwfvrf;wGJ twGuf a&;om;xkwfa0EdkifcJhygonf? tvm;wlyif (1999) ckESpfY Zmwfvrf;wckpm rSwfwrf;zvifwckudk xkwf vkyfEdkifcJh=uygonf? yg0ifcJh=uaomwufºuGv_yf&Sm;oltrsm;udk ar;jref;&mY ol.xJxJ0if0if&SdvSaom tifwm AsL;rsm;/ rsufjrifoufaorsm;udk ar;jref;csufrsm;/ ponfwdk@u TpmtkyfygyÉdyuQ (8) cktwGufa&;om;&mY txl;udk;um;azmfjy&aom tcsufrsm;jzpfygonf? ol.pGrf;aqmifcsufomryg0ifygu Tpmtkyftaejzifh ordkif; qdkif&mpmayrsm;twGuf topfjznfhpnf;r_udk vkyfEdkifvdrfhrnfr[kwfyg? pwda,mhuf. t=urf;rzufyÉdyuQrsm; tay:aphpyfu|rf;usifr_rSm/ Tbmom&yfudktjcm;aqmif&Gufavhvm=uol &kyf&Siform;rsm;xufpmv#if olrwl atmif xl;xl;uJuJcsD;usL;zG,f&mjzpfygonf? euf&d_if;+yD;/ yrm%t&vnf; tus,ftjyef@EdkifvSygonf? olavh vmawG@&SdcJhaom &pforftedrfhtjrifh/ twuftusESifh zGJ@pnf;xm;yHkrSm Ttcef;qufZmwfvrf;wGJrsm;twGuf ydkI&kyfºuGapygonf? *|efeoef rdk*g;vf (Jonathan Mogul) rSm usaemfwdk@.tqifhjrifhokawoerSL;ESifh wnf;jzwfoljzpfygonf? rdcsD*ef wuUodkvfrS ordkif;t"dujzifhyg&*lbGJ@&vmoljzpf+yD;/ ol. ynm&yfydkif;qdkif&maqmif&GufcsuftwGuf aus;Zl;rsm; pGm&Sda=umif; azmfjy&ygvdrfhrnf? olu udef*%ef;qdkif&mtcsuftvufrsm;udk tao;pdwf&SmazGpkaqmif;cJh+yD;/ yxrrl=urf;Zwfausm&dk;udk csEdkifcJhygonf? Tvkyfaqmifcsufrsm;rSaeI tcef;rsm;jzpfvm+yD;/ &k&Sm;/ tdENd,/ ydkvef/ tar&duefawmifydkif;/ awmiftmz&du/ ta&S@Oa&my/ oD&dvuFmpaom yÉdyuQtcef;rsm;twGuf pDpOfa&;om;cJh ygonf? olu t,fvfqmaA'ddk;ESifhqdkifaom Zmwfa=umif;udk jyefvnfjyifqifjznfhpGufcJhygonf? zdvpfydkifESifh csDvD EdkifiHqdkif&mudpPrsm;twGuf vdktyfaomokawoeudpPrsm; xyfrHaqmif&GufcJhygonf? aemufqHk;ed*Hk;csKyfoHk;oyf csufrsm;xkwf&mY ulnDcJhygonf? rdrdwdk@Zmwfvrf;rsm;twGuf ausm&dk;xkwfE_wf qifjcifxm;onfhoabmxm;udk tcef;trsm;tjym;Y &Sif;vif;wfdusr_jzpfapatmif jyefvnfppfaq;cJhygonf? xdk@tjyif ordkif;qdkif&m/ yx0Dydkif; qdkif&m/ jzpfay:wdk;wufr_rsm;udk tm&Hkxm;=unfhwwfonfhol. tavhtxa=umifh rdrdwdk@.tuJjzwfr_ udpPrsm; udk pepfwus&SdapcJhygonf? *sufzf a[eef (Jeff Heynan) u a*smhcsfawmif;wuUodkvf/ EdkifiH&yfjcm;0efxrf;rsm;ausmif;rS tqifhjrifhausmif; om;wOD;jzpfygonf? olu *smrefESifh 'wfcsfbmomudkyg u|rf;usifydkifEdkifoljzpf+yD;/ wGJzuf wnf;jzwfolwOD;jzpfyg onf? 'kwd,urBmppftwGif; ckcHr_wckjzpfonfh &l;urfhzfudpPY olu yxrrl=urf;udka&;om;ay;cJhygonf? ol. pepfwus&SdvSaomokawoeðyr_rsm;/ tus,ftjyef@aomrl&if; ae&m&if;jrpfrsm;rS &SmazGjznfhqD;ay;cJhr_a=umifh/ aemufqHk; yef;rsm;udk vSya0qmpGmzl;yGifhapaom&vm'f jzpfapatmif ulnDay;cJhygonf? xdk@tjyifpmtkyf&nf !$ef;csufrsm; jyefvnfppfaq;/ jyifqif&efESifh aemufqufwGJt!$ef;0vdaqmif&Gufjcif;udpPrsm;Y ulnDay;cJhyg onf? um;vfydkaq; (Carl Posey) u tm*sifwD;em;ESifh csDvDEdkifiH&SdyÉdyuQrsm;udk a&;om;&mY ulnDwnf;jzwfay;ol jzpfygonf? Tpmrlrsm;twGuf yxrrl=urf;udka&;om;ðypkay;cJhygonf? olu tcef;rsm;cGJ&mY jyefvnfIpepf wusjzpfap&ef/ ulnDcJhygonf? xdk@tjyif &k&Sm;/ tdENd,/ ydkvef/ awmiftmz&du/ w&kyf/ ta&S@Oa&my/ rGef*dkvD;,m;

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EdkifiHrsm;ta=umif;a&;om;&mY pmoufouf/ tcsuftvuf oufoufjzifh rGrf;=uyfraeyJ/ vlom;qefaom taiG@toufrsm; yg&avatmif/ qGJaqmifr_aumif;I ouf0ifv_yf&Sm;ae&avatmifulnD wnf;jzwfay;cJhol jzpfygonf? *&uf rdkufu,fvD'pf (Greg Michaelidis) rSm tifwDzm'gyÉdyuQESifh bwfpfcf/ jrefrm/ qmAD;,m;EdkifiHrsm; ta=umif;Y yxrrl=urf;udka&;om;ay;cJhygonf? olvnf; yl;wGJwnf;jzwfolt,f'DwmwOD;jzpfygonf? T ta=umif;t&mrsm;tay: awG@qHkar;jref;cef;rsm;ESifh wpdkufrwfrwfvdkufxm;aom tjcm;olrsm;r&Edkifonfh &Sm;yg;vSaomtcsuftvufrsm;rSm tzdk;rjzwfEdkifzG,fjzpfygonf? rdkufu,f aumfe,fvD (Michael Connelly) rSm zdvpfyikd jf ynfo@l tm%mv_y&f mS ;r_pmrlukd yxrrl=urf;pwifa&;om;ay;aom yl;wGJwnf;jzwfolt,f'Dwm wOD;jzpfygonf? Todk@rsm;jym; ¹yGwfodyfaeaomyÉdyuQrsm;=um;Y txift&Sm;jzpf&avatmif/ ulnDae&mcsay; EdkifcJhygonf? w&kyfEdkifiHESifh rGef*dkvD;,m;EdkifiHrsm;ta=umif;twGufudkrl arm&pf &dkqmbD (Morris Rossabi) .tultnDudk &cJhonfrSm rsm;pGmaus;Zl;wifzG,fjzpfygonf? olonf TEdkifiH. ta&S@zsm;qdkif&mavhvma&;bmom&yfrsm;wGif ueOD;avhvmcJhol xif&Sm;onfhynm&SifwOD; jzpfygonf? olu TyÉdyuQESpfcktwGuf yxrrl=urf;udka&;om;ay; cJhygonf? Ttjzpftysufrsm;ESifh u|rf;0ifvSaomol.t&nftcsif;/ rGef*dkvD;,m;&Sdvlrsm;ESifh odu|rf;r_u T pmtkyfyg yÉdyuQrsm;Y rGef*dkvD;,m;ta=umif;udk ouf0ifatmiftopfxnfhoGif;apEdkifcJhygonf? xdk@tjyif rD&D,ef Zifrmrif; (Miriam Zimmerman) udkvnf; aus;Zl;pum;qdk&ef csefxm;IrjzpfEdkifyg? olu rdrdwdk@. okawoeqdkif&m"gwfyHkrsm;udk pkaqmif;ay;cJh+yD;/ Tpmtkyftaumiftxnfay:&eftqifhwdkif;Y yl;aygif; aqmif&GufcJh&olwOD; jzpfygonf? z,fvDpD,m 0pf'frif; (Felicia Widmann) u "gwfyHkydkif;qdkif&mudpPrsm;wGif yl;aygif;aqmif&GufolwOD; jzpfygonf? olu awmifyHk&myHkjzpfaeaom"gwfyHkrsm;xJrS rarmEdkifryef;Edkifa&G;xkwf&Sm azGay;cJholwOD; jzpfygonf? tapmydkif;umvrsm;wGif "gwfyHkrsm;udk pwifa&G;cs,fay;cJhaom ,ef urfhzf (Jan Camp) udkvnf; txl;aus;Zl;wifygonf? xdk@tjyif [Dom&yfcsf (Heather Rush) ESifh rufo,l;&pfcswfqif (Matthew wdk@uvnf; ulnDcJh=uygonf? tDauGwdk&D,,f8&yfzpfXmerS tJvufpf wdwfuvnf; Richardson) owif;tcsufjyajryHkaumif;rsm;&&ef ulnDcJhygonf? xdk@tjyif rdrdwdk@taejzifh &dk@pfar&D trfrm&l/ &dkqvif atb&m[rf/ A,fvm&D uefeif[ef/ b&pf*suf'l&efwdk@udk vnf; aus;Zl;wifygonf? xdkolrsm;u pdwf&SnfZGJ&Sd&mjzifh qufoG,fa&;udpPrsm;/ yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufa&;udpPrsm; txajrmufatmif aqmif&Gufay;cJh=uygonf? csefeif; a0:vfumuvnf; tcsdefrDulnDr_rsm;aqmif&Gufay;EdkifcJh +yD;/ qef'D *d&dk@zfu Tpmtkyfudk vlodrsm;atmifaqmif&Gufay;cJhygonf? xdk@twl 0Dwm (WETA) &kyfjrifoH=um; Xme&Sd qlqef&rf;bwfcfuvnf; yDbDtufpf&kyfjrifoH=um;XmeESifh qufoG,fEdkifa&;ulnDay;cJhygonf? t,fvfbwftdkif;pwdkif; tifpwDusL;&Sif;rS b&kpf *sifuif (Bruce Jenken) udkvnf; txl;aus;Zl;wifygonf? aumfeJvfwuUodkvfrS qpf'eDwm&dk;vf'f (Sidney Tarrow)/ pwef;zdk@'fwuUodkvfrS a'guf ruft'rfu T pmtkyftay: jznfhpGufay;cJhaoma0zefcsufrsm;ESifh tjrifrsm;twGufvnf;aumif;/ tvGwfoabmaqG;aEG;ajym qdkr_rsm;twGuf txl;aus;Zl;wif&ygonf? Ttcsufrsm;onf toHk;0ifvSaomtcsufrsm;jzpf+yD;/ rdrdwdk@twGuf wefzdk;xm;p&m jzpfygonf? xdk@tjyif &kyfjrifoH=um;Zmwfvrf;wGJrsm;Y tifwmAsL;ar;jref;ay;cJhaom wGrf 0d'f vif*g (Tom Weidlinger) ESifh TpmtkyfwGifudk;um;xm;&aom ol.ar;jref;csufrsm;ESifh ygwfoufI aus;Zl; wifvSygonf? rdrdwdk@udktxl;ulnDcJhaomolrSm *|efeDvD'Gef tufumrif (Jonnie Leedom-Ackerman) jzpfygonf? ol. t=urf;rzufaomv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;twGif; umv=um&Snf&cJhaomtawG@t=uHKrsm;/ ar#mfjrif,lqcsufrsm;u T pmtkyfa&;om;=u&mY rnfonfh&nf&G,fcsufxm;aqmif&Gufrnf/ rnfonfhtcsufrsm;udk jznfhqD;=u&rnfudk xif&Sm;&Sif;vif;pGmodEdkifatmifulnDay;ygrnf? xdk@tjyif rdrdwdk@,Hk=unfr_udkvnf; ydkrdkcdkifrmvmapygonf? Tpm tkyfwGif;azmfjyxm;aom tcsuftvufrsm;ESifhtao;pdwfrSpI oufqdkifaeaomynm&yfydkif;qdkif&macgif;aqmif r_twGuf *si;f &Syf (Gene Sharp) udk aus;Zl;wif&Sda=umif;azmfjy&ef csefvSyfxm;I rjzpfEdkifyg? olu Tt=urf;r zufa&;qdkif&mt,ltqrsm; ydkrdkwdk;wufzGH@òzd;apa&;twGuf rsm;pGmaqmif&GufcJh+yD;/ ouf&Sdxif&Sm;&Sdae=uaom ynm&Sifrsm;teuf acwfopft=urf;rzufa&;v_yf&Sm;r_oabmw&m;b%fwdkufudk t&if;tjrpfrsm;jzifh txl; zGH@òzd;wdk;wufapol jzpfygonf?

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aemufqHk;taejzifh pdef@rmwifyHkESdyfwdkufrSt,f'Dwm um&if0lvfeD (Karen Wolny) udkvnf; txl;aus;Zl;wif&Sd ygonf? ol. Tpmtkyfygta=umif;t&mrsm;tay:txl;pdwfxufoef0ifpm;r_/ Tpmtkyfygta=umif;t&mrsm; udk rnfodk@rnfyHktav;ay;azmfjy&efESifh tusOf;csKH;azmfjyEdkif&ef axmufjyt=uHay;csurf sm;udkvnf; txl;aus; Zl;wifygonf? rdrdwdk@.tjrifrsm;udk rnfodk@azmfjy&rnfudkvrf;awG@&SdEdkifa&;twGuf vrf;a=umif;ay;aomOD;aqmif odk;ausmif;ozG,fðyolrSm olyif jzpfygonf? pmrlpmuspmersm; r&Sd&avatmifulnDwnf;jzwfay;cJh=uaom tvef b&ufa&SmESifh *seDzmqDrDwefwdk@udkvnf; tzdk;rjzwfEdkifatmifaus;Zl;wif&Sdygonf? “ydkI}uD;rm;aom tiftm;tpGrf;wck”&kyfjrifoH=um;rSwfwrf;Zmwfvrf;wGJjzpfajrmufap&eftwGuf nm%f tvif;jyulnDcJh=uaom t,fvfbwftdef;pwdef; tifpwDusL;&Sif;rS qlqefESifh y,f&Dvmem/ t,fvDZbuf ESifh *|ef tdyfcsfAef rmuifpwdef; o&D;/ atbD ESifh tvefvJAD;/ ESifh tmomAdkif;eif;a';Apfazmifa';&Sif;wdk@udk txl; ulnDyHhydk;r_wdk@a=umifhom taumiftxnfay:vm&jcif;jzpfygonf? ueOD;okawoeðyvkyfief;rsm;udk tar&duef +idrf;csrf;a&;tifpwDusL (U.S. Institute of Peace) rSaxmufyHhr_ay;cJhygonf? TtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;ESifh vlyk*~dKvf rsm;. pdwftm;xufoefulnDr_om r&&SdcJhygu/ oef;aygif;rsm;pGmaomTpmtkyfrsm;udk ajrmuftar&duwdkuf wGifaomfvnf;aumif;/ urBmhtESH@tjym;wGifaomfvnf;aumif; jrif=u&zG,f r&Sdyg? Tpmtkyfonf rsKd;quf (5) ck.EdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;/ vlr_rwnfr+idrfjzpfr_rsm;/ ppfa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk jzef@usuf azmfjyxm;ygonf? ta=umif;t&mrsm;rSm urBmhwdkuf}uD; (5) ck&Sd EdkifiHaygif; (24) ckwGifjzpfysufcJhaomta=umif; t&mrsm; jzpfygonf? xdktwGufa=umifh rdrdwdk@okawoevkyfief;rsm;rSm tm;tifukefcrf;vkeD;yg;aqmif&GufcJh=u &ygonf? tcsuftvufrSm;,Gif;r_rsm;/ azmfjycsufrSm;,Gif;r_rsm;/ rSm;,Gif;t"dy`g,fzGifhr_rsm; &SdEdkifygonf? rdrdwdk@ trSm;rsm;twGuf rdrdwdk@wGifomvHk;0wm0ef&Sdygonf? rdrdwdk@.&nf&G,fcsufrSm }uD;jrwfaomt=urf;rzuf v_yf &Sm;r_. vGefcJhaomESpf (100) twGif; aqmif&GufatmifjrifcJhaom rSefuefaom/ wu,fhtjzpfrSefrsm;udkom azmf jyvdkjcif; jzpfygonf? xdkxufydkIqdk&v#if vGefcJhaom&mpkESpftwGif; jynfolrsm;. olwdk@tm%mwdk;wufvmap a&;twGuf v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;ESifh wef;wlnDr#tcGifhta&;rsm; &&Sda&;/ w&m;r#wr_ESifh 'Drdkua&pDtcGifhta&;rsm;&&Sad &; twGuf t=urf;rzufaomenf;udkoHk;I v_yf&Sm;aqmif&GufcJh=uyHkrsm;udk *k%fðyazmfjyvdkjcif;r#om jzpfygonf? tu,fITpmtkyfwGif t&Snfwnfwef@Edkifaom vlom;rsm;. wefzdk;xm;csufrsm;udk zwf,l&&SdcJhygu/ Todk@ atmifjrif&&Sdr_rsm;onf rdrdwdk@tm;vHk;.tem*gwftwGufygtzdk;rjzwfEdkifaom ta=umif;rsm;jzpfaoma=umifh jzpfygonf?

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ed'gef; “w&m;r#wr_ESifh tm%mwdk@onf twlwuGvm&efvdktyfygonf? rnfodk@yifjzpfap w&m;r#waomudpPrsm;u tiftm;tm%m&Sd&efvdktyf+yD;/ tm%m&Sdou l vnf; w&m;r#wr_&Sd&ef vdktyfonf? ” ygpu,f tjzpftysufZmwfvrf;rsm; (1981) ckESpf/ 'DZifbmv.wckaomaom=umnaecsrf;wGif/ vufcsfbm0ifqmESifh tjcm;aomaoG;pnf;nD!Gwf a&;or*~acgif;aqmifrsm;/ *'ef@tpnf;ta0;yGJt+yD;wGif tzrf;qD;cHcJh=u&onf? vGefcJhaom (16) vumvtwGif; olwdk@.vGwfvyfaomtvkyform;or*~rsm;u ydkvefEdkifiH. uGefjrLepftkyfcsKyfa&;tajccHudk udkifv_yfcJh=uonf? puf&Hkrsm;udkodrf;ydkufcJh=uonf? oydwfwdkufyGJrsm;qifcJh=uonf? ,cktcsdefwGifawmh ppftkyfcsKyfa&;rm&S,favm Oya'jzifh xkwfIxdef;ae&+yDjzpfonf? aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~rSmvnf; aoewfajymif;0udk=unfhI tnHhcH& awmhrnfh taetxm;qdkufaecJhonf? odk@aomfvnf; bm0ifqmudkzrf;ac:oGm;cJhaomtcsdefu bm0ifqmu ol@udkzrf;qD;olrsm;udk pdefac:ajymqdkcJhonf? “tcktcsdefupvdk@ rif;wdk@&_H;oGm;+yD?” olu jyefajymcJhonf? “tck igwdk@ tzrf;cH=u&w,f? 'gayr,fh 'g[mrif;wdk@&J@uGefjrLepfacgif;wvm;xJudk aemufqHk;oHwcsuf&dkufvdkufwmyJ? wcsdefrSmawmh igwdk@qDudk rif;wdk@u 'l;axmuf+yD;jyefvm=u&vdrfhr,f? ” tu,fI t=urf;zufr_onfom tm%mtiftm;jzpfcJhrnfqkyd gu/ tu,fI Todk@zdESdyfr_udk jyefvnfwkef@jyef&ef tajzr&SdcJhygu/ bm0ifqm.pum;rsm;onf ol&l;pum;rsm;omjzpfvdrfhrnf? odk@aomf olu aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&; or*~. TyÉyduQtay:qufvufav#mufvSrf;&rnfhvrf;a=umif;udk owfrSwfxm;+yD;jzpfonf? Ttcsufudk ol odxm;onf? ydkvefEdkifiHtpdk;&udk axmufcHae=uaomvlxk.qENudk cGJcGgcsawmhrnfudk olod+yD;jzpfaeonf? olwdk@atmufusKd@ emcHvmap&ef EdkifiHawmftpdk;&taejzifh aqmif&Guf&rnfhenf;vrf;rsm;ukefvmaomtcg/ olwdk@.awmif;qdkcsufrsm;twdkif; vdkufavsmvm&awmhonf? ckepfESpf=umaomtcg bm0ifqmudk axmifoGif; tusOf;cscJhol AdkvfcsKyf }uD;0dk@csfqdcsf ,m&lZJvfpuD;u olESifhtjcm;aom aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~ acgif;aqmif rsm;udk zdwfac:I a&G;aumufyGJtopfrsm;usif;yEdkif&efESifh tpdk;&opfzGJ@pnf;Edkif&ef/ awG@qHkaqG;aEG;yGJrsm; aqmif&Guf&ef zdwfac:&awmhonf? (1990) ckESpfa&mufaomtcg vGefcJhaomq,fESpfcef@u oabFmusif;wckwGif v#yfppfvkyfom;tjzpfom vkyfaecJhaom bm0ifqmonf ydkvefEdkifiH.orwtjzpf a&G;aumufwifajr‡muf cH&onf? olu aoewfwcsufrS rypfazmufcJhbl;ay? tvm;wlaoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~tzGJ@0ifrsm;onfvnf; TatmifyGJtwGuf vufeufpGJ udkifI aoewf wcsufrSrypfcJh=u&ay? odk@aomfvnf; olwdk@u tm%m&Sif. tm%m0wf&Hkudk cGgcsEdkifcJh=uonf? aemufodk@wGef;ydk@EdkifcJh=uonf? ydkvefvlxkrsm;twGuf vGwfvyfr_udk aqmifusOf;EdkifcJh=uonf? vGefcJhaom&mpkESpf. aemufqHk;q,fpkESpfwGif/ bm0ifqmonf e,l;a,mufòrd@Y ESpfpOfpufwifbmvwdkif;wGif usif;yaom ukvor*~taxGaxG nDvmcHY tjcm;aomEdkifiHacgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh twl,SOfwGJum wufa&mufcJh onf? Tacgif;aqmiftrsm;pkrSm EdkifiHtoD;oD;rS 'Drdkua&pDenf;usa&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufxm;jcif;cH&aom acgif; aqmifoltrsKd;om;/ trsKd;orD;rsm;jzpf=uonf? tu,fIom TuJhodk@aomtpnf;ta0;rsKd;vGefcJhaomESpfw&m cef@u usi;f ycJhygu/ wufa&mufoltrsm;pkrSm tm%mudkt=urf;enf;/ tiftm;oHk;&,lxm;cJh=uaom tifydkif ,mjynfh&Sifrsm;/ bk&ifrsm;/ AdkvfcsKyf}uD;rsm;/ tm%mtarGqufcH&vm=uaom tjcm;aomtm%m&Sif acgif; aqmifrsm;om jzpf=uayvdrfhrnf? vl ta&twGufrSmvnf; tenf;pkomjzpfayvdrfhrnf? TonfrSmESpfq,f&mpk ESpftwGif; t"dujzpfay:cJhaomEdkifiHa&;ajymif;vJr_}uD; jzpfonf? odk@aomfTodk@tajctaejzpfay:vm&efqdkonf rSm omrmefjynfolvlxkrsm;.v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;rygyJ/ zdESdyfoltm%m&Sifrsm;udk vufeufudkifawmfvSefaomenf; r[kwfyJ t=urf;rzufaomenf;rsm;jzifh tmcHqef@usifolrsm;rygyJ/ rjzpfEdkifay? Todk@aomjynfolrsm;. tm%m pGrf;tm;rsm;zGH@òzd;wdk;wufvmyHkESifh rnfodk@rnfyHktoHk;cscJh=uonfqdkonfrSm TpmtkyfwGifqufvufazmfjyrnfh t"du ta=umif;t&mjzpfygonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

1


Ttjzpftysufrsm;onf q,fpkESpf (10) cktwGif;jzpfysufcJhaom Zmwfvrf;rsm;jzpfygonf? tm%mudkcsKyfudkif xm;aomtpdk;&rsm;ESifh &ifqdkifwdkufyGJ0ifcJh=u&aom/ vufeufcJ,rf;rsm;udkifaqmifxm;=uaom zdESdyfol ppfwyf rsm;ESifh wrljcm;em;pGmwdkufyGJ0ifcJh=uaom jynfol@v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;. Zmwfvrf;rsm;jzpfygonf? Todk@aomyÉdyuQ wdkif;wGif/ tkyfcsKyfolrsm;. tpDtpOfuser_udkysufapaom zdtm;ay;onfhenf; (sanctions) udktoHk;ðycJh=uyg onf? rdrd.qef@usifzuftiftm;pk. zdESdyfEdkifpGrf;tm;/ tjypfay;EdkifpGrf;tm;udk twif;t=uyfzdtm;ay;Iraqmif &GufEdkifapatmifaqmif&Gufaomenf;ESifh aemufqHk;vdkufavsmvm&avatmif aqmif&GufcJh=uygonf? xdk@tjyif qENxkwfazmfaomenf;rsm;jzpfonfh pmwifoGif;jcif;rsm;/ csDwufyGJrsm;/ vrf;av#mufxGufcGgjcif;/ qENjyjcif;rsm;jzifh jynfoltrsm;. axmufcHr_udk&&Sdatmifvnf; aqmif&GufcJh=uygonf? ryl;aygif;raqmif&Gufjcif;enf;rsm;jzpfonfh oydwfarSmufr_rsm;/ bdGKif;aumufrsm;/ E_wfxGufjcif;rsm;/ jynfolrsm;. tm%mzDqefjcif;enf;rsm;udkvnf; toHk; ðycJh=uygonf? Tenf;rsm;jzifh tpdk;&.tpGrf;udk vd_ufpm;tm;enf;apEdkifcJhygonf? xdk@tjyifwdkuf&dkuf0ifa&muf pGufzufaomenf;rsm;jzpfonfh xdkifoydwfrsm;/ t=urf;rzufaomenf;jzifh zsuq f D;r_rsm;/ oydwfwm;jcif;rsm;enf; jzifh zdESdyfolrsm;udk pdwf&_yfaxG;ap+yD;/ jynfolrsm;.qENtwdkif; vdkufavsmvmatmif aqmif&GufEdkifcJh=uygonf? ordkif;wavsmufTodk@&&Sdvmaom &vm'frSm}uD;rm;vSygonf? tjzpftysufrsm;vnf; trsm;tjym;&Sdygonf? tm%m&Sifrsm;udk z,f&Sm;EdkifcJh=u+yD;/ tpdk;&rsm;udkvnf; ðywfusapcJhygonf? odrf;ydkufusL;ausmfvmaom ppfwyf rsm;udkvnf; jyefqkwfapEdkif+yD;/ vl@tcGifhta&;rsm;udk ydwfyifwm;qD;xm;aomEdkifiHa&;pepfrsm;udkvnf; aysmuf uG,fajymif;vJapcJhygonf? xdk@tjyif vlr_tzGJ@tpnf;wckvHk;udkvnf; taES;ESifhtjrefqdkovdk toGifajymif;vJapcJh ygonf? jynfolrsm;. pGrf;yum;/ t=urf;rzufr_tiftm;jzifh tm%m&Sifrsm;. vlr_pepfxdef;ausmif;ajymif;vJae aompGrf;tm;udk òzdcszsufqD;EdkifcJh=uygonf? Todk@aomudpPrsm;rnfodk@rnfyHk jzpfay:vm=uyHkESifh/ t=urf;rzuf aomv_yf&Sm;r_rsm; jzpfay:vmap&efaphaqmfcJhaom aemufuG,frStawG;tac:onf TpmtkyfwGifazmfjyvdkaom tESpfom&jzpfygonf? tonf;ESvHk;jzpfygonf? xdk@tjyif TpmtkyfESifhtwl rSwfwrf;&kyfjrifoH=um;Zmwfvrf; tacGudkvnf; yl;wGJxkwfvkyfEdkifchJygonf? Ttjzpftysufrsm;tm;vHk;onf &k&Sm;wGifpwifcJhygonf? (1991) ckESpfwGif bdk;&pf,,fvfqifwifhum;ay:odk@ wufI ppftm%modrf;r_udkqef@usifa=umif; rdef@cGef;rajymrD/ (86) ESpft=umuyif/ &k&Sm;jynfolrsm;u pdef@yDwm pbwfaqmif;&moDeef;awmf&Sd Zmbk&ifxHtoem;cHpmrsm;/ awmif;qdkv$mrsm; wifoGif;cJh=uygonf? Tumv rsm;t=um;wGif urBmw0Srf;vHk;Y v_dif;vHk;rsm;ozG,fjyif;xefaomv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;u tm%m.oabmobm0udk topftoGifjzifh odjrifapcJh=uygonf? tppftrSeftm%mqdkonfrSm xdkolrsm;udk xdef;csKyfcH&efjzpfaomjynfol rsm;. qENrSvmygonf? xdkolrsm;udk+cdrf;ajcmufzdESdyfaeaom t=urf;zufr_rsm;rS jzpfay:vmjcif; r[kwfyg? Todk@ aomt,ltqonf/ tm%m&Sifrsm;udk qef@usifaomv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;/ usL;ausmfr_rsm;udk wkef@jyefr_rsm;/ vl@tcGifh ta&;rsm;udk jiif;y,fcHae&aomtajctaerS jyefvnf&&Sdap&ef v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;rS xGufay:vmjcif;jzpfygonf? T v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udkaqmif&GufcJh=uaom olrwlonfhomrmefjynfolrsm;ESifh olwdk@.atmifjrifr_rsm;/ &_H;edrfhr_rsm;rS oifcef;pmxkwf,lcJh=ujcif; jzpfygonf? • (1905) ckESpfwGuf atmhodka'gufbkef;awmf}uD; a*sm*sDa*yGefu vkyfom; (150000) udk &k&Sm;EdkifiH. a&S;a[mif;òrd@awmf. a&cJaeaomvrf;rrsm;ay:odk@xGufvm&ef wdkufwGef;E_d;aqmfEdkifcJh+yD;/ oufOD;qHydkif tm%m&SifxHodk@ &mpkESpf. yxrOD;qHk;aom pdefac:r_udk pwifaqmif&GufEdkifcJhygonf? olu wEdkifiHvHk; twdkif;twmjzifh vlxkv_yf&Sm;r_jzpfay:vmap&ef v_H@aqmfEdkifcJh+yD;/ Ttjzpftysufa=umifh EdkifiH.yxr OD;qHk;aomvlxktrsm; a&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufonfhtpdk;&pepfudk ay:aygufapcJhygonf? • urBmppf+yD;aomtcg/ &k&Sm;EdkifiHwGif abmf&SDApfrsm;. tm%modrf;ydkufr_twGuf wHcg;yGifhapcJh+yD;/ *smr%D xHrS ppfavsmfa=u;&&Sd&ef twif;t=uyfzdtm;ay; awmif;qdkcJh=uygonf? &m;e,f (Ruhr) &Sd rdkif;wGif; vkyfom;rsm; ESifh &xm;vrf;vkyfom;rsm;u *smr%DEdkifiH. obm0t&if;tjrpfrsm;udk xkwf,l&ef &nf &G,fcsufjzifha&muf&Sdvmaom usL;ausmfvmonfhjyifopfESifh b,f*sD,Hppfwyfrsm;. usL;ausmfr_udk &if qdkifckcHcJh=uygonf? xdkvkyfom;rsm;u ryl;aygif;raqmif&Gufjcif;enf;vrf;jzifh usL;ausmfvmolrsm;. &nfrSef;csufrsm;udk ysufapcJhygonf? aemufqHk;wGif tar&duefESifh +Adwdo#wdk@u wyfrsm;jyef&kyfap&ef zdtm;ay;cJh=uygonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

2


• (1930-31) ckESpfwGif rdk[ef'wfpf*ENDu +Adwdo#udkvdkeDtkyfpdk;r_udk qef@usifa&;twGuf tdENd,EdkifiHwGif vltrsm;udk pnf;&Hk;I vlxktm%mzDqefaomenf;udk aqmif&GufcJh=uygonf? olu ol.aemufvdkuf aemufygrsm;udk qm;cGefrsm;ray;aqmif&ef/ &mh*sftkyfcsKyfolrsm; vuf0g;}uD;tkyfxm;aomtxnftvdyf rsm;ESifh t&ufaopmrsm; 0,f,loHk;pGJjcif;rðy&ef awmif;qdkcJhygonf? TwdkufyGJrsm;rSaeI tdENd,EdkifiH. &Snf=umI aemufqHk;atmifjrifcJh&aomvGwfvyfa&;wdkufyGJudk pwifEdkifcJh=uygonf? • 'kwd,urBmppfumvtwGif; 'def;rwfjynfolrsm;uvnf; *smrmefusL;ausmfr_udkqef@usifI/ emZDwyfzGJ@ rsm;. ppfa&;&nfrSef;csufrsm;udk tultnDay;&ef jiif;qefcJh=uonf? (1944) ckESpf. aEG&moDYòrd@}uD; rsm;udk taotwdkif;&yfqdkif;xm;EdkifcJh=uonf? Tenf;tm;jzifh *smrefwyfzGJ@rsm;. ppftkyfcsKyfa&;trdef@ rsm;ESifh ydwfqdk@r_rsm;udk &yfqdkif;apcJh=uonf? tjcm;aomOa&myEdkifiHrsm;rS jynfolrsm;uvnf; t=urf; rzufaomenf;jzifh *smrmefusL;ausmfr_udk qef@usiftHwkcJh=uonf? • qmaA;'dkausmif;om;rsm;/ q&m0efrsm;/ ukefonfrsm;uvnf; olwdk@EdkifiHtwGif;ESpf=um&SnftkyfcsKyfae aomppftm%m&Sif tkyfcsKyfr_rStwif;t=uyfcsrSwfxm;aom ta=umufw&m;rsm;/ &ufpufr_rsm;t ay:pdwfysufvm=u+yD;/ (1944) ckESpfwGif vlxt k rsm;yg0ifonfhoydwfwdkufyGJrsm;qifE$JcJh=uonf? aoewfwcsufrSrazmuf&yJ/ ppftm%m&SifAdkvfcsKyfrsm;udk olwdk@.axmufcHaeolrsm;xHrS cGJjcm;EdkifcJh=u onf? ppfom;rsm;uyg qef@usifvmcJh=u+yD;/ aemufqHk;ppftm%m&Sifrsm; jynfyodk@xGufajy;cJh=u&onf? • tdENd,EdkifiHrS +Adwdo#wdk@xGufcGgoGm;+yD; (10) ESpfr=umrDrSmyif/ a*smf*sD,mjynfe,frS bufywpfbkef;awmf }uD;rmwifvlomuif; *sLeD,mu *END.oif=um;r_enf;vrf;rsm;udkvdkufemI/ ol.aemufvdkufaemufyg tmz&duef-tar&duefvlrsKd;rsm;udk OD;aqmifum/ vlrsK;d cGJjcm;r_qef@usifaom tar&duefEdkifiHawmifydkif; a'orsm;Y (15) ESpfausmf=um csDwufyGJrsm;ESifh qENjyoydwf/ v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk qifE$JEdkifcJhonf? • a'gufwmuif;vkyf=uHcH&+yD; ESpftenf;i,ft=umwGif/ ydkveftwdkuftcHrsm;u vlr_v_yf&Sm;r_enf;em opfrsm;jzifh uGefjrLepftkyfcsKyfa&;udkqef@usifcJh=uonf? TtjzpftysufrsKd;onf qdkAD,uftkyfpk0ifEdkifiH rsm;twGif;Y &Sm;&Sm;yg;yg;jzpf&yfjzpfonf? aemufydkif;wGif tvkyform;rsm;uyg oydwfwdkufyGJrsm;qif vmcJh=u+yD;/ or*~zGJ@pnf;cGifh tcGifhta&;&&SdcJhonf? aemufqHk;aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~tjzpfwdk;wuf vmcJh+yD;/ uGefjrLepftkyfcsKyfa&;udk tqHk;owfEdkifcJhonf? • ydkvefEdkifiHY tajymif;tvJrsm;oaE<wnfaepOf/ olwdk@.om;orD;rsm;aysufqHk;oGm;&r_tay: wdwfqdwf aeonfh tpdk;&tay:onf;nnf;rcHEdkifawmhyJ/ a'goxGufae=uaom tm*sifwD;em;rdcifrsm;u abGEdk at;&dpf&Sd òrd@v,fyvmZmwGif csDwufqENjycJh=uonf? tkyfpdk;aeaomppftm%mydkfirsm;. w&m;0ifr_udk rxdcdkufrcsif;/ r&yfrem;qENjycJh=uonf? azmufuvefppfyGJt+yD; tusOf;t=uyfwGif ppftm%m&Sifrsm; vnf; ed*Hk;csKyfcJh&onf? • tm*sifwD;em;wGifAdkvfcsKyfrsm;ðywfusoGm;&onfh tcsdefwGif/ tjcm;tdrfeD;csif;EdkifiHwckjzpfaom csDvDwGif vnf;/ AdkvfcsKyf}uD;tm*ufpfpwdk yDEdkacs;onf tvm;wltHkºuGvmonfhvlxkv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;ESifh qENjyyGJ rsm;udk wck+yD;wck &ifqdkifae&onf? aemufqHk;wGif xdkvlxkqENjyyGJrsm;u oltm%mvufv$wf&&ef r&nf&G,faomfvnf;/ olusif;yaoma&G;aumufyGJrsm;wGif ðzwfcscHcJh&onf? • urBm}uD;. tjcm;wzufjcrf;wGif (1986) ckESpfY zdvpfydkiftm%m&Siforw zm'Deefrm;udk@pfu a&G; aumufyGJudknpfywfI rJcdk;cJhonf? vkyf=uHcH&aomtwdkuftcHacgif;aqmifwOD;. ZeD;rkqdk;rjzpfolu OD;aqmifum vlxkaxmifaygif;/ aomif;aygif;rsm;pGmudk vrf;rrsm;ay:odk@ac:csvmcJhonf? xdkvlxkv_yf &Sm;r_udk ðyjyifajymif;vJa&;vdkvm;aomppfwyfacgif;aqmifrsm;. olykefxr_jzifhaxmufcHcJhaomtcg/ tm%m&Siftzdk@ tiftm;oHk;Itm%mudkqufvufcsKyfudkif&ef tcGifhtvrf;rSmr&Sdawmhoavmuf jzpf oGm;cJh&onf? aemufqHk;EdkifiHrS xGufajy;&onf? • zdvpfydkifEdkifiHwGif 'Drdkua&pDatmifyGJjyefvnf&&Sd+yD; r=umrDyif/ ygvufpwdkif;rsm;u tpPa&;vf.ppfa&; t&usL;ausmfodrf;ydkufxm;r_udk pdefac:qef@usifcJh=uonf? taemufzufurf;a'orsm;ESifh *gZmwGif oydwfarSmufyGJrsm;/ qENjyyGJrsm;pnf;&Hk;um vlr_0efaqmifr_vkyfief;rsm;twGuf jynfolrsm;udk,fwdkif uGef,ufrsm;zGJ@ csdwfqufcJh=uonf? t=urf;rzufckcHr_rsm;rSm tifwDzm'gv_yf&Sm;r_. jrifomr_t& enf;v#ifaomfrS t}uD;us,fqHk; v_yf&Sm;r_ jzpfcJhonf? • aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;tvkyform;or*~taejzifh ‚if;.wdkufyGJrsm;qufvuf0ifaepOf/ awmiftmz&du &Sdoydwfpnf;&Hk;olrsm;/ tvkyform;or*~rsm;/ bmoma&;acgif;aqmifrsm;u tom;ta&mifcGJjcm;r_ Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

3


qef@usifa&;twGuf t=urf;rzufaomenf;rsm;jzifh v_yf&Sm;wdkufyGJ0if&ef pnf;&Hk;aecJh=uonf? EdkifiH wumrS zdtm;ay;r_ESifhtwl olwdk@.tiftm;rsm;jzifhe,fqifrif'Jvm;vGwfajrmufa&;twGuf aqmif &GufEdkifcJh=uonf? 'Drdkua&pDtem*gwftwGuf aqG;aEG;yGJrsm;jzpfay:vmap&ef aqmif&GufEdkifcJh=uonf? • bmvifwHwdkif;òydus+yD; &ufrsm;r=umrDwGif/ csufausmif;om;axmifaygif;rsm;pGmwdk@u y&*fòrd@v,f&Sd 0if;qvuf&ifjyifwGif xdkifoydwfusif;yum/ “usaemfw@dk [m vufeufryhJ g? urBmu =unfhaeygw,f” [k aºuG;a=umfcJh=uonf? &ufowWygwfrsm;twGif;rSmyif ta&S@*smr%DuJhodk@yif/ [efa*&D/ blvfa*;&D; ,m;/ rGef*dkvD;,m;rS uGefjrLepftpdk;&rsm;onfvnf;/ taES;ESifhtjrefqkwfcGgay;=u&awmhonf? • (1990) ckESpfwGif jrefrmEdkifiHrS rdcifwOD;jzpfola':atmifqef;pk=unfonf 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_udk tdrf tus,fcsKyfcHae&pOf taetxm;rSyif OD;aqmifaecJhonf? vli,fjrefrmrsm;rSm urBmtESH@tjym;&Sd t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;olrsm;/ tjcm;t=urf;rzufenf;usifhoHk;oltiftm;pkrsm;jzifh v_yf&Sm;r_udkquf vufqifE$JaecJhonf? • (1996) ckESifh (1997) ckESpfwGif/ axmifaygif;rsm;pGmaom qm;AD;,m;jynfolrsm; bJ*&dwfvrf;rrsm;ay: wGifcsDwufvm=u+yD;/ orw qvdkAdk'ef rDvdkqDApfudk jiif;y,fcJh=uonf? a'oqdkif&ma&G;aumufyGJrsm;. &vm'fudk av;pm;vdkufem&ef awmif;qdkcJh=uonf? aemufqHk;olu vdkufavsm&onftxd qENjyzdtm; ay;EdkifcJh=uonf? (1999) ckESpfwGif w}udrfvrf;rrsm;ay:jyefwufvm=uum/ olz,f&Sm;ay;a&;twGuf awmif;qdkcJh=uonf? TyÉdyuQrsm;tm;vHk;wGif t=urf;zufenf;udktoHk;rðyyJ/ atmifjrifEdkifaom tvm;tvmudkawG@&Sd&onf? xdk@ tjyif tjzpftysufrsm;tm;vHk;Yyg0if=uaom Zmwfaqmifrsm;tm;vHk;. tjyeftvSefðyrlyHkrsm;/ =oZmouf a&mufaer_rsm;u/ TtcsufrSefuefa=umif; jyoaeonf? *smrmefoHr%dvkyfom;wa,mufrSonf/ csDvD"gwfyHk q&mwOD;txd/ vD,dkawmfvfpwdGKifrSonf 'ufprGefwl;wl;txd/ 'def;rwfbk&ifrSonf wifeufqDjynfe,fòrd@awmf 0eftxd/ Ttjzpftysufrsm;wGif yg0ifcJh=uonfh'gZifaygif;rsm;pGmaom Zmwfaumifrsm;u/ Zmwfvrf;wpdwfw ydkif;udk yg0ifv_yf&Sm;cJh=uonf? olwdk@wOD;csif;. pum;vHk;rsm;ESifh vkyfaqmifr_rsm;udk rdrdwdk@u jyefvnfpkpnf;xm; jcif;omjzpfonf? v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk ,Hk=unfouf0ifvmatmifEd_;apcJholrsm;/ rD;yGg;udkzefwD;I rD;awmuf}uD;jzpfapcJh olrsm;/ rmefrmersm;/ vSnfhzsm;opPmazmufr_rsm;/ olwdk@EdkifoGm;cJh&aom tm%m&Sifrsm;. aemufqHk;oduQmrJh&r_ rsm;/ jynfayguf xufjrufolnm%f}uD;&Sifrsm;/ &l;oGyfaomrSm;,Gif;r_rsm;/ tHhzG,faumif;avmufaompGef@v$wfr_ rsm;ponfhtjzpftysufrsm;udk azmfjyxm;ygonf? Ttjzpftysufrsm;onf/ T&mpktwGif; “jynfol@tm%m” [laomedrfhwkHjrifhwHka&pD;a=umif;wGif jzwfoef;cJh&aomtjzpfrsm; jzpfygonf? (1936) ckESpfwGif rdk[ef'wfpf*ENDxHodk@ xif&Sm;aomtmz&duef-tar&duefbkef;awmf}uD;wyg;ESifh ZeD;wdk@u vm a&mufvnfywfcJhygonf? olu wcsdefY t=urf;rzufckcHr_qdkonfrSm wdkuf&dkuf&ifqdkifv_yf&Sm;&aomv_yf&Sm;r_yHkpH wck[kwf-r[kwf ar;jref;ygonf? *ENDu cdkifcdkifrmrmyifjyefajymygonf? “tJ'g[myHkpHawGxJu wckr[kwfygbl;? 'Denf;wckxJyJ &Sdygw,f?”[k jyefajzygonf? “'Denf;[m t}uD;jrwfqHk;jzpf+yD;/ urBmwv$m;uwufºuGv_yf&Sm; olawGtwGuf tiftm;yg? 'Dtiftm;[m v#yfppfxufpm&if ydkvdk@tðyoabmaqmifygw,f? tiftm;aumif; ygw,f? tDomxufudkydkvdk@ tiftm;jyif;ygw,f?” TonfrSm Tt=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_jzifhol.t,ltqrsm; cdkifrmvm&jcif;jzpfonf? ,Hk=unfr_oufoufrS xGufay:vmaom&vm'fwckr[kwfay? Tt=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm; r_[lonfrSm ody`Hynm&yfwckozG,fjzpfI/ vdkufem&rnfhenf;vrf;rsm;&Sdaeonf? Tenf;jzifhtm%mcGeftm;&vm rnfqdkonfrSm óudwifa[mudef;xkwfEdkifaomudpPjzpfonf? wcgw&H,lqwwf=uonfrSm t=urf;rzufaomv_yf&Sm;r_udk a&G;cs,fapcJhaomta=umif;onf/ usifh0wfydkif;qdkif &mtajccHrS jzpfay:vmonf[k ,lq=uonf? odk@aomfordkif;wav#muftawG@t=uHKt& =uHkawG@cJh&onfu wjcm;jzpfygonf? ESpfq,f&mpktwGif; t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_udkaqmif&GufcJh=uolrsm;onf Tenf;udktoHk;ðy&ef a&G;cs,fcJh=ujcif;rSm/ &kyfydkif;qdkif&mtiftm;/ ppfwyftiftm;rsm;rSm atmifyGJcH&ef jzpfEdkifacs&Sdaoma&G;cs,fr_rsm;jzpf =uaoma=umifh jzpfonf? tcsKd@rSm tHkºuG&eftwGuf vG,fvG,fajym&v#if vufeufyif tvHktavmufr&Sd=uyg? tjcm;aomolrsm;rSmvnf; r=umrDumvrsm;u t=urf;zufawmfvSefa&;rsm;us&H_;cJh=u&ygonf? Todk@us&H_;r_ESifh twl touftdk;tdrf/ pnf;pdrfrsm;qHk;&_H;cJh=u&ygonf? vltrsm;. t"duusaomtusKd;pD;yGg;rsm;udk +cdrf;ajcmuf vmaomtajctae/ xdkolrsm;u tm%mydkifrsm;udk ðzwfcs&efoHEMdXmefcsxm;aomtajctae/ olwdk@.tcGifh

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

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tm%mrsm;udk uef@owfxdef;csKyfxm;aomOya'rsm;udk zsufqD;&efqHk;jzwfxm;aom tajctaersm;Y/ olwdk@ u tjcm;enf;wckudk a&G;cs,fcJh=uygonf? TonfrSm t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_enf;yif jzpfygonf? Todk@t=urf; rzufv_yf&Sm;r_udk a&G;cs,fcJh=uaom rdrdwdk@azmfjyxm;onfhZmwfvrf;rsm;xJrSolrsm;onf +idrf;csrf;a&;udkaqmif &Guf&eftwGuf Tenf;udka&G;cs,fcJh=ujcif; r[kwfyg? wdkufyGJ0if&eftwGuf Tenf;udka&G;cs,fcJh=ujcif;om jzpfyg onf? yÉdyuQrsm; vGefcJhaom&mpkESpftwGif; yifv,fork'N&mrsm;jzwfausmfIjzpfyGg;cJhaom ppf}uD;rsm;rjzpfrD/ jzpfqJESifh ppf+yD;umv rsm;wGifaomfvnf;aumif;/ tjcm;aomyÉdyuQrsm;vnf; jzpfygG;aecJhonf? TyÉyduQrsm;rSm EdkifiHwckESifhwckt =um;jzpfyGg;jcif;r[kwfyJ/ EdkifiHwcktwGif;Y jzpfyGg;aecJhaomyÉdyuQrsm;jzpfonf? TyÉdyuQrsm;onf odrf;ydkuf atmifEdkifa&;twGufvnf;aumif;/ t,l0g'wcktay:tajccHIvnf;aumif; jzpfaomyÉdyuQrsm; r[kwf=uyg? rdrdzmomudk,fydkifjyXmef;cGifh &&Sda&;/ ygwDwck/ tkyfpkwpk/ rsKd;EG,fpkwpk. v$rf;rdk;zdESdyfxm;aomtajctaerS vGwfajrmufEdkifa&;twGufaomfvnf;aumif;/ 'Drdkua&pD&&Sda&;twGufaomfvnf;aumif;/ &kef;uefwdkufyGJ0if=u &mrS jzpfay:vmaomyÉdyuQrsm; jzpfygonf? TyÉdyuQrsm;onf owif;rsm;wGifaomfvnf;aumif;/ vlxkazsmf ajza&;rD'D,mrsm;wGifaomfvnf;aumif; v$rf;rdk;xm;+yD;/ vltrsm;.pdwftwGif;wGif ppfyGJrsm;/ rsKd;wkef;owfjzwf r_rsm;/ aumaZmjzef@cif;ovdk AHk;usJwdkufcdkufr_rsm;/ t=urf;zufr_rsm;u pGJxifae&m,lxm;=uygonf? Tpmtkyf wGif rdrdwdk@wifjyxm;aomt=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_Zmwfvrf;rsm;onf *smrmefudkifZmwyfrsm;udk ckcHwdkufaom uwkwfajrusif;wdkufyGJrsm;xuf/ ypdzdwfork'N&mtwGif; a&wyfppfyGJrsm;xuf/ tif'dkcsKdif;em;u|ef;qG,fopfawm rsm;twGif; ajymufusm;wdkufyGJrsm;xuf/ aoe*FAsL[mt&aomfvnf;aumif;/ enf;y&d,m,ft&aomfvnf; aumif; ydkIomvGefa=umif; awG@&ygvdrfhrnf? ESpfq,f&mpktwGif; jzpfay:cJhaom Tt=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_rsm; onf AsL[musepGmaqmif&GufcJh=ujcif; jzpfygonf? Tpmtkyfygazmfjycsufrsm;onf +yD;cJhaom&mpkESpftwGif;jzpfysufcJhaom t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_rsm; wpdwfwydkif; tm;jzifh yg0ifywfoufaeonfh yÉdyuQrsm;tm;vHk;udk taphtikazmfjyxm;aom ordkif;usrf;wapmifhr[kwfyg? odk@aomfvnf; t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_enf;vrf;rsm;taejzifh ckcHacsr_ef;&efrjzpfEdkif[k,lqxm;aom òydifzuf tiftm;pkudk rnfr#aoe*FAsL[mt& tom,lEdkifa=umif;ESifh rnfodk@rnfyHktiftm;csdeJ@atmif/ [efcsufysufjym; atmif aqmif&GufEdkifpGrf;&SdyHkudk xif&Sm;pGm azmfjyxm;csufwck jzpfygonf? T&mpktwGif;jzpfysufcJhaom yÉdyuQ rsm;rSaeI Tt=urf;rzufa&;t,ltqzGH@òzd;wdk;wufvmcJhyHkESifh usifhoHk;vmyHkenf;emrsm;udk ajc&maumufazmfjy xm;jcif; jzpfygonf? Tpmtkyf. yxr (3) ydkif;wGif t"duyÉdyuQ}uD; (3) rsKd;Y/ t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_enf;vrf; toHk;ðycJhyHkrsm;udkazmfjyxm;ygonf? tcef; (1)? ‘tm%m&&Sda&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;’tcef;wGif azmfjyxm;onfrSm t=urf;rzufonfhv_yf&Sm;r_taejzifh vGefcJhaom&mpktwGif; xif&Sm;aomEdkifiHtajymif;tvJudk jzpfapcJhonfh/ vlxkv_yf&Sm;r_ (3) ckY/ vltrsm;. udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfa&;&&Sd&ef óud;yrf;r_rsm;Y rnfr#ta&;ygonfhtcef;u aqmif&GufcJhyHkudk wifjyxm;ygonf? &mpk tajymif;tvJY &k&Sm;EdkifiHY tifydkif,mjynfh&Sifudk qef@usifcJhaomvlxkv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;ESifh/ tdENd,EdkifiHwGif +Adwdo# udkvdkeDtrdef@ay;pepfudk qef@usifcJhyHkrsm;/ ydkvefEdkifiHwGif qdkAD,ufyHkpHpepfudk qef@usifcJh=uyHkrsm;udk azmfjyxm;yg onf? tcef; (2)? ‘t=urf;zufr_udk ckcHjcif;’[laom tcef;Y jynfolrsm;u usL;ausmfodrf;ydkufvmonfhppfwyfrsm;udk rnfuJhodk@ckcHcJh=uonf? &mpkESpfv,fydkif;&Sd EdkifiHawmftpdk;&tm%m txGÉftxdyf&pOfumvY tkyfcsKyfolrsm;udk ckcHqef@usifcJh=uyHkrsm;udk azmfjyxm;ygonf? *smrmefrsm;u usL;ausmfvmaomjyifopfESifh b,fvf*sD,efwyfrsm; udk (1920) ckESpfumvrsm;u [ef@wm;ydwfqdk@cJh=uyHkESifh 'kwd,urBmppfumvtwGif; 'def;rwfvlrsKd;rsm;ESifh tjcm; aomOa&mywdkufom;rsm;u emZDtkyfcsKyfa&;udk rnfodk@rnfyHktaESmuft,Sufay;EdkifcJh=uonfudk azmfjyxm;yg onf? tvm;wl qmaA'dk;jynfolrsm;u (1944) ckESpfwGif AdkvfcsKyf}uD;rmwDeufZfudk ðzwfcscJh=uyHkudkvnf; azmfjy xm;ygonf? xdk@tjyif ,leDazmif;0wfI/ jynfolrsm;udk+cdrf;ajcmufzdESdyftkyfcsKyfaeaom tm*sifwD;em;ESifh csDvDrS tm%mydkifrsm;udk (1970-80) ckESpfrsm;twGif; tiftm;csdeJ@apcJh=uyHkrsm;udk azmfjyxm;ygonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

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tcef; (3)? ‘vlr_tcGifhta&;rsm;twGuf v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;’tcef;wGif &mpkESpf. 'kwd,w0ufydkif;Y oD;jcm;tcGifh ta&;rsm;&&Sdvmatmif tpdk;&trsKd;rsKd;udk awmif;qdkwdkufyGJ0ifr_rsm;Y t=urf;rzufenf;udk rnfodk@rnfyHktoHk; ðycJh=uonfudk azmfjyxm;ygonf? tar&duefEdkifiH vlr_tcGifhta&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;u tar&duefawmifydkif;jynfe,f rsm;&Sd vlrsKd;cGJjcm;zdESdyfa&;vufoD;qkyfudk rnfodk@rnfyHkajzEdkifcJh=uonf/ vlrsm;pkjzpfaom awmiftmz&duEdkifiH&Sd vlrJrsm;u tom;ta&mifcGJjcm;r_pepfudk rnfodk@ ed*Hk;csKyfEdkifcJh=uonfudk azmfjyxm;ygonf? tvm;wlzdvpfydkif jynfolrsm;uvnf; tm%m&Sifpepfudkjiif;y,fI 'Drdkua&pDjyefvnfwnfaqmufEdkifcJh=uyHk/ odrf;ydkufxm;aom e,fajrrsm;wGif tpPa&;rsm;.xdef;csKyfr_rsm;udk ygvufpwdkif;jynfolrsm;u &ifqdkifjiif;y,fcJh=uyHkrsm;udk azmfjyxm; ygonf? xdk@tjyif w&kyfEdkifiH/ ta&S@Oa&myEdkifiHrsm;/ rGef*dkvD;,m;&Sd vlxkaxmufcHaomv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;u wygwD tm%mydkiftpdk;&rsm;udk rnfodk@&ifqdkifcJh=uyHkrsm;udk azmfjyxm;ygonf? tcef; (4)? ‘t=urf;zufr_ESifh tm%m’tcef;wGif wefjyefvefvmcJh&aom tjzpftysuf (2) ckudk oHk;oyfavhvm xm;ygonf? xdkyÉdyuQrsm;wGif v_yf&Sm;r_ut=urf;zufaomxºuGr_/ t=urf;zufaomenf;vrf;udk a&G;cs,fcJhr_ a=umifh vlr_r+idrfroufr_rsm;ydkI jzpfay:vm&yHk/ tm%mr&&SdEdkifyJ EdkifiHa&;t&vnf;qHk;&_H;&yHkrsm;udk azmfjyxm;yg onf? xdk@tjyif acwfopfenf;ynmrsm;/ EdkifiHwumzdtm;rsm;/ tjcm;aomajymif;vJvmonfh tajctaersm;u/ ESpfq,fhwpf&mpktwGif; t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk rnfr#tiftm;aumif;vmaponf/ rnfonfhtuef@ towfrsm;jzpfaponfudkvnf; azmfjyxm;ygonf? Todk@aomtjzpftysufrsm;. Zmwfvrf;ausm&dk;wckwdkif;wGif/ t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;olrsm;ESifh qef@usifzuftif tm;pkrsm;t=um;wGif xdawG@qufpyfrt _ }udrf}udrf&Sdwwfygonf? tcsKd@aom rdrdwdk@azmfjyxm;onfhtjzpftysuf rsm;rSm wajz;ajz;tcsdef,lItiftm;pkaqmif;jcif;rsKd; jzpf+yD;/ wcsdefwGifrS t&Sdeft[kef&vmjcif;rsKd; jzpfygonf? xdktjzpftysufrsm;wGif t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_udk y&d,m,f&SdpGmoHk;Ia&&Snfar#mfvifhcsuftdrfrufrsm;twGuf a&wdkudpPrsm;udk pGef@v$wf&onfvnf; &Sdwwfygonf? tcsKd@aomv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;rSm a&wdktwGif;pkpnf;tiftm;}uD; xGm;vmjcif;rsKfd;jzpf+yD;/ atmifyGJ&&Sfda&;twGuf rnfonfhwefzdk;ay;&/ ay;&/ rnfonfhtEW&m,fudk rqdk&ifqdkifrnf [laom wufºuGpGef@pm;olrsm;u OD;aqmifcJh=ujcif; jzpfygonf? odk@aomfvnf; tjzpftysufwdkif;wGifrl v_yf&Sm;r_ tem*gwftwGuftqHk; tjzwfay;rnfhudpPrsm;twGuf enf;vrf;rsm;a&G;cs,f&mY r[mAsL[majrmufpGma&G;cs,f cJh=uygonf? Ttjzpftysufrsm;wckESifh wck óud;oDwef;ovdk/ tquftpyf&Sdaer_udk &mpkESpfukefqHk;onfhwdkifatmif rjrifom cJhyg? Ttjzpftysufrsm;udk OD;aqmifcJh=uolacgif;aqmifrsm;u/ ,cifujzpfysufcJhaomv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;rS avhvm oifcef;pm,lcJh=uygonf? *ENDonf (1905) ckESpf &k&Sm;wGifjzpfcJhaomv_yf&Sm;r_rS avhvmenf;em,lcJhygonf? tm z&duef-tar&duefacgif;aqmifrsm;u tdENd,odk@tvnftywfoGm;I/ *ENDxHrSenf;emrsm;avhvmcJh=uygonf? (1980) ckESpfrsm;wGif csDvdjynfolrsm;u tm%m&SifAdkvfcsKyf}uD;yDEdka&S;udk qef@usiftwGuf pnf;&Hk;=uaomtcg/ zdvpfydkifjynfolrsm;u tm%m&Sifrm;udk@pfudkqef@usif=uaomtcg/ olwdk@udk &pfcswftmwefbdfk&dkcsf. *END&kyf&Sif um;u rsm;pGm=oZmv$rf;rdk;oufa&mufr_&SdcJhygonf? *ENDu +Adwdo#tifydkif,mjynfh&Sifrsm;udk &ifqdkifqef@usifcJhygonf? odk@aomfvnf;'def;rwfvlrsKd;rsm;&ifqdkifqef@usif =u&aom *smrmefvufeufudkifwyfrsm;u rsm;pGmuGmjcm;vSygonf? =uHKawG@&aomqef@usifzuf&efolcsif;vnf; uGJjym;Edkifygonf? tar&duefEdkifiH&Sd vlr_tcGifhta&;v_yf&Sm;olrsm;zufwGif Oya't&umuG,fay;r_&Sd+yD;/ tar&d uefzGJ@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHkOya'u olwdk@zufu &yfwnfay;aeygonf? odk@aomfvnf; Todk@tm;omcsufrsKd;udk ydkvef EdkifiH&Sd aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~tzGJ@0ifrsm; r&Edkifyg? odk@aomfvnf; Ttjzpftysufrsm;wGif yg0ifv_yf&Sm;cJh=u aomt=urf;rzufwdkufyGJ0if v_H@aqmfolrsm;u odompGmwlnDaomcsOf;uyfaqmif&Gufr_rsm;udk csrswfcJh=uygonf? Todk@wlnDaom t=urf;rzufonfhrlrsm;jzifh/ rwluGJjym;aom&nfrSef;csufrsm;udk taumiftxnfazmfcJh=uyg onf? olwdk@.tawG@t=uHKrsm;rS &&Sdvmaomoifcef;pmrsm;jzifh rlv&Sdxm;aom t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_qdkif&m todokwrsm;udk xyfrHjznfhqD;cJh=uygonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

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• t=urf;rzufzdtm;ay;aomenf;udk toHk;ðyr_rsm;onf/ ,cif,lxm;onfxufydkrdk t}udrfrsm;+yD;/ ydkI us,fjyef@pGm toHk;ðy=uygonf? Tt=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;onf T&mpkESpftwGif;Y urBmw0Srf;&Sd ordkif;jzpfpOftopfrsm;udkzefwD;aom vlxkv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;Y txl;ta&;}uD;aomtcef;u yg0ifcJhygonf? • t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk oHk;Irnfodk@aomtwdkuftcH/ &efoludkrqdk &ifqdkifEdkifcJh=uygonf? t=urf;rzufckcHolrsm;tay:wefjyefoHk;aom t=urf;zufr_tjyif;taysmhESifh aemufqHk;xdkolrsm;. atmifyGJ&&SdEdkifajcwdk@wGif rnfodk@rSqufpyfr_ r&SdonfudkawG@&ygonf? &Hzef&HcgwGif tjyif;xeft&ufpuf qHk;t=urf;zufr_udk cH&olrsm;u qHk;jzwfcsufjywfom;pGmjzifh atmifyGJudkt&,lEdkifcJh=uygonf? • t=urf;zufr_udk r[mAsL[mrsm;twGif;aygif;pyftoHk;ðyvmonfESifh wòydifeuf/ t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_ .atmifyGJ&EdkifajcrSm ,kwfavsmhysufpD;&ygonf? tm%m&Siftpdk;&udk t=urf;zuftiftm;oHk;I w}udrfwdkufcdkufcJhygu/ xdktm%m&Sifrsm;. jynfwGif;axmufcHr_udk pkpnf;EdkifpGrf;ESifh ydkrdkjyif;xefpGm zdESdyfEdkifpGrf;tm;udk wdk;jrifhapygonf? • vlxktrsm;axmufcHaomt=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_udk pnf;&Hk;v_H@aqmfEdkifr_ESifh qufvufwnfwef@ae atmif xdef;odrf;xm;Edkifr_onf/ vlxktajcðyvlr_tzGJ@tpnf;trsm; tm;aumif;aer_ESifh 'Drdkua&pD &Sifoefaer_/ qufvufxdef;odrf;xm;Edkifr_wdk@tay:wGif wdkuf&dkufwnfrSDaeygonf? Todk@ vufawG@trSefw&m;udk ypfy,fI/ vlxktrsm;pdwfwGif t=urf;rzufaomv_yf&Sm;r_ESifhygwfoufI ,HkrSwf rSm;csuf (2) ck tjrJwapvdkvfdk &Sdaewwfygonf? yxrtcsufrSm T&mpkESpftwGif;t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_ESifhywf oufIxdyfwef;acgif;aqmif (2) OD;jzpfol/ *ENDESifh rmwifvlomuif; *sLeD,mudk bmoma&;tajccHrS Todk@v_yf &Sm;vm=ujcif; jzpfonf[k ,lq=ujcif;jzpfygonf? t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_[lonfrSm usifh0wfydkif;qdkif&mv_yf&Sm; r_wckozG,fowfrSwfxm;=u+yD;/ vufawG@ususa&G;cs,fr_wck[lI rowfrSwf=ujcif; jzpfygonf? xdkodk@,HkrSwfrSm; r_a=umifh yÉdyuQrsm;wGif t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_. aoe*FAsL[mwefzdk;udk avsmhayghwGufcsufjcif; jzpfapygonf? 'kwd,tcsufrSm (1986) ckESpfwGif/ rm;udk@pfðywfusaomtcg/ t=urf;rzufvlxkv_yf&Sm;r_twGuf owif;rsm; azmfjycsufrsm;rS vltrsm;aumuf,lcJhaomtcsufrSm “jynfol@tm%m”[lonfrSm/ òrd@awmf.vrf;rrsm;ay: v_H@aqmfr_a=umifh xGufvm=uaomvltkyfpkyrm%/ ta&twGufay:wGif wnfrSDonf[k ,lq=ujcif;jzpfygonf? rdrdtwdkuftcHtiftm;pk tm%m&Sifudk Todk@&kyf0wˆKtiftm;jyI qef@usifjcif;rsKd;onf wcgw&Hvdktyfaomf vnf;/ xda&mufaomt=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_wck. vd_if;csuf&pforfonf Todk@&kwfcsnf;tHkºuGr_rsKd;tpm;/ &nf &G,fcsuf&Sd&Sd vkyfaqmifr_ESifh ydkIoufqdkifygonf? Todk@jyZmwfjyuGufaumif;qefqef tjzpftysufrsKd;xuf/ enf;emt&aqmif&Gufjcif;oabm ydkaqmifygonf? aºuG;a=umfoHrsm;atmf[pfjcif;ESifh aoewfajymif;0rsm;wGif yef;rsm;xdk;jcif;wdk@onf trSefwu,fwGif tenf;i,fomtusKd;oufa&mufr_ &Sdygonf? trSefwu,faqmif&Guf &rnfh t=urf;rzufenf;emrSm tpdk;&rsm;ESifh cGJjcm;jcif;/ olwdk@.xdef;csKyfudkifr_rsm;udk z,f&Sm;Edkifatmifaqmif&Guf aomudpPtm;vHk; jzpfygonf? vltrsm;pku cef@rSef;wGufcsufxm;=uonfrSm/ vmrnfh (21) &mpkonf/ jyif;xefaomyÉdyuQjzpfpOfrsm;udk &ifqdkif =uHKawG@=u&rnf[k wGufqxm;=uygonf? odk@aomfTyÉdyuQrsm;onf a'otuef@towf&Sdaom/ twdkif; twmtm;jzifh rus,fjyef@aomyÉdyuQrsm; jzpfygvdrfhrnf? TyÉdyuQrsm;wGif vuf&SdtajctaewGifrjrifomaom tiftm;pkrsm;u rlvvufa[mif;tm%mydkifrsm;xHrS tm%mudk&,l&ef óud;yrf;jcif;/ wdkif;&if;om;trsKd;om;a&; 0g'Drsm;u vGwfvyfa&;&&Sd&efóud;yrf;vm=ujcif;/ odk@r[kwf ESpfaygif;rsm;pGmòrdodyfcHpm;cJh=u&aom vlenf;pkrsm;u pm;yGJ0dkif;ay:odk@ olwdk@udpPrsm;a&muf&SdaqG;aEG;vmapa&;twGuf óud;yrf;jcif;rsm; &SdEdkifygonf? odk@aomfvnf; ,ck wdkifa'oqdkif&myÉdyuQrsm;rS awmif;qdkae=uaomyHkrSefawmif;qdkr_rSm tcGifhta&;rsm;ydkrdk&&Sda&;yif jzpfygonf? 'Drdkua&pDEdkifiH}uD;rsm;. ,Hk=unfcsufrSm tm%mudk udk,fydkifjyXmef;cGifhtay:wGif todtrSwfðycGJa0ay;vdkufonf ESifh tcGifhta&;qdkif&mudpPrsm;rSm rsm;pGmvGwfvyfvG,fuloGm;ygvdrfhrnf? 'Drdkua&pDpepfudk tpOfojzifh tajz wcktjzpf aocsmapjcif;tm;jzifh/ (Todk@xm;&Sd&efvnf; ta&;}uD;ygonf?) yÉdyuQjzpfyGg;aeaom ygwD/ tiftm; pkrsm;. yÉdyuQrsm;udk &yfqdkif;apEdkif+yD;/ yÉdyuQjzpfaepOfumvtwGif;rSmyif tcsif;csif;qufqHaqmif&GufEdkif=u aomenf;vrf;rsm; &vm+yD;/ ydkI'Drdkua&pDusaom &vm'frsm;udk jzpfapEdkifygonf? vlom;rsm;. tusKd;pD;yGg;rsm;tcsif;csif;tpOfojzifh òydifqdkifae=u&aom urBmwGif/ yÉdyuQrsm;onf rvGJraoGjzpf ay:vmOD;rnf jzpfonf? t=urf;zufr_udk toHk;ðyjcif;tm;jzifh tEdkif&rnf[k,lqae=uor#umvygwfvHk;/ vl Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

7


om;rsm;uvnf; t=urf;zufr_rsm;toHk;ðyae=uvdrfhOD;rnf jzpfonf? Todk@t=urf;zufr_enf;jzifh wefzdk;ay;&rnfh tpm;/ tjcm;atmifjrifEdkifaomenf;vrf;wckudk awG@&Sdygu/ odk@r[kwf Tenf;vrf;udk ydkIESpfòcdufvufcHvm=u ygu/ rdrdwdk@ta&;twGuf v_yf&Sm;aqmif&Guf=u&mwGif/ t=urf;zufr_rsm; avsmhenf;oGm;=uvdrfhrnf jzpfonf? trsm;pkaomrl0g'csrSwfolrsm;u vufeufav#mhcsjcif;enf;jzifhjzpfap/ yÉdyuQrsm;ajz&Sif;ay;jcif;enf;jzifh jzpfap/ aoG;xGufoH,dkjzpf&aom yÉdyuQrsm;udk avsmhenf;apEdkifaomt"duenf;vrf;tjzpf xufxufoefoef,Hk=unf udkifpGJxm;=uygonf? xdkolrsm;.,lqcsufrSm yÉdyuQrsm;tm;vHk;onf t=urf;zufr_qDa&mufEdkifonf[k ,lq xm;=uygonf? odk@aomfvnf; (20) &mpktwGif;jzpfysufcJhaom t"duyÉdyuQw'gZifausmfteuf tm;vHk;vdkvdk onf EdkifiH.a&S@vm;&mudkxdef;csKyfEdkifa&;twGuf tiftm;pk (2) ckòydifqdkif=ujcif; jzpfygonf? TyÉdyuQrsm;wGif t=urf;zufr_tpm;/ r[mAsL[majrmufaom t=urf;rzufonfhenf;emudkom &ifqdkifr_Y toHk;ðycJh=uygonf? t=urf;zufr_udk yÉdyuQrsm;wGif toHk;ðyr_udkavsmhcsEdkifonfESifhtr#/ t=urf;zufr_rsm;avsmhcsa&;&nfrSef;csufudk yÉdyuQjzpfapaom ta=umif;rsm;ajz&Sif;a&;oufouf pDrHaqmif&Gufae&ef txl;rvdktyfawmhyg? tiftm;}uD;rsm;uvdkufavsmEdkifapaom pGrf;tm; Tpmtkyfygazmfjycsufrsm;onf ESpfq,f&mpktwGif;jynfolrsm;u t=urf;zufr_roHk;yJ/ tm%m&,lEdkifa&;t wGuf olwdk@.tiftm;rsm;udk rnfodk@rnfyHkzGH@òzd;apcJhonfudk azmfjyxm;jcif; jzpfygonf? azmfjyxm;aomtjzpf tysufwckwdkif;wGif us,fjyef@aomyÉdyuQtwGif;Y/ t=urf;rzufenf;toHk;ðy=uaom tydkif;udkomOD;pm;ay; azmfjyxm;jcif; jzpfygonf? t=urf;rzufr_tpGrf;jzifh atmifjrifcJhr_rsm;udk azmfjy&eftwGuf/ tcsKd@aomjzpfpOfrsm;/ vlyk*~dKvfrsm;udk rdrdwdk@ua&G;cs,fum OD;pm;ay;wifjyxm;ygonf? xdkolrsm;rSm xdktcsdefujzpfcJhaom ordkif;wck vHk;twGuf txl;ta&;ygcsifrS ygygvdrfhrnf? odk@aomfvnf; Todk@azmfjyjcif;rSm tjcm;jzpfpOfrsm;/ tjcm;vlyk*~dKvf rsm;udk ta&;ryg[kavsmhayghwGufqjcif; r[kwfyg? xdkolrsm;.v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;/ tjcm;jzpfpOfrsm;onfvnf; ordkif; tus,ftjyef@wpHkvHk;twGuf ta&;ygEdkifygonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh/ rdrdwdk@awmiftmz&duEdkifiHta=umif; azmfjycJh&m wGif tom;ta&mifcGJjcm;zdESdyfa&;pepfusqHk;cJh&yHk ordkif;wckvHk;udk azmfjy&ef r&nf&G,fcJhonfhyHkrsKd; jzpfygonf? rdrd wdk@taejzifh wwfEdkifor# r#watmifazmfjyxm;+yD;/ t=urf;rzufenf;udk rnfodk@toHk;ðyI rnfonfh&vm'fjzpfap cJhonfudk &Sif;jyydk@csr_qefqef a&;om;xm;ygonf? ordkif;a=umif;udk a&;om;azmfjycJh=ur_tm;vHk;wGif/ a&;om;azmfjy=uolrsm;. ordkif;tjrifu v$rf;rdk;r_&Sdygonf? rdrdwdk@onfvnf; TtajctaerSuif;vGwfI rwnf&SdEdkifyg? tcef; (1) (2) (3) wGif tcsuftvufrsm;udkom jyqdkcJh+yD;/ t"duazmfjycJhygonf? rdrdwdk@.oHk;oyfcsufrsm;/ aumufcsufrsm;udk tcef;rsm;.aemufqHk;ed*Hk;u¾rS om azmfjycJhygonf? pmtkyf.aemufqHk;tcef;wGif oHk;oyf&Sif;jycsufrsm;udk a&maxG;azmfjyxm;+yD;/ t=urf;rzuf v_yf&Sm;r_enf;jzifh urBmw0Srf;ajymif;vJr_jzpfapcJhaomjzpfpOfESifh ygwfoufI tus,ftjyef@jzpfaomar;cGef;rsm;udk ajzqdkEdkif&ef &Sif;vif;wifjyxm;ygonf? rdrdwdk@ordkif;tjrifudkwifjyr_twGuf awmif;yef&efrvdk[k xifygonf? rdrd wdk@. ordkif;tjrifrSm t=urf;rzufaomv_yf&Sm;r_&_axmifhrS =unfhjcif; jzpfygonf? Tt=urf;rzufenf;udk xdxd a&mufa&muftoHk;ðyygu/ zdESdyftkyfcsKyfr_rsm;udk tqHk;owfapEdkif+yD;/ vlxkrsm;/ EdkifiHrsm;udkvnf; vGwfajrmufap Edkifygonf? olwdk@taejzifh Tenf;ukdydkItEW&m,fenf;pGm toHk;ðyEdkif=u+yD;/ t=urf;zufawmfvSefa&;qifE$Jjcif;/ t=urf;zufvkyf&yfrsm;xuf atmifyGJ&&Sd&ef ydkIaojcmapygonf? odk@aomfvnf; tajctaewdkif;wGifawmh tvkyfjzpfonf r[kwfyg? TpmtkyfwGif rdrdwdk@wifjyxm;onfh ta=umif;t&mESifhoufqdkifaom Todk@tvkyf rjzpfcJhonfh tajctaersm;udkvnf; wifjy&ef/ csefvSyfI rxm;cJhyg? rdrdwdk@.,Hk=unfcsufrSm ,ckvuf&Sdvltrsm;odae=uaom t=urf;rzufckcHr_qdkif&mtodrsm;xuf/ ydkItm&Hkpdkuf tav;ay;&ef vdktyfvdrfhrnf[k ,Hk=unfygonf? rdrdwdk@acwfwGift=urf;zufr_rsm;u owif;rsm;wGifydkIae&m& ae=uygonf? ta=umif;rSm vltrsm;taejzifh ordkif;udkrSefajymif;wcktwGif;rS =unfhonfhozG,f,lqxm;aom a=umifh jzpfygonf? odk@aomf ordkif;qdkonfrSm tpOfrjywfwdk;wufjzpfay:aeaom jzpfpOfwcktjzpf/ &_jrif=urnf qdkygu t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_/ zdtm;rsm;. twuftus/ v_yf&Sm;ajymif;vJaer_ ydkIodjrifwefzdk;xm;vm=urnf jzpfygonf? Todk@&&Sdvmaom tiftm;tm%monf arSmfqefqefv#Kd@0Sufcsuf r[kwfyg? vltrsm;ae@w"l0ae xdkif=uovdkyif/ omrmefb0rsm;xJrS jzpfay:vmjcif;om jzpfygonf? Todk@jzpfay:vmaomtusKd;ta=umif;udk vnf; &Sif;jyI &Edkifygonf? vltrsm;uoHo,&SDxm;=uovdk/ t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_.ordkif;rSm ar#mfvifhcsuf

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

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uif;rJhaeaompdwful;,Of0g'Drsm;/ wyGJxdk;ol&Jaumif;tmZmenfrsm;/ olrwlxl;jcm;aom t&nftcsif;&Sdol u,fwif&Sifrsm;.atmifyGJrsKd;r[kwfyg? tjzpfrSefrSm xl;jcm;}uD;jrwfvSonfh ta&;awmfyHkxJyg0ifvm=uaom omrmefjynfolrsm;.ta=umif;omjzpf+yD;/ xdkolrsm;. v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;onf atmufajcrSpwifvmcJhjcif; jzpfyg onf? Tordkif;rSm vltrsm;vkyfief;cGifr0ifyJ/ tdrfYae=uaomudpP/ puf&HkESifh olwdk@vkyfief;cGif&Hk;rsm;udk odrf;ydkuf aomudpP/ rSwfyHkwifu'fjym;rsm;udk udkifaqmifoGm;vm&efjiif;y,faomudpP/ olwdk@.ajrwdkufcef;rsm;Y owif;pm rsm;udk wdwfwqdwfyHkESdyfxkwfa0=uaomudpP/ olwdk@udkESifxkwfaeaomtcsdefY xGufoGm;&efjiif;qdk=uaomudpP rsKd;yg0ifygonf? +Adwdo#tpdk;&. qm;vuf0g;}uD;tkyfr_udkqef@usif=uaomtdENd,vlrsKfd;rsm;/ emZDrsm;. ppfa&;qdkif&mukefydk@r_rsm; udkydwfyifwm;qD;=uaom 'def;rwfvlrsKd;rsm;/ tm%m&Sifpepfudkqef@usif&ef pnf;&Hk;cJh=uaomcsDvDjynfolrsm;/ po jzifht=urf;rzufenf;udk tvdktavsmuftodjzifhoHk;cJh=uaomolrsm;onf/ olwdk@.aqmif&Gufcsufvkyfief;rsm;rS tm%mjyefvnfjzpfvmapcJha=umif; todtrSwfðycJh=uygonf? TudpPrsm;onfeef;awmftwGif;/ orwtdrf awmf0if;twGif;xdkifae=uolrsm;. udpPr#omr[kwfyg? t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_ESifhygwfoufI txl;xif&Sm;aom oabmw&m;a&;ynm&Sif a'gufwm*sif;&Syf.tqdkt&rl/ “t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;jzifh atmifyGJrsm;&Edkifyg onf? tiftm;}uD;olrsm;u tavsmhay;vmonftxdyif pGrf;Edkifygonf? aemufqHk;&ufpuf=urf;=uKwfaom tkyfpdk;olrsm;/ ppftpdk;&rsm;vnf; vdkufavsmvmatmif ðyEdkifpGrf;&Sdygonf? ta=umif;rSm t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_ onf txuf-atmufpD;qif;ae&aomtkyfcsKyfyHkvkyfxm;onfh tzGJ@tpnf;/ zGJ@pnf;yHk/ tpdk;&tm;vHk;.yifr wefzdk;xm;csuf csufaumif;udkwdkufcdkufaoma=umifhjzpfygonf? Tcsufaumif;rSm tkyfcsKyfcHaeaomjynfolrsm; jzpfaoma=umifh jzpfonf?” [k qdkcJhygonf? vGefcJhaom&mpkESpf+yD;cJhcsdefwGif/ urBm&SdtoHv$ifhavvd_if;rsm;ESifh pmtkyfpifrsm;wGif/ tzsufqD;EdkifqHk;&mpkESpf[kac: qdkorkwf=uaomESpfrsm;udk jyefajymif;=unfh&_oHk;oyfaom ta=umif;t&mrsm;jzifh jynfhaecJhygonf? wdyfacGrsm; wck+yD;wck/ pmrsufESmrsm;wck+yD;wck/ raumif;qdk;&Gm;udk ESdrfeif;=u&mY ysufpD;qHk;&_H;cJhr_rsm;/ tHhzG,faumif; avmufaomvlom;rsm;. ay;qyfr_wefzdk;rsm;udk azmfjyxm;ygonf? Todk@qdkjcif;tm;jzifh trSm;}uD;rSm;aejyefyg +yD? Todk@ordkif;udkazmfjyjcif;tm;jzifh TyÉdyuQrsm;rSxyfrHtm;jznfhxm;onfh a=umufzG,faumif;aomtrSm; wckrSm t=urf;zufr_ufdk t=urf;zufr_jzifhomatmifEdkif&monf[k aumufcsufqGJazmfjyxm;onfhES,f&Sdygonf? tjrifhqHk;tEW&m,f&ifqdkif&rnfhtajctaersKd;Y vufeuftiftm;t"dujzifhomajz&Sif;Edkifrnf[k qdk&ma&mufyg onf? Ttqdktwdkif;omrSefuefcJhygu/ vGefcJhaom&mpkwiG f t=urf;zufr_tiftm;oHk;a&;twGuf tcGifhtvrf;&Sd =uaom tkyfcsKyfolrsm;/ zdESdyfolrsm;udk t=urf;rzufenf;udkifpGJcJholjynfolrsm;u z,f&Sm;cJh=uonfudk T&mpkESpf twlwltwGif;rSmyif awG@cJh=u&onfudk rnfodk@qdkygrnfenf;? yÉdyuQrsm;ESifh ygwfoufIt=uD;rm;qHk;aom,HkrSwfrSm;csufrSm/ t=urf;zufr_onf tm%mtwGuftqHk;pGefyHkpH wcktjzpf xifrSwfae=ujcif;jzpfygonf? w&m;r#waomta&;awmfyHkwcktwGuf tjcm;enf;vrf;r&Sdawmho a,mif/ rw&m;r_udk tnHhcH&awmhra,mif jzpfae&ygonf? odk@aomfvnf; &k&Sm;/ tdENd,/ ydkvef/ 'def;rwf/ qmaA; 'dk;/ tmz&duef-tar&duefvlrsKd;rsm;/ csDvD/ awmiftmz&duESifh tjcm;aoma'orsm;rSjynfolrsm;onf zufwck. a&G;cs,fr_onf/ tjcm;wzufrSt=urf;zufr_enf;vrf;udk a&G;cs,f&Hkr#jzifh vrf;ydwfoGm;rnfr[kwfa=umif;jyocJh=u ygonf? xdk@tjyif t=urf;rzufr_onf ydkI}uD;rm;aompGrf;tif tiftm;wckjzpfa=umif;jyocJhygonf? vGefcJhaom &mpkESpftwGuf t}uD;jrwfqHk;b0.pGef@v$wfr_ESifh *k%fðyazmfjyp&mrsm;udk ,cif&mpkwGifcsefvSyfxm;cJh&rnf qdkyguvnf;/ vmrnfhaemufESpfw&mumvwGif TtrSefw&m;udkvltrsm;ydkI odjrifvm=urnf jzpfayonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

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tykdif; (1) -------------------tm%mtwGuf v_yf&Sm;r_ -----------------------

tvGeftrif;Ekdifvkdrif;xufðyol tm%m&Sifrsm;onfyif æ ykdIay;xm;au|;xm;Edkifav/ ykdI emcH=u avjzpfonf/ olwkd@onf olwkd@ukd,folwkd@ umuG,f&ef ykdItiftm;jznfhvkyfaqmif=u+yD;/ ykdrkd tm;}uD;vmEdkifonf? tjcm;olrsm;udkacsr_ef;Edkifaom/ zsufqD;Edkifaom pGrf;tm;vnf; ydkrsm;vm=u onf? tu,fI bmr#ay;rxm;Edkifawmhygu/ tu,fI olwkd@onf emcHp&mr&Sdawmhv#if/ wkdufckdufxdk;ESufr_ wcsufr#vkyfp&mrvdkyJ/ olwdk@tpGrf;onf vufcsnf;AvmjzpfoGm;&awmhonf? vufeufrJholozG,fjzpfoGm;&onf? bmrS tpGrf;r&Sdolrsm; jzpfoGm;&onf? a&ajrESifh ðypkysKd;axmifr_ r&aom opfyifwyif. tjrpfuJhokd@ ajcmufaoG@/ aoqkH;oGm;=u&vdrfhrnfjzpfonf? tDwdefae; a' vm bltufwD (1577) Etienne de la Boétie, (1577)

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

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tcef; (1) &k&S / 1905 ckESpf vlxk oydwf “wdwfqdwfaeaom wifhum;rsm;” ppfat;wkdufyGJukefqkH;t+yD;/ 'kwd,ajrmuf aEG&moDumvwckrS/ we*FaEGn wn. tarSmifxkxJwGif/ &k&SEkdifiHawmf}uD; +idrf;csrf;aepOfumv/ AkdvfrSL; qm*D tDAf'kduDarmhAf (Major Sergei Evdokimov) onf ta&; ay:tcsufay; acgif;avmif;oHwcka=umifh Ekd;xvmcJhavonf? reufvif;tm;}uD; (3) em&Dtcsdefcef@wGifrl olonf armfpukdòrd@jyifwGif tajcpkdufxm;onfh ol.wifhum;wyfzGJ@ESifhtwl &Sdae+yD;/ r=umjrifhrD a&mufvm awmhrnfh !$ef=um;csufrsm;ukd apmifhaeavawmhonf? ta&S@zufaumif;uifonf pwifjzLazsmhvmonfh tcg wGifrl tDAf'kduDarmAf. wyf&if;rSL;onf rifhpfuf ta0;ajy;vrf;r}uD; (Minsk highway) twkdif; armfpukdòrd@ wGif;okd@ 0ifa&mufI/ armfpukdjrpfukd jzwfaqmufxm;onfh wHwm; (2) ckukd odrf;ykdufI ydwfqkd@ae&m,lxm;&ef ‚if;wkd@tm; trdef@&avawmhonf? xkdjrpfonf armfpukdòrd@wGif;rSaeI auG@aumufpD;qif;oGm;jcif; jzpfonf? !$ef=um;csufESifh ywfoufI rnfonfh &Sif;vif;csufr# ryg&Sdacs? okd@aomf AdkvfrSL;ESifh ‚if;.aemufvkdufrsm;onf trdef@!$ef=um;csuftwkdif; waoGrwkdif;vkdufemvkyfaqmifcJh=uonfhtjyif/ &k&Sjynfolwkd@.&if0ukdyif toifhcsdef &G,fxm;vkduf=uavonf? (1991) ckESpf/ =o*kwfv (19) &uf/ xkd wevFmae@ reuf (8) em&DwdwdtcsdefwGif tDAf'kduDarmAfonf ‚if;.wifhum;,mOfwef;tm; pwifxGufcGg&ef tcsufjyvkdufavonf? xkdae@eHeuftm&k%fOD;tcsdefwGifyif/ vDeif*&ufòrd@rS uGefjyLwmody`Hynm&SifwOD;jzpfonfh Avm&D ZmAkda&mhnD (Valerii Zavorotnyi) onfvnf; ‚if;. w,fvDzkH;jrnfoHa=umifh Ekd;xvmcJhavonf? “a*:bmacsmAfh tzrf;cH&+yD” [laom pum;oHonf zkH;vkdif;. tjcm;wzufrSaeI ay:xGufvm+yD;/ “ta&;ay: tkyfcsKyfa&;trdef@xkwfjyefvdkuf+yD” [laom pum;oHyg qufvufI xGufay:vmonf? ZmAkda&mhnDonf &kyfjrif oH=um;pufukd zGifhvkdufaomtcg csefe,fvf (3) vkdif;pvkH;wGif *E<0ifaw;*DwtpDtpOfvmaeonfukdom awG@& avonf? r=umrD owif;a=unmolwOD;xGufay:vm+yD; “qkdAD,ufjynfolvlxkokd@yef=um;csuf” [laom acgif;pOfjzifh xkwfjyefcsufukd zwf=um;avawmhonf? xkdyef=um;v$monf txufwef;t&m&Sd tkyfpkwpkrS xkwfjyefjcif;jzpf+yD;/ ‚if;wkd@ukd,f ‚if;wkd@ EkdifiHawmfta&;ay:tajctaetwGuf zGJ@pnf;vkdufonfh EkdifiHawmf aumfrwD[k rSnhfac:xm;avonf? yef=um;v$mwGif “qkdAD,ufjynfaxmifpk EkdifiHol EkdifiHom;taygif;wkd@/ u|Ekfyfwkd@. }uD;us,fjrifhjrwfaom trdajray:wGif tvGef}uD;rm;aom tEW&m,f}uD; pkd;rkdaeavonf” [lI pwifxm;avonf? aumfrwDonf wkdif;jynf&ifqkdifae&onfh t"du&k%f;}uD;tqkH;owfoGm;&ef tmrbaEW cHxm;+yD;/ qkH;jzwfcsuftrSwf (1)wGif qENjyjcif;rsm;/ oydwfarSmufjcif;rsm;ukd ydwfyifxm;jcif;/ vlxkowif; rD'D,mrsm;ukd xdef;csKyfxm;jcif;/ ykHrSeftajctaeudk xdckdufaESmuf,Sufaprnfh ygwDrsm; ESifh tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;. v_yf&Sm;aqmif&Gufr_rsm;ukd qkdif;iHxm;&ef wkd@ukd &Sif;vif;jywfom;pGm az:jyxm;onf? us,fjyef@vSaom wkdif;jynf}uD;twGif;&Sd jynfoltm;vkH;wkd@onf a&'D,kdESifh &kyfjrifoH=um;rsm;rSaeI vnf;aumif;/ w,fvDzkef;ac:oHrsm;rSaeIvnf;aumif;/ txdwfwvef@jzpfaeaom tdrfeD;em;csif;rsm;a=umifh vnf;aumif; xkdowif;ESifhtwl Ekd;xvm=uonf? okd@aomf wa,mufr# tvGeftrif;xdwfvef@pGm tHhtm;oifhr_ rjzpf=uacs? qkdAD,uforw rDac;vfa*:bmacsmhAf pwifusifhokH;cJhonfh EkdifiHa&;ESifh pD;yGg;a&;ðyjyif ajymif;vJa&; rl0g'ukd ajymif;vJ&eftwGuf oabmxm;wif;rmonfh uGefjrLepf trmcHrsm;rSaeI tm%modrf;&ef jyifqifae onfqkdaomowif;onf vrsm;pGmuyif aumv[v tjzpf&SdaecJhaoma=umifhjzpfavonf? ,cktcg xkd ajcmuftdyfrufrsm;onf tppftrSeftjzpf ay:xGufvmav+yD? vGefcJhaom (5) ESpfcef@u qkdAD,ufjynfolrsm; tm; ay;xm;cJhonf touf&SLcsdefav;onf ,cktcg aoewfajymif;0wGif jyefvnf&kwfodrf;cH&rnfhtajctae okd@ a&muf&Sdaeav+yD?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

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rnfokd@yifqkdapumrl tm%modrf;tkyfpkacgif;aqmifrsm;rS trdef@/ !ïef=um;csufrsm;ukd xkwfjyefxm; aomfvnf;/ r=umrDyif jynfolvlxkonf trdef@zDqef=uawmhonf? xkduJhokd@ yxrOD;qkH; pwifzDqefolrSm a*:bmacsmAfhyifjzpfavonf? olonf ol. EkdifiHawmf ta&;ay:tajctae twnfðycsufukd ay;&ef jiif;qkdvkduf aomtcg ‚if;. aEG&moDtyef;ajzpHtdrYf yifv#if tusOf;om;tjzpf xdefodrf;xm;jcif;cH&onf? &k&Sjynfaxmifpk .orwtjzpfa&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufjcif;cH&onfh abm&pf,Jvfqif (Boris Yeltsin) ukdrl tvGefvG,fulpGm zrf;qD;I r&cJhacs? ol@tm; zrf;qD;&efapv$wfvkdufonfh au*sDbD (KGB) t&m&Sdrsm;. vufrSaeI vGwfajrmuf atmif óud;pm;+yD;/ ,Jvfqifonf ‚if;. tpkd;&ÏmecsKyf&Sd&m tdrfjzLawmfokd@ ajy;avawmhonf? rGef;wnfhcsdefwGif olonf tjyifwGif&yfxm;onfh wifhum;wpD;. xdyfay:okd@wufI “&k&Sjynfolvlxktaygif;okd@” [lI ‚if;. ukd,fwkdifa&; yef=um;v$mukd zwf=um;avawmhonf? yef=um;v$mwGif tm%modrf;tkyfpk. tðytrlrsm; tm;vkH;onf w&m;r0ifa=umif; a=unm+yD;jynfvkH;u|wf taxGaxG oydwfwkdufyGJ}uD;ukd az:aqmif&ef wkdufwGef;xm;avonf? xkd@aemuf olonf a&'D,kdrSaeI jynfol@ppfom;rsm;tm; “,ckuJhokd@ tvGefta&;}uD; onfh tqkH;tjzwfay;&rnfhtcsdefY/ oifwkd@onf oifwkd@. jynfolvlxkxHwGif qkdxm;onfh uwdopPmrsm;ukd rarh=uukefvifh/ oifwkd@.aoewfrsm;ukd jynfol@zufokd@ ajymif;rvSnfhoifhay/ &k&SvlrsKd;wkd@. *k%f,lzG,f&m Tvufeufrsm;wGif jynfolvlxk. aoG;jzifh rzkH;v$rf;apoifhay tp&Sdonfjzifh” owday;E_d;aqmfxm;onf? ‚if;. vkyfaqmifr_rsm;ESifh ajymqkdcsufrsm;jzifh ,Jvfqifonf jynfolwkd@tm; tm%modrf;r_udk tHwk&ef wkdufwGef;avonf? rGef;vGJcsdefwGifrl armfpukdòrd@om;rsm;onf ,Jvfqif. ajratmufrD;&xm;&kHwGif yef=um;csufukd rdwˆLrsm;ul;I ukdifaqmif+yD; u&ifrvifwHwkdif;tjyifzufwiG f qENjyyGJi,fwckukd usif;y ae=uavonf? rsm;r=umrDwGif trsKd;om;/ trsKd;orD;rsm;onf tdrfjzLawmfokd@pk&kH;a&muf&Sdvm=u+yD; aqmufvkyfa&; ypPnf;rsm;/ w,fvDzkef;&kHrsm; tp&Sdonfh vufjzifho,f,l&&SdonfhypPnf;rSefor#wkd@jzifh tdrfjzLawmfukd um&Hxm;onfh twm;tqD;wckukd wnfaqmufvkduf=uavonf? tiSg;um;armif;olrsm;rS vnf; twm;tqD;wHwkdif;tm; tiftm;jznfhonfhtaejzifh ‚if;wkd. um;rsm;ukdvSL'gef;=uavonf? wifhum;wef;}uD;wckonf uvDeif y&kdpyuf (Kalinin Prospekt) vrf;twkdif; tdrfjzLawmfqDokd@ OD;wnfI qlnHpGmjzifh w*sKef;*sKef;armif;ESifvmpOfwGif vlxkonf vrf;ukdjzwfI vlom;wHwkdif; tjzpfzefwD;um ydwfqdk@wm;qD;xm; vkdufavonf? xkd@aemuf ppfom;rsm;tm; “vlxkESifhtwl&Sdyg” “ukd,fhjynfolukd jyefrypfeJ@” [lI atmf[pfaºuG;a=umf=uavonf? tbkd;tkdwa,mufonf “ig[m b0wav#mufvkH; tvkyfvkyfcJhw,f/ rif;wkd@=unhfprf;/ ighb0wwav#mufvkH; a[m'D wyfrawmftwGuf ay;qyfcJhw,f/ tck rif;wkd@u igwkd@udk qef@usif+yD;awmh ypfrvkd@vkyfaew,f” [lI atmf[pfavonf? tacstwifjzpfyGg;r_onf tcsdeftenf;i,f =umvmaomtcg wifhum;ay:rS trdef@ay;t&m&Sdonf tif*sifpufydwfvkdufavonf/ ,mOfwef;wGif;&Sd tjcm;aom wifhum;rsm;onfvnf; tif*sifpufrsm;udk ydwfvkduf=uavonf? jynfolwkd@onf wifhum;rsm; tm;vkH;ay:okd@ wufum wifhum;twGif;&Sd ppfom;rsm;xHokd@ csKdcsOfo=um;vkH;rsm;/ aygifrkef@rsm;ESifh Ekd@rsm;ukd ay;a0 au|;arG;=uavonf? AkdvfrSL;tDAf'kduDarmhAfESifh ol@wyfcGJonf tdrfjzLawmf nmzuf&Sd uvDeifpuD; (Kalininskii) wHwm;teD;okd@ a&muf&Sdvmaomtcg tm%modrf;r_twGuf vlxkrSaeI twm;tqD;rsm; ðyvkyfxm;onfukd awG@&Sd&avonf? qENjyoltcsKd@onf ‚if;wkd@tm; zufqpfrsm;[lIvnf;aumif;/ trsKd;rsKd; atmf[pfusdefqJ ae=uavonf? xkdtxJwGif AkdvfrSL;ESifh odu|rf;olwa,mufvnf;yg0ifI AkdvfrSL;tm; ,Jvfqif .bufokd@ ajymif;vm&ef pnf;&kH;aeavonf? ppfr_xrf;ouf (36) ESpf&Sd+yDjzpfaom wyfrawmft&m&Sdonf rdrdbmvkyf& rnfukd ra0cGJEkdifyJjzpfaeavonf? trdef@ukd zDvmqef@usifðy&efrSm tvG,fwuljzifh csifhcsdefpOf;pm;I &aomt&m r[kwfay? okd@aomf òrd@wGif;okd@0ifvmpOf vrf;wav#mufY olonf vufeufrJht&yfom;rsm;ukd wkdufckdufjcif; ðyvdrfhrnfr[kwf[k ukd,fhukdukd,f qkH;jzwfxm;cJhavonf? “usaemfh trdef@&xm;w,f/ 'ga=umifh usaemf'DrSmyJaeawmhr,f/ okd@aomf usaemfwkd@ rnfol@ukdr# ypfcwfjcif;/ wifhum;jzifh eif;acsjcif;ðyrnfr[kwfyg/ usaemf uwday;ygw,f” [lI a=unmvkdufavonf? tDAf'dkuDarmhAf ESifh ol@&Jabmfrsm;onf em&Dtawmf=um xkdae&mwGif &yfwef@ae=uavonf? n (7) em&Dcef@wGif &k&Sv$wfawmfrS ukd,fpm;vS,fwa,mufay:xGufvm+yD;/ 'k-orw tvufZENm; &kpuGdKifESifh vma&mufawG@qkH ajymqkd&eftwGuf AkdvfrSL;tm; ajymqkdavonf? 'k-orw tvufZENm; &kpuGdKifonf tmz*efepPwefppfjyef ppfr_xrf;a[mif;wOD;jzpf+yD;/ tdrfjzLawmftm; umuG,f&eftwGuf pnf;&kH;aeoljzpfonf? &kpuGdKifonf AdkvfrSL;tm;

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

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a*:bmacsmAfh zrf;qD;xdef;odrf;cH&jcif;ESifh tm%modrf;r_tm; zDqeftmcH&ef ,Jvfqif. a=unmcsuf wkd@ta=umif;udk ajymjyavonf? xkd@aemuf tdrfjzLawmftm; umuG,f&mwGif tultnDay;&ef awmif;qkdavonf? “usaemfwkd@ ulnDygr,f/ usaemfukd trdef@omay;yg” [k tDAf'kduDarmhAfrS jyefajzvkduf avonf? xkd@aemuf tDAf'kduDarmhAfonf wyfcGJ&Sd&mokd@jyefoGm;+yD; wifhum;rsm;tm; OD;pD;vkdufonf? ,cktcg qkdAD,uf wl/ wHpOf tvHawmfukd rukdifaqmifyJ &k&SokH;a&mifjc,ftvHawmfukd v$ifhxlum tdrfjzLawmfukd axmufcH aumif;csD;ay;ae =uonfhvlxkESifh yl;aygif;vkdufavonf? owif;pmq&mtawmfrsm;rsm;uvnf; tnhHcH t&_H;ay;&efukd jiif;qkd=uavonf? wevFmae@ naewGif tm%modrf;tzGJ@onf ‚if;wkd@. yxrqkH;t}udrf (aemufqkH;vnf;jzpfonfh) owif;pm&Sif;vif;yGJukd ðyvkyfavonf? vli,f owif;axmufwa,mufjzpfonfh wwfwDtm;em; rJvfuDem; (Tatiana Malkina) onf ar;cGef;wckESifhtwl olr.vufwzufukd ajr‡mufvkduf+yD;/ tm%modrf;ppfbuft&m&Sdwkd@ zkH;uG,f&ef óud;yrf;aeonfh w&m;0ifr_Oya'rsufESmzkH;v$mukd zsufqD;ypfvkdufavonf? olrrS “rae@nu tm%modrf;r_ vkyfief;eJ@ ywfouf+yD; &SifhtaeeJ@odvsufeJ@ vkyfvkdufwmvm;/ rodyJeJ@vkyfrdoGm;wmvm;qkdwm aus;Zl;ðyI ajymjyEkdifrvm;&Sif” [kar;vkdufygonf? xkdnwGif wwkdif;jynfvkH;onf armfpukdòrd@rS twm;tqD; tydwftqkd@ rsm;ta=umif;ESifh ,Jvfqif. wifhum;ay:rS yef=um;v$mESifh w&m;0if owif;tpDtpOfrS (5) rdepf=um tpD&ifcH pmwkd@ukd=um;ae=u&avonf? ydwfyifcHxm;&onfh owif;pmrsm;onf &&So d nfhowif;rsm;ukd v_yf&Sm;olrsm; xHokd@zufpfjzifh tpD&ifcHykd@ay;+yD; xkdolrsm;rSaeI vrf;rsm;ay:wGif vkdufvHjzef@a0=uonf? tm%modrf;&ef}uHpnfolrsm;onf vufeuftiftm;wpkHw&mukd jyovkdufygu twkduftcH ðyvkyfrnfholrsm;ukd acsmufjcm;oGm;aprnf[k ar#mfvifhcJh=uonf? trSefwu,fwGifrl armfpukd ESifh vDeif*&uf&Sd jynfoltrsm;pkonfyifv#if/ wkH%Sdbma0 qdwfqdwfyifae ae=u+yD; ‚if;wkd@ESifhrqkdifovkdyif edpP"l0tvkyfrsm;ukd qufvufvkyfukdifaeI/ tm;vyf&ufrsm;ukdvnf; cHpm;ae=u+yD;/ owif;ESifhywfoufI pdwf0ifpm;r_ tenf;i,f om &SdcJh=uavonf? ,Jvfqif. jynfvkH;u|wfoydwfwkdufyGJ az:aqmif&ef ac:,lr_rSm wkef@jyefr_ tenf;i,fom &&SdcJhavonf? okd@aomftjcm;aomòrd@}uD;rsm;rSmuJhokd@ ckcHzDqefr_rsm; jzpfyGg;ay:aygufvmonfhtwkdif; vkHavmuf aom vlOD;a&yrm%onf tdrfjzLawmfokd@a&muf&SdvmcJh=uavonf? xkd@a=umifh tm%modrf;ppfAkdvfwpkrSm vkdtyfaom oabmwlnDr_ukd jiif;y,fcHcJh&avonf? vufurf;pmapmifrsm;jzef@a0jcif;/ vlxkqENjyyGJrsm; vkyfaqmifjcif;/ twm;tqD;tydwftqkd@rsm; wnfaqmuf=ujcif;/ wifhum;abmf'D eH&Hrsm; ay:wGif a&;jcpf oGm;jcif;/ wkd@jzifh xkd omreft&yfom;jynfolrsm;onf +cdrf;ajcmufr_rsm;ukd ra=umuf&GH@a=umif; jyo=uonf? t*Fgae@wGif jynfol wodef;cef@wkd@onf tdrfjzLawmf&Sd vlxkpnf;a0;yGJokd@ oGm;a&muf&eftxd &J0HhvmcJh =uonf? xkdrSaeI ppfonftiftm;pkrsm;rSmvnf; taqmuftOD;ywfvnfwGifum&Hxm;onfht&Htwm;wGif ykdrkd yg0ifvmcJh=uonf? ayAJvf *&macsmhAf (Pavel Grachev) ESifh tvufZENm vD;bwf (Aleksandr Lebed) uJhokd@aom t}uD;wef;ppfbuft&m&Sdrsm;onfvnf; ,Jvfqiftay: ‚if;wkd@. axmufcHr_ukd a=unmcJh=uonf? xkd@jyif au*sDbD (KGB) xdyfwef;t&m&Sdrsm;onfyifv#if aoG;acsmif;pD;r_xJwGif ‚if;wkd@ yg0ifywfoufvdrfhrnf r[kwfa=umif;ukd twdtvif;&Sif;vif;cJhavonf? aemufqkH;wGif tm%modrf; ppfzuftkyfpkonf t*Fgae@ntwGuf jyifqifxm;onfh wkdufckdufr_ukd trdef@ay;jcif; rðyvkyfEkdifawmhacs? Ak'<[l;ae@tapmykdif;wGifrl tm%modrf;tzGJ@onf òyduGJoGm;avonf? tpkd;&rS jynfolvlxk. qENukd a&mifjyef[yf&eftwGuf &k&SvlrsKd;wkd@. &Snfvsm;vSaom &kef;uefóud;yrf;r_rsm;twGif;Y/ (1991) ckESpf/ =o*kwfvwGif vrf;rsm;ay:okd@wufvm=uaom trsKd;om;/ trsKd;orD;rsm;onf orkdif;pmrsufESm tcef;opfukd a&;om;cJh=ujcif;jzpfavonf? ‚if;wkd@txJrS trsm;pkonf xkdatmifjrifr_ta=umif;ukd od&Sd=urnf r[kwfaomfvnf;/ olwkd@onf t&yfom; tpnf;twm;rsm;ukd armfpukdòrd@v,fwGif [ef@wm;ðyvkyfonfh/ tºuGif;rJhtm%m&Sifwkd@ESifh twkduftcHðyonfh yxrqkH;aom &k&Sm;vlrsKd;rsm;awmhr[kwfacs? vGefcJhaomtESpf (80) ausmfu/ ,ck tdrfjzLawmfwnf&Sdaeonfhae&mESifh rvSrf;rurf;tuGmta0;wGifyif 'kwd,ajrmuf Zmbk&if eDukdvufpf (Tsar Nicholas II) ukd ukdifv_yfcJhonfh xif&Sm;ausmf=um;onfh wESpf=umtkHºuGqENjyr_udk qifE$JcJh=uao;onf? (1905) ckESpf 'DZifbmvwGif 'kwd, ajrmuf eDukdvufpf Zmbk&ifukd qef@usifcJh=uonfh axmifaygif;rsm;pGmaom armfpukdòrd@ol/ òrd@om;rsm;onf tqkdygae&mwGif vufeufukdifppfom;rsm;ESifh &ifqkdifcJh=u&avonf? okd@aomf olwkd@onf aoewfrsm;ukd a0Sh&rf;=uaomtcg/ ppfom;rsm;onf ‚if;wkd@tm; tpkvkduftòyHvkdufowfjzwf ypfvkduf=uavonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

13


xkdtpkvkduftòyHvkdufowfjzwfjcif;onf &k&SekdifiH. yxrOD;qkH;aom 'Drkdua&pDawmfvSefa&;udk pwifvkdufjcif; jzpfavonf? xkdtjzpftysuf rwkdifrDtxd &k&SekdifiHonf tajccHvl@tcGifhta&;rsm;&&Sd&eftwGuf &mpkESpf. yxrOD;qkH;aom t=urf;rzufenf;vrf;ukdtokH;ðyaeonfh tcif;jzpfyGg;&mae&mjzpfonf? okd@aomf w&uf=um t=urf;zufr_onf ‚if;&uf&Snf=umaqmif&GufcJhaom t=urf;rzufr_vkyfief;udk tqkH;owfapcJhonf?

“aoG;pGef;aom we*FaEG”

“bkef;awmf}uD;ESifh tvkyform;rsm;” (1905) ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dv. at;jrI =unfvifaom aumif;uif&Sdonhf we*FaEGwae@/ pdef@yDwmpbwf (St. Petersburg) òrd@awmf. òrd@jyif pufr_{&d,mZkH wae&mwGif/ qHyift&SnfESifh i,f&G,faom b&if*sD bkef;awmf}uD; wa,mufonf axmifaygif;rsm;pGm&Sdaom puf&kHtvkyform;rsm;.a&S@wGif rwfwyf&yfvsuf &Sdaeavonf? bkef;awmf}uD; a*smf*Ds a*yGef (Father Georgii Gapon) onf puf&kH tvkyform;rsm;tm; qkawif;ywˆmem&Gwfqkday;aeonf? xkd@aemuf ta,mufpDwkdif;tm; ‚if;wkd@wGif vufeufyg&Sd/ r&Sdar;jref; avonf? ta,mufpDwkdif;rS ryg&Sdyg[laom tajzukd&&SdoGm;aomtcg olonf oabmus auseyfoGm;+yD; “aumif;w,f/ Zmbk&ifqDukd bmvufeufrS rygyJ usaemfwkd@oGm;=ur,f” [k qufajymvkdufavonf? ae@vnf (11) em&Dxkd;+yD; rdepftenf;i,fpGef;aomtcg vltyk f}uD;onf òrd@v,facgifokd@ pwifxGufcGmvmcJhavonf? pwifxu G cf mG vmonfEiS hf "rRaw;oDcsi;f rsm;ukd oDqkdvm=uavonf? csDwufolrsm;. a&S@qkH;wef;wGif vuf0g; uyfwkdifwck/ olawmfpifwkd@. ykHawmfrsm;/ tkyfpkd;ol bk&ifrsm;. &kyfykHum;csyfrsm;ukd o,faqmifvm+yD;/ csDwufezl;pnf;pmwrf;rSm “ppfom;wkd@ - jynfolrsm;tm; rypf=uESifh”[lI a&;om;xm;avonf? olwkd@. OD;wnf&mt&yfum; awmf0ifrdom;pk aexkdifonfh aqmif;&moDeef;awmfyifjzpfavonf? xkdaqmif;&moD eef;awmfwGif òrd@. tjcm;aom ae&mrSaeI csDwwfvmonfh vlxk}uD;ESifh awG@qkHaygif;pnf;=urnfjzpf+yD;/ pkpkaygif; tiftm;wodef;ausmfoGm;rnf jzpfavonf? xkd@aemuf &k&Stifykdif,m òrd@awmf. ESvkH;om;jzpfonfh eef;awmf.a&S@&Sd *E<0ifqefpGm tcsKd;tpm;usus wnfaqmufxm;onfh &ifjyifawmfwGif bk&if eDukdvufpf (2) tm; toem;cHv$mwckukd wifoGif;=urnfjzpfonf? olwkd@o,faqmifvmonfh toem;cHv$monf “tvGef&kdusKd;ESdrfhcspGmESifh t&Sifhtay: opPm&Sdv#uf” [lI acgif;pnf;wyfxm;+yD;/ toem;cHv$mukd bkef;awmf}uD; a*yGefrS a&;om;xm;jcif;jzpfavonf? toem; cHv$mwGif “pdef@yDwmpbwfòrd@wGif aexkdif=uonfh u|efawmfrsKd; tvkyform;rsm;onf” [lI ESifhtpcsDxm;+yD; “æ æ tkd - t&Sif/ w&m;r#wr_ESifh umuG,fapmifha&Smufr_&&Sd&eftvkd@iSg/ t&SifhxHawmfokd@ vm&ygonf? u|efawmfrsKd;wkd@onf tvGefyifqif;&Jacgif;yg;=uygonf/ u|efawmfwkd@onf tzdESdyfcHae=u&ygonf/ u|efawmfwkd@ onf rEkdif0efrsm;ukd xrf;&Gufae=u&ygonf? t&Sif. tultnDukd t&Sifhjynfom;rsm;. a0;&mokd@ OD;vSnfh roGm;ygapvifh/ xkdolwkd@tm; olwkd@. tem*wfukd qkH;jzwfykdifcGifh ay;oem;awmfrlyg/ olwkd@tm; t&m&Sdqkd;rsm;. qkd;&Gm;vSaom zdESdyfr_rsm;rS vGwfajrmufay;oem;awmfrlyg/ t&Sifhtm; t&Sifhjynfom;rsm;ESifh cGJjcm;xm;onfh tqkdyg wHwkdif;tm; t+yD;wkdif òzdvSJcsawmfrl+yD;/ wkdif;jynftm; jynfom;wkd@ESifhtwl tkyfcsKyfawmfrlyg æ æ” [lI yg&Sdavonf? a*yGef. aemufvkdufrsm;rSm olwkd@. tkyfpkd;oltm; awmfvSefykefuefonhf ykHpHrsKd;jzifhr[kwfbJ/ toem;cH av#mufxm;onfh ykHpHrsKd;jzifh csOf;uyf=uavonf? toem;cHv$mwGif w'gZifausmfaom awmif;qkdr_rsm; yg&Sd avonf? tedrfhqkH; vkyftm;cowfrSwfay;jcif;/ wae@tvkyfcsdef (8) em&D owfrSwfay;jcif; ponfwkd@yg0ifonhf tjyif tifykdif,mtwGif;&Sd ta,mufpDwkdif;ESifhqkdifaom EkdifiHa&;ESifhywfoufonfh awmif;qkdr_vnf; yg0ifav onf? xkdawmif;qkdr_wGif vGwfvyfpGm ajymqkdcGifh/ vGwfvyfpGm a&;om;xkwfa0cGifh/ vGwfvyfpGm ukd;uG,fcGifhESifh vGwfvyfpGm toif;tyif;pnf;&kH;zGJ@pnf;cGifh wkd@tjyif/ EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm; tm;vkH;v$wfay;a&;ESifh w&m;Oya'a&S@arSmufwGif vlom;tm;vkH; nDr#a&;wkd@vnf; yg0ifavonf? ta&;t}uD;qkH;tcsufrSm t&G,fa&mufolrsm;rS xnfh0ifxm;onfh qENrJrsm;ESifh a&G;aumufwifajr‡muf vkdufonfh ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;rSaeI zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'a&;qGJa&; nDvmcHukdac:ay; &efyifjzpfonf? “,if;onf u|efawmfwkd@. t"duusonfh awmif;qkdr_yifjzpfonf/ tjcm;aomtcsufrsm; tm;vkH;onf xkdtcsufay:wGif rlwnfaeavonf?” toem;cHv$mwGif ckdifckdifrmrmawmif;qkdxm;avonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

14


tusKd;oufa&mufr_taejzifh/ csDwufolrsm;onf &k&Sorkdif;wckvkH;ukd zsufodrf;ypf&ef Zmbk&iftm; awmif;qkdxm;jcif;jzpfonf? (1905) ckESpfwkdifatmif tm%mwGif&Sdaeonfh &k&Stifykdif,m. zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccH Oya'rsm; tykd'f (1) wGif jywfom;pGmaz:jyxm;avonf - “bk&if{u&mZfonf &k&SvlrsKd;rsm; tm;vkH;tay:wGif tºuGif;rJh oufOD;qHykdiftm%m&Sifjzpfonf?” Zmbk&if rif;aumif;wa,mufonf jynfoljynfom;rsm;ESifh ESD;aESm wkdifyifI jynfolwkd@.tusKd;ukd bk&if. ESvkH;om;wGif xnfhoGif;xm;rnf jzpfaomfvnf;/ tm%mukdrlum; jynfoljynfom; wkd@ESifhtwl cGJa0,lrnfr[kwfacs/ (okd@r[kwf) bk&if.qENukd y"merxm;yJ jynfol vGwfvyfcGifhrsm;jzifh abmifuef@xm;vkdufjcif;? ol.EkdifiHom;rsm;onf ta&;t&mrsm; tm;vkH;wGif EkdifiHawmf. 0ifa&mufcs,fvS,fjcif;ukd cHae&avonf/ owif;pmESifh *sme,fpmapmifrsm;wGif a&;om;xm;onfrsm;ukd wm;qD;ydwfyifjcif;/ bk&ifcHonf rnfol wOD;wa,mufukdrqkd &kH;wifppfaq;jcif;rðyyJ zrf;qD;xdef;odrf;xm; EkdifcGifh&Sdjcif;ESifh vlr_a&;toif;tzGJ@ r#avmufukdom cGifhðyxm;jcif; wkd@jzpfonf? tusOf;csKyftm;jzifh oufOD;qHykdif qkdonfrSm rnfonfhtcGifhta&;r# r&Sdjcif;yifjzpfonf? xkdpepftay: Zmbk&if. cspfjrwfEkd;r_onf yk*~dKvfa&;tm%myg0gykdifqkdvkdr_ qENwckxufykdavonf? olonf bk&m;ocifuay;tyfaom tcGifhtm%m&Sdoltjzpf,kH=unfaeonf? ,if;onfAvma[mif;avmif; jzpfum xkH;wrf;pOfvmrsm;wGif a&mifjyef[yfaeonf? &k&SEkdifiHwGif pufr_vkyfom;rsm;ESifh t&if;&Sif pD;yGg;a&; vkyfief;&Sifrsm;/ acmwfopfEkdifiHa&;awG;ac:&Sifrsm;ESifh tEkynmv_yf&Sm;r_rsm; &Sdonf? okd@aomf bk&if eDukdvufpf onf ol@ukd,fola&S;acwftaqmifta,mif tqifwefqmrsm;jzifh 0ef;&Hxm;onf? olonf w&m;0ifpm&Guf pmwrf;rsm;wGif a&S;acwfpmvkH;aygif;rsm;ukdom tokH;ðy&ef twif;t=uyfapckdif;cJhonf? olonf txl;0wfpkHrsm; 0wfqifIu&onfh pkHwGJuyGJrsm;ukd usif;yavonf? xkduyGJwGif ta,mufwkdif;onf tESpf (200) oufwrf; &Sdonfh ykHpHwl txl;0wfpkHrsm;ukd 0wfqifI u=u&onf? ol. tcsdefrsm;ukd pdef@yDwmpbwfòrd@awmfxuf armfpukdwGif ukefqkH;&onfrsm;ukd ykdrkdESpfoufonf? pdef@yDwmpbwf òrd@awmfonf Oa&myykHpH ykdIqef+yD;/ xkxnf}uD;rm;aom ausmufwkH;rsm;jzifh wnfaqmufxm;onfh ykdrkd opfvGifonfh eef;awmfxuf &kd;&mAdokumykHpH opfom;taqmufttkHrsm;ESifh auG@ywfIoGm;&aomvrf;rsm;&Sdonfh armfpukdòrd@wGif aexkdif &onfukd ykdrdkESpfoufonf? vufawG@ trSefwu,f r[kwfaomfvnf;bJ ‚if;. pdwful;xJwGif eDukdvufpfonf jynfom;rsm;. a&S@wGif zcifwa,mufu ‚if;. om;orD;rsm;.a&S@wGif rwfwyf&yfouJhokd@/ tjyeftvSefcspfcifpkHrufr_rsm;ESifh bk&m;ocif. 0wW&m; todpdwfwkd@jzifh csnfaESmifxm;onfh ykHpHrsKd;jzifh rwfwyf&yfwwfavonf? okd@aomf tcsKd@aom &k&Srsm;onf xkduJhokd@ pdwful;,Ofr_rsKd;ukd z,f&Sm;&Sif;vif;ypfcsif=uavonf? ynmwwfvlwef;pm; trsm;pkonf &mpkESpfwck. usefaomtykdif;ukd ykdrdkaumif;rGefaom tpdwftykdif; jzpfvmap&eftwGuf EkdifiHa&;ðyjyifajymif;vJr_ðyvkyf&ef iwfrGwfawmifhwae=uavonf? (1825) ckESpfwGif ppfwyft&m&Sdrsm;rSaeI ykefuefr_wckk pwifjcif;ESifhtwl/ tkyfpki,fav;rsm;onf wkdif;jynftm; tºuGif;rJh oufOD;qHykdif bk&ifpepfrSaeI vGwfajrmuf&ef tcgtm;avsmfpGm }uHpnftm;xkwfae=uavonf? “jynfol@qEN” [laom tkyfpkonf Zmbk&iftm; (1881) ckESpfwGif Zmbk&if tvufZENm; (2) tm; vkyf}uHowfjzwf&ef pDrHcJhzl;onf? (eDukdvufpf 13 ESpfom;t&G,fu ol. tzkd;aoqkH;jcif;ukd awG@jrifcJh&avonf)? qkd&S,fvpf awmfvSefa&;orm; (SR - socialist Revolutionary) ygwDrS “wkdufyGJtzGJ@tpnf;” “Battle Organization” [ktrnf&onfh t=urf;zuftkyfpkopfwckonf &mpkESpfajymif;vJt+yD;wGif wufºuGaom tkyfpkwckjzpfvm cJhavonf? tjcm;aom awmfvSefa&;0g'Drsm;onf t=urf;zuf0g'udk qef@usif=u+yD;/ xkdvrf;pOftpm; a&yef;pm; onfh vlxktkHºuGr_rsm; ðyvkyf&eftwGuf v,form;rsm; (okd@r[kwf) tvkyform;rsm;tm; pnf;&kH;jcif;ukd óud;yrf;vkd=uonf? vli,ftrsm;pkrSm rmufhpf0g'Drsm;. tawG;tac:rsm;ukd pdwf0ifpm;ae=u+yD;/ qkd&S,fvpfrsm;rSm pdef@yDwmpbwf/ armfpukdESifh tjcm;aomòrd@rsm;wGif (1890) vGefESpfrsm;rS pwifI tvkyform;rsm; t=um;wGif pnf;&kH;v_H@aqmfv#uf&Sdae=uavonf? tjcm;aomolrsm;rSm tpkd;&tm; rdrdzmom ðyjyifajymif;vJr_vkyf&ef twGuf pnf;&kH;jcif;zufokd@ tm;oefv#ufyif &Sdae=uayao;onf? &mpkESpfopf. yxrESpfrsm;twGif;Y ajrykdif&Sifrsm;/ twwfynm&Sifrsm;ESifh todynm&Sifrsm;t=um;wGif vpfb&,fv_yf&Sm;r_wck ay:aygufvmcJhonf? xkdolrsm;onf zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'a&;qGJ&eftwGuf ac:,l&efESifh jynfol@ukd,fpm;ðy tpkd;&ukdykHpHwrsKd;jzifh zGJ@pnf;&eftwGuf vlxktpnf;ta0;yGJrsm;ESifh xkwfa0jzef@csdjcif;rsm;ukd/ Oya'wGif;/ Oya'yenf;vrf;ESpfrsKd;pvkH; jzifh tokH;ðyae=uonf? xkd@a=umifh bkef;awmf}uD; a*yGef. toem;cHv$mwGifygaom vGwfvyfaom or*~rsm;/ jynfol@vGwfvyf cGifhrsm;/ 'Drkdua&pD awmif;qkdcsufrsm; ponfwkd@onf ‚if;rwkdifrD awmfvSefa&;orm;rsm;ESifh vpfb&,ftkyfpk rsm;.

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

15


awmif;qkdcsufrsm;wGif tm;vkH;yg&Sd+yD;jzpfaeavonf? a*yGef. toem;cHv$mwGif róuHpzl; xl;jcm;onfrSm &maxmifaygif;rsm;pGmaom vlwkd@onf vrf;rsm;ay:okd@xu G fvmI tqdkyg toem;cHv$mtay: axmufcHa=umif; ukd jyojcif;jzpfonf? oufOD;qHykdifya'o&mZfpepftqkH;owfap&eftwGuf yxrOD;qkH;t}udrf awmif;qkdr_ tjzpf ynmwwft0ef;t0kdif;twGif;rS r[kwfyJ/ a&S@ajy; vlxkv_yf&Sm;r_wcktwGif;rS ay:xGufvmjcif;jzpfonf? jzpfcsif awmh xkdv_yf&Sm;r_onfvnf; EkdifiHawmf. rl0g'q&m}uD;rsm;. ulnDr_jzifh jzpfvmjcif;jzpfonf? xkdv_yf&Sm;r_twGuf rl0g'a&;&m csrSwfolrsm;twGif;rS wa,mufrSm armfpukd&Sd EkdifiHa&;qkdif&m &JÏmerS t}uD;tuJ qm*D ZlbmawmhAf (Sergei Zubatov) jzpfonf? ZlbmawmhAfonf w}udrfu awmfvSefa&;orm; rsm;ESifh tquftqH&SdcJh+yD;aemuf/ ykvdyfolv#Kd wa,mufvnf;jzpfcJhonf? olonf tvkyform;rsm;. opPmawmfcHr_&&Sda&;wkdufyGJY EkdifiHawmfonf awmfvSefa&;orm;rsm;ukd &_H;edrfhcJhvdrfhrnf qkdonfukd od&Sd a=umuf&GH@ aecJhavonf? olonf xdyfwef;t&m&Sdrsm;twGif;Y a&yef;pm;aeaom rdrdzmomauseyf ESpfodrfhtm;&r_ b0ifjrifha&m*gjzpfonfh &k&Stvkyform;trsm;pkonf v,form;rdom;pkrsm;rS vmolrsm; jzpf=uojzifh olwkd@wGif aus;vufa'oY trsm;qkH;awG@&onfh a&S&kd;pGJt,ltqrsm; xif[yfaernf[laom tjrifonf xkdxdyfwef;t&m&Sdrsm;twGif;Y jzpfay:aepOfuwnf;u qef@usiw f kdufckdufcJhavonf? pdef@yDwmpbwfòrd@&Sd qENjyyGJrsm;ESifh xkdqENjyyGJrsm;udk rmhufpf0g'Drsm;rSaeI yg0ifywfoufpnf;&kH;v_H@aqmfaer_rsm;onf xkdb0ifjrifh a&m*gukd òydvJap+yD;/ ZlbmawmhAftm; qef;opfaom pDrHudef;wckukd azmfaqmif&ef wGef;ykd@ay;cJhavonf? tvkyform;rsm;wGif trSefwu,f rauseyfr_rsm;&Sdae+yD;/ olwkd@. opPmcHr_onfvnf; EkdifiHawmfonf olwkd@. &efolr[kwf[k ,kH=unfaeor#umvywfr#om &Snf=umvdrfhrnf[laom t,ltqtay:wGif olonf ol.txuft&m&Sdrsm;ESifh tajctwifjiif;ckHcJhavonf? òrd@}uD;tawmfrsm;rsm;wGif EkdifiHawmfrSaeI uruxðyonfh ykvdyfÏme. }uD;=uyfr_atmufY tvkyform;rsm;twGif; tjyeftvSef ulnDr_ vl@tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;&Sdonf/ xkdtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;onf jynfxJa&;0ef}uD;ÏmerSjzpf+yD; ZlbmawmhAf. tjrifukd oufaotaxmuftxm;ay;cJhjcif;jzifh tEkdif&&SdcJhonf? ykdrkdaumif;rGefawmufyaom tem*wfukd awmfvSefa&; orm;rsm;rS r[kwfyJ EkdifiHawmfuomv#if tvkyform;rsm;ukd OD;aqmifcJhvdrfhrnf? ZlbmawmhAf. enf;AsL[m aygufuGJawmhrnfukd oufaojycJhavonf? ol. toif;tzGJ@rsm;onf tvkyform;rsm;ESifh tvkyf&Sifrsm;. jiif;ckHr_rsm;t=um;wGif 0ifa&mufywfouf+idwG,fvmcJh+yD;aemuf/ ae&mtawmfrsm;rsm;wGif qENjyyGJrsm;ðyvkyf&ef trSefwu,fyif pnf;&kH;cJhavonf? emusnf;a'gojzpfaeaom tvkyf&Sifrsm;onf jynfxJa&;0ef}uD; AD au yavAD (V. K. Plehve) ukd cg;cg;oD;oD; rausreyfajymqkdvm=u avonf? AD au yavADonf (1902) ckESpfaESmif;ykdif;wGif ZlbmawmhAfudk pdef@yDwmpbwfokd@ ajymif;a&ï@cJhol jzpfonf? okd@aomf ZlbmawmhAfonf wm;qD;I &aom olwa,mufr[kwfay? olonf pufr_vkyfief;rsm; twGif;&Sd tvkyform;rsm;. pdef@yDwmpbwf tjyeftvSefulnDa&;tzGJ@tpnf; [ktrnf&onfh tzGJ@tpnf; opfukd òrd@awmfwGif xlaxmifcJhonf? xkdtzGJ@tpnf;opfukd pdwf0ifpm;cJhaom vli,fwa,mufrSm touf (28) ESpft&G,f&Sd tvkyform; wa,mufjzpf+yD; ‚if;. trnfrSm tef trf Amema&S@Af (N. M. Varnashev) jzpfonf? olonf touf (12) ESpft&G,fuwnf;uyif òrd@wòrd@&Sd puf&kHrsm;wGif tvkyfvkyfaecJholjzpfonf? xkdòrd@onf vGefcJhonfh q,fpkESpf twGif;Y aus;vufa'orS a&ï@ajymif;tvkyform;rsm;ESihf jynfhESufaecJhonfh òrd@jzpf+yD;/ xkda&ï@ajymif;tvkyform; rsm;rSm olwkd@ xGefwkH;rsm;ukd pGef@ypfcJh=u+yD; puf&kH ud&d,mwefqmyvmrsm;ukd ukdifaqmif&efvmcJh=uolrsm; jzpfonf? xkdtvkyform;trsm;pkrSm pmwwfonfqkd&kHr#avmufom&Sd=u+yD;/ &kd;pif;aom aus;awmom;rsm;om jzpf=uonf? usOf;ajrmif;onfhwkdufwef;vsm;rsm;ESifh rESpfòrd@p&m qkd;&Gm;aombm;wkdufrsm;twGif;Y ¹yGwfodyf =uyfwnf;pGmaexkdif=u&avonf? xkd@tjyif olwkd@. tusKd;pD;yGg;ukd =unhf&&_ eftwGuf or*~tzGJ@rsm;vnf; r&Sdacs? xkd@a=umifh qENjyyGJrsm;rSm w&m;0ifr_jzpfrvmyJ tvGefyif tEW&m,frsm;avonf? okd@wkdifatmif tcsKd@onf ykdrkdaumif;rGefaomb0tajctae wpkHw&mtwGuf wrf;wcHpm;aerdcJh=uonf? Amema&S@Afonf ol. wGifckHwGif ae@vnfykdif;rsm;Y vkyfukdifae&if; pdwful;,Oftdyfruf&mY olonf ol@ukd,fol Tokd@ “tu,fI rif;taeeJ@ 'DtvkyfðywfoGm;cJh&if aemufxyfwjcm;tvkyfopfwckukd tvG,fwuleJ@ csufjcif;&EkdifrSmr[kwfbl;/ 'gqkd&if rif;twGuf bmawGjzpfvmEkdifrvJ´/ tu,fI rif;taeeJ@ xdckdufemusifr_jzpfcJhv#ifaomfvnf;aumif;/ emrusef;zsm;emjzpfcJh v#ifaomfvnf;aumif;/ touft&G,f}uD;vkd@ tiftm;ukefcrf;cJhv#ifaomfvnf;aumif; rif;twGuf bmawGjzpfvmEkdifrvJ´” ponfjzifh t}udrfrsm;pGm

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

16


ar;=unhfcJhavonf? Amema&S@Afonf ol. vkyfazmfukdifzuf tjcm;aom tvkyform;rsm;uJhokd@ r[kwfbJ ol. b0tajctaeukd pOf;pm;okH;oyf&ef tcsdef,lcJhavonf? olonf pmzwf&ef pdwt f m;xufoefolwOD;jzpf+yD;/ ol@ukd,fol òrd@om;wa,muftjzpf/ wcgw&HwGif òrd@}uD;om;wa,muftjzpf jrifavonf? olonf owˆKqdkif&m udpPrsm;wGif u|rf;usifvkyfom;wa,mufjzpfonfhtwkdif;/ olonf òrd@&Sd vkyftm;ctrsm;qkH;&&Sdolrsm;xJwGif wa,muftygt0if jzpfonf? olonf òrd@&Sd cef@nm;xnf0gaom tdrfeD;csif;rsm;. teD;wGif tcef;rsm;ukd &SmazG&ef pDrHEkdifcJhavonf? olonf pufbD;wpD;[kac:onfh acmwfay:qef;qef;jym;jym;t&mwcktwGufukdyif ol. 0ifaiGxJrSokH;cJh avonf? (1902) ckESpf. aqmif;OD;ayguf&moD ae@wae@wGif/ pufbD;pD;oifaeqJjzpfonfh Amema&S@Afonf ol@oli,fcsif;vnf;jzpf/ ol.wGJzuftvkyform;vnf;jzpfonfh pwDygaemAfh (Stepanov) tdrfokd@ tvnfoGm;&ef pufbD;eif;xGufcJhonf? oli,fcsif;onf eDAmjrpf (Neva River) .wzufwGifaexkdifonf? 'l;acgif;ESifh vufwkd@wGif yGef;yJh'%f&m wcsKd@&&Sd+yD;/ yef;oD;a&mif;olwOD;tm; wkdufrd+yD;aemuf olonf oli,fcsif;aexkdif&m pkaygif;tdrf,mokd@ a&muf&SdoGm;avonf? xkdtdrfwGif olonf uvm'kdADaumhAf (Kladovikov) qkdol vlwa,mufESifh rdwfaqGzGJ@cJhavonf? xkdvlrS ol@tm; tvkyform;rsm;t=um;wGif tjyeftvSefulnDa&; &HykHaiG wckukd zGJ@pnf;&eftwGuf pDrHudef;wckta=umif;ukd ajymjycJhavonf? armfpukdwGif&Sdonfh tvm;wl tzGJ@tpnf;rsKd;yifjzpfonf? xkd@jyif uvm'kdADaumhAfonf ol@tm; vmrnfhtywfwGif usif;yrnfh 'kwd,t}udrf tpnf;ta0;okd@ wufa&muf&efvnf; zdwf=um;cJhonf? xkdao;i,faom yxrtqifhajcvSrf;rSpI Amema&S@Afonf tjcm;axmifaygif;rsm;pGmaom pdef@yDwmpbwf tvkyform;rsm;ESifhtwl/ 'kwd,ajrmuf eDukdvufpf Zmbk&ifESifh yGifhyGifhvif;vif; yËdyuQjzpf&eftwGuf vrf;ray:okd@ pwifa&muf&SdvmcJhavawmhonf? pdef@yDwmpbwf tpnf;t&kH;twGuf ZlbmawmhAf pkaqmif;cJhaomacgif;aqmifrsm;xJrS wOD;rSm a*smf*sD a*yGefyifjzpfonf? a*yGefonf ol@ZeD;aoqkH;+yD;aemuf olaexkdif&m Zmwdc&kdifòrd@rSaeI òrd@awmfokd@ vGefcJhonfh ESpftenf;i,furS ajyif;a&$@vmoljzpfonf? a*yGefonfv,form;rdom;pkrS qif;oufvmoljzpf+yD;/ òrd@wGif olawG@cJh&onfh qif;&Jom;jynfolrsm;tay:wGif tvGefyif oem;*&k%moufcJh+yD; tvkyfrsm;pGmvkyfcJholjzpfonf? usrf;pmausmif;wGif pmoifaepOfumvY rdbrJhuav;rsm;a*[mwGif tvkyfvkyfcJhavonf? òrd@wGif;&Sdqif;&J om;rsm;. t=um;wGif ol. xif&Sm;ausmf=um;vmr_ukd aemufqkH;Y ZlbmawmhAfu pdwf0ifpm;vmcJhavonf? a*yGefonf =oZmwduUrESifhjynfhpkHolwa,mufjzpf+yD;/ &_yfaxG;aom p&kdufvuQ%mrsKd;pkH&Sdol wa,muf vnf;jzpfonf? ol. yk*~dKvfa&;ESpfvkdzG,f&m pGJaqmifr_onf olESifhawG@qkHol vlwkdif;. ,kH=unfr_ukd &&Sd&mwGif rsm;pGm ulnDay;cJhavonf? Zmbk&ifbufom;t&m&Sdrsm;rSonf Zmbk&if qef@usifbufom;rsm;txd yg0ifcJhavonf? ol.w&m;a[majymcsufrsm;onf em;axmifaomolrsm;ukd rsuf&nfrsm;yifusvmapavonf? ol. rsufvkH;onf &$ef;vufawmufyaeavonf? ZlbmawmhAf tzGJ@tpnf;wGif olawG@cJh&aom tvkyform; rsm;tay:wGif =uifem&ufa&mr_jyocJhavonf? xkdtvkyform;rsm;ukd olonf tjcm;aom ynmwwf awmfvSefa&;orm;rsm; qufqHouJhokd@ rwlrwefESdrfhcsonfhoabmrsKd;rygyJ v_dufvSJpGmqufqHcJhavonf? okd@aomf a*yGef. pdwfxufoefr_wkd@onf &nf&G,fcsuftwGuf pnf;ESifhurf;ESifh vkyfukdifvkdaom pdwfxm;wck &Sdvmatmif rxdef;csKyfEkdifcJhacs? olonf pdwfvkdufrmefygðyvkyfwwf+yD;/ pdwftajymif;tvJjrefol wa,mufvnf; jzpfonf? xkdtðytrla=umifh olwnfaqmufcJhaom tjcm;olrsm;. ol@tay:,kH=unfr_onf ysufjym;ap&ef r=umc%jzpfapcJhavonf? ZlbmawmhAf tzGJ@tpnf;. tpnf;ta0;yGJrsm;wGif a*yGefonf ykHrSefwufa&mufol wOD;jzpfvmonf? tpnf;ta0;rsm;wGif *&kwpkdufem;axmifjcif;/ tvkyform;rsm;tm; olwkd@.&ifxJwGif&Sdonfhtwkdif;ajym&ef tm;ay;jcif;/ ESifh tcgtm;avsmfpGm rSwfcsufawmif;cHjcif; wkd@ukd ðyvkyfavonf? (1903) ckESpf. aEGOD;wGifrl olonf ol@tm; ykdrkdwufºuGonfhtcef;u¾rSaeI vkyfaqmif&ef wkdufwGef;onfh Amema&S@Af tygt0if t"du tc&musonfholwcsKd@ESifh rdwfaqGjzpfae+yDjzpfonf? okd@aomf pdef@yDwmpbwf tvkyform;rsm;pGmwkd@onf ykvdyfwkd@. xdef;csKyfr_atmufYvnfywfaeonfh tzGJ@tpnf; wckwGif 0ifa&mufyg0if&eftwGuf/ xkdtzGJ@tpnf;. vkyfEkdifcGifhrsm;tay:wGif tvGeftrif; r,kHouFm oHo, &Sdae=uonfhtcg a*yGefonf tm;aysmhvmcJhavonf? (1903) ckESpfukefykdif;a&mufaomtcg tzGJ@tpnf;onf ysufvkeD;yg; jzpfaeavonf? rnfokd@yifqkdapumrl a*yGef/ Amema&S@Af ESifh tjcm;oltcsKd@onf tzGJ@tpnf;opf wnfaxmif&eftwGuf tvkyfrsm;aecJh=uavonf? xkdtzGJ@opfukd olwkd@rS pdef@yDwmpbwfòrd@&Sd &k&Sm;puf&kHrsm;ESifh }udwfcGJpuf&kH vkyfom;rsm; v$wfawmf[k ac:avonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

17


ZlbmawmhAf vl@tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;uJhokd@yif xkdv$wfawmfonf t&m&Sdrsm;.axmufcHr_ukd &&Sdxm;av onf? axmufcHonfh t&m&Sdrsm;rSm TuJhokd@ zGJ@pnf;jcif;jzifh tvkyform;rsm;onf awmfvSefa&;orm;rsm;. aoG;xkd;v_H@aqmfr_ESifh tvkyform;yËdyuQrsm;rS wpkHw&m tm&kHajymif;oGm;apvdrfhrnf[k ,lqxm;=uonfh tpkd;&t&m&Sdrsm; jzpf=uonf? rnfokd@yifqkdapumrl ta&;w}uD;tav;xm;p&mwckrSm vufawG@ESifh jcm;em;aeavonf? a*yGefonf pdef@yDwmpbwf òrd@&Sd tzGJ@tpnf;wGif ykvdyfukd,fpm;vS,frsm; &Sdaejcif;onf tvkyform;rsm;ukd 0ifa&mufyg0ifjcif;rS [ef@wm;aponfh twGuf t&m&Sdrsm;tm; ykvdyfrsm;&Sdraeap&eftwGuf pnf;&kH;aomtcg/ t&m&Sdrsm;rS v$wfawmf. ae@pOfvkyfief;rsm;wGif ykvdyfrsm;rxm;&Sd&ef oabmwl=uavonf? v$wfawmf. ta&;t&mrsm;tm;vkH;ukd a*yGef wa,mufwnf; }uD;=uyfuGyfuJ&ef ESifh tvkyform;rsm;. pGrf;tifrsm;tm;vkH; oifhavsmaf om vrf;a=umif;twkdif; pD;qif;oGm;&eftwGuf tmrcHay;vkdufavonf? bkef;awmf}uD;. tpueOD; &nf&G,fcsufonf EkdifiHa&;vkyfaqmif&ef &nf&G,fcsifrS &nf&G,fayrnf? tapmykdif;Y olonf òrd@&Sd qdyfcHwHwm;rsm;rS qdyfurf;vkyfom;rsm;ESifh a&maESmaecJhavonf? aemufykdif;wGif olu “olwkd@ usaemfhtay:rSm ,kH=unfvm=uw,f? olwkd@txJrS wcsKd@u EkdifiHa&;tawG;tac:rsm;ESifh ywfoufaeonfhtwGuf usaemfhukd olwkd@tjrifrSm;a=umif;0efcHvm=uw,f? tJ'Dtcsdefwkef;uawmh EkdifiHa&;ajymif;vJr_ r&Sdrjzpfvkdtyfw,fvkd@ usaemftaeeJ@ rxifcJhbl;” [k jyefajymjyygonf? rsKd;cspfpdwf"gwfonf v$wfawmfukd wGef;tm;ay;wufºuGapcJhonf[k olonf ykvdyfÏmeokd@ ay;onfh rSwfwrf;wapmifwGif &Sif;jycJhavonf/ “tajccHtawG;tac:ukd puf&kHESifh oD;ESH}udwfcGJtvkyform;rsm;t=um;wGif tajccHvkdtyfcsuf tokdufttkHwcktjzpf wnfaqmuf&efjzpfonf”[k olrS ykvdyfrsm;ukd ajymjyygonf? “tJ'DurSwqifh usef;rm oef;pGrf;+yD;/ ukd,fusKd;pGef@ tepfemcHwwfwJh tysHoifp iSufi,f[m ol&Jh wkdif;jynfeJ@ Zmbk&ifukd tmcHzkd@twGuf eJ@ ol@&Jhvkyfazmfukdifzuf tvkyform;awGukd ulnDzkd@twGuf a&S@okd@ pwifysHoef;cJhygawmhw,f?” wm0ef&Sdaom tokdif;t0kdif; (Responsible Circle) [k odxm;onfh v$wfawmf. acgif;aqmifrsm; onf trsm;tm;jzifh u|r;f usifaom/ tdrfaxmif&SifESifh ESD;EG,fqufpyfaeonfh csrf;omaom owˆKtvkyform; rsm;om jzpf=uonf? olwkd@onf toif;wkdufwckukd puf&kHrsm;&Sd&m c&kdiftwGif;Yyif wnfaxmifvkduf=u avonf? tzGJ@0ifrsm;onf y&dabm*ypPnf;rsm; ESifh pmtkyfrsm; ,laqmifvmjcif;/ tzkd;E_ef;csKdomaom yD,mEkd wckukd&SmazGjcif;ESifh Zmbk&if. ykHwlukd csdwfqGJjcif;wkd@ ðyvkyf=uavonf? tcsKd@aom nrsm;wGif tpnf;ta0;rsm; ðyvkyf=u+yD;/ usefaom nrsm;wGif pmayykd@csjcif;rsm;/ aw;*DwazsmfajzyGJrsm; (okd@) uyGJrsm; (okd@) 0kdif;Ipmzwfjcif; (okd@) ppfwk&ifupm;jcif; ponfjzifhðyvkyf=uavonf? v$wfawmfonf tjyeftvSef ulnDapmifha&Smufa&; &HykHaiGtzGJ@ ukdvnf; zGJ@pnf;xm;+yD;/ tvkyf&Sifrsm;ESifh yËdyuQjzpfaom tzGJ@0ifrsm;twGuf &nf&G,fukd,fpm;ðyavonf? rnfokd@yifqkdapumrl/ ZlbmawmhAf vl@tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;uJhokd@ r[kwfyJ v$wfawmfonf qENjyoydwrf sm;r&Sdatmif xdef;csKyfEkdifcJhonf? ,if;onf a*yGef. pD&ifqkH;jzwfr_rsm;ESifh tm;ukd;tm;xm;ðyEkdifr_rsm;tay: t&m&Sdrsm;onf EkdifiHa&;ukd c|if;csufxm;I a*yGeftay: pdwfcs,kH=unfr_ ay;vmcJhavonf? rnfokd@yifqkdapumrl/ xkdt&m&Sdrsm;onf xkdukd,fxlukd,fxulnDa&;tjyifrsufESmpm. aemufuG,fwGif bmawGjzpfvmrnfqkdonfukd od&Sdygu wkefv_yfajcmufjcm;oGm;vdrfhrnfjzpfonf? a*yGef. tapmykdif;t,ltq rsm;onf yk*~dKvfa&; opPmapmifhodr_rS Zmbk&iftay:opPmapmifhodr_ESifh oufOD;qHykdifpepf ESpfckt=um;wGif vl;vmqefcwf jzpfaepOfwGif/ v$wfawmfukd EkdifiHa&;xJwGif 0ifa&muf&pfywf+idwG,faeap&eftwGuf taxmuftuljzpfapolrSm wjcm;wa,mufa,mufjzpfcJhavonf? xkdolrSm atvufqkdif u&Dvif (Aleksei Karelin) qkdoljzpfonf? xkdolonf ausmufykHESdyfynmukd rdrdzmom avhvmwufu|rf;vmolwOD;jzpf+yD;/ rmhufpf0g'D &k&S qkd&S,f 'Drkdu&ufwpf tvkyform; ygwD {Marxist Russian Social Democratic (SD) Workers' Party}tzGJ@0ifa[mif;wOD;vnf;jzpfonf? olonf (1890) vGefESpfrsm;wGif tzrf;cHcJh&+yD;aemuf jynfESif'%fay;cH&zl;avonf? u&DvifESifh ol. taygif;azmfrsm;onf SD . enf;emrsm;ukd txifr}uD;r_/ rESpfòrd@r_jzpfvmaomtcg/ ykvdyfrsm;. taESmuft,Sufrsm; a=umuf&GH@p&m r&SdawmhyJ/ Oya'. tumtuG,f atmufrSaeI tvkyform;rsm; xHokd@a&muf&SdEkdifaom v$wfawmfrS urf;vSrf;onfh tcGifhtvrf;ukd óudqkdcJh=uavonf? olwkd@onf olwkd@ESifhtwl ESpfaygif;rsm;pGmaom tzGJ@tpnf;qkdif&m tawG@tóuHrsm; o,faqmifvmavonf? Amema&S@Af. pum;vkH;t&rl òrd@. puf&kH tvkyforsm;rsm;t=um;wGif “cgrcsEkdifaom tcGifhtm%m (unshakeable authority)” ESifh a*yGefwGif r&Sdao;aom t&Sdef=oZmwckyifjzpfavonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

18


tpueOD;wGif oHo,&Sdjcif; ESifh r,Hk=unfr_rsm; &Sdc+Jh yD;aemuf/ aemufqkH;wGif a*yGefonf tm%mykdif t&m&Sdrsm;. ,kH=unfr_ukd olatmifjrif&&SdcJhouJhokd@/ u&DvifESifh tjcm;aom awmfvSefa&;0g'Drsm;. ,kH=unfr_ukdvnf; &&SdvmcJhavonf? wm0ef&Sdt0ef;t0kdif;rsm;. tpnf;ta0;rsm; +yD;qkH;+yD;aemuf/ n (10) em&Dcef@wGif a*yGefonf olwkd@ vBuf&nfaomuf/ aq;vdyfaomuf/ pum;ajymqkd&m ol. wkdufcef;Y u&Dviftkyfpktygt0if tvkyform;tenf;i,fwkd@ukd zdwfac:EkdifcJhonf? xkd nOfhv,f,H tpnf;ta0;yGJrsm;wGif a*yGefu v$wfawmfwGif tc&musonfh ae&mrsm;ukd,lxm;onfh tzGJ@0ifopfrsm;. EkdifiHa&;t& tzsuf tarSmufjzpfonfh t,ltqrsm;xH wajz;ajz; csOf;uyfaeonfukd jyocJhavonf? (1904) ckESpf/ rwfvwGif a*yGefonf u&Dvif/ Amema&S@Af ESifh v$wfawmf. twGif;pnf;rS tjcm;aom tzGJ@0if ESpfa,mufukd ol. wkdufcef;okd@ zdwfac:cJhavonf? ‚if;wkd@tm; E_wfvkHvkHxm;&ef uwdawmif;+yD;aemuf pm&Gufw&Gufukd qGJxkwfvkdufavonf? pm&Gufay:wGif &k&Stifykdif,m}uD;. EkdifiHa&;/ vlr_a&; ajymif;vJ&ef pDrHudef;wck[k rifeDjzifh a&;xm;avonf? EkdifiHa&;qkdif&mawmif;qkdr_rsm;wGif yg0ifonfrsm;rSm - EdkifiHom; vGwv f yfcGifh/ rnfolrqkd Oya'. a&S@arSmufwGifomwlnDr#&Sda&;/ ESifh vGwf&ufapholrsm;tm; csufjcif;v$wfay;&ef wkd@yg0ifonf? vlr_a&;qkdif&m awmif;qkdcsufwGif tvkyform;or*~rsm;tm; w&m;0if zGifhvSpfcGifh&&Sda&;/ tvkyfcsdef wae@ (8) em&D owfrSwfay;a&;/ tedrfhqkH;vkyftm;c owfrSwfay;a&;/ vlr_zlvkHa&; tmrcHqkdif&m Oya'=urf;rsm;a&;qGJ&mY tvkyform;rsm; yg0ifcGifh &&Sda&;/ ESifh v,form;rsm;twGuf ajr,m jyefvnf a0jcrf;ay;a&;wkd@jzpfonf? ‚if;onf u&DviftkyfpkrS a*yGeftm;awmif;qkdaom awmif;qkdaom pDrHudef;rsKd;jzpf+yD;/ xkdpDrHudef;ukd v$wfawmf. “v#Kd@0SufpDrHudef;” tjzpfowfrSwfxm;avonf?

“t"dy`g,fr&Sdaom tdyfrufrsm;” “v#Kd@0SufpDrHudef;”onf tvkyform;rsm; ESifh pdef@yDwmpbwfwGif Ekd;ºuGaeaom us,fjyef@onf twkduftcHrsm;t=um;wGif aygif;ul;wHwm;wckukd wnfaqmufay;vdkufavonf? jynfolvlxk. ypPnf;OpPm ukHvkHºuG,f0olrsm;/ A[kokwESH@pyfolrsm;onf/ q,fpkESpfwckausmf=umr# tpkd;&ukd odrfodrfarG@arG@ ,Of,Ofaus;aus; a0zefcJh=uonf? xkdta=umif;ukd *sme,frsm;ESifh v_yfv_yf&Sm;&Sm;r&Sdaom tpnf;ta0;rsm;Y wifjypnf;&kH;=uonf? ðyjyifajymif;vJa&;rsm;ukd *sme,frsm; ESifh tjcm;aom orm"d&Sdonfh pmapmifrsm;wGif a&;om;az:jycJh=uonf? okd@aomf (1904) ckESpfwGif/ vpfb&,fv_yf&Sm;r_onf tm%mykdifwkd@. tjcm;aom tvm;tvm&Sdonfh twkduftcHrsm;xHokd@yif pwifa&muf&Sdvmavonf? ,if;onf aqG;aEG;yGJESpfckjzpfaom ausmif;q&mrsm;ESifh q&m0efrsm;. uGef*&ufrsm;wGif taxmuftxm;tjzpf xif&Sm;vmavonf? ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh tvkyform;rsm;twGuf olwkd@. tdrfwHcg;rsm;ukd zGifhay;vkdufjcif;ESifhtwl/ tqkdyg tpnf;ta0;rsm;rSm EkdifiHa&;qkdif&m aqG;aEG;yGJrsm; tjzpfokd@ v#ifjrefpGmyif ajymif;vJoGm;avawmhonf? aqG;aEG;ajymqkdolrsm;onf EkdifiHom;vGwfvyfcGifhrsm;ESifh or*~rsm;zGJ@pnf;cGifhwkd@ukd awmif;qkdvm=uonf? ykvdyf rsm;onf ynma&; aqG;aEG;yGJrsm;ukd ydwfypfvkduf+yD; pnf;&kH;v_H@aqmfolrsm;ukd zrf;qD;vkdufavonf? q&m0efrsm;. aqG;aEG;yGJrsm;wGif wufa&mufolrsm;rSm aqmvsifpGm &kwfodrf;vkdufonfhtwGuf a'goxGuf pdwfqkd;vm=u+yD;/ qENjy=u&m ‚if;wkd@tm; xdef;odrf;&ef óud;pm;aom ppfwyfzufokd@ xkdifckHrsm;ESifh jyefvnf ypfcwfjcif;jzifh &kef;&if;qefcwfjzpfyGg;+yD; tqkH;owfoGm; avawmhonf? xkdokd@jzpfyGg;aomtcg ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;onf òrd@awmfokd@ vGwfajrmufa&;or*~. yxrqkH;t}udrf uGef*&uftwGuf a&muf&Sdae=uavonf? csrf;omaom rSL;rwfrsKd;EG,frsm; ESifh ynmwwf awmfvSefa&;orm; rsm;t=um; ,kHEkdifp&mr&Sdaom r[mrdwfzGJ@r_wckyifjzpfonf? rSL;rwfrsm;rSm jynfe,f/ c&kdiftqifh v$wfawmf rsm; {provincial (zemstvo) assemblies}ukd zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya' ðyjyifajymif;vJa&;twGuf pwifwufvSrf;onfh tqifhokd@a&mufatmif ajymif;vJ&eftwGuf ESpfrsm;pGmuyif óud;yrf;aecJh=uonf? bk&if eDukdvufpfonf olwkd@. awmif;cHv$mrsm;tm;vkH;ukd vpfvsL&_cJh&kHom ru ‚if;wkd@tm; “t"dy`g,fr&Sdaom tdyfrufrsm;” [kyif uifyGef; wyfcJhavonf? okd@aomf t"dy`g,fr&Sdr_onf tajymif;tvJwckudk enf;vrf;rsm;tjzpf aphaqmfcJhavonf? vlwef;pm;wkdufyGJwGif rmhufpf0g'

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

19


,kH=unfr_ukd vufv$wfcJhaom ,cif awmfvSefa&;orm;a[mif; tcsKd@onfvnf; tqkdyg v_yf&Sm;r_opftwGuf 0ifa&muf yl;aygif;&ef toifhjzpfae=u avonf? “u|Ekfyfwkd@.wm0efrSm ykdif;jcm;&efr[kwf/ aygif;pnf;&efjzpfonf”[k vGwfajrmufa&;orm;rsm; *sme,f. txl;tzGJ@ xkwfjyefcsufwGif ajymqkdcJhavonf? (1904) ckESpfwGif tjzpftysufESpfckonf rD;cJjymzkH;jzpfaeaom rauseyfr_rsm;ukd aoG;xkd;v_H@aqmfay;r_/ &k&S ynmwwfvlwef;pm;ESifh txufwef;v$mrsm; t=um;wGif tajymif;tvJtwGuf tqifoifh&Sdaeap&ef Ekd;x ay;cJhr_wkd@ukd v_H@aqmfulnDay;cJhavonf? Zefe0g&Dvukefykdif;wGif *syefwkd@onf &k&Swkd@. ypdzdwfa&wyfzGJ@ukd tmomqdyfurf;Y wkdufckdufcJhr_onf ta&S@zsm;&Sd wkdif;jynf ESpfckt=um;&Sd ESpfrsm;pGm ,SOfòydifaer_ukd tqkH;owf apcJhonf? &kwfw&uf csufjcif;qkdovkdyif ppfyGJonf &k&SvlrsKd;wkd@. vl@*k%foduQmxdckdufzG,f&m wckjzpfvmav onf? ppfwyf. enf;ynmqkdif&m acmwfaemufusr_/ ESifh wyfrSL;rsm;. ppfa&;pGrf;&nf nhHzsif;r_wkd@ukd xkwfazmfjyovkdufavonf? tm%mykdifwkd@. wif;=uyfr_ ESihf zdESdyfr_ wkd@a=umifh pdwf"gwfusqif; ae=uonfh jynfol@ oabmxm;rsm;rSm ,cktcg ppfwyftysuftpD; tqkH;t&_H;ay:wGif aemufxyf rausreyf tjypfajymqkd p&m wckjzpfvmavawmhonf? xkd b0ifrus rauseyfr_rsm;t=um;rS t=urf;zuform;rsm;onf vlrkef;rsm;aeonfh jynfxJa&;0ef}uD; yavAD (Plehve)ukd ZlvkdifvwGif vkyf}uHowfjzwfvkduf=uavonf? ‚if;. ae&mwGif tpm;0ifvmaom rif;om; qAD,mwkdayghvfuf rD&fpuD (Sviatopolk Mirskii) onf tpkd;& ESifh wkdif;jynf. txufwef;v$m wkd@t=um;&Sd ykdrkdus,f[vmaponfh &if=um;aphIr&Ekdifaom &efvkdrkef;wD;r_ukd owdðyrdavonf? xkdudpPtwGuf tpkd;&onf tpGef;ra&mufonfh tv,ftvwf0g'Drsm;ESifh +idrf;csrf;a&;&,l&ef rjzpfraevkdtyfonf[k ckdifrmpGm cHpm;rdavonf? ol. vGyfvyfpGmajymqkdcGifhESifh zGJ@pnf;cGifh tcGifhtvrf;opfrsm;ukd zGifhay;jcif;jzifh jynfolwkd@. b0rsm;tay: wif;=uyfxdef;csKyfxm;r_rsm;ukd ajzavsmhr_rsm; ðyvkyfay;aecsdefwGif rD&fpuD;. aphpyfajy+idrf;a&; pdwfxm;ESifh pum;vkH;rsm;u ðyjyifajymif;vJa&;onf jzpfEkdifonf[laom ar#mfvifhcsufa&mifjcnfukd ykdrkdoef;vm aponf? xkdtopfcsJ@xGifxm;onfh EkdifiHa&;ZmwfckHwGif vGwfvyfa&;0g'Drsm;onf ZmwfckH. tv,fwGif ae&m,lxm; avonf? ukd,fpm;ðycGifh/ zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'ESifh nDaom tpkd;&jzpfa&; ponfh &kd;pif;aom awmif;qkdr_ rsm;ESifhtwl twkduftcHrsm;twGuf ykdrkdus,fjyef@aom &GufzsifwJ}uD;ukd pkdufxl+yD;aemuf/ olwkd@onf ,cktcg xif&Sm;aom acgif;aqmif;rsm;ukd xkd&mxl;tqifh. aemufuG,fY ae&m&&eftwGuf jynfe,f/ c&kdif v$wfawmfrsm; (zemstvo assemblies) wGif trnfpm&if;wifoGif;vm=uavonf? yxrOD;qkH;t}udrf jynfe,f uGef*&uf (First Zemstvo Congress) ukd Ekd0ifbmv tapmykdif;Y armfpukdòrd@wGif usif;ycJhonf? ppfrSefonfhtm%m&Sdonfh trsKd;om;v$wfawmfukd ac:,l&ef qkH;jzwfcsuf csrSwfcJhavonf? xkdnDvmcHonf oufOD;qHykdifpepf. tESpfom& rsm;udk qef@usifoGm;rnfjzpfonf? v_yf&Sm;r_udk trsKd;rsKd;cGJ&efESifh oabmxm;uGJvGJolrsm;tay:wGif tEW&m,f ray;Ekdifap&eftwGuf vGwfvyfa&;0g'Drsm;onf Ekd0ifbmaemufqkH;tywf tpykdif;wGif w&m;pD&ifa&;pHepfðyjyifajymif;vJr_ t}udrf (40) ajrmuf ESpfywfvnfae@ukd *k%fðyaomtm;jzifh tifykdif,mtwGif;&Sd òrd@}uD;rsm;wGif *k%fðyxrif;pm;yGJ tajrmuftjrm;ukd usif;ycJh=uonf? xif&Sm;ausmf=um;onfh pma&;pm rmhufZif a*:uD (Maxim Gorkii) onf *k%fðyxrif;pm;yGJwckESifhywfoufI ol. ZeD;xHokd@ ay;aompmxJwGif Tokd@a&;om;cJhygonf? “pma&;q&m rsm;/ a&S@aersm;/ jynfe,fv$wfawmf0ifrsm; (zemstvo men)/ tajccH vlwef;pm;rsm;/ ynmwwfvlwef;pm;rsm; ponfjzifh npm pm;yGJaygif; (600) ausmf&Sdw,f? rdef@cGef;awGudk [kwfwkdif;rSef&m a[ma[m'kdif;'kdif;ajym=uw,f/ vlawGu ‘oufOD;qHykdifpepfusqkH;ygap’ ‘zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya' nDvmcH}uD; t"Gef@&Snfygap’ ‘igwkd@twGuf zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya' wcka&;qGJyg’ ponfjzifh wnDw!Gwfwnf; oHòydif aºuG;a=umf=uw,f? tm;vkH;[m tvGefyJ wufºuGae=u +yD;awmh/ tvGefyJ 'Drkdua&pDqef=uw,f?” “ae&mwkdif;wGif npmpm;yGJrsm;onf vlwkd@. ajymif;vJvkdonfhqENukd ykdrkdeuf&_dif;ap+yD;/ olwkd@&Jh yxrqkH;aom rdef@cGef;ukd xdef;xdef;odrf;odrf;r&Sd xkwfaz:ajymqkd=uw,f”[k jyefazmfjycJhonf? olwkd@. obm0 r[mrdwf òrd@aeynm&Sifrsm;/ oabmxm;aysmhajymif;aom vpfb&,frsm;. tcGifh ta&;twGuf pnf;&kH;EkdifcJh+yD;aemuf/ vGwfvyfa&;0g'Drsm;onf qkd&S,fvpfrsm;qDokd@ vufwzuf qef@xkwf urf;vSrf;vkdufavonf? Tokd@vkyfaqmif&eftwGuf or*~onf rdrdukd,fukd zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'qkdif&m ðyjyifajymif;vJa&;r#omr[kwfawmhyJ/ jynfh0aom 'Drkdu&ufwpfppfppf wcktjzpf vkyfaqmifcJhavonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

20


ESpfukefqkH;aomtcg vGwfvyfa&;0g'Drsm;onf wkdif;jynfwiG f;&Sd tav;pm;cH&qkH; EkdifiHom; trsm;tjym; tygt0if &k&Svl@tzGJ@tpnf;. us,fjyef@aom pHerlemwcktwGuf ajymqkd&ef xkdufonfhtm;avsmfpGm awmif;qkdEkdifcJhavonf? eDukdvufpfonf jrifhwufvmonfh r+idrfroufr_rsm;ukd owdrlrd[ef r&Sdacs? Zmbk&ifonf ol.ae@&ufrsm;ukd eef;wGif;tcrf;tem;rsm;ESifh tao;tzGJ tkyfcsKyfa&;ykdif;qkdif&mudpP&yfrsm;wGifom ukefqkH; arsmygaeavonf? yk*~dKvfa&;qkdif&m trltusifhrsm;ay:wGiftajccHjcif; ESihf eef;wGif;v$wf&kH;rsm;ESifh qufEG,f aeaom olrsm;ukdom t&m&Sdrsm;tjzpf cef@xm;&mwGif olonf tusifhjzpfaecJhavonf? 0ef}uD;rsm;onf Zmbk&if. rsufESmomay;r_ &vkduf/ r&vkdufjzpfouJhokd@ tpkd;&onf ay:vpDrl0g'rsm;ukd wckrS wckokd@ ajymif;vJ&ef wdrf;!$wfaeavonf? okd@aomf ol. jynfxJa&;0ef}uD;onf jyif;jyif;xefxef oabmuGJvGJr_rsm;. ta=umif;&if;ay:wGifom txl; tm&kHpl;pkdufr_ &Sdaeavonf? olonf xkdjy\emukdajz&Sif;&eftwGuf tpDtpOf wckukd a&;qGJcJhavonf? “tJ'gukd usaemfjrifwJhtwkdif;qkd&&if/ 'Djy\emay:rSm aumif;pGm pdwf0ifpm; *&kxm; aewJh jynfolvlxk}uD; trsm;pk&Jh jyif;jywJhqEN[m &k&Sjynf}uD;ukd Oya't&wnfaqmufzkd@/ ,kH=unfr_rsm; tay:wGif us,fus,fjyef@jyef@ pdwf&SnfoD;+iD;cHzkd@eJ@ vkH;0ravsmfuefaom Oya'rsm; xkwfjyefjcif;ukd umuG,f&ef (okd@r[kwf) 0ef}uD;tcsKd@. pdwful;ayguf&m xkwjf yefonfh Oya'rsm;tm; umuG,f&eftwGuf Oya'ðyjcif;qkdif&m vkyfief;rsm;Y 0ifa&mufyg0ifcGifh&&Sda&;” [k rD&fpuD rS Zmbk&ifukd ajymqkdcJhavonf? Ekd0ifbmvukefY olonf Zmbk&iftm; ðyjyifajymif;vJa&;ESifh ywfoufonfh tpDtpOfw&yfukd wifoGif;cJhavonf? xkdtxJwGif jynfe,f a&G;aumufyGJrsm; (zemstvo election) twGuf rJqENay;ykdifcGifhrsm;ukd wkd;csJ@&eftwGuf t}uHðypmwrf;wapmif/ xkwfa0jzef@csdr_rsm; rðyvkyfrD qifqmjzwfawmufjcif;rsm;ukd y,fzsuf&efESifh txufygtcsufrsm;tjyif/ a&G;cs,fjcif;cH&onfh ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;ygonfh twkdifyifcHv$wfawmf wckukd zGJ@pnf;&ef/ wkd@yg xkdtpDtpOfxJwGif yg0ifaeavonf? rD&fpuD ,kH=unfonfrSm xkdt&mrsm;tm;vkH;onf Zmbk&iftkyfpkd;r_. tajccHcsnfr#ifpukd wppDqGJxkwfI òydvJ usqkH;apEkdifrnf r[kwfacs? okd@aomf ðyjyifajymif;vJa&;rsm;onf twkduftcHrsm;ukd òyduGJxGufoGm;ap&eftwGuf aumif;pGm vkHavmuf&rnfjzpf+yD;/ EkdifiHa&; ðyjyifajymif;vJr_twGuf tkwfatmf aomif;eif; atmf[pfaeonfrsm;ukd wdwfqdwfap&rnfjzpfonf? okd@aomf aemufqkH;wGif 'DZifbm (12) &ufae@Y eDukdvufpf xkwfjyefvkdufaomtrdef@rSm rD&fpuD. t}uHay;csufrsm;ESifhpmv#if trsm;}uD; tvSrf;uGmaeonfukd awG@&avonf? ðyjyifajymif;vJa&;twGuf tmrcH &rnfhtpm; olonf ajymif;vJr_rsm;twGuf pOf;pm;ygrnf[k cyf0g;0g; uwdrsm;ukdom urf;vSrf;cJh+yD;/ v$wfawmfESifh ywfoufI bmr# rajym=um;yJ csefxm;cJhavonf? “rnfonfhtajctaersKd;atmufwGifrqkd/ ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;jzifh zGJ@pnf;xm;onfh ukd,fpm;ðytpkd;&ukd b,fawmhrS ig oabmwlrSm r[kwfbl;” [k Zmbk&ifu tckdiftrmajymqkdcJh avonf? aemufwae@ 'kwd,ajrmuftrdef@wGif tu,fI aemufxyf trsm;jynfolukd aESmuf,Sufr_rsm;/ tpkd;&ukd qef@usifonfh qENjyoydwfrsm; wpkHw&mðyvkyfygu ESdyfuGyfr_rsm; &Sdvmvdrfhrnf[k +cdrf;ajcmufcJhavonf? rD&fpuD onf ol. E_wfxGufvïmukd wifoGif;vkduf+yD;/ Zmbk&iftm; “vl@tzGJ@tpnf;qkdif&m tiftm;awG&Jh axmufulyHhykd;r_rygyJ wkdif;jynfukd vnfywfzkd@qkdwm pdwful;Iyif r&Ekdifbl;” [k ajymcJhavonf? tv,ftvwf0g'Drsm;./ ðyjyifajymif;vJa&;pepfwckqDokd tpDtpOfwus wkd;wufoGm;&ef[laom ‚if;wkd@. ar#mfvifhcsuf wHcg;ydwfvkdufavonf? 'DZifbmvwGif xkwfjyefcJhaom qifqmwnf;jzwfr_onf vGwfajrmufa&;0g'Drsm;. enf;AsL[mrsm;onf tuef@towf&Sda=umif; jyovkdufavonf? Zmbk&ifonf ol@taejzifh ol. tav;pm;cHxkdufqkH;aom EkdifiHom;rsm; bmawG awG;ac:pOf;pm;aeonf qkdonfwkd@udk tav;xm; *&kpkduf/ tr_xm;p&m rvkd[k ,kH=unfaeor# umvywfvkH;/ ol@taejzifh oufOD;qHykdif tm%m&Sifpepfukd tm;enf;aprnfh rnfonfhvkyf&yfrsKd;ukdrqkd tjyif;txef qef@usifaeor#umvywfvkH;/ qENjyr_wckxJjzifh/ pum;vkH;rsm;jzifh rnfr#yif us,favmifpGmajymaeygap udpPr&Sdyg/ tESpfom&jynfh0aom ðyjyifajymif;vJa&; jzpfxGef;vmvdrfhrnf r[kwfay? oufOD;qHykdifpHepfukd uef@uGuf qef@usif&kHjzifh rvkHavmufyg? twkduftcHrsm;onf tm%m&Siw f kd@tm; ajymif;vJ&eftwGuf wGef;tm;ay;&rnfjzpfonf? Zmbk&if ESifh ol. 0ef}uD;rsm;ESifh olwkd@. vpfb&,ftwkduftcHrsm;onf tm%myg0gtopfonf ykHpHwrsKd;jzifh ‚if;wkd@. ajcaxmufrsm;atmufwGif v#ifjrefpGm t[kefjrifhvmonfqkdonfukd/ ESpfawGukefqkH;oGm;onfhtcg owdrrlrd =u&mwGif/ olwkd@onf twlwlyifjzpfonf? Oyrmqkd&aomf ESpfopfwGif ‚if;wkd@rwfwyf&yfaeaom ajcaxmufatmuf&Sd a&cJwkH;rsm;ukd t&nfaysmfusaprnfh tHh=ozG,f&m aqmif;&moD. ylaEG;aom rkd;av0o tajctaeudk owdrrlrd=uouJhokd@ xkd tm%mykHpHopfukd olwkd@ owdrrlrd=uacs?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

21


“&k&Sjynfolrsm;tm;vkH; æææ =um;od&ef” a&S@aersm;/ ygarmuQrsm;/ ajrykdif&Sifrsm;ESifh ynmwwfvlwef;pm;rsm;. odomay:vGifxif&Sm;aom oabmxm;uGJvGJr_rsm;ESifh E_dif;,SOfv#if bkef;awmf}uD;a*yGef ESifh ol@rdwfaqGrsm;. v$wfawmf wnfaxmif&ef óud;yrf;tm;xkwfr_onf v_dif;*,ufxr_ wckr#omjzpfonf? tjzpftysufrsm;. rsuEf SmjyifatmufwGifom &Sdaomfvnf;/ v$wfawmfonf jrefjrefqefqef oGufoGufvufvufyif }uD;xGm;vmavonf? aqmif;OD; a&mufvmaomtcg/ tzGJ@0if (7000) ausmfESifh c&kdif (11) ckwGif tzGJ@cGJrsm;&Sdvm+yDjzpfonf? ynmwwf vl@tzGJ@tpnf;tay: jyif;xefaom EkdifiHa&; tawG;tac:v_dif;wHykd;rsm; &kdufcwfI v$wfawmfwGif xkdt,ltq v$rf;rkd;vmonfhwkdif/ EkdifiHa&;rqefa&; [laomrlukd wav#mufvkH;xdef;odrf;vmcJhavonf? owif;pmrsm;onf wkdif;jynf. &SufzG,f&m ppfa&;&_H;edrfhr_ESihf/ vGwfajrmufa&;or*~/ jynfe,fuGef*&uf (Zemstvo Congress)/ ESifh aemufqkH;wGif npmpm;yGJurfydef;rsm;. EkdifiHa&;awmif;qkdr_rsm;ukd a&;om;az:jy=uavonf? “'gawGtm;vkH;[m v$wfawmfcGJrsm;ukd tjynfht0 w&m;0ifjzpfr_ukday;ap+yD;/ aoG;xkd;v_H@aqmfr_rsm;ESifh 0g'jzef@csdr_rsm;twGuf tm;&auseyfp&mjzpfavonf/” [k Amema&S@Af rS a&;om;cJhygonf? vGwfvyfa&;0g'Drsm;onf v$wfawmfokd@ vma&mufI a[majymykd@csr_rsm; ðyvkyf=uavonf? xkdtxJrS tawmfrsm;rsm;onf a*yGef ESifh ESpfukd,fwnf; oD;oef@ awG@qkH=uavonf? u&Dvif tkyfpkESifh vpfb&,ftkyfpk ESpfckpvkH;onf oufOD;qHykdifpepfukd qef@usif&eftwGuf v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;wGif tvkyform;rsm; yl;aygif; yg0if&efvkdtyfa=umif;ukd tkyfpk (2) pkpvkH;onf wxyfwnf;awmif;qkd=uavonf? Ekd0ifbmv (28) &ufae@/ qENjyausmif;om;rsm;tm; ppfom;rsm;u &uf&ufpufpuf aoG;xGufoH,kd wkdufckduf+yD; xkdnaecif;wGif/ v$wfawmf. c&kdifcGJrsm;&Sd acgif;aqmifrsm;tygt0if vl (35) a,mufavmufonf a*yGef. rD;a&mifrSdefrSdefxGef;xm;aom rGef;=uyfaeonfh wkdufcef;i,fxJwGif ¹yGwfodyf=uyfwnf;pGm pka0;aecJh=u avonf? bkef;awmf}uD;onf ol. “v#Kd@0SufpDrHudef;” ESifh pwifrdwfqufay;vkduf+yD;/ xkdpDrHudef;ESifh roufqkdifaom olrsm;ukd tpnf;ta0;cef;xJrS xGufoGm;+yD; a&ikHE_wfydwf qdwfqdwfae&ef ajymqkdvkdufavonf? &Sdae=uonfh vltrsm;pkonf tjzpftysufESifhywfoufI xkwfjyefcsufwapmifa&;om;+yD;/ tpkd;&xHokd@ ukd,fpm;vS,fwa,muf apv$wfjcif;rsKd;xuf/ csufjcif; ta&;,l vufwkef@jyef&ef vkdvm;=uolrsm;jzpf=uonf? xkdta=umif;ESifh ywfoufI Amema&S@Afu olrSwfrdonfrsm;ukd Tokd@ jyefajymjyygonf- “'gayr,fh tm;vkH;[m t}uH^m%fpdwful;wcktay:rSm 0kdif;0ef;oabmwlnDcJh=uw,f/ tu,fI tvkyform;awG[m olwkd@&Jh toHawGvnf; yg0ifcJhr,fqkd&if/ 'g[m tpkd;& w&yfwif =um;rSm r[kwfyJeJ@ &k&SwjynfvkH;ukdawmif =um;odoGm;aprSmjzpfygw,f”? xkd@a=umifh olwkd@ qkH;jzwfcJhonfrSm/ a*yGefonf toemcHv$mwapmifwGifyg0ifrnfht&mrsm;ukd a&;om;+yD; jynfolwkd@. a&S@arSmufwGif csjy&ef enf;vrf;wckckukd &SmazG&efjzpfonf? a*yGef. wkdufcef;wGif ðyvkyfaom tpnf;ta0;onf tv#iftjrefwkef@jyefaqmif&Gufr_wckxuf/ tajctwifaqG;aEG;r_okd@ ykdrkdI OD;wnfoGm;avonf? okd@aomf r=umrDwGifyif v$wfawmf. ukdifwG,fr_ukd wGef;tm;ay;&ef ar#mfvifhrxm;aom t&mwck jzpfay:vmavonf? 'DZifbmv tapmykdif;wGif &k&SEkdifiHwGif t}uD;rm;qkH;aom pufr_vkyfief;wckjzpfonfh ylwDavmhAf owˆK puf&kH (Putilov metal factory) }uD;wGif tvkyfvkyfaeaom v$wfawmftzGJ@0if (4) a,mufonf tvkyfrS ðzwfcH&avonf (okd@) tvkyfðzwf&ef +cdrf;ajcmufjcif; cHcJh&avonf? xkdjy\emukd a*yGefonf pdefac:r_wcktjzpfvufcH,lcJhavonf? tu,fI olonf tvkyform;rsm;ukd jyefvnf tvkyfcef@xm;atmif rpGrf;aqmifEkdifcJhygu/ tzGJ@tpnf;. vkyfykdifcGifhonf ysufpD;oGm; vdrfhrnfjzpfonf? xkd@tjyif aemufxyf tvm;wl tvkyfxkwfcH&rnfh rw&m;vkyfaqmifr_ rsm;ESifhvnf; óuHawG@vm& vdrfhrnfjzpfonf? 'DZifbmv. tqkH;tjzwfae@rsm;wGif v$wfawmfacgif;aqmif rsm;onf òrd@. puf&kHppfaq;a&; t&m&SdcsKyfvnf;jzpf/ ylwDavmhAfpuf&kH. !ïef=um;a&;rSL;vnf;jzpfonfh òrd@awmf0efxHokd@ oGm;a&mufvnfywfcJh avonf? òrd@awmf0efonf ‚if;wkd@. awmif;qkdcsufrsm;tm;vkH;ukd jiif;y,fv$wfvkduf+yD;/ ‚if;wkd@tm;vkH; tm; &kdif;pkdif; =urf;wrf;pGm qufqHv$wfvkdufavonf? xkd@a=umifh oydwfwkdufyGJazmfaqmifr_wckom aemufqkH;vkyfaqmif&eftjzpf usef&Sdavawmhonf? Zefe0g&Dv (2) &uf/ we*FaEGae@wGif/ ylwDavmhAf tvkyform; (6000)onf v$wfawmf. emAm ÏmecGJY awG@qkH=uavonf? xkdtpnf;ta0;rS tvkyfxkwfypfr_udk qef@usif&eftwGuf aemufwae@wGif qENjyoydwf wkdufyGJazmfaqmif&ef rJay;qkH;jzwfcJh=uavonf? t*Fgae@wGif olwkd@onf puf&kHukd ydwfypfvkduf=u+yD; tvkyform;

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

22


(12000) ausmf vkyfief;cGifr0ifyJ aevkduf=uavonf? olwkd@. awmif;qkdcsufrsm;rSm- tvkyf xkwfcH&onfh tvkyform; rsm;tm; jyefvnfcef@xm;a&;/ tvkyform;ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;jzifh zGJ@pnf;xm;aom bkwt f zGJ@wckrSaeI vkyftm;c E_ef;xm;rsm; }uD;=uyfa&;/ wae@tvkyfcsdef (8) em&D owfrSwfay;a&;/ tcsdefykd tvkyfqif;r_ tqkH;owfay;a&;/ ESifh tcrJh aq;0g;ukor_&&Sda&; wkd@jzpfonf? ylwDavmhAf qENjyolrsm;onf tjcm;aom puf&kHrsm;wGifvnf; oydwfwkdufyGJ azmfaqmif&eftwGuf pwifvkyfaqmif=uavonf? &ufowWywfukefqkH;aomtcg pdef@yDwmpbwfòrd@&Sd puf&kH (400) ausmfY tvkyform;aygif; wodef;waomif; ausmf (110˜000) wkd@onf oydwfwkdufyGJwGif 0ifa&mufyl;aygif;vm=uavonf? ,cktcg v$wfawmfacgif;aqmifrsm;rSm olwkd@. tzGJ@tpnf;ukd ckcHumuG,f&eftwGufr#omr[kwfyJ/ wkdufckdufr_wckukd vkyfaqmif&efESifh olwkd@. EkdifiHa&;vkyfief;pOfopfukdyg taumiftxnfaz:&eftwGuf tcGifhtvrf; wckukd awG@jrifvm=uavonf? tpkd;&. *k%foduQmukd aemufxyfedrhfusonfhtqifhae&mopfokd@ csay;vkdufonfh tmomqdyfurf;&Sd a&wyf cHwyf}uD; us&_H;oGm;+yD[laom ppfwyfwkd@. ppfa&;&_H;edrfhr_ owif; pum;opf wckonf a&$òrd@awmfokd@ r=umrDav;wif a&muf&Sdvm uwnf;u/ tcsed ftcg tcGifhtvrf;onf ,ckxufykdI raumif;Ekdifawmhacs? Zefe0g&Dv (6) &uf/ t*Fgae@wGif a*yGefonf ol. pDrHudef;ukd a=unmvkduf avonf? pdef@yDwmpbwfòrd@awmf. tv,facgifwGif&Sd+yD;/ aqmif;&moD eef;awmf. jyifywGif&Sdonfh cHhnm;xnf0gaom &ifjyifawmfqDokd@ {&mrpDwef; csDwufqENjyyGJ}uD;wckukd ol@taejzifh +idrf;csrf;pGm OD;aqmifoGm;rnf/ xkd }uD;us,f crf;em;aom &ifjyifawmf}uD;wGif olukd,fwkdif Zmbk&ifxHokd@ toem;cHv$m wapmifukd wifoGif;rnf jzpfa=umif;/ xkdcsDwufqENjyr_ukd Zefe0g&Dv (9) &uf/ vmrnfh we*FaEGae@wGif vkyfaqmifrnfjzpfa=umif; a=unmvkdufavonf? a*yGef. toem;cHv$mwGif yg0ifonfwkd@rSm tajccHtm;jzifh ajymif;vJr_r&Sday? EkdifiHom;vGwfvyfcGifh rsm;/ vGwfvyfaom or*~rsm; zGJ@pnf;cGifhrsm;/ ESifh wae@tvkyfcsdef (8) em&D owfrSwfay;a&; ponfwkd@yg0ifonfh “v#Kd@0SufpDrHudef;”. ðyjyifajymif;vJa&; t}uHðycsufrsm;yifjzpfonf? a*yGefonf aemufxyfxnfhoGif; jznfhpGufxm;onf rdwfqufv$mwapmifjzpfonfh tajccHtusqkH; ESifh ta&;t}uD;qkH; awmif;qkdcsufjzpfonfh vlom;tm;vkH;wef;wlnDr#pGm rJqENay;ykdifcGifhjzifh a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufxm;onfh jynfol@ukd,fpm;ðyv$wfawmf wckukdvnf;wGJzufI Zmbk&ifxHokd@ ykd@vkdufavonf? u&Dviftkyfpk/ vpfb&,f0g'Drsm; ESifh aysmf&$if&ifzkd pdwf0ifpm;zG,f&m ekdifiHa&; r+idrfroufjzpfr_tajctae v$rf;rkd;r_rsm;atmufrS +yD;cJhaomESpfrsm;twGif;u a*yGef. pOf;pm;r_rsm;onf v_yf&Sm;r_tay: xif[yfvmavonf? xkd ta=umif;t&mvkyfief;pOfrsm;onf vGwfajrmufa&; 0g'Drsm;. 'Drkdu&ufwpf EkdifiHa&;jzpfpOf. &nf&G,fcsufyef;wkdifwckESifh rsm;pGm eD;pyfavonf? &ufowWywf tv,fwGif v$wfawmf. &kH;rsm;onf oydwfwkdufyGJ. A[kdxdef;csKyfa&;pcef;rsm; jzpfvm avonf? Akdifabmh*f &kH;cGJ (Vyborg branch) wGif Amema&S@Afonf &kH;tkyf t}uD;tuJjzpf+yD;/ &kH;cef;onf oydwfarSmufol tkyfpkrsm;jzifh jynfh=uyfaeavonf? v$wfawmftzGJ@0ifrsm;onf xkdoydwfarSmufolrsm;twGuf tvkyf&Sifrsm;xHokd@wifoGif;&ef awmif;qkdcsufrl=urf;rsm;ukd ulnDa&;ay;ae&avonf? =umoyaw;ae@wGif ÏmecGJacgif;aqmifrsm;onf qENjyolrsm;tm; pDwef;vSnfhvnfqENjyyGJESifhywfoufI vlxktm; pwifajym=um;+yD;/ toem;cHv$mESifhtwl Zmbk&iftm;ay;&eftwGuf pm&Gufrsm;ay:wGif vufrSwfrsm;xkd;&ef olwkd@tm; apckdif;avonf? &kH;rsm;. tjyifzuf vrf;rrsm;ay:wGif v$wfawmftzGJ@0ifrsm;onf vkyfief;cGiftajctae ykdrkd aumif;rGefa&;twGuf wkdufyGJ0ifaer_rSonf EkdifiHa&;qkdif&m tcGifhta&;rsm;twGuf ykdrkd}uD;rm;aom v_yf&Sm;r_ jzpfvmatmif jr‡ifhwif csdwfqufay;&eftwGuf qENjyrnfholrsm;ESifh a&maESmaygif;pyfoGm;avonf? +yD;cJhonfh aEGOD;&moDuwnf;u Amema&S@AfESifh tjcm;aom v$wfawmfacgif;aqmifrsm;onf tzGJ@0ifrsm;t=um;wGif ydyd&d&djzifh EkdifiHa&;qkdif&m pnf;&kH;rJqG,faecJhr_rsm;rSm ,cktcg aumif;usKd;&vm'fjzpfxGef;ae+yDjzpfavonf? vmrnfh&uftenf;i,ftwGif; òrd@}uD;rsm;tm;vkH;wGif ðyvkyfrnfh tcef;wGif;tpnf;ta0;yGJrsm;twGuf qENjyolrsm; ESifh v$wfawmfacgif;aqmifrsm;onf pdwfv_yf&Sm;wufºuGae=uavonf? “v#Kd@0SufeufeJr_ wrsKd;eJ@ bmoma&;wGif =unfEl;b0ifjzmr_rsKd;onf wcsdefvkH; }uD;pkd;v$rf;rkd;aeavonf? axmifaygif;rsm;pGmaom vlwkd@[m a=umufp&maumif;wJh tyl&SdefxJrSm em&Daygif;rsm;pGm wOD;ESifh wOD; xdvkeD;yg; ab;csif;,SOfrwfwyf&yf ae=u+yD; olwkd@&Jh tm;tifukefcrf;aewJh a[majymol tvkyform;rsm;&Jh tEkynmrqeffwJh/ &ifoyf&_@armzG,f pGrf;yum;}uD;rm;wJh/ &kd;pif;wJh/ pdwftm;xufoefwJh rdef@cGef;rsm;ukd qmavmifrGwfodyfpGm tirf;r& em;axmif ae=uw,f” vkd@ tpnf;ta0;wckrS

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

23


qkd&S,f'Drkdu&ufwa,mufu a&;om;cJhygonf? ÏmecGJwckwGifrl a[majymolwOD;onf vlxktm; Tokd@ar;jref;vkdufavonf “&Jabmfwkd@æ tu,fI tkyfpkd;olt&Sif[m usaemfwkd@ukd vufrcHbl;/ +yD;awmh usaemfwkd@&Jh toem;cHv$mukd rzwfcsifbl;qkdv#if &Jabmfwkd@ bmvkyfrvJ/ cifAsm;wkd@ 'Dtay:rSm b,fvkd ajz=um;rvJ”? “'gqkd&if usaemfwkd@uvnf; Zmbk&iftvkdr&Sd æ æ Zmbk&iftvkdr&Sd æ æ Zmbk&iftvkdr&Sd”[laom wkef@jyefr_rSm em;uGJvkrwuf us,favmifpGmay:xGufvm avonf? eDukdvufpfonf Ak'<[l;ae@rwkdifrDtxd r+idrfroufjzpfr_rsm;ukd r=um;odcJhacs? pDwef;vSnfhvnfqENjyyGJ ðyvkyf&ef pDpOfxm;aom owif;onf tpkd;&xHokd@ =umoyaw;ae@wGifa&muf&SdoGm;avonf? a*yGefonf toem;cHv$mukd tpkd;&t&m&Sd tawmfrsm;rsm;xHokd@ óudwifay;ykd@xm;cJhavonf? rnfokd@aomtajctaersKd; atmufwGifrS eDukdvufpfonf toem;cHv$mukd ukd,fwkdif vufrcH& qkdonfukd Zmbk&if. 0ef}uD;rsm;u qkH;jzwfxm;cJh=uavonf? trSefwu,fwGifrl Zmbk&ifonf Zmqukd; q,fvkd (Tsarskoe Selo) teD;&Sd ol. eef;awmftwGuf òrd@awmfrSxGufcGgoGm;cJh+yD;jzpfavonf? b¾ma&;0ef}uD;onf ta&;w}uD; vkdtyfaeonfh acs;aiGrsm;twGuf jyifopf ESifh *smref b%fvkyfief;&Sifrsm;ESifh aqG;aEG;aepOfuwnf;u/ tvm;tvm&Sdonfh aiG;acs;iSg;rnfholrsm; pdwftaESmuft,Sufjzpfaprnfh rnfonfht&mrsKd;ukdrqdk olwkd@taeESifh a&Smif&Sm;vkd onfhtwGuf/ olwkd@onf ppftkyfcsKyfa&;Oya'ukd ra=unm&efvnf; qkH;jzwfvkduf=uonf? xkdtpm; tpkd;&onf aqmif;&moDeef;awmfokd@vm&m vrf;a=umif;rsm;ukd ppfwyfrsm;jzifh ydwfqkd@xm;vkduf+yD;/ ppfwyftiftm;csxm;r_ wckudk jyo&ef pDpOfvkdufavonf? csDwufqENjyvmolrsm;onf ppfom;rsm; vrf;ukd ydwfqkd@wm;qD;xm;onfhukd awG@&SdoGm;ygu aemufqkwfoGm;vdrfhrnf/ xkdtcg aoG;xGufoH,kdjzpfr_ESifh aphpyf aqG;aEG;r_ ESpfckpvkH; rvkdawmh[k olwkd@onf olwkd@pdwfukd olwkd@ vSnfhpm;xm;=uavonf? paeae@wGif “vrf;rsm;ay:wGif pka0;jcif;/ pDwef; vSnfhvnfjcif;wkd@ukd onf;cHvdrfhrnfr[kwf/ r+idrfroufjzpfr_}uD;rsm;ukd wm;qD;&eftwGuf Oya'u jyÏmef; xm;onfhtwkdif; jywfjywfom;om; ta&;,loGm;&vdrfhrnf” [laom owday;a=unmcsufwck xGufay: vmavonf? paeae@nwGif a*yGef/ Amema&S@Af ESifh tjcm;aomolrsm;onf olwkd@óudwifjyifqifxm;onfhae&mokd@ oGm;&ef awG@qkHcJh=uavnf? awmfvSefa&;orm;rsm;onf csDwufqENjyyGJwGif tvHeDrsm;o,faqmifvmjcif;ESifh t=urf;zuf&ef aoG;xkd;v_Haqmfjcif;rsm; óud;yrf;rnfukd a*yGefonf od&SdcJhavonf? xkd@a=umifh olwkd@onf vufeufrsm;o,faqmifvmjcif;ukd wm;jrpfydwfyif&efESifh tm%mykdifwkd@rS t=urf;zufwkdufckdufr_ ðyvkyf&ef twGuf rnfonfh ta=umif;jycsufr#&Sdrvmatmif umuG,fwm;qD;&ef wkd@ukd qkH;jzwfcJh=uonf? tu,fI Zmbk&ifonf olukd,fwkdif vma&mufI toem;cHv$mukd vufcH,lygu ol. vkHòcHa&;twGuf pdwfcs&ef tmrcHonfh pmwapmifukd a*yGefonf xkdnwGif Zmbk&ifxHokd@ qufo&ef a&;om;cJhavonf? xkd@jyif acgif;aqmifrsm;onf jzpfvmEkdifonfh ta&;ay:tpDtpOfrsm;ukd ðyvkyfcJhavonf? tu,fI t=urf;zufr_ jzpfvmygu '%f&m&olrsm;tm; ðypkapmifha&Smuf&eftwGuf v$wfawmf. trsKd;orD;tzGJ@0ifrsm;ukd pnf;&kH;&ef u&Dvif.ZeD;ukd ckdif;apcJhavonf? aemufqkH;wGif olwkd@onf "gwfykHq&mwa,mufxHokd@ oGm;a&mufI olwkd@. tkyfpk "gwfykHukd &kduf,lcJh=uavonf? csDwufqENjyr_rsm;onf tmZmenfol&Jaumif;b0tjzpf tqkH;owfoGm;Ekdifonfukd oabmaygufxm; cJh=uavonf? tpDtpOfðyvkyfolrsm;onf tu,fI olwkd@ towfcHcJh&ygu usef&pfol aqGrsKd;rdom;pkrsm;tm; ta=umif;=um;Ekdif&eftwGuf aqGrsKd;rdom;pkrsm;. trnfpm&if;rsm;ukd vJvS,fxm;vkduf=uavonf? xkd@jyif rdom;pkrsm;twGuf E_wfqufpmrsm;ukdvnf; a&;om;cJh=uavonf? v$wfawmf. OuUÏ tkdifAef AmqDvftdAf (Ivan Vasil'ev) onf ol@ZeD;xHokd@ a&;xm;&pfcJhonfh E_wfqufpmwGif - “eD&l&Sm; (Niusha!) tu,fI igh taeeJ@ tdrfukd jyefrvmEkdifcJhbl;qkdv#if/ (okd@) tu,fI ig towfcHcJh&w,fqkdv#if/ eD&l&Sm;&,f rikdygeJ@/ AmeD&l&m (Vaniura) ukd}uD;jyif;vmatmif arG;jrLapmifha&Smufyg/ jynfolwkd@&Jh aysmf&$ifcsrf;ajrhr_eJ@/ vGwfvyfa&;twGuf ig[m tmZmenfwa,muftjzpfeJ@ aoqkH;cJhwmyg qkdwmukd ol@ukd ajymjyygæ” [k pwifa&;xm;cJhavonf? olwkd@onf tjcm;aom csDwufrnfholrsm;. toufqkH;&_H;r_rsm;twGufvnf; tm;wif;ay;cJh=uavonf? paeae@n tpnf;ta0;ESifhywfoufI tm%mykdifawG[m t=urf;zufòzdcGif;enf;ukd tokH;ðyvdrfhrnfqkdonfukd Amema&S@AfrS a&;om;cJhygonf? “vkyfaqmifaewJh pGef@v$wftepfemcHr_awGtwGuf olwkd@&Jh pdwf"gwfykdif;qkdif&m wm0ef,lr_awGudk tm;vkH;[m &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; oabmaygufem;vnfxm;=uygw,f? bmjzpfvkd@vJqkdawmh oHo,&JhatmufrSm b,folrS &Sdrae=uvkd@ygbJ”? aemufxyf tjcm;wa,mufrSvnf; “wkdufyGJrSm tcsdefwkd ,m,D a0'emcHpm;&wm[m/ &mpkESpf=um emusifem&wmxufawmh ykdaumif;ygw,f” [k a&;om;cJhygonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

24


“vlxk wkdufyGJ.tp” we*FaEGae@ tm&k%frwufrD Amema&S@Afonf tdyf,mrS Ekd;vmcJhavonf? vufzuf&nfwcGufukd aomuf+yD;aemuf ol.rdom;pktm; cGJcGm&ef E_wfqufvkdufygonf? xkd@aemuf Akdifabmh*f &kH;cGJ (Vyborg branch) ÏmecGJokd@ oGm;&eftwGuf tvGefat;pdrfhaeaom avxkxJokd@ pwifxGufcGmvmcJhygonf? xkdae&mokd@ ola&muf&Sd oGm;aomtcg ¹yGwfodyfaeaom vlwtkyfonf &kH;cGJY apmifhqkdif;ae=uavonf? olrS (11) em&Drxkd;rDuwnf;u a&mufae=uaom olrsm;ukd eef;awmf&ifjyifokd@ ‚if;wkd@zmom xGufcGmoGm;ESifh=u&ef ajymvkdufygonf? xkdtcg olwkd@onf eDAmjrpf (Neva River) ukd jzwfaqmufxm;aom wHwm;rsm;. a&S@wGif ppfwyfrsm;rS rydwfqkd@rD vkyfaqmifEkdifrnfjzpfonf? aerGef;wnfhcsdefwGif ol ESifh (11) em&Daemufykdif;rSa&muf&Sdvm=uaom &maygif;rsm;pGm aom tvkyform;rsm;onf eef;awmfqDokd@oGm;&m 'DAkd&D,efpuD,m;vrf; (Dvorianskaia Street) okd@ pwif pkefqif;vm=uavonf? vrf;.tqkH;okd@ olwkd@ csOf;uyfvm=uaomtcg ajcvsipf pfom;rsm; ESifh jrif;wyfrsm; apmifhqkdif;ae onfukd olwkd@awG@vkduf=u&onf? olwkd@onf ‚if;wkd@ESifh ajcvSrf; (500) twGif;okd@ a&muf&Sdaomtcg tcsufay; oHwck xGufay:vmavonf? "m;tdrfc|wfxm;onfh ppfwyfokH;"m;&Snfrsm;onf aea&mifxJwGif wzswfzswf awmufyae=uavonf? jrif;pD;wyfom;rsm;onf csDwufvmolrsm;twGif;okd@ w[kefxkd; pD;0ifvm+yD; vltkyf}uD;tm; uef@vef@jzwfvrf;rsm;twGif;okd@ z&kdz&J jyef@usJoGm;apavonf? vltkyf}uD;onf +cHpnf;&kd;rsm;ukd ukwfuwfausmfwufoGm;=u+yD; 0if;rsm;twGif;okd@0if&ef *dwfwHcg;rsm;ukd zGifhvkduf=uavonf? xkd 0if;rsm;onf ckdv_H&m&SmazGaom tvkyform;rsm;ESifh jynfhESufoGm;avonf? jrif;pD;wyfom;rsm; jzwfausmfoGm;aomtcg vl (20) cef@avmufonf vrf;ay:wGif vJusae+yD; OD;xkyfrsm;/ &SL;zdeyftkyf &mbmpGyf rsm;ukd aemufwGifcsefxm;cJh+yD; vrf;ab;okd@a&mufatmif tv#iftjref wGm;oGm;aeonfukd Amema&S@Af owdðyrdavonf? r=umrD jrif;pD;wyfom;rsm;onf qef@usifzuft&yfrSaeI jyefvSnfhvmum vrf;xJokd@ w[kefxkd;pD;0ifvm+yD; vrf;ay:wGif usefaeolrsm;ukd ‚if;wkd@. "m;jym;jzifh &kdufESufxkaxmif;oGm;avonf? (10) rdepfcef@=umaomtcg/ ppfom;rsm; onf tjcm;wae&mokd@ xGufoGm;a=umif;aocsmaomtcg/ 0if;twGif;rS vlrsm;vnf; tjyifokd@ jyefxGufvm =uavonf? tawmfrsm;rsm;onf tdrrf sm;ok@d jyefomG ;=u+yD;/ Amema&S@Af ESifh tjcm;olrsm;onf &ifjyifawmf zufqDokd@ qufvufcsDwufaepOf/ tcsKd@onf aemufxyf wkdufckdufr_rsm;ukd a&Smifv$J&eftwGuf a&cJaeaom eDAmjrpfay:rSaeI jzwfausmfae=uawmhonf? xkdokd@jzpfaepOftwGif;Y a*yGefonf v$wfawmf. emAmÏmecGJ (Narva branch) rS t}uD;qkH;aom csDwufrnfholrsm;tkyfpkukd OD;aqmifvmavonf? wm&mumaemhAfum jrpf (Tarakanovka River) ukd jzwfxm;onfh wHwm;okd@ a&mufaomtcg olwkd@onf (93) tkdifuGwfpfuf ajcvsif wyf&if; (93rd Irkutsk Infantry Regiment) ESifh &ifqkdifvkduf&avawmhonf? xkd wyfronf òrd@okd@ ,ckrSa&mufvmump jzpf+yD;/ olwkd@ukd awmfvSefa&;wckukd v#Kd@0Suf}uHpnf ajcykef;ckwfae=uonf[k ajymxm;avonf? ppfom;rsm;onf pdwfv_yf&Sm;ae=u+yD;/ a&S@rS OD;aqmifcsDwufvmolrsm;onf ykvdyfwkd@. aemufokd@ jyefvn S fh&ef arwWm&yfcHcsufukd vpfvsL&_vkduf+yD;/ xkdtpm; vufrsm;ukdykdufI ppfwyfrsm;&Sd&mzufokd@ wkd;I 0ifvmaomtcg ppfom;rsm;onf ykdrkd pdwfv_yf&Sm;vm=uavonf? “yxrawmh vltkyf}uD;onf &ifjyifzufokd@ OD;wnfa&G@vsm;oGm;avonf” [k qENjyolwa,mufrS aemufykdif;wGif rSwfrdvmavonf? “xkd@aemuf/ &kdifz,faoewfrsm;ESifh toifhjzpfaeaom ppfom;rsm;ukd jrifaomtcg acgif;aqmifrsm;onf xkdppfom;rsm;&Sd&mzufokd@ pwifajy;oGm;avawmhonf/ vltkyf}uD;rSvnf; aemufrS vkdufygoGm;ygonf? c&m okH;}udrfr_wf+yD;aemuf/ ppfom;rsm;onf avxJokd@ ESpf}udrf aoewfaxmifypfvkdufygonf? vltkyf}uD;onf qufvufajy;oGm;avonf? wwd,t}udrf teD;uyf w&yfpyf ypfvkdufaomtcg tvHqdkif;ykwftxrf;orm;rsm; vJusoGm;avonf? atmf[pfoHrsm;/ ikdaºuG;oHrsm;ESifh emusif +iD;wGm;oHrsm;ukd =um;ae&avonf? ppfom;rsm;onf Za0Z0gpdwf&_yfaxG;jzpfaejcif;a=umifhaomf vnf;aumif;/ (okd@) olwkd@. txuftrdef@ay;t&m&Sd. &ufpuf=urf;ñuyfr_a=umifhaomfvnf;aumif;/ wyfcGJ ESpfckpvkH;onf wvSnfhpDywfcwf&m/ ‚if;wkd@. ,rf;uyfrsm;ukefoGm;onftxd vltkyfxJokd@ (7)}udrfxufykdI ypfcwfcJh=uav onf?” vltkyf}uD;onf 'gZifrsm;ESifhcsDI towfcH&olrsm; ESifh aoG;tkdifxJwGif vJavsmif;aeaom '%f&m& olrsm;ukd csefxm;cJh+yD; tumtuG,f&&eftvkd@iSg teD;tem;&Sdvrf;rsm;ay:okd@ z&kdz&Jjyef@usJoGm;avonf? a*yGefonf rifoufawGa0oGm;+yD;/

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

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ol@ukd,fol wwGwfwGwfajymqkda&&Gwfum/ ykef;atmif;&ef xGuo f Gm;avonf? xkdae@aemufykdif;wGif pma&;q&m rmhufZif a*:uD . wkdufcef;Y ol. &Snfvsm;aom qHyif ESifh rkwfqdwfar$;rsm;ukd jzwfawmufypfvkdufavonf? wòrd@vkH;&Sd vrf;qkHrsm;wGif csDwufolrsm;onf ppfwyfrsm; ESifh &ifqkdifwkd;rd+yD; tvm;wl tcif;jzpfyGm;r_ rsm; jzpfay:cJhavonf? okd@aomf axmifaygif;rsm;pGmwkd@onf eef;awmf&ifjyifokd@ rGef;vGJ (2) em&Drxkd;rDtxd oGm;a&muf&efóud;yrf;cJh=uonf? xkdae&mw0kdufwGif olwkd@onf Zmbk&ifukdapmihfqkdif;aecJh=uavonf? tpkvdkuf tòyHvkduf owfjzwfr_owif;rsm;onf jyef@ESH@oGm;+yD;/ a*yGefvnf; towfcHcJh&onf[laom aumv[v owif;rsm;ESifh a&mpyfjyef@ESH@oGm;aomtcg vlxk. a'goonf ar#mfvifhxm;onfxuf ykdrkd }uD;xGm;vm avonf? (2) em&Dxkd;oGm;aomfvnf; Zmbk&ifonf xGufay:rvmcJhacs? aemufqkH;wGif ppfwyfrsm;onf &ifjyifawmfukd &Sif;vif;&eftwGuf qENjyolrsm;tm; aoewfrsm;jzifhypfcwfjcif; ESifh =umyGwfrsm;jzifh &kdufESufjcif;/ ‚if;wkd@. "m;jym;rsm;jzifh &kdufESufjcif; wkd@jzifh pwif &Sif;vif;avawmhonf? t=urf;zuf wkdufckdufr_rsm;onf wae@vkH;ESifh wnaevkH; jzpfyGm;cJhavonf? trsm;tm;jzifh aqmif;&moD eef;awmf teD;w0kdufESifh AmqDavhAfpuD u|ef; (Vasilevskii Island) rS jrpfukdjzwful;onfh ae&mrsm;wGif trsm;qkH; jzpfyGm;cJhavonf? awmfvSefa&; v_H@aqmfr_ ratmifjrifyJ/ tm%mykdifwkd@. aoG;v$rf;aom we*FaEG xajrmufatmifjrif oGm;aomtcg/ Zmbk&ifajymqkdaeonfh olonf ol. jynfom;rsm;tay: cspfcifjrwfEkd;r_&Sdonfqkdaom t&mrsm; rSm tESpfom&ryg Avmoufoufom jzpfoGm;avonf? olwkd@. tkyfpkd;olrsm;onf w&m;r#wr_twGuf olwkd@. atmf[pfawmif;qkdaeoHrsm;ukd =um;vdrfhrnf (okd@r[kwf) olwkd@. tusKd;twGuf vkyfaqmifvdrfhrnf [laom pdef@yDwmpbwf tvkyform;rsm;. ar#mfvifhcsufrsm;onf tzsufqD;cHvkduf&avonf? bkef;awmf}uD; a*yGefxuf ykdI rnfolr# ,rf;ykHrD;us emusnf;a'goxGufrxGufEkdifcJh=uacs? we*FaEGnwGif a*:uDonf rkwfqdwf ar$; Avmjzpfaeaom a*yGefukd pD;yGm;a&; vGwfvyfr_ tzGJ@tpnf; (Free Economic Society) &Sd tpnf;ta0; wckokd@ ac:aqmifoGm;avonf? xkdae&mokd@ ynmwwfvlwef;pm;rsm;onf wae@wm tjzpf tysufrsm;. tajctaersm;ukd okH;oyf&eftwGuf oGm;=uavonf? a*:uDonf rwfwyf&yfvkduf+yD; a*yGef. xkwfjyef a=unmcsufukd a0iSvkduf+yD;/ Zmbk&ifESifh jynfolrsm;t=um;wGif olwkd@&Jabmfrsm;. aoG;rsm; pGef;ayvJavsmif;aeonfukdvnf; ajymvkdufavonf? xkd@aemuf a*yGefukd,fwkdifxIatmf[pfvkdufonfrSm “+idrf;csrf;aom enf;vrf;jzifh ajz&Sif;a&;onf &_H;edrfhoGm;cJhav+yD æ ,ck u|Ekfyfwkd@ tjcm;aom enf;vrf;rsm;jzifh qufvufcsDwuf&awmhr,f”? tvkyform;rsm;. wkdufyGJtwGuf &HykHaiGxnfh0if&ef arwWm&yfcH+yD;aemuf tpnf;ta0;onf tkwfatmfaomif;wif;jzpfvmonfukd a*yGefonf owdðyrd+yD;aemuf aemufaz;aygufrSaeI xGufajy;oGm;avonf? xkd@aemuf jynfyEkdifiHjcm;wkdif;jynfokd@ qufvufxGufcGmoGm;+yD;/ ta&;awmfykHESifh ywfoufI ol. yg0ifulnDv_yf&Sm;r_ wpdwfwykdif;r# r&Sdawmhacs? Zefe0g&D (9) &ufae@rwkdifrDtxd/ Zmbk&iftm; qef@usif twkduftcHðyjcif;onf EkdifiHa&;t&wufºuG vmaom vlxktwGif;Y t"du ajymqkdaqG;aEG;aeaom ta=umif;t&mjzpfavonf? xdkae@rSpI tpkd;&ESifh ol. twkduftcH ESpfzufpvkH;onf jzpfvmEkdifonfh óudwifwGufcsufrSef;qI r&Ekdifaom tiftm;wck/ ajymif;vJap Ekdifaom tiftm;wck/ vlxktkHºuGr_wckwkd@ukd pOf;pm;xm;&awmhrnfjzpfonf? aqmif;&moD eef;awmfokd@ csDwuf yGJonf t&m&mwkdif;ukd ajymif;vJoGm;apcJhonf? jynfolwkd@. oufOD;qHykdifpepftay: rsufpdrSdwfacgif;ndwf vkdufavsmcJhr_rsm;onf ysufpD;oGm;cJhav+yD? wkdif;jynfonf ol. orkdif;wGif t}uD;rm;qkH;aom taESmifht,Suf jzifh r=umrD pwifawmhrnfjzpfavonf? pnf;&kH;olrsm;. tjrifwGif csDwufyGJonf atmifjrifcJhavonf? Zmbk&if.*k%foduQmESifh w&m;0ifwnf&Sdr_wkd@onf olwkd@ óudwifwGufqxm;onfhtwkdif; aoG;tkdifxJwGif vJus epfrGef;oGm;cJhav+yD? xkd@tjyif xkd@ae@ csDwufqENjyyGJwGif yg0ifcJhonf tvkyform; trsKd;om;/ trsKd;orD; rsm;onf olwkd@. toufrsm;ESifh &if;I wrifoufouf &nf&G,fzefwD;aom yËdyuQtjzpfr[kwfyJ/ w&m;r#wr_twGuf &kdusKd;ESdrfhcspGm awmif;qkdr_tjzpf olwkd@v_yf&Sm;r_. wefzkd;&if;ukd jyef,loGm;avonf? a*yGef. v$wfawmfonf aemufxyf wm&SnfcHaom tusKd;oufa&mufr_ wckvnf;&SdcJhavonf? odk@aomfvnf; Ttcsufukd xifomjrifompGm &SmazGzkd@ cufvSonf? Zefe0g&D (9) &ufae@ tjzpftysufjzpfonfh &kdifz,faoewfrsm;jzifh w&yfpyf ypfcwfr_rsm;ESifh jrif;pD;wyfom;rsm;. w[kefxkd;0ifa&mufwkdufckdufr_rsm;onf jynfolwkd@. em;xJwGif yJhwifoHtjzpf usef&SdaecJhjcif;jzpfonf? pdef@yDwmpbwf&Sd axmifaygif;rsm;pGmaom tvkyform;rsm;onf rdrdwkd@zmomvGwfvyfpGm vkyfaqmifEkdifaom tawG@tóuH&&SdoGm;=uavonf? oufOD;qHykdifbk&ifpepfatmufwGifaexkdifcJhonfh aexkdifr_ykHpHa[mif;xuf wpkHw&m tav;omoGm;cJhavonf? usefaom

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

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ESpfrsm;twGuf òrd@awmf ESifh wjcm;ae&mrsm;&Sd tvkyform;rsm;onf xkdtajctaeay:wGif tjcm;aom tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;ukdvnf; zGH@òzd;vmatmif wnfaqmufEkdifcJh=uonf? wcgw&H EkdifiHa&;qkdif&m tcGifhta&;rsm; ESifh pD;yGm;a&;wkd;wufr_wkd@twGuf wkdufyGJ0if&ef tjcm;aom ykdrkdI ynmwufaom vlwef;pm; rsm;ESifh ylaygif;aqmif&GufvmEkdifcJhonf? atvufqkdif u&Dvif (Aleksei Karelin) onf tvkyform; vlwef;pm; EkdifiHa&;xJwGif aomhcsufusonfh tcef;u¾rS yg0ifvkyfaqmifvmovkdrsKd; v$wfawmfonfvnf; &nfrSef;csuftcsKd@ESifh ykdrkd&Sif;vif;aom vuQ%mrsm;ukd a&S@okd@ o,faqmifvmEkdifcJhonf? v$wfawmfonf trSwfonmxJwGifom usef&SdawmhonfhtcgwGif/ xGufay:vmcJhonfh acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh tavhtusifh jzpfcJh onfh pdwfxm;rsm;onf &xm;oHvrf;cif; ausmufwkH;rsm;tjzpf vlxkwkdufyGJopfqDokd@ ay;qyfcJhavonf? bk&if eDukdvufpfonf trsKd;om;a&;t=uyftwnf;ESifh ae@pOfyk*~dKvfa&;vkyfief;rsm;ukd cGJjcm;jcif; rðyEkdif aomtcg/ tm;vkH;ukd ae@pOfrSwfwrf;wGif wm0ef,l a&;oGif;vkdufavonf? “tvGefausuGJ 0rf;enf; zG,f&m ae@wae@ygbJ/ bmjzpfvkd@vJqkdawmh tvkyform;awGu aqmif;&moDeef;awmfukd csDwufzdk@ óud;yrf;=uwJh twGuf qkd;&Gm;vSwJh r+idrfrouf/ z&kdz&Jjzpfr_awG[m pdef@yDwmpbwfòrd@rSm jzpfyGm;cJh&w,f? òrd@&J@ tpdwftykdif; tawmfrsm;rsm;rSm ppfwyfawG[m rypf&ifrjzpfwJhtajctaeukd a&mufcJh&w,f? vlawGrsm;pGm aoqkH;/ '%f&m&&SdcJh=uw,f? bk&m;a& æ b,favmufawmifrsm; ESvkH;a=uuGJ/ emusifzG,f&m aumif;vkdufygvdrfhæ? r,fawmf[mòrd@uae bk&m;ausmif;ukd wkduf&kduf a&muf&SdvmcJhw,f/ tm;vkH;eJ@ ae@vnfpm twlwuGpm; aomufcJhw,f? +yD;awmh rD&Sm (Misha) eJ@ vrf;av#mufxGufoGm;w,f? r,fawmf[m wnwm 'DrSmaexkdifoGm; cJhw,f”? [k ae@pOfrSwfwrf;wGif a&;om;cJhonf? &ufowWywf/ ae@&ufrsm;pGm ukefqkH;cJhavonf? Zmbk&ifonf olESifh ol@jynfolrsm;t=um;wGif csnfaESmif qufoG,fxm;onfh opPmawmfcHr_ óud;r#ifonf jywfawmufoGm;cJh+yD qkdonfukd od&Sdem;vnf&ef EkdifiHa&;tod^m%f csKd@wJhcJhavonf? omrefjynfolvlxk}uD;onf vlvdrf/ vlnpf/ vl,kwfrm tkyfpki,frsm;. aoG;aqmifr_a=umifh aoGzDvrf;v$JcJh&avonf[k ol awG;xifaecJhonf? ol@tpkd;&. ckdifrmawmifhwif;aer_ a=umifh 0&kef;okef;um;jzpfr_ukd a&Smifv$JEkdifcJhavonf? xkd@a=umifh eDukdvufpfonf ppfwyftwGif;Y pnf;urf;wif; =uyfr_jzifh emrnf&aeonfh ppfwyft&m&SdwOD;jzpfonfh 'DrDw&D x&DayghAf (Dmitrii Trepov) tm; pdef@yDwmpbwf. bk&ifcHcsKyftjzpf cef@tyfvkduf+yD;/ ‚if;tm; ppftkyfcsKyfa&; Oya'xkwfjyefEkdifonfh tcGifh tm%myg ay;tyfvkdufavonf? x&DayghAfonf oydwfwkdufyGJ pnf;&kH;olrsm; ESifh v$wfawmfacgif;aqmifrsm;ukd zrf;qD;xdef;odrf;vkdufjcif;/ owif;pmrsm;tay: ESdyfuGyfjcif;/ ESifh oydwfarSmufqENjyonfh puf&kHrsm;wGif ppfwyfrsm; csxm;jcif;jzifh òrd@awmf +idrf0yfydjym;r_ jyefvnfwnfaqmuf&ef óud;yrf;cJhavonf? xkd t&mrsm;tm;vkH;onf tm%mcsKyfukdifolwkd@onf jynfolwkd@.vrf;ay:wGif ydwfqkd@xm;onf[laom aoG;v$rf;aom we*FaEGukd axmufultm;jznfhvkdufonfh tm;jznfhvkyf&yfrsm;yifjzpfawmhonf? Zmbk&ifonf ol@zcif. apwemo'Ngw&m;rsm;tay: jynfolwkd@. ,kH=unfcJhr_wkd@ukd jyefvnf wnfaqmuf&eftwGuf ajy&majyma=umif; trlt&m oabmxm;ukd wenf;wenf;jzifh teJqkH; urf;vSrf;&rnfqkdonfukd eDukdvufpf. 0ef}uD;tcsKd@onf jzifh em;vnf oabmaygufxm;=uavonf? rD&fpuD (Mirskii) ESifh pkdufysKd;a&;0ef}uD; at tufpf tmrkdavmhAf (A. S. Ermolov) wkd@onf Zmbk&iftm; tvkyform;rsm;. om,m0ajyma&;twGuf ol. wm0ef&Sdr_wkd@ukd a=unm&ef wkdufwGef;cJhavonf? tu,fI Zmbk&ifonf tvkyform;rsm;. emusnf;csuf/ ra=ueyfcsufrsm;ukd todtrSwfðyr_ wpkHw&m rðyvkyfygu/ òrd@awmfwGif; &kwf&kwfoJoJjzpfr_/ yGufavm&kdufr_ukd +idrfusoGm;atmif rðyvkyfEkdifygu/ EkdifiHjcm;+rD&Sifrsm;xHrS &k&SEkdifiH. aiGacs;iSg;r_tay: xdckdufepfemvdrfhrnf[k b¾ma&;0ef}uD;rSvnf; xyfavmif;today;cJhavonf? wpkHw&m t&dyft¹rGufjyo&ef eDukdvufpfonf oabmwlncD Jhavonf? olonf a&S;&kd;pGJtjrif t,ltq&Sdonfh tvkyform; (34) a,mufukd rdrdzmoma&G;cs,fI Zmqukd; q,fvkd (Tsarskoe Selo) okd@ zdwfac:cJhavonf? Zmqukd; q,fvkd wGif tvkyform;rsm;onf wef;pDI wukd,fvkH;c|wf &SmazGcH&+yD;/ Zmbk&if. qkH;roifcef;pm ay;jcif;ukd cHcJh=u&avonf? olonf ‚if;wkd@tm; aemufaemif qENjyaESmifh,Sufr_rsm; wGif 0ifa&mufyg0ifjcif; rðy&ef owday;cJhavonf? Zmbk&ifrS ta&;w,lvkyfI ajymonfrSm “tvkyform; jynfolawG&Jh &kd;om;wJh pdwfcHpm;r_awG eJ@ igukd,fawmfjrwftay:rSmxm;wJh olwkd@&Jh r,drf;,kdifEkdifwJh =unf!kd o'Ngw&m;awGukd igukd,fawmfjrwf ,kH=unfawmfrlw,f/ xkd@twGufa=umifh olwkd@&Jh tjypfawGukd igukd,fawmfjrwf cGifhv$wfawmfrlonf”? xkd atmifhoD;atmifhouf tcH&cufonfhpum;rsm;ukd ausmfvGefI/ tpkd;&onf òrd@awmf&Sd tvkyform;rsm;. tajctaeukd

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

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pkHprf;ppfaq;&eftwGuf tvkyform;rsm;rS a&G;cs,v f kdufonfh tvkyform;ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;yg0ifonfh aumfr&Sifopfw&yfukd cef@tyfcJhavonf? azaz:0g&Dv (18) &ufae@wGif/ 0ef}uD;rsm;ESifh ol. rdom;pkrS zdtm;ay;r_rsm;a=umifh/ eDukdvufpfonf pdwfrygh wygjzifh woD;yk*~vrsm;. tcGifhta&;rsm;ESifh 0ef}uD;rsm;aumifpDokd@ toem;cHyef=um;Ekdifonfh tzGJ@tpnf;wkd@ukd cGifhðyvkdufavonf? xkd@tjyif a&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufonfh v$wfawmfwcktwGuf ra&r&m r_ef0g;0g; pDrHudef;rsm;udkvnf; a=unmcJhavonf? xkd jyifqifajymif;vJr_rsm;ukd Zmbk&ifonf +yD;cJhonfh 'DZifbmv uwnf;u rD&fpuD t}uHay; wifjycJh onfhtwkdif; a=unmcJhygu/ ynmwwfvlwef;pm;rsm;xHrS opPmawmfcHr_ wpkHw&mukd ol@taejzifh &&SdEkdif ayvdrhfrnf? ,cktcg azaz:0g&Dva&mufrS a=unmcJhonfhtwGuf tv,ftvwf0g'Drsm;onfyifv#if xkd tajymif;tvJr#avmufESifh rnfokd@r# auseyfr_ r&SdcJh=uacs? xkd@jyif olwkd@ zGJ@pnf;ay;xm;onfh tvkyform;a&;&m pkHprf;r_aumfr&SifrS tvkyform;ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;. awmif;qkdcsufrsm;onf tvGeftu|Hawmif;qkdcsufrsm;[k ,lq+yD;aemuf xkdaumfr&Sifukd zsufodrf;vkdufjcif;onf tm%mykdifwkd@. tcsnf;ESD;tcsdefðzef;wD;r_yifjzpfavonf? xkd@a=umihf jynfolwkd@. ta&;ay:jy\emwckonf tm%mykdifwkd@tm; jyefvnfwkH@jyef&ef wGef;tm;ay;cJhonf qkdonfrSm xif&Sm;apcJhaomfvnf;/ trSefwu,f rsm;pGmvkyfaqmif&ef rvkHavmufcJhacs? Zmbk&ifrS csDwkHcswkHESifh qkH;jzwfcsufray;Ekdifjzpfaeaomtcg/ &k&SEkdifiHorkdif;wGifjzpfyGm;cJhonfh tvkyform; r+idrfrouf jzpfr_rsm;wGif t}uD;us,fqkH;aom tkHºuGr_ v_dif;wHykd;}uD;onf wkdif;jynfukd xdrSefvm avawmhonf? pdef@yDwmpbwfESifh tjcm;aom òrd@}uD;rsm;wGif tvkyform;rsm;onf vrf;rsm;ay:okd@ xGufvm=u+yD;/ vkyftm;cwkd;jr‡ifhay;a&;/ tvkyfcsdefav#mhcsay;a&;/ ESifh tvkyf=uyfrsm;rS tvkyform;rsm;tay: aumif;rGefpGm qufqHapa&;/ wkd@ukd awmif;qkd=uavonf? tvkyfcGiftwGif;Y qENjyoydwfarSmufr_rsm;ukd ydwfyifxm;onfh tpkd;&. Oya'ukd raxrJhjrifðyjcif;jzifh/ olwkd@. tvkyf&Sifrsm;tay: pdefac:vkdufjcif; jzpfavonf? Toydwfrsm;onf tpkd;&ukd apmfum;jcif;vnf; jzpfavonf? tm%mykdifrsm;rS xkwfjyefwm;jrpfxm;onfh vlpkvla0;jzifh rae&/ pnf;&kH;zGJ@pnf;jcif;rðy&[laom trdefukd tHwkonfhtaejzifh/ ,cifqENjyr_rsm;xuf e,fajr{&d,m ykdrkd us,fjyef@ }uD;rm;aom yrm%mjzifh/ olwkd@onf tm%m&Sifrsm;ukd tHwkpdefac:vkdufavonf? Zefe0g&DvwGif pkpkaygif; qENjy tvkyform; (400 000) ausmf&Sd+yD;/ azaz:0g&DvwGif (300 000) eD;yg;&Sdavonf? zdESdyfoltm%m&Sifrsm;tm; tHwkpdefac:jcif;onf (20) &mpkwGif vkyf&kd;vkyfpOfwck jzpfvmavonf? rnfonhfae&mwGifrqkd vlwkdif;. rausreyfjzpfr_rsm;ESifh vufawG@b0tajctaersm;wGif/ yxrOD;pGm zdESdyfcH&rnf/ aemuf ykdrkdus,fjyefaom EkdifiHa&;rD;awmuf wckjzpfvm&eftwGuf xkd zdESdyfr_onf avmifpmjzpfvm ayrnf? wkdif;jynfwjynftm; rnfokd@ ðyjyifajymif;vJrnf[laom v_yf&Sm;r_wckonf tvkdtavsmufvnf; jzpfay:Ekdifonf (okd@r[kwf) txl;*&kpkdufpGm pnf;&kH;zGJ@pnf;xm;jcif;jzifhvnf; jzpfEkdifonf? okd@aomf w}udrfcsDwuf qENjyrdonfESifh ESdrfESif;r_rygbJESifh (okd@) tav#mhay;ESpfodrfhac|;odyfr_ rygbJESifh xdkqENjyr_ukd xdef;csKyf&yfwef@&ef rjzpfEkdifoavmufyif/ (okd@r[kwf) xkdt&mrsm;rwkdifrD aemufqkH;wGif atmifyGJ&&SdoGm;jcif;jzpfayrnf? (1905) ckESpf/ ZEM0g&DvwGif aqmif;&moDeef;awmfokd@ csDwufqENjycJhaom &k&Sm;rsm;onf &J&ifhaom yef;wkdifrsm;&Sdjcif;ESifh tm%mukd ckdif+rJpGm qkyfukdifxm;olrsm;xHokd@ vufeufrJh qENjyjcif;wkd@onf EkdifiHawmf ESifh jynfolvlxkt=um;&Sd qufqHa&;udk ajymif;vJapcJhavonf? Zmbk&if ESifh ol. 0ef}uD;rsm;onf yifukd,ftpGrf;tprsm; r&Sd=uawmhay? ,cktcg jynfolvlxkonf ajymif;vJr_ ajcvSrf;ukd pwifaerd+yDjzpfavonf?

“yËdyuQ jzpfaeaom tifykdif,m wck” (1905) ckESpf./ aEGOD;&moD ESifh aEG&moD twGif;Y tifyg,mwckvkH;wGif/ jynfolwkd@onf olwkd@. edpP"l0 b0rsm;ukd xdef;csKyfaeonfh tm%mykdiftaqmufttkHrsm; ESifh pwif&ifqkdifavawmhonf? tqifhjrifonfh qENjyyGJrsm;ESifh pdwf"gwfjrihfrm;onhf EkdifiHa&;ðyjyifajymif;vJr_azmfaqmif&ef awmif;qkdr_rsm;onf avsmhyg; roGm;cJh acs? xkd@tjyif tjyif;xefqkH;aom yËdyuQrsm;onf oufODqHykdifpepf. txufykdif; tm%mykdifrsm; twGif;Y r[kwfyJ/

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atmufajctm%mykdifrsm;twGif;Y jzpfay:cJhonf? ajr&Sifrsm;ESihf vkyif ef;&Sifrsm;/ a'otkyfcsKyfa&; tm%mykdif t&m&Sdrsm;ESifh/ ppfbuft&m&Sdrsm;/ tm;vkH;wkd@onf ‚if;wkd@. txl;vkyfykdifcGifh tm%mrsm;ESifh ‚if;wkd@. vkyfief;tqifhrsm;ukd atmufajcrSaeI wkdufckdufjcif;ukd cHae&avonf? xkdumvrsm;twGif;Y/ tm%mykdifrsm;onf vkyfief;aqmifwmrsm;wGif av;uefxkdif;r_dif; zifhaES;ae=u avonf? Zmbk&if. ppfom;rsm;ESifh ykvdyfrsm;onf jynfolvlxktm; zdESdyfxm;&ef rpGrf;aqmifEkdifonfh tcsdefwGif/ bk&ifonf t"duusonfh ðyjyifajymif;vJa&;vkyfief;rsm;ukd vkyfaqmifcGifhay;&ef tvkdqENr&Sday? ajrjyif&Sd rku'efwdkufyGJ (Battle of Mukden) ESifh/ yifv,fjyif&Sd ql&SDrm a&vuf=um; (Tsushima Straits) wkdufyGJrsm;wGif/ *syefwkd@tay: ppfa&;&_H;edrfhr_topf ESpfckonf ppfa&;pGrf;aqmifEkdifr_r&Sd[laom pdwf"gwfa&;&m usqif;r_rsm;ukdom jrifhwufvmapcJhonf? txl;ojzihf ql&SDrm a&vuf=um;wkdufyGJonf &k&Swkd@tm; t&Suf wuGJtusKd;eJjzpfapcJhonf? &k&Swkd@. abmvfwpf ppfoabFmtkyfpkonf a&vuf=um;tm; vaygif;rsm;pGm =umatmif jzwful;+yD;aemuf em&Dtenf;i,ftwGif; *syefwkd@. vkH;0zsufqD;jcif;ukd cHvkduf&avonf? xkd@aemuf r=umcifyif +idrf;csrf;a&; ajymqkdaqG;aEG;r_ pwifcJhavonf? xkd&_H;edrfhr_ &moDOwktwGif;Y ppfom;rsm;onf ‚if;wkd@tm; ay;tyfxm;onfh tvkyfwm0efrsm;ukd vkyfaqmif&eftwGuf pdwfyg0ifpm;r_ tenf;i,fukdom jyocJh=uavonf? txl;ojzifh/ puf&kHrsm;&Sd&ma'o twGif;Y +idrf0yfydjym;r_rsm; jyefvnfwnfaqmuf&ef trdef@ay;cH&aomtcg/ (okd@r[kwf)/ v,f,majrrsm;ay:wGif v,form;rsm;. aESmifh,SufzsufqD;r_rsm;ESifh óuHawG@&aomtcgrsm;wGif jzpfavonf? tcsKd@wyfpdyfrsm;&Sd &Jabmfrsm;onf EkdifiHa&; tpnf;ta0;yGJrsm;okd@ oGm;a&mufjcif; ESifh awmfvSefa&; pmapmifrsm;ukd zwfjcif;/ ESifh wyfwGif;Y txufESifhatmuf trdef@remcHr_rsm;wkd@jzifh v$rf;rkd;aeavonf? ajcvsifwyf&if;wckonf ppfom; wa,mufukd zrf;qD;jcif;ukd[ef@wm;aeavonf? xkd@jyif &kdifz,fwyfcGJwckonf ‚if;wkd@. wyfzGJ@0if wa,muf axmifrS rvGwfajrmufao;rDtcsdeftxd pufypfuGif;avhusifhcef;ukd qif;&ef jiif;qefaecJhavonf? òrd@}uD;rsm; ESifh aus;&Gmrsm;Yvnf;aumif;/ &k&SEkdifiH. ESvkH;om;jzpfaom òrd@awmfwGifvnf;aumif;/ tifykdif,me,ferdwfcsif;xdpyf&ma'orsm;wGifvnf;aumif;/ ppfwyftwGif;Y upOfhuvsm;/ z&kdz&Jjzpfaeonfh twGufa=umihf rnfonfhppfom;r# wOD;wa,mufwnf;oD;oef@[lI r&Sdawmhacs? tkyfpkwkdif;onf ‚if;wkd@. ukd,fykdif rauseyfcsuf/ epfemcsuf/ emusnf;csuf ukd,fpD&Sdae=uavonf? ppfom;rsm;. vpmrSm tvGefeJyg; aeonfhtwGuf tawmfrsm;rsm;rSm tjcm; vkdtyfonfrsm;ukd 0,f,l&eftwGuf ‚if;wkd@a0pk&&Sdonfh aygifrkef@ rsm;xJrS tcsKd@ukd a&mif;cs=u&avonf? tvkyfwm0efryg&Sdaom ppfom;rsm;rSm yxrwef;ESifh 'kwd,wef; &xm;wGJrsm;wGif pD;eif;jcif;/ t&ufbm;aumifwmrsm; (okd@r[kwf) pm;aomufqkdifrsm;okd@ vnfywfjcif;/ txl;owfrSwfxm;aom vrf;rsm; (okd@r[kwf) jynfol@yef;+cHrsm;wGif vrf;av#mufjcif;/ ponfwkd@ukd wm;jrpfydwfyifjcif;cH&avonf? v,form;rsm;onfvnf; ‚if;wkd@ay;aqmif&onfh tcGeftwkwfrsm;ESifh ywfoufI rausreyfjzpfae=uavonf? ‚if;wkd@ESifh a'orif;pkd;&mZm tokdif;t0ef;rsm;t=um;&Sd v,f,majr ykdifqkdifr_yrm%mrSm }uD;rm;pGm rnDr#r_jzpfaejcif;wkd@onf v,form;rsm; t=um;wGif rausreyfjzpfae=u avonf? xkd@tjyif tifykdif,mtwGif;&Sd &k&S r[kwfaom jynfolrsm;onf rdrdwkd@. bmompum;rsm;ESifh ,Ofaus;r_rsm;ukd vufatmufcHtqifhxm;jcif;ukd rauseyfuef@uGuf=uavonf? ukd,fykdif tkyfcsKyfcGifh&&Sda&;udk tvkd&Sd=uavonf? xkdrauseyfcsufrsm;tm;vkH;onf topfjzpfay:vmonfrsm;r[kwfay? okd@aomf xkdt&mrsm;tm;vkH;ukd aygufuGJvmatmif ðyvkyfay;onfrSm/ ,ckvwfwavmwGifjzpfyGm;cJhonfh/ tpkd;&onf olESifh xdyfwkduf&ifqkdif awG@vmonfh tjrifrwlol/ oabmxm;uGJvGJolrsm;ukd pdef@yDwmpbwfvrf;rsm;ay:wGif/ ukd,fhjynfolukd &uf&ufpufpuf t=urf;zuf owfjzwfjcif;jzifh ukd,fh *k%foduQmukd !‡Kd;EGrf;atmif ðyvkyfjcif;a=umifhyifjzpfonf? Zmbk&ifonf jynfolrsm;. ,kH=unfopPm&Sdr_ukd b,fvkdrS r&&Sdawmhacs/ ol. =unf;wyfppfAkdvfcsKyfrsm;ESifh a&wyfAkdvfcsKyfrsm;onf ppfyGJ&_H;edrfhr_wGif *k%foduQm usqif;cJh=uavonf? EkdifiHawmf. yJhxdef;pifay:rSaeI tkdrif;aeaom yJheif;}uD;onf yËdyuQ v_dif;wHykd;rsm;ESifh jynfhv$rf;aeaom yifv,fwckukd awG@vkduf&avonf? tifykdif,m. pyg;usDwckjzpfonfh umhpfuf jynfe,f (Kursk province) wGif/ azaz:0g&Dv (8) &ufae@wGif v,form;tkHºuGr_rsm; pwifjzpfyGm;cJhavonf? &maygif;rsm;pGmaom awmifolv,form;rsm;onf bk&m;&Sdckd;ausmif; acgif;avmif;rsm;/ rD;ykHrsm;jzifh t&dyferdwfjy+yD; ‚if;wkd@. vSnf;rsm;jzifh wef;pDI a'o&Sd csrf;omaomtdrf}uD;rsm;qDokd@

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xGufcGmvmcJh=uavonf? xkd@aemuf olwkd@onf *kda'gifrsm;/ ukefavSmif&kHrsm;ukd &kdufzsufcsKd;azmufI *sKH/ pyg; oD;ESH rsm;udk vSnf;rsm;jzifh o,faqmifvm=u+yD;/ aemufykdif;wGif tdrfwtdrfpD wkdif;wGif&Sdaom rdom;pkta&twGuftvkduf a0jcrf;vkduf=uavonf? azaz:0g&Dv (18) &ufae@wGif/ tpkd;&onf a*smf*sD,mjynfe,fY ppftkyfcsKyfa&;Oya'ukd a=unmvkduf+yD; ppfom; (10000) ukd apv$wfvkdufavonf? (1903) ckESpfuwnf;rSpwifI a0;vHacgifoDonfh *l&D,ma'o&Sd v,form;rsm;onf rnfonfh tpkd;&tm%mykdifrsm;. tav;*&kðyjcif;ukdr# r&&SdcJhay? olwkd@onf tcGeftwkwfrsm; ay;&efjiif;qef=u+yD;/ Zmbk&if. &kyfykHukd rD;&_d@cJh=uavonf? olwkd@onf tpkd;& t&m&Sd tcsKd@ukdvnf; owfypfcJh=u+yD;/ qENjyonfh tpdwftykdif;w&yftaejzifh xkdtowfcH&ol tpkd;& t&m&Sdrsm;ukd p¾mvrsm;rS ajrjr‡Kyfray;cJh=uay? *l&D,m&Sd tm%mrsm;tm;vkH;onf *l&D,ef; qkd&S,f'Drkdu&ufwpf aumfrwD (Guriian Social Democratic Committee) . vufxJwGif &Sdavonf? xkd aumfrwDonf tywfpOf tpnf;ta0;rsm;ac:,l+yD; vGwfvyfaom (xdef;rEkdifodrf;r&aom) pum;&nfvkyGJ tpDtpOfrsm;ukd usif;yay;avonf? tusKd;oufa&mufr_tm;jzifh *l&D,monf ukd,fhzmomukd,ftkyfcsKyfonfh v,form; orwEkdifiHwck jzpfvmavonf? }uD;us,fxif&Sm;onfh 0wˆKa&;q&m}uD; vD,kd awmfvfpwGdKif;onf tpkd;&tm%mykdifrsm;ESifh ryl;aygif;/ raqmif&Gufa&;ukd =umjrifhpGm a[majymcJholjzpfonf? a*smf*sD,m vlrsKd;rsm; onf oltESpf (20) ausmf=um pOf;pm;cJh/ a&;om;cJhonfrsm;ukd twdtus taumiftxnfazmfae=ujcif; jzpfonf[k ol. a*smf*sD,mvlrsKd; wynfhwOD;xHokd@ pma&;ajymcJhavonf? awmfvfpwGdKif;rS xkdwynfhtm; ajymcJhonfrSm tpkd;&u ‚if;wkd@tm; tultnDay;r_ukd vSrf;ar#mf=unfhaejcif;xuf/ (okd@) tm%mydkifrsm;tm; wkdufckdufjcif;onf/ olwkd@onf olwkd@tm; tkyfpkd;aeolrsm;xHrS olwkd@.vGwfvyfa&;ukd olwkd@zmomolwkd@ &kd;pif;pGm &,lvkdufjcif;yifjzpfonf? cg&fqGef jynfe,f (Kherson province) &Sd/ wJvm&SDEkd (Talashino) aus;&GmwGif/ v,form;rsm;onf awG@qkHpnf;a0;=u+yD;/ toem;cHv$mrl=urf;wapmifudka&;om;cJh+yD;/ pdef@yDwmpbwf&Sd tpkd;&xHokd@ qufocJh avonf? “u|efawmfrsKd;wkd@. vkdtyfcsufrsm;rSm tvGefyif}uD;rm;vSygonf/ t&Sif- &mpkESpfrsm;pGm u|efawmfrsKd; v,form;rsm;onf EkdifiHawmf. qkd;0g;aom trSm;rsm;/ tcuftcJ/ ab;'kuQ/ tEW&m,frsKd;pkHwkd@ukd cg;pnf;cHcJh=u &ygonf? &k&SEkdifiHawmf}uD;csJ@xGif&eftwGuf u|eaf wmfrsKd;wkd@. bkd;ab;bDbifrsm;onf ol@wkd@. aoG;rsm;ukd ay;qyfcJh=uygonf? &mpkESpfck ESifh w0ufausmf=um u|efawmfrsKd;wkd@onf ckdif;zwfu|efb0jzifh &SifoefcJh=u& ygonf? xkdokd@jzifh txl;tcGifhxl;cHvlwef;pm;rsm; csrf;om}uD;yGm; ZdrfusaeEkdif&eftwGuf vkyfuidk cf =hJ u&ygonf? &mpkESprf sm;pGm u|efawmfrsKd;wkd@onf tqrwef av;vHaom tcGeftwkwfrsm;ukd xrf;aqmifaecJh=u&ygonf?” xkd@aemuf qufvufI toem;cHv$mwGif 'Drkdua&pDenf;us a&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufcH&onfh v$wfawmfwck/ jynfol jynfom; wkd@. vGwfvyfcGifhrsm;/ ajr,m jyefvnfcGJa0ay;a&;/ a'oEW& tpkd;&rsm; jyifqifzGJ@pnf;ay;a&;ESifh EkdifiHa&; tusOf;om;rsm;tm; vGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifhay;a&; ponfwkd@ukd awmif;qkdcJhygonf? t"du csnfr#if ESifh txnf,ufvkyfief; A[kdjzpfonfh tkdifAefEkdAkd-aAmhZeDqef;pfuf (Ivanovo-Voznesensk) puf&kHwGif/ arv (12) &ufae@Y tvkyform; (30000) ausmf qENjyoydwfarSmufcJh=uonf? qENjyolrsm;ESifh aphpyfaqG;aEG;&eftwGuf puf&kHcGJwckpDwkdif;rS tvkyform;rsm;onf ukd,fpm;ðyv$wfawmftwGuf ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;ukd a&G;aumufcJh=uygonf? xkdv$wfawmfukd,fpm;vS,frsm;rS wae@tvkyfcsdef (8) em&D owfrSwfay;a&;/ vkyftm;cwkd;jr‡ifhay;a&;/ rD;zGm;cGifh/ ESifh vGwfvyfpGm ajymqkdcGifh ESifh vGwfvyfpGm pnf;&kH;cGifh ponfwkd@ yg0ifonfh awmif;qkdcsufrsm;twGuf pm&if;wckukd a&;qGJcJh=uygonf? t=urf;zufr_rsm;tm umuG,f&eftwGuf ppf0efxrf;tzGJ@ukdvnf; zGJ@pnf;cJhavonf? arvaESmif;ykdif; tpnf;ta0;wckwGif tvkyform;rsm;tm; ppfwyfrS =umyGwfrsm;jzifh &kdufESufjcif;/ tcsKd@tm; ypfowfjcif;wkd@ ðyvkyf+yD;aemuf qENjyr_onf t=urf;zufr_toGifokd@ ul;ajymif;oGm;avonf? tvkyform;rsm;onf &kef;&if;qefcwf t"du&k%f; rsm;jzpfyGm;jcif;/ vk,ufjcif;/ ESifh vrf;rsm;ay:wGif ppfwyfrsm;/ ykvdyfrsm;ESifh vkH;axG;owfykwfjcif;wkd@/ (8) &uf =um=um jzpfoGm;avawmhonf? qENjyoydwfonf ZGefvukefcgeD;txd jzpfoGm;avawmhonf? tvkyf&Sif rsm;onf tm%mykdifrsm;rSaeI zdtm;ay;r_rsm; ðyvkyfvmaomtcg ta&;r}uD;onfh tav#mhay;r_ wcsKd@ukd urf;vSrf;vmjcif;ESifh/ tm;tifukefcrf;oGm;aom qENjytvkyform;rsm;onf olwkd@. tvkyfcGifokd@ jyefvnf0ifa&mufoGm;aoma=umifh qENjyr_onf +yD;qkH;oGm;cJhavonf? ZGefv (14) &ufae@wGif/ yifv,feufwGif&Sdaeaom wkdufoabFm ykdwrfuif (Potemkin) rS/ oabFmom; (14) a,mufwkd@onf ‚if;wkd@tm; ykd;avmufvef;usaeonfhtom;rsm;au|;onf[laom rauseyf csufjzifh

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

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t&m&Sdrsm;ESifhawG@qkH&eftwGuf ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;apv$wfcJh=uonf? &ufpuf&rf;um;aom t&m&Sdonf oabFmom;rsm;. ukd,fpm;vS,fukd ypfowfvkdufavonf? oabFmom;rsm;onf wyfwGif; ykefuefr_ wckðyvkyf+yD; t&m&Sdrsm;pGmtm;owfjzwfypfcJhavonf/ xkd@aemuf teDa&miftvHwckudkvnf; oabFm ay:wGif v$ifhxlvkdufavonf? olwkd@ukd trdef@ay;&eftwGuf aumfrwDwckukd a&G;aumufvkdufavonf? xkdae@nwGif Potemkin onf t"du qdyfurf;wckjzpfonfh tkd'ufqm (Odessa) okd@ ckwfarmif;oGm;avonf? xkd@aemuf a'grmefxaeaom qENjyv_dif;wHykd;}uD;jzpfay:vmawmhavonf? oabFmurf;uyfr_onf qENjyyGJwckukd v_Haqmfvkduf+yD;/ xkdrS wqifh vk,ufjcif; ESifh rD;&_d@r_rsm; jzpfyGg;+yD;/ ykdrkdqkd;&Gm;aom t"du&k%f;jzpf vmavonf? t&m&Sdrsm;onf ppftkyfcsKyfa&;Oya'ukda=unmvkdufavonf/ xkdtcg Potemkin onf yifv,f0zufokd@ jyefvnfckwfarmif;oGm;+yD; aemufqkH;wGif &kdar;eD;,m;Y urf;uyfI oabFmom;rsm; vufeufcs tnhHcHcJh avonf? &k&Stifykdif,mwckvkH;wGif tajccHvlwef;pm;rS jynfolrsm;onf tm%mykdifrsm;. taqmufttkHrsm; ESifh ypPnf;OpPmºuG,f0olrsm;. taqmufttkHrsm;ukd 0kdif;&Hxm;=uavonf? trsm;tm;jzifh tpkd;&t=urf;zufr_ rsm;a=umihf/ wkH@jyefr_rsm;jzpfvm&jcif;jzpfonf? rsm;pGmaom t"du&k%f;jzpfr_rsm;ukd tm%mykdifrsm;rS rqkdif;rwG csufjcif; ESdrfESif;ypfvkdufavonf? okd@aomf *l&D,morwEkdifiHwnfaxmifjcif;uJhokd@aom tjzpftysufrsm;ESifh tkdifAefEkdAkdaAmhZeDqef;pfuf v$wfawmf(Ivanovo-Voznesensk Assembly) onfvnf; vlodrsm;aom v_yfv_yf&G&Gjzpfr_wckukd twkdif;twmopfwckudk vSpf[azmfxkwfjyvkdufjcif;yifjzpfonf? tvkyf&Sifrsm;/ ajrykdif&Sifrsm;/ (okd@) a'oqkdif&mt&m&Sdrsm;tm; qef@usifwkdufckdufonfh wkduf&kdufta&;,lr_ukd vkyfaqmif vkdufonf qkdaomfvnf;/ v,form;rsm;ESifh tvkyform;rsm;onf òrd@jyat;csrf;om,ma&;twGuf ‚if;wkd@. tcef;u¾ukdvnf; awmif;qkdvkdufavonf? tvkyform;or*~rsm; zGJ@pnf;ay;jcif;onf ‚if;wkd@. tcef;u¾twGuf taumif;qkH;aom enf;vrf;yif jzpfavonf? rnfokd@yifqkdaomfvnf; xkdor*~rsm;rSm w&m;0ifr_r&SdyJ jzpfaeqJjzpfonf? or*~rsm;onf r=umc%qkdovkd tvkdtavsmufqENjyoydwfrsm;t=um;xJrS xGufay:vmavonf? pdef@yDwmpbwf&Sd pmpDorm;rsm;onf aoG;v$rf;aom we*FaEGae@+yD;aemuf vkyftm;copftwGuf oabmwlnD&ef tvkyf&Sifrsm;tm; oydwfarSmufcJh=uavonf? okd@aomf oydwfarSmufr_rSm us&_H;oGm;cJhav onf? tb,fa=umifh qkdaomf puf&kHtwGif;&Sd tjcm;aom tvkyform;rsm;onf olwkd@ESifhtwl vkdufygoydwf arSmuf&ef jiif;qefcJh=uaoma=umifhjzpfonf? xkdtcg pnf;&kH;v_H@aqmfolrsm;onf ykHESdyfpufvkyfief;twGif;&Sd tvkyform;rsm;tm;vkH; pnf;vkH;nD!Gwfoihfonf[k qkH;jzwfcJh=u+yD;/ ZGefvwGif or*~wckukd pwifcJh=uav onf? trsm;pkonf ao;i,faomv_yf&Sm;r_tenf;i,fxufausmfvGefI rvkyfEkdifcJhaomfjim;vnf;/ ZEM0g&DvrS aeI pufwifbmv txd pkpkaygif; or*~ (40) xlaxmif&efóud;yrf;cJh=uavonf? vlóudufrsm;onfh cGeftm;opfwckonfvnf; òrd@}uD;rsm;&Sd ynmwwf tokdif;t0kdif;rsm;rSwqifh pD;0if vmcJhao;onf? (1905) ckESpf/ tapmykdif;vrsm;twGif;Y yxrOD;pGm a&S@aersm;/ xkd@aemuf q&m0efrsm;/ aemuf ausmif;q&m/ q&mrrsm;/ aq;azmfa&mif;csolrsm;/ oD;ESHpkdufysKd;a&;ynm&Sifrsm;/ pma&;q&mrsm;/ tif*sif eD,mrsm;/ todynm&Sifrsm;/ ESifh wd&p>mefaq;ukq&m0efrsm;onf trsKd;om;or*~rsm;ukd wnfaxmifcJh=u avonf? xkdor*~rsm;onf vpfb&,f EkdifiHa&; tpDtpOfrsm;ukd a&;qGJcJh=uavonf? armfpukdwGif jynfe,f (20) ausmfrS a&G;cs,fcH&onfh v,form; ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;onf pka0;vm=uaomtcg awmifolv,form; pnf;&kH;r_onf aEG&moDwGif txGËftxdyfokd@ a&muf&SdcJhavonf? yxr aq;&kHw&kHwGif/ xkd@aemuf um;*kda'gifwckwGif v#Kd@0SufpGm tpnf;ta0;rsm; ðyvkyf+yD;aemuf ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;onf v,f,majray:wGif yk*~vduykdifypPnf;rsm; zsufodrf;a&;/ bk&m;ausmif;rsm;ESifh awmf0ifrdom;pkrsm; ykdifqkdifonfh v,fajrrsm;tm; jynfolykdifðyvkyfa&;ESifh zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'a&;qGJa&;nDvmcHwckukd wnfaxmifa&; ponfhqkH;jzwfcsufrsm; csrSwfcJh=uavonf? xkd twkduftcHðyr_rsm;tm;vkH;onf EkdifiHawmf. zdESdyfEkdifr_ tiftm;ukd 0efESifh tm; rr#jzpfapavonf? Zmbk&if. wyfzGJ@rsm;ESifh jynfe,fbk&ifcHrsm;onf qENjy&efpnf;&kH;olrsm;ESifh tjcm;aomwufºuGonfh acgif;aqmifrsm;ukd olwkd@ &SmazGawG@&SdEkdifonfhtcgwkdif; zrf;qD;&ef aESmifhaES;jcif;r&Sdaomfvnf;yJ/ olwkd@taejzifh tifykdif,mtwGif;&Sd tpGeftzsm;a'orsm;ukd xdef;csKyfEkdif&eftwGuf wyfzGJ@vltiftm; tvGefyifeJyg;aeavonf? &k&SEkdifiHonf vlOD;a& ESifh ykvdyftcsKd;tpm;onf +Adwdef/ jyifopfwkd@ESifh ,SOfv#if ykdrkdeJyg;avonf? Oyrm - aus;vufa'owGif ykvdyfwa,mufonf

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

31


vlOD;a& (50000) &Sdonfh/ {&d,mpwk&ef;rkdif (2000) twGuf wm0ef&Sdavonf? tm%mcsKyfukdifolwkd@onf t=uifemrJh &ufpuf=urf;ñuwfEkdifaomfvnf;yJ ae&ma'o tm;vkH;ukd rðyvkyfEkdifay? Zmbk&ifqef@usifolrsm;onf rdrdwkd@twGif;pnf;&kH;jcif;ESihf ykvdyfrsm;ukd a&Smifwdrf;jcif;tjyif tvkdtavsmufqENjytkHºuGr_rsm;rjzpfEkdifaomae&mrsm;okd@ axmufcHtm;ay;&ef/ qENjy&eftwGuf uGif;qif; pnf;&kH;jcif;ESifh qENjyoydwfjzpfyGm;aeaom ae&mrsm;wGif oGm;a&muftm;ay;jcif;/ tm;wif;xm;apjcif; ponfwkd@ukd óud;yrf;tm;xkwfðyvkyfcJh=uavonf? tvkyform;rsm;onf tm;aumif;aom tiftm;wckjzpfvm avonf/ okd@aomf EkdifiHa&;t& pepfwus zGJ@pnf;xm;onfh tiftm;rsKd;r[kwfay? qkd&S,fvpfrsm; ESifh vpfb&,f rsm;onf tvkyform;rsm;tm; oifwefay;&efESifh xkd wufºuGru _ kd rSefuefpGmtokH;cs&eftwGuf vdktyfonf[k wlnDaom oabmxm;tjrif&Sd=uavonf? ESpfrsm;pGm ajratmufvkyif ef;tawG@tóuHESifh tawG;tac:qkdif&m ckdifrmaom pdwf"gwf&Sd=uonfh qkd&S,f'Drkdu&ufrsm;onf pdwftm;xufoefpGm tqkdygwm0efukd ,laqmifvkduf =uavonf? olwkd@onf puf&kHrsm;wGif vufurf;pmaqmifrsm;/ owif;pmrsm; jzef@a0jcif;/ ESifh or*~zGJ@pnf;jcif; rsm;twGif;okd@ ‚if;wkd@ukd,fwkdif 0ifa&mufyg0ifjcif;rsm;ukd vkyfaqmif=uonf? okd@aomf qkd&S,f'Drkdu&ufrsm;/ abmfvf&SDApfrsm; (Bolsheviks) (okd@) rif&SDApfrsm; (Mensheviks) ponfh tkyfpkrsm;a=umifhr[kwfyJ/ tvkyform;acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh tawG;tac:rsm;onf tvkyform;rsm;pGmwkd@ESifh tu|rf;w0ifjzpfvmcsdefwGif/ tvkyform;tzGJ@0ifrsm; qGJaqmifpnf;&kH;&mwGif atmifjrifcJhavonf? txufyg rnfonfhtkyfpkr# eD;uyfpGm tvkyform;v_yf&Sm;r_xJokd@ yg0if aqmif&Gufjcif;r&SdcJhacs? vpfb&,frsm;onf tvkyform;rsm;ESifhtwl pnf;vkH;nD!GwfpGmaqmif&Gufrnf[k 0efcHuwdrsm;ðycJh onfqkdaomfvnf;/ olwkd@onf emrnf}uD;xif&Sm;onfh trsKd;om;/ trsKd;orD;rsm;jzpfonfhtwkdif;/ olwkd@onf vl@tzGJ@tpnf;. obm0tavsmufacgif;aqmifrsm;jzpfonfhtwGuf/ ‚if;wkd@. acgif;aqmifr_aemufokd@ tvkyform;rsm;onf tvG,fwulyif aemufrS vkdufygvmvdrfhrnf[k tqifjcifrJhpGm ,lqxm;cJh=uavonf? &v'ftjzpf olwkd@onf orkdif;q&mwOD;. pum;t& “t=uyfwyfom; r&Sdaom ppfAkdvfcsKyfwpk” rsm;tjzpf usefae&pfcJh=uavonf? okd@aomf &k&StwkduftcHrsm;wGif aEGOD;&moDrsm;ESifh aEG&moDrsm;Y t=uyfwyfom;&Sm;yg;r_ r&SdcJhacs? vl@tzGJ@tpnf;. tv$mpkHjzpfonfh v,form;rsm;/ tvkyform;rsm;/ ppfom;rsm;/ ausmif;om;rsm;/ wwfodynm&Sifrsm; tm;vkH;onf yg0ifcJh=uavonf? owif;pmrsm;onf wm;qD;ydwfyifxm;r_rsm;ukd tmcH ykefuef+yD; qef@usifqENjyyGJrsm;ta=umif;a&;om;jcif;ESifh tpkd;&tm; &_H@csjcif;rsm;ukd ðyvkyf=uavonf? tpkd;& cGifhðycsufr&Sdaom tpnf;ta0;rsm;ukd usif;y=uonf/ tpkd;&cGifhðycsufr&Sdaom tkyfpkrsm; w[kefxkd; wkd;yGm;rsm; jym;vmavonf? xkdtajctaersKd;atmufwGif omref &mZ0wfr_rsm; wkd;yGm;rsm;jym;vmaomtcg/ tpkd;&onf rnfumrwWr#omjzpfaom trdef@tm%mrsm;ukdyif xdef;odrf;&ef rpGrf;aqmifEkdifawmhacs? xkdtcg vrf;o&J rsm;onf *sL;qef@usifa&; tpDtrHrsm;tygt0if/ qkd;,kwfaom 'kp&kduf jypfr_rsm;ukd usL;vGef=uavawmhonf? tpkd;&onf ‚if;. qkyfukdifEkdifr_ vkHvkH; usqif;aeavawmhonf? xkdtajctaersKd;wGif tpkd;&tm; qufvufwnf&Sdaeao;atmif cGifhðyxm;onfrSm twkduftcHrsm;t=um;wGif csKd@wJhtm;eJaeaom tcsif;csif; ylaygif;aqmif&Gufr_yifjzpfonf? wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pkrsm; ESifh vlwef;pm;tv$mtoD;oD;tm; ukd,fpm;ðyEkdifaom rnfonfhtzGJ@tpnf;r# ay:xGufrvmEkdifcJhacs? uGJjym;jcm;em;aom tkyfpkrsm;ukd aygif;pnf;&ef aemufusaeonfh óud;yrf;tm;xkwfr_ ukd taqmwvsifaqmif&GufEkdif+yD;/ oufOD;qHykdifpepfukd jywfom;onfh qkH;jzwfcsufrsm;jzifh qef@usifv_yf&Sm;cJhv#if aemufqkH;wGif oufOD;qHykdifpepfusqkH;oGm;+yD;/ twkduftcHrsm;. t}uD;us,fqkH;aom atmifyGJukd &&Sdvdrhfrnfomjzpfonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

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“tm%mtwGuf wkdufckdufjcif;” “&Jabmfwkd@ æ tvkyfawGukd &yfvkduf=u” vrsm;pGm ta&;,lvkyfaqmifr_ rðyvkyfyJae+yD;aemuf/ =o*kwfv (6) &ufae@wGif/ Zmbk&ifonf twkdifyifcHv$wfawmfwck (okd@) 'l;rm; (Duma) ukd twnfðyvkdufavonf? oG,f0kdufaomenf;jzifh a&G;aumufyGJ ðyvkyf+yD;aemuf xkdv$wfawmfukd (1906) ckESpf/ ZEM0g&DvwGif ac:,l&efjzpfonf? rnfokd@yif qkdapumrl/ rJqENay;ykdifcGifhukd tvGeftrif;wif;=uyfuef@owfxm;ojzifh vlOD;a& woef;ausmf&Sdonfh pdef@yDwmpbwfòrd@}uD;onf/ vl (7˜000) cef@om qENrJay;ykdifcGifh&SdcJhavonf? tvkyform;rsm;onf tvkdtavsmufqENrJay;ykdifcGifh pm&if;xJrS z,fxkwfxm;cH&avonf? 'l;rm;v$wfawmfonfvnf; Oya'ðy&ef twGuf y%mrokH;oyfr_tqifhwGifom uef@owfxm;avonf? Zmbk&if. xkwfjyefa=unmcsufwGif taqmufttkHopfonf “&k&Stifykdif,m. zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'jzpfonfh oufOD;qHykdiftm%m&Sifpepf. tESpfom&ukd raysmufysuf&ef” apmifhxdef;&rnf[k azmfjyxm;onfhtwGuf/ ppfrSefaom 'Drkdua&pDpepf toGiful;ajymif;a&;udk vufcH&ef/ ‚if;YqENr&Sda=umif;ukd taxmuftxm;topftjzpf urf;vSrf;xm;onfh twGufa=umifh xdyfwkdufyËdyuQjzpfr_topfonfvnf; a&mufvm&ef ra0;uGmvSacs? ZEM0g&Dvokd@a&mufaomtcg tvkyform;rsm;onf a&S@wef;okd@a&muf&Sdvmavonf? pufwifbmv (19) &ufae@wGif/ armfpukd&Sd puf&kHw&kHrS pmykHESdyform;rsm;onf vrf;rrsm;ay:okd@ xGufvm=u+yD;/ awmif;qkdr_ pm&if;wckudk wifjycJhavonf? &ufowWywfukefqkH;aomtcg oydwfrsm;onf òrd@&dS pmykEH dSypf uf&Hktrsm;pkudk ydwfypfEkdifcJh+yD;/ tvkyform;rsm;onfvnf; oydwfarSmufr_ukd yl;aygif;aqmif&Guf&eftwGuf “qkdAD,uf” [kac:onfh aumifpDwcktwGuf ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;ukd a&G;cs,fcJh=uavonf? r=umrDwGifyif/ aygifrkef@zkwform;rsm;/ vuform;rsm;/ ESifh owˆKwGif;tvkyform;rsm;yg vrf;rrsm;ay:okd@ xGufvm=uavonf? atmufwkdbmvqef; ykdif;okd@a&mufaomtcg qENjyoydwfrsm;onf pdef@yDwmpbwfòrd@okd@ausmfvGefI tjcm; òrd@}uD;rsm;txd jyef@ESH@oGm; avawmhonf? tpyxrY tvkyform;rsm;tm; wGef;tm;ay;v_H@aqmfcJhonfrSm aiGa=u;jzpf+yD;/ EkdifiHa&; ryg0if ao;acs? olwkd@onf tvkyf&Sifrsm;tm; vkyftm;cwkd;jr‡ifhay;a&;/ tvkyfcsdefav#mhcsay;a&;/ a,mufsm;ESifh rdef;r tvkyform;rsm;t=um; vkyftm;c wef;wl&nfwl tusKd;cHpm;cGifh&&Sda&;/ ESifh tvkyf&Sifrsm;u ,Ofaus;csKdompGm qufqHr_wkd@twGufom jzpfonf? okd@aomf qENjyr_rsm;. t=urf;zufv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;onf tvkyform;rsm;tm;/ ppfwyfrsm;ESifh xdyfwdkuf&ifqkdifawG@apcJhavonf? pufwifbmv (22) &ufae@wGi/f qENjyolrsm;onf ykHESdyfpuf wckrS wHcg;rsm;ukd &kdufcsKd;vkduf=u+yD;/ +cdrf;ajcmufcH&onfh qENrjyaom olrsm;rSm emrnfausmf uAsmq&m}uD; qm*sD yGwf&Sfuif (Sergei Pushkin) . &kyfwkwcka&S@Y &Jrsm;ESifh ppfom;rsm;. 0kdif;&Hxm;jcif;ukd cH&avonf? rsufjrifoufaowOD;rS owif;ay;ykd@onfrSm “aumhqufrsm; wkdufckduf&ef 0kdif;vmavonf/ vltkyfzufrS &kwfw&uf ypfcwfoHrsm;xGufay:vm+yD;/ jyifopfjrif;pD;ykvdyf wa,mufonf jrif;ay:rS ,drf;,kdifoGm;+yD;aemuf ajray:okd@ ðywfusoGm;avonf? xkdtcg vltkyfonf aemufjyefvSnfh+yD; xGufajy;oGm;=uavonf? pkòyHwkd;vmaom aumhqufrsm;onf ‚if;wk@d aemufrS ajy;vku d o f mG ; =uavonf?” owˆKtvkyform;rsm;ESifh aygifrkef@zkwform;rsm;onfvnf; tvm;wl wkdufckdufr_rsKd;ESifh &kwf,ufcwfjzpfoGm;+yD; '%f&m&ol 'gZifrsm;pGmESifh aoqkH;olrsm;pGmwkd@ukd csefxm;&pfcJh=u&avonf? aoG;v$rf;aom we*FaEGrSmuJhokd@yif/ tm%m&Siw f kd@. wkef@jyefr_onf tvkyform;yËdyuQrSonf EkdifiHa&;toGiful;ajymif;oGm;avonf? ykHESdyfpufrsm;or*~rS xkwfa0onfh vufurf;pmapmifwckwGif - “usaemf wkd@. +idrf;csrf;pGmjzifh pD;yGm;a&;t=uyftwnf; ajz&Sif;r_wkdufyGJ[m/ ,cifuwnf;u tcsKd@vlawG a&Smifv$Jcsif=uwJh/ rvkdvm;tyfwJh jy\emawGeJ@ wnfhwnfh}uD;ukd &ifqkdifwkd;rdawmhwmygyJ/ tJ'D[mu usaemf wkd@ukd oufOD;qHykdiftm%m&Sifpepfukd wkdufckdufzkd@/ EkdifiHa&; wkdufyGJqDokd@ OD;aqmifomG ;awmhygyJ”? atmufwkdbmv tapmykdif;wGif ykHESdyfpufrsm;onf qkH;jzwfcsufwckudk twnfðy a=unmcJhavonf - “t&G,fa&mufolwkdif;/ wef;wl&nfwl/ wkduf&kdufv#Kd@0Suf qENrJay;enf;pepfjzifh jynfolvlxk}uD;w&yfvkH;rS olwkd@. ukd,fpm;vS,fawGukd qENrJay;Ekdif+yD;/ tJ'D a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufcH&onfh jynfol@ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;rS aeI wkdif;jynfukd pDrHtkyfcsKyfrSom u|Ekfyfwkd@ESifh tvkyf&Sifrsm;. wkdufyGJrsm;t=um;wGif ykvdyfwkd@. t=urf;zuf r_rsm;rS umuG,fEkdifrnfjzpfonf”[k xdka=ujimcsufwGifazmfjyxm;onf?

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okd@aomf aoGv$rf;aom we*FaEGrSmuJhokd@r[kwfyJ/ tvkyform;rsm;onf ‚if;wkd@csnf; r&yfwnfEkdifay? ,cktcg olwkd@. wkdufyGJrsm;onf oufOD;qHykdifpepfukd qef@usifonfh us,fjyef@aom awmfvSefa&;twGif;okd@ 0ifa&mufoGm;avawmhonf? tm%mcsKyfukdifolwkd@onf rnfokd@ wkef@jyef&rnfukd rodyJ +cdrf;ajcmuf&efom em;vnf=uavonf? =o*kwfvukefykdif;wGif x&DayghAf onf Zmbk&iftm; vGefcJhonfh tESpf (20) ausmfu &yfqdkif;xm;cJhonfh wuUokdvfrsm;Y ukd,fykdiftkyfcsKyfcGifhrsm; jyefvnfay;tyf&ef wkdufwGef;avonf? xkdokd@ vkyfjcif;onf wuUokdvfÏmersm;rS ausmif;om;rsm;tm; tpnf;ta0;rsm; usif;ycGifhðyEkdifonf[k qkdvkdjcif; jzpfonf? x&DayghAfrS awG;xifonfrSm Tokd@vkyfaqmifjcif;jzifh ausmif;om;rsm;onf vrf;rrsm;ay:xGufvmjcif; ESifh EkdifiHa&;vkyfjcif;/ twkduftcHtiftm;pkwck. odrf;oGif;cH&jcif;wkd@rS a0;uGmvmap+yD;/ ‚if;wkd@tm; pmoifcef; taqmufttkHrsm;twGif;okd@ jyefvnfqGJoGif;vmEkdifrnfjzpfonf[k ,lqavonf? x&DayghAftm; ol. vkyfazmfukdifzufwOD;rS - “ol@b0wav#mufvkH; pm}uD;ay}uD; wtkyfr# zwfzl;ykHray:bl;” [kajymygonf? ausmif;om;rsm;onf bk&ifcHcsKyftm; ol. qkH;jzwfcsuftwGuf aemifw&apavonf? pufwifbmv tapmykdif;wGif olwkd@onf ausmif;rsm;twGif;okd@ jyefa&mufvm=u+yD;/ xkdpmoifcef;rsm;twGif;Yyifv#if ae@vnf ykdif;rsm;Y ausmif;oifcef;pm pmayrsm;/ oif=um;ykd@csjcif;rsm; ðyvkyf=u+yD;/ nykdif;rsm;wGif pmoifcef;rsm;onf ausmif;om;rsm;/ ygwDv_yf&Sm;olrsm;/ EkdifiHa&;tpnf;ta0;cef;rsm; jzpfoGm;avonf? tvkyform;rsm;vnf; wuUokdvfy&0k%frsm;twGif;okd@ a&muf&Sdvm=u+yD;/ }uD;rm;aom tpnf;ta0;}uD;rsm; ðyvkyf=u+yD;/ wcgw&HwGif awmfvSefa&;ygwDrsm;rS a[majymolrsm;. &,fp&mysufvkH;rsm;jzifh yGJpnfaeavonf? puf&kHa'orsm;twGif;&Sd rnfonfhae&mwGifrqkd xkduJhokd@aom tpnf;ta0;yGJrsm;ukd òzdcGif;&eftwGuf tcsdefrqkdif;yJ wyfzGJ@rsm;ukd apv$wfavh&Sdaom t&m&Sdrsm;rSm/ wuUokdvfy&0k%rf sm;twGif;rS tpnf;ta0;rsm;ukd onf;nnf;cHae=u&+yD;/ wufºuGr_rsm; avsmhyg;usqif;oGm;awmhrnf[kom ar#mfvifhae=u&awmhonf? vrf;rrsm;ay:wGifrl/ tvkyform;rsm;ESifh ynmwwf&k&Sm;rsm;rSm nD&if;tukdtjzpfaygif;pnf;&ef pwifae =uavonf? atmufwkdbmv (2) &ufae@wGif/ ausmif;om;rsm;/ wwfodynm&Sifrsm;/ ESifh tvkyform;rsm;onf wuUokdvfygarmuQcsKyfwOD;. psmyeykd@aqmifr_tcrf;tem;ukd EkdifiHa&;csDwufr_tcrf;tem;tjzpfokd@ toGif ajymif;vkduf=uavonf? òrd@v,facgif&Sd&mokd@ eDAfhpuD y&kdpyufwf (Nevskii Prospekt) vrf;twkdif; csDwufvm aomtcg/ wyfzGJ@rsm;ESifh t}udrfaygif;rsm;pGm vkH;axG;owfykwf=u+yD;/ trsm;pkonf teDa&miftvHrsm;ukd ,laqmifI/ awmfvSefa&;oDcsif;rsm;ukd oDqkdvm=uavonf? aqmif;&moDeef;awmfokd@ ra&mufrD/ a&wyfrawmfOD;pD;Ïme&ifjyifawmf (Admiralty Square) Y/ olwkd@onf 'l;axmufvkduf=u+yD;/ OD;xkyfrsm;ukd c|wfum/ aoG;v$rf;aom we*FaEGrS tmZmenfrsm;twGuf &nfpl;I "rRaw;oDcsif;wyk'fukd oDqkdcJh=uavonf? vlr_vlwef;pm;tv$mrsm;ESifh EkdifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;olrsm; aygif;pyfvkdufjcif;onf twkduftcHrsm;tm; ykdrkd tiftm;}uD;rm;avaponf? &k&Sr;D &xm;vrf; 0efxrf;rsm;ESifh tvkyform;rsm;or*~ (All-Russian Union of Railroad Employees and Workers) onf erlemykHpHi,fwck jzpfcJhonf? or*~ukd (1905) ckESpf {+yDvY wnfaxmifcJh+yD;/ vlr_pD;yGg;a&;&mjy\emrsm;rS cyfa0;a0;ae+yD;/ aumfvmjzL/ aumfvmjympkpkaygif; rD;&xm; vrf;tvkyform; tiftm; (7) odef; ukd pkpnf;I/ ckdifrmaom rD;&xm;vrf;tvkyform;tiftm;pkukd wnfaxmif&ef[laom EkdifiHa&;yef;wkdifukdom t"duxm; OD;wnfcJhavonf? *sLvkdifvwGif/ or*~onf EkdifiHa&; oydwfwkdufyGJwckukd azmfaqmif&ef qkH;jzwfcJhavonf? vrsm;pGmwGif óudwifjyifqifr_tenf;i,fukdom vkyfaqmifEkdifcJhonf? okd@aomf pufwifbmvwGif pwifvmcJhaom qENjyoydwfv_dif;vkH;onf avsmhyg;arS;rSdefvm aomtcg/ atmufwkdbmv tapmykdif;wGif armfpukd&Sd or*~acgif;aqmifrsm;onf atmufwkdbmv (4) &uf ae@wGif rD;&xm;vrf;a=umif;rsm; tm;vkH;wGif tvkyform; v_yf&Sm;r_wckukdazmfaqmif&ef aemufqkH;wGif qkH;jzwfvkdufavonf? atmufajcxkonf wkH@jyef&ef tvGefaES;auG;=uonf? okd@aomf atmufwkdbm (6) &ufae@wGif/ armfpukd-umZef (Moscow-Kazan) vkdif;&Sd &xm;pufacgif;armif;orm;rsm;onf vkyfief;udpPrsm;ukd ‚if;wkd@. vuf0,fokd@ ,laqmifvkdufavonf? ukefpnfykd@aqmifr_ukd jiif;qkd+yD;aemuf/ xkdae@naewGif rD;&xm; armif;orm;wpkonf &xm;pufacgif;wGJ wwGJukd yg&kdAdk blwm&kH (Perovo station) okd@ jyefay;qGJoGm;avonf? xkdblwm&kHrSaeI olwkd@onf wEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&m &xm;oydwfwkdufyGJukd pwifa=umif; a=u;eef;wapmifykd@vkduf avonf? aemuf (2) &uft=umwGif/ pufacgif;armif;orm;rsm;/ pDrHcef@cGJa&; 0efxrf;rsm;/ ESifh vrf;a=umif; twGif;&Sd tvkyf&kHrsm;rS tvkyform;rsm;onf/

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

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&xm;vrf;qkH;blwm&kHwckrS wckokd@ oGm;a&mufI/ armfpukdokd@ vrf;qkHvmonfh tjcm;aom vrf;a=umif;rsm;rS tvkyform;rsm;tm; pnf;&kH;avawmhonf? blwm&kHrsm;wGif apmifh=uyfae=uonfh ppfom;rsm;rSm taESmifht,Suf tenf;i,fukdom ay;=uavonf? tvkyform;rsm;tm; ‚if;wkd@taeESifh “EkdifiHa&;vGwfvyfr_” ukdvnf; r&&SdcJhygu/ ‚if;wkd@ atmifjrif&&Sdvdrfhrnf[k ar#mfvifhxm;onfh rnfonfh pD;yGm;a&;t=uyftwnf; jy\emrqkd t"dy`g,fjynfh0vdrfhrnfr[kwf qkdonfukd tvkyform;rsm;tm; owday;xm;+yD;/ atmufwkdbmv (9) &ufae@wGif or*~onf vGwfvyfpGm ajymqkdcGifh ESifh pnf;&kH;cGif/ or*~rsm; wnfaxmifcGifh/ vGwfvyfI w&m;r#wonfh a&G;aumufyGJrsm;ukd tajccHonfh zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya' a&;qGJrnfh nDvmcHwck/ ESifh bmoma&; ESifh EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;tm; vGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifhay;a&; - ponfwkd@ yg0ifonfh awmif;qkdcsufwapmifukd xkwfjyefvkdufavonf? oydwfwkdufyGJ. owif;pum;onf òrd@wòrd@rSae wòrd@&Sd &xm;tvkyform;rsm;xHokd@ a=u;eef;wkdifrsm;rS wqifh a&muf&SdoGm;+yD;/ ‚if;wkd@. blwm&kHrsm;ukd ydwfypfvkduf+yD;/ &xm;rsm;tm;vnf; &yfxm;vkdufavonf? armfpukd awmifykdif;&Sd/ uvl*g (Kaluga) blwmwGif/ armfpukdrSaeI uD,ufAf (Kiev) okd@ xGufvmonfh &xm;rsm; ay:rvmawmhaomtcg oydwfwkdufyGJukd pwifcJhavonf? xkdnwGif wjcm;a=u;eef;vkdif;ay:rS a=u;eef;pufukdif 0efxrf;rsm;onf uvl*grSwqifh ay;ykd@vkdufonfh ‚if;wkd@. oydwfwkdufyGJowif;pum;rsm;ukd/ tjcm;aomòrd@rsm;okd@ qufvufay;ykd@+yD;aemuf/ vrf;rsm;ay:okd@xGufvmavonf? xkdvkyfaqmifr_onf qrm&m (Samara) òrd@&Sd pmykd@vkyfief;ukd &yfwef@oGm;aponf? Tokd@jzifh oydwfwkdufyGJonf tjcm;aom a=u;eef;vkdif;wckqDokd@ ul;pufoGm;jyefavonf? awmifykdif; pufr_ZkHwck jzpfonfh tDumw&DekdqavhAf (Ekaterinoslav) wGif &xm;vrf; tvkyf&kHrsm;rS tvkyform;rsm; ESifh vufr_twwfynm&Sifrsm;onf/ atmufwkdbmv (10) &ufae@wGif vrf;rsm;ay:okd@xGufvm=u+yD;/ t"du&xm;vrf;qkHwGif pka0;vkduf=uav onf? ppfwyfrsm;a&mufvmaomtcg tvkyform;rsm; jzef@xGufoGm;avonf? tcsKd@onf &xm;wpD; ay:okd@ wufoGm;+yD;/ &xm;ukd (Nizhnedneprovsk) òrd@av;okd@ ckwfarmif;oGm;+yD;/ oydwfwkdufyGJukd xkdòrd@&Sd tvkyf&kHrsm;okd@ qufvufo,faqmifoGm;=uavonf? ESpfywfrjynhfrDyif/ xkd qifhuJ v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;a=umifh tifykdif,m twGif;&Sd rD;&xm;vrf;a=umif;rsm;tm;vkH;./ &xm;vrf; (1) uDvkdrDwmtuGmta0;eD;yg;wkdif;wGif/ vkyfief;rsm; &yfwef@oGm;avawmhonf? wòrd@rSwòrd@okd@ysHES@HoGm;onfhtwGuf/ &xm;oydwfwkdufyGJonf taxGaxGoydwfwkdufyGJ}uD;wcktwGuf "gwfulypPnf;wckjzpfoGm;+yD;/ &k&Stifykdif,mtwGif;&Sd òrd@jyvlaer_vkyfief;rsm;tm;vkH; &yfqkdif;oGm;cJhavonf? armfpukdòrd@wGif/ &xm;tvkyform;rsm;onf tpktzGJ@rsm;tjzpfzGJ@pnf;um/ pufr_ZkHrsm;okd@ cGJxGufoGm;=u+yD;/ puf&kHrsm;rS tvkyform;rsm;tm;oGm;a&mufI/ wkdufyGJtwGif;okd@ 0ifa&mufyg0if=u&ef pnf;&kH;avonf? xkdpOftwGif; òrd@v,facgif&Sd aumvmjzLtvkyform;rsm;onf ‚if;wkd@. &kH;rsm;rS pGef@cGgvm=u+yD;/ jrLeDpy,f tvkyform;rsm;ESifhtwl vrf;ay:okd@ xGufvm=uonf? "gwfaiG@v$wfay;onfh&kHrsm;/ a&v$wfay;onfh&kHrsm;/ v#yfppfv$wfay;onfh&kHrsm;/ om;owf&kHrsm;ESifh òrd@.pDrHcef@cGJa&; vkyfief;rsm;onf csdeJ@&yfqkdif;oGm;avawmhonf? aq;qkdifpma&;rsm; ESifh w,fvDzkH;atmfya&wmrsm;vnf; vrf;rsm;ay:okd@ xGufvmavonf? ,if;onf omref tvkyform;v_yf&Sm;r_wck r[kwfay/ puf&kHrsm;. jyifye,ferdwf&Sd tdrfeD;em;csif; csrf;omaom vlukHxHrsm;onf tvG,fwul vpfvsL&_aeEkdifao;onf? ,if;onf oydwfwkdufyGJwGif ‚if;wkd@ukd,fwkdif ryg0ifbl;qkdv#ifawmif/ rnfolwOD;wa,mufr# ae@pOfykHrSefpm;0wfaea&;twkdif; aeoGm;&ef rjzpfEkdifacs? tom;aps;E_ef;rsm;onf w[kefxkd;ckefwufvmavonf? aumufyJoD;ESHaxmufyHh jznfhqnf;r_rsm;rSm wpwpESifh avsmhyg;vmavonf? EGm;Ekd@rsm;vkH;0jywfvyfoGm;avonf? owif;pmwapmifrS tpD&ifcHonfrSm “"gwfaiG@ESifhv#yfppfrD;rsm; vkH;0 tvkyfrvkyfawmhacs? jrif;ESifhqGJonfh &xm;rsm; ESifh v#yfppf"gwf&xm;rsm;onf jyefvnf rpwifEkdifawmhacs? a=u;eef;pepf/ w,fvDzkH; ESifh pmwkduf&kH;rsm;onf tvkyfrvkyfawmhacs? t"du ukefpkHqkdif}uD;rsm;rSm ydwfxm;vkduf+yD;/ 0ifaygufrsm; ESifh jyLwif;aygufrsm;ukd ysOfcsyfrsm;jzifh um&Hxm;vkduf avonf”? ‚if;wkd@. ae@pOfvkyfief;rsm;ukd vkyfaqmif&rnfhtpm;/ tv$mtoD;oD;rS armfpukdòrd@om;rsm;onf wuUokdvfESifh enf;ynmtwwfoifausmif;rsm;wGif pk&kH;ae=uavonf? xkdae&mrsm;wGif tvkyform;rsm;/ qkd&S,fvpfaoG;xkd;v_H@aqmfolrsm;/ ausmif;om;rsm;/ ukefonfrsm; ESifh acgif;&GufAsufxkd;aps;onfrsm;/ ykvdyf olv#Krd sm; ponfjzifh trsKd;rsKd;yg0ifavonf? avhvmapmifh=unfholwOD;rS owif;ay;ykd@onfrSm “tvGeftrif; pdwf"gwfwufºuG ESpfaxmif;tm;& &$ifjrL;aeonfh ausmif;om;rsm;rSm wOD;wa,mufrS pwifatmf[pfvkdufrnfh ‘oufOD;qHykdifpepf

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usqkH;ygap’[laom aºuG;a=umfoHukd aemufrSvkdufI aºuG;a=umf atmf[pf&ef tqifoifh jzpfaepOfwGif/ ZarmhpfufAkd&Da&S; (Zamoskvorech'e) rS ukefonf}uD;rsm;onf tvm;wl wkef@jyefatmf[pfrnfh ‚if;wkd@. tvkyform;rsm;ukd tuJcwfaeavonf?” tifykdif,mwckvkH;rS oydwfwkdufyGJopfrsm;ESifh qlylv_yf&Sm;r_rsm; òrd@awmftwGif;okd@ tqufrjywf pD;0ifvmonfrsm;ukd tpD&ifcHaeavonf? cgaumhAf (Kharkov) òrd@wGif/ vrf;rsm;ay:&Sd vlrsm;onf puf&kHrsm;ESifh oD;ESH}udwfcGJpufrsm;ukd ydwfypf&efawmif;qkdaeavonf? aumhau;qyf (Caucasus) jynfe,f/ bmwGef (Batum) òrd@wGif/ qkdifrsm;tm;vkH;onf ydwfukef=u+yD;/ v#yfppfrD;rsm;tm;vkH;vnf; jywfawmufoGm;avonf? pkpkaygif; tvkyform; woef;ausmf atmufwkdbmvwGif oydwfarSmuf=uavonf? &maxmifaygif;rsm;pGmaom rD;&xm;vrf;tvkyform;rsm;/ tpkd;&0efxrf;rsm;/ pma&;pmcsDrsm; ESifh ausmif;om;rsm yg0if=uonf? aemufqkH;wGif/ atmufwkdbmv (11) &ufae@Y/ pdef@yDwmpbwfòrd@&Sd &xm;vrf;tvkyform;rsm;onf/ oydwfwkdufyGJwGif 0ifa&mufyg0if&eftwGuf qENrJay;cJh=uavonf? aemufwae@wGif olwkd@onf òrd@awmfokd@ 0ifvmonfh &xm;vrf;a=umif; (4) ckpvkH;ukd &yfwef@ypfvkdufavonf? }uD;rm;aom owˆKpuf&kHrsm;rS tvkyform;rsm;onfvnf; aemufwae@wGif vrf;rsm;ay:okd@ xGufvm=u+yD;/ teD;tem;&Sd puf&kHi,frsm;okd@ vSnfhvnf pnf;&kH;=uonf? tkdblacghAf (Obukhov) oHr%dvkyfief;puf&kHrS qENjyolrsm;onf/ &pwm&Da,hAf (Rasteriaev) puf&kHa&S@&Sd *dwfwHcg;rsm;okd@ oGm;a&muf+yD;/ xkdpuf&kHrS tvkyform;rsm;tm; oydwfwkdufyGJwGif 0ifa&mufylaygif;&ef pnf;&kH;=uonf? puf&kH0if;xJwGif/ tvkyform;rsm;onf ‚if;wkd@. ud&d,m wefqmyvmrsm;ukd ypfcsvkduf=u+yD;/ puf&kHtEHS@oGm;a&mufI “&Jabmfwkd@ æ tvkyfawGukd &yfvkduf=u” [lI vkdufvHaqmf=oavonf? rdepftenf;i,ftwGif;Yyif tif*sifpufrsm;/ armfwmrsm;. toHonf wdwfqdwfoGm;avonf? xkd@aemuf tvkyform;rsm;onf olwkd@. vkyfief;cGif tusôrsm;ukd c|wfvkduf=u+yD;/ EkdifiHa&;awmif;qkdcsufrsm;ESifhtwl olwkd@. puf&kHtm%mykdifrsm;xHokd@ xGufoGm;=uavonf? tvkyform;rsm;onf oydwfwkdufyGJukd pufr_vkyfief;wckrS tjcm;aom pufr_vkyfief;wckokd@ o,faqmifoGm;aepOfwGif/ tjcm;aomolrsm;onf oydwfwkdufyGJukd a&$òrd@awmfokd@ ykd@aqmifae=uavonf? aemufqufwGJae@rsm;wGif ykHESdyfpuftvkyform;rsm;/ em&Djyifq&mrsm;/ pma&;pmcsDrsm;/ w,fvDzkH;atmfya&wm rsm;ESifh &kyf&Sifrif;om;rsm; tygt0if/ rlvwef;ausmif;om;rsm;ygrusef ‚if;wkd@. vkyfief;cGifrsm;ukd pGef@cGmI yl;aygif;vm=uonf? wuUokdvfonf xkdt&mrsm;tm;vkH;. qkH&m 0if&kd;yifjzpfavonf? wuUokdvfwGif tv$maygif;pkHrS vlwef;pm;toD;oD;wkd@onf awG@qkH&efvm=u&onf? ‚if;wkd@. tjrifrsm;/ t,ltqrsm;/ vkdtyfcsufrsm;ukd tacstwifaqG;aEG;=uonf? xkd@aemuf oydwfv_yf&Sm;r_xJokd@ 0ifa&mufyl;aygif;&ef ðyvkyf/ rvkyfukd qkH;jzwf=uonf? pma&;pmcsD tvkyform;rsm;or*~acgif;aqmifwa,mufjzpfonfh 'D qAmcsaumhAf (D. Sverchkov) onf/ atmufwkdbmv (12) &ufae@ naewGif wuUokdvfokd@ oGm;a&mufcJhavonf? tpnf;ta0;cef;r/ y&d\wfxkdif&mpifjrifhrsm;/ twuftqif;avSum;rsm;tm;vkH;onf vlrsm;ESifh jynfh=uyfaeonfukd awG@vkduf& avonf? cef;rqDokd@ y&d\wfxJrSaeI wkd;0ifIoGm;+yD;aemuf/ axmifaygif;rsm;pGmwkd@tm; oydwfarSmuf qENjy =u&ef wkdufwGef;avonf? qufvufI olrS òrd@. v#yfppfvw $ fay;&m&kHrsm;onf ydwf=uawmhrnfjzpfonfh twGuf/ taqmuftOD;onf r=umcif arSmifusoGm;awmhrnfqkdonfukd ajymjyvkdufavonf? qAmcsaumhAf wGif ausmif;om;rsm;ay;vkdufaom wykdif;usKd;aeonfh za,mif;wkdif wwkdif&Sdavonf? aemufykdif;wGif olu “wa,mufa,mufuae+yD;awmh za,mif;wkdifrD;nd‡vkdufw,f/ aemuf wa,muf/ tJ'Daemuf wwd, wa,muf æ æ/ axmifaygif;rsm;pGmaom rD;awmufi,fav;awG[m cef;rtEHS@ysH@ESH@vif;xdefoGm;awmhw,f? yvufazmif; tjrifhwae&muae u|eaf wmf=unhfvkdufw,f/ wodrfhodrfh aysmf&$if=unfE_;cHpm;r_wrsKd;[m &ifxJrSm ay:vmw,f/ u|efawmfwkd@[m oufOD;qHykdif tm%m&Sifpepf usqkH;oGm;jcif;twGuf ol@&Jh 0d^m%fawmftm; c&pf,efbmomxkH;pHt& 0wfðyqkawmif;yGJtcrf;tem;wck ðyvkyfay;aeovkdrsKd;/ atmifyGJwckukd usif;yae ovkdrsKd; cHpm;ae&w,f?” [k a&;om;cJhavonf? tpnf;ta0;+yD;qkH;oGm;onfESifh wòydifeuf cef;rtm; aemuftkyfpkwcktwGuf oef@&Sif;a&;vkyfvkdufavonf? qAmcsaumhAfonf xGufcGmvm+yD;/ eDAmjrpfukd jzwfausmfI tdrfokd@ OD;wnfcJhavonf? tcgwkdif;wGif ta&miftaoG;pkHjzifh ysm;yef;cyfr# v_yf&Sm;aeaom eDAfpuD y&kdyufvrf;onf [mvm[if;vif; Avmusif;jzpfaeonf? tvif;a&mifrsm;ukd +idrf;owfxm;=uavonf/ ukefpkHqkdifrsm;rS jyLwif;aygufrsm;rS ysOfcsyfrsm;jzifh ydwfqkd@um&Hxm;avonf? wdwfqdwfaeaom toHukd òzdcGJ onfrSm uif;vSnhf&mrS ay:xGufvmonf jrif;cGmoHrsm;om&Sdavonf? ,if;onf ykdrkd}uD;rm;aom rkefwkdif;wck rvmrD +idrfoufaejcif;rsKd;jzpfonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

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“"m;rsm;ukdukdifpGJI” olwkd@onf taxGaxG oydwfwkdufyGJ}uD;Y tjcm;aom EkdifiHom;rsm;ESifhtwl twlwuG yl;aygif;yg0if vkyfaqmif=uaomfvnf;/ pdef@yDwmpbwf tvkyform;rsm;rSm tpkd;&tm; ykefueftHwk&ef tiftm;pk wcktaejzifh oD;jcm;&yfwnf aeavonf? qkd&S,f'Drkdu&ufrsm;. rif&SDApf*kd%f;tkyfpkrsm;rSm tvkyform;rsm;tm; atmufajctzGJ@tpnf;rsm;ukd zGJ@pnf;&ef +yD;cJhonfh aEG&moDuwnf;u zdtm;ay;aecJhavonf? &mpkESpf. aemufykdif;wGif xif&Sm;onfhv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;rSm t=urf;rzufwkdufyGJtoGifjzifh v_yf&Sm;oGm;rnfjzpfonfhtwGuf/ tpkd;&. ðyjyifajymif;vJ&ef cGifhðycsufrsm;ukd apmifhqkdif;aernfhtpm;/ rif&SDApfrsm;onf tvkyform;rsm;tm; ukd,fykdif taqmufttkH/ tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;ukd zGH@òzd;wkd;wufr_&Sdap&efESifh tpysKd;xm;&ef vkyfaqmifxm;ESifh apcsifonf? atmufwkdbm (10) &ufae@wGif/ olwkd@onf òrd@awmf&Sdtvkyform;rsm;tm; yDwmpbwf taxGaxG tvkyform;rsm; aumfrwDukdzGJ@pnf;&eftwGuf ukd,fpm;vS,frsm; a&G;aumuf&ef ac:cJhavonf? (3) &ufr#=um +yD;aemuf/ ukd,fpm;vS,fta,muf (40) wkd@onf aumfrwD. yxrqkH; tpnf;ta0;okd@ wufa&muf&ef oGm;cJh=uavonf? (2) &ufr#=um+yD;aemuf wwd,ajrmuftpnf;ta0;wGif/ puf&kHaygif; (100) eD;yg;ESifh or*~ rsm;rS ukd,fpm;vS,f (266) a,muf&SdoGm;+yDjzpfavonf? atmufwkdbmv (17) &ufae@wGif/ aumfrwDonf/ aumfrwDtrnftm; tvkyform; ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;. pdef@yDwmpbwf qkdAD,uftvkyform;v$wfawmf (St. Petersburg Soviet of Workers' Deputies) tjzpftrnf ajymif;vJ&eftwGuf rJay;cJh=uavonf? rif&SDApfESifh aAmvf&SDApfrsm;tygt0if/ awmfvSefa&;tkyfpkrsm;rS ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;onf rnfol OuUÏ jzpfoifhonf[lI/ tcsif;csif; &efjzpf xkdifckHvkae=ucsed fwGif/ qkdAD,ufonf rnfonfhygwDESifhr# rywfoufonfh/ vli,fa&S@aewOD;jzpfonfh a*sm*sD Ekdqm (Georgii Nosar) tm; a&G;aumufcJh=uavonf? olonf qkdufab;&D;,m; (Siberia) okd@ (2) }udrfwkdifwkdif e,fESifh'%fykd@jcif;cH&avonf? olonf ypPnf;OpPm csrf;omaomolwa,muf jzpfaomfvnf;/ r&Sdqif;&Jom;rsm;tay: tvGefyif oem;*&k%mjyooljzpfavonf? olonf tvkyform;rsm;tm; Oya'qkdif&m t}uHay;r_rsm;ESifh awmif;qkdv$m rl=urf;rsm;twGuf rsm;pGm ulnDay; cJhavonf? qkdAD,ufonf t"du awmfvSefa&;tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;rS ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;tm; tvkyftr_aqmif aumfrwDwGifxm;&eftwGufvnf; qkH;jzwfcJhavonf? xkdv_yf&Sm;olrsm;onf ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm ajratmufv_yf&Sm; r_rsm; ðyvkyfcJh=u+yD;/ w&m;r0if vufurf;pmapmifrsm; ykHESdyfjcif;/ tvkyform; tðrawtzGJ@tpnf;rsm; zGJ@pnf;&ef pnf;&kH;jcif;/ xkdumvrsm;twGif; zrf;qD;r_rsm;/ axmifcscH&r_rsm;/ ESifh jynfESif'%fay;cH&r_rsm;ukd &ifqkdif jzwfausmf+yD; aemufqkH;wGif toD;tyGifhrsm; jzpfxGef;vm[ef&Sdavonf? aemufqkH;wGif qkd&S,fvpfrsm;onf olwkd@ukd,fwkdifukd jynfol@v_yf&Sm;r_wck. a&S@wef;wGif awG@&Sdvm&avonf? xkdolrsm;tm;vkH;onf rif&SDApfwa,mufjzpfonfh vD,Gef xa&mhpuD (Leon Trotsky) uJhokd@ aemufcHorkdif;a=umif; jrifhrm;r_ r&Sd=uacs? xa&mhpuDonf &k&SEkdifiHawmifykdif;&Sd jrufcif;vGifjyifa'orS *sL;vlrsKd; rdom;pk wckjzpfonfh vDAf b&Gef&Swdef; (Lev Bronshtein) rdom;pkwGif arG;zGm;cJhonf? xa&mhpuDonf ol@ zcifrS ol@tm; tif*sifeD,mwa,mufjzpfvmapcsifonfhtwGuf zciftay: pdwfysufcJh&avonf? xkdtpm; olonf ajratmufawmfvSefa&;vkyfief;twGif;okd@ 0ifa&mufoGm;cJhavonf? xkdtwGuf ol. touf (20) jynfharG;ae@ukd Zmbk&if. tusOf;axmiftwGif;Y tqkH;owfoGm;cJh&avonf? qkdufab;&D;,m;wGif e,fESif'%f cHae&+yD;aemuf/ taemufOa&myokd@ xGufajy;vGwfajrmufoGm;avonf? taemufOa&mywGif vef'efESifh *seDAm&Sd &k&Sm;jynfajy; rmhufpf0g'Drsm; tokdif;t0kdif; twGif;okd@ 0ifa&mufcJhavonf? aoG;v$rf;aom we*FaEGae@ owif; ol@xHa&muf&Sdvmaomtcg/ EkdifiHul;vufrSwftwkjzifh tifykdif,mtwGif;okd@ jyefvnf 0ifa&mufcJh avonf? xkd@udpPrsm;+yD;aemuf olonf zifvefEkdifiHwGif ykef;atmif;ae+yD;/ atmufwkdbmoydwfwkdufyGJ t&Sdeft[kef jrifhaeonfhtcsdeftwGif;Y òrd@awmf pdef@yDwmpbwfokd@ jyefvnfa&muf&SdvmcJhonf? olonf tvGef@ tvGef xufjrufolwOD;jzpf+yD;/ =oZmwduUrESifh jynfhpkHol wa,mufvnf;jzpfonf? xa&mhpuDonf òrd@. awmfvSefa&;orm;rsm;t=um;wGif acgif;aqmifwOD;jzpfvm+yD;/ qkdAD,uf. t"du r[mAsL[majrmuf awG;ac: ajrmfjrifwwfol wa,mufvnf;jzpfonf?

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wcgr#rcHpm;bl;ao;aom tm%m.txdtawG@ukd cHpm;&+yD;aemuf/ twkduftcHtiftm;pk. wyfOD; (qkdAD,uf ol@ukd,fol jrifhonfhtjrif) onf tpkd;&ukd +cdrf;ajcmuf&kHomr[kwf/ ol@vrf;wGif twm;tqD;jzpf aeonfh/ vl@tzGJ@tpnf;twGif; rnfol@ukdrqkd +cdrf;ajcmufavawmhonf? ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;onf òrd@wGif&Sdaom puf&kH ESifh qkdifykdif&Sifrsm;tm;/ ‚if;wkd@. pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm;ukd ydwfI/ taxGaxGoydwfwkdufyGJ}uD; twGif;okd@ 0ifa&mufqifE$J&ef wkdufwGef;avonf? xkd@tjyif wkdufwGef;awmif;qkdv$mESifhtwl “tu,fI oifonf tqkdyg awmif;qkdr_ukd rjznfhqnf;/ rvkdufavsmygu/ oif. ukefpkHqkdifonf &kdufzsufcH&vdrfhrnf jzpfonf/ oif. pufypPnf;rsm;onf zsufqD;cH&vdrfhrnfjzpfonf æ puf&kHrsm;/ oD;ESH}udwfcGJpufrsm; ESifh ukefpkHqkdif rsm;ukd ydwfypfay;yg æ oifhukd,foif jynfov l x l k trsuaf 'go. "m;pmcHrjzpfrD/ xkt d &mrsm;ukd tcsdefrvGefrD ydwfypfyg” [laom owday;xm;csufyg yl;wGJay;ykd@vkdufavonf? ,if;onf oydwfwkdufyGJukd tvG,fwulyif }uD;xGm;apcJhavonf/ tb,fa=umifhqkdaomf/ ‚if;onf t=urf;rzufaomenf;jzpf+yD;/ r=umrDyif tm%m&Sifonf ykdrkd rsm;jym;aom tawG@tóuHESifh tiftm;&if;jrpfrsm;ukd t=urf;zufòzdcGJr_upm;uGif;okd@ ,laqmifvmawmhrnf qkdonfukd/ olwkd@ukd owday;awmhrnf/ v$wfawmfrsm;twGuf ra&&maom enf;vrf; wckomjzpfonf? xkd@tjyif/ qkdAD,ufonf ta&;tcif;rsm;ukd xdef;csKyf&mwGif ykdrkdI tpGrf;tp&Sd xda&mufoGm;avonf? nwkdif; nwkdif;wGif ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;onf ykHESdyfpufqkdifwckpDokd@ óudwifowday;jcif;rðyyJ oGm;a&mufcJh+yD;/ qkdiftm;odrf;ykdufvkdufum/ t=uifem*&k%m&Sdaom pmpDorm;rsm;. tultnDjzifh Izvestiia owif;pm wapmifukd ykHESdyfxkwfa0avonf? atmufwkdbmv (19) &ufae@wGif/ oydwfwkdufyGJt&Sdeft[kefonf wpwp tm;tifavsmheJvmaomtcg/ qkdAD,ufonf pdef@yDwmpbwfokd@oGm;I qifqmjzwfawmufjcif;rsm;ukd tqkH; owfcJhavonf? tpkd;&rS wm;jrpfwif;=uyfonfh ykHESdyfOya'rsm;ESifh pmapmifwGif yg0ifonfrsm;ukd EkdifiHawmf qifqmtzGJ@okd@ rxkwfa0rD wifjy&rnf [laomt&mrsm;ukd vkdufemonfhpmpD/ pm&kduo f rm;rsm;ESifh tjcm;aom tvkyform;rsm;onf awG@&Sdygu/ ykHESdyfxkwfa0ay;&ef jiif;qef&rnf[k ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;u owday;cJhavonf? rnfonfh pmpDorm;rqkd tqkdyg owday;r_rsm;ukd zDqefygu tjcm;aom tvkyform;rsm;rSaeI ‚if;tm; 0kdif;y,fa&Smif=uOf&efjzpfonf? v$wfawmfukd xdyfykdif;rSaeI bkefawmf}uD;a*yGefESifh ol.tzGJ@u vnfywfaepOf/ qkdAD,uftzGJ@0if rsm;onf vkyfief;aqmifwmrsm;ukd 'Drkdua&pDenf;us vkyfaqmifae&onfukd pGJrufESpfoufae=uavonf? enf;ynmtwwfoifausmif;Y yxrt}udrf pnf;a0;+yD;aomtcg/ olwkd@onf vGwfvyfaom pD;yGm;a&; tzGJ@tpnf; (Free Economic Society) . taqmuftOD;teD;&Sd/ todynm&Sifrsm;twGufzGifhxm;onfh t"du& ausmf=um;aom toif;wkdufwckokd@ a&$@ajymif;vkdufavonf? naecif;wkdif;wGif ukd,fpm;vS,f rsm;onf olwkd@. vkyfief;cGif0wfpkHrsm;ESifhyif/ tkdrif;a[mif;EGrf;aomfvnf;yJ/ a&$csxm;onfh wkdifvkH;}uD;rsm;ESifh ykHckdif;a&;zGJ@xm;aom yef;csDum;}uD;rsm;jzifh wefqmqifxm;onfh/ tqkdyg [dwf[efrsm;aom udef;}uD;cef;}uD; Ekdifonfh taqmuftOD;okd@ pka0;vmwwf=uavonf? 0ifaygufY ‚if;wkd@. &_;zdeyftkyf &mbmpGyfrsm;ukd c|wfxm;cJhI/ olwkd@onf AkdvfcsKyf}uD;rsm;/ *k%foduQm&Sd t"du& yk*~dKvf}uD;rsm;ESifh Zmbk&ifwkd@. &kyfykHum;csyf }uD;rsm; csdwfqGJxm;onfh/ t"dutpnf;ta0;crf;rokd@ wufoGm;=uonf? &Snfvsm;aom tpdrf;a&mifpm;yGJckH}uD; wckY tpD&ifcHpmrsm;ukd emaxmif=u+yD;aemuf/ tvkyftr_aqmifaumfrwDonf wifjyvmonfhjy\emrsm;ukd qkH;jzwfcsufrsm;cs&eftwGuf tajzay:onftxdpOf;pm;&ef/ tay:xyf&Sd em;aecef; wckokd@ wufoGm;=uonf? xkd@aemuf t"ducef;rokd@ jyefqif;vm=u+yD;/ pOf;pm;&&Sdonfrsm;ukd tajctwif aqG;aEG;&efESifh twnfðycsufrsm;&,l&eftwGuf jyefvnfwifjy=uavonf? tvkyform;or*~rsm;/ ynm&Siftkyfpkrsm; ESifh twl &maygif; axmifaygif;rsm;pGmaom omrefjynfol rsm;. qifuef;awmwkd; url&SL;xkd;vkyfaqmifr_rsm;wGif/ qkdAD,ufonf atmufwkdbmtaxGaxGoydwf wkdufyGJ}uD;ukd &mpkESpf. yxrOD;qkH;aom wufwufºuGºuG tm;rmeftjynf&Sdonfh t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_}uD; tjzpfokd@ a&muf&Sdatmif tnDay;cJhavonf? tm%m&Siftpkd;&tm; xdyfwkduf rsufESmcsif;qkdifwkdufckdufr_wckukd ðyvkyfrnfhtpm;/ a*yGef. Ttvkyform;rsm;onf Zmbk&iftm; ‚if;wkd@. arwWm&yfcHcsufrsm;tm; cGifhðy&ef toem;cHv$mwifoGif;jcif;ukd ZEM0g&DvwGif óud;yrf;cJhonf? olwkd@onf olwkd@vkyfaqmifaeonfh tvkyfrsm;ukd &kd;pif;pGmyif &yfwef@vkduf+yD;/ tpkd;&rSaeI olwkd@ awmif;qkdxm;onfh awmif;qkdcsufrsm;ukd rvkdufavsmor# umvywfvkH; vkyfief;cGifokd@ jyefr0if[k a=unmcJhavonf? tpkd;&onf qENjyv_yf&Sm;r_tm; tvG,fwulyif ESdyfuGyfEkdifcJh+yD;/ olwkd@. acgif;aqmifrsm;ukd

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

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zrf;qD;xdef;odrf;cJhavonf? trSefwu,fwGifrl xkdokd@ t}udrfrsm;pGm ESdyfuGyfaomfvnf;yJ/ vlxktm; vkyfief;cGifokd@ jyef0ifa&mufatmif rpGrf;aqmifEkdifcJhacs? tu,fI &xm; ykd@aqmifa&;/ a=u;eef;qufoG,fa&;/ pmwkdufvkyfief;/ b%fvkyfief; ESifh v#yfppfvkyfief;wkd@vnf; tvkyfrvkyf awmhygu/ tpkd;&onf =umjrifhpGm &yfwnf&SifoefEkdifawmhrnf r[kwfacs? wkdif;jynf. tjcm;aom a'orsm;ESifh òrd@awmfukd qufoG,fxm;onfh qufoG,fa&;ESifh o,f,lykd@aqmifa&; uGef,uf rv_yf&Sm;/ rvnfywfEkdifatmif ðyvkyfvkdufjcif;tm;jzifh/ taxGaxGoydwf}uD;onf tm%m&Siftpkd;&tm; uarmufur/ tkd;eif;cGufeif; jzpfoGm;apcJhavonf? a'oEW& t&m&Sdrsm;onf oydwf wkdufyGJtm; rnfokd@ wkef@jyef&rnfqkdonfukd A[kdrS !$ef=um;csufrsm; &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; r&&Sdawmhacs? txufykdif; t&m&Sdrsm;onfvnf; jynfe,f/ c&kdifrsm;wGif jzpfysufaeonfrsm;ukd od&Sd&eftwGuf owif;tcsuf tvufrsm; csKdwJhaeonfhtwGuf/ wcgw&HwGif aumv[vrsm;tay:tajccHI vkyfaqmifae=u&avonf? oydwfwkdufyGJ. tusKd;oufa&mufr_onf yDwma[mhzf (Peterhof) yifv,furf;ajcykdif;&Sd eef;awmfwGif aexkdifaeonfh Zmbk&if. ae@pOfvkyfief;rsm;ukdyg xdckdufoGm;avonf? &xm;vrf;rsm; tquftoG,f jywfawmufoGm;jcif;a=umifh/ Zmbk&if. t&m&Sdrsm;onf òrd@awmfrSaeI bk&ifxHokd@ oGm;a&muf pum;ajym/ owif;ykd@&eftwGuf armfawmfbkwfrsm;ukd tokH;ðy&avawmhonf? ,if;onfteJqkH; w}udrfwGif ol. ae@vnfpmtm; aemufusoGm;cJhavonf[k Zmbk&ifrS ol. ae@pOfrSwfwrf;pmtkyfwGif/ atmufwkdbmv (12) &ufae@Y a&;xm;cJhavonf? jynfolvlxk tkHºuGv_yf&Sm;r_ ESifh ol. tpkd;&t=um;wGif jzpfay:aeonfh t&Sdefjrifhwufvmaeaom yËdyuQtwGuf eDukdvufpfonf t}uH^m%f tenf;i,fom ay;EkdifcJhavonf? Zmbk&ifESifh eD;pyfaomol wOD;. tqkdt&rl - “Zmbk&ifonf vkH;vkH;vsm;vsm; tqifjcifr&Sd/ rkdufrJonfh aumif;uifbkHrmS aexkdifae+yD;/ ol@ukd,fol ckdifrmtm;}uD;ol/ ,cifuuJhokd@yif pGrf;yum;}uD;rm;ol wa,muf[k txifa&mufaeoljzpfonf”? aemufqkH;wGif olonf tEW&m,f owday;acgif;avmif;oH jrnfvmaomtcgrS/ xdwfvef@wkefv_yfvm+yD; ol yxrOD;qkH; pdwful;aygufvmonfrSm tiftm;okH;ajz&Sif;&efomjzpfonf? okd@aomf oydwfwkdufyGJ. tvGef }uD;rm;aom yrm%twkdif;twmonf vufeufukdifwyfrsm;. csKyfukdifxm;Ekdifr_tay: ausmfvGefoGm;+yD qkdonfukd ol. 0ef}uD;rsm;onf rD;&xm;vrf;trsm;pkwGif vkyfief;rsm; jyefvnf vnfywf&eftwGuf tenf;i,fom vkyfaqmifEkdifcJh+yD;aemuf oabmaygufem;vnfcJh=uonf? xkd@a=umifh Zmbk&ifonf x&DayghAftm; òrd@rsm;Y r+idrfroufjzpfr_rsm;tm;vkH;ukd ESdrfESif;&ef ajymvkdufavonf? atmufwkdbmv (12) &ufae@wGif/ bk&ifcHcsKyfonf zsufvkdzsufqD;vkyfaom/ taESmifht,Sufrsm;tm;vkH;tm ESdrfESif;&ef &JcsKyfrsm;tm;/ !ïef=um; vkdufavonf? (2) &uft=umY vrf;rsm;ay:wGif owday;pmrsm;uyfxm;onfukd owdðyrdcJhavonf/ “ppfwyfrsm;tm;vkH; ESifh ykvdyfwyfzGJ@rsm;tm;vkH;tm;/ EkdifiHawmf r+idrfrouf qlylr_jzpfap&ef rnfonfh óud;yrf;tm;xkwfr_rsKd;ukdrqkd/ csufjcif;ESdrfESif;&ef ESifh jynfolvlxk. rnfonfhtpdwftykdif;wGifrqkd ta&;w}uD; tqkH;tjzwfay;&rnfhae&mrsm;Y/ ckcHawmfvSefonfh trlt&m/ tajctaersm;awG@&Sd&ygu ypfcwfòzdcGif;ESdrfESif;&ef/ xkdtwGuf usnfqHukd rac|wm&ef u|Ekfyf trdef@xkwfjyefvkdufonf”[k trdef@xkwfjyefcJhonf? jynfolwkd@onf +cdrf;ajcmufr_rsm;ukd rwkefv_yfcJh=uacs? x&DayghAf. trdef@xkwfjyef+yD; aemuf&ufrsm;Y/ pdef@yDwmpbwfwGif vrf;rsm;ay:Y/ qENjyol (40˜000) txd wkd;yGm;vmavonf? wuUokdvftwGif;&Sd vlxkpnf;a0;crf;rrsm;rSm ykHrSefEkdifiHa&;pnf;a0;yGJrsm;ESifh jynfhESufaeavonf? x&DayghAf. +cdrf;ajcmufr_ukd taumiftxnfazmf&ef ykvdyfwyfzGJ@rsm; ESifh ppfwyfrsm;rSm wcgr# ay:rvmcJhay? wkdif;jynfw0Srf;&Sd armfpukdESifh tjcm;aom òrd@}uD;rsm;wGif t=urf;zufr_rsm;jzpfyGm;cJhaomfvnf;/ tm%mykdifrsm;rS t+rJwrf; rwkef@jyefcJhacs? xkd@tjyif zdESdyfr_rsm;onf qENjyr_rsm;ukd &kwf&kwfoJoJjzpfatmif rvkyfEkdifcJhao;acs? aoG;v$rf;aom we*FaEGrSm uJhokd@ tm%mykdifwkd@. t=urf;zufr_ vuQ%mrsm;rSm/ ‚if;wkd@. twkduftcHrsm;. rD;awmufukdom ykdrkd}uD;xGm; apcJhonf? EkdifxufpD;eif;ðyvkyfr_rsm; atmifjrif[ef r&Sdaomtcg/ tpkd;&twGif;Y ðyjyifajymif;vJa&;vkyfaqmif&ef toHrsm;onf us,fus,favmifavmif xGufay:vmavonf? =oZmwduUrt&SdqkH;rSm 0ef}uD;rsm;aumifpD OuUÏ qm*sD 0Spfwf (Sergei Witte) yifjzpfonf? olonf *syefwkd@ESifh aphpyf+idrf;csrf;a&;pum;ajym&mwGif atmifjrif xif&Sm;vmoljzpfonf? olonf pl;&Sxufjrufaom/ rme}uD;aom vlwa,mufjzpf+yD;/ t&nftcsif;&SdI u|rf;usifaomEdkifiHa&;orm;wa,mufvnf;jzpfonf? 0Spfwfonf oufOD;qHykdiftpkd;&. &efolwa,muf r[kwfacs/ trSefwGifrl olonf rD&fpuD. vGefcJhonfhESpfu ðyjyif ajymif;vJa&;t}uHðycsufrsm; ratmifjrifr_wGif wpdwfwykdif;

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

39


wm0ef&SdolwOD;jzpfonf? rnfokd@yifqkdapumrl/ ,cktcg/ 0Spfwfonf tpkd;&taejzifh tav;teuf tav#mhay;/ vkdufavsmr_rsm; urf;vSrf; ðyvkyfrSom jyefvnftzwfq,fEkdifvdrfhrnfukd jrifavonf? tpkd;&onf tajymif;tvJtwGuf a=umif;usKd;qDavsmfaom/ vufcHEkdifonfh awmif;qkdr_rsm; ESifh EkdifiHawmftay: t=unf!kd ysufapaom tpGef;a&muform;rsm;t=um;wGif uGJuGJjym;jym;cGJjcm;EkdifcJhjcif; r&SdcJhacs[k/ ‚if;rS Zmbk&iftm; tpD&ifcHonfh pmwapmifxJwGif az:jyxm;cJhavonf? vl@tzGJ@tpnf;. tajccHðyjyifajymif;vJa&;0g'Drsm;/ tv,ftvwfrsm;onf vGwfvyfa&;twGuf óud;yrf;tm;xkwfae=u&m/ tpkd;&onf ‚if;wkd@. vrf;a=umif;wGif ydwfqkd@r_ rðyvkyfoifhay? vmrnfh 'l;rm;v$wfawmfa&G;aumufyGJrsm;twGuf qENrJay;ykdifcGifhrsm;ukd vlr_ vlwef;pm;/ tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;tm;vkH;okd@ wkd;csJ@cGifhðyjcif;ESihf/ zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'wcku tmrcHay;xm;onfh EkdifiHom;tm;vkH;wkd@. jynfol@vGwfvyfcGifhrsm;ukd cGifhðyxm;ay;jcif;jzifh tpkd;&onf “vGwfvyfa&; ezl;pD; pmwef;. atmufwGif ‚if;ukd,fwkdif&Sdae&rnf” jzpfonf? qufvufI ‚if;rS/ tm%m&Sifpepfonf wkdif;jynftm; aoG;tkdifxJwGifom a&csKd;ay;&ef qEN&Sdoljzpfonf[k ckcHajymxm;avonf? okd@aomf Zmbk&ifonf rnfonfhenf;vrf;ukdr# rESpfoufcJhacs? aemufykdif;wGif olrS ol. rdcifokd@ jyefajymjyonfrSm- “tiftm;okH;ajz&Sif;wwfwJh ppfom;wa,mufukd cef@tyf+yD;awmh/ &Sdor#tiftm; tukefokH; +yD;awmh olykefawGukdacsr_ef;ESdrfESif;&ef” om olvkyfEkdifcJhonf? qufvufI “tJ'Dtcgus&if jyefvnftouf &SLacsmifvmEkdifawmhrnfjzpfonf? vaygif;tawmf=um+yD;wJhaemufrSmawmh usaemfwkd@ tiftm;okH;+yD;/ jyefvnftwif;t=uyfapckdif;Ekdifrnfjzpfonf? okd@aomf tJ'DtwGuf aoG;jrpfawGpD;qif;onftxd wefzkd;}uD;rm; vdrhfr,f/ æ æ aemufxyftjcm;enf;vrf;uawmh jynfolawGukd EdkifiHom;tcGifhta&;awGay;vkduf/ vGwfvyfpGm ajymqkdcGifh/ a&;om;xkwfa0cGifh/ pnf;&kH;cGifh ESifh toif;tyif;rsm;zGJ@pnf;cGifh/ ESifh woD;yk*~vtcGifhta&;rsm;ukd rcsKd;azmuf rapmfum;Ekdifzkd@/ tJ'gawGtjyif Oya'ðyjcif;qkdif&mvkyfief;awGtm;vkH;rSm jynfol@v$wfawmf ('l;rm;) rSwqifhom OD;aqmif&ef wm0ef&Sdjcif;/ qkdvkdwmuawmh/ zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya' wcka&;qGJxm;jcif;ygyJ” [k ajymjycJhavonf? Zmbk&ifonf &ufaygif;rsm;pGm rcHcsdrcHomjzpfaeavonf? olonf x&DayghAf ESifh wkdifyifaomtcg/ ‚if;rS 0Spfwfwifjyt}uHðyonfhtwkdif; vkyfaqmif&ef t}uHay;avonf? okd@aomf atmufwkdbmv (1&) &ufae@wGif/ eDukdvufpfonf acsr_ef;&ef qkH;jzwfvkduf+yD;/ olaumif;rsKd;EG,f&Sif e,fpm;}uD; eDudkvkdif (Grand Duke Nicolei) tm; ppfwyf'g&kdufwm. wm0ef&Sdoltjzpf vufcH,l&ef ckdif;apvkdufavonf? e,fpm;}uD;rS tu,fI Zmbk&ifonf xkdESdyfuGyfacsr_ef;a&;vrf;a=umif;twkdif; qufvufoGm;aeygu ol@taejzifh/ rdrd. OD;acgif;ukd aoewfjzifhawhI/ ukd,fhukdukd,f ypfowfvkdufrnf[lI trlt&mygygjzifh o&kyfaqmif+yD;/ Zmbk&iftm; +cdrf;ajcmufvkdufaomtcgrSom eDukdvufpfonf pdwfajymif;oGm;+yD;/ ðyjyifajymif;vJr_rsm;twGuf uwdðyonfh rl0g'a=unmcsufpmwrf;wGif vufrSwfxkd;&ef qkH;jzwfvkdufavonf? xkd rl0g'a=unmcsufpmwrf;ukd csufjcif;xkwfjyefvkduf+yD;/ naeykdif;wGif eDukdvufpfonf ol. ae@pOfrSwfwrf;pmtkyfY - “tJ'Dae@+yD;aemufykdif;Y u|Ekfyf. OD;acgif;onf av;vHvmcJh+yD;/ u|Ekfyf. pOf;pm;awG;awmr_rsm;onfvnf; Za0Z0g pwif &_yfaxG;vmcJhavonf? bk&m;ocif/ u|efawmfrsKd;wkd@tm; ulnDapmifrawmfrlyg/ u,fwifawmfrlyg/ &k&Sjynf}uD;tm; at;csrf;+idrfoufatmif ðyvkyfay;awmfrlyg”? atmufwkdbma=unmcsufpmwrf;rSm tusOf;r#omjzpfonf? tpkd;&onf t"duusonfh ðyjyif ajymif;vJr_ (3) ckukd wm0ef,lvkyfaqmifoGm;rnf? “woD;yk*~vtcGifhta&;rsm; xm0&wnf+rJcGifh/ vGwfvyfpGm awG;ac:cGifh/ ajymqkdcGifh/ pnf;&kH;cGifh/ toif;tyif;rsm; zJG@pnf;cGifh/ ponfh oabmw&m;rsm;tay:tajccHI/ jynfol@vGwfvyfcGifh azmifa';&Sif;rsm;” cGifhðyoGm;rnf? 'l;rm;v$wfawmf a&G;aumufyGJrsm;twGuf rJqENay;ykdifcGifhukd/ t&G,fa&mufolwkdif; qENrJ ay;ykdifcGifhESifhtnD wkd;csJ@oGm;&ef/ ESifh 'l;rm;v$wfawmftm; Oya'ðycGifhtm%mESifh/ tpkd;&tay: t}uHay;}uD;=uyfcGifhukd cGifhðy&ef/ ponfwkd@jzpfonf? rl0g'a=unmpmwrf;ukd wkdufwGef;E_d;aqmfr_ ESifhtwl tqkH;owfxm;avonf - “&k&S rsKd;cspfEkdifiHom;taygif;wkd@ æ róuHpzl; aESmifh,SufzsufqD;r_rsm; tqkH;owfap&ef twGuftultnDay;&ef/ ESifh u|Ekfyfwkd@. trdajray:wGif +idrf;csrf;a&; ESifh at;csrf;om,ma&; jyefvnf wnfaqmuf&eftwGuf u|Ekfyfwkd@ESifhtwlwuG 0kdif;0ef;óud;yrf;aqmif&GufoGm; =uyg&ef”/ [lI jzpfavonf? Zmbk&ifonf ol. tav#mhay;r_rsm;ukd ðyvkyfay;+yD;aemuf/ ol@taejzifh ol. tifykdif,mtwGif;Y 0&kef;okef;um; z&kdz&Jjzpfr_rsm;ukd qufvufoD;nnf;cHawmhrnfr[kwfa=umif;/ ajymoGm;av onf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

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x&DayghAf rS “tzbk&m;ociftm; aus;Zl;txl;wif&Sdygonf/ rl0g'a=unmpmwrf;um; vufrSwfxkd;+yD; av+yD/ ,cktcg b0opfukd pwifygawmhrnf” [k a&;om;cJhavonf? olonf oufOD;qHykdifbk&ifpepftm; tumtuG,fay;ol wa,muftjzpf emrnf&SdoljzpfcJhaomfjim;vnf;/ olonf zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_rsm; usqkH;cJh&+yD;/ ðyjyifajymif;vJr_rsm; atmifjrifvmcJhvdrfhrnf[k/ ,kH=unfol wa,mufjzpfvmonf? tpyxrY x&DayghAf. taumif;jrif0g'onf ta=umif;ckdifvkH[ef&SdcJhavonf? armfpukd ESifh pdef@ yDwmpbwfòrd@rsm;wGif jynfolrsm;onf vrf;rsm;ay:wGif atmifyGJusif;yaecJh=uonf? armfpukdòrd@aumifpDonf rl0g'a=unmpmwrf;tm; axmufcHonfh qkH;jzwfcswckukd csrSwfcJhavonf? pdef@ yDwmpbwf òrd@awmfaumifpDonfvnf; bk&if eDukdvufpfxHokd@ “vGwfvyfaom EkdifiHwckukd Zmbk&if” [lI aumif;csD;ay;onfh a=u;eef;wapmifukd ay;ykd@cJhavonf? owif;pm wapmifrSrl “vGwfvyfaom jynfolrsm;tjzpf/ vGwfvyfr_. EkdifiHom;rsm;tjzpf/ zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'ESifh nD!Gwfaom &k&Stjzpf vufcH,kH=unf=uygpkd@” [lI aysmf&$ifjrL;xl;aecJhavonf? rnfokd@yifqkdapumrl/ xkdae@wm rukefqkH;rD/ tqkdyg rl0g'a=unmpmwrf;onf twkduftcHrsm;tm; tjynfht0 auseyfESpfodrfhr_ ray;onfh vuQ%mrsm;&Sdaeonfukd awG@&avonf? armfpukdwGif/ vpfb&,f au'uf ygwD (Kadet Party) xlaxmifonfh uGef*&ufY/ ajymif;vJr_rsm;onf 'Drkdua&pDzGJ@pnf;ykHpepfqDokd@ a&mufatmif vkHavmufr_ r&Sdbl;[k wufa&mufpum;ajymolrsm;u tckdiftrmajymqkdae=uavonf? qkd&S,fvpfrsm;onf Zmbk&if. rl0g'a=unmcsufpmwrf;tm; tvkyform;vlwef;pm;rsm;. oydwfwkdufyGJrsm; tqkH;owf oGm;atmif Oyg,fwHrsOfjzifh vSnhfuGufqifxm;onfh/ vSnhfpm;a&;qGJxm;csufrsm;omjzpfa=umif; ykdrkdjyif;xefpGm &efpG,faigaigjzifh pGyfpGJ&_H@cs=uavonf? vD,Gef xa&mhpuDonf pka0;ae=uonfh tvkyform;rsm;ESifh teDa&mif acgif;pnf;rsm;a0S@&rf;aeonfh ausmif;om;rsm;tm; wkdufyGJonf r+yD;qkH;ao;a=umif; wuUokdvf vomaqmif 0&HwmrSaeI tckdiftrmwkdufwGef;ajymqkdaeavonf “EkdifiHom;wkd@ - ,cktcg igwkd@. tkyfpkd;olvlwpk[m eH&HrSm acsmifydwfrdoGm;+yD/ olwkd@[m vGwfvyfcGifhawG ay;r,fvkd@ igwkd@ukd uwdu0wfawG ay;ae=u+yD” [k xa&mhpuDonf atmf[pfajymaeavonf? “vGwfvyfa&;qkdwJh uwdpum;[m ol@zmomol vGwfvyfa&;qkdwJh pum;vkH;twkdif;yJ&SdaerSmvm;´ æ vufxJrSm "g;ukdifxm;&+yD;awmh u|efawmfwkd@&Jh vGwfvyfa&;tay:rSm umuG,fapmifha&Smufae&vdrfhr,f? Zmbk&if&Jh rl0g'a=unmpmwrf;t&qkd&if/ 'DrSm=unhfprf;/ 'g[m puULtykdif;pwpyJ? 'DrSm cifAsm;wkd@&Jh ta&S@rSmyJ/ 'DrSm u|efawmf&Jh vufxJrSm qkyfacsrGvkduf+yD? 'Dae@olwkd@ xkwfjyefw,f/ tck u|efawmf 'D vGwfvyfa&; a=unmpm&Gufukd cifAsm;wkd@&Jh rsufpda&S@arSmufrSmyJ qGJ+zJaeovkdrsKd;/ reufjzefus&if 'gukd olwkd@ jyef,loGm;+yD;aemuf wppD qGJ+zJypfvdrfhr,f”? wkdufcsifckdufcsifpdwf&Sdaeolrsm;rSm tajctjrpfrSpI vkH;0ðyjyifajymif;vJvkdolrsm;r[kwfyJ/ vuf,m0g'D rsm;vnf; t=urf;zufr_rsm;ukd jyif;xefaom a&pD;t[kefuJhokd@ woDwwef;}uD; ðyvkyf=uavawmhonf? (Balck Hundreds) [kac:onfh vuf,m0g'Drsm;tkyfpkrsm;onf armfpukd ESifh pdef@ yDwmpbwfòrd@rsm;wGif ae@&ufaygif;rsm;pGm vSnhfvnfoGm;vm+yD; qkdifjyLwif;aygufrsm;tm; &kdufcsKd;jcif;/ ausmif;om;rsm;/ tvkyform;rsm;ESifh tjcm;aom awmfvSefa&;orm;[k oHo,&Sdolrsm;tm; &kdufESufjcif; ESifh wcgw&H owfypf vkdufjcif;rsm;ukd ðyvkyf=uavonf? ykvdyfrsm;onf vpfvsL&_xm;+yD;/ tcsKd@jy\emrsm;wGif ‚if;wkd@tm; tm;ay; tm;ajr‡mufðyvkdufao;onf? zsufqD;&rf;um; 0&kef;okef;um;vkyf=ujcif;onf/ t}uD;rm;qkH; òrd@}uD; ESpfòrd@. tjyifzufwGif tqkd;qkH;jzpfonf? &k&SvlrsKd;r[kwfolrsm; ESifh c&pf,mefr[kwfolrsm;onf t"du ypfrSwfrsm; jzpfae=uavonf? uufpyD,ef yifv,f&Sd/ bmul (Baku) a&eHòrd@av;wGif/ Black Hundreds rsm;onf tar&duefrsm;ukd armif;xkwf&ef ar#mfvifhcsufrsm;jzifh/ wkdufckdufr_rsm; jzpfay:vmav&m/ tar&duef (60) ausmf towfcHcJh=u&avonf? tar&duefrsm;onf c&pf,mefrsm;jzpf=uaomfvnf;/ a&S;&kd;c&pf,mef (Orthodox) toif;awmf0if;rsm; r[kwf=uay? txl;ojzifh *sL;rsm;rSm tqkd;&Gm;qkH; cH&olrsm;jzpf=uonf? udAfòrd@ (Keive) wGif (12) a,muf towf cHcJh&+yD;/ a&mhpawmhAf tGef 'Gef òrd@ (Rostov-on-Don) wGif (34) a,muf towfcHcJh&onf/ rifhpf (Minsk) òrd@wGif (54) a,muftowfcHcJh&+yD;/ tkd'ufqmòrd@ (Odessa) wGif (500) ausmf towfcHcJh=u&onf? pdef@ yDwmpbwf ESifh armfpukdrSmuJhokd@yif/ a'otm%mykdifrsm; ESifh ykvdyfwkd@. yg0ifusL;vGefjcif;rsm; &Sdavonf? awmfvSefa&;orm;rsm;onf xkdae@rSpI ,kH=unfr_rsm;&&Sdvm+yD;/ oufOD;qHykdifpepfukd zsufqD;ypf&ef ESifh orwEkdifiHawmfwckxlaxmif&ef xkd@xuf avsmhenf;aom taetxm;jzifh/ ausat; a&mifh&Jvkduf&ef qENr&Sd=uacs? azmufjyefa&;orm;rsm;rSmvnf; vrf;rrsm;ukd tm%m&Siftpkd;&tm; rkef;wD;aeaom &efolrsm;. vufxJwGif ypfxm;cJh&ef qENr&Sday/ xkd@a=umifh &ufpuf=urf;ñuwfpGm jyefvnfwkdufckduf=uavonf? pdef@ yDwmpbwf. ZEM0g&Dv. a&cJ ESifh

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ESif;xkrsm; zkH;v$rf;aeaom vrf;rsm;ay:wGif pwifcJhonfh yËdyuQonf tpkd;&. rl0g'a=unmpmwrf;a=umifh/ t=uifemuif;rJhonfh &uf&ufpufpuf wkdufckdufr_rsm;jzifh yËdyuQtopfukd pwifcJhavawmhonf?

“xdef;csKyfr_rsm; r&Sdoavmufyif” atmufwkdbm (17) &ufae@/ ae@rsm;wGif/ Izvestiia owif;pmonf t,f'DwmhtmabmfwGif Zmbk&if. rl0g' a=unmpmwrf;ESifh ywfoufI rnDr!Gwf/ 0da&m"d jzpfaeonfrsm;ukd xkwfE_wfjyavonf - “v$wfawmf. vGwfvyfr_ukd u|Ekfyfwkd@tm; ay;xm;+yD;jzpfw,f/” owif;pmrS 0efcHxm;avonf? “'gayr,fh æ u|efawmfwkd@&J@ v$wfawmfpnf;a0;rsm;ukd ppfwyfawGeJ@0kdif;xm;w,f? vGwfvyfpGm ajymqkdr_ukd u|efawmfwkd@tm; cGifhðyxm;w,f/ 'gayr,fh aiGrSifokwfjcif;/ qkwf+zJjcif;/ jzwfawmufjcif;awGuawmh qufvuf&Sdaeao;w,f æ? 0Spfwf ukd u|efawmfwkd@tm; ay;xm;w,f/ 'gayr,fh x&DayghAfuvnf; u|efawmfwkd@qDrSm &SdaeqJyJ? zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya' wckukdvnf; u|efawmfwkd@tm; ay;xm;w,f/ 'gayr,fh oufOD;qHykdiftm%m&Sifpepf uawmh qufvufwnf &SdaeqJyJ?” Zmbk&if. rl0g'a=unmcsufpmwrf;onf EkdifiHukdtkyfcsKyfolvlwpk ESifh EkdifiHtkyfpkd;r_ ESpfckt=um;&Sd qufqHa&;topfukd tmrcHay;cJhavonf? okd@aomf a=unmcsufpmwrf;ukd,fYyifv#if tpDtrHopfukd rzefwD; EkdifcJhacs? Zmbk&if ESifh ol. 0ef}uD;rsm;onf tqkdyg a=unmcsufpmwrf;tm; rnfokd@ taumiftxnfazmfrnf [lonfESifh ywfoufI jiif;ckH pum;rsm;ae=ucsdefwGif/ pdef@ yDwmpbwfjynfolrsm;onf vGwfvyfa&;topfrsm;ukd ‚if;wkd@zmom oifhavsmfovkd vkyfaqmif=uavonf? owif;pm;rsm;onf tjzpftysufopfrsm;ukd pmvkH;rJopf }uD;rsm;ESifhtwl tpD&ifcHa&;om;jcif;/ rSwfcsufay;jcif;rsm; ðyvkyfae=uavonf? òrd@}uD;rsm;&Sd jynfoltrsm;onf EkdifiHa&;ESifhywfoufonfh oabmxm;/ &_axmifhrsm;tm;vkH;ukd axmufcHtm;ay;I xkwfa0 or#ukd tukefvkH; odrf;óuH;0,f,l=uavonf? pufaoeuf [k trnf&onfh Pulemet uJhokd@aom avSmifajymifoa&mfonfh *sme,frsm;rSm v_H@aqmfr_tay;qkH;/ tE_d;qGqkH;jzpfonf? xkd*sme,frsm;onf Zmbk&if ESifh ol. t&m&Sdrsm;. ykHrsm;ukd aoG;rsm;jzifh&$Jpkdaeonfh &kdif;pkdif;=urf;ñuwfaom vl&kdif;rsm;ykHo¾mef &kyfajymifykHrsm;ukd ykHESdyf=uavonf? tm%mykdifrsm;onf owif;pm/ *sme,fxkwfa0onfhwkdufrsm;okd@ tcgtm;avsmfpGm 0ifa&mufpD;eif;jcif;rsm; ðyvkyf=uavonf? okd@aomf w&m;0ifonfjzpfap/ w&m;r0ifonfjzpfap avmavmq,f topfa=unmxm; onfh vGwfvyfpGm ykHESdyfxkwfa0cGifhukd acsr_ef;okwfoif&ef pepfwuspD;eif;jcif;rsKd; r&Sdacs? &mpwm&Da,hAf oH&nfóudpuf&kH (Rasteriaev) wGif/ tvkyform;rsm;onf ‚if;wkd@. ajratmuf owif;pmrsm;ukd ‚if;wkd@. pufrsm;atmufwGif qufvuf0Sux f m;jcif;rðyawmhacs? owif;pmrsm;wGif qkdAD,ufwkd@. a=unmcsufrsm;ukd ajymifajymifwif;wif;/ ay:ay:wifwifyif zwfae=uav+yDjzpfonf? awmfvSefa&;ygwDrsm;rS qkH;jzwfcsufrsm;ukdvnf;/ pmwkdufrS ykd@aqmifaeav+yD? atmufwkdbmvaESmif;ydkif; ESifh Ekd0ifbmvtwGif;Y pdef@ yDwmpbwfwGif/ usif;yaeonfh jynfol@tpnf;ta0;rsm;onf &ufowWywfwkdif;wGif wkd;Iwkd;I rsm;jym;vmavonf? jynfolvlxkonf Zmwf&kHrsm;/ crf;rrsm;wGif tpkd;&qkdonfESifh ESifh Oya'qkdif&m wkd@. tajccHoabmw&m;rsm;ta=umif; ykd@csa[majymcsufrsm;ukd em;axmif&eftwGuf jynfh=uyfwef;pD ae=uavonf? (1905) ckESpf tukefykdif;wGif/ pufcsKyform;rsm; ESifh aygifrkef@zkwform;rsm; rSaeI rD;ckd;acgif;wkdif oef@&Sif;a&;orm;rsm;/ tdrfazmfvkyfief;rsm;/ ESifh ykvdyfom;rsm;txd yg0ifonfh or*~topfrsm;onf toD;oD; tou/ tv#Kdv#Kd ay:xGuf zGJ@pnf;vm=uavawmhonf? olwkd@em;vnfvufcHxm;=uonfhtwkdif;/ xkd “vGwfvyfaomae@&ufrsm;” onf òrd@}uD;rsm;wGifom abmifcwfuef@owf xGufay:cJhjcif;rsKd;r[kwfbJ/ aus;&Gmrsm;wGifvnf; Zmbk&if. rl0g' a=unmpmwrf;tm; ajymqkdaqG;aEG;&eftwGuf/ v,form;rsm;onf awG@qkH=u+yD;/ ausmif;q&m/ q&mrrsm;/ oD;EHSpkdufysKd;a&; ynm&Sifrsm;/ (okd@r[kwf) aus;&Gm ynmwufvlwef;pm;rsm;twGif;&Sd/ ynmwwfrsm;tm; zdwfac:I ‚if;wkd@tm; a[majymykd@csay;&ef/ aus;&Gmvlxkpnf;a0;yGJrsm; ðyvkyf=uavonf? armfpukd ESifh uDvkdrDwm (150)/ (okd@r[kwf) rkdiftm;jzifh (93) rkdif omuGma0;onfh/ rmukdAkd (Markovo) wGif/ aus;&Gmv$wfawmf (Village Assembly) onf taumuftcGefrsm; &kyfodrf;ay;&ef/ ppfom;pkaqmif;a&; xnfh0if&r_rsm;tm; &yfwef@ay;&ef/ ESifh 'Drkdua&pD pepftwGuf awmif;qkdxm;r_rsm;

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r&&Sdao;rD umvtwGif;Y/ a'oEW& t&m&Sdrsm;. vkyfykdifcGifhtm%mrsm;tm; todtrSwfrðy/ vpfvsL&_xm;&ef/ urBmhtqifhtwef;rD yk*~vduynma&;/ EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;twGuf vGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifhrsm;/ ESifh ajr,m jyefvnfa0iSjcif;rsm; ðyvkyfay;a&;/ ponfwkd@twGuf rJqENay;cJh=u avonf? olwkd@onf “rmukdAdk orw EkdifiH (Republic of Markovo)” tjzpf olwkd@ukd,f olwkd@ a=unmcJh+yD;/ orw wa,mufukd a&G;aumufwifajr‡muf cJhavonf? xkd@aemuf ausmif;rsm; ESifh &mZ0wfr_ w&m;&kH;rsm;ukd xdef;csKyfvkdufavonf? ppfom;rsm;ESifh oabFmom;rsm;onfvnf;/ atmufwkdbma=unmpmwrf;onf Oya'pnf;rsOf;/ pnf;urf; ta[mif;rsm;tm; vkH;0touf0ifr_ r&Sdawmh[lonfh tcsufjy pmwrf;wcktjzpf owfrSwf,lqvkduf =uavonf? abmvfwpf yifv,ftwGif;&Sd/ u|ef;wcktay:wGif&Sdonfh/ u&Gefpw'f (Kronstadt) a&wyf tajcpkdufpcef;wGif/ &mxl;tqifhedrfhusonfh t&mcHppfAkdvf/ ppfom;rsm;onf ppfr_xrf;oufav#mhcsay;a&;/ ppfr_xrf;vpm wkd;jr‡ifhay;a&;/ jynfol@tpnf;ta0;rsm;wGif wufa&mufcGifhay;jcif;/ ESifh jynfol@tyef;ajz ae&mrsm;wGif vrf;av#mufcGifhay;jcif;/ jynfol@pm;aomufqkdifrsm;wGif t&ufaopmaomufpm;cGifhðyjcif;/ ESifh ppfpnf;urf;xdef;odrf;a&; w&m;&kH;rsm;ukd a&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufjcif;jzifh a&G;aumuf&ef/ ponfwkd@ukd awmif;qkdcJh=u avonf? Zmbk&ifonf “‚if;wkd@. vdktifqENrsm;ukd azmfjy&ef ESifh vkdtyfcsufrsm;ukd xkwfazmf&ef” tvkd@iSm “vGwfvyfaom vlxktpnf;ta0;rsm; (open assembly)” Y pka0;cGifhukd cGifhðyvkdufonf [k oabFmom;rsm;onf vufcH,kH=unfcJh=uavonf? xkd@a=umifh/ ajcvsifwyfcGJwckonf olwkd@. awmif;qkdcsuf rsm;ukd olwkd@. wyf&if;rSL;tm; wifjyaomtcg/ tzrf;cHcJh=u&+yD;aemuf/ olwkd@onf ,rf;ykHrD;us em=unf; a'goxGufcJh=uavonf? axmifaygif;rsm;pGmaom a&wyfoabFmom;rsm;onf/ t"du&k%f;rsm;zefwD;jcif;/ ukefpkHqkdifrsm;tm; òzdcs zsufqD;jcif;/ avxJokd@ aoewfrsm;axmifypfjcif;/ ESifh t&m&Sdrsm; ESifh t&yfom;rsm;tm; wkdufckdufjcif; wkd@ukdðyvkyf=uavonf? (26) a,muftowfcHcJh=u&+yD;/ (2000) ausmf tzrf;cHcJh=u&avonf? atmufwkdbm (17) &ufae@aemufykdif;/ &ufowWywf (6) ywftwGif;Y/ wyfwGif;ykefuefr_ w&mausmf jzpfyGm;cJhavonf? u&Gefpw'f (Kronstadt) a&wyftajcpkdufpcef;uJhokd@r[kwfbJ/ t&m&Sdrsm;onf/ &mxl; tqifhedrfhusonfh t&mcHppfAkdvf/ ppfom;rsm;. awmif;qkdcsufrsm;rS tcsKd@onf [kwfrSefa=umif;/ oihfavsmf a=umif; 0efcH+yD;aomtcg/ +idrf;csrf;pGm +yD;qkH;oGm;cJh=uavonf? OyrmomrefwyfwGif;tajctaersKd;wGif wyfwGif;pnf;urf;rsm;jzpfonfh/ t&m&Sdrsm;trdef@ay;apckdif;onfhtcg ppfom;rsm;onf vkdufemvkyfaqmif&rnf [laom/ ppfpnf;urf;onf &Sdp&mrvkd[laom awmif;qkdcsufukd tjyeftvSefem;vnfr_rsKd;jzifh zGihf[0efcH&ef rvkdbJ todtrSwfðyvkdufjcif;rsKd;jzpfonf? ,if;onf Zmbk&ifvkdvm;ol t&m&Sdrsm;twGuf raumif;aom/ qkd;&Gm;aom owif;jzpfoGm;cJhavonf? ppf0ef}uD; AkdvfcsKyf atvufZef'g &'D*sm(Ministe of War Genenral Aleksandr Rediger) rS jyefajymif;rSwfrdonfrSm - “wyfzGJ@trsKd;rsKd;rSaeI trdef@remcHr_ESifh ywfoufonfh tpD&ifcHpmrsm;onf 'gZifrsm;pGm/ ae@pOfESifhtr# vufcH&&Sdaeavonf? ,if;onf ppfwyftay:ukdyiftm;ukd;I rjzpfEkdifawmha=umif; oufaojyvkdufaomtcg/ tcsdefonf eD;uyfvm+yDjzpfa=umif;xif&Sm;vmcJhjcif;jzpfonf? tazmfrJhr_/ txD;usef&r_ tedÏm&kHonf usa&mufvmawmhrnfjzpfonf? &k&Sm;vlrsKd;rsm;onf xkduJhokd@ vGwfvyfpGm ajymqkdcGifh/ xkwfa0jzef@csdcGifh/ pka0;cGifh/ ESifh tzGJ@tpnf; zGJ@pnf;cGifh wkd@ukd ,cifu wcgr# r&&SdcJhzl;acs? xkdvGwfvyfcGifhrsm;ukd olwkd@onf Oya'rS tmrcHay;xm;onfh twGufa=umifh r[kwfbJ/ ,if;wkd@ukd olwkd@rS ,laqmifusifhokH;vkdufaoma=umifhjzpfonf? xkdtcg tm%mykdif rsm;onf xkdvGwfvyfcGifh usifhokH;aer_wkd@ukd &yfwef@/ wm;qD;&eftwGuf tvGefyif acgif;&_wfaeapcJhavonf? “awmfvSefa&;avxk[m jynfolvlxkukd 0kdift&ufvkdrsKd; rl;,pfapcJhonfhtwGu/f u|efawmfwkd@onf t&ufrl;ae onfh tajctaersKd;xJwGif aexdkifaecJh=uonf” [k rif&SDApfuf acgif;aqmifwOD;jzpfonfh tufzf tkdif 'ef (F. I. Dan) rS *smref qkd&S,fvpf wa,mufjzpfonfh um;vf aumhwfpukdif (Kaul Kautsky) xHokd@ ay;ykd@aom pmxJwGif a&;om;cJhavonf? qufvufI pmxJwGif - “trSefwu,fwGifrl vGwfvyfpGm ajymqkdcGifhESifh vGwfvyfpGm pka0;cGifhrsm;tay:wGif/ xdef;csKyfr_rsm; vkH;0 r&Sdoavmufyif jzpfaecJhavonf? pdwfaepdwfxm; rsm;uawmh crf;em;xnf0gvGef;ayonf”[k a&;om;cJhonf? okd@&mwGif “vGwfvyfaom ae@&ufrsm;”onf tEW&m,f&Sdaom ae@&ufrsm;vnf; jzpfcJhavonf? tpGef; a&muf vuf,m0g'Drsm;. tqdk;&Gm;qkH;aom t=urf;zuf zsufqD; wkdufckdufr_rsm;/ atmufwkdbmwGif +yD;qkH;oGm; aomfvnf;/ tcgtm;avsmfpGm t=urf;zufr_rsm;onf qufvufI &Sd+rJ &SdaeqJjzpf+yD;/ rkefwkdif;opfwckonf +cdrf;ajcmufaecJhavonf?

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Ekd0ifbmv tpykdif;wGif/ vuf,m0g'Drsm;. v_yf&Sm;r_onf/ &k&Sjynfolrsm;or*~ (Union of the Russian People URP) topfwckrSaeI/ zGJ@pnf;ykHay:vmcJhavonf? &k&Sjynfolrsm;or*~ onf tajctaewnfwnf+idrf+idrf &Sdr_ukd vkdvm;aom ukefonf}uD;rsm;/ ,cif pepfa[mif;atmufwGif csrf;om }uD;yGm;ae=uaom twwfynm&Sifrsm;/ jynfe,f/ c&kdif t&m&Sdrsm;/ ESifh tcsKd@aom v,form;rsm;ESifh tvkyform;rsm;wkd@. pdwf0ifpm; pGJaqmifr_wkd@ukd &&SdcJhavonf? oufOD;qHykdifbk&ifpepftm; ‚if;wkd@. ckHcHumuG,fay;r_tay:/ rsufESmvkdrsufESm& azmfvHzm;onfh/ vkyf}uHowfjzwfr_ oabmw&m;wckudkvnf;/ wjznf;jznf;csif; oGwfoGif;ay;cJhavonf? ‚if;wkd@. pdwful;rsm;ukd/ vkyf}uHZmwfcif;xm;onfh ZD,Geftpfudkawmfrsm;.usifhxHk;rsm;pmtkyf (Protocols of the Elders of Zion) tay:wGif tajccHI/ &k&Sjynfolrsm;or*~tzGJ@0ifrsm;onf/ v#Kd@0Suf}uHpnfaeonfh EkdifiHwum *sL;vlrsKd;rsm; tzGJ@tpnf;wckrSaeI/ c&pf,mefe,fajrwckay:wGif/ r+idrfrouf qlyltkHºuGr_rsm;ukd zefwD;&eftwGuf ESifh *sL;vlrsKd;rsm;. v$rf;rkd;}uD;pkd;r_ukd ,laqmifvm&eftwGuf/ &k&SEkdifiHwGif jzpfay:aeom awmfvSefa&;ukd óud;ukdifpDrHaeygonf [k ,kH=unfaecJh=uonf? &k&Sjynfolrsm;or*~onf zdESdyfr_rsm;ðyvkyf&ef twGuf/ ESifh twkduftcHacgif;aqmifrsm;tm; vkyf}uHowfjzwf&eftwGuf vlowfwyfzGJ@rsm;ukdyg zGJ@pnf;&ef wkdufwGef;cJhavonf? vuf,m0g'Drsm;. arwWm&yfcHcsufrsm;ukd Zmbk&ifonf pdwfESvkH; ESpfòcduf/ oabmawG@cJhavonf? atmufwkdbm (27) &ufae@wGif/ ol. r,fawmfxHokd@ pmwapmifa&;om;cJhavonf? “opPmawmf&Sdonfh jynfolvlxk}uD;w&yfvkH;”onf/ olwkd@tm; aoGzDvrf;vGJatmifvkyfaqmifaeonfh “the kikes” rsm;/ ESifh &k&S todynm&Sifrsm;ESifh/ aoG;xkd;v_H@aqmfolrsm;tygt0if/ vufwqkyfpm “qkd;oGrf;aom vlrsm;”tm; tjyif;txef qef@usifae=uavonf? eDukdvufpfxHokd@ tajrmuftjrm;a&muf&Sdvmonfh a=u;eef;rsm;rSaeI/ a&yef;pm;aeonfh txiftjrifrsm;onf awmfvSefa&;orm;rsm;tm; qef@usifaeonfqkdonfukd/ ol@tm; tckdiftrm,kH=unfapcJhonf? 0SpfwfrS ðyjyifajymif;vJr_rsm;onf wnf+idrfat;csrf;a&;ukd ,laqmifvmvdrfhrnf[k ol@tm; tckdiftrmajymqkdcJhavonf? olwkd@ r+idrfoufcJh=uay? ,cktcg tqkdyg tkef;tkef;u|ufu|uf 0&kef;okef;um; jzpfr_rsm; tqkH;owf&ef tcsdefwefav+yD? eDukdvufpfrS ykdI v_yfv_yf&G&Gjzpfvmaomtcg 0Spfwf. t&Sdef=oZmrSm usqif;vmavonf? 0Spfwfonf xif&Sm;ausmf=um;aom oufarG;r_ynm&Sifwa,mufjzpfaomfvnf;/ tifykdif,m. eef;wGif;Y olonf t+rJwrf; tjyifvlwa,mufom jzpfaecJhavonf? *sL;vlrsKd;wa,mufjzpfonf[k aumv[vxGufaeonfh/ wvifuGmxm;onfh trsKd;orD;wa,mufukd vyfxyfxm;jcif;twGufukdyifv#if wpdwfwykdif;tjzpf aus;Zl;wif& awmhayrnf? ,cktcg/ Zmbk&ifonf ðyjyifajymif;vJr_tay:wGif t,kHt=unfr&Sdawmhacs? eDukdvufpfonf x&DayghAftay:wGif ykdrkdI tm;ukd;vmavonf? ,cktcg x&DayhgAfonf eef;wGif;wyfrSL;csKyfwa,mufjzpf vmavonf? eDukdvufpftwGufrl/ x&DayghAfonf jywfom;aom/ rqkwfrepfaom/ qkH;jzwfcsufckdifrmaom/ tºuGif;rJhopPm&Sdaomolwa,mufjzpf[ef&Sdavonf? okd@aomf ynmwwfvlwef;pm; tzGJtpnf;rsm;twGufrl/ x&DayghAfonf &k&Sppfwyf. &ufpuf=urf;ñuwfol/ tqiftjcifr&Sd rkdufrJaomol wa,muftjzpf oauFwðy avonf? 0Spfwf rS aemufykdif;wGif a&;om;onfrSm - “x&DayghAfukd,fwkdiftwGufrl/ tm;vkH;onf evydef;wkH;rsm; jzpf=uonf? t&m&mwkdif;onf vG,fvG,fuav;yifjzpfonf? tu,fI jynfolvlxkonf qlyltkHºuGygu/ olwkd@tm; oif &kdufESufvkdufyg” Tr#omjrifoljzpfonf? vGwfvyfr_topfrsm;. rsufpdoli,ftdrfwck/ jyefvnfEkd;xvmaom t=urf;zufr_/ ESifh ðyjyif ajymif;vJr_ ESifh jyefvnfvufwkef@jyefr_ ESpfckt=um; a&$@ajymif;aeaom tpkd;&wckwkd@onf twkduftcHrsm;tm; tvSnhftajymif; ae&mwckokd@ a&muf&SdapcJhavonf? atmufwkdbm rl0g'a=unmpmwrf;tm; wGef;tm; ay;&mwGif/ Zmbk&if. twkduftcHrsm;onf vtenf;i,frwkdifrDu olwkd@ tdyfruf rufxm;cJhonfrsm;xuf ykdI atmifjrifr_&&SdcJhonf? okd@aomfvnf; vltawmfrsm;rsm;onf xkdxufykdrkdI zdtm;ay;&ef aoG;aqmif jzm;a,mif; cHcJh=u&avonf? tvGeftu|H wGef;tm;ay;jcif;onf 0Spfwftm; *k%foduQm ykdrkdusqif;ap+yD;/ t,kHt=unf ykdrkd rJhvmap+yD;/ Zmbk&iftm; t=urf;zuf òzdcGif;r_qDokd@ jyefvnfa&muf&SdoGm;atmif E_d;qGay;+yD;/ ,if;onf &&Sdxm;onfh atmifjrifr_rsm;tm; acszsufypfapcJhavonf? okd@aomf/ Zmbk&ifonf óud;rsm;ESifh csnfaESmifcHae&csdefwGif/ tu,fI olwkd@taeESifh qufvufwkdufckdufaer_rsm;ukd &yfwef@cJhygu/ olwkd@taejzifh ykdrkd}uD;rm;aom atmifjrifr_tcGifhtvrf;wckukdvnf; vufv$wfqkH;&_H;oGm;&Ekdifavonf? rnfonfhvrf;a=umif; ukdyif olwkd@taejzifh vkdufav#mufapumrl/ atmufwkdbmoydwfwkdufyGJukd ouf0ifv_yf&Sm;apcJhonfh pkpnf;r_ tiftm;ukd qufvufxdef;odrf;xm;&ef/ aoa&;&Sifa&;tjzpf ta&;ygayvdrfhrnf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

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“t=urf;zufyGJwck ² ² ² csOf;uyfvmaejcif;” rnfonfhygwD/ or*~/ (okd@r[kwf) tjcm;aom tzGJ@tpnf;wckur# atmufwkdbmoydwfwkdufyGJukd wGef;tm;ay;armif;ESifjcif; rðycJh=uay? rnfonfhyk*~dKvfwOD;wa,mufur# wpkHvkH;twkdif;twm. acgif;aqmif wOD;tjzpf (odk@r[kwf) r[mAsL[mcsrSwfolwa,muftjzpf ay:rvmcJhacs? tkyfcsKyfol tpkd;&. òydifzuf &efolrsm;tm;/ atmufwkdbm ae@&ufrsm;twGif;Y twlwuG0kdif;0ef;vkyfaqmif&ef/ pGrf;aqmifEkdifcJhonfrSm/ t"duyef;wkdifrsm;jzpfonfh jynfol@vGwfvyfcGifhrsm; ESifh ukd,fpm;ðytpkd;&ay:aygufvm&ef &nf&G,fcsufrsm;. aemufuG,fwGif/ v#rf;v#rf;awmuf xdwfxdwf}uJ tkyfpkrsm;rS/ tapmykdif;u vkyfaqmifxm;cJhr_rsm;a=umifhom jzpfavonf? ,if;wGif pmykHESdyfpufrsm;rS tkyfpkuGJ owif;pmq&mrsm;/ (okd@r[kwf) owˆKtvkyform;rsm;rS tif*sifeD,m;rsm; rsm;pGm&SdcJhavonf/ xkd@tjyif +yD;cJhonfh ESpftwGif;rS tjzpftysufrsm;onfvnf; ‚if;wkd@tm; tm;vkH;. wlnDaom yef;wkdifrsm;tay:wGif twlwuGtm;vkH;0kdif;0ef;vkyfaqmif&ef oif=um;ay;cJhavonf? ,cktcg vGwfvyfa&; vufwurf;tuGmwGif&Sdae[ef &Sd+yD;/ ,cifu w}udrfwcgr# r&SdcJhzl;onfh ‚if;wkd@. pnf;vkH;nD!Gwfr_ ckdifrmjcif; &Sd/ r&Sdukdvnf; prf;oyfcH&awmhrnfjzpfonf? atmufwkdbmoydwfwkdufyGJtwGif;/ armfpukdY wnfaxmifcJhonfh au'wfygwDonf “vGwfvyfaom ae@&ufrsm;” umvtwGif;/ vpfb&,frsm;.t=um;wGif t"du zGJ@pnf;xm;onfh tiftm;wckjzpfonf? olwdk@. vkyfief;OD;wnfcsufrsm;rSm/ ,cktcg atmufwkdbmvtwGif;Y &ifhrSnhfvmcJhonfh t=urf;twrf;cHonfh oefrmaom twkduftcHtzGJ@tpnf;ukd tm;tifjznfhqnf;ay;&efjzpfonf? tpkd;&. ‚if;wkd@. ay;xm;onfh uwdrsm;ukd apmifhxdef;&ef pnf;&kH;odrf;oGif;jcif;/ ESifh &&Sdxm;onfh tajctaeopfxw J Gifyif ykdrkdjrifhrm;onfh EkdifiHa&; ESifh vlr_a&; ðyjyifajymif;vJr_rsm;ukd atmifjrifatmifvkyfaqmif&efwkd@jzpfonf? au'wfrsm; yg0if ywfoufaeor#umvywfvkH; awmfvSefa&;onfum; tqkH;owfcJhav+yD/ vkyfaqmif&ef usef&Sdaeaomt&mrSm ckdifrm awmifhwif; uspfvspfvmap&ef ESifh tajctaeykdrkdwkd;wufvmatmif wnfaqmuf&efjzpfonf? vGwfajrmufa&;or*~uJhokd@yif au'wfrsm;onf vlwef;pm; ESifh ygwD e,ferdwfrsm;ukd ausmfvGefI ta&;awmfykH trnfjzifh ajymqkdcJh=uonf? olwkd@onf v,fykdif&Sifrsm; ESifh vpfb&,frsm;tm;/ tvkyform;rsm; ESifh qkd&S,fvpfrsm;tm; wpkwpnf;wnf; twlwuGukdifaqmifxm;Ekdifvdrfhrnf[k ,lqxm;cJh=uonfh/ 'Drdkua&pD ESifh zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya't&jzpfaomtpkd;&uJhokd@aom pepfrsm;. wefbkd;rsm;ukd az:jycJh=uonf? okd@&mwGif au'wfrsm;onf/ vGwfvyfa&;0g'Drsm;uJhokd@yif/ vufawG@trSefwu,fwGifrl vlOD;a&. usOf;ajrmif;aom tv$mwckukdom ukd,fpm;ðycJhavonf? trsm;tm;jzifh ajrykdif&Sifrsm; ESifh òrd@jy txufwef;v$mrsm;omjzpfonf? ygwDukd OD;aqmifae=uonfh a&S@aersm;ESifh ygarmuQ ya&mfzufqmrsm;onf tv#iftjrefyif tvkyform;rsm;ESifh awmfvSefa&;orm; qkd&S,fvpfrsm;. z,fcGm a&SmifusOfjcif;ukd cH&avawmhonf? xkd tvkyform;rsm;ESifh awmfvSefa&;orm; qkd&S,fvpfrsm;onf tqkdyg a&S@aersm;ESifh ya&mfzufqmrsm;.OD;aqmifr_ aemufokd@ vkdufyg&ef qENr&Sd=uacs? atmufwkdbm (17) &uf. wywftwGif;wGifyif/ pdef@yDwmpbwftvkyform;rsm;onf/ olwkd@wGif EkdifiHa&;ðyjyifajymif;vJr_rsm;tjyif/ tjcm;aom t&mrsm;vnf; olwkd@. pdwfxJY &Sdaea=umif;ukd jyocJhavonf? atmufwkdbm (24) &ufae@wGif/ ae@AfpuD oabFm ESifh pufypPn;f vkyif ef; (Nevskii Ship and Machine Works) rS tvkyform;rsm;onf/ ‚if;wkd@. tvkyfcsdefrsm; av#mhcsa&;twGuf qENrJxnfhcJh=uavnf? qENrJ xnhf0ifykHenf;pepfrSm/ tvkyfcsdef (8) em&D jynfhaomtcg vkyfief;cGifukd odrf;qnf;vkdufonfh/ &kd;pif;aom enf;vrf;yifjzpfonf? xkdenf;twkdif;yif/ wòrd@vkH;&Sd tjcm;aompuf&kHrsm;rS tvkyform;rsm;onfvnf; vkdufyg vkyfaqmif=uavawmhonf? atmufwkdbmoydwfwkdufyGJtwGif;Y tpkd;&tm; wkdufckduf&ef &nf&G,fI oifwef; ay;xm;onfh ppfaoG;ºuGaeolrsm;ukdrl/ ,cktcg puf&kHykdif&Sifrsm; ESifh olaÏ;rsm;tm;wkdufckduf&ef oifwef;ay;ae cJhavonf? atmufwkdbm oydwfwkdufyGJtwGif;Y/ tvkyf&Sifrsm;onf tvkyform;rsm;. qef@usifqENjyr_rsm;tm; onf;nnf;cHcJhonfhtjyif/ trsm;pkrSm qENjytvkyform;rsm;. vkyftm;c wpdwfwydkif;ukdyif qufvufI ay;aecJh avonf? okd@aomf tvkyf&Sifrsm;. tvkyfcsdef (8) em&D v_yf&Sm;r_wGifrl wkef@jyefr_ rwlnDawmhacs? Ekd0ifbmv (10)

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&ufae@wGifrl/ puf&kHykdif&Sifrsm;onf ‚if;wkd@. puf&kH*dwfwHcg;rsm;ukd aomhcwfvkduf=u+yD;/ aemuf &uftenf;i,ftwGif;Yyifv#if axmifaygif;rsm;pGmaom tvkyform;rsm;rSm armif;xkwfcHvkduf=u&avonf? yk*~vduykdifpD;yGg;a&;vkyfief;tcsKd@wGif tvkyform;rsm;onf tvkyf&SifolaÏ;rsm;ESifh aphpyfajy+idrf;vkduf=u+yD; tvkyfcGifxJokd@ jyef0ifoGm;=uavonf? tjcm;aom ae&mrsm;Yrl wae@tvkyfcsdef (8) em&Dtxd av#mhcsay;a&; twGuf/ aphpyfaqG;aEG;r_rsm;ukd jiif;qkd=u+yD; vrf;rsm;ay:wGif qufvuf aexkdifae=uavonf? wae@tvkyfcsdef (8)em&D v_yf&Sm;r_onf/ tvkyf&Sifrsm;. &efrlqef@usifr_cH&&kHomru/ vpfb&,frsm;. a0zefr_rsm;ukdvnf; &&SdoGm;avonf? ,cktcg tvkyform;rsm;. ‚if;wkd@.tusKd;pD;yGg;twGuf twif;t=uyf awmif;qkdaer_rsm;onf/ vGefcJhonfh &ufowWywfrsm;u wpkHvkH; ðyjyifajymif;vJa&;twGuf ‚if;wkd@ESifhtwl yg0ifaqmif&Guf/ óud;yrf;tm;xkwfcJhonfh EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;. z,fcGma&SmifusOfr_ukd &&SdoGm;avonf? tjcm; wzufwGifvnf;/ tvkyform;rsm;onf qkdAD,ufxHrS oem;*&k%mukd &&Sdavonf? qkdAD,ufwkd@onf xkd v_yf&Sm;r_tm; ausmaxmufaemufcHay;&eftwGuf qkH;jzwfcsufw&yfukd atmufwkdbmv (29) &ufae@wGif csrSwfcJhavonf? okd@aomf awmfvSefa&;acgif;aqmifrsm;onf/ vpfb&,frsm;. t,ltqESifh oabmxm;csif; wlnD+yD;/ vlr_pD;yGg;a&;tusKd;oufoufvkyfaqmifjcif;onf/ tiftm;rsm;ukd qkwf,kwfavsmhyg;ap+yD;/ xkdtiftm; rsm;ukd EkdifiHa&;wkdufyGJwGif tokH;ðyygu ykdrkdaumif;rGefrnfjzpfa=umif; ajymqkd=uavonf? “oufOD;qHykdif tm%m&SifpepfukdawmifrS u|efawmfwkd@ rðzwfcsEkdifao;bl;/ cifAsm;wkd@uawmh blZGmawGeJ@yg ,SOfòydifcsifae=u+yD” [k qkd&S,fvpfacgif;aqmifwa,mufrS/ (8) em&Dv_yf&Sm;r_ukd axmufcHtm;ay;aom qkdAD,uf ukd,fpm;vS,f rsm;tm; owday; E_d;aqmfavonf? v_yf&Sm;r_onf pdwfr&SnfzG,f &Sn=f umvmaomtcg/ tvkyfydwfxm;onfh puf&kHykdif&Sifrsm;onf tvkyform;rsm;. pdwf"gwfay:wGif tav#mah y;vkdufjcif;jzifh/ Ekd0ifbmv (13) &ufae@wGif ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;onf tvkyform;rsm;tm;&yfqkdif;&ef awmif;qkdvkdufavonf? awmfvSefa&;0g'Drsm;onf ‚if;wkd@.pdwfxJwGif tvkyform;vlwef;pm;twGuf wjcm;aom vkyfief; wm0efvnf; &Sdaeao;onf? ,if;rSm tm%m&Siftpkd;&tm; rD;&_d@zsufqD; jymcsypf&ef tqkH;tjzwfwkdufyGJwckwGif tvkyform;vlwef;pm;tm; ajcvsifwyftjzpfwnf&Sdaeap&efjzpfonf? vGefcJhaom vrsm;twGif;u/ qENjy oydwfwkdufyGJrsm;/ csDwufqENjyjcif;rsm;/ ajratmuf ykHESdyfxkwfa0jcif;vkyfief;rsm;/ ponfh ykHo¾meftrsKd;rsKd;aom t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;twGif;Y qkd&S,fvpfrsm;onf yl;aygif;yg0if wkdufyGJ0ifcJh=uavonf? okd@aomf olwkd@onf/ t=urf;zufv_yf&Sm;r_onf awmfvSefa&;. tqkH;pGefaom '%fcwfta&;,ljcif;jzpfonf qkdaom olwkd@. ckdifrmaom cH,lcsufrsm;ukd b,fwkef;ur# rpGef@v$wfcJh=uacs? Zmbk&ifonf zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'wckjzifh xdef;csKyfxm;aeEkdifpOfumvrsm;Y vpfb&,frsm;onf Zmbk&ifESifhtwl &SdaeEkdifcJh=upOfwGif/ qkd&S,fvpfrsm;onf tm%m&Siftpkd;&tm; ydwfqkd@/ avSmifydwf ðzwfcs&eftwGuf awmifhwae=uavonf? jyif;xefaom/ xda&mufaom/ }uD;av;aom enf;vrf;rsm;onfom }uD;rm;aom &vm'fukd azmfaqmifay;onf qkdonfh/ orkdif;0iftjzpftysufrsm; &SdaecJhavonf? jyifopfawmfvSefa&;onf taumif;qkH;aom erlemyifjzpfonf? t}uHtenf;i,f ay;&ef&SdonfrSm/ tpkd;&w&yfonf t=urf;zufòzdcGif;r_ukd tokH;ðy&ef tqifoifhjzpfaeygu/ t=urf;zufr_ rygbJðzwfcsEkdifonf qkdjcif;yifjzpfonf? xkd@tjyif/ i,f&G,faom &k&Sm;vlrsKd;rsm;pGmtwGuf a&yef;pm;aeaom vufeufukdifawmfvSefa&;. ykH&dyf rsm;onf vli,frsm;. pdwftwGif;Y }uD;rm;pGm =oZmv$rf;rkd;aeavonf? Oya'ausmif;om; wa,mufjzpfonfh/ Avm'Drm AGdKifwifpuD (Vladimir Voitinskii) q,fpkESpfrsm; =um+yD;aemuf a&;om;cJhonfrSm “jynfolvlxk ESifh tpkd;&. t=um;wGif t=urf;zufwkdufckdufr_ yËdyuQwckonf csOf;uyfvmae+yDjzpfonfukd u|efawmf,kH=unf aecJhonf?” “+yD;awmh v_H@aqmfwkdufwGef;r_wckudkvnf; u|efawmfcHpm;ae&w,f ² ² ² wkdufyGJtqkH;tjzwf ay;&rnfh tcsdefem&DawGrSm jynfolvlxkeJ@twl&Sdae&r,ffqkdwm/ vlwkdif;apmifhxdef;&r,fh ukdf,fusihfw&m;qdkif&m wm0efr[kwfbl;qkd&if ² ² ²” olonf t=urf;zufv_yf&Sm;r_onf vufawG@tvkyfjzpfvdrhfrnf[k ,lqum abmf&SDApfxJokd@0ifcJhavonf? olwkd@onf tpkd;&ppfwyfrsm;. &uf&ufpufpuf ypfcwfjcif;ukd cH&vdrhf[k aoao csmcsm}uD;odxm;aepOfwGif/ tjcm;wzufYvnf; ppfom;rsm;onf ypfcwf&eftrdef@ay;vmaomtcg/ trdef@ukd zDqefvdrfhrnf[k olwkd@,kH=unfae=uavonf? xa&mhpuDrS owdðyrdonfrSm tcsKd@aom ppfom;rsm;onf t&yfom;jynfolrsm;xHokd@ rypfyJ avxJokd@ ypfcwfvdkufonfukd owdxm;rdavonf? “rae@u ol@&J@aoewfukd avxJypfcwfvkdufwJh xkdppfom;onfyifv#if/ reufjzefusv#if ol@&Jh vufeufukd tvkyform;awGvufxJukd v$Jtyfvdrfhr,f” [k xa&mhpDrS tckdiftrmajymavonf?

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aoG;v$rf;aom we*FaEG aemufykdif;Y xa&mhpuD. rmufhpf0g'Drsm;twGif;Yyif xa&mhpuD. cg;oD;aom &efolwOD;jzpfonfh AD tkdif vDeif (V. I. Lenin) onf xa&mhpuDtwkdif;yif wlnaD om aumufcsufukd qGJcJhavonf? “a&yef;pm;aeonfh vGwfvyfr_. tumtuG,fwHwkdif; tppftrSefrSm vufeufwyfqif xm;onfh jynfolvlxkomv#ifjzpfonf” [k vDeifonf *seDAmrSaeI a&;om;cJhavonf? “tvkyform; vlwef;pm;tm; vufeufwyfqifay;vkdufEkdifonfESifh wòydifeuf/ olwkd@onf qENjyoydwform;rsm;taeESifha&m awmfvSefa&;orm;rsm;taeESifhyg olwkd@. wkdufckdufr_ykHpHrsm;ukd &Snf=umpGm ukdifaqmifxm;Ekdifrnfjzpfonf? ppfwyfonf wkefv_yfajcmufjcm;,drf;,kdifr_pwifvmonfESifhwòydifeuf/ aemufqkH;wGif ykdI ykdIrsm;jym;aom ppfom;rsm;onf ‚if;wkd@vkyfukdifaeonfrsm;ukd em;vnfoabmaygufvmrnfjzpf+yD;/ jynfolvlxk.bufokd@ yl;aygif;vmrnfjzpfonf”? aEG&moDtwGif; ESifh aqmif;OD;&moDY jzpfyGm;cJhaom wyfwGif;ykefuefr_rsm;onf/ wyfzGJ@rsm;t=um;Y z&kdz&Jjzpfaeonfh pnf;urf;rsm;udk xif&Sm;jyoaeavonf? xkdta=umif;t&mrsm;ukd jyefvnftm;jznfhvkduf&kHr#jzifh/ t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_topf. pGJaqmifr_tm;ukd av#mhcsoGm;rnfjzpfonf? abmvf&SDApfrsm;onf wESpfywfvkH; tvkyform;rsm;tm; vufeufukdifaqmif&ef em;ylem;qm wusDusDawmif;qkdae=uavonf? ZEM0g&DvwGif/ awmfvSefa&;orm;rsm;onf/ aqmif;&moD eef;awmfokd@ csDwufonfh bkef;awmf}uD; a*yGef. aemufokd@rvkdufyg&ef tEl;t!Gwfawmif;yefonfh vufurf;pmapmifrsm;ukd pdef@yDwmpbwf qENjyoydwform;rsm; t=um;wGif jzef@a0cJh=uonf? “vGwfvyfa&;qkdwm aoG;eJ@twl ,laqmifvmw,f/ vGwfvyfa&;qkdwm jyif;jyif;xefxefwkdufckdufwJh vufeufukdifwkdufyGJrSomv#if atmifjrifr_&&SdrSm jzpfw,f/” [k vufurf;pmapmifwckwGif a&;om;xm;avonf? ZEM0g&DvtwGif;Y tvkyform;rsm;onf xkdwkdufwGef;csufrsm;ukd em;ydwfxm;=uavonf? xkd@tjyiff aEGOD;&moDESifh aEG&moDtwGif;Y tvm;wl wkdufwGef;arwWm&yfcHr_rsm;ukdvnf; tvkyform;rsm;onf vpfvsL&_xm;vkduf =uavonf? atmufwkdbmvwGif/ wuUokdvftpnf;ta0;rsm;Y abmvf&SDApf a[majymolrsm;onf taxGaxG oydwfwkdufyGJ}uD;tm;/ tjynfht0 tkHºuG ykefuefr_wck tjzpfokd@vkyfaqmif&ef wkdufwGef;awmif;qkdcJh=u+yD;/ olwkd@onf tvkyform;rsm;tm;/ atmufwkdbmv (16) &ufae@wGif wuUokdvfokd@ vufeufrsm; ,laqmifvm =u&ef ckdif;apcJhavonf? vl (200) avmufom/ "g;rsm;a0S@&rf;Ivnf;aumif;/ oHvufoD;rsm;ESifh ajcmufvkH;jyL; aoewfi,frsm;ukdom o,faqmifvm=uojzifh/ pnf;&kH;v_Haqmfolrsm;rS ykdrkdaumif;rGefaom vufeufrsm; wyfqifxm;onfh ppfwyfukd xkdrjzpfpavmuf vufeufrsm; ESifh ,SOfòydifwkdufckdufjcif;xuf/ ‚if;wkd@tm; tdrfokd@ jyefv$wfvkdufjcif;onf ykdrkdaumif;rGefrnf[k qkH;jzwf=u+yD;/ tdrfjyefckdif;vkduf=uavonf? atmufwkdbm rl0g'a=unmcsufpmwrf; xkwfjyef+yD;aemuf/ awmfvSefa&;orm;rsm;onf qkdAD,ufwkd@tm; vufeufudkiftkHºuGr_ðyvkyf&ef óud;pm;cJh=uao;onf? aemufwae@wGif/ “aemufqkH;wkdufyGJ” twGuf olwkd@ukd,f olwkd@ vufeufwyfqif&ef t}uHðyxm;onfh tvkyftr_aqmifaumfrwD. qkH;jzwfcsuf rsm;ukd Ekdqm (Nosar) onf ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;tm; zwf=um;jyavonf? xa&mhpuDrS ‚if;wkd@tm; jyifqifxm;&eftwGuf wyfvSef@xm;onfrSm “ ',D;',dkifjzpfaeonfh oufOD;qHykdifbk&ifpepftm; crf;em;}uD; us,fI/ ykdrkd txif}uD;avmufaom wkdufckdufr_wckukd jyifqifxm;=uyg/ 'D oufOD;qHykdifbk&ifpepfukd atmifyGJcHrnfh jynfol@tkHºuGr_wckjzifhom t+yD;wkdif vSnf;usif;okwfoifEkdifrSmjzpfw,f”? qdkAD,ufonf Ekdqm ESifh xa&mhpuDwkd@ xkwfjyefa=unmcsuf (2) ckpvkH;ukd axmufcHtwnfðyay;avonf? okd@aomfZmbk&if. usqkH;r_onf awmfvSefa&;orm;rsm;tm; ‚if;wkd@. r[mrdwfa[mif; vpfb&,frsm;ESifh a&SmifvGJIr&/ {ueftrSef uGJxGufoGm;rnfvm; qkdonfukd ar;avonf? vpfb&,frsm;onf tpkd;&tm; ðzwfcs&ef rnfonfhqENukdrqkd jiif;qkdxm;avonf? vpfb&,frsm;. qkH;&_H;r_onf/ abmvf&SDApfrsm; 0rf;yef;wom ay;0,fvkdaom aps;E_ef; wefzkd; wckjzpfcJhavonf? xa&mhpuDonf atmufwkdbm oydwfwkdufyGJwGif ‚if;wkd@ yg0ifupm;cJhaom tcef;u¾ukd *k%fðycsD;rGrf;&ef jiif;qkdcJhavonf? atmufwkdbmwGif oufOD;qHykdifrsm;tm; tav#mhay; urf;vSrf;vmatmif wGef;tm;ay; vkyfaqmifcJhonfrSm tvkyform;rsm;yifjzpfonf[k ‚if;rS a=unmcJhavonf? xkd@tjyif aemufqkH;ydwftvJxkd;r_ukd vkyfaqmifrnfholrsm;rSmvnf; vufeufwyfqifxm;onfh tqkdyg tvkyform;rsm;yif jzpfcJhonf? wkdufckduf&eftwGufjyifqifxm;onfh tvkyform;rsm;rSm/ ‚if;wkd@ukd,fukd ‚if;wkd@ Black Hundreds rsm;. tEW&m,frS umuG,f&ef qEN&Sdjcif;xuf/ awmfvSefa&;pdwftm;xufoefr_ avsmheJjcif;a=umifh/ wkH@aES;qkdif;iHhoGm;&jcif;

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jzpfaumif;jzpfayrnf? vuf,m0g'Dtkyfpkrsm;onf/ *sL;vlrsKd;rsm;tm; tjyif;txef wkdufckduf&ef vkyfief;opfwck ESifh tjcm;aom tzsuftarSmifhvkyfief;rsm;ukd pDrHvkyfaqmifaeonfqkdaom aumv[v owif;rsm;vnf; atmufwkdbmv aemufqkH;ywfwGif pdef@yDwmpbwfwòrd@vkH; jyef@ESH@aeavonf? &pwm&Da,hAf (Rasteriaev) puf&kHY tvkyform;rsm;onf aoewfrsm;ukd ,laqmifvm+yD;/ vrf;rsm;teD;wGif uif;vSnfhaecJh=uavonf? wòrd@vkH;wGif/ olwkd@onf ypPwkdvfrsm; (okd@r[kwf) &kdifz,frsm;ukd udkifaqmifaecJh=u+yD;/ "g;rsm; ESifh wif;ykwfrsm;ukd ðyvkyf=uavonf? atmufwkdbmv (29) &ufae@/ qkdAD,uf tpnf;ta0;wckwGif axmifaygif;rsm;pGmaom vufeufrsm;ukd cif;usif;jyoxm;cJh=uonf? tpnf;ta0;qkH;aomtcg rnfonfh tpDtpOfr# jzpfay:rvmcJhaomfvnf;/ vufeufrsm; ESifh vufeufukdifwyfzGJ@i,frsm;rSm qufvuf&SdaecJhavonf? Ekd0ifbmvwav#mufvkH;wGif qkdAD,ufwkd@onf vufeufukdifawmfvSefa&;wck vkyfaqmif&eftwGuf/ wkdufpnfwkdufarmif;ukd qufwkdufxkESufae=uavonf? okd@aomf awmfvSefa&;orm;rsm;onf/ tvkyform;rsm; tm; vufeufrsm; tqifoifh&Sdaeap&efom owday;aeaomfvnf;/ xkdtwGuf jyifqifr_ tenf;i,fukdom vkyfaqmifcJh=uavonf? tpkd;& rodatmif okdokdodyfodyf v#Kd@0Sufrxm;aom/ }uD;xGm;rsm;jym;vmonfh vufeufcJ,rf;rsm;onf/ tpkd;&. òzdcGif;ESdrf;ESif;r_ ae@&ufukdom ykdrkd eD;uyfvmapcJhonf? xkd@tjyif/ tvkyform;rsm;rSm tpkd;&tm; vufeufukdifwkdufyGJwck qifEGJ&efxuf/ puf&kHykdif&Sifrsm;tm; qef@usifwkdufyGJ&ef twGufukdom ykdrkdI pdwf0ifwpm;&Sdae=uavonf? 'Drkdua&pDenf;vrf;rsm;jzifh/ yGifhyGifhvif;vif;/ pOf;pOf;pm;pm; E_dif;E_dif;csdefcsdefvkyfaom qkdAD,uftzGJ@rSm/ ppfqifr_pDrHudef;wcktm; pDrHa&;qGJ&eftwGuf tjynfht0 vkyfaqmifEkdifaom tzGJ@r[kwfacs? ‚if;. &J&Jawmuf wufºuGaom tm0Z…ef;&$ifolrsm;. z,f=uOfxm;jcif;ukd cHae&+yD;/ Zmbk&if. usm;twGuf óud;jzifhvSefxm;onfh qdwfwaumifuJhokd@ ‚if;rSm apmifhqkdif;ae&avonf? Ekd0ifbmv (26) &ufae@wGif/ ykvdyfrsm;onf qdkAD,uf. OuUÏ Ekdqm tm; zrf;qD;vkdufavonf? usef&Sdaeaom ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;onf qufvufawG@qkH=u+yD;aemuf/ tm%mcsKyfukdifrnfholtopfwa,mufukd a&G;cs,f+yD; xa&mhpuDtm; OuUÏtjzpfwifajr‡mufcJhavonf? okd@aomf ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;rSm tpk;d &. aemufxyf v_yf&mS ;r_rsm;ukd olwkd@apmifhqkdif;aecJh&onfhtay:/ ar#mfvifhcsufukef/ pdwrf csrf;rajrhjzpfum/ aerxdxkdifrom jzpfr_rsm; wkd;I wkd;I vmavonf? ‚if;wkd@. jyif;jyaeaomqENrSm vlxktkHºuGr_wckukd v_H@aqmfE_d;qG&ef omjzpfonf? xkd@a=umifh olwkd@onf tpkd;&.zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_rsm;ukdom csJ@xGifajymqkdae=uavonf? ykvdyfrsm;onf &k&Sm;v,form;rsm;or*~ (All-Russian Peasants' Union) acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh/ pmwkdufESifh a=u;eef;tvkyform;rsm;or*~ (Union of Postal and Telegraph Employees) rS acgif;aqmifrsm;tm; zrf;qD;xm;+yD;jzpfavonf? xkd@tjyif eDukdvufpfonf ol. vpfb&,f w&m;a&;0ef}uD;tm;vnf; &mxl;rS ðzwfcs+yD;jzpfavonf? xkd@aemuf ppftkyfcsKyfa&; Oya'rsm;ukd v,form; r+idrfroufr_topfrsm; xyfrHjzpfyGm; aeonfh jynfe,f/ c&kdiftawmfrsm;rsm;wGif xkwfjyefa=unmvkdufavonf? Ekd0ifbmvaESmif;ykdif; ESifh 'DZifbmv tapmykdif;wGif/ a'oEW& t&m&Sdrsm;tm; ta&;ay: txl;tm%mrsm;ukd ay;tyfvkdufavonf? xkd@aemuf rD;&xm;/ pmwkduf ESifh a=u;eef;qufoG,fa&; oydwfarSmufr_rsm;tm;vnf; ydwfyifvkdufavonf? armfpudkòrd@wGif ykvdyfrsm;onf/ &xm;vrf;a=umif; wa=umif;&Sd/ &xm;vufrSwfodrf;qnf;olrsm;or*~ (Union of Ticket Collectors) rS acgif;aqmifrsm; ðyvkyfaeonfh/ tvkyform;pnf;&kH;a&;rSL;rsm;twGuf tpnf;ta0;wckukd 0ifa&mufpD;eif;vkduf+yD;/ acgif;aqmifrsm;tm; zrf;qD;vkdufavonf? “vGwfvyfaomae@&ufrsm;” onf bkZywfyifrS t&Gufrsm;twGif;Y aysmufuG,foGm;ouJhokd@ aysmufuG,foGm;avawmhonf? 'DZifbmv (2) &ufae@wGif/ qkdAD,ufonf t=urf;rzuf v_yf&Sm;r_ukd tuGufqifI/ aemufqkH;enf;vrf;wcktjzpf azmfaqmifvkdufavonf? aqmif;OD;&moD ukefqkH;aomtcg/ tpkd;&onf tvGef@tvGef b¾ma&; tcuftcJ t=uyftwnf;ESifh óuHawG@&avawmhonf? aumufyJoD;ESHtxGufnhHzsif;r_ ESifh r&yfrpJ oydwfwkdufyGJrsm;onf wkdif;jynf pD;yGm;a&;tm; ykdrkdysufpD;aeap+yD;/ tpkd;&. 0ifaiGukd avsmhyg;aepOfwGif/ *syefESifh jzpfyGm;&aom ppfyGJqifEGJr_p&dwf ESifh jynfwGif;Y tkwfatmfaomif;wif; ajAmif;qefaejcif;rsm;ukd ukdifwG,fajz&Sif; &jcif;rsm;onf tvGef}uD;rm;aom ukefusp&dwfrsm;jzpfcJhavonf? bwf*sufvkdaiGjyr_onf }uD;xGm;vm+yD;/ t&Hpkaqmif;xm;onfh a&$rsm;rSmvnf; wwdwdESifh ukefoGm;avawmhonf? 0Spfwf rS jyifopfb%fvkyfief;pk rsm;ESifh aphpyfaqG;aEG;aecJhonfh/ }uD;rm;aom EkdifiHjcm;acs;aiGwckomv#if b¾ma&;tysuftpD;}uD;ukd a&SmifvGJEkdifcJhavnf? qkdAD,uf. acgif;aqmifrsm;onf tcGifhtvrf;wckukd zsufueJ awG@jrifoGm;=uavonf? tu,fI olwkd@onf

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ðywfvkwJwJav;om&Sdawmhaom tpkd;&. b¾ma&;tajctaeY &kwfw&uf xkd;ESuf wkdufckdufr_wckudk ðyvkyfEkdifcJhygv#if[laom tcGifhtvrf;jzpfonf? ‚if;rSm &k&Stifykdif,monf acs;aiGtaºuG;ukd jyefvnf;ay;qyfEkdif&ef rjzpfpavmuf tvGefenf;yg;aecJhonf qkdonfhta=umif;ukd/ jyifopf b%fvkyfief;&Sif rsm;tm; jzm;a,mif;pnf;&kH;&efEkdifcJhygu/ 0Spfwf. acs;aiGtpDtpOfonf ysufjym;oGm;rnfjzpf+yD;/ tpkd;&tm; c|wfòcHusr_ a'0gvDcH&jcif;xJokd@ u|r;f xkd;arSmufckH/ 'vdrfhacgufauG;usoGm;apEkdifonf? qkdAD,ufonf v,form;rsm;or*~ ESifh vuf0JygwDtrsm;tjym;wkd@ESifhyg yg0ifonfh b¾ma&;qkdif&m a=unmcsufpmwrf;wapmifukd xkwfjyefcJhavonf? a=unmcsufwiG f tifykdif,mtwGif;&Sd EkdifiHom;rsm;tm;vkH; tm; ‚if;wkd@. b%frsm;Y pkaqmif;xm;aiGrsm;ukd xkwf,l&ef ESihf ay;aqmif&ef&Sdonfrsm;tm;vkH;ukd a&$jzifh ay;aqmif=u&ef wkdufwGef;cJhavonf? pmwrf;rS a=unmxm;onfrSm “tpkd;&tm; ‚if;. &Sifoefaeonfh aemufqkH; &if;jrpfjzpfonfh b¾ma&;tcGefawmfaiGukd jzwfawmuf&eftwGuf/ 'g[m rjzpfraevkyfzkd@ vkdtyfw,f”? okd@aomf ykdrkdus,fjyef@onf vlxkv_yf&Sm;r_rS qef@usifaeonfrSm/ tpkd;&. &Sifoefaejcif;ukd r[kwfay/ oufOD;qHykdif bk&ifpepfukdjzpfonf? xkd@a=umifh Tenf;tm;jzifh jr‡ifhwifcJhonfh ydwfqkd@ta&;,lr_rSm/ tajrmuftrsm; b%faiGtyfESHxm;olrsm;rS/ eufeuf&_dif;&_dif; jzwfawmufatmif/ vkdufygvkyfaqmif&ef rjzpfEkdifcJhacs? aemufxyf &ufowWywftenf;i,ftwGif;txd/ b%fpkaiGrsm;rS &lb,f oef; (90)avmufom xkwf,lcJh=uavonf? b¾ma&;qkdif&m a=unmcsufpmwrf;onf tpkd;&rS tv#iftjrefwkef@jyefr_wckukd v_H@aqmfay;cJhav onf? xkwfjyefa=unmonfhae@wGifyif/ tpkd;&onf pdef@ yDwmpbwfwGif xkda=unmcsuftm; ykHESdyfonfh owif;pmwkduf (8) cktm; odrf;qnf;cJh+yD;/ xkd owif;pmt,f'Dwmrsm;tm; zrf;qD;cJhavonf? aemufwae@ nae/ 'DZifbm (3) &ufae@wGif/ qkdAD,uf ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;onf vGwfvyfaom pD;yGm;a&; vl@tzGJ@tpnf; taqmuftOD;okd@/ cgwkdif;uJhokd@yif a&muf&SdvmcJh=uavonf? pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;. ta=umif;t&maygif;rsm;pGmudk aqG;aEG;=u+yD;aemuf/ tvkyftr_aqmifaumfrwDonf taqmuftOD;tm; ajcvsifppfom;rsm;/ jrif;pD;aumhquf rsm;ESifh ykvdyfrsm;rS 0kdif;xm;onfukd owdðyrdavawmhonf? xa&mhpuDonf ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;tm; vufwkef@jyef ckcHr_ rðy&ef !ïef=um;vkdufavonf? xkd@tjyif ppfom;rsm;tcef;xJokd@ 0ifvmaomtcg aumfrwD onf tvkyfqufvufvkyfukdifaecJhavonf? aemufqkH;wGif olonf tpnf;ta0;&kwfodrf;vkdufa=umif; a=unmvkdufavonf? tvkyftr_aqmifaumfrwDESifh ukd,fpm;vS,f (200)wkd@ tm;vkH;tzrf;cHcJh=u&avonf? vufeufukdifolykefx&eftwGuf aºuG;a=umfatmf[pfaeaom pdef@ yDwmpbwf qkdAD,ufonf/ aoewf wcsufr# razmufvkduf&yJ/ vufeufcs tnHhcHvkduf=u&avonf?

“t=uifemuif;rJhpGm vkyfaqmifyg” armfpudk&Sd awmfvSefa&;orm;rsm;onfvnf;/ òrd@awmf&Sd ‚if;wkd@. awmfvSefa&;orm;rsm;uJhokd@yif/ atmufwkdbmvuwnf;u/ tpkd;&ESifh zufòydif&efjzpf&ef wkdufyGJwcktwGuf &efapmifae=uavonf? “vufeufpGJukdif=u æ vufeufpGJukdif=u æ ,if;onf awmfvSefa&;orm;rsm;tm;vkH;. aºuG;a=umfoH yifjzpfonf” [k qkd&S,fvpfacgif;aqmifwOD;jzpfonfh ADG trf ZefZDaemhAf (V. M. Zenzinov) u jyefajymif; ajymjyjcif;jzpfygonf? vlrsm;pGmwkd@onf vufwavmav;wGifyif wyfwGif;ykefuefr_'Da&v_dif;vkH;rsm; wufvmcJhonfh armfpukdòrd@apmifhwyfrS wyfzGJ@rsm;rSaeI ‚if;wkd@tm; ulnDaxmufyHhay;vdrfhrnf[laom ar#mfvifhcsufrsm;ukd ,kH=unfxm; ae=uavonf? okd@aomf tcsKd@onf xkdòrd@apmifhwyfzGJ@rsm;rSaeI r[mrdwftul tnDukd &&Sdvdrfhrnfqkdonfukd oHo,&Sdae=uavonf? tb,fa=umifhqkdaomf ppfom;rsm;. r=unfjzLr_ rsm;onf rsm;aomtm;jzifh/ tm%m&Siftpkd;&tay: &efvkdjcif;rS jzpfay:vmjcif;r[kwfyJ/ ‚if;wkd@tay: rSm;,Gif;aom qufqHr_rsm;rSaeI aygufzGm;vmjcif;jzpfonf qkdonfukd em;vnfoabmaygufxm;=uaom a=umifhjzpfonf? tjcm;aomolrsm;onf vkdtyfvmcJhv#if ‚if;wkd@csnf;om vkyfaqmifoGm;&vdrfhrnf[k em;vnf xm;cJh=uonf? ZefZDaemhAfrS olrSwfrdor#ukd jyefajymjyonfrSm -

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“wkdufyGJwcktwGif;Y 0ifa&mufyg0if&jcif; rðy&yJ/ ajc vufrsm;ukd wkyfaESmifcHxm;&jcif;xuf ²aoa=uysupf ;D oGm;jcif;onf ykdaumif;ayonf”? ‚if;wkd@. ukd,fykdif t=urf;zufavvkH;rsm;ESifh b0ifjrihfae=uaom/ acgif;rm*dk%f;om; a&'Du,ftkyfpk (3) ck pvkH;jzpfonfh abmvf&SDApf/ rif&SDApfESifh qkd&S,fvpf awmfvSefa&;orm;rsm;tkyfpkrS tzGJ@0ifrsm;onf/ tpnf;ta0;rsm; usif;y=u+yD;/ qlyltkHºuGr_}uD;wck. a&S@ajy;tjzpf/ taxGaxGoydwfwkdufyGJ wckqifEGJ&ef qENrJ xnfh0ifae=uavonf? 'DZifbmv (7) &ufae@wGif/ ESpfywftausmfu wnfaxmifcJhonfh armfpukd qkdAD,uf oydwfwkdufyGJ azmfaqmif&ef twnfðyaxmufcHcJhavonf? wkef@jyefr_rSm txif}uD;avmufayonf? (2) &uf twGif;wGifyif/ tvkyform; (80000)onf tvkyfcGifrsm;rS xGufcGmoGm;=uavonf? pwkd;qkdifrsm;rSm ysOfcsyfrsm; jzifh um&Hxm; vkduf=uavonf? ae@pOfvnfywfaer_rsm;rSm xyfrHI vkH;0O\kH&yfwef@oGm;jyefavawmhonf? vufeuf ukdifaqmifxm;onfh vlta,muf (100)wkd@ odrf;ykdufxm;onfh taqmuftOD;wckukd ppfwyfrsm;rSaeI vufeuf}uD;jzifh ypfcwfaomtcg/ taxGaxGwkdufckdufr_}uD;onf/ 'DZifbmv (9) &ufae@n rwkdifrDtxd &kef;rxGufEkdifcJhay? ‚if;wkd@. ta&twGufrsm;ukd pkpnf;xm;r_rS a&Smif&Sm;&ef/ awmfvSefa&;orm; rsm;onf '&lZifeduD (druzhinniki) [k ac:onfh vufeufukdif wyfzGJ@i,frsm;ukd òrd@tESH@vSnhfywfoGm;vmae apav+yD;/ rnfonfhae&murSef;roday:xGufvm=uum ppfom;rsm;ESifh ykvdyftkyfpki,fav;rsm;ukd vufeufcs apavonf? (druzhinniki) rsm;rS ppfwyfrsm;tm; ypfcwfaomtcg/ ppfwyfrS vltkyfxJokd@ jyefvnfypfcwfjcif; jzifh vufwkef@jyef=uavonf? y&yfpeD;,m; c&kdifwGif (Presnia district)/ tdrfrSaeI txnf,ufvkyfonfh puf&kHrsm;txd/ ta,mufpDwkdif;onf twm;tqD;/ t[ef@twm;rsm;ukd aqmufvkyfae=u[ef&Sdavonf? trsKd;orD;}uD;rsm;onf ukwifabmifrsm;/ {nfhóudol pmyGJ&Snfrsm;ESifh w,fvDzkH;wkdifrsm;ESifh vrf;ab;rD;wkdifrsm;ukd vrf;rsm;ay:okd@ qGJ,lvm=uavonf? “wòrd@vkH;tESH@&Sd twm;tqD;acGrsm;ukd wif;=uyfaeap&ef qufxm;=uonf”/ òrd@. bk&ifcHcsKyfonf pdef@ yDwmpbwfokd@ óud;rJha=u;eef;jzifh/ wyfulrsm; tiftm;jznfhwif;&ef awmif;cHavonf? puf&kHa'orsm;ukd awmfvSefa&;orm;rsm;onf xdef;csKyfxm;aomfvnf;/ òrd@v,f&Sd ta&;}uD;aom tcsuftjcmusonfhae&mrsm;udk odrf;ykdufxm;Ekdif&ef wcgr# róud;pm;cJh=uacs? tu,fI ppfom;rsm;onf trdef@tm%mrsm;ukdzDqef&ef ar#mfvifhxm;cJh+yD;/ olykefrsm;ESifh yl;aygif;vmcJhv#if/ ‚if;onf t"dyg` ,&f adS om vkyf&yfjzpfayrnf? yxrae@rsm;wGif ppfom;rsm;onf qENjyolrsm;ESifh ta&mw0ifqufqHvkdufaomtcg ESifh ‚if;wkd@.ta&;udpPESifh wef;wloabmxm;[ef &Sdaeaomtcg/ xkdar#mfvifhcsufrsm;onf rSeu f efae[ef &SdcJh avonf? okd@aomf xkd yg0ifywfoufjcif;ukd ydkrkdawmifhwif;vmatmif/ (okd@r[kwf) tvkyform;vlwef;pm;rS ppfom;rsm;t=um;ESifh ppf,leDazmif;0wfI tr_xrf;ae&onfh v,form;rsm;tm; trSefwu,f bufawmfom; rsm;jzpfvmatmif awmfvSefa&;ajymufusm;rsm;tjzpf yg0iftm;ay;&eftwGuf pnf;&kH;jcif;ukd tenf;i,fom vkyfaqmifEkdifcJhavonf? tusKd;&v'fwcktwGuf ar#mfvifhaejcif; ESifh atmifjrifr_&&Sd&eftwGuf pnf;&kH;jcif; wkd@onf rwluGJjym; jcm;em;aomt&m ESpfckjzpfavonf? ypfcwfr_rsm;pwifv#if pwifjcif; ppfom;rsm;. pdwfrsm;onf ododomom ajymif;oGm;avonf? vDeif. óudwifcef@rSef;xm;csufrsm;um; ysufpD;oGm;avonf? ppfom;rsm;onf olwkd@tm; aoewfrsm;jzifh csdefxm;onfh tvkyform;rsm;tm; ypfcwf&eftwGuf pdwfrokd;roef@jzpfr_ rcHpm;&awmhacs? 'DZifbmv (15) &ufae@wGif/ òrd@awmfrS ppfwyftulrsm; armfpukdokd@ a&muf&Sdvmaomtcg/ 'Da&onf jyefvnfusoGm;avawmhonf? tvkyform;tawmfrsm;rsm;onf ‚if;wkd@. rdom;pkrsm;ESifhtwl/ aus;vufa'o rsm;okd@ c&pfprwfyGJawmf qifE$J&eftwGuf xGufcGmoGm;=uaomtcg/ ykefuefolrsm;onf òrd@tESH@toD;oD;okd@ pwif jyef@ESH@uGJxGufoGm;=uavawmhonf? ckcHtHwkaeonfonfh ae&mwckrSm usef&Sdaeao;onf/ y&yfpeD;,m; c&kdifjzpf+yD;/ xkdae&mwGif ppfwyfrsm; ESifh ykvdyfrsm;rSm twm;tqD;rsm;jzifh ydwfqkd@cHxm;&qJjzpfavonf? xkdtcg pdef@ yDwmpbwfrS wyfom; (1500) &Sdonfh qDrDaemhAfpuD wyf&if; (Semenovskii Regiment) onf usef&Sdaeonfh awmifhcHaeolrsm;ukd xGufoGm;ap&ef wm0efay;jcif;cH&avonf? xkd wyf. wyfrSL;rSm “tn‡m twmuif;rJhpGm vkyfaqmif&ef”/ “ykefuefolrsm;. *kd%f;rsm;ukd rsKd;ðzwf&ef ESifh qlyltkHºuGolrsm;. acgif;aqmif rsm;ukd zrf;qD&ef” trdef@ay;jcif;ukd cHxm;&oljzpfavonf? aemufwae@reufwGif tvkyform;rsm; odrf;ykduf xm;aom puf&kHrsm;rSm tajr‡mufusnfqHrsm;jzifh w&pyfypfcwfjcif;udk cH&avawmhonf? tvkyform; rsm;rS tenf;tusOf;

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jyefvnfypfcwfaomfvnf;/ wyf&if;}uD;onf w&pyfypfcwfr_udk (2) &ufvkH;vkH;/ tqufrjywf qufwkdufypfcwfaeav&m/ &maygif;rsm;pGmaom ckcHolrsm;ESifh omreft&yfom;rsm;yg aoqkH;=uavonf? (18) &ufae@a&mufaomtcg/ abmvf&SDApfrsm; ESifh armfpukd qkdAD,uf wkd@yg ta&;&_H;edrfhoGm;=u avonf? xkd@aemuf ykefueftkHºuGr_rSmvnf; wzkwfzkwfjrnfI &yfwef@oGm;avawmhonf? 700 (okd@r[kwf) ‚if;xufykdaom awmfvSefa&;orm;rsm; ESifh t&yfom;rsm; towfcHcJh=u&onf? okd@aomf ykvdyft&m&Sdrsm;ESifh ppfom;rsm;rSm ta,muf (70) om&Sdavonf? armfpudk&Sd typftcwftkyfpkrsm;rSm/ tpuwnf;uyif olwkd@ taejzifh awmfvSefa&;ukd wEkdifiHvkH;twkdif;twmjzifh rvkyfaqmifEkdifygu/ olwkd@. ta&;tcif; =urRmiifvdrfhrnfqkdonfudk em;vnfoabmaygufxm;cJh=uavonf? okd@aomf us,fus,fjyef@jyef@ }uD;rm;onfh avmifu|rf;r_wck. tpjzpfonfh xif;pi,fonf 'DZifbmvtv,fwGif pkdpGwfaecJhavonf? pdef@ yDwmpbwf tvkyform;rsm;onf taxGaxGoydwfwkdufyGJukd tusOf;r#om vkyfaqmifcJhavonf? xkd@tjyif olwkd@onf wcgr#yif vufeufrsm;ukdifaqmifr_ukd rðyvkyfchJ=uay? tjcm;aom òrd@}uD;rsm;tcsKd@wGifvnf; ao;i,faom olykefxr_rsm;om &SdcJhavonf? ,if;wkd@rSm ppfwyfrsm;tm; jyefvnf&kwfodrf;/ qkwfcGmoGm;atmif trdef@ay;&ef rvkHavmufcJhacs? armfpukdwGif tpkd;&rS xºuGaomif;usef;r_rsm;ukd tjyif;txef&kdufcsaepOfwGif/ wEkdifiHvkH;wGif xda&mufaom ESdrfESif;òzdcGif;r_rsm;ukd Ekd0ifbmvukefwGif +yD;qkH;&efvnf; t&Sdefjr‡ifhvkyfaqmifaeavonf? 0Spfukd,fwkdifonfyifv#if vufeufukdifaqmifxm;onfh &efolrsm;tm;/ ppfwyfrS “jywfjywfom;om;ESifh t=uifemuif;rJhpGm” acsr_ef;ESdrfESif;&ef/ tcsufjyaecJhavonf? eDukdvufpfonf ol. t&m&Sdrsm;ESifh wyfrSL;rsm;rS wqifh/ &efvkdr_t&dyfvuQ%mrsm;tm;vkH;ukd t=urf;zuf òzdcGif;ESdrfESif;&ef pdwftm;xufoefpGmjzifh axmufcHtm;ay;aecJhavonf? “t=urf;zufr_ukd t=urf;zufr_jzifhomv#if tajzay;&rnf”[k ol ,kH=unf aecJhavonf? trdef@ay; t&m&Sdrsm;rSm twkduftcHrsm;tm; ESdrfESif;&mwGif rnfonfhvkdtyfcsufrsKd;ukdrqkd vkyfaqmif&eftwGuf vGwfvyfpGm tkyfcsKyfcGifhay;xm;avonf? ud,ufAf (Kieve) bk&ifcHcsKyfonf “ykefuefol rsm;ukd tjrpfjzwfokwfoifacsr_ef;&ef ESifh ckcHygu ‚if;wkd@. tdrfrsm;ukdyg rD;&_d@ypfvkduf&ef” trdef@rsm;ukd &&Sdxm;cJhavonf? &xm;vrf;oydwfwck tqkH;owf&eftwGuf qkdufab;&D;,m;okd@ apv$wfvkdufaom wyfzGJ@rsm;rSm jynfolrsm;tm; óud;jzifh csdwfqGJxm;+yD;/ jrif;=umyGwfjzifh y,fy,fe,fe,f &kdufESufcJhavonf? abmvfwpf jynfe,f/ c&kdifrsm;okd@ qif;oGm;aom ppfwyfrsm;rSm jynfolrsm;ukd tusOf;enf;jzifh owfjzwfuGyfrsufjcif;rsm;/ jynfolvlxktm; pk&kH;I &kdufESufjcif;rsm;/ ESifh rD;&_d@r_rsm;ukd ðyvkyf=uavawmhonf? (1905) ckESpf aESmif;ykdif;wGif/ tpkd;&rS zdESdyfr_ajracG;rsm;udk avSmiftdrfzGifhIv$wfvkduf+yD;/ jynfolvlxk}uD; tm; 0yfusoGm;atmif csKd;ESdrfI/ tusOf;axmifrsm;tm; awmfvSefa&;orm;rsm;ESifh jznfhwif;vkdufonf? (1906) ckESpftapmykdif;okd@ a&mufaomtcg tpkd;&onf awmfvSefykefuefr_rsm;udk a=umufp&m ta=umif;r&Sdawmhacs? awmfvSefa&;onf ‚if;. ukd,fykdifaoG;rsm;xGufapjcif;jzifh/ aoG;xGufoH,kd ykefuefr_wckonf qdwfa¹cGcH cJh&avonf? zdESdyfr_rsm;wav#mufwGif 0Spfwfonfvnf; ZGJeyJ}uD;pGmjzifh t&_H;ray;yJ/ b¾ma&;qkdif&m }uD;rm;aom uyfab;}uD;ukd vGwfajrmufatmif vkyfaqmifcJhavonf? tjyif;txef nd‡E_dif;r_rsm; vrsm;pGm =um+yD;aemuf/ olonf z&ef@aiG (5) bDvD,Hausmf acs;aiGukd/ {+yDv (16) &ufae@wGif/ EkdifiHjcm;b%ftkyfpkwckESifh jynfwGif;b%frsm;rS acs;,lEkdifcJhonf? Zmbk&ifrS 0Spfwf. tvkyfoufwrf;wav#mufvkH;wGif/ ,if;onf taumif;qkH;aom atmifjrifr_wckjzpfonf[k ajymqkdcJhonf? tvGef@tvGef ta&;t}uD;qkH;aom udpPwcktay:wGif Zmbk&if. ajymqkdr_onf w}udrfwcgtwGuf rSefuefcJhavonf? armfpukd/ pdef@yDwmpbwfESifh tjcm;aomòrd@rsm;rS awmfvSefa&;orm;rsm;onf/ wefbkd;}uD;rm;pGm rSm;,Gif;wGufcsufr_wckukd ðyvkyfcJhrdavonf? t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_.ae&mY/ vufeufukdifpGJonfhenf;vrf;ukd tokH;cscJhvkdufjcif;jzifh/ olwkd@onf tpkd;&tm; tajcrckdif,drf;,dkifaeatmif vkyfaqmifaer_rsm;ukd &yfwef@ypfcJh avonf? xkd@tjyif tpkd;&tm; &efolukd rnfuJhokd@ tjywftowftEkdif&&Sdatmif vkyfaqmif&rnfukd odoGm;apcJhavonf? awmfvSefa&;. EkdifiHa&;t& atmifjrifr_rsm;ukd vD,kd awmfvpwdGKif;onf aysmf&$if0rf;ajrmufcJh+yD;aemuf/ cyfwkdwkdyif a&;om;cJhonfrSm - “olwkd@ EkdifiHa&;ukd vkyfaqmifaeygonf[k pOf;pm;pdwful;,Ofaeolrsm;onf xkdEkdifiHa&;ukd zsufqD;cJh=uonf? xkdolrsm;twGuf ol@taejzifh 0rf;enf;a=uuGJ cJh&onf? tpkd;&pepfa[mif;. t=urf;zufr_udk/ xkdt=urf;zufr_wGif 0ifa&mufyl;aygif; ryg0ifjcif;jzifhomv#if zsufqD;EkdifcJhvdrfhrnf/ ,cktcg xkdusL;vGefcJh+yD;aom rkdufrJonfh t=urf;zufv_yf&Sm;r_topfrsm;jzifh vkH;0 atmifjrifEkdifvdrfhrnf r[kwfacs?” [ka&;cJhonf?

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ckcHykefuefr_rsm;tm; t+yD;owf&Sif;vif;okwfoifI r+yD;ao;rDyif/ tpkd;&onf rl0g'vkyfief;pOftopf ukdabmifcwfxm;onfh Oya'rsm;ukd xkwfjyefcJhavonf? 'DZifbm (11) &ufae@wGif 'l;rm;v$wfawmftwGuf a&G;aumufyGJ vkyfief;pOfrsm;ukd xkwfjyefcJhavonf? twkduftcHrsm;. t"du awmif;qkdcsuf ESpfckjzpfonfh qENrJxnhfEkdifcGifhrsm;onf urBmwv$m;usifhokH;aeonfh ykHpHrsKd;vnf;r[kwf/ tm;vkH;wef;wlnDr#vnf;r[kwfacs? trsKd;orD;rsm;/ ajrykdifr&Sdonfh v,form;rsm;/ ppfom;rsm;/ tcsKd@aom vufr_twwfynm&Sifrsm;ESifh tvkyform;rsm;ukd qENrJay;ykdifcGifhrS xkwfy,fxm;avonf? wqifhcHa&G;aumufyGJrsm;wGif/ ajrykdif&SifwOD;. rJwjym;onf/ v,form; (15) a,mufESifh tvkyform; (45) a,mufwkd@. rJjym;rsm;ESifh nDr#onfh ta&twGufukd ,lrnfjzpfavonf? tvkyform;or*~rsm;ukd aemufykdif;wGif w&m;0ifcGifhðyvkdufcsdefwGif/ ‚if;wkd@. v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;rSm uef@owfxdef;csKyfxm;+yD;jzpfavonf/ EkdifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;tm;vkH;ukd wm;jrpfydwfyif xm;+yD;jzpfavonf? (1906) ckESpf/ {+yDv (23) &ufae@wGif/ 'l;rm;v$wfawmf. vkyfykdifcGifhtm%mrsm;tm; t"dy`g,f zGifhqkdxm;onfh/ &k&Sm; tifykdif,m. tajccHOya'topfrsm;ukd xkwfjyefa=unmcJhavonf? atmufwkdbm a=unmpmwrf;wGif uwdðyxm;cJhonfhtwkdif;/ Oya'wck jzpfvm&eftwGuf/ rnfonfh Oya'ðyr_rsKd;ukdrqkd/ 'l;rm; v$wfawmfrS twnfðy+yD;jzpf&rnf? okd@aomf 'l;rm;v$wfawmfonf EkdifiHawmfbwf*suf. (60μ) ukdom xdef;csKyf &rnf? ppfzufa&;&mudpPrsm;/ (okd@r[kwf) EkdifiHjcm;a&;0g' qkdif&mudpPrsm; wGif aqG;aEG;ykdifcGifhr&Sday? 0ef}uD;rsm;onf Zmbk&ifukdom ajz=um;&vdrfhrnf? Oya'ðycGifhtm%mukd EkdifiHawmfaumifpDokd@vnf; ay;xm;onf? EkdifiHawmfaumifpDwGif Zmbk&ifrS cef@tyfxm;olrsm;ESifh/ usOf;ajrmif;aom rJqENxnfhykdifcGifhwck. atmufrS a&G;aumufcH&onfholrsm; wkd@yg0ifrnf? 'l;rm;onf v$wfawmftpnf;ta0;usif;ycsdefr[kwfygu/ Zmbk&ifonf Oya'uJhokd@tm%mwnfaomtrdef@rsm;xkwfjyef+yD; Oya'ðyrnfjzpfonf? rl0g'vkyif ef;pOftopfonf tpk;d &. twku d t f cHrsm;/ vpfb&,frsm; ESifh awmfvSefa&;orm;rsm;/ aoG;ºuGaecJh=uaom atmufwkdbm ESifh Ekd0ifbmvrsm;twGif;Y atmifjrif&efar#mfvifhxm;cJhonfxuf rsm;pGm tvSrf;uGmaeavonf? a&G;aumufyGJrsm;rSm 'Drkdua&pDESifh ta0;}uD;wGif&Sdaeavonf/ xkd@tjyif/ eDukdvufpf onf ol@ukd,fol oufOD;qHykdiftjzpfajymaeqJjzpfonf? tpkd;&onf atmufwkdbm a=unmpmwrf;wGifygaom ta=umif;t&mrsm;ukd ykdrkd us,fjyef@pGm rvkyfaqmifcJhaomfvnf; jznfhpGrfay;cJhavonf? tm;vkH;onf twlwlyifjzpfonf? &k&Sm;tifykdif,monf pnf;rsOf;cHbk&ifpepfwck r[kwfao;aomfvnf;/ tuef@towfrJh oufOD;qHykdif bk&ifpepfvnf; r[kwfawmhay? EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm;/ tvkyform; or*~rsm;/ ykdrkd vGwfvyfaom xkwfa0cGifhESifh wu,fhtuef@towfrsm;onf rnfokd@yifqkdapumrl tkypf kd;ol. tm%may:wGif toifhtwifh &Sdaeavonf? xkdt&mrsm;tm;vkH;onf &Sdaeao;onf? v_yf&Sm;r_wck. atmifjrifr_rsm;onf ‚if;. t}uD;rm;qkH;aom cGeftm;ukd vrf;rsm;ay:&Sd vufeufukdif ppf0g'Drsm;xHrS r[kwfyJ/ *k%foduQmr&Sdaom tpkd;&w&yfEiS fh yl;aygif;aqmif&Guf&ef jynfolwkd@rS jiif;qkdjcif;a=umifhom &&SdcJhjcif; jzpfavonf? á

á

á

&mpkESpu f ek q f ;Hk cge;D vmaomtcg &k&mS ;rsm;onf rwluGJjym;aom oufOD;qHykdifrl0g'aemufwrsKd;ukd pdefac:cJh=uavonf? jyefvnfouf0ifv_yf&Sm;vmaom tm%m&SifygwDwck jzpfonf? xkd@aemuf urBmhtm&kHpl;pkdufr_udk t=urf;rzuf awmfvSefa&;ESifhtwl pGJaqmifodrf;oGif;vkdufjyefonf? (1991) ckESpfwGif jynfolwdk@. atmifyGJonf tvGefv#ifjref+yD;/ tHhrcef;zG,f&myifjzpfavonf? &k&Sorw abm&pf,vfqifonf/ tm%modrf;&efóud;pm;onfh ppfzuft&m&Sdtkyfpk wpkudk rqkdif;rwG csufjcif;yif qef@usifcJhavonf? xkd@aemuf olonf jynfoljynfom;rsm;ESihf ppfom;rsm;tm; jywfjywfom;om; a&G;cs,fr_wckudk urf;vSrf;cJhavonf? olwkd@taejzifh olwkd@ a&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufxm;aomtpkd;&ukd axmufcHEkdifonf/ (okd@r[kwf) olwkd@taejzifh uGefjrLepf pepfa[mif;ukd tumtuG,fay;olrsm;ukd axmufcHEkdifonf? vlxktkHºuGr_wckESifhawG@vkdufaomtcg rusufwusuf ppftm%m&Sifwkd@rSm wyfacgufoGm;&avonf? t=urf;rzuftiftm;ESifh ppfwyfaxmufcHr_ jiif;qkdjcif;wkd@onf ‚if;wkd@. =urRmukd wHqyd cf yfEdSyef d*;kH csKyfoGm;apcJhavonf?

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(1905) ckESpfwGif/ Zmbk&if. tkyfpkd;r_udk qef@usifawmfvSefcJh=uonfh rwluGJjym;aom tkyfpkrsm;onf ykdrkdI yËdyuQESifh óuHawG@cJh&avonf? &k&Sm;jynftm; &mpkESpfrsm;pGm tkyfpkd;vmcJhaom rif;qufwqufonf &kd;&mtpOf tvmjzpfonfh tºuGif;rJhtm%m&SifpepfwckxJwGif }uD;xGm;vmcJhonf? oufOD;qHykdifbk&ifpepfonf rdrdukd,fukd rdrdcef@tyfxm;aom tm%mvk,lxm;olrsm; tkyfpkr[kwfay? oufOD;qHykdifbk&ifpepfwGif rrSm;oifhaom qkd;0g;aomtrSm;rsm;ESifh aysmhuGuftm;enf;csufrsm; &SdaepOfwGif/ bk&ifonf ol. touf twGuf wkdufckdufrnfom jzpfavonf? bk&ifonf &dk;&mtpOftvmpGJ}uD;olrsm;ESifh bmoma&;wGif tm%m&Sdolrsm;tm; bk&ifpepfukd qufvufumuG,f&ef arwWm&yfcHrnfomjzpfavonf? bk&ifonf enf;y&d,m,fqkdif&m tav#mhay;r_rsm;ukd ðyvkyfcJhvdrhfrnf/ ol. ppfom;rsm; ESifh ykvdyfrsm;tm; apv$wfvdrfhrnf/ ol. vuftwGif;Y tm%m&Sdaeap&eftwGuf tifykdif,mtwGif;t&Sd t&if;tjrpfrsm;tm;vkH;ukd tokH;csrnfomjzpfavonf? tjyif;txef wif;rmaom zdtm;rsm;ukd/ trsKd;rsKd;aom rsufESmjyifaygif;rsm;pGmwGif/ &Snfvsm;aom umvwcktxd zdtm;ay;EkdifcJhrSomv#if Zmbk&if.tpkd;&tm; òyduGJoGm;atmif ðyvkyfEkdifcJhvdrfhrnfjzpfonf? Zmbk&if. twkduftcHrsm;onf a'gojzpfatmif v_H@aqmfE_d;qG=u+yD;/ ol. rSwf,lxm;rl vkyfykdifcGifhtm%mukdk vGwfatmifa&SmifcJh=ujcif;jzifh/ tm;vkH;udk &kwfw&uf thHtm;oifh =uufaoao oGm;cJhaponf? wrif&nf&G,fpDrHxm;jcif;rsKd;xuf/ ol@zmomol tvdktavsmufoabmrsKd;jzifh/ olwkd@onf tpkd;&. b¾mawmfaiGukd qkwf,kwfukefcrf;apcJhonf/ ‚if;. ykvdyfrsm;tm; a0cGJr& ajcrukdifrd vufrudkifrdjzpfapcJhonf/ ‚if;. qufoG,fa&;rsm;tm; aESmifh,Suf&yfwef@apcJhonf/ ‚if;. tkyfcsKyfa&;rSL;rsm;tm; pm&dwWysufjym;apcJhonf/ ‚if;. qifqmwnf;jzwfr_rsm;tm; xkwfazmfa&;om;&ef tcGifhtvrf;&&Sdwkdif; tmcH tHwkcJh=uonf? twkduftcH rsm;onf vl@tzGJ@tpnf;. atmufqkH;tqifhrSaeIvnf;aumif;/ ‚if;wkd@twGif;&Sd tkyfpkrsm;twGif;rSaeI vnf;aumif;/ xdyfykdif;ae&mrsm;okd@ a&muf&SdvmcJhonf? v,form;rsm;onf ‚if;wkd@. ukd,fykdif “orwEkdifiH” i,frsm;ukd wnfaxmifcJh=uonf? tvkyform;rsm;onf ‚if;wkd@.tvkyfcGifrsm;rS xGufvm=u+yD;/ vrf;rsm;ay:okd@ csDwufvmcJh=uonf? ppfom;rsm;onf olwkd@. txuft&m&Sd. trdef@rsm;ukd remcH/ zDqefvmcJh=uonf? ausmif;om;rsm;onf wuUokdvfrsm;tm; EkdifiHa&;ckdv_H&mae&mrsm;tjzpf toGifajymif;vkduf=uavonf? owif;pmq&mrsm;onf tpkd;&. tpGrf;tpr&Sdr_/ nhHzsif;r_rsm;udk xkwfazmfa&;om;=u+yD;/ ,if;wkd@. w&m;vGeftðytrlrsm;ukd &_H@cs=uavonf? a&S@aersm;/ q&m0efrsm;ESifh tif*sifeD,mrsm;onf ðyjyifajymif;vJr_rsm; ðyvkyf&ef awmif;qkd=uavonf? t}udrf}udrf txyfxyf/ t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;onf Zmbk&if. 0ef}uD;rsm;tm; qkd;&Gm;aom a&G;cs,fp&m vrf;rsm;ukdomay;cJhavonf? tm%mykdifrsm;onf qENjyolrsm;tm; ESdrfESif;&ef tiftm; tokH;ðyaomtcg/ (okd@r[kwf) owif;pmrsm;ukd ydwfypfvkdufaomtcg/ jynfolwkd@tm; tvGefa'goxGuf pdwfqkd;apavonf? tpkd;&rS jynfolwkd@. a'gotm; wjcm;vrf;a=umif;okd@ v$Jay;vkduf+yD;/ tenf;i,f tav#mhay;r_rsm; ðyvkyfvmaomtcg/ twkduftcHrsm;onf cGifhðyay;vkdufonfh tcGifhtvrf;opfrsm;ukdtokH;ðyI pnf;&kH;zGJ@pnf;jcif;rsm;/ ‚if;wkd@. tjrift,ltqrsm;ukd xkwfazmfajymqkdjcif;rsm;jzifh ykdrkdðyjyifajymif;vJa&;rsm; ðyvky&f ef zdtm;rsm;ykrd kdI ay;=uavonf? xkd@aemuf vaygif;rsm;pGm pGef@v$wf&if;ESD;ay;qyfr_rsm;ESifh v_yf&Sm;r_rsm; ðyvky+f yD;aomtcg tvkyform;rsm;/ aumfvmjzL0efxrf;rsm;ESifh twwfynm&Sifrsm;onfonf wm;jrpf ydwfqdk@r_ukd ðyvky=f uavonf? xkdwm;jrpfydwfqkd@r_onf ‚if;wkd@ukd,fwkdif Zmbk&if. wyfzGJ@rsm;tm; wkdufckduf&efay:xGufvmjcif;rsKd; r&SdyJ/ EkdifiHawmf. toufaoG;a=umjzpfonfh tusKd;pD;yGg;rsm;udk tjyif;txef xdckdufapavonf? ,if;onf tm%m&Sifwkd@. OD;acgif;ukd w&=urf;0ifa&mufwkdufckdufjcif;rsKd;r[kwfyJ/ tifykdif,mw0Srf;&Sd jynfolrsm;onf &kd;&Sif;pGmyif ‚if;wkd@. vkyfief;rsm;ukd&yfwef@vkdufI tdrfokd@jyefoGm;=ujcif;jzifh/ tm%mykdifwkd@tm; tajctae,drf;,kdifoGm;apr_onf/ wpkHw&m tkHºuGqlylr_ðyvkyfjcif;xuf ykdrkdqkd;&Gm;oGm; apavonf? okd@aomf tcGifhta&;opfrsm;udk &&Sdatmifjrif&ef ESifh EkdifiHawmftm%mukd jynfolwkd@ESifh cGJa0,l&ef óud;yrf;&kef;uef=uaom tiftm;pkrsm;onf/ pkpnf;nD!GwfI pnf;urf;&Sdaom v_yf&Sm;r_}uD;wcktjzpfokd@ a&muf&Sdatmif w}udrfwcgr# a&maESmaygif;pyfoGm;jcif;rsKd; r&Sd=uacs? (1991) ckESpfwGif armfpukd&Sd jynfolrsm; uJhokd@ r[kwfyJ/ olwkd@onf tm;vkH;ukd ukd,fpm;ðy pkpnf;Ekdifaom oauFwrsm; csKd@wJhcJh=uonf? tm;vkH;rS a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufxm;onfhacgif;aqmifrsKd; r&SdyJ/ jzpfcsifawmh &k&SvlrsKd;wkd@. okH;a&mifjc,ftvH jzpfaeavonf? olwkd@onf ‚if;wkd@. ydwfqkd@wm;jrpfta&;,lr_udk [efcsufnDnDpnf;0g;&kduf vkyfaqmif&ef twGuf/ acgif;aqmifr_rsKd;ukdvnf; tm;vkH;rS vufcHjcif;rsKd;r&SdcJhacs? (1905) ckESpf ,SOfòydiftHwkr_wGif/ twkduftcH rsm;tm;

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OD;aqmif&eftwGuf/ tzGJ@tpnf; csKd@wJhr_rsKd;r&SdcJhacs? awmfvSefa&;qkd&S,fvpfrsm;/ vpfb&,f 'Drkdu&ufrsm;ESifh tv,ftvwf0g'D zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOay'0g'Drsm;/ tm;vkH;wkd@onf olwkd@. qkdif&mtzGJ@tpnf;. awmif;qkdr_rsm;udkom ðyvkyf=uonf? olwkd@onf wkdufyGJukdtqkH;tjzwfay;Ekdifonfh jywfjywfom;om; vlxk. axmufcHyHhykd;r_&&SdatmifpDrH}uD;=uyf&eftwGuf/ olwkd@. EdkifiHa&;t,ltqrwluGJjym;r_ukd/ vkHavmufaom &Snf=umonfhtcsdefumvtxd/ wcgr#ab;z,frxm;cJh=uay? xkdokd@ uGJjym;xm;r_rSm EkdifiHa&;t,ltq wckwnf;a=umifhr[kwfay? awmfvSefa&;onfvnf; vlwef;pm;uGJjym;r_rsm;ESifh vlrsKd; rkef;wD;r_rsm;tay: xGufayguf&Smvmavonf? v,form;rsm;rS v,fykdif&Sif rsm;tm; zufòydiftHwk=unhfjcif;/ tvkyform;rsm;rS tvkyf&Sifrsm;tm; qef@usif=ujcif;/ c&pf,mefrsm;rS *sL;vlrsKd; rsm;tm; &efvkyfjcif; ponfh ukvm;rEkdif&ckdifrJonfhvkyf&yfrsm;ukd ðyvkyf=uavonf? Zmbk&if. twkduftcHrsm;onf tpDtrHrsm; a&;qGJ&ef ESifh atmifjrifcJhonfh ydwfqkd@ta&;,lr_rsm;tay: xyfrH wnfaqmuf &eftwGuf r=umc%qkdovkd twlwuG 0kdif;0efvkyfaqmif&ef rpGrf;aqmifEkdifcJh=uay? olwkd@onf tpkd;&. tm;enf;csufrsm;ukd tjrwfxkwf&eftwGuf ratmifjrifcJh=uay? tpkd;&rS vufOD;r_&,lI t=urf;zufr_rsm;ukd ðyvkyf+yD;/ vGwfvyfaomae@&ufrsm;ukd av#mhcsjzwfawmufvkdufaomtcgwGifvnf;/ olwdk@onf jym,m cwfae=uavonf? (1905) ckESpfwGif ay:aygufvmaom t=urf;rzufvlxkv_yf&Sm;r_ESifhtwl Ekd;xvmaom EdkifiHa&; tajymif;tvJonf tppftrSefwckjzpfcJhayonf? okd@aomf tu,fI xkdv_yf&Sm;r_onf wpnf;wvkH; wnf;&Sdaom v_yf&Sm;r_wcktjzpf/ tajrmftjrif&Sdaom/ xkd;xGif;odjrifaom r[mAsL[mrsm;jzifh yJhukdifxdef;ausmif; EkdifcJhv#if/ &k&Sm;wkd@. &mpkopfonf tjcm;aomvrf;a=umif;opfwckwGif pwifav#mufaevdrfhrnfjzpfonf? tjzpftysufrsm;jzifhjynfhaeonfh a&pDa=umif;xJwGif jzpfay:cJhonfh/ (1905) ckESpf t=urf;rzuf v_yf&Sm;r_ onf }uD;rm;aomt=urf;zufr_rsm;pGm&SdcJhavonf? +idrf;csrf;aom enf;jzifh csDwufqENjyr_wcktjzpf pwifcJhr_ rsm;onf/ r=umc%qkdovkd t"du&k%f;wcktjzpf (okd@r[kwf) qENjyolrsm;ESifh ykvdyfrsm;t=um; vrf;ay: wkdufckdufr_wcktjzpf/ toGifajymif;oGm;wwf=uavonf? jzpfyGm;cJhaom t=urf;zuf t"du&k%f; trsm;pkrSm/ r=umc%qkdovkd tm%mykdifwkd@. &ufpufpGmòzdcGif;r_rsm;a=umifh/ tzGJ@tpnf;wckck. tjynfht0xdef;csKyfr_rsm;udk ausmfvGef+yD;/ t=urf;zuf&ef r&nf&G,fyJ jzpfoGm;wwf=uavonf? rnfokd@yif qkdapumrl/ tkyfpkwckonf Zmbk&iftm; ðzwfcs&eftwGuf t=urf;zufenf;vrf;ukd tokH;ðy&ef txl;*&kpkdufI pDrHaecJhavonf? olwkd@onf olwkd@. aemufvkdufrsm;ukd vufeufrsm;ukdifaqmif&ef vaygif;rsm;pGm awmif;qkdwkdufwGef;aecJh=uavonf? olwkd@onf tpkd;&. vufeufrsm;ukd a=umufvef@p&mrvkd/ tb,fa=umifhqkdaomf ppfom;rsm;onfvnf; qlyltkHºuGr_twGif;Y ‚if;wkd@ESifhtwl 0ifa&mufyl;aygif;vm =uvdrfhrnf a=unmcJh=uavonf? xkd@aemuf/ tpkd;&onf ol. tajc,kdifoGm;r_ jyefvnfwnfhrwfvmaom tcsdefwGif/ awmfvSefa&;orm;rsm;onf qlyltkHºuGr_ wckudk pwifcJhavonf? wywfausmf&kHom =umjrifhonfh wkdufckdufESdrfESif;r_rsm; ðyvkyf+yD;aomtcg/ armfpukdòrd@&Sd v_yf&Sm;r_wckvkH;onf òydusysufpD;oGm;cJh&avonf? xkd@aemuf tm%m&Sifwkd@onf atmifjrifr_ &&SdoGm;&kHomru/ ykdrkd zdESdyfr_rsm;twGufyg tajccHaumif;oGm; avonf? (1905) ckESpfwGif/ ppfwyfrsm;tm;/ armfpukdtvkyform;rsm;rS vrf;rsm;ay:wGif ydwfqkd@wm;qD;xm; aom twm;tqD;rsm;onf/ (1991) ckESpf &k&Sm; tdrfjzLawmfwnf&Sdaomae&mESifh &yfuGuf tenf;i,fom uGmvSrf;avonf? xkdae&mwGif vufeufrJh t&yfom;rsm;onf/ AkdvfrSL; tDAf'kduDarmhAf ‚if;wkd@. awmif;qkdcsuf rsm;ukd 0ifa&mufyl;aygif;ouJhokd@/ ppfom;rsm;tm; ‚if;wkd@ESifh yl;aygif;yg0if&ef acsmharmh ajr‡mufyifh em;cscJh=uavonf? xkdv_yf&Sm;r_ ESpfckukd E_dif;,SOf=unfhv#if tusKd;&v'f ESpfckrSmvnf; }uD;rm;pGm uGmjcm;avonf? rsm;pGmaom ppfom;rsm;. tjrifwGif/ (1991) ckESpf. t=urf;rzufjynfolrsm;. tiftm; onf/ tm%modrf;ppftkyfpkxuf rsm;pGmomvGefayonf? ‚if;onf ppfom;rsm;tm; yGJ=unfhy&d\wftjzpf =um;ae rnfavm/ okd@r[kwf tdrfjzLawmfbufrS ckcHumuG,fay;rnfavm qkdonfhbufokd@ ajymif;oGm;ap avonf? (1905) ckESpf 'DZifbmvwGif/ Zmbk&if. ppfwyfrsm;tm; qef@usifI avxJwGif a0S@&rf;aeaom aoewfrsm;onf/ t+rJwrf;ppfwyfwwyfrS &efoltay: a'goaygufuGJaeaom ypfcwfr_rsKd;jzifh tajzay;cHcJh &avonf? xkdtcsdefu xa&mhpuDESifh vDeifwkd@onf tppftrSefajymif;vJr_wcktwGuf awmfvSefa&;onf r&Sdrjzpfvkdtyf+yD;/ xkd vkdtyfonfhawmfvSefa&;rSmvnf; t=urf;zufenf;jzifhom atmifjrifEkdifrnf[k ,kH=unf aecJh=uavonf? bmawGjzpfoifhonfqkdonfh tjrifrsm;jzifh rsufpduef;aecJh=uavonf? jzpfvmatmif

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bmawGjyifqifvkyfaqmifxm;oifhonfqkdonfh jzpfEkdifacsrsm;ukd olwkd@ rjrifcJh=uacs? &mpkESpfopfrS t}udrfrsm;pGm/ ae&mrsm;pGmwGif o&kyfjycJhonfhtwkdif;/ igwaumaum+yD; pdwful;ayguf&m xif&mvkyfwwfaom tm%m&Sif tay: tajccHxm;onfh pepfwckrSonf/ jynfolwkd@. qENtay:tajccHonf pepfopfqDokd@/ jynfolvlxk. tiftm;ukdqGJ,l+yD;/ wkdif;jynfwjynfukdajymif;vJjcif;rsKd;onf/ &Sm;&Sm;yg;yg; wnfhwnfhrwfrwf axmifwwfoGm; aom wkd;wufr_wckomjzpfonf? vlxkv_yf&Sm;r_wckrS vufOD;r_ukd csufjcif;&,l&eftwGuf rnfonfhtcsdefwGif zdtm;ay;&rnf/ ESifh tv#iftjref vufwkef@jyef pm&if;&Sifjcif; rðyvkyf&efrsm; od&Sdxm;&efvkdtyfouJhokd@/ atmifjrifr_ukd &,l&ef rnfonfhtcsdefwGif ckdifrmawmifhwif;uspfvspfaom wvkH;wpnf;wnf;&Sdr_ukd &,l&rnf/ yËdyuQ. aemufykdif;umvrsm;twGuf rnfokd@ jyefvnfpkzGJ@&rnf ponfwkd@ukd od&Sdxm;&rnfh u|rf;usifr_ t&nf tcsif;rsKd;vnf;&Sd&efvkdtyfonf? tu,fI Zmbk&iftm; qef@usifonfh v_yf&Sm;r_onf/ aomhcsufusonf aocsmaom tcGifhtvrf; rsm;tay:wGif tjrwfxkwf,lEkdifcJhv#if/ eDukdvufpfonf ol.ðyjyifajymif;vJr_yrm%ukd wkd;csJ@I a=unm&awmh rnfjzpfonf? xkdtcg aemif (12) ESpft=umY abmvf&SDApf awmfvSefa&;ukd OD;wnfvmaponfh qufwkduf jzpfysufvmaom tjzpftysufrsm;ukd a&SmifvGJEkdifoGm;rnfjzpfonf? txl;ojzifh/ tu,fI tm%m&Siftpkd;&. twkduftcHwkd@onf/ Zmbk&if. atmufwkdbm a=unmcsufpmwrf;tm;/ tzufrwef rxDrJhjrif[k oabmxm;&rnfh w0ufwysuf pDrHaqmif&Gufcsuf wcktjzpf oabmrxm;yJ/ jynfolvlxkwGif arG;&myg woD;yk*~vtcGifhta&;rsm; ESifh tm%mrsm; ykdifqkdifonf qkdaom cGifhðycsufwckay;tyfvkdufonfh atmifjrifpGm xkd;azmufausmv f $m;EkdifcJhr_wcktjzpf 0rf;yef;wom vufcHayG@zuf,lEkdifcJhrnfqkdv#if/ t=urf;zufzdEySd fòzdcGif;&ef rvkdtyfawmha=umif;ukd/ rdrdwkd@zufwGif&Sdaom eef;awmftwGif;&Sd ðyjyifajymif;vJa&;rdwfaqGrsm;onf Zmbk&iftm; zsm;a,mif;odrf;oGif;pnf;&kH;EkdifcJhvdrfhrnfjzpfonf? okd@aomf awmfvSefa&;orm;rsm;twGif;&Sd xkd tay:wGif xm;&Sdaom tylcsdef'D*&Donf tvGefjrifhrm;ae+yD;/ vuf,mtpGef;a&muf0g'Drsm;. t=urf;zufr_ rsm;ESifh/ vuf0JtpGef;a&muf0g'Drsm;. tzsuftarSmifhvkyfief;rsm;tay: tvGeftu|H ,kH=unfr_vGefuJjcif;wkd@onf/ &ufpufpGm t=urf;zufzdESdyfòzdcGif;r_rsm;ukd jzpfay:vmapcJhavonf? (1905) ckESpfY/ tu,fI ppfom;rsm;ESifh oabFmom;rsm;tm; twkduftcHrsm;twGif;okd@ pepfwus pnf;&kH;odrf;oGif;EkdifcJhv#if/ tpkd;&. tusyfukdifr_ enf;vrf;rsm;onf/ t=urf;zuf òzdcGif;&eftwGuf a&G;cs,faomtcg/ ‚if;. ppfwyftay: ,kH=unftm;xm;&r_ avsmheJoGm;Ekdifrnfjzpfonf? tu,fI b¾ma&; qkdif&m rl0g'a=unmpmwrf;ukd ykdrkdus,fjyef@pGm jyifyokd@ wufºuGxufoefpGm jr‡ifhwifEkdifcJhrnfqkdv#if/ tm%m&Sif wkd@. b¾a&;qkdif&m toufaoG;a=umonf tav;teuf pkd;&drfzG,f&m tm;enf;oGm;rnfjzpfonf? tpkd;&onf t}uD;tus,f ab;'kuQawG@aepOfY/ jynfwGif;/ jynfy axmufcHulnDr_rsm;jzifh tpkd;&onf jyefvnfpkzGJ@&ef rpGrf;aqmifEkdifcJhacs? xkd@tjyif ‚if;. zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'qkdif&m ajymif;vJr_ðyvkyf&ef uwday;xm;r_ukdvnf; csdeJ@tm;enf;aeapavonf? tu,fI qkdAD,uf ESifh ‚if;. aemufvkdufrsm;onf vufeufukdifpGJ&ef ac:aqmifr_ukd *&krpkduf ta&;rvkyfcJhv#if/ tu,fI v_yf&Sm;r_ta&;awmfykH}uD;onf/ TuJhokd@aom ta&;w}uD;tcsdefY/ t=urf;zufr_ vkyfief;ukd ayG@ykdufvufcH,lrnfhtpm; ypfy,fjiif;qefcJhv#if/ ESifh tu,fI v_yf&Sm;r_ ta&;a;wmfykH}uD;onf tm%m&Siftpkd;&wkd@rS rnfuJhokd@ wefjyefta&;,laqmif&Guf&rnfukdrodcJhaomtcsed fwGif/ wm;jrpfydwfqkd@ ta&; ,lr_rsm;ukd vkyfaqmifEkdifcJhv#if/ tpkd;&. aemufqkH;prf;oyfr_ cGeftm;rSm jyefvnfay;qyf&efacs;aiGrsm;ukd/ ay;qyf&efysufuGufjcif;jzifh wkdif;wmoGm;Ekdif+yD;/ aoG;xGufoH,kdjzpfr_rsm; ESifh toufqkH;&_H;r_rsm;jzpfvmrnfhtpm; 0yfaxmifaygif;rsm;pGm&Sdonfh rD;awmufrsm;rSmvnf; +idrf;owfoGm;cJhrnfjzpfavonf? tpkd;&onf aºuG;qyfEkdi&f ef ESifh ae@pOfjy\emrsm;ukd xdef;csKyfEkdif&eftwGuf tiftm;vkdavonf? v_yf&Sm;r_ta&;awmfykHonf xkdESpfckpvkH;ukd ysufpD;oGm;atmif vkyfaqmifEkdifpGrf;&Sdavonf? jynfolvlxk. v_yf&Sm;r_onf ta&;ygaomaxmufcHr_rsm;ukd wnfwHhaeap&efESifh aocsmI xifomjrifom&Sdaom yef;wkdifrsm;udk jzef@jzL;ay;&efvkdtyfonf? okd@&mwGif ‚if;wkd@. aemufvkduf&Jabmfrsm;onf vrf;rsm;ay:wGif towfjzwfcHae&aomtcg/ ESifh ‚if;wkd@ atmifjrif&&Sd aeonfh tpkd;&rS tav#mhay;r_rsm;ukd ‚if;wkd@. acgif;aqmifrsm;rS vufrcHyJjiif;y,faecJhaomtcg xkdESpfrsKd;pvkH; ukd ‚if;wkd@taeESifh rvkyfaqmifEkdifcJhay? Zmbk&iftm;qef@usifonfh v_yf&Sm;r_ta&;awmfykH. tquftpyftqDtai:rwnfhaom obm0 tajctaeay:wGif/ tm;vkH;r[kwfawmif txufyg a&G;cs,fjzpfay:vmEkdifonfhtajctaersm;xJrS wckckrSm qkyfukdifvkyfaqmifEkdif[ef&SdaecJhavonf? &mpkESpf. tpY t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_ukd pwifcJhaom olrsm;onf ‚if;wkd@ pwifrD;&_d@cJhonfh yËdyuQtrsKd;tpm;wkd@. ta=umif;ukd/ v_yf&Sm;r_. aemufykdif;wGif a&muf&Sdvmaom olrsm;xuf/ Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

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tvGefeJyg;pGmom odem;vnfcJh=uavonf? okd@aomf/ ‚if;wkd@ vkyfaqmifcJhonfrsm;ESifh/ rvkyfaqmif cJhonfrsm;twGuf/ ‚if;wkd@ vkdufav#mufcJhaom vrf;a=umif;. tusKd;quf&v'frsm;rSm tpGef;a&mufr_rsm; a=umifh =urRmiifcJh&avonf? atmufwkdbm rl0g'a=unmcsufpmwrf;tm; xa&mhpuDrS “bmrS r[kwfbl;”[lI/ rw&m;ojzifh &_wfcsa0zef+yD;/ jynfol@orwEkdifiHwckukd awmif;qkdcJhaomtcg/ v_yf&Sm;r_ta&;awmfykH}uD;rS +yD;ajrmufatmifjrifcJh onfrsm;tay:wGif olonf r=um;onfhtwkdif;/ em;yif;aecJhavonf? Tokd@jzifh/ aemufqkH;wGif atmifyGJcH,l vkdufaom &efoltm; tm;&auseyfESpfodrfhoGm;apcJhavonf? aqmif;&moDeef;awmfokd@ csDwufqENjyr_rwkdifrD/ *seDAmrS aeI vDeifa&;om;vkdufaompmxJwGif jynfolvlxk. vGwfvyfr_ vkHòcHpdwfcspGm&Sdaeap&eftwGuf jynfolvltm; vufeufwyfqifay;xm;&rnf[lI a&;om;xm;avonf? r=umrDyif vDeif. t,ltq rSm;,Gif;oGm;a=umif;xif&Sm;apcJhavonf? qENjyoydwaf rSmufolrsm;ESifh t=urf;rzuf tHwkv_yf&Sm;r_onf tm%m&Siftpkd;&tm; ae&mwkdif;/ tcsdefwkdif;Y uzsuf,zsuf taESmifht,Sufay;cJhaomtcg/ tpkd;&onf zGJ@pnf;ykHqkdif&m tajccHOya'ajymif;vJa&;twGuf vrf;a=umif;ukd zGifhay;cJh&avonf? okd@aomf olESifh ol. ygwDonf xkdvufeufukdifaqmifr_ukdom pdwftm;wufºuG ,kH=unfaecJh=uavonf? trSefwu,fyif/ rmuhfpf0g'Drsm;rSm rSm;,Gif;cJh=uavonf? (1905) ckESpfwGif t=urf;zufv_yf&Sm;r_ukd uruxðyvkdufjcif;onf/ &k&Sm;jynfolwkd@. ‚if;wkd@.orkdif;wGif 'Drkdua&pDtiftm;. yxrOD;qkH;aom tppf trSef tckdiftrm xkwfazmfajymqkdEkdifr_vrf;a=umif;rS aoGznfoGm;cJhavonf? xkd@tjyif (1905) ckESpf/ t=urf; zufr_onf/ (1917) ckESpft=urf;zufr_twGufyg rsKd;aphcsay;cJhovkd jzpfoGm;cJhavonf? EkdifiHawmf tm%mukd xdef;odrf;xm;&eftwGuf tajccHvkdtyfcsuftjzpf Zmbk&if. t=urf;zufr_xuff ykdIqkd;&Gm;aom pepfwus t=urf;zufr_ukd vkyfaqmif&eftwGuf tm%m&Siftopfwcktm;arG;zGm;ay;cJhavonf? t=urf;zufr_onf &k&Sm;jynfolwkd@tm; vGwfvyfr_tcGifhta&;rsm;ukd raqmif=uOf;cJhacs? ,if;onf ‚if;wkd@tm; aemufxyf (8) ESpf=um/ EkdifiHa&;wGif txD;usef tazmfrJh nd‡K;i,faeapcJhavonf? tqkdyg EkdifiHa&;txD;usefr_onf t=urf;rzuftHwkv_yf&Sm;r_. tcef;opfwckonf/ 'Drkdua&pDpepfokd@ajymif;vJ&ef óud;yrf;tm;xkwfr_wckukd atmifjrifausmfv$m;Ekdifaom tcgusrSyif tqkH;owfcJhavawmhonf? (1991) ckESpfwGif bmawGjzpfvmawmhrnfqkdonfukd awmfvpwGdKif;onfodjrifaecJhavonf? olonf aysmf&$if jrL;wl;aecJhavonf/ tb,fa=umifhqkdaomf xkdt&mukdvkyfaqmif&eftwGuf rnfonfht&monf jzpfEkdifacs&Sdonfqkdonfukd olodxm;cJhaoma=umifhjzpfonf? orkdif;em&DvufwHtm; vSnhf&eftwGuf/ t=urf;zufv_yf&Sm;r_ rvkdtyfyg/ jynfolvlxk. qENukd azmfxkwf&efomjzpfonf/ ,if;rSm “jynfolrsm; ESifh EkdifiHrsm;tm; a&G@&Sm;apcJhaom tajccHtusqkH;tiftm;” jzpfonf[k (1905) ckESpfwGif ol ajymqkdcJhavonf? Zmbk&iftm; qef@usifcJhaom v_yf&Sm;r_ta&;awmfykHonf vkyfxkH; vkyfenf;/ enf;vrf;rsm;ukd od&Sdxm;+yD; jzpfcJh ygv#if/ ‚if;. t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_onf/ óuHovkd v_yf&Sm;aqmif&Gufjcif;rsKd;r[kwfyJ/ r[mAsL[m csrSwfxm;r_ rsm;&SdcJhygv#if/ &k&Sm;EkdifiHESifh urBmw0Srf;vkH;wGif &mpkESpfopfonf taotcsmyif tjcm;aomykHo¾mefwrsKd;jzifh jzpfvmcJhvdrhfrnfjzpfonf? okd@&mwGif/ oufOD;qHykdifbk&ifpepfukd z,f&Sm;&efóud;yrf;cJhonfh (1905) ckESpf v_yf&Sm;r_ ta&;awmfykHonf/ urBm}uD;tm; a&G@vsm;Ekdifap&eftwGuf vkHavmufpGm &Snfvsm;onf ukwfwHwckjzpfcJh aomfvnf;/ (1905) ckESpf&Sd &k&Sm;vlrsKd;rsm;onf ‚if;wkd@ w}udrfwcgr# tdyfrufyif rrufcJhzl;onfh vrf;a=umif;jzifh &mpkESpftm; a&G@vsm;apcJhavonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

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tdENd, udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfa&;v_yf&Sm;r_ ydkrdktpGrf;xufonfh aq;enf; (1905) ckESpf ±k&Sm;awmfvSefa&;jzpfpOfudk a&;om;xm;onfh owif;pmrsm;udk a0;vHaomt&yfrS urBmvloef;ESifhcsD+yD; apmifhzwfaeonfhtxJY awmiftmz&durS rxifr&Sm;tdEdN,EG,f a&S@aewOD;. wwfºuGxufoefr_rsKd; rnfonfh pm zwfy&dowfxHrSmrS &dScJhrnfr[kwfay? oHk;q,fajcmufESpft&G,f rdk[rf;'wfpf *EDN (Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi) twGuf ±k&Sm;tjzpftysufrSm urBmopf.a&S@ajy;edrdwfvdkjzpfcJhonf? ±k&Sm;wdk@taejzifh tkyfpdk;olwOD;OD;udk vkyf}uHowfjzwfjcif;jzifh oufOD;qHydkifpepfudk tqHk;owf&ef ,cifuóud;yrf;cJhzl;onfhudk olodxm;.? tckawmhjzifh ykefuefxºuGr_ESifhowfjzwfr_xuf ydkrdktpGrf;=oZmxufjrwfaom odk@jim;vnf; tvGef&dk;&Sif;onfh enf;vrf;opfwckudk ±k&Sm;wdk@ awG@&dSxm;+yD[k ol,Hk=unfvdkufonf? “tvkyftm;vHk;&yfypf+yD; taxGaxGoydwf}uD;qifeJG&ef &k&Sm;wdk@ a=u nmvdkufonf” [k *ENDu a&;om;cJh.? “olwdk@wawG vkyfief;cGifawGu xGufcGmoGm;w,f/ w&m;r#wr_awG r&bl; qdk&if tvkyfjyefrqif;bl;vdk@ Zmbk&ifudk ta=umif;=um;cJhw,f? onfudpPudk Zmbk&ifu qef@usifw,fqkdwmawmif rS bmvkyfEdkifrSmvJ? vHSpGyfawGaxmuf+yD; qENjyolawGudk vSnfhjyefoGm;zdk@&ef Zmbk&ifudk,fwdkifyifv#if =oZmanmif;r_ r&SdEdkif?”[k *EDNu rSwfwrf;xm;onf? tpdk;&w&yfudk qef@usifzdk@twGuf vlxkzufrS t=urf;rzufaom ydwfqdk@qENjyr_oHk;jcif;udk *ENDtaejzifh ,ckrS=um;jcif; r[kwf? (1880) ckESpfrsm;twGif; vef'efY Oya'ausmif;wwfaepOfuvnf; ajriSm;&rf;cudk qef@usifonfhqENjyr_tyg t0if udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfa&;twGuf tdkif,mvefwdk@.v_yf&Sm;aqmif&Gufr_rsm;tay: teD;uyfavhvmapmifh=unfhcJhzl; onf? awmifz&durS tmz&duefrsm;ESifhtdE, Nd EG,fzGm;wdk@taejzifh tkyfcsKyfolvljzLrsm;u jyXmef;xm;onfh uef@owf csufrsm;eSifhtcGeftaumufrsm;tay: qef@usiv f #uf&dSonfudkvnf; olodxm;onf? &k&Sm;ta=umif;ola&;om;aepOf rSmyif b*FvD[dENdLwdk@rS olwdk@.jynfe,fudk cJGxkwf&ef +Adwdo#wdk@.tpDtpOfudk qENjyonfhtaejzifh t*Fvdyft0wf txnfrsm;udkoydwfarSmufonfudkvnf; olzwfvdkuf&onf? xkdjzpf&yfwckcsif;wdkif;wGif jynfolvlxktaejzifh wdkufcdkuf&efrljcif;r[kwfyJ yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_udk jiif;qdkjcif;jzifh tpdk; &wdk@udk pdefac:cJh=uonf? “tm;t}uD;qHk;qdkolrsm;yifv#if tkyfcsKyfpdk;rdk;xm;&ef ttkyfcsKyfcHrsm;. yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_ r&ygu rjzpfEdkif” [k *ENDu a&;rSwfcJhonf? ±k&Sm;jynfrSatmifyJGonf +Adwdo#wdk@tkyfcsKyfr_atmufrS &kef;uefaeonfh ol@.ZmwdajrtdENd,twGufvnf; oifcef;pmjzpfvmcJhonf? “olwdk@udk t&mxrf;aewJholawG&dSvdk@om tdEdN,rSm olwdk@ tpdk;&Edkifwmjzpfw,f” [k *EDNu rSwfcsuðf ycJhonf? “±k&Sm;vlxkrSm&dSwJh cGeftm;rsKd;udkvnf; igwdk@jyEdkifw,f”[k *ENDu a&;xm;.? ±k&Sm;jynfrSmjzpfcJhonfrsm;udk ol@.rdcifajr tdENd,wGif rnfodk@rnfzHktoHk;ðyEkdifrnfenf;[k xdkvl&G,f a&S@aeuav;. pdwftpOfwGif ajy;v$m;aepOf (1905) ckESpfrSmyif awmiftmz&du. tjzpftysuftpdwftydkif;umv wckwGif ol&dSaecJhonf? awmiftmz&dua&muf *END “rdrdudk,fudkav;pm;wefzdk;xm;onfh tdENd,vlrsKd;wOD;twGuf ae&mr&Sd” rdk[rf;'wfpf *EDNudk tdENd,EdkifiHtaemufydkif;urf;&dk;wrf;&dS om;em;x,f0gonfhjynfe,fi,fav;wck. *k*s&wD pum; ajymrdom;pkrS zGm;jrifvmcJhonf? bHkabESifh umvuwWm;òrd@uJhodk@ òrd@}uD;rsm;ESifhE_dif;,SOfv#if acwfa&pD;a=umif;ESifh twefi,fuGmvSrf;aeonfh òrd@wòrd@[k qdkEdkifonf? ol.rdom;pktaejzifh *EDNudk tazhajc&mtwdkif;vdkufrnfholtjzpf a'otkyfcsKyfa&;t&m&dSwOD;jzpfvmap&ef ar#mfrSef;cJhonf? xdk@a=umifhvnf; ol@udk vef'efudkapv$wfI Oya'ynm&yf oif=um;apcJh.? odk@aomfvnf; *EDN. +Adwdo#oGm; ynmavhvmr_onf tdEdN,EdkifiHtwGif; Oay'ynmtoHk;cs&ef jyif qifcGifh tenf;i,fomjzpfapcJhonf? (1891) ckESpf oljyefvm+yD;aemuf w&m;cGifxJ0ifa&mufonfhtcg wGef@qkwfr_ a=umifh r±_rvSjzpfcJh&onf? ol.yxrOD;qHk;tr_wGif tmap;xnfhxm;ovdkjzpfcJh&+yD; =um;emr_tv,ffacgifY tav#mh ay;cJh&onf? r=umrDrSmyif ol.arG;&yfajr &wfcsaumh (Rajkot) udk jyefoGm;+yD; Oay'qdkif&mpm=urf;rsm; a&;om; ðypkjcif;jzifh Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

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toufarG;aexdkifcJh&onf? awmiftmz&du&dS tdEdN,ukefoG,fa&;ukr`%Dwck. vkyfief;udk,fpm;vS,f tjzpf urf;vSrf;cHcJh&onfhtcg xdktvkyfudk vufcH,lcJhonf? ratmifjrifaomtwwfynmqdkif&mvkyfief;udk tdENd,Y xm;&pf+yD; tjcm;urBmopfwckudk tpðycJhonf? axmifaygif;rsm;pGmaom tdENd,jynfom;wdk@rSm ,cifuwnf;u awmiftmz&duoGm;I tvkyfvkyf=uonfh Tvrf; a=umif;udk a&G;jc,fcJh=uonf? trsm;pkrSm aºuG;+rDjyefqyfEdkif&ef }uH&dwfjcif; odk@r[kwf aumfzDaphcl;jcif;wdk@jzifh ay:yif usyef;vkyfief;rsm;Y vkyfudkif=u&onf? xdkaºuG;+rDrsm; ta=uqyfEdkif+yDqdkonfESifh ukefoG,fvkyfief;/ rmvD odk@r[kwf tapcHtjzpf yifyifyef;yef;vkyfudkif=u&onf? *EDN.arG;&yfajr *l*s&wfa'orS tdENd,ukefonftrsm;pkvnf; a&G@ajymif; aexdkifcJh=uonf? xdk&mpkESpfqef;ydkif;wGifaew,fvf (Natal) wckwnf;Yyif tdEdN,vlrsKd; (5) aomif;&dScJhonf? xdkta& twGufrSm tmz&duef (5) odef;vlOD;&nfxufpmv#if enf;yg;aomfvnf; t=urf;zsOf;tm;jzifh vljzLvlOD;a&ESifh twl wljzpfonf? tdENd,vlOD;&nfyrm%enf;onf[kqdkEdkifaomfvnf; ae&mwdkif;wGif tdEdN,tEG,frsm; tv#iftjrefwdk; wufI jyef@usJwnf&dSaecJhonf? awmiftmz&du&dS tdENd,tEG,frsm;wGif [dENL/ rGwfqvif/ c&pf,efbmom0ifrsm;&dSovdk/ csrf;omol qif;&Jol/ ynm wwfESifhynmrJh/ ZmwfjrifhESifhZmwfedrhf pojzifh &dSae=uonf? vljzLrsm;. tjrifwGifrl xdkoltm;vHk;udk ulvD odk@r[kwf rsKd;EG,fedrfhonfh ta&S@wdkif;om;tjzpf &dSaeonf? xdkodk@ tajctjrpfr&dSonfhtpJGtvef;rsm;jzifh xdkolrsm;tay: Oya' rsm;udk trsKd;rsKd;txyfxyf pkpnf;jyXmef;xm;.? +Adwdo#tifyg,mwvHk;Y bmoma&;t&vGwfvyfcGifh&dS&efESifh vlrsKd; a&;cJGjcm;r_rsm;r&dSap&ef tmrcHxm;onfh (1858) ckESpfApfwdk&D;,m; bk&ifr.a=unmcsufudk qef@usifazmufzsufxm; jcif;jzpfonf? rJay;cGifh/ wdkif;jynfwGif;0ifa&mufcGifh/ wdkif;jynfwGif;c&D;oGm;vmcGifh/ pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm;vkyfudkifcGifh/ aexdkifrnfhae&ma&G;jc,fcGifhtm;vHk;udk wif;=uyfcHxm;&onf? xdkodk@ uef@owfwif;=uyfrsm;tay: *EDNtaejzifh tcsdef=um=um csKyfwnf;raeEdkifcJhay? 'gbef (Durban) a&muf+yD; wywftwGif;rSmyif tr_wckpum;ajym&eftwGuf *k%foa&&dS 0wfvHkawmf&wOD;taejzifh y&Dwdk&D;,m;oGm;&xm; yxrwef;xdkifcHkvufrSwfudk 0,f,lcJhonf? yxrwef;xdkifcHkwGif ol&dSaeonfudk vljzLwa,mufu wdkif=um;onfhtcg yxrwef;cHkrS armif;xkwfcH&onf? olujiif;qdkaoma=umifh &xm;ay:rS uefcscH&zl;.? aemufw}udrf xdkc&D;pOfrSmyif Oa&mywdkufom;c&D;oGm;rsm;ESifhtwl &xm;vHk;xJwGif vdkufygxdkifcGifhr&yJ &xm;vHk;tjyif armif;olESifhtwl vdkufygcJh &zl;onf? “rdrdudk,fudk wefbdk;xm;wJh tdENd,vlrsKd;awGtzdk@awmh awmiftmz&durSmae&mr&dSbl;vdk@ usaemfjrifw,f” [k *EDNu aemufydkif;Y a&;om;cJhonf? 'gbefòrd@Y Oya'ynmtoHk;ðyI &yfwnf&SifoefcJhonf? usifh0wfqdkif&mwGifomru tay;t,loabm r#r#ww vkyf aqmifvdkpdwf&dSonfhtwGuf vlodrsm;cJhonf? xdktawmtwGif; cJGjcm;qufqHonfh Oya'rsm; qufwdkufxkwfjyefvm onfhatmufwGif tdEdN,EG,fzGm;rsm;tzdk@ cHpm;epfemr_rsm;jzpfvmcJhonf? xdkolrsm; rJay;cGifhtay: ydwfyif&ef aew,fvftpdk;&rS tqdkðywifjyvmonfhtcg xdkOya'udk qef@usif&eftwGuf *ENDrS tdEdN,EG,fzGm;rsm;udk pnf;&Hk;cJh onf? ,cifusyef;vkyfom;rsm;tay: acgif;cHGaumufcHr_/ a&G@ajymif;aexdkifr_tay: tuef@towfrsm;/ tdEdN, ukefonfrsm; vkyfief;cGifhðycsuf &,lr_vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;rsm;/ tdEdN,EG,fzGm;rsm; vkyfief;vkyfudkifcGifhESifhaexdkifr_tay: wif;=uyfr_pnf;rsOf;rsm;tay: qef@usifonfh wdkufyGJopfrsm;udk *EDNtaejzifh r=umcifESpfrsm;twGif; 'gbefrStpðyI aemufydkif; *sdK[ef;empbwfòrd@rsm;wdkif w&m;pJGqdkjcif; pkaygif;vufrSwfxdk;awmif;qdkwdkufyJG0ifjcif;ESifh owif;pmrS wqifh wdkufyJG0ifv_yf&Sm;cJhonf? tcsKd@ae&mrsm;wGif ,m,Dtm;jzifh atmifjrifr_rsm;&&dSaomfvnf; tdEdN,EG,fzGm; qef@usifa&;'Dvd_if;udk ol@taejzifh vHk;0 &dkufcsdK;EdkifpGrf;r&dScJhay? *EDN txif}uD;cJhonfh &k&Sm;tjzpftysuf wESpf=um+yD;onfhaemuf *EDNaexdkif&m x&ef@pfAJvf EG,fzGm;a&G@ajymif;aexdkifolrsm;tay: wm;jrpfuef@owfonfh aemufxyfOya'rsm;ESifh rSwfyHkwifu'fudkifaqmif&ef Oya'rsm;udk jyXmef;cJhonf? tvGeftrif;a'goxGufaeonfh v_yf&Sm;r_yHkpHwrsKd; vkyfaqmif&rnf[k cHpm;cJh&onf? xdkOya'opfudk rvdkufem&eftwGuf

(Transvaal) Y tdEdN, tdENd,EG,fzGm;rsm;taejzifh *EDNtaejzifh aemufxyf (1906) ckESpf *sdK[efem

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pbwftifyg,mcef;rxJ&dS tpnf;ta0;wckY *EDNu tm;vHk;udk awmif;qdkcJhonf? xdkaemuf oydwfarSmufrnfholrsm; udk rSwfyHkwifapI tEkenf;jzifh tmcHa&;tzJG@ (Passive Resistance Association) udk zJG@pnf;cJhonf? onfaemuf rSwfyHkwifu'frsm;udk bk&m;&dScdk;ausmif;rsm;a&S@ pkyHkrD;&d_@yJGrsm;/ tpktðyHvdkuf w&m;r0ife,fpyfjzwfI x&ef@pfAJvfudk 0if a&mufjcif;ESifh rdkif;vkyfom;rsm; qENjyoydwfwckwdk@jzpfyGm;cJhonf? axmifaygif;rsm;pGm zrf;qD;cH&ovdk *EDNudk,fwdkif vnf; oHk;}udrfwdkifwdkif tzrf;cH&onf? (1914) ckESpfY tpdk;&u aemufqHk; vdkufav#may;cJh+yD;/ tdENd,EG,fzGm;rsm; pdwf roufromjzpfcJh&onfh tqifhtwef;owfrSwfr_tygt0if rSwfyHkwifOya'rsm;udk jyefvnf &kwfodrf;cJh&onf? *EDN. OD;aqmifr_aemufY [dENL rGwfqvif rdkif;vkyfom; ukefonf tm;vHk; vdkufygcJh=uovdk/ rw&m;onfh Oya'rsm;udk azmufzsuf+yD; tzrf;qD;cH=ujcif;jzifh ajymif;vJr_rsm; jzpfapcJhonf? tEkenf;jzifh tmcHa&; (Passive Resistance) xdkESpfrsm;&dS awmiftmz&du v_yf&Sm;r_onf tdENd,EdkifiHwGif;atmifjrifr&onfha&S@aeaygufpav;tjzpfrS &_wfaxG;+yD; tuJGuJGtjym;jym;&dSaeonfh vl@tzJG@tpnf;wcktwGif;v_yf&Sm;aqmif&Gufaeonfh EdkifiHa&;t&ifhtrmwOD;tjzpf *ENDudk *ENDtm; yHkoGif;ay;cJhonf? xdktdENd,vli,fuav;udk ajymif;vJay;Edkifonfh tvm;wl 'kwd,tcsufwck&dSygao;onf? awmiftmz&duudk a&mufa&mufcsif; *EDNtaejzifh ol@.aemufydkif;b0twGuf pdwfydkif;qdkif&m,Hk=unfr_twGuf &SmazG pl;prf;cJhonf? [dENLbmom0ifwOD;taejzifh &dSaeapumrl tjcm;rGwfqvif c&pf,mef/ ygqpf/ *sdef; pojzifh bmom0if rsm;ESifh ol@.rdbtdrfYvnf;aumif;/ vef'efYvnf;aumif;/ awmiftmz&duYvnf;aumif;/ &if;&if;ESD;ESD;awG@qHkcJhzl; onf? txl;ojzifhqdkv#if *sdef;bmom0if ausmufrsufukefonfvnf;jzpf uAsmq&mvnf;jzpfol &wfcsfcsef'&m &Af *spf[dkif rmwm (Rajchandra Ravjibhai Mehta) . =oZmv$rfrdk;r_&dS+yD; tjyeftvSefpma&;om;cJh=uonf? rnf onfhwOD;wa,mufjzpfap bmomw&m;t&jzpfap jynfhpHkpGmrodEdkifonfh zufaygif;pHk&dSonfhtrSefw&m;qdkonfESifh ywfouf+yD; *EDNudk olu tav;xm;ajymqdka&;om;cJhonf? “bmomw&m;qdkwmawG[m wlnDwJhae&mwck a&muf zdk@twGuf vrf;toG,foG,fygyJ” [k (1909) ckESpfY *EDNa&;om;cJhzl;onf? “igwdk@wawG wlnDwJhyef;wdkifa&mufzdk@ vrf;toG,foG,fa&G;=uwmbmjy\em&SdovJ” [k *EDNu qdkonf? tpktpnf;wckwnf;urS b0tm;vHk; jzpfvmonf[k ,lqonfh *EDNtaejzifh ,Hk=unfr_qdkif&mESifh vufawG@qdkif&m vkyfaqmifr_rsm; uJGjym;jcm;em;csufr&dSovdk/ xdkenf;twdkif; touf&SifaexdkifoGm;&ef óud;yrf;cJhonf? oltwGuf vufawG@qdkif&m wefbdk;w&m;tjzpf ,Hk=unfr_qdkif&m tajccHrlw&yfrSm t[d Ho (Ahimsa) ac: t=urf;rzufa&; jzpfonf? t[d Ho onf *sdef;bmom/ Ak'<bmomESifh [dENL tawG;tac:wGif eufeuf±d_if; ±d_if; wnf&dSaeovdk/ c&pf ,meftawG;tjrifYvnf; tvm;wlazmfjycsufrsKd;udk *ENDrS tcdkiftrmawG@&dSxm;onf? txl;ojzifh vD,dkawmfpwGdKif; . a&;om;csufrsm;ESifh a'\emusrf;tcsKd@ (Sermon on the Mount) wGifawG@&dS&onf? (1894) ckESpfu vD,dkawmf pwdGKif;. bk&m;ocifwdkif;jynfonf oifhudk,fwGif;Y&dSonf (The Kingdom of God Is Within You) [lonfh pmtkyfudk zwf±_+yD;/ t=urf;zufr_udk qef@usifonfh ±k&Sm;wdk@.tqdkrSm ol@udk v$rf;rdk;xm;cJh.? t[d HorSm EdkifiHa&;yËdyuQrsm;ESifhvnf; ywfoufqufEG,fcsufrsm;&dSonf? zdESdyfr_udkqef@usifonfh t=urf;zufr_onf vrf;vJGae±Hkru trSm;w&yfvnf;jzpfonf[k *ENDu ,Hk=unfcJh.? xdkodk@t=urf;zufr_onf zdESdyfr_udktm;ay;onfh rSm;,Gif;onfht,ltqESifhta=umufw&m;rsm;udk jzpfapaoma=umifh/ xdkt=urf;zufr_jzifh rw&m;rr#wr_rsm;udk rnfonfhtcgrS tqHk;owfaprnfr[kwfay? *ENDtwGufrl rw&m;onfhenf;vrf;jzifh w&m;onfhtajzrsm;b,fawmhrS xGufvmrnfr[kwf[k ,Hk=unfxm;onf? (1909) ckESpfY *END. a&;om;csufY “enf;vrf;onf opfaphESifhtvm;wl +yD;/ tajzvrf;qHkrSm opfyifjzpfonf/ opfyifESifhopfaphuJhodk@yif enf;vrf;ESifhvdkvm;csufvrf;qHk;rSm rcsKd;azmufaumif; onfh qufpyfr_jzpfonf/ rdrdwdk@ pdkufysdK;xm;or# rdrdwdk@ jyef&dwfodrf;&rnfrSm taotcsmyif” [k qdkxm;onf? odkaomfvnf; *ENDtaejzifh xda&mufEdkifrnfh EdkifiHa&;vkyf&Sm;r_enf;vrf;rsm;udk &SmcJh&onf? awmiftmz&duwGif &dSae pOftwGif; tdENd,EG,fzGm;acgif;aqmifwOD;taejzifh ol@.v_yf&Sm;r_rSm t=urf;rzufa&;jzpfaomfvnf;/ rdef@cGef;rsm; pkaygif;vufrSwfxdk;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm; ay;pmrsm; tm%mydkifrsm;ESifhtpnf;ta0;rsm;jzifh vlrsKd;a&;cJGjcm;r_t,ltq Oya' rsm;udk

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twdtvif;zGifhcsjycJhonf? tdENd,EG,fzGm;rsm;udk wef;wl&nfwlqufqHoihfonf[lawmh t,ltqtrSef w&m;udk vljzLrsm; jrifvmatmif vH_aqmfonfh enf;vrf;jzpfonf? tifyg,mcef;rtpnf;ta0; usrf;usdefyJG +yD;onfh aemufydkif; qENjyv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;wGif Tenf;vrf;udk olawG@&dSvmcJhonf? yxrydkifwGif xdkenf;vrf;udk t=urf;rzuftmcHa&;[k ol ac:qdkcJhonf (aemufydkif;ESpfrsm;wGif TtoHk;tE_ef;udk oHk;E_ef;&ef oljiif;qdkcJhonf)? enf;vrf;rSm tvGef&Sif;vif;onf - rr#wonfh Oya'rsm;udk qef@usifa=umif; a=unm onf ( Oyrmtm;jzifh - vGwfvyfpGmoGm;vmcGifhudk uef@owfcsufOya'rsm;)/ xdkOya'rsm;udk csdK;azmufonf (owfrSwfe,fajrpnf;udk w&m;r0ifjzwful;onf)/ xdk@aemuf jzpfay:vmonfhtusKd;qufudk cHpm;onf (zrf;qD;jcif;/ !Sif;yrf;ESdyfpufjcif;/ axmifcsjcif;)? qENjytmcHolrsm;. wnfwnf+idrf+idrf&dSr_/ tusKd;qufqif;&J'kuQtay: oduQm&dS&dS cH,l cHpm;jcif;wdk@jzifh zdESdyfolrsm;. tjrift,ltqudk yGifhvifap+yD; zdESdyfr_rsm;jzpfapaom &efvdkrkef;wD;r_rsm; av#mhyg; oGm;aponf[k *EDN ,Hk=unfcJhonf? xdkolrsm;taejzifh twdkuftcHrsm;udk tEdkif&&ef Edkifvdkrif;xuf &efðycsufxuf pmv#if trSefw&m;udkodjrifI vdkufav#mvm&onf/ xdkenf;vrf;onf zdESdyfolwdk@. pdwfoabmESifhvkyfaqmifcsuf tay: ajymif;vJaponf[k *END,Hk=unfxm;onf? xdkodk@v_yf&Sm;r_t,ltqudk o=u*[ (Satyagraha) (trSef w&m;ESifh cdkifcdkif+rJ+rJqkyfudkifjcif;qdkonfh [dENLpum;udk aygif;pyfxm;jcif;jzpfonf)[k *ENDu trnfay;cJhonf? odk@aomfvnf; r=umrDrSmyif o=u*[ ESifywfoufI }uD;rm;onfhtjrifw&yf&dSvmonf? xdkenf;vrf;onf ol. jzpfEdkifacsxuf pdwf"gwfydkif;qdkif&mZpfjrpftoHk;0ifr_enf;vmonfhtcsufjzpfonf? yk*~dKvfa&;t& pHerlejywefbdk;rSm tuef@towf&dSonf[k *EDN todtrSwfðycJhonf? tcdkiftrmqHk; tmcHa&;orm;rsm;yifv#if qif;&J'kuQrsm;pGmudkom cHpm;Edkifaomfvnf; axmifv$m;+yD; tpJGtrSwf}uD;onfh cdkifrmaeonfhtpdk;&trsKd;tpm;rSm v#ifv#ifjrefjref ðywfus roGm;Edkifay? o=u*[udk EdkifiHa&;vufeufwcktjzpf toHk;ðyrnfqdkygu wzuftpdk;&udk zdtm;jzpfapEdkifrnf[k *END u oabmaygufcJhonf? “pdwfydkif;t&jzpfap &kyfydkif;t&jzpfap aemufrSmtiftm;r&dSbl;qdk&if onfvdk awmif;qdk& wmudk igr,Hk=unfygbl;” [k *EDN a&;om;cJhonf? zdESdyfr_rsm;udk vdkufemrvm; jiif;qefrvm;qdkonfudk ttkyfcsKyfcHrsm;rS a&G;jc,f&avh&dS&m tkyfcsKyfolrsm;taejzifh xdktajctaetay: rSDwnfae&onf? xdka=umifhvnf; o=u*[rSm wzufvl. taetxm;w&yfudk ajymif;vJrnfh pGrf;tm;jzpfonf[k *EDN ,Hk=unfxm;onf? o=u*[ jzifh wzufzdESdyfoludk trSefw&m;udkod&dSapI tEdkif,ljcif;[k *EDNu ajymxm;aomfvnf; ppfa&;oabmaqmifjcif;&dSonfudkvnf; *EDNu r=umc%xkwfajymcJhonf? tkyfcsKyfol rsm;zufu t±H_;ay;jcif;r&dSu vkyfaqmif&rnfh vkyfief;pOfrsm;&dS+yD;/ xdkvkyfief;pOfonf tvGef@tvGef &efzufyHko¿mef tjzpfodk@ ajymif;vJypf&ef r&nf&G,faomfvnf;/ wzufzdESdyfolwdk@. tusKd;pD;yGm;udk xdcdkufap&ef &nfrSef;xm;onf? Tenf;a=umifh trSm;trSefcJGjcm;&efxuf ajymif;vJr_jzpfap&efvdkvm;aqmif&Gufolrsm;twGuf *EDNtaejzifh o=u*[ . vufawG@usonfh tjcm;a&G;jc,fpOf;pm;p&mudk zefwD;ay;cJhonf? t[d Ho onf vHk;0tºuGif;rJhrSefuefonfh t,l0g'jzpfonf[k *EDNu qdkvdkxm;jcif;r&dSay? oljyif;jyif;xefxefa0zefcJh onfh tm%mydkifrsm;. tpDtpOfwus t=urf;zufr_ESifh zdESdyfcHeif;jym;wdk@. tvdktav#mufjzpfvmonfh t=urf; zufr_ESpfckudk *EDNu cJGjcm;jrifcJhonf? eif;jym;wdk@.t=urf;zufr_tay: ol@taejzifh cGifhvGwfcJhonfr[kwfaomfvnf; xdkodk@jzpf&yfrsm;udk ol@taejzifh em;vnfEdkif+yD;/ *k%foduQmqdkif&mxdrf;odrf;r_twGuf jzpfaumif;jzpfvmEdkifonf[k olu qdkonf? oduQmrJhonfhol&Jabma=umifr_twGuf t=urf;zufr_udk tm;udk;tm;xm;ðyoifhonf[k ol. b0 wav#mufvHk;Y pJGudkif,Hk=unfcJhonf? xdk@a=umifh *EDN. t[d HoESifh o=u*[ usifhpOfrsm;rSm ajymif;vJr_rsm;jzpfay: vmap&ef w&m;r#wr_twGuf arwWmw&m;a&S@&_oifhonf[k ,lqxm;onfh olawmfpOfrsm;twGufawmh r[kwfay? (1909) ckESpfaEGOD;umv t*Fvefc&D;pOfonf tdEdN,EdkifiHwGif;Y o=u*[ enf;udk rnfodk@usifhoHk;oifhonfqdkonfh tawG;udk jzpfay:apcJhonf? awmiftmz&du&dS tdENd,EG,fzGm;wdk@twGuf pnf;&Hk;v_yf&Sm;&ef vef'efoGm;onfhc&D;pOf jzpfaomfvnf; ol. arG;&yfajrESifhywfoufI jiif;cHk tr_tcif;jzpfcJh&onf? *EDN ra&mufcif&ufydkif;twGif;u vef'ef wGifaexdkifonfh tdENd,vli,fwOD;rS +Adwdo#t&m&dS qm0DvD,H cgZGef 0if;vD (Sir William Curzon-Wyllie) udk vkyf}uHowfjzwfcJhonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

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jynfya&muf tdEdN,EG,fzGm;wdk@tjrifY xdkodk@t=urf;zufr_onf vGwfajrmufa&;twGuf taocsmqHk;vrf; jzpfonf[ktjrif&dSonfhtwGuf xdktjzpftysufonf *EDNudk wkefv_yfoGm;apcJhonf? xdk,Hk=unfr_udk wefjyefonfhtaejzifh tjyefc&D; (10) &ufwm oabFmay:wGifyif aqmif;yg;wapmif a&;om;cJhonf? nmzufvuf anmif;onfESifhb,fzufvufESifha&;um ta&;w}uD; tv#iftjref aqmif;yg; a&;om;cJh&onf? xdk@aemuf *END. awmiftmz&duef tywfpOfjzpfonfh tdEdN,wdk@tjrif (Indian Opinion) Y xdkaqmif;yg;udk azmfjycJh onf? tdENd,EG,fzGm; t=urf;zuform;rsm;. tjrifudk udk,fpm;ðyonfh pmzwfol ESifh *EDN.tjrifudk udk,fpm;ðyonfh t,f'Dwm t=um; tjyeftvSefaqG;aEG;onfhta&;tom;[efjzpf.? trsKd;om;a&;v_yf&Sm;r_. enf;emw&yftae jzifh t=urf;zufr_toHk;ðyjcif;udk &_wfcsa0zefxm;+yD;/ t=urf;rzufonfh o=u*[enf;vrf;udk tom;ay;azmfjyxm; onf? xdku¾onf aemufydkif;tdENd,trsKd;om;a&;v_yf&Sm;olwdk@ pOf;pm;=uonfh t=urf;zufr_ESifhywfoufI a0zef aqG;aEG;r_xuf omvGefaumif;rGefcJh.? tdEdN,trsKd;om;a&;v_yf&Sm;olwdk@u olwdk@.vdkvm;csufrSm qGm&wf (Swaraj) jzpfonf[k tcdkiftrmajymcJhonf - EdkifiHa&;vGwfvyfcGifh odk@r[kwf [kef;r&l;tjzpf t*Fvdyfpum; t,l tqESifh twlwljzpfonfh toHk;tE_ef;jzpfonf (0HomEkv_yf&Sm;r_[kvnf; ac:onf)? tdENd,jynftwGuf qGm&wfudk ol@taeESifhvdkvm;a=umif; *EDNu ajymcJhaomfvnf; xdkpum;udk udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfa&; tjzpf t"dy`g,fzGifhqdkcJhonf? “usaemfwdk@udk,fwdkifudk,fus tkyfcsKyfr_udk avhvmr,fqdk&if 'g[m qGm&wfyJ” [k *ENDu a&;om;cJh.? t=urf;zufr_rSm +Adwdo#wdk@ oGwfoGif;ay;cJhonfh bmomw&m;uif;rJhonfh t&dkif;tpdkif;wdk@. b0aexdkifr_[k *ENDu qdkcJhonf? xdkt=urf;zufonfh tawG;tjrifrS wrsKd;om;vHk;rvGwfajrmufEdkifyJ/ xdkt=urf;zufr_jzifh tdENd,rS +Adwdo# vlrsKd;wdk@udk armif;xkwfrnfhtjriftay: *EDNu ar;cGef;xkwfcJhonf? tdENd,vlrsKd;wdk@taejzifh tdENd,. rlvZpfjrpf tppftrSefudk jyefvnf usifhoHk;vdkufem=u&ef *EDNu wdkufwGef;cJhonf? qGm&wfudk vdkufemusifhoHk;Edkifygu EdkifiHa&; vGwfvyfr_twGuf tajzudk &SmawG@rnf[k *EDNu pJGpJG+rJ+rJ vufcH,Hk=unfcJhonf? “usaemfwdk@tdrfudk tpDtpOfwus xdef;odrf;xm;r,fqdk&if onftdrfeJ@vdkufav#mnDaxGjzpfr,fholawGyJ usefvdrfhr,f/ usefolawGtm;vHk; udk,fhtpDtpOf eJ@udk,f xGufoGm;ygvdrfhr,f” [k *EDNu a&;om;cJh.? odk@aomfvnf; qGm&wf. t"dy`g,frSm taemufwdkif;usifhpOfudk vufrcHjiif;y,fcsufxuf ydkygonf? tdEdN,vlrsKd;wdk@ wGifvnf; qdk;0g;onfh tjypftemtqmrsm; &dSonf[k olu 0efcHcJhonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh uav;oli,frsm;udk vufxyfxdef;jrm;jcif;qdkonfhtcsufjzpf+yD;/ xdktcsufrSm wdkif;jynfudkvma&muftkyfpkd;onfh wdkif;wyg;om;wdk@udk wky vkyfaqmifjcif;[k tjypfwifIr&ay? qGm&uf onf tdEdN.vlrsKd;wdk@.b0aexdkifr_udkyif ðyjyifajymif;vJ&ef &nf&G,f onf[k *EDNu &Sif;jycJhonf? +Adwdo#wdk@udk armif;xkwf&efqdkonfh EdkifiHa&;&nfrSef;csufoufoufr[kwfay? raumif; qdk;0g; ewfrdp>mwdk@. usifhpOfrSefor#udk ESdrfeif;&ef &nf&G,fonfh/ vlr_a&;ESifh wOD;csif;qdkif&m &nfrSef;csufvnf;yg&dS ayonf? awmiftmz&duY&dSaepOf q,fpkESpfESpfcktwGif; xdkqGm&uf usifhpOfudk *ENDusifhoHk;cJh.? taemufwdkif;. trSwf oauF w "avhrsm;pGmudk c0gcs+yD; &dk;&Sif;onfh tdENd,v,form;0wfpHkudk 0wfqifcJhonf? ol@uav;rsm;udk Oa&myyHkpHausmif; rsm;xuf tdrfYyif ynmoifapcJhonf? oltygt0if ol@rdom;pkwdk@ usef;rma&;t&wpHkwckjzpfvmwdkif; taemuf wdkif;aq;0g;rsm;udk oHk;pJG&ef jiif;y,fcJhonf? ZmwfpepfESifhywfoufonfh tjrpfwG,faeonfh tdEdN,tavhtxtcsKd@ udkvnf; ypfy,fcJh.? oltygt0if ol@.tdrfom;vHk;rSm npfnrf;onfhtvkyftudkif[k,lqxm;+yD; Zmwfedrfhrsm;om vkyfaqmif&onfh t0wfav#mfzGwfjcif;/ qHyif!‡yfjcif;/ qD;tdk;oGefjcif; ponfh tdrfr_tvkyfrsm;udk udk,fwdkifvkyfaqmif =uonf? *EDN aexdkifusifh}uHcJhonfh txl;0daoorsm;rSm vufr_vkyfief;rsm;vkyfudkifjcif;/ &dk;&Sif;pGmaexdkifjcif;/ oef@&Sif; pif=u,fpGmaexdkif;jcif;jzpfonf? txif&Sm;qHk;rSm pm;aomufr_udk csKd;jcHac|wm+yD; (1906) ckESpfrSpI umr*k%ftm&HkrS apmifhxdef;a&SmifusOfjcif;jzpfonf? xdkodk@ &v'fygonfh vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;jzifh tdENd,EkdifiHodk@ oljyefa&mufvmcJhonf? awmiftmz&dutpdk;&taejzifh rSwfyHkwifOya'udk y,fzsufay;vdkufonfhtcg ol@.EdkifiHa&;ESifhpdwf"gwft,ltqqdkif&m vufawG@prf;oyfr_udk T ae&mwGif &yfqdkif;&efESifh tdENd,odk@jyefI prf;oyfawG@&dSr_todrsm;udk toHk;cs&ef *EDN qHk;jzwfcJh.? wkEd_if;r&dSonfh

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

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t&nftcsif;rsm;ydkufvmonfh tdrftjyefvrf;vnf; jzpf.? jynfyYaexdkifcJh&onfh b0onf ol@twGuf tdENd,wck vHk;udk v$rf;ðcHtjrif&&dScJhonf? xdkodk@ rdcifajrrS cJGae&onfhtwGufvnf; zefw&mawaeonfh EdkifiHa&;jiif;cHkr_avxkESifh uif;a0;apcJh+yD; ol@.udk,fydkiftawG;tjrifrsm;vnf; &&dSapcJhonf? udk,fajcudk,f &yfwnfa&; (trSDtcdkuif;a&;) ESifh tdEdN,jynfvGwfajrmufa&;tjrifrsm;jzifh (1914) ckESpfwGif arG;&yfajrodk@ *END jyefvnf a&muf&dSvmawmhonf? &wf*sf tkyfcsKyfa&; (The Raj) odk@r[kwf e,f&Sify,f&Sifrsm; (Overlords) +Adwdo#wdk@ taejzifh ueOD;ydkif;u ppfatmifEdkifolrsm;taejzifh r[kwfyJ ukefonfrsm;taejzifh tdEdN,odk@ a&muf&dSvm jcif;jzpfonf? tdEdN,urf;&dk;wef;wav#mufY tcdkiftrmwyfpJGae&m,l+yD;/ twGif;ydkif; rGwfqvif r*dk (Muslim Mughal) tifyg,modk@ 0ifa&mufcJh=uonf? ,cifa&S;bdk;ab;vufxufuwnf;u tm&Stv,fydkif;rSaeI tdEdN, twGif;odk@ 0ifa&mufusL;ausmfe,fcsJ@cJhonfh tifyg,me,fajrjzpfonf? odk@aomfvnf; r*dkwdk@rSm A[dktpdk;&ozG,f zJG@pnf;wnfaqmufjcif;r&dScJhyJ/ olwdk@twGuf tcGefaiGESifhppfom;rsm;pkaqmif;ay;rnfh a'ocH tkyfcsyfolrsm;ESifhqufpyf xm;onf? (18) &mpktwGif;Y òydifzuftdENd,tm%m&Sifrsm;t=um; yËdyuQrsm;ay:xGufvm+yD; xdkpepfrSm ysufpD;òyduJG vm&onf? xkdokd@ EdkifiHa&;t&rwnf+idrfr_rsm;rSm ukefoG,fr_udk xdcdkufvmonfhtav#muf tdENd,&dS+Adwdo#ukefoG,fa&;vkyfief;udk vuf0g;}uD;tkyfxm;onfh ta&S@tdENd,ukr`%DrSm (1765) ckESpfY ppfwyfwwyfac:,l+yD; umvuwWm; ukr`%DXmecsKyf teD;w0dkuf bifa*g (Bengal) a'oudk odrf;ydkufxdrf;csKyfcJh.? ukr`%D. trdef@pmc|ef (=oZmoufa&mufr_)onf wkduf wwdkufvHk;eD;yg;v$rf;ðcH&ef aemufydkif; tESpf (50) twGif;Y awmifydkif;ESifh taemufjcrf;udkyg jzef@usufcJhonf? ukr`%D . wyfudkvnf; (2) odef; (5) aomif;ausmftxd wdk;csJ@vmcJhonf? ukr`%D. }uD;=uyfuGyfuJa&;Xmeudk umvuwWm;/ ta&S@awmifzufurf;&dk;wef;&dS r'&pfESifh taemufzufjcrf; bHkabòrd@wdk@Y cJGjcm;zGifhvSpfcJh.? +Adwdo#wdk@. wdkufi,f tpdk;&rSmvnf; tcdkiftrmjzpfvmonf? odk@aomfvnf; Oa&mywdkuf (&k&Sryg twdkif;twm)ESifh t&G,ftpm;wl tdENd,udk tkyfcsKyf&efrSm }uD;rm;av;vHonfh wm0efw&yfjzpfonf? ukr`%Dtaejzifh }uD;rm;onfh e,fajrtay: =oZm oufa&mufol tkyfcsKyfolbk&ifrsKd;EG,frsm;ESifh pmcsKyfpmwrf;rsm;ðyvkyfcJhonf? xdktxJwGif tjyeftvSeftm;jzifh ppf a&;t& tumtuG,fay;r_rsm;yg0ifcJhonf? +Adwdo#wdk@taejzifh tdENd,vlrsKd; rdwfaqGrsm;tay: rDScdkae&onfudk t+rJowdrlxm;onf? (1917) ckESpfY r'&pf&dS ukr`%Dwm0ef&dSolwOD;jzpfol aomrwfrGef;&dk (Thomas Munro) a&;om;csufwckY “usaemfwdk@YtawG@tóuHr&dSr_ vlxktaetxm;udk ypfy,fxm;r_rsm;&dScJhonf? Ttcsuft& wdkif;jynfjynfwGif;a&;udkpDpOf!$ef=um;&ef yHkrSef txdkif rsm;. tultnDrsm; &SmazG&ef ydkrdkvdktyfaeonf? u|Ekfwdk@. 'dkareD,HudkaxmufcH&ef pdwyf g0ifpm;ol aus;&Gmacgif; aqmifrsm;. tzJG@tpnf;w&yf&dSaeoifhonfrSm u|Ekfyfwdk@. vHkðcHa&;qdkif&m vdktyfcsufjzpf.” [k qdkxm;onf? +Adwdo#wdk@udk tvkyftaºuG;ðyonfh tdENd,vlrsKd;wdk@twGuf tcGifhta&;rsm;rSm tyHktyifjzpf.? vpmaiG/ tqifh twef;&ydkifcGifh/ =oZmoufa&mufr_/ ae&mxdkifcif;rsm;/ tjcm; &kyf0wˆKrsm;ESifh qkcsD;ajr‡mufr_wdk@jzpfonf? oabmwlnDr_rsm;udk w&m;r0ifenf;jzifh qJGaqmifpnf;&Hk;&ef rwwfEdkifonfhtcg +Adwdo#wdk@taejzifh rv$Jra&Smifom tiftm;oHk;cJh&onf? (1857) ckESpfY tdENd,ajrmufydkif;wav#muf&dS tdENd,ppfom;ESifht&yfom;wdk@ ykefuefr_ay:ayguf cJhonf? xdkv_yf&Sm;r_udk ESdrfeif;&ef wESpfausmftcsdef,lcJh&ovdk wyftiftm;rsm;udk jynfyrS ac:,ljznfhwif;cJh&.? +Adwdo#wdk@. &wfcsftkyfcsKyfa&;tay: a'oqdkif&moufOD;qHydkifbk&ifwdk@rS ra=ueyfr_rsm; a&&Snf&dSaeonfhae&mwdk@Y jy\emrsm;&dSvmcJhonf? odk@aomfvnf; +Adwdo#wdk@tay: olwdk@.vkyfydkifcGifhae&mESifh csrf;omºuG,f0r_rsm; rDSae&onfh pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;&Sifrsm;tzdk@ +Adwdo#&wfcsftkyfcsKyfa&;udk vdkufem+yD; qlyltHkºuGr_rsm;r&dSay? ta&S@tdEdN,ukr`%Dudk zsufodrf;+yD; tdEdN,EdkifiHtzdk@ udkvdkeDvufatmufcHEdkifiHjzpfvmonfhaemuf aiGa=u; ajr,m *k%fxl;aqmifrsm;jzifh =oZm&dS tdEdN,awmf0ifEG,frsm;udk tpdk;&rS qufvufaxmufyHhay;xm;ovdk/ twdkifyifcH v$wf

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awmfrsmtwGuf tdENd,ukd,fpm;vS,frsm; cef@xm;jcif;qdkif&m vkyfydkifcGifhrsm;vnf;ay;cJhonf? ,cifueOD;toHk;ðycJh onfh enf;emrsm;udk ajymif;vJvdkufaomfvnf; +Adwdo#wdk@. r[mAsL[mrSmrl ,ciftwdkif;jzpf.? tdEdN,EdkifiHom; opPmcHrsm;udk tumtuG,fay;jcif;/ qka=u;axmufyHhjcif;rsm;jzifh tdENd,udk xdef;csKyfxm;cJhonf? “+Adwdo#wdk@u tdENd,udk ,loGm;wmr[kwfbl;/ igwdk@om tdENd,udk olwdk@udk ay;cJhwm” [k (1906) ckESpfY *EDNu a&;cJhonf? “olwdk@ &J@tiftm;a=umifh tdENd,rSm olwdk@&dSaewmr[kwfbl;/ igwdk@uay;xm;vdk@ae&wm” [k a&;cJhonf? trsKd;om;a&;0g'Drsm; +Adwdo#wdk@. &wfcsftkyfcsKyfa&;udk tdEdN,vlrsKd;tcsKd@u tpOftwdkuftcHvkyfcJh=u+yD;/ (19) &mpkaESmif;ydkif;Y xdktwdkuf tcHvkyfr_udk wEkdifiHvHk;twdkif;twmjzpfvmatmif vlwcsKd@u óud;yrf;cJh=uonf? xdkoltrsm;pkrSm twwfynm&Sif rsm;jzpf=u+yD;/ tdENd,EdkifiH&dS tvGefw&mrsm;jym;aygºuG,faom bmompum;toHk;tE_ef;rsm;udk xdkolwdk@. t*Fvdyf pmynm&yfjzifh ausmfv$m;EdkifcJhonf? owif;axmufrsm;uJhodk@yif a&S@aersm; odk@wnf;r[kwf tpdk;&0efxrf;wdk@rSm &wfcsftkyfcsKyfa&;u wnfaqmufay;xm;onfh &xm;vrf;rsm;rSwqifh aps;E_ef;oufomjrefqefpGm wEkdifiHvHk; jzef@ usuf oGm;vmcJh=uonf? xdkolwdk@tzdk@ tdEdN,EdkifiHrSm rwluJGjym;csufrsm; pDjc,foxm;onft h &mwckvkd jzpf&o kH m ru wckvHk;twdkif;twmaqmif em;vnfr_&dScJhonf? wdkufe,ftkyfcsKyfa&;. pum;toHk;tE_ef;rsm;ESifh &xm;vrf;rsm; udk toHk;ðyonfh enf;vrf;wlpGm (19) &mpk Oa&my. EdkifiHa&;tawG;tac:rsm;udkvnf; pum;vHk;opfESifh trsKd;om; a&;t,ltqrsm;jzifh avhvmtoHk;csvmcJh=uonf? trsKd;om;a&;t,ltq EdkifiHa&;. t"duqHkcsufrSm tdENd,trsKd;om;uGef*&ufygwD (Indian National Congress) jzpf+yD;/ (1885) ckESpfwGif pwifzJG@pnf;cJhjcif;jzpf./ 'DZifbmvwdkif;Y òrd@wòrd@Y udk,fpm;vS,frsm; oHk;&uf=umqHkawG@+yD; tpnf;ta0;rsm; a[majymyJGrsm;ESifh vlr_a&;tcrf;tem;rsm;udkusif;ycJh=uonf? aemufqHk;Y qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;csrSwf +yD; +Adwdo#t&m&dSrsm;xH ay;ydk@+yD;aemuf wESpfwmtwGuf +yD;pD;oGm;onf? yxrqHk;t}udrfuGef*&ufonf tpdk;& tay: t,Hkt=unfysufjym;aponfh tpktzJG@wckjzpfcJh+yD;/ tpdk;&udk ðzwfcsa&;r[kwfyJ jyefvnfðyjyifvdkonfh oabm xm;aysmhajymif;olrsm;u v$rf;rdk;cJhonf? &wfcsftkyfcsKyfa&;rSm qif;&JrJGawr_ ydkrdkqkd;qdk;0g;0g;jzpfaponf[k xdkolwdk@u a0zefcJh=uovdk/ tdEdN,. t&if;tjrpfrsm;udk tifyg,mrS oHk;pJG,lr_rsm;udk av#mhusatmif aqmif&GufcJh=uonf? odk@aomfvnf; olwdk@.enf;emrSm qHk;jzwfcsufcsjcif;/ vufrSwfxdk;apm'uwwfjcif;ESifh owif;rD'D,mv_yf&Sm;r_vdkrsKd; aysmhajymif;nifomonfh aqmif&Gufrsm;jzpf+yD;/ olwdk@udk,folwdk@vnf; opPm&dStwdkuftcHrsm; (Loyal Opposition) tjzpf &yfwnfcJh=uonf? +Adwdo#wdk@taejzifh olwdk@udk +cdrf;ajcmufr_[k r,lqyJ pdwfuoduatmifjzpf&Hkavmufom oabm&dScJhonf? trsKd;om;a&;0g'Drsm;twGufrl EdkifiHa&;rSSm wckwnf;aom xGufaygufr[kwfcJhay? onf;nnf;cHEdkifpGrf;enf;yg;vm ovdk +Adwdo#wdk@. &wfcsftkyfcsKyfa&;udk vHk;0tqHk;owf&ef ydkrdkydkif;jzwfvm=u+yD;/ ppfa&;v_yf&Sm;r_twGufyg qEN oabmxm;&dSvmonf? yxrqHk;t}udrftjzpf v#Kd@0Suft=urf;zuftkyfpkrsm; (1890) 0ef;usifwGif ay:aygufvmonf? &wfcsftkyfcsKyfa&;udk zsufqD;ypf&ef xdktkyfcsKyfa&;!$ef=um;ol +Adwdo#t&m&dSrsm;udk owfjzwfypf&rnf[k olwdk@ ,Hk =unfcJh=uonf? aemufydkif; (20) &mpkawmfvSefa&;rsm;. tm%mudkt=urf;zuf,ljcif;rsm;ESifh xifa,mifrSm;r_jzpfcJh =uonf? odk@aomfvnf; ydwfqdk@zdtm;ay;r_tay: oabmxm;aysmhajymif;olrsm;ESiu fh JGjym;onfhtcsufrSm xdkolrsm;rSm tajccHususawmfvSefajymif;vJvdkolrsm;ESifh wlnDonfh r[mAsL[mtawG;tac:&dS=uonf? ,if;rSm tdENd,udk txufrSatmuf vHk;0 ajymif;vJypf&efjzpf.? tdEdN, trsKd;om;a&;0g'. us,fjyef@aompD;a=umif;xJY trsm;vufcHonfh tjcm;tjrifESpfckvnf;&dSaeonf? wckrSm &dk;&mvufr_ypPnf;ESifh ynma&;udk jr‡ifhwifjcif;jzifh “tðyoabmaqmif vkyfief;” rsm; vkyf=u&ef wdkufwGef;jcif; jzpf onf? aemufwckrSm EdkifiHa&;oabmygonf? +Adwdo#wdk@ESifh yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_ &yfwef@ap&ef vlxkudk vH_aqmfvdk onfh uGef*&uftwGif;&dS tpGef;a&mufrsm;rS xdkv_yf&Sm;r_udk OD;aqmifonf? “tzdESdyfcHeif;jym;awG - *&krpdkufz,fxm; cH&olawG jzpfygap/ cifAsm;wdk@vkyfr,fqdk&if onftkyfcsKyfr_rjzpfEdkifatmif cifAsm;wdk@rSm pGrf;tm;awG&dSw,fqdkwm owd&=uprf;yg ” [k tpGef;a&mufacgif;aqmifwOD;jzpfol ab;vf *ef*[m (Bal Gangadhar) u (1902) ckESpfY ajymqdkcJh.? “onf&xm;vrf;awG

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onfa=u;eef;&HkawGudk pDrHwmcifAsm;wdk@ygyJ/ ESpfpOftcGefawGaumuf+yD; tqifajy acsmarGatmif vkyfaewm cifAsm;wdk@ygyJ” [k olu ajymcJhonf? rsm;jym;xlajymvSonfh bmoma&;ESifhbmompum;aygif;pHkwdk@t=um; tdENd,trsKd;om;wdk@udk trsKd;om;v_yf&Sm;r_xJ yg0ifvmatmif pnf;&Hk;&onfh acgif;aqmifwdkif;tzdk@ olwdk@enf;olwdk@[ef óud;pm;aqmif&Gu=f u&.? [dENLbmom0if rsm;rSm tdENd,. trsm;pk}uD;jzpfovdk/ uGef*&ufwGifvnf; trsm;pkacgif;aqmifrSm [dENLbmom0ifwdk@jzpf.? odk@aomf vnf; (19) &mpkaemufydkif;umv tdENd,. t=urf;zsOf;tm;jzifh av;yHkwyHkrSm rGwfqvifbmom0ifwdk@jzpf.? tcsKd@rSm vGefcJhwJh &mpkESpfrsm;u tdENd,odk@usL;ausmf0ifa&mufvmol rsKd;qufrsm;jzpfovdk/ tcsKd@rSm [dENLbmomrS ul;ajymif; vmolrsm;jzpf.? tdENd,ajrmufydkif;a'orsm;ESifh bef*gvf;t&yfY rGwfqvifbmom0iftrsm;pkvdkjzpfaeonf? tdENd, . t&nftwGuftenf;pkrSm qpfvlrsKd;rsm;jzpf+yD; tdEdN,ajrmufydkif; ajrjyef@yef*syfa'owGif trsm;pkaexdkif=uonf? xdkae&mwGif tawmftwef pkpnf;rdonfh vlenf;pktjzpf &dSae=uonf? uGef*&ufudk,fpm;vS,ftrsm;tjym;ESifh tdENd,ynmwwftrsm;pkrSm t*Fvdyfpum;udk aumif;rGefpGm wwfu|rf;ovdk/ udk,fydkif a'oEW& wdkif;&if;bmomrsm;udkvnf; vlwdkif; ajymqdk=uonf? tdEdN,wGif t"du bmompum;tkyfpk ESpfpk &dS+yD;/ xdktkyfpk}uD;wckcsif;pDYvnf; ajrmufrsm;pGmaom bmompum;rsm;&dSae+yD; xdkrSwqifh a'otoHk;tE_ef;pum; rsm; uJGoGm;jyefonf? tif'dk-tD&ef bmompum;tEG,f ( [dENL/ tl'l/ b*FvD/ *l*s&wDtygt0if) onf tdENd,ajrmuf ydkif;Y t"du v$rf;rdk;xm;+yD;/ '&mAD'D,ef bmompum;tEG,f (wrDvf;/ awv*l pojzifh)udk awmifydkif;wGif awG@& onf? xdkodk@ aomif;ajymif;a&m,Sufaeonfh bmompum;rsm;a=umifhvnf; EdkifiHa&;ESifh,Ofaus;r_Y odomuJGjym;r_ rsm;jzpfvm&onf? xdkodk@rwluJGjym;r_rsm; txyfxyfjzpfae&jcif;tjyif aemufxyf &_yfaxG;ayGvDr_&dScJhjyefonf? vlwdkif;onf Zmwfwckck ESifhywfoufarG;zGm;cJh&onf? xdktcsufu xdkolwdk@. vlr_tqifh *k%fowfrSwfcsufudk azmfjyovdk/ rnfoludkom vufxyfEdkifonf rnfonfhtvkyftrsKd;tpm;vkyf&rnfqdkonfh udk;uG,fr_qdkif&mxHk;wrf;"avhrsm;udk owfrSwfxm; onf? trsm;tm;jzifh jArRmuJhodk@ Zmwfjrifhrsm;udk atmufajctvkyfrsm; rvkyfap&ojzifh/ xdkolwdk@rSm ajrydkif&Sifrsm;/ tkyfcsKyfa&;t&m&dSrsm; odk@r[kwf pD;yGm;a&;orm;rsm;jzpfvm=uonf? atmufajctqifhwGif “Zmwfedrfhrsm;”[lI&dS+yD; xdkolrsm;rSm om;a&e,fonfhtvkyf odk@r[kwf vl@tnpfta=u;rsm;oef@pifonfhtvkyfrsm;udk vkyf=u&onf? xdkpepf rSm wif;=uyfvSonfr[kwf/ arG;&mrSmtcGifhtvrf;w&yftaejzifh b0aexdkifr_udk vHk;0owfrSwfxm;onfr[kwfaomf vnf;/ xdkpepfa=umifh tdEdN,vlrsKd; wOD;ESifhwOD;t=um; twm;tqD;vdkjzpfcJhonf? +Adwdo#wdk@onf tdENd,vlrsKd;wdk@t=um; xdkodk@uJGjym;csufrsm;tay: aumif;rGefpmG toHk;cscJhonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh (1840) tv,fydkif;umvY qpfvlrsKd;wdk@tkyfcsKyf&m yef*syfjynfe,fwGif ta&S@tdENd,&Hk;zGifhvSpfonfhtcg aoG;pGef; onfh tvkyfrsm;wGif b*FvDppfwyfudk trsm;tm;jzifh toHk;ðycJh.? q,fpkESpfwck=um+yD;aemuf ajrmufydkif;tdENd,Y b*FvDppfwyfrsm; ykefukefr_jzpfonfhtcg qpfvlrsKd;rsm;udk pnf;&Hk; qJGaqmif tcGifhta&;ay;+yD; ykefuefr_udk ESdrfeif;ap onf? xdkodk@ aoG;cJGtkyfcsKyfa&;AsL[ma=umifh &dSae+yD;om; wif;rmr_rsm;udk }uD;rm;aponf tqdk;qHk;rSm bmoma&; udpP jzpf.? [dENLbmom0ifwdk@ESifh rGwfqvifbmom0ifrsm;t=um; &efzufjzpfyGm;r_rSm r=umc%qdkovdk tkyfpkvdkuf t=urf;zufr_rsm;tjzpf avmif+rdKufapcJhonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh rGwfqvifyJGawmfrsm;Y EGm;owfjcif;rsm;udk qef@usif onfh [dENLbmom0ifwdk@. v_yf&Sm;r_rSm (1893) ckESpfwGif taotaysmufrsm;onfh qlylaomif;usef;r_wckjzpfvmcJh onf? tdENd,EdkifiH. tuJqwfr_rsm;udk rnfodk@ pkpnf;nD!Gwfatmifvkyfrnfenf;qdkonfh ar;cGef;rSm ESpfq,f&mpk tpydkif; trsKd;om;a&;0g'Drsm;twGuf &ifqdkif&onfh t=uyftwnf;wckr#omjzpfonf? olwdk@.tqHk;pGef&nfrSef;csufrSm &wf*sf tkyfcsKyfa&;udk jyefvnfjyifqifa&;vm;/ vHk;0tqHk;owfa&;vm;? uGef*&uftwGif;&dS ynmwwfa=u;&nfwwfrsm;. todkif;t0dkif;udkausmfvGef+yD; v_yf&Sm;r_udk rnfodk@ csJ@xiG frnfenf;? v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;vkyf&mwGif Oya'a=umif;t&ESifh tysufoabmr[kwfonfh enf;emrsm;udk usifhoHk;rnfvm;/ vlxkv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;ðyvkyfrnfvm;/ odk@r[kwf t=urf;zuf r_ðyvkyfrnfvm;? (1914) ckESpfwGif xdkar;cGef;rsm;udk &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; ajzqdkEkdifjcif;r&dScJhay? xdkar;cGef;rsm;ajzqdk&ef wpHkwOD;urSvnf; aqmif&GufcJhjcif;r&dS? odk@aomfvnf; xdktajctaeuyif ajymif;vJzdk@twGuf pwifjzpfvm&onf?

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*ENDESifhol.EdkifiH trSefwu,f jyefvnfEdk;=um;vmjcif; yxrurBmppf+yD;+yD;csif; tdEdN,EdkifiHodk@ *EDN jyefa&mufvmcJh.? ppfyJGrsm;rSm tvSrf;uGmonfh Oa&mywGifom jzpfcJhaomf vnf; +Adwdo#wdk@taejzifh tdEdN,om;rsm;udkac:,lI tifyg,mudk,fpm; taocH wdkufcdkufapouJhodk@ tdEdN,EkdifiH twGif;Yvnf; tcGeftaumufwdk;jr‡ifhcJhonf? tdENd,trsKd;om;a&;0g'Dtrsm;pk ppfudk axmufcHcJh=uovdk xkdodk@ay; qyfr_rSm olwdk@.tcGifhta&;rsm;twGuf tcdkiftrmawmif;qdkp&mtcsuf[k qifjcifðy=u.? vGwfvyfonfhwdkif;jynf rsm;r[mrdwftzJG@ (An alliance of free nations) wGif olwdk@yg0ifcJhonfhtwGuf olwdk@.udk,fydkiftcGifhta&;udk vnf; av;pm;todtrSwfcHoifhonf[k xdkolwdk@u qdkcJh=u.? (1916) ckESpfwGif uGefu&ufESifhrGwfqviftzJG@csKyfwdk@ yl;wJG+yD; zJG@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHkOya'jyifqifa&;qJGum udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfa&;tjynfht0&&a&;tqdkðycJh=u.? wdkif;jynf. zJG@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHkOya'qdkif&m tqifhtwef;rSm *EDNtwGufrl t"du udpP&yf[k r,lqcJhay? qGm&wf trsKd; om;a&;udpPrSm xdyfydkif;EdkifiHa&;t&ajymif;vJ&Hkr#jzifh jzpfvmvdrfhrnf[k awmiftmz&du&dSpOfuyif olr,lqcJhay? vl@ tzJG@tpnf;tajccHrsm;ESifh t=urf;rzufa&;vlxkv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;wGif ðyjyifajymif;vJ&ef vdktyfonf[k ol,Hk=unfcJh onf? ol@.wifjycsufrSm tjcm;tdENd,acgif;aqmiftm;vHk;wdk@u ta&;r}uD;[k xifjrif,lq=uaomfvnf;/ tdEdN,odk@ a&mufa&mufcsif;rSmyif *EDNtaejzifh xdkudpPudkom wpdkufrwfrwfvkyfcJh.? *EDN}uD;taejzifh trsm;tm&Hkxm;&m vrf; a=umif;rS xkdodk@ a&SmifcGmaejcif;uyifv#if/ trsKd;om;a&;v_yf&Sm;r_.t"duae&modk@ ol@udk a&muf&dSapcJhonf? *EDNonf wESpfwmumvtwGif; wdkif;jynftESH &xm;jzifh vSnfhvnfcJhonf? wwdwwef;udkpD;+yD; tdENd,. tajcrSpI avhvmcJhonf? xdkrSwqifh tdENd,jynfwGif udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfa&;vkyfEdkifrnfh ajymif;vJr_yHkpHudk ESHESHpyfpyfpOf;pm;awG;ac: cJh.? qGm&wf trsKd;om;a&;v_yf&Sm;r_onf vlr_b0tm;vHk;udk Ed_;=um;ap+yD; wOD;csif;.todw&m;udkjzpfaponf[k (1917) ckESpfY ola&;om;cJhonf? tdENd,&dSt&m tm;vHk;udk cspfjrwfEkd;ap+yD;/ ZmwfuJGrsm;ESifh rwlnDonfh bmomudk; uG,fr_rsm;t=um; nD!Gwfr_jzpfaponf? a'otkyfcsKyfa&;rsm;/ ynma&;/ vlxkusef;rma&;ESifh ywf0ef;usifoef@&Sif; a&;udpPrsm;Yvnf; vufawG@b0ESifheD;pyfonfh wdk;wufr_rsm;jzpfapcJhonf? “igwdk@&J@ tcGifhta&;awGtwGuf tpdk;&udk pkaygif;awmif;qdkEdkifw,f/ vH_@aqmfEdkifw,f - 'gayr,fh vlawG wu,fwrf; Edk;=um;vmapzdk@ ydkta&;}uD;wJhtcsufu pdwfo¿mefwGif;uvmwJh v_yf&Sm;aqmif&Gufr_jzpfzdk@yJ” [k oluqdkcJhonf? xdkta=umif;&yfrSm *EDN}uD;. aemufydkif;b0wav#mufwGif pdwftm;xufoefr_ jzpfapcJhonf? *EDNtaejzifh bmom a&;t& tjrifao;odrfr_ csKyfcs,fr_rsm;udk a0zef&_wfcscJh+yD;/ [dENLESifhrGwfqvifbmom0ifrsm;t=um; nD!Gwfa&;udk vnf; yef=um;cJhonf? trsm;rjrifzG,fjzpfatmif twif;t=uyfpDrHonfh trsKd;orD;rsm;tay: w&m;rJh qufqHr_rsm; ESifh "rRwm oGm;aeonfh trsKd;orD;rsm;ESifh xdpyf&ef a&Smif&Sm;r_rsm;tay: +iD;jiLa0zefajymqdkcJhonf? qif;&Jom;wdk@ twGuf wm0ef,l=u&ef ajrydkif&Sifrsm;ESifh vkyfief;&Sifrsm;udk awmif;yefcJhonf (v,f,majr jyefvnfa0jcrf;a&;uJhodk@ aom pD;yGm;cJaG 0jzef@usufa&; awmif;qdkr_rsm;rS aoGzDonf[lIawmh qdkEkdifygonf)? xdk@tjyif Zmwfedrfhonfh tavh tusifhrsm;twGufvnf; vGefcJhonfh &mpkESpf0ufcef@u tar&duef&dS u|efpepfESifhywfoufI tDb&m[ifvifuGef;. ajymqdkcJhovdk ykwfcwfa0zefr_rsm; ðyvkyfcJhonf? *EDN. “tðyoabmtpDtpOf ”rSm tjcm;olrsm;udk rnfodk@aexdkifusifh}uHoifhonf[laom tEl;t!Gwfyef=um;wdkuf wGef;csufwckr#om r[kwfay? ol@.udk,fydkifb0Yvnf; tdENd,vlrsKd;tcsif;csif;udk cJGjcmxm;onfh t[ef@twm;rsm; udk zsufypfvdkuf+yD;/ rGwfqvifrsm; Zmwfedrf@rsm;jzifh vltrsm;a&S@ twlwuGaejyjcif;/ qif;&Jom;rsm;ESifhzufvJSwuif; aexdkifjcif;rsm; &dScJhonf? xdkenf;wlpGm tdENd, vufvkyfcsnfxnfrsm;udk t+rJ0wfqifcJhonf? udk,fwdkif&ufvkyfcsnf iif=u&ef tm;ay;onfh tzJG@tpnf;wckudkvnf; zJG@pnf;cJhonf? wEdkifiHvHk;twdkif;twmt& v_yf&Sm;r_udk OD;aqmifae cJh&onfhwdkif ol@.ae@pOfvkyfief;aqmifwmwcktaejzifhvnf; csnfiifr_udk tcsdefay;vkyfudkifcJhonf?

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ol@. qGm&wftrsKd;om;a&;tjrift& usifh}uHaexdkifol pdwfwloabmwlolrsm;ESifhvnf; tpktzJG@rsm;udk zJG@pnf;cJh onf? xdktxJrS txif&Sm;qHk;rSm trfrm'gbwf/ *l*s&ufòrd@&dS qbmrwd t&S&rf (Sabarmati ashram) [dENL0wf ausmif; tzJG@tpnf;jzpf+yD;/ xdktzJG@0ifrsm;taejzifh jA[Rmp&d,tusifhtwdkif; trSefw&m;ESifh t[d Horludk pJGpJG+rJ+rJ ESvHk;oGif;rnf[k cH,lxm;=uonf? ZmwfuJGjym;r_rsm;udk arhazsmuf+yD; qkawmif;jcif;/ tdrfwGif;r_tvkyf udk,fwdkifvkyf udkifjcif;rsm;udk tm&Hkðyum &dk;&Sif;pGmaexdkifcJh=uonf? 0wfðyausmif;tzJG@zGifhvSpf+yD; r=umcifvydkif;twGif; Zmwfedrfh rdom;pkrsm;udk toif;0ifa&mufcGifhay;cJhojzifh tcsKd@tzJG@0ifrsm; E_wfxu G fukef=uonf? xdktpktzJG@uav; qufvuf wnf&dSa&;twGuf *EDNtaejzifh a'ocHukefonfrsm;xHrS vHkavmufonfh aiGa=u;udk tvSLcHcJh&onf? vlr_jyefvnfzHGòzd;tm;aumif;a&;rSm *EDNtwGufrl tqHk;owfr[kwfao;acs? t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_twGuf tajccH omjzpfacsonf? rGwfqvifESifh [d¹ENLbmom0ifrsm;t=um; &ef+idK;xm;r_/ vlr_todkif;t0dkif;twGif; trsKd;orD;rsm;ESifh Zmwfedrfhrsm;udk z,fusOfxm;r_/ tdENd,vlOD;&nftawmfrsm;rsm;t=um; jzpfaeonfh qif;&JrJGawr_ESifh tod^m%fedrhfyg; r_rsm;rSm trsKd;om;a&;v_yf&Sm;r_. nD!Gwfr_ESifhpnf;urf;&dSr_twGuf taESmuft,Sufrsm;jzpfaeI jzpfonf? tdENd,EdkifiHtwGif; ol@.yxrqHk;t}udrf o=u*[ tEkenf;v_yf&Sm;r_rSm wudk,fawmfqENjyr_jzpfonf? bD[m jynf e,f/ csefyg&efc&dkiftwGif;rS xGufcGm&ef a'ocHt&m&dSrsm;. trdef@udk jiif;qefvdkufjcif;jzpf.? xdka'otwGif; pdkufysKd; a&;orm;wdk@taejzifh olwdk@.v,f,mvkyftm;rsm; *kwfaoG;pkwftjrwfxkwfcHae&onfudpPudk vma&muf=unfh&_&ef *ENDtaejzifh xdka'oodk@ (1917) ckESpfuwnf;u a&muf&dScJhonf? tusKd;quftm;jzifh xdktajctaersm;udk pHkprf;ppf aq;&ef tpdk;&rS tzJG@wzJG@ zJG@pnf;cJhonf? aemufwESpftapmydkif;a&mufonfhtcg vpmaiGjzwfawmufcH&r_twGuf txnfcsKyfvkyfom;rsm;qENjyaeonfh trfrm'gbwf&dS tvkyform;a&;jy\emY olyg0ifywfoufcJhjyefonf? tay; t,lvkyfnd‡Ed_if;&ef yxrOD;tm;jzifh olu wdkufwGef;cJhonf? xdk@aemuf oydwfac:I aemufqHk;tm;jzifh tpmrpm;yJ aeonf[k a=unmvdkufonf? Todk@jzifh tqHk;wGif ajyvnfr_w&yf&&dScJhonf? tvkyform; v,form;rsm;. udk,fpm; 0ifa&mufaqmif&Gufv_yf&Sm;jcif;jzifh tdENd,trsKd;om;a&;0g'D EdkifiHa&;orm; rsm;. a&S;&dk;yHkpHrS cJGxGufvmcJhonf? qGm&wf trsKd;om;a&;v_yf&Sm;r_rSm pum;vHk;oufoufr#omr[kwfyJ tcsKd@ae&m rsm;wGif tzdESdyfcHeif;jym;rsm;twGuf vufqkyfvufudkifaqmif&Gufay;Edkifr_rsm;&dScJh.? v_yf&Sm;r_.yif&if;a'owdkif;wGif ausmif;aqmuf&ef vkyftm;ay;rsm;ac:,ljcif;/ ywf0ef;usifoef@&Sif;pif=u,fap&ef aqmif&Gufjcif;ESifh &dk;&mvufr_ ypPnf;rsm;udk tm;ay;tm;ajr‡mufðyjcif;wdk@udk vkyfcJhonf? xkdodk@jzifh ausmif;q&m/ a&S@ae/ ukefonfrsm;ESifh ajr,mydkif qdkifolv,form;rsm;ESifh tquftoG,fvkyfcJh&onf? xdkolrsm;rSm aemufydkif;wGif ol. =oZmcH tcdkiftrm r[m rdwfrsm;jzpfvmcJhonf? aemufqHk;Y o=u*[ tEkenf;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;. xifay:vmjcif;a=umifh trsKd;om;a&;udk tm; opfavmif;EdkifrnfholwOD;taejzifh tdENd,jynfw0Srf; *EDN.trnf ausmf=um;vmcJh.? usnfqHawG&J@trSwftom;ae&mawGudk usrudkjycJhw,f? vlr_ðyjyifajymif;vJa&;ESifh a'otvdkuf t=urf;rzufa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk *EDN OD;aqmifóud;yrf;aecsdefwGif [krR&l;tkyf csKyfa&;twGuf uGef*&ufrS qufvufvH_aqmfv#ufyif&dSonf? (1920) tukefydkif;Y *EDN. òydifzufuif; vlodxif&Sm; vmr_/ pnf;&Hk;a&;r_;ESifhAsL[mr_;taejzifh vkyfudkifEkdifpGrf;wdk@a=umifh v_yf&Sm;r_twGuf vdktyfvm+yD[k uGef*&uf acgif; aqmifrsm;u vufcHtodtrSwfðyvm&onf? txufydkif;tqifhrsm;wGif qGm&yf 0HomEkv_yf&Sm;r_rsm; tEdkif&vmjcif; onf atmufajcvlxktqifhrsm;Y qGm&yf v_yf&Sm;r_rsm; wnfaqmufEdkifjcif;a=umifh[k *EDN. cH,lcJhonf? +Adwdo#wdk@a=umifhvnf; tajymif;tvJjzpfap&ef t"du taxmuftyHhjzpfchJygonf? (1919) ckESpfY ppfyJGtwGuf ta&;ay:aqmif&Gufcsuftaejzifh &dkvwf (Rowlatt Act) Oya' jzifh uef@owfwm;jrpfr_rsm; wdk;jr‡ifhcJh.? xdktxJwGif EkdifiHawmft=unf!dkysufjym;apaom vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;twGuf *sL&D cHkorm"dvl}uD;rsm;tpm; w&m;ol}uD;rSaeI zrf;qD;csKyfaESmifr_rsm;ESifh w&m;pDa&;qdkif&m pDrHcef@cJGr_rsm;yg0ifonf? “Oya'ðya&;tpdwftydkif;udk vkyfaqmifEdkifwJh tm%mydkifawG&J@ Oya'pnf;rsOf;awGudk +idrf;+idrf;csrf;csrf; vdkufem&dk;usKd;zdk@udpPudk usaemf quf+yD; rvkyfEdkifawmhbl; qdkwJh

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cHpm;csufjzpfvmw,f ” [k *EDNu pdwfysuftm;av#mhpGm ajymqdkcJhonf? yxrqHk;t}udrftjzpf tdEdN,wEdkifiH vHk;twdkif;twmaqmifonfh rw&m;onfhOya'tmcHa&; (o=u*[) ESifhywfoufI ol@taejzifh pOf;pm;vm&onf? t=urf;zufr_rygyJ Oya't&tmcHrnf[k usrf;usdefxm;onfh pnf;urf;useonfh v_yf&Sm;olrsm;jzifh tuef@towf aqmifonfh vH_aqmfv_yf&Sm;r_ w&yfðyvkyf&ef *EDNtaejzifh yxrtm;jzifh pDpOfcJhonf? tpmrrpm;yJ qkawmif;yJG ðyvkyf rnfh ae&ufudk {+yDv (6) &ufae@tjzpf owfrSwfcJhonf? [mw,f (Hartal) [k vlodrsm;+yD;/ 0rf;enf;a=uuJGzG,f tpOftvmae@+yD;onfhaemufudk pDpOfxm;jcif;jzpf.? uef@owfcHxm;&onfh pmayvuf&mrsm; a&mif;csjcif;jzifh qENjy v_yf&Sm;r_rsKd;udk tusOf;csHK;pcJhonf? xdkenf;tm;jzifh &wfcsf tkyfcsKyfa&;udk qef@usifr_rsm;ESifh oabmxm;aysmhajymif;ol EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;udk t=ur;zufrS cJGxkwfcJhonf? “ vufrSwfxdk;yef=um;wmudk aemufydkif;rsKd;qufawGu a=ueyf vufcHEdkifawmhrSr[kwfbl;” [k oabmxm;aysmhajymif;olacgif;aqmifwOD;xH *EDNu a&;om;cJh.? “usaemfhtjrift& qdk&ifawmh o=u*[ (tmcHa&;) v_yf&Sm;r_uom t=urf;zufr_awGudk wm;qD;Edkifvdrfhr,f”[k olu qdkonf? pDpOfxm;onfhtwdkif;yif tenf;ESifhtrsm;qdkovdk [mw,f v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;jzpfvmcJhonf? wEdkifiHvHk;&dS jynfolvlxk taejzifh tvkyfrsm;udk &yfem;/ qdkifrsm;udk ydwfI tpnf;ta0;rsm; wufa&mufcJh=uonf? odk@aomfvnf; [mw,f v_yf&Sm;r_+yD;onfhaemufydkif;Y *EDN.csKyfudkifr_rS uif;vGwo f nfh tjzpftysufrsm; xGufay:cJhonf? oltzrf;qD;cH&onf [laom aumv[mvowif;rsm;a=umifh trD'bwf&dS }udwfcJG&Hkvkyfom;rsm; qlylaomif;usef;r_jzpfapcJh+yD;/ taqmuf tOD; (50) ausmf rD;&d_@zsufqD;cH&I vlaygif; (28) OD; aoqHk;cJh&onf? tdENd,ajrmufydkif; yef*syfjynfe,fY qENjyr_rsm; ESifh vlxkpnf;a0;yJGrsm;rSaeI qENjyolrsm;ESifh&JwyfzJG@wdk@t=um; vrf;ay: wdkufcdkufr_rsm;jzpfyGm;cJhonf? xdkodk@jzifh yef*syfjynfe,f trf&pfqmòrd@ Y &Hk;xdkifonfh AdkvfcsKyf}uD;&D*sifevf'f 'dkif,m (General Reginald Dyer) taejzifh xdk qlylr_rsm;udk ESdrfeif;&efESifh vlxkudk rSwfavmufom;avmufatmif oifcef;pmwckay;&ef qHk;jzwfcJhonf? (13) &ufae@ajrmufY (4) OD;xufydkI vlpkval 0;vkyfjcif;rSefor#udk 'dkif,mtrdef@jzifh wm;jzpfcJhonf? trsKd;om;a&; 0g'D wdk@u 'dkif,mtrdef@udk vpfv#KðyI a*svD,ef a0:vmbwf (Jallianwallabagh) Y ae@cif;tcsdef tpnf;ta0;w&yf ac:,lcJhonf? xdkae&mrSm xGufayguftenf;tusOf;om&dS+yD; tkwfeH&Hrsm;jzifh um&Hxm;onfh us,fjyefonfh av[m jyifuGif; jzpf.? vlaygif; axmifESifhcsDI pk&Hk;a&muf&dSvmonfudk 'dkif,mtrdef@u rwm;EdkifcJhay? odk@aomfvnf; nae (4) em&Dxdk;+yD;aemufydkif;wGif ppfom; ig;q,fcef@ oHcsyfumum; ESpfpD;jzifh 'dkif,ma&muf&dSvmonf? owday;jcif; vHk;0rvkyfyJ ypfcwfESdrfeif;&ef trdef@ay;cJhonf? (10) rdepfcef@=um+yD;aemuf vltkyf}uD; òyduJGoGm;+yD;/ '%f&m&olrsm; aoqHk;oltavmif;rsm;om usef&dSawmhonf? +Adwdo#aumfr&Sif t&m&dSwOD;. tqdkt& (379) OD;aoqHk;onfqdk aomfvnf;/ tdEdN,wdk@.cef@rSef;csurf Sm aoqHk;ol (1500) cef@&dSonf? aoG;xGufoH,dkr_r&dSyJ xdktpnf;ta0;udk tqHk; owfypfEkdifonf[k aemifw&yHkray:onfh 'dkif,mu 0efcHajym=um;cJhonf? odk@aomfvnf; vHkavmufonfh oifcef;pm tjzpfESifh us,fus,fjyef@jyef@ xda&mufEdkfifr_twGuf twwfEkdifqHk;av#mhI ypfcwfr_ toHk;ðycH&onf[k oluqdkonf? ppfa&;tjrift&qdkv#if xdkypfcwfr_rSm xdktpnfta0;yJGwGif&dSaeolrsm;udkom &nf&G,fonfr[kwfyJ yef*syfjynfe,f wckvHk;udk taotcsm &nf&G,fxm;jcif;jzpfonf[k oluqdkonf? aemufydkif; &ufowWywfrsm;wGifvnf; +Adwdo#taejzifh tvm;wl oifcef;pmay;r_rsm;vkyfcJhonf? +Adwdo#t&m&dSwdk@rS umzsL;trdef@xkwfjcif;/ tpnf;ta0;rsm;udk ydwfyifjcif;/ tusOf;csHK;w&m;pD&ifr_rsm;ðyvkyfjcif;/ tusOf;om;rsm;udk ESdyf pufjcif;/ vljrifuGif;Y }udrf'%fay;jcif; owfjzwfjcif;rsm;udk ðyvkyfcJh=uonf? ppfoHk;av,mOfrsm;jzifh tdENd,vlrsKd;rsm; udk AHk;}uJwdkufcdkufjcif;/ pufaoeufrsm;jzifhypfcwfjcif;rsm;ðyvkyfcJhonf? +Adwdo#trsKd;orD;wOD;OD;udk vrf;ay:Y pGef@pm; wdkufcdkufonfh rnfonfhtdENd,vlrsKd;rqdk rdrdajcav;zufatmuf 0yfwGm;oGm;&rnf[k 'dkif,mu ajymqdkcJh.? trf&pfqmESifh aemufydkif;tjzpftysufrsm;tay: usef&dSolrsm;taejzifh rnfodk@rS arhazsmufEdkifjcif;r&dSawmhay? vm[dk; wuUodkvfrS ausmif;om;v_yf&Sm;ol &DSA 'l,m (Shiva Dua) rSm oli,fpOfb0uwnf;u a*svD,ef a0:vmbwf ae&mudk rdom;pk ac:,ljyor_udk cHcJh&oljzpfonf? xdkpOfu tjzpftysufudk olru jyefajymif;ajymjy&mwGif “ usrudk ac:oGm;+yD; tJonfheH&Hay:u usnfqH&mawGudk jyygw,f/ tJonfhu aoG;pawGeJ@ ajreDawGudk jyefo,foGm;ygw,f? 'g[m

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

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txGwftjrwfxm;&mr,fh t&mjzpfw,f aiG=uKwfxJrSm xnfhxm;&r,fvdk@ usr tr u ajymygw,f? 'gudk ae@wdkif; yef;uyfzdk@ wm0efay;ygw,f? reufapmapmydkif;rSm rif;&J@ yxrOD;qHk;wm0efyJvdk@ ajymygw,f”[k qdkcJhonf? yef*syfjynfe,fY xdk aoG;pGef;r_rSm udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfa&;twGuf jyif;jyvdkvm;r_udk tm;jzpfap&Hkoufouf jzpfapcJhonf? ol@. (Rowlatt) Oya' qef@usifa&;v_yf&Sm;r_a=umifh rawmfwqqdkovdk xdkodk@ t=urf;zufr_jzpfay:vmonfhtay: *EDNrSm wkefv_yfoGm;cJh&onf? oHk;&uf=um tpmrpm;yJ aecJhonf? odk@aomfvnf; +Adwdo#wdk@. tkyfcsKyfa&;tay: ol. oabmxm;rSm ydkrdkcufxefrmausmvmonf? xdktjzpftysuftay: +Adwdo#wdk@t&m&dSwOD;. tpD&ifcHpmrSm “qif aoudk qdwfom;a&ESifh tkyfjcif;”r#om[lI wkef@jyefcJhonf? xdk@tjyif AdkvfcsKyf}uD; 'dkif,mrSm xdktjzpftysufa=umifh +Adwdo#vlxktcsKd@t=um; vlpGrf;aumif;wOD;vdkjzpfvmonfudk od&dSIvnf; tvGeftrif;pdwfqdk;cJhonf? +Adwdo#. zJG@pnf;yHktwGif;uyif qGm&wf (t=urf;rzuf)v_yf&Sm;r_atmifjrifEdkifonfqdkonfh ,cif ar#mfvifcsuf&dSaomfvnf; &wfcsf tkyfcsKyfa&;rSm “raumif;qdk;0g;0ifpm;r_” “uvdrfuuspfusr_”[k &_jrifvmonf? xdkodk@aom tpdk;&rsKd;udk pdwf &Snfonf;nnf;cHxm;jcif;tay: &yfqdkif;ypf&rnf[k tdENd,vlrsKd;rsm;udk *EDNrS wdkufwGef;cJh.? yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_rðya&; tdEdN,vlrsKd;wdk@udk &wf*sftkyfcsKyfa&;qef@usifr_twGuf pk&Hk;&mwGif uGef*&ufygwDudk tzJG@tpnf;wcktjzpf *EDNu tav;xm;ar#mfvifhcJhonf? ygwDEdkifiHa&;xJ ajcpHkypf0if+yD; a&ay:qDxdyfydkif;vlwpkavmufom aqG;aEG;jiif;cHkonfh tzJG@tpnf;wckxuf ydkrdkvmatmif ajymif;vJ&eftwGuf ulnDcJhonf? uGef*&ufygwD. c&dkiftqifhESifha'oaumfrwD uGef,ufrsm;udk wdk;csJ@+yD;/ tzJG@0ifopfrsm;udk ac:,lpkaqmif;cJhonf? xdk@aemuf vlxkv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;twGuf a&S@aqmifOD; &GufðyEd_;aqmfonfh vkyfief;rsm;udk vkyfaqmifcJhonf? zJG@pnf;yHkjyify enf;vrf;rsm;ESifhywfouf+yD;/ oabmxm;aysmh ajymif;olwdk@u 'Gd[ odk@avm jzpfcJh=u.? odk@aomf *EDN. *k%fowif;ausmfaZmr_u xdkolrsm;udk olzuf&yfwnfapcJh onf? r=umrDSrSmyif tpdk;&tkyfcsKyfa&;tay: yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_rðya&; ESifh olyg0ifa&;qJGxm;onfh zJG@pnf;yHkopfwdk@udk ygwDu twnfðyqHk;jzwfay;cJhonf? xdkzJG@pnf;yHkopft& xdxda&mufa&mufvkyfEdkifacsESifh udk,fpm;ðyr_ ydkrdk&&dScJh.? ajymif;vJr_rSm tESpfom&t&jzpfovdk yHko¿mefpwdkift&vnf; ajymif;vJcJhonf? Oa&my0wfpHk qifwl0wfqifjcif; rðyawmhyJ/ *EDN 0wfqifae=uenf;wl &dk;&m0HomEkvufvkyfxnfrsm;udk qifwl0wfqifvm=uonf? yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_rðya&;v_yf&Sm;r_ tqifhtrsKd;rsKd;udk tpDtpOfðyvkyfxm;onf? &HyHkaiG&SmazGjcif;ESifh tzJG@tpnf;wnf aqmufjcif;udpPrsm;t+yD;aemuf ausmif;ESifhw&m;&Hk;rsm;tay: oydwfarSmufr_ðyvkyfcJhonf? xdkrSwqifh EdkifiHjcm;jzpf txnftvdyfrsm;udk oydwfarSmuf+yD; t0wftxnfrsm; udk,fwdkif&ufvkyf=u&ef v_Haqmfpnf;&Hk;cJhonf? tdEdN, tpdk;&tkyfcsKyfa&;0efxrf;rsm; &mxl;u EkwfxGufjcif;jzifh yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_rðya&;v_yf&Sm;r_udk tqHk;owf+yD;/ tcsKd@ owfrSwfae&mrsm;Y tpdk;&tkyfcsKyfa&;tm%mzDqefa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm; ðyvkyf&ef owd}uD;}uD;jzifh jyifqifxm;onf? pepfwuspnf;&Hk;vkyfaqmifjcif;/ wqifh+yD;wqifh wajz;ajz;aqmif&Gufjcif;/ Oya'csdK;azmufr_rsm; csdefqvkyfudkif&mY OD;pD;aqmif&Gufr_udk xdef;xm;jcif;tm;jzifh ,ckv_yf&Sm;r_topfrSm yef*syfjynfY &kwfcsnf;jzpfcJhovdk t=urf;zufr_rsKd; rjzpfEdkif[k *EDN ar#mfvifhxm;onf? w&m;&Hk;rsm;udk a&S@ae@tcsK@d uom uef@uGufoydwfarSmufr_ðyEdkifovdk/ tkyfcsKyfa&;0efxrf;tenf;i,fom tvkyfrS EkwfxGufcJh=uonf? ausmif;om;trsm;pkuvnf; r=umrDrSmyif pmoifcef;rsm;odk@ jyefvnf0ifa&mufoGm;=uonf? odk@aomfvnf; uGef*&ufygwDtaejzifh tdEdN,wrsKd;om;vHk;xH trsKd;om;vGwfajrmufa&;udpP Edk;=um;vmatmif aqmif&GufEdkifcJhonf? *EDNonf v_yf&Sm;r_. wyfOD; acgif;aqmifjzpfvmonf? &xm;wJGay:rSwqifh vSnf;aemufzufrS wzHk ajcv#ifwrsKd; vlxkxHoGm;a&mufI wEdkifiHvHk;vSnfhvnfum pnf;&Hk;v_Haqmfco Jh nf? ynm&dS ynmrJh/ qif;&Jcsrf; om òrd@aeawmae [d¹ENLrGwfqvif ae&mtESHrS vlxktm;vHk;wdk@onf ol@.vH_aqmfr_udk vufcHI EdkifiHjcm;jzpftxnf rsm;a&mif;csonfh ukefonfrsm;udk oydwfwm;jcif;ðy=uonf? v_yf&Sm;r_ta&;twGuf wenf;wzHktaxmuftyHhjzpfap rnfh enf;vrf;rsm;udk &SmazG+yD; olwdk@. oabmqENtav#muf yl;aygif;yg0ifr_ðy=uonf?

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odk@aomfvnf; uGef*&ufacgif;aqmifwdk@taejzifh vlxkqENjyyJGrsm;udk zefwD;Edkifaomfvnf; xdktajctaeudk xdef;csKyf &ef cufcJonfudk awG@vm=uonf? tmoHt&yf&dS uGef*&ufacgif;aqmifwdk@taejzifh vufzufpdkufcif;rsm;rS a&G@ajymif; vkyfom;rsm;. qENjya=umifh wkefv_yfajcmufjcm;ukef=uonf? bef*gvf ESifh tef'&m jrpf0u|ef;ay:a'o&dS acgif;aqmif rsm;taejzifhvnf; v,form;rsm; tcGeftiSm;crsm;ray;yJaejcif;ESifh opfawmOya'ESifhywfoufI csdK;azmufr_rsm; jzpfvmonfudk wm;jrpfEdkifjcif;r&dScJhay? *EDNtaejzifh &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif;qdkxm;onfrSm Tv_yf&Sm;r_udk e,fcsJ@tkyfcsKyfa&; tqHk;owf&ef &nf&G,fjcif;om;jzpf+yD;/ ESpfaygif;rsm;pGmtr#ifwef;aeonfh a'otwGif; rnDr#r_rsm;udk ajz&Sif;&ef twGuf r[kwfay? xdk@a=umifhvnf; ajr&Sifqef@usifa&; qENjyv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk ol@.v_yf&Sm;r_twGif;rS y,fxkwfxm; onf? odk@aomfvnf; ta&mifpHkonfh }uD;rm;onfhv_yf&Sm;r_twGif; tusKd;pD;yGm;tvdkufjzpfvmonfrsm;udkrl wm;jrpf jcif;r&dSay? *EDN.tjrift&rl tqdk;qHk;udpPrSm qlylr+idrfoufr_&dSvmjcif;jzpfonf? ,leufwpfjynfe,f (,lyD aemufydkif;tac: Owm y&ma'h&Sf) wGif v,form;rsm;rS aps;rsm; ajr&Siftdrfrsm;udk 0ifa&mufpD;eif;wdkufcdkufr_rsm;ðy=uonf? bHkabwGif vltkyf}uD;onf Oa&myom;rsm; Oa&myEG,ftdEdN,om;rsm; ESifh zm&mpDvlrsKd;rsm;udk wdkufcdkuf=uonf? “ vlawG t=um;rSm vHk;0t=urf;rzufa&;qdkwJh tawG;tac:t,ltq udef;0yfaewmr&dS&if tm%mzDqefa&;v_yf&Sm;r_udk atmifjrifatmif vkyfEdkifrSr[kwfbl;vdk@ 0efcH&rSmyJ” [k *EDNu wkef@jyefa&;om;cJh.? “tpdk;&&J@ tpDtpOfwus t=urf; zufr_udk usaemftaeeJ@ bmrS vkyfEkdifrSmr[kwfbl;qkd&if pDpOfxm;wmr[kwfyJ aygufuJGvmwJh vlxk.t=urf;zufr_udk enf;oxufenf;atmif vkyfay;Edkifygw,f”[k oluqdk.? (1922) ckESpf azaz:0g&DvY tm%mzDqefa&; aemufxyf tqifhwckwwf&ef uGef*&ufygwDrS jyifqifaecsdefrSmyif ,leufwpfjynfe,f&dS &JwyfzJG@0if (22) OD; tpkvdkuf towfcHcJh &onfhtwGuf yl;aygif;qef@usifr_rðya&;v_yf&Sm;r_udk vHk;0&yfqdkif;&ef *EDNu wdkufwGef;cJh&onf? xdkodk@aom tajctaetcsufrsm;&dSaeonfhwdkif/ tdEdN,trsKd;om;a&;v_yf&Sm;r_wGif &ifhusufr_topfESifh wwfºuG touf0ifr_rsm; awG@vm&onf? *EDN. OD;aqmifr_jzifhouf0ifvm&Sm;vmr_/ uGef*&ufygwDtajymif;tvJrsm;jzifh aphhaqmfcsuf/ vlr_tajccHrsm;tm;aumif;vmjcif;wdk@a=umifhvnf; jzpfonf? odk@aomfvnf; *EDN.xifay:ausmf=um;r_ rSm vlaygif;pHk. aumif;csD;ay;r_w&yfjzpfvmonf? rnfonfhae&modk@jzpfap *EDNa&mufonfESifh vlpkvla0;jzifha&muf&dS vm=u+yD; olajymonfrSmudk vma&mufem;axmif;jcif; odk@ vma&muf=unfh&_jcif;ðy=uonf? *EDNudk jrifhjrwfonfh yk*~dKvf “r[wWr” tjzpf rSwf,lxm;=uonf? “onfvl&J@ =oZmoufa&mufvmr_u awmfawmfudk tHtm;oifhzdk@ aumif;w,f”[k r'&yfjynfe,f tkyfcsKyfa&;rSL;u a&;cJhonf? “ola&muf&dS&mae&mwdkif;wGif vltkyf}uD;rsm; tpk ta0;jzifh&dSae+yD; olwdk@l. trdef@emcHpnf;urf;&dSr_ESifh olwdk@acgif;aqmiftay: tjynfht0ESpfvdkr_tay: tvGeftrif; tHtm;oifhtxif}uD;p&mjzpf&onf”[k qdkcJhonf? odk@aomfvnf; *END xifay:ausmf=um;r_a=umifh ol. t,ltqudk tvdktav#muf vufcHvdkufonfawmh r[kwfay? ol@tay: ,Hk=unfonfh aemufvdkufrsm;wdk;rsm;vmaomfvnf; rdrdwdk@. &nfrSef;csuf odk@r[kwf enf;vrf;twGuf *EDN . yk*~dKvfa&;ausmf=um;r_udk oauFwwcktaejzifh toHk;ðy=uolu ydkrdkrsm;jym;cJhonf? ,lEdkufwufjynfe,f ae&m wcsKd@&dS v,form;rsm;rSm *EDN. qGm&wfv_yf&Sm;r_udk ajrydkif&SifpepfrS vGwfajrmufa&;qdkonhf awmfvSefa&;tjriftjzpf t"dy`g,fazmfcJh=uonf? vk,ufwdkufcdkufr_rsm;Yyif axmufcHr_&&ef *EDN.trnfudk toHk;ðycJh=uonf? tdEdN,jynfolwdk@taejzifh ‚if;wdk@udk,fydkifpGrf;tm;tay: tjrifopf pdwful;opfrsm;&ap&ef *EDNtaejzifhjzifh/ óud;pm;ae csdefwGifyif ol@.v_Haqmfa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rSm qGm&wf t,ltqudk trSefwu,f oGyfoGif;Edkifjcif; r&dSao;ay? qGm&ufrSm orm&dk;usEdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;rS wifjyonfh udkf,fydkifEdkifiHa&;jyXmef;EkdifcGifhESifh udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfa&;twGuf ausm&dk;jzpf onf[k *EDN ,lqxm;onfh trsKd;om;nD!Gwfa&;ESifh pnf;urf;&dSr_wdk@twGuf tajctaetvm;tvm r&dSay? ylaygif;aqmif&Gufr_rvkyfa&;v_yf&Sm;r_+yD;onfhaemufydkif;ESpfrsm;wGif uGef*&ufygwDESifh *EDNwdk@taejzifh tjcm;enf;vrf; rsm;&SmazG&ef t=urf;rzufvlxkv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;rS a&SmifxGufcJhonf? (1919) ckESpfwGif +Adwdo#wdk@. jyefvnfjyifqifxm; onfh zJG@pnf;yHkt& uGef*&uftrwfrsm;taejzifh tuef@towftm%mrsm;&&dScJhonf? c&dkiftqifhY trSefwu,f tm%m&dS+yD; yk*~dKvfa&;tcGifhta&;rsm;udkvnf; ay;xm;onf? xdkolwdk@taejzifh vuf&dSzJG@pnf;r_pepftwGif;/ vkyfudkif aqmif&Gufjcif;u +Adwdo#wdk@taejzifh aemufxyf ðyjyifajymif;vJr_rsm;ðy&ef tm;ay;aponf[k ar#mfvifhcJh=uonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

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(1922) ckESpf yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_rvkyfa&;v_yf&Sm;r_&yfem;t+yD; &ufowWywftcsKd@t=umwGif *EDN tzrf;cHcJh&+yD; axmiftwGif; ESpfESpfeD;yg;aexdkifcJh&onf? xdktcsdefumvtwGif; ol@twGuf pmzwfcsdefESifh jyefvnfoHk;oyfpOf;pm;csdef &cJhonf? vGwfajrmuf+yD;aemufydkif;wGif *EDNtaejzif uGef*&ufygwD. aemufuG,frS qufvuf&dSaecJhonf? odk@aomf vnf; t"dutm;jzifh tdENd,odk@ oljyefa&mufvm+yD; ESpfrsm;twGif;u olvkyfaqmifcJhonfh “tðyoabmaqmif onfhvkyfief;rsm;”udk jyefvnfI cGeftm;tjynfh vkyfaqmifcJhonf? xdkvkyfief;rsm;rSm csnfAdkif;iifjcif;/ [dENLESifh rGwf qvifbmom0ifrsm;t=um; wif;rmr_udk av#mhyg;apjcif;ESifh Zmwfedrfhrsm;tay: ZmwfcJGqufqHjcif;rsm; qef@usifjcif; tp&dSojzifh jzpfonf? xdkodk@ tedrfhqHk;oabmjzifh xdkvkyfief;rsm;udk jyefvnfvkyfaqmifaeaomfvnf; EdkifiHa&; OD;aqmifr_ESifh o=u*[ t=urf;rzufa&;vrf;pOfudkrl pGef@vGwfvdkonfh oabmr&dSay? vlxktm%mzDqefa&; trsKd;om;a&;v_yf&Sm;r_ac:,ljcif; (1920) ckESpfrsm; tv,fydkif;umvonf trsKd;om;v_yf&Smr_rsm; ajcukefvufyrf;us+yD; upifhuvsm;jzpfae&onfh tcsdef jzpf.? *EDNttaejzifh EdkifiHa&jrifuGif;rS tawmfaysmufae+yD;/ uGef*&ufygwD EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;taejzihfvnf; &wf*sf tkyfcsKyfa&;ESifh rnfodk@rnfyHkqufpyf&rnfudk tjiif;yGm;tacstwifjzpfae=uonf? tpGef;a&mufawmfvSefvdkol rsm;taejzifh vHk;0vGwfvyfa&;twGuf v_yf&Sm;r_jyefpwif&efESifh c&dkiftqifhESifha'otqifhaumfrwDrsm; csdedap&ef awmif;qdkae+yD;/ jynfe,faumifpDrsm; ta&G;cHrnfholrsm;udkvnf; a0zef rmefrJaeonf? uGef*&ufygwDwGifvnf; bmoma&;wif;rmr_rsm;&dSvmonf? rGwfqviftzJG@0ifta&twGuf usqif;vm+yD;/ [dENLbmoma&;jyif;xefolrsm; wdk;rsm;vmonf? ,ciftwdkif;vdkyif atmufvGwfawmfudk jyefvnftoufoGif;vdkonfh +Adwdo#wdk@. Oay'w&yf&dSayonf? (1919) ckESpf ðyjyifajymif;vJa&; &v'fudk jyefvnfoHk;oyf&ef qm *|ef qdkifrGef (Sir John Simon) OD;aqmifonfh/ aumfr&Sif w&yfudk aemufxyfajymif;vJa&;twGuf ueOD;ajcvSrf;tjzpf (1927) ckESpfY yJGxkwfcJh.? odk@aomfvnf; xdkaumfr&Sif twGif; tdENd,vlrsKd; wOD;rS ryg0ifacs? xdktcsuft& tem*wf wdkif;jynfzJG@pnf;yHka&;&m aqmif&Gufcsufrsm;Y +Adwdo# wdk@taejzifh tdEdN,vlrsKd;wdk@udk ‚if;wdk@. yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufzuftjzpf rqufqHvdkonfh oabmoufa&mufaeonf? *EDNpum;t&qdkv#if aumfr&SifzJG@pnf;r_rSm tdENd,vlxkw&yfvHk;udk pepfwusapmfum;armfum;vkyfjcif;jzpfonf? aumfr&Sif. =um;emr_rsm;udk tdEdN,acgif;aqmifwdk@rS oydwfarSmuf+yD;/ aumfr&Sifemrsm; wdkif;jynfwcGifvSnfhvnf&mY vnf; [m;w,fvv f y_ &f mS ;r_rsm; qENjyr_rsm;jzifh óudqdkcJh=uonf? &wf*sftkyfcsKyfa&;udk qef@usifonfh nD!Gwfonfh wyfOD;wckjzpfvm&ef tdENd,EdkifiHa&;orm;wdk@u usm;ukwfusm;cJ óud;yrf;vmonf? aumfr&Sifudk oydwfarSmufqef@usifonfh tkyfpkrsm;taejzifh ygwDpkHnDvmcHodk@ udk,fpm;vS,f ap v$wfcJh=uonf/ vGwfvyfonfh tdENd,twGuf zJG@pnf;yHkOya'w&yfðypk&ef aqmif&Gufcsuftaejzifh ae&l;tpDt&ifcHpm xGufvmonf? t&G,fa&mufolwdkif; rJay;ydkifcGifht& a&G;jc,fxm;onfh tkyfcsKyfa&;ESifh tdENd,wjynfvHk;qdkif&m Oya' ðya&;wdk@jzifh tdEdN,edkifiHudk +Adwdo#tifyg,mtwGif;&dS udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGifh& 'dkareD,Hwcktaejzifh ar#mfrSef;xm;onf? odk@aomfvnf; xdktpD&ifcHpmudk rGwfqvifacgif;aqmiftrsm;pku y,fcscJhonf? A[dktkyfcsKyfa&;av#mhcsxm;onfh jynfe,frsm;ESifh c&dkiftqifh Oya'ðya&;tzJG@rsm;Y rGwfqvifbmom0ifae&mrsm;twGuf v#mxm;ay;&ef olwdk@. awmif;qdkcsufrsm;r&Ijzpfonf? xdk@tjyif rdkawvft,f ae&l;. om;jzpfol *s0g[mvm ae&l;ESifh ol@. taygif;yg uGef*&ufygwD0if ppfaoG;ºuGwdk@rSm vHk;0vGwfvyfa&;awmif;qdkr_t&dSefwef@aponfhtay: tvGeftrif;a'gojzpf=u onf? v_yf&Sm;r_jyefvnftouf0ifvmjcif;udk wkef@qdkif;atmif +cdrf;ajcmufaeonfh uJGjym;r_rsm;&dSaeonfh tajctaeudk u,fwif&eftwGuf *EDNudk tEl;t!Gwfawmif;yefcJh=uonf? “trsKd;om;a&;v_yf&Sm;r_w&yfac:,lonfhtcg wEdkifiHvHk; taejzifh ol. OD;aqmifr_udk cH,lonfhtcgrSomv#if acgif;aqmifr_ae&mudk jyefvnf,lrnf[k *EDNu wkef@jyefcJh.? odk@aomfvnf; (1928) ckESpf 'DZifbmv umvuwWm;òrd@Yusif;yonfh uGef*&uftpnf;ta0;wckudk wwfa&muf&ef oabmwlcJh+yD;/ xdk@tpnf;ta0;Y

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oabmxm;aysmhajymif;olrsm;ESifh ppfaoG;ºuGwdk@ ESpfzufpvHk;vufcHEdkifrnfh tajz wckudk r&rae óud;pm;cJhonf? uGef*&uftaejzifh ae&l;tpD&ifcHpmudk vufcH&rnfjzpf+yD;/ +Adwdo#wdk@taejzifhvnf; (1929) ckESpftukefydkif;udk aemufqHk;xm;+yD; xdktpD&ifcHpmudk vufcH&rnfjzpfonf? tu,fI vufcHjcif;r&dSygu vHk;0vGwfvyfa&;twGuf t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_w&yf ac:,lðyvkyfrnfjzpfonf? xdktawmtwGif; uGef*&uftae jzifh ygwDjyefvnftm;aumif;a&;ESifh tðyoabmaqmifvkyfief;pOfrsm;jyefvnfvkyfudkif&eftwGuf *EDNtaejzifh tjyif; txefawmif;qdkxm;onf? ol.awmif;qdkr_udk vufrcHv#if uGef*&ufygwDta&;udpPrsm;wGif yg0ifaqmif&Gufrnf r[kwf[k +cdrf;ajcmufcJhonf? (1928) ckESpf *l*s&wfjynfe,f bm'dkvDa'o vH_@aqmfa&;v_yf&Sm;r_wcka=umifh o=u*[v_yf&Sm;r_jzpfEdkifacs ,Hk=unfr_ topfrsm; wdk;yGm;vmjyefonf? tðyoabmvkyfief;rsm;onf bm'dkvD&dS txl;ojzifh tawmftwifhcsrf;om ºuG,f0 onfh v,form;rsKd;EG,fZmwfjzpfonfh ywd'g (Patidars) rsm;t=um; tjrpfwG,fcdkifrmpGm &dSvmcJhonf? *EDN. wdkufwGef;csuftwdkif; ywd'grsm;taejzifh/ [dENLbmoma&;qdkif&m ausmif; t&S&rfuGef,ufrsm;zJG@pnf;=u+yD;/ t0wf txnfrsm; udk,fwdkif&ufvkyfjcif; òcd;+cHaexdkifjcif;ESifh taxGaxGaumif;r_udpPrsm;vkyfaqmif&ef tm;ay;=uonf? +Adwdo#tpdk;&taejzifh tcGeftaumufowfrSwfr_ (22) &mcdkifE_ef;wdk;jrifhvdkufonfhtcg ywd'gwdk@taejzifh/ xdktajc taeudk twdkuftcHqef@usif&ef olwdk@. uGef,ufrsm;udk toHk;ðycJhonf? *EDNESifh eD;eD;uyfuyf qufpyfr_&dSonfh/ ywd'g a&S@aewOD;jzpfonfh A,fvyf[dkif yaw; (Vallabhbhai Patel) u xdkv_yf&Sm;r_udk OD;aqmif+yD; tpdk;&xHrS a=ueyf avmufonfhtajzr&rcsif; tcGeftaumufrsm;ray;&ef qef@usifwdkufyJG0ifcJhonf? bm'dkvD vlxku xdkv_yf&Sm;r_aemufuG,fwGif pk&Hk;&dSaejcif;a=umifh xdkv_yf&Sm;r_rSm atmifjrifcJh.? tcGefray;onfh twGuf jypf'%ftm;jzifhodrf;,lxm;onfh xdkv,fajrrsm;udk tpdk;&u avvHwifa&mif;cs&m 0,f,lolrsm;udk oydwf arSmufqef@usif=u.? yaw;taejzifh *EDNESifh yHkrSefrjywf aqG;aEG;wdkifyifovdk/ *EDNuvnf; olwnf;jzwf&onfh *sme,f ESpfckwGif bm'dkvD. o=u*[v_yf&Sm;r_owif;udk azmfjyjzef@csDcJhonf? c&dkiftpdk;&taejzifh vufeufudkifwyfrsm; ap v$wf&ef pOf;pm;cJhao;onf? odk@aomfvnf; xdkv_yf&Sm;r_ydkrdkus,fjyef@vmrnfudk &wf*sfwdk@rS pdk;&drfcJh+yD;/ yaw;ESifh n‡dEd_if; aqG;aEG;&ef c&dkiftpdk;&udk zdtm;ay;cJh=u.? wajz;ajz;ESifh tcGeftaumufowfrSwfr_udk t}uD;tus,f av#mhcscJh& onf? bm'dkvDv_yf&Sm;r_onf ywd'gwdk@.atmifyJGw&yfjzpfovdk *EDN. tcdkiftrmoufaojyp&mwckvnf;jzpfcJhonf? t=urf;rzuftmcHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_udk pepfwus pnf;urf;&dS&dSESifh nD!Gwfr_&dS&dSaqmif&Gufygu atmifjrifr_&onfudk taumiftxnfjycJh+yD;/ +Adwdo#wdk@taejzifh tav#mhay;vm&onfudkvnf; jyocJhonf? “trSefwu,fawmh rdrd udk,fudk xl;cwfcsKyfaESmifolrSm rdrdomjzpf+yD;/ xdkcsKyfaESmufr_udk &dkufzsufEdkifolrSmvnf; rdrdjzpfayonf”[k *EDNu ajym cJhonf? xdk@aemuf }uD;rm;us,fjyef@+yD; &_wfaxG;ayGvDonfh a&mifpHkyefcsDum;vdkjzpfaeonfh tdEdN,EdkifiHY o=u*[ usifhpOfv_yf&Sm;r_ðyvkyf&eftwGuf *EDNtaejzifh ydkrdkjyifqifaqmif&Gufvmawmhonf? b,fvdkOD;aqmif&r,fqdkwm usaemfodw,f bm'dkvD. atmifjrifr_udk }uD;rm;us,fjyef@onfhtajctaejzpfatmif wdk;jr‡ihfyGm;rsm;&rnfjzpfonf? vdktyfonfh tdEdN,wjynfvHk;aqmif twdkif;twmudk azmfaqmifEdkifonfrSmvnf; uGef*&ufygwDom &dSonf? odk@aomfvnf; uGef*&ufygwD. c&dkifaumfrwDtrsm;tjym;rSm trnfcHr#om&dSae+yD;/ yHkrSef&HyHkaiG rSwfwrf;rSwf&mxdrf;odrf;r_ odk@r[kwf oifhav#mo f nfh &Hk;wdk@ r&dSay? *l*s&ufuJhodk@ tcsKd@aomfae&mrsm;wGifom aumfrwDzJG@pnf;r_ cdkifcdkifrmrm&dSaeonf? ygwD,EW,m;udk yHkpHopfjyefjzpfvmatmif (1929) ckESpfY *EDN óud;yrf;aqmfi&GufcJh.? xdkodk@jzifh ygwDtzJG@0ifopftrsm; tjym;&dSvm+yD; tcsKd@aomc&dkifrsm;Y tm;rmefwwfºuGr_rsm;awG@vm&onf? Oyrmtm;jzifh ,lyD&dS uGef*&ufygwD trm cHe,fajra[mif;rsm;wGif c&dkifXmecsKyfrsm;wGif v_yfcwfr_rsm;&dSvm+yD; tzJG@0ifopfpkaqmif;jcif;rsm; vkyftm;ay;olrsm; udkaxmufyHh&eftwGuf &HyHkaiG&Smjcif;rsm; owif;Xmersm; vlxktpnf;ta0;rsm;rSwqifh owif;rsm; jzef@xkwfjcif;rsm; &dSvmonf? *s0g[vm; ae&l;ESifh *EDNwdk@ ,lyD c&D;pOfa=umifh tvGeftrif; pdwftm;xefoefEdk;=um;r_rsm;jzpfvm=u onf?

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odk@aomfvnf; xdktajctaerSm ae&mwdkif;wGifawmh r[kwfay? vkyfaqmif&rnfvkyfief;rsm;rSm tvGeftrif; us,fjyef@vS+yD;/ uGef*&ufygwDtaejzifh wESpftwGif; tm;opfavmif;Edkifrnf r[kwfay? atmufajctqifhrsm;Y tiftm;rnDr#r_rsm; aygif;pyfxm;&onfrSm ygwDxdyfydkif;. rnD!Gwfr_jzpfonf? vla[mif;ydkif; taejzifh aESmuf,SufzsufqD;vdkaom vlxkv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;Y yg0if&rnfudk wGef@qkwfae=uqJjzpfovdk/ +Adwdo#wdk@ESifh wpHkw&majyvnfa&;udkom vdkvm;onf? vli,fydkif; wdkufcdkufr_ydkrdktm;oefonfhtzJG@0ifrsm;rSm aphpyfaqG;aEG;r_udk qef@usif=u+yD;/ t=urf;zufenf;emrsm;ðyvkyf&ef pdwf0ifpm;=uonf? bifa*guGef*&ufaumfrwDESifh ‚if;.t}uD;tuJ jzpfol qyf[wfpf csef'&mbdk@pf (Subhas Chandra Bose) yifv#if t=urf;zuform;rsm;ESifh eD;eD;pyfpyfqufpyfr_ &dScJh onf? *EDNtaejzifh xdkoabmuJGvJGr_udk xdrf;odrf;cJhovdk uGef*&uf OuUXtjzpf *s0g[vm; ae&l;udk a&G;aumufwif ajr‡muf+yD; oabmxm;wif;rmoltzJG@0ifrsm;. opPmcHr_udk &&dScJhonf? *EDNtaejzifh vlrsKd;a&;oabmuJGvJGr_udkjzpfaprnfh a=umufrufzG,fpdefac:csufudkvnf; &ifqdkifcJh&onf? awmiftmz&d uYjzpfap tdENd,Yjzpfap +yD;cJhonfh o=u*[v_yf&Sm;r_tm;vHk;wGif yg0if&ef ol@taejzifh/ rGwfqvifacgif;aqmifrsm; ESifhr[mrdwfðyum rGwfqvifbmom0ifrsm;udk pnf;&Hk;EdkifcJhonf? odk@aomfvnf; tckw}udrfY uGef*&ufygwDY vkyf aqmifae=uonfh rGwfqvifacgif;aqmifrsm;yifv#if v_yf&Sm;r_udk [dENLv$rf;rdk;xm;onfhygwDu OD;aqmifoGm;rvm;[k pdk;&drfoHo,jzifh =unfhae=uonf? +Adwdo#wdk@. &wf*sftkyfcsKyfa&;ae&mwGif [dENLwdk@. &wf*sftkyfcsKyfa&;jzpfrvmygu rGwfqvifrsm;udk *EDNu ajzodrfhtmrcHcsufay;cJhonf? odk@aomfvnf *EDN}uD;udk,fYu [dENLoauFwtay:wGif/ rDScdkae &jcif;a=umifh ol@tay:,Hk=unfr_tjynfht0 &&dSjcif;rjzpfcJhay? rGwfqvifEkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;udk pnf;&Hk;óud;yrf;r_rSm atmifjrifjcif;r&dScJhay? rGwfqviftrsKd;om;a&;0g'D[k ac:aom tcsKd@t&nftwGufomv#if uGef*&ufygwDESifh vufwJG aqmif&Gufvdk=uonf? t=urf;rzufa&;v_yf&Sm;r_topfrSm acsmacsmarG@arG@rjzpf&onfh aemufxyf tcsufrsm;&dScJhao;.? bk&ifcHudk vkyf}uH owfjzwf&eftygt0if +Adwdo#t&m&dSrsm;udk wdkufcdkufjcif;rsm;udk t=urf;zuform;rsm;u (1929) ckESpfY ðyvkyfcJh=u onf? ppfaoG;ºuG uGefjrLepfygwD=oZmcH tvkyform;or*~rsm;. OD;aqmifr_jzifh befa*vf;jynf bHkabtygt0if/ ae&mtawmfrsm;rsm;wGif }uD;rm;onfh qENjyv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;jzpfay:cJhonf? Ttcsuft& trsKd;om;nD!Gwfa&;ESifh qufEG,fI vlwef;pm;v_yf&Sm;r_trnfcHjcif;u pufr_tvkyform;rsm;udk tvG,fwulpkpnf;&onf? *EDNtaejzifh (1929) ckESpftwGif; EdkifiHa&;Y ydkrdkpdwf0ifwpm; yg0ifaeaomfjim;vnf; ol@ tðyoabmaqmifonfh vkyfief;rsm;rSm ,kwfav#mhoGm;onfr&dScJhay? ZmwfcJGjcm;qufqHr_ESifh trsKd;orD;rsm;tay: wzufowf cJGjcm;qufqHr_ rsm;udk &_wfcsuef@uGufaev#uf&dSonf? EdkifiHjcm;jzpftxnftvdyfrsm;udk oydwfarSmufqef@usifv_yf&Smr_rsm;vkyf&ef pnf;&Hk;vH_aqmfjcif;jzifh EdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_twdkif;tqudk csJ@xGifcJhonf? vl}uD; vli,f trsKd;orD; ra&G; tdrfwGif;Yyif vlwdkif;vdkvdktaejzifh olwdk@.aexdkifr_yHkpHudk &dk;&dk;&Sif;&Sif;ajymif;vJ&Hkr#jzifh tdENd,vGwfvyfa&;v_yf&Sm;r_wGif yg0ifywf oufvmEdkif=uonf? xdkv_yf&Sm;r_umvtwGif;u rdef;uav;i,fwOD;r#om&dSao;onfh t,fvl; 'gpfwmu vlwdkif;tm;vHk; &xm;ay:Yyifv#if tao;pm; Adkif;iifwHrsm;jzifh Adkif;iifae=uonfudk jrifawG@cJh&onf[kqdkonf? tjzLa&mifbavmufpftusDESifh rdk;jyma&mif *g0wf 0wfpHk 0wf&rnf[k olr. ausmif;u trdef@xkwfcJhonfhtcg 0,f,lxm;onfh tjyma&mifqdk;aq;jzifh &dk;&mcg'D0wfpHkuav;udk olrtwGuf &ufazmufay;cJhonf? *EDNtaejzifh EdkifiHtESH vSnfhvnf+yD; w&m;a[mjcif; &HyHkaiG&SmazGjcif;rsm; xyfrHðyvkyfjyefonf? xdkodk@jzifh vlxkESifhxdpyf +yD; aemufw}udrft=urf;rzufa&;v_yf&Sm;r_wcktwGuf vlxktaejzifh tqifhoihf&dSr&dSudk oludk,fhol jyefvnf ar;cGef; xkwfonf? “usaemfpum;twdkif; vdkufvkyfzdk@ jyifqifcsuf&dSwJhvlxkudk tm%mzDqefa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rSm b,fvdk OD; aqmif&r,fqdkwmudk aumif;aumif;oabmaygufem;vnfygw,f”[k *EDNu a&;om;cJhonf? olajymqdkr_twdkif; vufcHrnfh trmcHv_yf&Sm;olrsm;&dSrnfh ae&mwckudk *EDN&SmawG@cJhonf? TonfrmS pbmrwD [dELN bmom0iftzJG@ ae&mjzpfonf? tuef@towfwpHkw&m&dSjim;vnf; o=u*[usifhpOfv_yf&Sm;r_twGuf/ tjcm;tajcpdkufae&mwck tjzpf xdk[dENLbmoma&;ae&mrsm;udk olawG@xm;cJhonf? tdEdN,wjynfvHk;qdkif&mv_yf&Sm;r_tqifhtwGuf jyifqifr_ rsm;vkyfcJhonf? odk@aomf vkyfaqmifEdkifacs&dSr&dStay: oHo,rjywf xm;cJhonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

72


txufydkif;rSaeI xdkodk@jzpfxGef;wdk;wufr_rsm;udk =unfhrnfqdkygu &wf*sf tkyfcsKyfolrSm ausmf=um;=oZm wduUr&dSol ESifh ^m%fpGrf;xufol aemufwOD;jzpfayonf? avmh'ftm0ifjzpfonfh tuf'f0yf z&wf'&pf vif'vD0k'frSm (1925) ckESpfuwnf;u trnf& tpdk;&0efxrf;tjzpf +Adwdo#bk&ifcHtjzpf tdEdN,Y &dSaeonf? eDAJvfav csdefbmav. EdkifiHjcm;a&;twGif;0eftjzpf tefaxmfeD tD'efae&mY tpm;xdk;cHcJh&onf? ol@taejzifh nd‡Ed_if;ajz&Sif;a&;udk/ OD;pm; ay;+yD; olESifhqef@usifzuf +cdrf;ajcmufr_rsm; - [pfwvm odk@r[kwf rlqdkvDeD- qdkolrsm;ESifyif/ twlwuGxdkifpum; ajymEkdifoljzpfonf? tm0ifudk a&mh&dS,m;Y arG;zGm;+yD; rl;rwftEG,f ApfaumifhbJG@cH 'kwd,ajrmuf [mvDzufpf. om;jzpfonf? ol@.b0 wav#mufvHk;rSm jyif;xefonfhbmoma&;,Hk=unfcsufrsm;ESifh rdwfaqGrsm;twGuf r#a0cHpm;r_ESifh v$rf;rdk;aeonf? ol.wljzpfol uG,fvGefonfhtay: *EDNxHodk@ 0rf;enf;a=umif;rSwfwrf;wckudk (1928) ckESpfY tm0if ydk@cJh&mwGif/ “cifAsm;twGufa&m ol&J@rdom;pktwGufyg qHk;&HH_;r_w&yfjzpfonf[k usaemf ,lqygw,f” [k a&;om;cJh.? (1929) ckESpfonf *EDNtzdk@ rjynfhpHkonfh jzpfxGef;r_rsm;. ESpfwESpf[kqdk&rnfjzpfovdk tm0iftwGufvnf;/ xdkenf; wljzpfonf? tdEdN,EdkifiHtwGuf 'dkareD,Htqifh ar#mfrSef;xm;onfh jyefvnfjyifqifa&;wifjycsuftopfudk tm0if a&;om;cJhonf? tao;pdwftcsuftvufudk tdENd,udk,fpm;vS,fESifh +Adwdo#udk,fpm;vS,fwdk@yg0ifonfh vef'ef&dS yHkrSefnDvmcHwckY qHk;jzwf&efjzpfonf? xdkay:vpDtay: ol. aumfqmaA;wpfygwDrS qef@usifr_&dSaomfjim;vnf;/ vef'ef&dS avbmygwDtpdk;&. axmufcHr_&cJhonf? odk@aomfvnf; tpdk;&. urf;vSrf;csufrSm +yD;cJhonfh'DZifbmvu csrSwfcJhonfh tdEdN,uGef*&ufygwD.awmif;qdkcsufrsm;udk jznfhqnf;Edkifonfr[kwfay? uGef*&ufygwD&dS oabmxm; aysmhajymif;olrsm;taejzifh rsufESmi,fp&mrvdkyJ xdktqdkðycsufudk vufcHzG,f&dSonf[k tm0ifu ,lqv#uf&dSonf? xdkolwdk@rS ajyvnf&majyvnfa=umif; ta=umif;jyef=um;&ef zdtm;ay;ajymqdkcJh=uaomfvnf;/ tjcm;uGef*&ufygwD 0iftrsm;pkrSmrl aphpyfaqG;aEG;&ef jiif;qdkaev#uf&dSonf? *EDNtwGufrl tm0if. tuGufqifr_tay: oifhawmfovdk wkef@jyef&efrSm &Sif;vif;ae+yDjzpfonf? ueOD;tm;jzifh nd‡Ed_if;r_jzifh tajzwck&&ef olóud;yrf;cJhonf? odk@aomfvnf; &uf owWywftcsKd@twGif; ol@.oHo,rsm;}uD;rm;vmcJhonf? zJG@pnf;yHkðyjyifajymif;vJa&;udp&P yfrsm;twGuf EdkifiHa&;t& tm;enf;aeonfh avbmygwDESifh pum;ajymqdk&rnfhtay: jzpfEdkifacs pOf;pm;vm&onf? txl;ojzifhqdkv#if xdkrl0g' rSm vef'efY a0zeftjypfwifcHae&onfhtwGufjzpf.? tm0ifudk vdkufav#mrnfqdkv#if bdkpD *s0g[vm;ae&l;ESifh qEN apmaeonfhol@aemufvdkufrsm; vufrcHykefuef+yD; uGef*&ufrS xGufoGm;rnfudk olov d mcJhonf? 'DZifbmvtukef ydkif;cef@Y *EDNtygt0if tjcm;tdEdN,acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh tm0ifwdk@ awG@qHkcJhonf? aphpyfaqG;aEG;Edkif&ef olwdk@.awmif; qdkwifjycsufrsm;udk olu jiif;y,fcJhonf? ESpfzufpvHk;u xdyfwdkufawG@a&;udk wmplv#uf&dS.? r=umrD&uftwGif;rSm vm[dk;Y uGef*&ufygwD. ESpfywfvnftpnfta0;ðyvkyfcJhonf? tm%mzDqefa&; v_yf&Sm;r_rS wqifh vHk;0vGwfvyfa&;&&dS&efrSm uGef*&uf. &nfrSef;csufjzpfonf[lonfh *EDN.wifjycsufudk trsm;pk}uD;u oabmwlqHk;jzwfcJhonf? odk@aomfvnf; uGef*&uftwGif; ol.=oZmoufa&mufr_rSm ol@vkyfief;tpDtpOfrsm;udk/ tzJG@0ifwdk@rS ,Hk,Hk=unf=unfvkyfudkif&efxuf tuJGuJGtjym;jym;jzpfaeonfh tkyfpkrsm;twGif; nd‡Ed_if;ay;Edkifonfh vkyfEdkifpGrf;u ydkrdkvmonf? c&dkifaumifpDrsm;rS EkwfxGuf&ef tzJG@0ifrsm;udk wGef;tm;ay;jcif;tay: oabmxm;aysmh ajymif;olwdk@u qef@usif=u.? w&m;0ifay:vpDtm;jzifh w&m;&Hk;rsm; ausmif;rsm;ESifh jrLeDpDy,fbkwftzJG@rsm;udk oydwfarSmufqENjy&ef qHk;jzwfcsufrðyvkyf&ef *EDNudk wm;jrpf=u.? *k%f=uufoa&taqmifta,mifrsm;ESifh ajz;ajz; csif;ajymif;vJa&;[lonfh qJGaqmifjzm;a,mif;r_rsm;jzifh &wf*sftkyfcsKyfa&;. pnf;&Hk;odrf;oGif;r_rSm atmifjrifqJyif &dS onf? xdktcsdefYyif *EDN.axmufcHcsufudk ausmfvGefI taxGaxGoydwfuJhodk@aom v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;vkyf&ef ppfaoG;ºuG uGef*&uftzJG@0ifrsm;u qifhac:awmif;qdkcJh=uonf? xdk@tjyif tm0ifudk vkyf}uH&ef óud;yrf;aqmif&Gufr_tay:/ &_H@cs a0zefonfh qHk;jzwfcsufudkyif yGufumoDumrJjzifh qHk;jzwfcJh&onf? xdktcsufrSm t=urf;zufv_yf&Sm;r_qef@usifa&;udk tcsKd@u vdkvm;r_r&dSa=umif; jyaejcif;jzpfonf? xdrf;r&odrf;r&jzpfonfh ygwD.vuf&Hk;rsm;udk pnf;urf;ao0yfr_ &dSap &eftwGuf

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

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*EDNtaejzifh xyfrH yef=um;cJh&jyefonf? “tm%mzDqefa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rSm usaemfhudk OD;aqmifygvdk@qdk&if OD; aqmifyghr,f/ 'gayr,fh cifAsm;wdk@tm;vHk;[m onfwdkufyJG&J@ ppfom;awGjzpf&vdrfhr,f”[k *EDNu xdkolrsm;udk ajymcJh onf? v_yf&Sm;r_twGuf enf;AsL[m v_yf&Sm;r_twGuf wdusonfhtpDtrHr&dSyJ aemufESpfopftwGuf jyifqifaqmif&Gufr_r&dSyJ v[dk;rS *EDNxGufcGmvmcJh onf? xdktpm; qmbmrwD[dENLt&S&rfpcef;wGif taersm;ovdk/ &dk;&dk;ukwfukwf&dSonfhol@aetdrf. t&dyf&onfh 0&efwmwGif xdkifavh&dS+yD; csifhcsdefpOf;pm;r_jzifh enf;AsL[mwck &&dSvm&ef/ tjcm;olrsm;ESifh aqG;aEG;tcsdefay;cJhonf? xdktcsdeftwGif; uGef*&ufygwDtaejzifh y%mred'gef;tqifh vkyfief;tcsKd@udk pwifvkyfaqmifv#uf&dSonf? ZEM0g&Dv (6) &ufae@Y c&dkifaumifpDrsm;rS E_wfxGuf=u&ef *s0g[mvmae&l;OD;aqmifI uGef*&uftzJG@0iftm;vHk;odk@ trdef@ay;cJhonf? xdkodk@E_wfxGuf&efjiif;qdkonfh tzJG@0ifrsm;taejzifh ygwD. a&G;jc,fcHtqifhqifhrS z,f&Sm;cH&rnfjzpf onf? wkef@jyefr_rSm jyif;xefaomfvnf; rnDrnmjzpfcJh&onf? trsm;pkrSm +Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfa&;ESifh yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_ .&v'fjzpfonfh qkv'frsm;udk vufrv$wfvdk=uacs? +yD;cJhonfhwESpf odk@ ESpfESpfumv qef@usifxºuGr_aemufydkif;/ uGef*&ufygwDESifhywfoufvm=uonfh rGwfqvifbmom0ifrsm;yifv#if xdktrdef@udkvdkufem&ef jiif;qdk=ujcif;a=umifh *EDN}uD;twGuf t=uyf&dkufjzpfcJh&onf? *EDNESifhae&l;wdk@a&;qJGcJhonfh a=unmpmwrf;udk ae&mtESH us,fus,favmifavmif =um;ae&csdefwGif uGef*&uf. tvkyf aumfrwDrS ZEM0g&Dv (26) &ufae@udk vGwfvyfa&;ae@tjzpf owfrSwfcJhonf? tdENd,vlrsKd;rsm;onf opfawm tkyfrsm; vlpnfum;&muGif;jyifrsm; ae&mtESHtjym;Y twdk;tusdwf pk&Hk;=u+yD;/ tar&duefvGwfvyfa&;a=unm pmwrf;yg vGwfvyfa&;twGuf ac:,lEd_;aqmfcJhonfh aomrwf*swfzmqef. pum;udk a&mifjyef[yf =um;=u&.? “vGwfajrmufa&;qdkwm[m tjcm;jynfolawGvdkyJ tdEdN,vlxk&J@ xm0& tcGifhta&;w&yfjzpfw,fvdk@ usaemfwdk@ ,Hk=unfw,f? tpdk;&w&yfu zdESdyfvmr,fqdk&if jynfolvlxktaeeJ@ 'gudk jyifqifajymif;vJypfzdk@ odk@r[kwf zsufqD; ypfzdk@ tcGifhta&;&dSw,fvdk@ usaemfwdk@,Hk=unfw,f? 'ga=umifhrdkvdk@ tdENdtaeeJ@ +Adwdo#wdkeJ@qufpyfa&;udk tquf jzwfypf&r,f/ ylemqGm&wf odk@r[kwf vHk;0vGwfvyfa&;udk &,l&r,f” xdka=ujimpmwrf;u qdkcJhonf? tpGef;a&mufrsm;. t=urf;zufr_rsm;jzpfvmcJhv#if jy\emrsm; rnfodk@rnfyHkxdrf;odrf;&ef r=umrD &ufowWywfrsm; twGif; *EDNESifh tvkyfaumfrwDrS ajz&Sif;aqmif&GufcJhonf? (1922) ckESpfY ykvdyfrsm; tpkvdkuftðyHvdkufowfjzwfcH& jcif;a=umifh tm%mzDqefa&;udk *EDNu jyefvnf&kyfodrf;cJhzl;onf? odk@aomf ,ckt}udrfY *EDNtaejzifh Tenf;emudk jyefvnfoHk;rnfqdkygu +Adwdo#wdk@taejzifh t=urf;zufr_rsm; vH_aqmfzefwD;I v_yf&Sm;r_topfudk acszsufEdkifacs&dSonf [k ae&l;u qdkcJhonf? *EDNuvnf; Ttcsufudk 0efcHoabmwlcJhonf? xdk@a=umifhvnf; ol.AsL[mudk rvdkufem raqmif&Gufolrsm;twGuf ol@taejzifh wm0efcHrnfr[kwf[kqHk;jzwfcJhonf? xdkolrsm;. t=urf;zufr_jzifh ol.v_yf &Sm;r_udk xdcdkufcHrnfr[kwf[k qdkonf? Ttcsufonf ta&;}uD;onfhtajctaew&yfjzpfcJhonf? *EDNtaejzifh tjcm;aomtusKd;pD;yGm;ar#mfvifhcsufrsm; xuf t=urf;zufr_tay: &GH&Smrkef;wD;r_pdwf wdk;jr‡ifhay;cJhonfhtwGuf t=urf;rzufa&;v_yf&Sm;r_}uD;udk twdkuftcHðy olrsm;tay: =oZmoufa&mufvmonf? t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;ol ckcaH &;tiftm;pkrSm &kwfcsnf;tm;jzifh twkd; tqkwfvkyf&onfht&mr[kwfonfudk oloabmaygufvmonf? vkyfI&v#ifawmif ol@taejzifh t+rJwrf;udkifwG,f xm;r&ay? tm%mzDqefa&;a&;. yxrtqifhudk *EDNrS }uD;=uyfaqmif&Guf&ef tvkyfaumfrwDrS azaz:0g&Dvv,f ydkif;Y qHk;jzwfcJh.? tm;vHk;ar#mfvifhxm;ovdk *EDNtzrf;cHcJh&ygu uGef*&uf txl;ojzifh c&dkifaumfrwDrsm;rS OD;aqmif r_udk wm0ef,loGm;&efjzpfonf? trsm;tjym;zrf;qD;jcif;cH&ovdk ueOD;tpðycsufrSm vlxkESifhydkrdkeD;pyfI vlxkxH vufqifhurf;oGm;onf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

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xdktawmtwGif;rSmyif qm;tcGefESifhywfouf+yD; o=u*[v_yf&Sm;r_jzifh tm%mzDqefa&;pwif&ef *EDN}uHqcJh.? (19) &mpkrSI ta&;}uD;onfh pm;ukefjzpfaom qm;xkwfvkyfa&;vkyfief;udk tpdk;&rS vuf0g;}uD;tkyfxm;+yD;/ qm;a&mif;csr_ tay:wGifvnf; tcGefwif;=uyfxm;onf? tdEdN,vlrsKd;wdk@taejzifh udk,fwdkifqm;csufvkyfjcif;jzifh xdkOya'udkcsdK; azmuf&ef *EDN tpDtrHcscJhonf? tdENd,acgif;aqmiftcsKd@url +Adwdo#wdk@ESifh wdkufyJGt&dSeft[kefaumif;aecsdefwGif qm; wdkufyJGrSm txiftjrifao;p&m ao;Ekwfr_wck[k jrifcJh=uonf? EdkifiHa&;t& vGwfajrmufr_twGufqdkonfh ydkI jrifhjrwf}uD;us,fonfh&nfrSef;csufrS tm&Hkajymif;oGm;aprnf[k xifcJh=uonf? odk@aomfvnf; xdkwdkufyJGtwGuf *EDNY ta=umif;tcsuftcdkiftrm&dSygonf? qm;cGefrSm jrifomxif&Sm;onfh w&m;rr#wr_yifjzpf+yD; tqif;&JqkH; tdENd,jynfolrsm;udk txdemapcJhygonf? +Adwdo#tpkd;&t&m&Sdrsm;twGufvnf; a=umif;usKd;csifhcsde&f ef tcuftcJ&SdcJhygonf? tusKd;oufa&mufr_taejzifh tpdk;&u jynfolvlxkxHrS qm;rsm;udk ckd;,lcJh+yD; jyef0,f&mwGif rwefwqay;&ap&ef vkyfcJhjcif;jzpfonf[k *ENDu apm'uwufaxmufjycJhygonf? olu “jynfolvlxk[m olwkd‹&JŒtcGihftm%mudk odvmwJhtcdsefrSm olwkd‹ykdifqkdif cJhwJht&mudkjyef+yD; odrf;ydkuf&,lzkd‹ tcGifhta&;&Sdygw,f” [k *ENDua=ujimcJhygonf? ta=umif;rSm qm;tay:aumufcH aomtcGefaiGrSm udkvkdeDtkyfcsKyfa&;. rw&m;r_udktwdtvif;azmfjyae+yD;/ xdkvuf0g;}uD;tkyfr_udk csKd;zsufjcif;tm;jzifh tedrfhusqkH; tdENd,om;rsm;twGufyif vGwfvyfa&;qdkonfudk ydkrkdt"dy`g,fenf;vrf;usus od&v dS maprnf jzpfygonf? qm;csufa&;v_yf&Sm;r_u vGwfvyfa&;onf *k%fusufoa&jynfh0aom EkdifiHa&;&nfrSef;csufjzpfonfomru/ tdENd,jynfolwkd‹ . ae‹pOfb0udk olwkd‹udk,fwkdif xdef;csKyfr_vnf;jzpfa=umif; jyocJhygonf? qm;udkta=umif;ðyI qif;&Jom;rsm;udk ukd,fydkiftkyfcsKyfa&;ta=umif;&if;ESifh csdwfqufay;vkduf±kHomru/ ‚if;v_yf &Sm;r_onf [dENLESifh rGwfqvifwkd‹t=um; nD!Gwfa&;udk wnfaqmufay;Ekdifvdrhfrnf[kvnf; *ENDuar#mfvihfcJhygonf? olwkd‹tm;vkH;tm; wlnDpGm xdcdkufepfemapaom/ rSm;,Gif;onfhudpPwcktm; wkdufckdufqef@usifjcif;onf olwkd‹ tm;vkH;. tusKd;wludpPrsm;udk yl;aygif;aqmif&Guf=u&onfhudpPudk tm;aumif;vmapygonf? qm;csufa&; v_yf&Sm;r_ onf +Adwdo#wkd‹ESifhjzpfyGg;aeaomyËdyuQwckvHk;tm;vnf;/ r[mAsL[mwefzkd;vnf; &SdapcJhygonf? ‚if; v_yf&Sm;r_onf +Adwdo# tkyfcsKyfa&;twGuf ta&;}uD;aom tusKd;pD;yGm;rsm;udk xdyg;+cdrf;ajcmufcJhjcif; r&SdcJhonfhtwGuf (taumufcGeftm; vkH;teufrS qm;cGefwckwnf;onf pkpkaygif;tpkd;&0ifaiGtm;vkH;.ao;i,faom tpdwftykdif;r#omjzpfygonf) T v_yf&Sm;r_tay:vufOD;r_&,lacsr_ef;jcif;/ odk‹r[kwf jyif;xef=urf;wrf;aomenf;vrf;jzifh wkH‹jyefr_udk jzpfay:vmapp&m ta=umif;vnf; odyfr&SdEkdifyg? v_yf&Sm;r_ydkrkd}uD;xGm;vmap&ef tcsdef&&SdvmapEdkif+yD;/ a,bk,stm;jzifh wdrf;!$wfpmem r_&Sdaeaomfvnf;/ ykdItEœ&m,f}uD;aom v_yf&Sm;r_rsm; vkyfaqmif&ef wGef‹qkwfae=uaomolrsm;udk yg0ifv_yf&Sm;vm =uap&eftwGuf qGJaqmifEkdifp&mta=umif; jzpfvmapcJhygonf? TypfrSwftm;udkifwG,f+yD; *ENDu tu,fI tm0ifu qm;cGefzsufodrf;ay;onfhtjyif aiGvJE_ef;ajymif;vJay;jcif;/ ajrcGefav#mhcsay;jcif;/ ppftokH;p&dwfjzwfawmufjcif;ESifh EkdifiHjcm;t0wftxnfrsm;ay:wGif taumufcGef owfrSwf jcif;ponfwkd‹tm; vkdufavsmI awmif;qkdcsuf (11) csuftm; jznfhqnf;ay;rnfqkdv#if v_yf&Sm;r_udk y,fzsufay;rnf [k urf;vSrf;cJhygonf? Tawmif;qdkcsufrsm;tm; tm0ifu pOf;yifrpOf;pm;cJhay? odk@aomfvnf;Tawmif;qdkcsufrsm; a=umifh txl;ojzifh pD;yGm;a&;tusKd;pD;yGm;ESifh v,form;rsm;u ydkIpdwf0ifpm;r_&vmapygonf? [dENLEkdifiHa&;txuf v$m acgif;aqmifrsm;rSwqifh ydkIus,fjyef@aom vlxkvlwef;pm;tiftm;pkrsm;odk@ ysH@ESH@aygufa&mufoGm;cJhygonf? vGwfvyfa&;onf ppfrSefaom pD;yGm;a&;wefzdk;jzpfa=umif; *ENDu jyocJhygonf? qbmrmwDwGif aexkdifaepOf rwfv (2) &ufae‹Y *ENDu/ tm0ifxHokd‹ tdwfzGihfay;pmwapmif a&;om;ay;ydk‹cJhyg onf? olu bk&ifcHtm; rdwfaqGwOD;tjzpf tpcsDxm;+yD; olŒtaejzifh +Adwdo#vlrsKd;rsm;ay:wGif raumif;onfh pdwf rxm;cJha=umif;/ vGwfvyfa&;udk t&,lzkd‹omjzpfa=umif; a&;om;xm;cJhygonf? +Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfa&;pepf. jzpfay:ap aom pD;yGm;a&;'kuQ0efxkyf0efykd;rsm;ta=umif;udk tav;ay;azmfjy+yD; olu r=umrwif jzpfay:vmEkdifaom yËdyuQ rsm;udk a&Smif&Sm;Ekdif&ef olŒtm; tultnDay;&ef yef=um;cJhygonf? wzef tu,fI oabmwlnDr_wpkHw&m r&&Sd ygu vlxktmcHqef‹usifr_onf qm;tmcHqef‹usifr_ESihftwl rwfv (11) &ufae‹wGif pwifvmvdrhfrnfjzpfa=umif; a&;om;ajymjycJhygonf? tm0if. twGif;a&;rSL;xHrS *ENDjyefvnfvufcH&&SdcJhonfrSm ol.pmukd vufcH&&Sda=umif;ESihf *END.&nfrSef;csufrsm;twGuf 0rf;enf;yga=umif; jyef=um;pmomjzpfygonf? *ENDu ol.pmESifh tm0ifhxHrS jyef=um;pm

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

75


ESpfapmifpvkH;udk vlxktm;csjyI olŒtaejzifh &efoltm; vufurf;cJhaomfvnf; jiif;y,fjcif;om cHcJh&a=umif;/ ay;cJhygonf?

tod

tm0ifu tay;t,lvkyf aphpyf&ef pdwfvkdvuf&r&SdcJhyg? “tcktcsdefrSm qm;csufa&; v_yf&Sm;r_a=umifhawmh usKyf tdyfraysmfEkdif atmifrjzpfao;ygbl;” [k olu azazmf0g&Dv (20) &ufae‹wGif vef'efudk pma&;cJhygonf? ol. tkyfcsKyfa&;t&m&Sd awGtaejzifhvnf; vlxktmcHqef‹usifr_tm; awmifhcHEkdifvdrhfrnf[k ,kH=unfr_&SdaecJh=uygonf? olwkd‹u yl;aygif;yg0if vmp&mta=umif;r&Sdaom v_yf&Sm;r_wcktjzpfom oabmxm;cJhygonf? tEœ&m,f&Sdaeonf[k xif&aomt&mrSm &Sif;ygonf? “tpdk;&tm;rjzpfEkdifatmif ðyvkyfay;jcif;tm;jzifh u|Ekfyfwkd‹tm; tnHhcH tav#mhay;oGm;atmif vkyfvkd onf[k *ENDESifh wjcm;acgif;aqmifwcsKdŒu ,kH=unfcJh=uygonf? olwkd‹ tJ'Dvkdvkyfvkd‹r&Ekdifbl;qdkwm tckdiftrm jyzkd‹uawmh usKyfwkd‹tvkyfygyJ” [k EkdifiHjcm; a&;Xme0ef}uD; avmh'fyD;vf (Lord Peel) u tm0ifxHodk‹ ZEM0g&Dv (29) &ufae‹u ay;ydk‹aom ol.pmwGif a&;om;cJhygonf? okd‹&mwGif tm0iftaejzifh uGef*&ufu yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufvmjcif;r&Sdonfhwkdif zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfykHtajccHOya' ðyjyif ajymif;vJa&;twGuf pm;yGJ0kdif;aqG;aEG;yGJwckusif;y&ef tvkd&SdaeqJjzpfygonf? tu,fIom uGef*&ufjyify&Sd tdENd, EkdifiHa&;tkyfpkrsm;yg0ifwufa&mufjcif;r&Sdygu &,fp&m[mowckvkd jzpfaevdrhfrnfqkdonfudkvnf; olu odaecJhyg onf? txl;ojzifh ta&;}uD;aomt&mrSm rGwfqvifacgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh ykdIoabmxm;aysmhaysmif;aom [dENLtrsKd; om;a&;0g'Drsm; wufvmapvdkygonf? olwkd‹.tultnD yg0ifvmap&ef tpdk;&taejzifh vlxk tmcHqef‹usifr_rsm;ukd tvGeftu|H wkef@jyefr_rvkyfrd&ef a&SmifusOf&rnfjzpf+yD; tedrfhqkH; w&m;0ifjzpfr_udkzkH;uG,fI ukdifwG,faqmif&Guf&rnf jzpfygonf? ‚if;tjyif tdENd,EkdifiHjcm;a&;0ef}uD; 0DvsH0wf*sf0k'fbif; (William Wedgwood Baun) u omreft&yf om;tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfudk =um;jzwf0ifa&mufpGufzufjcif;onf EkdifiHwumaps;uGufwGif tdENd,EdkifiHtay: t,kHt=unf &Sdr_udk xdckdufapEkdifonf[k owday;xm;cJhygonf? wcsdefwnf;rSmyif tpkd;&taejzifh ppfwyf/ &JwyfzGJŒESifh òrdŒjy0efxrf; tdENd,EkdifiHom;rsm;. opPm&Sdr_udk xdef;odrf;&rnf jzpfonf? okd‹rSom twdkuftcHbufrS rnfokd‹yif tm;aumif;awmifhwif;onfjzpfap olwkd‹tm;vkH;tm;ckdifckdifrmrm xdef;csKyfxm;Ekdifa=umif; jyo&ma&mufrnfjzpfygonf? axmufvSef;a&;jAL±kd !¸ef=um;a&;rSL;u “wu,fvkd‹ tpkd;& [m olŒ&JŒae&meJ‹ tm%mudk xdef;odrf;xm;Ekdifzdk‹ tiftm;r&Sdygbl;vdk‹ &J0efxrf;awG awG;vmEkdifwmudk =unfhaevkduf r,fqkd&if qkd;0g;wJhtajctaebufudk rvGJraoG a&mufoGm;vdrhfr,fqkdwmukd usKyfwkd‹owd&zdk‹vdkvdrhfr,f” [k a&; om;cJhygonf? tpkd;&.rl0g'onf 0efxrf;rsm;taejzifh ‚if;wkd‹onf tdENd,EkdifiHY &Sdae&rnfh tpkd;&twGuf tvkyfvkyf ae=ujcif;jzpfonfudk tmrcHr_ay;Ekdifavmufatmif rmausm&rnfjzpfaomfvnf;/ +Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfa&;atmufwGif aexkdifvkdpdwf&Sdae=uaom uGef*&ufjyify&Sd oabmxm;aysmhajymif;olwkd‹ukd pdrf;um;a&Smifz,foGm;atmif jyif;xef =urf;wrf;Ivnf; rjzpfEdkifyg? “tpkd;&. v_yf&Sm;aqmif&Gufr_tm; uef‹owfxdef;csKyfxm;jcif;udk xda&mufap&rnf’/ ‘okd‹&mwGif tajctae. vkdtyfcsufukd ausmfvGefr_r&Sdapoifh’ [k a'oqkdif&m tpdk;&rsm;udk !¸ef=um;xm;+yD;jzpfygonf? ol.ajcvSrf; Oya' jyifyodk‹a&mufonfESifh *ENDtm;zrf;qD;&efvnf; tvGefta&;}uD;ygonf? vdktyfonfhtcsdeftydkif;tjcm; xufykdI olŒtm;v$wfay;xm;jcif;onf olŒtm;axmufcHolrsm;tm; tm;ay;tm;ajr‡mufðy&ma&mufrnfjzpf+yD; tpdk;&wyfzGJŒ rsm;udkvnf; aomuyGm;a=umuf&GHŒapygvdrhfrnf? ‘aemufrqkwfwrf;’ rwfv (5) &ufae‹ qkawmif;yGJtwGif; pwif+yD;aemuf (7) &uft=um olwkd‹qm;csufvkyf&m yifv,fykdif;okd‹toGm; wGif *ENDonf t&S&rf"rR&dyfomrS olŒvlrsm;udk csDwufvdkufyg&ef zdwfac:cJhygonf? csDwufjcif;onf *ENDESifh tu|rf; w0if&Sd+yD;om; enf;y&d,m,fjzpfygonf? awmiftmz&duEkdifiHwGif tpdk;&tm%mykdifrsm;. tpOfwpdkuf pdwftaESmifh t,Sufay;r_rsm;atmufrS &if;ESD;u|rf;0ifr_r&SdcJhaome,fajrudk jzwfoef;csDwufonfh (5) &uf=um csDwufyGJwGif vlrsKd; pkHyg0ifaom }uD;rm;onfhvlpkvla0;}uD;udk ol OD;aqmifcJhzl;ygonf? ,ckw}udrfrSm csDwufolrsm;rSm ydkIenf;yg;+yD; &if;ESD;onfh tusKd;wlvlpkrsm;jzpfI olwkd‹ ykdIa0;a0;oGm;=uygvdrhfrnf? *ENDtm; av;pm;pHðy&m *l*sm&wfaus;vuf a'oukd

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

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jzwfoGm;=uygvdrhfrnf? olu csDwufyGJudk wu,fhvufawGŒ vlxk=um; ay:vGifpGm upm;&+yD; owif;pmrsm; tm;jzihf wEkdifiHvkH;odk‹ ysHŒESH‹oGm;Ekdifonfh EkdifiHa&;upm;yGJ}uD;/ ZmwfcHkwcktjzpf xifjrif,lqxm;cJhygonf? (70) ywf0ef;usif&Sdrnfh csDwufolrsm;rSm uGef*&ufxJrS tjcm;olrsm;ESifhrwlyJ ol.tajccHpnf;rsOf;pnf;urf;rsm;tm; pl;epf,kH=unfxm;olrsm;tjzpf *ENDu od&Sdxm;cJhygonf? olwkd‹onf udk,fcE<m yifyef;qif;&Jr_rsm;udk onf;cHEkdif=u/ "rR &dyfomb0. rdrdudk,fwkdif òcd;+cHjiif;y,fEkdifr_&Sd=u+yD; olwkd‹.pnf;urf;onfvnf; tjcm; tdENd,om;rsm; erlem,l avmufp&m awmufajymifaevdrhfrnf[k olu ,kH=unfxm;cJh+yD; jzpfygonf? rwluGJjym;aom a'orsm;/ bmoma&;/ vlr_a&;todkuft0ef;rsm;ESifh rsKd;Zmwfrsm;rS yg0ifvm=uolrsm;jzpf+yD; trSef w&m;ta=umif;&if;cHay:wGif &yfwnf=uolrsm;jzpfojzifh olwkd‹onf wkdif;jynftwGuf tE_dif;xyfwlðy pHerlem,lp&m jzpfygonf? okd‹aomfvnf; *END. !¸ef=um;r_rsm;t& csDwufyGJwGif trsKd;orD;rsm; yg0ifvdrhfrnf r[kwfyg? tcsKdŒaom trsKd;orD; v_yf&Sm;aqmif&Gufolrsm;u uef‹uGufvmcJhaomtcsdefwGif olu trsKd;orD;rsm; csDwufyGJwGif yg0ifvmygu +Adwdo#wkd‹taejzifh tdENd,trsKd;om;rsm;u ‚if;wkd‹ukd &Jtr_xrf;rsm; wkdufckdufvmygu 'dkif;tjzpf tumtuG,f&&ef trsKd;orD;rsm;udk tokH;ðy&ef ac:aqmifvmonf[k pGyfpGJvmEkdifa=umif; olu &Sif;jycJhygonf? olu tdENd,trsKd;orD; rsm;tm; vGwfvyfa&;twGuf tvkyftau|;ðyapvkdaomfvnf; vufawGŒoabmt& +Adwdo#wkd‹ESifh &ifqkdif&efta&; u ykI d a&Sw › ef;us OD;pm;ay;&rnf jzpfygonf? pwifrnfh&ufpGJrwkdifrD oDwif;ywfonf tjyif;txef jyifqifr_ðy&rnfhtcsdef jzpfygonf? ol. *l*s&wfr[mrdwf OD;pD; jzpfol AvA[dkif; yaw; (Vallabhbhai Patel) .tultnDjzifh *ENDu tmruf'b'f (Ahmeddabad) rSonf 'if'D (Dandi) urf;±dk;wef;&Gmtxd awmifbuf rkdif (240) vrf;a=umif;udk pDpOfcJhygonf? vrf;wav#mufwGif csDwufol rsm;onf r=umcifESpfrsm;twGif;u tðyoabmvkyfaqmifr_rsm;ESifh o=u*[tmcHqef‹usifr_udpPrsm;udk vdkvm; axmufcH=uonfh/ toifhjzpfaeaomaus;&Gmrsm;wGif &yfem;=uygvdrhfrnf? ausmif;om;rsm;u vrf;a=umif;wGif uif; axmufI xkd&Gmrsm;ESihfywfoufonfh owif;tcsuftvufrsm;udk pkaqmif;+yD; &yfqkdif;rnfhae&mtpDtpOfrsm;ukd *END. *l*s&wDbmom tywfpOfxkwf e0*sDAefowif;pm Navajivan wGif ykHESdyfazmfjycJh=uygonf? tdENd, bmom pum;jzifhomru EkdifiHjcm;owif;Xmersm;odk‹yg csDwufyGJtm; vlxkodap&ef tpGrf;ukef tm;xkwfcJh=uygonf? rwfv (12) &uf eD;uyfvmonfESifhtr# "rR&dyfomESifh tmruf'b'fòrd@wGif pdwfv_yf&Sm;xºuGp&m taetxm; }uD; rm;vmcJhygonf? “'g[m t+yD;owfppfyGJyJ? usKyfwkd‹awG eH&HrSm ausmuyf+yD; usnfqHawGukd &ifqkdif=ur,f? b,fvkd enf;eJ‹rS aemufrqkwfawmhbl;” [k *EDNu &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif;ajymcJhygonf? tm%mydkifrsm;uvnf; wif;rmr_udk ykdI jyif;xefvmatmif axmufulay;cJh=uygonf? a'ow&m;ol}uD;wOD;u yaw;udk pwifzrf;qD;cJhygonf? rwfv (7) &ufae‹wGif csnfr#ifpufrsm;/ ausmif;rsm;/ aps;qkdifrsm;ESifh jrLeDpDy,f±kH;rsm; ydwfypfcJh&aom taxGaxGoydwfwck pwifjzpfyGm;cJhygonf? (12) &ufae‹naeykdif;wGif vltkyf}uD;rsm;u wnvkH;Ekd;=um;pGmESihf &yfaecJh=uygonf? aemufykdif;wGif qkawmif;oHrsm;/ bk&m;&Sdckd;oDcsif;rsm; xGufay:vmcJhygonf? ‚if;aemufwGif *ENDu “'DwkdufyGJ[m vlxkjyyGJwck r[kwfygbl;? 'g[m aemufqkH;±kef;uefv_yf&Sm;r_/ usKyf cifAsm;wkd‹udk tav;teufajymcsifwmu 'Dae&mudk vlaoawGtjzpfyJ jyefvm=uyg? 'grSr[kwf vGwfvyfa&;atmifyGJ&olawGtjzpf jyefvm=uyg” [k ajym =um;cJhygonf? *END.ZeD;jzpfol umpfwmb[dkif (Kasturbhai) u olŒtm; tdrfwGif;,ufxnf cg'DESifh yef;ukH; pGyfay;cJh+yD; vrf;av#mufwkwfwacsmif;vnf; ay;tyfcJhygonf? "rR&dyfomrS olvSrf;xGufcJhonfhtcsdefwGif tdENd, acgif;aqmifonf ylavmifv_yf&Sm;oGm;ap+yD; olŒtm;apmihf=unfhae=uaomolrsm;=um;wGif qef‹usif uGJjym;aom cHpm;r_rsm; jzpfay:vmapcJhygonf? ol.twGif;a&;rSL; (Mahadev Desai) twGufrl *ENDudk =unfhjrif&onfrSm r[m'ufpfa'qkdif; oD&DvuFmudkatmifEdkifppfcsDcJhaomppfbk&if}uD;&mrESihf ylaqG;aomua&mufae=uaom/ 'kuQ a&mufaeaomvlxkrsm;udk u,fwifrnfh Ak'<&Sifudk,fawmf ESpfOD;pvkH;ESifh wkE_dif;=unfhaecJhrdygonf? csDwufolrsm; w&GmpD0ifa&muf=uonfhtcsdefwGif vltkyf}uD;u pka0;vm=u/ vif;uGif;rsm;/ AkHrsm;ESifh tjcm; wl&d,m ypPnf;rsm;jzifh qlqlnHnHwD;r_wf=uygvdrhfrnf? *ENDu qm;cGeftm; vlrqefaomvkyf&yftjzpf wkdufckdufonfh rdef‹cGef; pum;tusOf;ajym=um;+yD; qm;cGeftmcHqef‹usifr_onf ‘qif;&Jom;wkdufyGJ’ jzpfa=umif; a=unmygvdrhfrnf? &yfqkdif; vkdufonfhtcgwkdif; aus;&Gmt&m&Sdrsm;tm; EkwfxGufay;&efvnf; tjyif;txef awmif;qkdygvdrhfrnf? EkwfxGuf&ef jiif;qefonfholrsm;udk wOD;csif; qef‹usifoydwfarSmuf=u&ef !¸ef=um;r_rsm; ðyvkyfygvdrhf rnf? olwkd‹&Gmol}uD;tm;

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

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E_wfxGufapcsifaom &Gmom;rsm;taejzifh ol.tdrfwGifusif;yaom r*Fvmaqmiftcrf;tem;rsm;ESifh tjcm;txdrf; trSwfyGJrsm;ukd wufa&muf&ef jiif;qefEkdif=uygonf? okd‹aomfvnf; olŒtwGufvkdtyfaom vkyfief;aqmifwmrsm; ukdrl jiif;qefjcif;rðy&yg? “arwWm&yfcHcsuf[m OD;acgif;eJ‹ ESvkH;om;eJ‹ vkyf&rSmyg? tiftm;ukd a=umufvef‹oGm;atmif vkyfzkd‹r[kwfygbl;” [k *ENDu qdkygonf? *ENDu yifv,fbufokd‹ csDwufvkdcJhonfrSm omref&Gmom;rsm;udk vGwfvyfa&;twGuf ydkrkd}uD;rm;aom v_yf&Sm;r_wGif yg0ifvmapcsifIjzpfygonf? olu qif;&Jom;rsm;ESifh }uH›ckdifawmifhwif;a&; pum;ajym±kHr#ESifh rvkHavmufa=umif;/ odcJh&ygonf? csDwuf=uolrsm;taejzifh ±kd;pif;r_ESifh wudk,faumif;rqefaom tðytrltm;jzihf olwkd‹.ajympum;ukd ckdifrma=umif; jyoay;cJh=u&ygonf? npOfnwkdif; *ENDu olwkd‹tm; av[mjyifyifwGif tdyfpuf&efESifh &Gmol&Gmom; rsm;xHrS tpm=urf;rsm;ESifh tem;,l&ef av#mfzGyfaq;a=um&efae&mrSvGJI tjcm; bmrSrawmif;qkd=u&ef trdef‹ay; !¸ef=um;cJhygonf? okd‹aomfvnf; *ENDcsrSwfcJhaom pHE_ef;rsm;rSm tcsKdŒvlrsm;twGufrsm;pGm 0efxkyf0efykd;jzpfapcJhyg onf? tcsKdŒcsDwufolrsm;rSm Ekd‹ESifh [if;oD;[if;&Gufrsm;tm; um;ESihfwif o,f,lcJh=u+yD; tcsKdŒu armfawmf,mOfrsm; ay:wGif pD;eif;vkdufygcJh=uojzihf olt&Suf&cJh&a=umif; *ENDu ajymcJhygonf? bwf*ef (Bhatgan) aus;&GmwGif olu olwdk‹. tykdðzef;wD;r_rsm;ESihfywfoufI ajym=um;cJhygonf? ‘vlwkdif;[m olŒ&JŒ 0rf;enf;a=uuGJaewJhtoHudk =um;&wJhtcsdefrSm vkH;0+idrfusoGm;cJh=uw,f’ [k avhvmolwOD;u a&;om;cJh ygonf? ‘olŒpum;vkH;awG[m usaemfwkd‹&JŒESvkH;om;udk xkd;azmufoGm;cJh=uw,f? wvkH;+yD;wvkH;/ atmufvif;rD;tm; vkH; +idrf;ypfcJh=uw,f? *ENDem;rSmxGef;xm;wJh rSeftdrfuav;uvGJ+yD; tpnf;ta0;[m arSmifoGm;awmhw,f’? c&D;vrf;wav#mufvkH;wGif tdENd,vlŒtzGJŒtpnf;. tckdiftrm&SdaecJhaom tufuGJa=umif;rsm; xifxif&Sm;&Sm; ay: vGifaecJhygonf? òrdŒ&Gmrsm;. tpnf;ta0;yGJrsm;okd‹ rGwq f viftenf;tusOf;r#om wufa&mufcJh=u+yD;/ csDwufyGJwGif ygvmaom Zmwfedrfhrsm;rSm tcsKdŒvlrsm;. rkef;wD;&GH&Smr_udk cHcJh=u&ygonf? xkdtajctaewGifyif c&D;yef;wkdiftqkH;okd‹ eD;uyfvmonfESifhtr# *END.pum;udk em;axmif&ef vma&muf=uaom vltkyf}uD;rsm;rSm ydkIrsm;jym;IvmcJhygonf? bm'kdvD tmcHqef‹usifr_jrifuGif;rS ra0;uGmvSaom ql&wf (Surat) wGif vl (30000) cef‹u olwkd‹tm; óudqkd E_wfcGef;qufcJh=uygonf? 'gbDrD;&xm;vrf;qkHwGif vl (50000) cef‹ pka0; a&muf&SdcJh=uygonf? a'oqkdif&mt&m&Sd rsm; E_wfxGufr_vnf; qufwkdufay:xGufvmcJhygonf? {+yDv yxrywfwGif ql&wfc±kdiftwGif;&Sd &Gmtm;vkH;rS &Gm ol}uD;oHk;ykHwykHcef‹ E_wfxGwfoGm;cJh=uygonf? qm;csDwufr_onf *l*sm&wfa'oudk ausmfvGefIyif v_yfcwfoGm;apcJhygonf? vrf;wav#mufwGif *ENDu aqmif;yg; rsm;a&;om;cJh+yD; tifwmAsL;rsm;udkvnf; ajz=um;ay;cJhygonf? tdENd,owif;pmrsm;u csDwufyGJowif;rsm;udk owif;pmrsufESmzkH;pmrsufESmrsm;wGif xnfhoGif;azmfjyay;cJh=u+yD; *END. &J&ifhaomvkyfaqmifr_rsm;ukd us,fus,f jyef‹jyef‹azmfjycJh=uygonf? ‘bk&m;ocifudkwkdifwnf+yD; tJ'Dtcsdefu usKyf[m ausmif;om;av;wa,mufyJ jzpfao; wmawmifrS usKyfcifAsm;wkd‹udkajymr,f? ol[m &nfrSef;csuyf ef;wkdifukd wjznf;jznf;csOf;uyfvmae+yDvkd‹ usKyfodjrif vmwJhtcsdefrSm ajcmufjcm;oGm;cJhrdw,f’ [k ±kyf&Sifrif;om; tmvDuGD; yg'rfqD (Alyque Padamsee) u jyefajymjy cJhygonf? bkHab±kyf&Sifukr`%DokH;ckrS tzGJŒom;rsm;apv$wfI owif;rSwfwrf; ±kduful;apcJh+yD; EkdifiHjcm; owif;pm q&m rsm;u *ENDtm; Oa&myESifh tar&dutxd vlodrsm; xif&Sm;oGm;apcJhygonf? (1930 ESpfukefwGif wkdif;rfr*~Zif;u olŒtm; ESpfwESpf.txl;c|eftajymifajrmufqHk;ol 'Man of the Year' tjzpf a&G;cs,fcJhygonf?) vrf;ray:wGif okH;ywf=umt+yD; {+yDv (5) &ufae‹reufwGif csDwufolrsm;onf owfrSwf&ufxufw&ufapmI 'ef'D (Dandi) okd‹ a&muf&SdcJh=uygonf? xkdae‹naewGif &Gmi,fuav;Y vl (12000) ausmf pka0;a&muf&SdcJh=uygonf? *ENDu tpd;k &tm; olwkd‹.csDwufyGJtm; raESmuf,SufcJhonfhtwGuf csD;usL;ajymqkdcJh+yD; ‚if;aqmif&Gufr_onf urBmh tjrifwGif vkHòcHpdwfcsaumif;rGefr_udk jzpfay:aponf[k qkdcJhygonf? *ENDonf tdENd,vlrsKd;rsm;tm; olwkd‹onf vGwf vyfjcif;ewfbk&m;rausmif;awmfodk‹ a&S›±_ae+yD; olwkd‹. c&D;yef;wkdiftqkH;okd‹ ra&mufrcsif; tpdk;&tm; +idrf;csrf;r_wpkH w&mudk rodap&[k ajym=um;&if; tjynfjynfqkdif&m jynfolvlxk}uD;tm; tdENd,EkdifiHvGwfvyfa&;twGuf axmufcH r_jyo=u&ef yef=um;cJhygonf? olu 'ef'Durf;ajctm; ‘jrifhjrwfaomajrjyif’[k qddkcJhygonf? aemufwae‹reuf {+yDv (6) &ufae‹wGif *ENDonf urf;ajcwGif rwfwyf&yfae&mrS qm;vuf0g;}uD;tkyfr_csKd;zsufjcif; tpðy&ef tcsufjyr_wckjzpfonfh ajrcJwcJtm; ukef;Iaumuf,lcJhygonf? csDwufolrsm;vnf; csufcsif;yif a&tkd;rsm; tm; Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

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yifv,fa&tjynfh jznhfvdkuf=uygonf? tpDtpOfcsrSwf pepfwus&Sdaom vlxktmcHqef‹usifr_onf aemufqkH; wGif pwifjzpfay:vmcJh+yDjzpfygonf? ‘*ENDOD;xkyfrsm; jynhfv#rf;aeonfhvrf;rsm;’ tmruf'bwfòrd@rS 'ef'Dokd‹csDwufyGJonf ydkrdk}uD;us,fcef;em;aomatmifyGJ rjzpfEkdifcJhyg? wkdif;jynftjrift& *ENDonf vlxktwGuf rwkefrv_yfvkyfaeaom tpkd;&w&yftm; t=urf;rzufonfhv_yf&Sm;r_ tokH;ðyI qef‹usifwGef;vSefa&; &nfrSef;csufoifcef;pmjyocJholjzpfygonf? ol. &Sif;vif;aompum;vkH;rsm;ESifh &J&ifhjywfom;aom erlemrsm;jzifh *END u tdENd,EkdifiHom;rsm;tm; tpkd;&.Oya'rsm;ESihf tcGeftwkyfrsm;rS vGwfvyfa&;a=unm&ef/ wkdufwGef;ajym=um;cJhyg onf? olu +Adwdo#wkd‹tm; olwkd‹.=oZmtm%mtm; emcHvdrhfrnfr[kwfa=umif; olŒtaejzifh v,f,majrrsm;udk &ufaygif;rsm;pGm jzwfoef;+yD; r=umrwifay:aygufvmawmhrnfh &mZ0wfr_rsm;udk vlod&Sif=um; ajymqkdwifjycJh/ xkdokd‹ tvm;wlðyrlaqmif&Guf&efvnf; olwkd‹wGif wm0ef&Sda=umif; vlwkdif;tm; ajymjycJh+yD;jzpfygonf? +Adwdo#tm%mykdifrsm;taejzifhrl rnfonfhv_yf&Sm;r_tpOfjzpfap *END.uZmwftwkdif; vkdufygaqmif&Guf=ujcif;yif jzpf ygonf? tu,fI olwkd‹u qm;Oya'csKd;azmufolrsm;tm; zrf;qD;vkdufrnfqkdygu trsKd;om;a&; v_yf&Sm;r_twGuf tmZmenfrsm; zefwD;ay;rdovkdjzpfoGm;+yD;/ *ENDu olwkd‹. zdESdyfvkdaom&nf&G,fcsufudk axmufjyxm;onfukd twnfðyay;ouJhokd‹vnf; jzpfoGm;ayvdrfhrnf? tu,fI qm;ckcHqef‹usifolrsm;tm; cGifhv$wfxm;vkdufrnf qkdygu vnf; tdENd, ckcHqef‹usifr_ESifh &ifqkdifonfhtcsdefwGif olwkd‹tpdk;&. Oya'rsm;tm; awmifhwif;tm;aumif;&ef rvkyf aqmifEkdifawmh[k xifjrifoGm;apEkdifrnfjzpfonf? rnfonfhenf;vrf;yifjzpfap olwkd‹taejzifh wpkHw&mqkH;±_H;&efom &Sdayawmhonf? v_yf&Sm;r_wGif yg0ifyl;aygif;&efrSm vG,fulygonf? ta=umif;rSm yifv,fa&&Ekdifaomol rnfolrqkd qm;csufEkdifyg onf? vkyf&rnfht&mrSm qm;iHa&udk tkd;wvkH;wGifxnhf+yD; ta&óudypf/ +yD;v#if usef&pfaomqm;rsm;udk jcpf,l±kHom jzpfyg onf? qm;csufvkyf=ujcif;rSm urf;±kd;wef;a'orsm;jzpfaom b*Fvm;/ r'&wfpfESifh txl;ojzifh bkHabwGifom a,bl ,sv_yf&Sm;r_ jzpfvmcJhaomfvnf; TtjzpftysufESifhywfoufI owif;rsm;u wjynfvkH;eD;yg; ysHŒESH‹cJh+yD;jzpfygonf? bkHabòrdŒ}uD;wGif ajAmifusus qm;csuf=uolrsm;tm; &J&efrS tumtuG,fay;&ef apwem0efxrf;vltrsm;u vufcsif;csdwfI umuG,fay;xm;cJh=uygonf? ‘py&ifwckudk ±kwfw&uf v$wfvkdufovdk rsKd;yJ’ [k tlwmy&m'uf&Sf/ tvm[mbuf'f/ òrdŒwGif zcifESifhtwl qm;a&mif;csaecJhaom *s0g[mv,fae±l;u ajymcJhygonf? ‘qm;aumif;wm raumif;wmu wu,fhudk ta&;r}uD;ygbl;? t"duu pufqkyfp&mjzpfwJh qm;Oya'udk csKd;azmuf=uzkd‹ygyJ’olu ajymjyonf? qm;csDwufyGJt+yD; oDwif;ywfrsm;twGif; *ENDu tm%mykdifrsm;u olŒudkzrf;qD;&ef qGay;&rnfhenf;vrf;wckudk &Sm=uHcJhygonf? xkd‹a=umifhyif {+yDv (12) &ufae‹wGif olu txl;ojzifh pdwftaESmifht,Sufay;a&;v_yf&Sm;r_ wckudk a=unmcJhygonf? wyfrsm;ESifh xdyfwkduftaotcsm&ifqkdif&Ekdifaom 'g&moem (Dharasana) &Sd qm;vkyfief;tm; 0ifa&mufpD;eif;&ef olu OD;aqmifrnfjzpfygonf? EdkifiHjcm;a&;0ef}uD; 0uf*sf0k'f bif;u (Wedgewood Benn) u *ENDqifxm;aom axmifacsmufudk em;vnfoabmaygufcJhygonf? olu ‘olwkd‹u olwkd‹ukd,fpm;ðyaqmif&Gufaejcif; onf rrSefuefvufoifhrcHEkdifaom tm%m&Sifqefaom zdESdyfr_jzpfonf/ okd‹r[kwf olwkd‹awmif;qkdcsufrsm;udk vkdufavsmr_wckckudkom a&G;cs,fap&ef pDpOfwus u|Ekfyfwkd‹tm;jyo&ef tm;xkwfvmjcif;jzpfonf’ ‘olwkd‹onf u|Ekfyfwkd‹tm; onftwkdif;=unfhae&ef cGifhðyvdrhfrnfr[kwfay’ [k a&;om;cJhygonf? qm;csDwufyGJpwifcJhaomtcsed fu tm0iftaejzifh olŒwGif t}uHtpnfwck&Sdonf[k xifxm;cJhygonf? ‚if;rSm *END tm; Oya'udk csKd;azmufvmonftxd onftwkdif; =unfhaevkduf+yD; csKd;azmufvmonfESifh rqkdif;rwG zrf;qD;&ef jzpfygonf? okd‹aomfvnf; xkdao;i,faomvluav; 'ifbD (Danbi) yifv,fjyifokd‹ csOf;eif; 0ifa&mufvmonfh tcsdefwGifrl bk&ifcHu wGef‹qkwfaecJhygonf? aemufykdif;wGif *ENDtm; zrf;qD;vkdufjcif;onf qef‹usifuef‹uGufr_ rkefwkdif;tm; pwifwkdufckdufapvkdufovkdjzpfoGm;+yD; tm0ifu pm;yGJ0kdif;awGŒqkHaqG;aEG;&mwGif yg0ifvmapcsifolrsm; jzpfaom oabmxm;aysmhajymif;olrsm;ESifhvnf; yËdyuQjzpfvmaprnfjzpfygonf? tjcm;t&m&Sdrsm;rSm Oya'twkdif;aqmif&Guf&ef ydkItm;oefcJh=uygonf? bkHabtkyfcsKyfa&;rSL;u *ENDtm; vGwfvyf cGihfay;xm;jcif;onf qef‹usifuef‹uGufolrsm;tm; tm;wufvmapovkdyif tpkd;&axmufcHolrsm;tm; tm;ysuf Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

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oGm;apEkdifonf[k ta=umuftuef ajymqdkcJhygonf? tusyftwnf;rSvGwfajrmuf&ef vrf;r&Sdyg? ‘*ENDtm;zrf;qD; vkdufjcif; tdENd,wjynfvkH;udk rD;±_dŒvkdufjcif;yifjzpfonf’ ‘olŒtm; rzrf;qD;yJxm;jcif;onf olŒvkyf&yftm; vlod &Sif=um;jzpfatmif vkyfay;vkdufjcif;yifjzpfonf’ [k trsKd;om;a&;0g'D owif;pmwapmifu a&;om;cJhygonf? tm0ifrSm aemufqkH;wGif ol.pdwfukd qkH;jzwfEkdifcJhygonf? olu arv (4) &ufae‹nwGif *EDNtm; (1827) ckESpf w&m;&ifqkdifajz&Sif;&efvkdtyfaom (odk‹r[kwf) ykHaojypf'%fcsrSwfcH&Ekdifaom Oya'jyÏmef;owfrSwfcsufjzihf zrf;qD;ckdif;cJhygonf? *ENDtm; zrf;qD;xdef;odrf;vdkufr_onf 'g&moemqm;usif;&Sd v_yf&Sm;r_udkr&yfwef@apcJhyg? touf (70) t&G,f t+idrf; pm;w&m;ol}uD; tufbmhpf wdkifbm*sD (Abbas Tybaji) onf *END.ZeD;onf upfwmbm[dkifESifhtwl vma&muf yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufol (300) tm;OD;aqmifI arv (12) &ufae‹wGif qm;vkyfief;okd‹csDwufcJhygonf? *ENDbufrS &yfwnfay;cJhygonf? olwkd‹onf vkyfief;cGifokd‹ra&mufrDyif tzrf;cHcJh&+yD; axmif'%fokH;v tjypfay;cHcJh&ygonf? okd‹aomfvnf; 'g&moemqm;usif;tmcHqef‹usifr_onf ed*kH;csKyfIroGm;cJhyg? uAsmq&mESifh vkyfief;aumfrwD0ifjzpfol qm&dk*sDeD Edkif'kl (Sarojini Naidu) u urf;ajca'ookd‹ tvsiftjrefa&muf&SdvmcJh+yD; qufvuf wm0ef,laqmif&Guf cJhygonf? olrESihf vma&mufyl;aygif;aqmif&Gufolrsm;onf qm;vkyfief;rsm;&Sd&modk‹ t}udrfrsm;pGm csOf;uyfvmcJh=u ygonf? t}udrfwkdif;vnf; olwkd‹.vrf;a=umif;tm; &Jrsm;u ydwfqkd‹cJh=uygonf? xkd‹a=umifhyif olwkd‹u xkdifIom apmifhaecJh=u&m w}udrfv#if (28) em&Dr# =umjrihfcJhygonf? aemufxyf &maygif;rsm;pGm tusOf;csxm;cHcJh&ygonf? Edkif'l; u 0ifa&mufpD;eif;r_onf t=urf;zufr_jzpfonfudk odjrifcJh+yD; olraejzifh t=urf;zufr_onf 0ifa&mufpD;eif;ol rsm;xHrS r[kwfrnfudkom pkd;&drfa=umifh=ucJhygonf? ‘b,fvkd tajctaersKd;rSmrqkd t=urf;rzuf&bl;? &Sifwkd‹ t±kduf tESufcH&rSmyJ/ 'gayr,fh &Sifwkd‹ rckcH&bl;? ±kdufcsufawGudk umuG,fzkd‹ vufwzufudkawmif rajr‡muf&bl;’? arv (21) &ufae‹wGif qENjyolrsm;u qm;avSmifcef;rsm; ywfywfvnf&Sd oHql;óud;em;wGif&yfem;&ef óud;pm;cJh=uygonf? &Jom;rsm;u tv#iftjref ydwfqkd‹wm;qD;xm;=u+yD;/ (Lathis) [kac:aom oHr%dacgif;wyf eHygwfwkwfrsm;jzifh olwkd‹tm; pwif±kdufESufcJh=uygonf? ‘csDwufvmolawG[m ±kdufcsufawGudkumuG,fzkd‹ vufudkawmifrajr‡muf cJh=uygbl;? olwkd‹[m abmvif;ypfwJh ykvif;awGvkdyJ twkH;t±kef;vJusukef=uw,f? vJusroGm;ao;olawG[m vlwef;udk zsufrypfbJ +idrf+idrfoufoufacgif;rmrmeJ‹ vJusoGm;atmif t±kdufcH&wJhtcsdeftxd quf+yD;csDwufcJh=u w,f’ [k EkdifiHjcm;owif;axmufwOD;u owif;ay;ykd‹cJhygonf? yxrvlwef; vJusoGm;cJhonfhtcsdefwGif '%f&m &olrsm;udko,f,l&ef xrf;pifrsm; a&muf&SdvmcJh=u+yD; ae‹pOfae‹wkdif;yif ykdrdkrsm;jym;aom xdyfwkduf&ifqkdifr_rsm; qufIjzpfay:vmcJhygonf? ZGefv (6) &ufae‹txd 'g&moemqm;usif;rS v_yf&Sm;r_rsm; &yfqkdif;oGm;cJhjcif;r&Sdyg? 'ef'Dudk csDwufaepOftawmtwGif; *ENDrSm v_yf&Sm;r_.aemufwqifhESifhywfoufI pOf;pm;aecJhygonf? vlxk tmcH qef‹usifr_onf qm;vuf0g;}uD;tkyfr_tay:Yom A[kdðyxm;oifhonf[k olu ,kH=unfxm;cJhygonf? tcGefray; aqmifjcif; odk‹r[kwf opfawmOya'rsm; csKd;azmufjcif;rsm;udk tm;ray;=u&yg? ta=umif;rSm wqufpyfwnf; yg0ifywfoufaeaom w&m;rr#wonfh qm;cGefawmfudkvnf; ypfrSwfxm;wkdufckdufcJhjcif;r[kwfI jzpfygonf? okd‹&mwGif v_yf&Sm;r_onf EkdifiHjcm;t0wftxnfrsm;ESifh t&ufrsm;tm; oydwfarSmufa&;wkd‹uJhokd‹ aom w&m;Oya' jyify r[kwfaomfvnf; +Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfa&;udk tm;enf;oGm;apEkdifonfh v_yf&Sm;r_rsm; yg0ifoihfonf[k olxifjrif ,lqcJhygonf? v_yf&Sm;r_onf tm;oGefpdkufxkwfr_udk av#mhcs&ef roihfaomfvnf; oludk,fwkdif vkyfaqmifrSr[kwfyJ aumif;pGm pnf;rsOf;pnf;urf;&Sd&ef vkdtyfygonf? *ENDESifh ol.vkyfazmfudkifzufrsm; tm;vkH;u txl;ojzifh ‚if;wkd‹zrf; qD;jcif;cH&+yD;v#if òrdŒwkdif;&Gmwkdif;&Sd v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk olwkd‹taejzifh vrf;jy!¸ef=um;&ef rjzpfEkdifrSef; od&SdcJh=uygonf? olwkd‹u xkdudpPudk a'oqkdif&m tajctaersm;tay: tcGifhaumif; &,lEkdifonfh enf;AsL[mrsm; csrSwfaqmif&Guf&ef ta&;}uD;aom vkdtyfcsufwckjzifh jynfe,faumfrwDrsm;okd‹ wifjycJh=uygonf? v_yf&Sm;vkyfaqmifr_tm;vkH;onf xdef;csKyfr_tjynfht0jzifh t=urf;rzufa&; jzpf&rnf[k !$ef=um;xm;cJh=uygonf? qm;csufvkyfjcif;ESifh EkdifiHjcm;t0wftpm; oydwfarSmufr_wGif uHraumif; ta=umif;rvScJh=uaom vufuaemif; (Lucknow) òrdŒrS uGef*&uftzGJ@0ifpnf;±kH;a&;orm;rsm;u tm%mydkifrsm;tm; zdESdyfr_ESifh aemufqkwfr_ESpfckteuf wckudkoma&G;cs,f&ef/ aemufxyfta&;,laqmif&Gufr_wck ðyvkyfcJh=uygonf? (1857) ckESpf tmcHqef‹usifr_t+yD;wGif +Adwdo# tkyfcsKyfa&;u wyfrsm; tvG,fwul 0ifa&mufEkdifa&;twGuf tdrfrsm;ESifh ocsKõif;rsm;udkyif òzdzsufjcif;tm;jzifh a&S;tdENd,0ef;usiftm; jzwfoef;oGm;onfh vrf;r}uD;ESpfcktm; jzwfawmufypfcJh=uygonf? olwkd‹u +Adwdo# vlae a'oopfwckudkvnf; cGJxkwfvkduf+yD; ‚if;.A[dkwGif [m&wf*ef@*sf (Hazratganj) [kod=uaom aps;vrf;wvrf;

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xm;&SdcJhygonf? vlwkdif;uvufuaemif;. +Adwdo#xdef;csKyfr_rSm +Adwdo#wkd‹u òrdŒ. olwkd‹tpdwftydkif;[k oabmxm; aom ae&mudk w&m;Oya'pdk;rkd;r_xm;&Sdjcif;jzihf trSwfoauFw jyovkdufjcif;jzpfonf[k em;vnfcJh=uygonf? [m&wf*ef@*sf (Hazratganj) vrf;ay:wGif uGef*&uftzGJ@rS OD;aqmifvSnfhvnfcsDwufjcif;udk umvtawmf=um=um uyif ydwfyif wm;qD;jcif; cHcJh&ygonf? ,cktcsdefwGif trsKd;om;a&;0g'D acgif;aqmifrsm;u pdefac:r_w&yfðyvkyf&ef qkH;jzwfcJh=uygonf? ‚if;rSm vufuaemif;wGif tdENd,EkdifiHom;rsm;taejzifh rnfonfhae&mudkr# ra&Smif=u&ef qHk;jzwfcJh=uygonf? ar (14) &ufESifh (22) &uf ESpf}udrfwdwd uGef*&uftzGJ@ESifh yg0ifyl;aygif;aqmif&Gufolrsm;u [m&wf*ef@*sf (Hazratganj) vrf;ay:wGif csDwuf&ef óud;yrf;cJhonfudk &Jrsm;u ydwfqkd‹wm;qD;cJh=uygonf? okd‹&mwGif tacs twifjzpfae=ut+yD;wGif &Jrsm;u 0ifa&mufcGifhðycJhygonf? acgif;aqmif (13) OD; tzrf;cHcJh&aomfvnf; tu,fI uGef*&uftzGJ@u vkdifpifav#mufxm;ygu csDwufcGifh&rnf[k tm%mydkifrsm;u ajymvmcJhygonf? +Adwdo#wkd‹u +Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfa&; tm%mydkiftzGJŒxH OD;pGmta=umif;=um; today;xm;rSomv#if tdENd,EkdifiHom;rsm;tm; ‚if;wkd‹. t0ef;t0dkif; twGif;wGif v_yf&Sm;cGihfðyrnf[k ajym=um;cJhygonf? vGwfaeqJjzpfaom uGef*&uftzGJ@ acgif;aqmifrsm;url +Adwdo#wdk‹tm; tcuftcJ tusyftwnf;rS tvG,fwul vGwfajrmufcGihfray;cJh=uyg? arv (25) &ufae‹wGif trsKd;orD;tawmfrsm;rsm;OD;aqmifonfh yg0ifyl;aygif;aqmif&Gufolrsm;u cGifhðycsufvkdifpifrawmif;cH yJ [m&wf*ef@*sf (Hazratganj) vrf;qDokd‹ OD;wnf csDwufcJh=uygonf? okd‹aomfvnf; &Jrsm;u ‚if;wkd‹r0ifa&mufEkdif atmif ydwfqkd‹xm;cJh=uygonf? w&m;ol}uD;u tu,fI olwkd‹qkwfcGmray;cJhygu tiftm;okH;I òzdcGJ&vdrhfrnfjzpf a=umif; owday;t+yD;wGif olwkd‹u rdepftwef=um apmifhaecJh=uygonf? aemuf &Jrsm;u a&S›qkH;rS trsKd;orD;rsm;ukd qGJI z,f&Sm;ypfcJh=uygonf? jrif;pD;&Jrsm; a&muf&SdvmcJhonfhtcsdefwGif acgif;aqmifrsm;u uef‹uGufqef‹usifolrsm; tm; vSJcs=u&ef trdef‹ay;cJhygonf? ajcv#if&Jrsm;u olwkd‹tm; '&GwfqGJI z,f&Sm;ypfcJh=uygonf? tcsKd‹u ckcHqef‹ usifvmonfhtcsdefwGif &Jrsm;u oHr%dacgif;wyf eHygwfwkwfrsm;jzifh csDwufolrsm;ESifh =unfh±_ae=uolrsm;tm; ±kdufESufcJh=uygonf? vlw&mausmfcef‹ '%f&m&&SdcJh&m tcsKdŒrSm jyif;xef+yD; uGef*&uftzGJ@u aoqkH;olrsm;vnf; &Sda=umif; ajym=um;cJhygonf? [m&wf*ef@*sf (Hazratganj) . ta&;ygjrifhjrwfr_udk pdefac:cJhjcif;rSm tmcHqef‹usifr_jyÏmef;pmtkyfwcktjzpf wjznf;jznf; ay:vGifvmcJhygonf? uGef*&uftzGJ@u vlrsm;twGuf wukd,fa&t"dy`m,f&dS+yD; +Adwdo#tkyfpkd;r_. taxGaxG w&m;rr#wr_. oauFwwckvnf; jzpfonfh ta=umif;&if;wckudk owdðy odjrifem;vnfcJhygonf? xkdtcsdefu yg0ifyl;aygif;aqmif&Gufolrsm;u +Adwdo#wkd‹. trdef‹tm%mrsm;udk tmcHqef‹usifcJh=u+yD; aemufqkH;wGif olwkd‹udk,fE_duf t=urf;zufr_udk a&SmifusOfae=u&if; vufeufrJhjynfolvlxktm; &Jrsm;u wkdufckdufr_tay: pdwfvy_ f&Sm;cJh=uygonf? qef‹usifuef‹uGufolrsm; cHcJh&onfh ±kyyf dik ;f qkid &f m '%f&mtemw&rsm;onf ol&owWd. trSwfwHqdyfwckjzpf+yD; +Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfa&;u p±kdufobm0t& vkyfudkifaqmif&GufcJhaom t=urf;zufr_udk trSwf& ap&ef owday;aernfht&mrsm; jzpfygonf? okd‹&mwGif yËdyuQrSm xkdae&mwGif &yfqkdif;roGm;cJhyg? aemufwae‹ uGef*&uftzGJ@u aemufxyfw}udrfóud;pm;&ef pDpOfaea=umif; òrdŒtm%mykdifrsm; =um;odoGm;onfhtcsdefwGif (400) cef‹&Sdrnfh &JESifh ppfom;rsm;u ‚if;wdk@. XmecsKyfrsm;wGif csxm;vmcJh+yD; vrf;rsm;ukd&Sif;vif;ypf/ uGef*&uftvHudk qGJcsypfcJh=uygonf? xdktcsdefwGif acgif;aqmifrsm;u csDwufyGJudk &yfqkdif;ypfvkduf=u+yD; &Jrsm;vnf; qkwfcGmoGm;cJh=uygonf? a'gojzpfae=uaom òrdŒae vlxkrsm;u &Jom;rsm;aemuf pcef;txd vkdufygoGm;cJh=u+yD; uGef*&uftzGJ@ESifh yg0ifyl;aygif;aqmif&Gufolrsm;u tdrfjyef=u&ef awmif;yefaeonfh=um;rSyif tkwfcJrsm;/ ausmufwkH;rsm;ESihf ykvif;rsm;jzifh ypfaygufcJh=u&m aemufqkH; &Jpcef;udk rD;±_dŒypf&eftxd aºuG;ausmfawmif;qkdcJh=uygonf? em&D0ufcef‹=umoGm;onfhtcsdefwGif &Jrsm;u pwif ypfcwfygawmhonf? wyfom;rsm;u tajctaeudk xdef;odrf;cJhaomfvnf; vlav;a,muf aoqkH;oGm;cJh+yD;jzpfyg onf? tm%mydkifrsm;u ae0ifrD;+idrf;trdef@ (curfew) xkwfjyefcJh+yD; vlpkvla0;ESifh csDwufjcif;udk ydwfyifypfcJh/ vlaygif;rsm; pGmudk zrf;qD;cJhygonf? vufuaemif;òrd@vlxktmcHqef‹usifr_onf +Adwdo#wkd‹. tm%mudkjyqkdonfh vrf;rsm;ay: csDwufcGifh&a&; atmifjrifr_r&&SdcJhyg? odk‹aomfvnf; trsKd;om;a&;0g'Drsm;onf ykdrkd}uD;rm;onfhatmifyGJudk &&SdcJh yg onf? olwkd‹u +Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfa&;tm; tifyg,mtkyfcsKyfr_onf aoewfESifhtcsdefcHxm;&onfh tpkd;&ESifh wjcm;pD jzpfonf[laom pdwful;,OfZmwfvrf;ukd pGef‹v$wf&ef wGef;tm;ay;EkdifcJhygonf? olwkd‹onf cufcJaom oifcef;pm wckudkvnf; &&SdoGm;cJh=uygonf? +Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfa&;ukd Ekd;=um;qef‹usifvkdpdwf&SdcJhol tawmfrsm;rsm;rSm t=urf;rzuf aom

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

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Oya'oe,fy,fukd em;rvnfcJh=uyJ/ tqkH;ed*kH;wGif ydkIjyif;xef=urf;wrf;aomzufokd‹ pGrf;tm;jyefvnfa&muf&Sd oGm;Ekdifa=umif; awG@cJh=u&ygonf? vufuaemif;onf qm;csDwufyGJ pwifjzpfay:vmonfhtcsdefwGif jzpfcJh&aom òrd@wckwnf;r[kwfyg? +Adwdo#tkyfcsKyf a&;tm%mydkifrsm;taejzifh ae&mrsm;pGmwGif ‚if;wdk‹taejzifh xdef;csKyfr_udkpGef‹v$wfrnfavm/ jyif;xef=urf;wrf; aomtiftm;udk tokH;ðyrnfavm[laom vrf;wckckudkom a&G;cs,f&ef acsmifydwfrdapcJh&ygonf? {+yDv (6) &ufae‹ aemufykdif;oDwif;ywfrsm;/ vrsm;twGif; a'vDòrd@awmfodk@ a&muf&SdvmcJhaom a=u;eeff;pmrsm;/ tpD&ifcHcsufrsm;u ‚if;wdk@ ,cifawG;xifxm;csufudk ajymif;apcJh&ygonf? qm;csufa&;v_yf&Sm;r_onf t&Sdeft[kef}uD;rvmEkdifovkd/ pkd;&drf&avmufaom +cdrf;ajcmufr_vnf; jzpfrvmEkdifqkdonfh +Adwdo#wkd‹. ar#mfvifhcsufrsm;udk ysufpD;oGm;apcJhygonf? *END. vlxk tmcHqef‹usif&ef awmif;qkdr_rsm;onf wkdif;jynfw0ef;vkH;wGif ti,fpm;/ t}uD;pm; xdef;rEkdifodrf;r& jzpfr_rsm;udk jzpfay:vmapcJh+yD; +Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfa&;udk xdwfvef‹ajcmufjcm;oGm;apcJh&ygonf? bkHabòrdŒwGif qm;tmcHqef‹usifr_ESifh t0wftpm; uef‹uGufr_rsm; ae&mwkdif;wGif jzpfyGm;cJh+yD; yg0ifyl;aygif; aqmif&Guf olrsm;u }uD;rm;I pnf;pepfwus pkpnf;xm;aom csDwufyGJrsm;udk vrf;!¸efxdef;ausmif;ay;&ef vrf;rsm;ay:odk‹ a&muf&SdvmcJh=uygonf? ‘uGef*&ufonf awmfvSefa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk ajymifajymifwif;wif;yif vrf;!¸efxdef; ausmif;ay;cJhygonf?’ ‘*END.OD;xkyfrsm; vrf;rsm;ay:jynhfESufae+yD;/ apwemh0efxrf;rsm;uvnf; ,leDazmif;0wfum yg0ifyl;aygif;aqmif&Gufolrsm;udk pepfwus uef‹uGufqef‹usifr_ðyvkyf&ef &JwyfzGJ@rsm;uJhokd‹yif pnf;urf;pepfwus csxm;aqmif&Gufay;cJhonf’ [k e,l;a'vD òrd‹awmfjynfxJa&;0ef}uD; tdyfcsf-*sD-[dwf (H.G. Haig) u rSwfwrf; wifxm;cJhygonf? bifa*gvftkyfcsKyf a&;e,f rpfemyl;&fa'owGif qm;csuform;yg0ifyl;aygif;aqmif&Gufolrsm;udk &Ju wkdufckdufr_onf aus;vufykefuefxºuGr_wckudk jzpfyGm;apcJhygonf? v,form;rsm;u aus;&Gmrsm;udk cHwyftjzpf ajymif;vJypfcJh=u+yD;/ 0g;/ opfom;rsm;jzifh t&Htwm;cHwyfrsm;udk wnfaqmufcJh=u+yD; v,fuGif;rsm;udkjzwfI uwkwf rsm;wl;xm;cJh=uygonf? ‘u|Efkyftaejzifh aemufxyfypfcwfr_ tenf;i,f xyfvkyfcJh&onfhwdkif +idrf;csrf;r_jyefvnf xdef;odrf;wnfaqmuf&ef ar#mfvihfcsuftvGefenf;yg;ygonf[k’ [k xdwfvef‹ajcmufjcm;aecJhaom c±kdifw&m; ol}uD;u ZGefvwGif a&;om;xm;cJhygonf? ta&;awmfykHwcktjzpf xºuGjzpfysufaeonfhtcsdefwGif/ *ENDcsrSwfv_yf&Sm;cJhaom v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;. v_yf&Sm;yHk uGefwkdykH azmfrsOf;rsm;rSm rxifrSwfEkdifavmufatmif ,uf,S,f±_wfaxG;cJh=uygonf? ppfwaumif; (Chittagong) ESifh bifa*gvf (Bangal) wGif t=urf;zuform;rsm;uvnf; t[d Hopdwf"mwf jzifh pwifcJhaom v_yf&Sm;r_xJokd‹ twif; uma&m 0ifa&mufvmcJh=uygonf? {+yDv (18) &ufae‹wGif vlajcmufq,fcef‹u a'owGif; vufeufwkdufwcktm; wkdufckdufzsufqD;I vufeufcJ,rf;rsm;pGmudk vk,lcJh=u ygonf? olwkd‹u atmifyGJtxdrf;trSwftjzpf ‘*ENDtkyfcsKyfa&; vm+yD’[k aºuG;a=umfcJh=u+yD; &Jrsm;/ ppfom;rsm;ESifh wkdufckdufjcif;rðyrD vGwfvyfa&;a=unmcsufwapmifukd xkwfjyefcJh =uygonf? tpkd;&twGuf ydkIqkd;0g;aomowif;rSm t"dutm;jzihf rGwfqvifyxefvlrsKd;rsm; trsm;pkaexkdi&f m awmifwef;a'o jzpfaom taemufajrmufa&S›wef;a'orS a&muf&SdvmcJhjyefygonf? t"duacgif;aqmifrSm t=urf;rzuf a&;v_yf&Sm;r_ 0g'DwOD;jzpfvmcJhol vlrsKd;pk*k%foduQmESifh vlr_ðyjyifa&; ckcHumuG,fa&;orm; tufbf'lvf*zm;cef (Abdul Ghaffar Khan) u OD;aqmifI xyfrHqef@usifvmcJhjcif; jzpfygonf? ol.aemufvkdufaemufygrsm;u yuf&S0g t&ufpwkd;qkdif rsm;udk qef‹usifuef‹uGufcJh=uaomtcsdefwGif acgif;aqmifrsm; tzrf;cHcJh&+yD; vltkyfpkaygif;rsm;pGmu òrdŒwGif;okd‹ pnf;urf;pepfuspGm jzwfoef;csDwuf uef‹uGufqENjycJh=uygonf? ppfom;rsm;u aoewfjzifhypfcwfcJh&m tenf;qkH; vl (65) OD; aoqkH;oGm;cJhygonf? ‚if;aemufwGif [dENL±kdifz,fvfwyfpkESpfpku rGwfqviftrsm;pkyg0ifaom vltkyfpk }uD;ukd ESdrfeif;&eftrdef‹ukd jiif;qefcJh=u&m wm0ef&Sdyk*~dKvfrsm;u ppfom;rsm;udk òrdŒawmfrS qkwfcGmckdif;cJh =uygonf? q,f&ufcef‹ +Adwdo#wkd‹ yuf&S0gòrd@udk rxdef;csKyfEkdifcJh=uawmhyJ wm0ef&Sdt&m&Sdrsm; EkwfxGufcJh+yD;/ tcGefaiGaumuf,l a&;ESihf w&m;±kH;rsm; &yfwef‹oGm;cJh=uonftxd/ aus;vufa'orsm;txd r+idrfoufr_u ysHŒESH‹oGm;cJhygonf? jynfe,f aumfr&SifemcsKyftm0iftaejzifh pdwf"mwfusqif;ysufjym;aeonfh tajctaewGif &Sdaeonf[k qkdcJh=uygonf? a=umuf&GHŒajy;v$m;a&Smifwdrf;r_rsm;onf +Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfa&; tjcifrsm;=um;rS tv#Kdtv#Kd xGufay:I vmcJh=uygonf?

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‘òzdcGJESdrfeif;r_ESihf cHEkdif&nfpGrf;’ *ENDtzrf;rcH&rDtcsdeftxd/ tpdk;&taejzifh vlxktmcHqef‹usifr_udk udkifwG,fxdef;csKyf&ef r[mAsL[m[lI r&SdcJhyg? ol@tvdkvdk +idrfoufat;csrf;oGm;onftxd apmihfae&efom pOf;pm;xm;cJhonf? aemufykdif;wGif a'oqkdif&m t&m&Sd rsm;tm; txl;tm%mrsm; ay;tyfvmcJh+yD; vlxktmcHqef‹usifr_udk udkifwG,fajz&Sif;&eftwGuf olwkd‹taejzifh tiftm;ukd ajymifajymifwif;wif;tokH;ðyvmcJh=u&onf? *ENDtaejzifh 'ef'Dokd‹ rkdif (200) ausmfausmf taESmihf t,Suf t[ef‹twm;r&Sd csDwufcGifh&&SdcJh+yD;aemufydkif;/ tjcm;tdENd,om;rsm;taejzifh +Adwdo#tpkd;&.Oya'tm; csKd;azmufv#if Tr# nifnifomomqufqHcH&&ef ta=umif;r&Sdawmha=umif; odjrifem;vnfapcJhonf? arv tukefwGif a'oqkdif&m tm%mydkifrsm;u oydwfarSmufuef‹uGufolrsm;/ tpkd;&0efxrf;rsm;tm; +cdrf;ajcmufolrsm;/ tcGefraqmifa&;v_H‹aqmfolrsm;tm; ta&;,ltjypfay;&ef tcGihftm%m ay;tyfcJh=uygonf? ZGefv (3) &ufae‹wGif bk&ifcH.aumifpDrS jynfe,ftpdk;&rsm;tm; ‘vlxktmcHqef‹usefa&; pnf;±kH;a&;tzGJŒrsm;tm;’ rw&m;toif;tzGJ@rsm;tjzpf owfrSwfa=ujim&ef cGifhðycJh+yD; aEG&moDtukefwGif vkyfief;aumfrwDrsm;tm;/ ae&m trsm;pkwGif w&m;r0if tjzpfa=unmcJhygonf? axmifrsm;wGifvnf; uGef*&ufacgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh jynfhv#HoGm;yg onf? ae±l;ESifh yaw;wkd‹tygt0if uGef*&uf acgif;aqmifrsm; trsm;tjym;tzrf;cHcJh=u&ygonf? uGef*&uftzGJ@. pm&Gufpmwrf;rsm;udk qifqmjzwfawmuf&ef jyÏmef;owfrSwfvdkuf+yD; atmufwkdbmvwGif uef‹owfydwfyifcHxm;& aom tzGJŒtpnf;rsm;ykdifypPnf;rsm;ESifh taqmuftODrsm;udk pwifodrf;,lcJhygonf? tpkd;&u jyif;xefonfh ab; tEœ&m,f t=uyftwnf;wcktwGuf ta&;ay:tajctaetxl;Oya'wckudkvnf; jyifqifxm;&SdcJhygonf? v_yf&Sm;r_tm; acsr_ef;&ef +Adwdo#wkd‹. r[mAsL[mrSm tay:&Htm;jzifh ykdI txif}uD;av;pGm;zG,fvnf; &SdcJhygonf? pm;yGJ0kdif;awGŒqkHaqG;aEG;a&;udk atmufwkdbmvwGif pwif&rnfjzpf+yD; tm0ifu uGef*&uftzGJ@tm; ‚if;aqG;aEG;yGJudk wufa&muf&ef qEN&SdaeqJyif jzpfygonf? olŒtaejzifh uGef*&ufygwDrygyJ pm;yGJ0kdif;aqG;aEG;yGJxkdifjcif;onf olwkd‹tm; ydkrkdqkd;0g;pGm txD;wnf; jzpfusef&pfcJhapvdrhfrnfukd odjrifaecJh=uaom +Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfa&;tay: opPmapmifhod ae=uqJjzpfonfh tdENd,EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;ESifh twlwuG yg0ifaqG;aEG;Ekdif&ef ar#mfvihfxm;cJhygonf? xkd‹a=umifhyif olwkd‹xJrSESpfOD;onf *ENDESifh ae±l;wkd‹tm; tusOf;axmifwGif oGm;a&mufawGŒqkHcJh+yD; uGef*&ufygwDyg0ifvmatmif rnfokd‹vkyfaqmif&rnfudk oabmwlnDr_&&ef nd‡E_dif;cJh=uygonf? tjyefjyeftvSefvSef aqG;aEG;r_rsm;t+yD;wGif tusOf;om;ESpfOD;u tu,fI tjcm;tajctaersm;=um;wGif vlxktmcHqef‹usifa&;tusOf;om;rsm;tm;vkH;tm; v$wfay;v#if/ txl;Oya'rsm; zsufodrf;ay;v#if/ odrf;,lxm;aomajrrsm;tm; jyefay;tyfv#if/ oydwfarSmuf qef‹usifjcif;ESifh qm;csufjcif;tm;cGifhðyv#if/ +Adwdo#tifyg,mrS tdENd,EkdifiH. cGJxGufcGifhtm; todtrSwfðyv#if vkdufavsmrnf[k oabmwlnDcJh=uygonf? tm0ifrSm ‚if;us,fjyef‹aom awmif;qkdcsufrsm;tm; rvkdufavsmEkdifcJhyJ pufwifbmv yxrywfwGif tay;t,lvkyfr_udk ESpfzufpvkH;rS pGef‹v$wfvkdufcJh=uygonf? tm0if. r[mAsL[mjzpfonhf tajctae ykHrSeftwkdif; jyefjzpfap&ef zdESdyfr_ESifh aphpyfnd‡E_dif;r_ ESpfckyl;wGJ tokH;ðya&; rSm &yfwef@oGm;cJh&jyefygonf? okd‹&mwGif tpkd;&. udkifwG,faqmif&Gufr_rsm;jzpfonfh zrf;qD;jcif;rsm;/ txl;Oya'rsm;/ uef‹uGufqENjyolrsm;tay: t=urf;zufr_rsm;u vlxktmcHqef‹usifr_tm; ±_yfaxG;oGm;apcJhygonf? tu,fIom uGef*&uftzGJ@taejzifh v_yf&Sm;r_udk qufvufv_yf&Sm;xm;apEkdifcJhrnf/ ‚if;&,lxm;cJh+yD;onfh t&Sdef t[keftwkdif; &Sdae apEkdifcJhrnfqkdygu ydkrkdwif;wif;=uyf=uyfxdef;csKyf&ef tpkd;&.tm;xkwfr_tm;/ tm;aysmhcsdeJ@oGm;apEkdifcJhvdrhfrnf jzpfonf? xkdodk‹vkyf&efrSm uGef*&uftzGJ@taejzifh v_yf&Sm;r_wGif yg0ifyl;aygif;vkdolrsm;tm; t=urf;zufjcif;a=umifh a=umuf&GHŒacsmufcsm;roGm;=uap&ef taotcsmvrf;!$ef vkyfaqmifEkdifcJh&ef vdktyfygonf? 'g&moemqm;usif; odk‹r[kwf vufuaemif;tjzpftysufrSmuJhokd‹ qef‹usifuef‹uu G folrsm; trsm;tjym;ygvmaomtajctaeu vlxktm; tvG,fwulwkdufckdufcH&r_ jzpfapEdkfifygonf? xkd‹a=umifh uGef*&ufonf vlrsm;tm; eHygwfwkwf okd‹r[kwf usnfqHESihf &ifqkdifawGŒóuH&r_enf;onfh qm;csufjcif;/ t0wftpm;ESifh t&ufoydwfarSmufjcif;wkd‹uJhodk‹ ti,fpm; wuGJwjym;pDaqmif&Guf&aom v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk ydkI tav;ay;apcJhygonf? +Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfa&;pepftaejzifh zdESdyfr_twGuf wefzkd;}uD;}uD;rm;rm; wpkHw&may;qyf&rnfudk uGef*&ufygwDu em; vnfoabmaygufcJhygonf? *ENDtm; zrf;qD;vkdufjcif;u rsm;pGmaom òrdŒ}uD;òrdŒi,frsm;wGif qENjyyGJ}uD;rsm; taxGaxG oydwfrsm;udk jzpfay:apcJhovkd +Adwdo#tpdk;&ESifh yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufjcif;ukd &yfqkdif;ay;&ef awmif;qkdr_rsm;tm;

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

83


qef‹usifae=uqJjzpfonfh Oya'ðyaumifpDrsm;rS oabmxm;aysmhajymif;olwcsKdŒtm;vnf; EkwfxGufoGm;apEkdifcJhyg onf? v_yf&Sm;r_tay: wdrf;!Gwfol owif;pmorm;rsm;u vufeufrJhqef‹usifolrsm;tm; &Jrsm;u udkifwG,f aqmif&GufcJh=uykH xdwfvef‹wkefv_yfzG,f&m tjzpftysufrsm;udkvnf; tao;pdwf owif;ay;ydk‹cJh=u+yD;/ uGef*&uftzGJ@ uvnf; 'g&moemqm;usif;rS '%f&m&&Sdolrsm;. "mwfykHrsm;udkvnf; xkwfazmfjyocJh=uygonf? acsr_ef;ESdrfeif;&ef acsr_ef;&ef vkyfaqmifr_wkdif;tm; uGef*&uftzGJ@u tdENd,EkdifiHom;rsm;xHrS ykdrkdtm;aumif;aom axmufcHr_&,lEkdif atmif tokH;csEkdifcJh=uygonf? ,cktcsdefwGif olwkd‹taejzifh oEMdÏmefcsrSwfxm;+yD;jzpfaom &efolwOD;tm; &ifqkdifcJh&+yDjzpfa=umif; odoGm;onfh +Adwdo#tpkd;&u vlxktmcHqef‹usifr_tm; &yfqkdif;ypf&eftwGuf ‚if;v_yf&Sm;r_tm; armif;ESifr_ay;aeonfh tzGJŒ tpnf;tm; csdeJ‹tm;enf;oGm;atmif vkyfaqmif&efvdktyfa=umif; odjrifem;vnfvmygonf? olwkd‹u ‚if; e,fy,f ESifh qufoG,fae=uaom *sme,frsm;/ owif;pmrsm;udk wm;qD;&ef óud;pm;vmcJhaomtcsdefwGif uGef*&uftzGJ@u vufurf;pmapmifrsm; ±kdyfESdyfjzef‹jzL;jcif;jzifh wkef@jyefcJh=u+yD; tpdk;&u ykHESdyfpufrsm;udk odrf;qnf;vkdufaomtcg/ a'oqkdif&macgif;aqmifrsm;qDodk‹ pmrsm;/ oHóud;pmrsm;/ qufom;rsm;apv$wfjcif;jzifh wkH‹jyefcJh=ujyefygonf? zdESdyfr_ESifh &ifqkdif&mwGif tdENd,EkdifiH. yl;wGJaqmif&Gufr_tm;vkH; uef‹owfcHcJh&ygonf? jynfe,ftzGJŒ tpnf;rsm;twGuf tao;pdwf!¸ef=um;csufrsm; rxkwfjyefEdkifawmhyJ/ qm;tmcHqef‹usifr_ESifh t0wftpm;oydwfarSmufjcif;ufdk qufvufaqmif&Guf&ef/ t=urf;rzufrludk udkifpGJIa0zef±_wfcs&efom a,bl,sqefqef!$ef=um;awmif;qkdEdkifawmh ygonf? ‘wkdufyGJr[mAsL[monf a'oqkdif&mtajctae. jyÏmef;cHjzpf&rnf? ‚if;wdk‹ESifh tnD ae‹pOfajymif;vJae &rnf’ [k Zlvkdifv xkwf *END. EkysKdopfvGifaom tdENd, (Young India) *sme,fwGif pma&; q&mwa,mufu a=unmcJhygonf? tpkd;&u v_yf&Sm;r_udk tusOf;t=uyfawGŒapjcif;xuf wppDòyduGJoGm;ap&ef wkdufckdufcJhygonf? jynfe,facgif;aqmifrsm; tusOf;axmifwGif; a&mufoGm;aomtcsed fwGif a'ocH wufºuGv_yf&Sm;olrsm;onf Oya'csKd;azmufonfhtqifhokd‹ a&muf&SdvmcJh=uygonf? ‘euf&_dif;us,fjyef‹aom ckcHawmfvSefa&;’ v_yf&Sm;r_acgif;aqmifwOD;taejzifh *END. &,latmifjrifr_rSm txufwef;v$mvlenf;pk tjrwfwEkd;xm;aom jrihfrm;onfhyef;wkdifwckjzpfonfh trsKd;om;vGwfvyfa&;udk oef;aygif;rsm;pGmaom tdENd,EkdifiHom;rsm;tm; tweftoifhwkd;wufr_rsm;ay;Ekdif+yD; tusKd;pD;yGm;&v'f xGufay:vmEkdifaom vufawGŒusonfh awmif;qkdcsuf rsm;ESifh aygif;pyfay;EkdifcJhygonf? T&nfrSef;csufaygufajrmufatmif axmufcHtm;ay;r_udkvnf; qxufwefydk; jzpfvmatmif aygif;pnf;&,lapEkdifcJhjcif;yif jzpfygonf? tdENd,EkdifiHom;wdk‹taejzifh qm;tay: tpkd;&. w&m; r#wr_r&Sdaom vuf0g;}uD;tkyfxm;r_rS vGwfajrmufatmif óud;pm;jcif;jzifh ukd,fykdiftkyfcsKyfcGifhtwGuf yxrOD;pGm wkdufyGJ0ifoihfonf[k olu jrifygonf? aemufykdif;vrsm;wGif a'oqkdif&macgif;aqmifrsm;u qef‹usifuef‹uGufr_ rsm;udk pkpnf;Ekdifonfh tvm;wlta=umif;t&mrsm;udk em;vnfoabmaygufvmcJh=uygonf? +Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfa&; tdENd,EkdifiHom;wdk‹ . toufarG;0rf;a=umif;r_e,fy,fxJodk‹ csOf;eif;usL;ausmfvmonfh ae&mwkdif;onf ckcHawmfvSef a&;. tvm;tvmaumif;aom ypfrSwfwckjzpfcJhygonf? vlxktmcHqef‹usifr_. acgif;trmqkH;aom wpkdufrwfrwfaqmif&Gufolrsm;rSm bkHabajrmufykdif; ajr=oZm aumif; aom vGifjyifrsm;wGif aexkdif=uaom ywD'g (Patidars) rsm; jzpf=uygonf? Tae&m&Sd v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;avmuf tdENd,EkdifiH. tjcm;rnfonfhae&murS uGef*&ufygwD/ *END.v_yf&Sm;r_ESifh nD!Gwfaomtiftm;wcktjzpfacsmarGŒpGm aygif;pnf;oGm;aomtajctae/ vltrsm;ESpfoufaxmufcHaom cHpm;r_ rðyvkyfEkdifcJh=uyg? *ENDESifhtwl a'ouGef*&uf acgif;aqmif AvA[dkif yaw;onf *l*sm&wfudk tðyoabmvkyfief;rsm;aygufzGm;&m ae&mwcktjzpf (1920) ckESpfrsm; twGif; ajymif;vJypfcJhygonf? olwkd‹onf jynfolvlxk. opPm&Sdr_udk t&,lEkdifcJhaom ti,fpm; o=u*[tmcHa&; vkyfief; tawmfrsm;rsm;ukd OD;aqmifEkdifcJh=uygonf? ywD'grsm;onf rma=um=urf;wrf;r_/ ukd,hftm;ukd,fukd;r_ESifh aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfr_rsm;twGuf us,fus,fjyef‹jyef‹ ±kdao av;pm;cHcJh&olrsm; jzpfygonf? olwkd‹onf urBmajr}uD;ay:wGif tqkd;jzpfap/ taumif;jzpfap wpkHw&mudk atmifjrif +yD;qkH;atmif pGrf;aqmifEkdifolrsm; jzpfygonf’ [k (1930) ckESpfu av;pm;cef‹nm;cJh&aom tcGefaumufolwOD;u rSwfwrf; Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

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wifxm;cJhygonf? ‘olwkd‹. pGrf;aqmif&nfjynfh0r_ESifh &nf&G,fcsuftay: ckdifrm jywfom;r_wkd‹onf tvGef tHh=op&m aumif;vSygonf?’ Todk‹tm;jzifh olwkd‹onf vlxktmcHqef‹usifr_twGuf obm0ESifh wom;wnf;&SdcJh =u+yD; 'ef'Durf;ajcokd‹ *ENDa&mufv#if a&mufjcif;yif *l*s&wfurf;±kd;wrf;a'owGif qm;csufvkyfief; pwifcJh=uygonf? axmifaygif;rsm;pGmaom vlrsm;onf qm;csufvkyf&ef a&mif;cs&eftwGuf zrf;qD;r_ESifh ±kdufESufr_rsm;udk &J&J&ifh&ifh &ifqkdifcJh=uygonf? okd‹&mwGif ywD'gwkd‹twGufrl ajrcGefudpPonf toufjzpfygonf? +Adwdo#wkd‹u ywD'grsm; (ESihf tjcm;tdENd, EkdifiH om;rsm;) xGef,ufpkdufysKd;cJh=uaom ajr,mrsm;tm;vkH;. ydkif&SiftppftrSefrsm;tjzpf olwkd‹udk,folwkd‹ oabmxm; cJhygonf? olwkd‹u ajr,mwefzkd;jzwfiSm;&rf;c ,lcJh=uygonf? tcGefaiG rxrf;aqmifjcif;onf vGefcJhonfhumvrsm;u *l*sm&wf&Sd ywD'grsm; vkyfaqmifcJhonfhtvkyfjzpf+yD;/ r&Sdrjzpfonfh &if;jrpfwcktwGuf +Adwdo#wkd‹. w&m;0ifjzpfr_udk jiif;qkdonfh vGwfvyfa&;zGihf[csufwckvnf; jzpfcJhygonf? ‚if;onf tpdk;&. v_yf&Sm;aqmif&Gufr_rsm;tm; trSef wu,fysufpD;atmif vkyfEkdifcJhaom t=urf;rzufta&;,lydwfqkd‹r_ wckvnf; jzpfcJhygonf? ajrcGefOya'tm; csKd;azmuf&ef aoG;xkd;v_H‹aqmfr_onf vlxktmcHqef‹usifr_tm; w&m;0ifpwifrv_yf&Sm;rD vaygif; rsm;pGmuyif pwifcJhjcif;jzpfygonf? tpyxrwGif v_yf&Sm;r_tm; qm;wckwnf;twGufom uef‹owfxm;vdkaom *ENDa=umifh pdwfysufcJh&aom yaw;onf ac'gc±kdif (Kheda District) rS v,form;rsm;ESihf awGŒqkHcJh+yD; olwkd‹tm; tcGefaiGay;aqmifjcif; &yfqkdif;&ef wkdufwGef;cJhygonf? c±kdiftcGefaumuf,la&;rSL;u &mhpf (Ras) &GmY yaw;tm; zrf;qD;cdkif;cJh+yD; zrf;qD;r_tm; pdefac:onfhtaejzifh &Gmom;rsm;u tem;ywf0ef;usif&Gmrsm;rS ywD'grsm;tm; pm&if;wif oGif;I tcGefaiGay;aqmifjcif;udk &yfqkdif;ypfcJh=uygonf? qm;v_yf&Sm;r_csDwufolrsm; rwfv (19) &ufae‹wGif &mhpf&Gm okd‹ a&muf&Sdvmaomtcg *ENDu ywD'grsm;tm; aemufqkwfE_wfxGufapvkdcJhaomfvnf;/ aemufqkH;wGif v_yf&Sm;r_tm; axmufcHtm;ay;&ef wm0ef&Sdonf[k cHpm;rdojzifh tpdk;&taejzifh wkef@jyefr_ aysmhaysmif;vdrfhrnfr[kwfa=umif;/ owday;+yD; qufvufvkyfaqmifapcJhygonf? ajrcGefaumufcHolrsm;u tcGefawmfaiGtpm; olwkd‹.ykdifqkdifaomypPnf;rsm;tm; odrf;,laejcif;udk umuG,fwm;qD; &ef ywD'gwkd‹u olwkd‹. tkd;cGufyef;uefrsm;/ vuf0wfvufpm;rsm;ESifh tjcm; wefzkd;&SdonfhypPnf;rsm;udk xkyfydk; odrf;qnf;I olwdk‹aqGrsKd;om;csif;rsm;&Sdonfh bm±kd'g (Baroda) e,fpyfukd vSnf;rsm;jzifh jzwfoef; 0ifa&mufcJh=uyg onf? olwdk‹vl ywD'grsm;. wkH‹jyefr_udk pOf;pm;rdcJh=uaom bm±kd'g wm0ef&Sdyk*~Kdvfrsm;u ‚if;ypPnf;rsm;udk odrf;,l&ef jiif;qefcJh=uygonf? arvv,fwGif xkdtcsdefu zrf;qD;cHxm;&aom yaw;ESifh *ENDtm; tusOf;axmifrSv$wfay;&ef awmif;qkdr_ESihfcsdwfqufI tcGefray;aqmifa&; v_yf&Sm;tm;xkwfr_onf *l*s&wf. tjcm;a'orsm;okd‹ jyef@ESH‹oGm;cJhyg onf? okd‹aomf wu,fhwkdufyGJrSm aemufwywf tcGefaiGay;aqmif&rnfh tcsed f 'DZifbmvtxd vtawmf=um jzpf ay:rvmcJhao;yg? bkHabtm%mydkifwkd‹. awmif;qkdr_a=umifh A[kdtpdk;&u tcGefaiGray;aqmifvkdI pGef‹v$wfcJhaom ajr,mrsm;udk ydkif&Sifrsm;tm; jyefray;&efESihf tvkyfwm0efrsm;udkxm;cJhI xGufcGmoGm;cJh=uonfh wm0ef&Sdolrsm;tm; tvkyfjyefray;&ef trdef‹xkwfjyefcJhygonf? *l*sm&wf&Sd uGef*&ufpnf;±kH;a&;orm;rsm;u olwkd‹tm; vkdvm;=uolrsm; t=urf;zufr_rðyvkyf&ef taumif;qkH; óud;pm;cJh=uygonf? ac'gc±kdifwGif t=urf;zuf vufpm;acsvkdpdwf&Sd=uonfh bm±kdif& (Baraiya) rsKd;ZmwfEG,f0if ajrykdif&Sifrsm;tm; ajrcGefray;aqmifa&; v_yf&Sm;r_twGif; yg0ifvmatmif qGJaqmifodrf;oGif;jcif;tm;jzifh/ xdkolwkd‹. vufpm;acsv_yf&Sm;rnfh&efrS a&Smif&Sm;cJh=uygonf? atmh'f (Od) aus;&Gmacgif;aqmifrsm;uawmh ygwD'grsm;ESifh b±kdif&tkyfpkwcku vltrsm;pk rkef;wD;aecJhaom &Jt&m&Sdwa,muftm; wkdufckduf&efðy+yD;csdefrSpI tcGefray;aqmif a&;udk y,fcs&yfwef‹ypfcJh=uonftxd jzpfoGm;cJh=uygonf? óudwifowdxm;r_rsm;jzifh vufpm;racsa&;/ tcGefray; aqmifa&;v_yf&Sm;r_tm; t=urf;zufr_ uif;rJhaeap&ef óud;pm;cJh=uaomfvnf;/ vnf; ywD'grsm;v$rf;rkd;aom aus;&Gm rsm;txd aygufa&mufr_tus,ftjyef@ r&SdEdkifcJh=uyg? aqmif;&moD0ifvmcJhaomtcsed fwGif ywD'gwkd‹u oD;ESHrsm; &dyfodrf;a&mif;cs&ef vdktyfvm+yD; olwkd‹tm;wm;qD; [ef‹wm;jcif;ðyrvmrD &&Sdxm;aomaiGa=u;rsm;udkvnf; bm±kd'ge,fpyfokd‹ ,laqmifoGm;vkdcJh=uygonf? okd‹aomf vnf; tcGefaiGaumufcHolwkd‹u aumufESHrsm; v,fuGif;xJwGif &SdaeqJtcsdef ESpfcsKyftcGefaiGrsm;udk apmpD;pGm vkdufvHaumufcHcJh=uygonf? wckaomreufcif;wGif x&yfum;wpD;wkduf&Sdaom &Jrsm; a&muf&SdvmcJh=u+yD;/ &Gmom;rsm;udk 0kdif;xm;cJh=u+yD; &Gmol&Gmom;rsm;tm; ±kdufESufI olwkd‹0wfqifxm;cJh=uaom a&$xnfrsm;udk c|wf,lcJh=uygonf? wcsKdŒrSm óud;jzifhwkyfaESmifI t±kdufcH=u&/ tcsKdŒrSm &Jrsm;u tdrfrsm;twGif; csKd;zsuf 0ifa&mufI tzkd;wefypPnf;rsm;tm; qGJcsae=uonfhtcsdefwGif &GmvnfacgifY ukd,fvkH;wD;u|wfjzifh rwfwyf&yfae&ef twif; tusyf apckdif;jcif;cHcJh&ygonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

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okd‹&mwGif ywD'grsm;wGif aemufxyfupm;&ef zJwcsyf usef&Sdaeygao;onf? Tenf; rSm vlaygif; ESpfaomif;ausmfausmf bm±kd'gEkdifiHxJodk‹ wòyHwr0ifa&mufI &GufzsifwJrsm;xkd;I aexdkifcJh=ujcif; jzpf ygonf? ‘&Gmaygif;rsm;pGmrSm vkH;0pGef‹ypfxm;cHcJh&ygonf’ ‘ydkifqkdifor# ypPnf;tm;vkH; z,f&Sif;ypfjcif; cHae&onf ukd jywif;aygufrsm;rS u|EkfyfjrifawGŒcJh&+yD; arsmufwaumifwavu tdrfacgifrkd;wckay:rS ckefqGckefqGjzifh vrf;uav;udk jzwful;oGm;csdefrsKd;rSvGJI vrf;rSm +idrfoufwdwfqdwfaeygonf?’ [k +Adwdo#owif;pmq&mwOD;u Ta'otajc taeudk owif;ay;ykd‹cJhygonf? ajrcGefawmf qef‹usifckcHr_onf Owmy&m'uf&Sf (U.P) wGifvnf; jzpfyGm;cJhygonf? urBmw0ef; pD;yGm;a&;usqif;r_ a=umifh (1930) ckESpf 'kwd,ESpf0ufwGif pdkufysKd;a&;xkwfukefrsm;. aps;E_ef;rsm; w[kefxkd;usqif;vmojzihf v,f orm;trsm;pktwGuf ajrcGefonf onf;rcHEkdifp&m 0efxkyf0efykd;wck jzpfvmcJh+yD; aEG&moDumvwGif ajrcGefray; aqmifa&; tmcHqef‹usifr_tkHºuGay:aygufvmap&ef zdtm;jzpfcJhygonf? atmufwkdbmvwGif Owmy&m'uf&Sf&Sd uGef*&ufygwDu ‚if;v_yf&Sm;r_udkvufcHóudqkdcJhygonf? pnf;±kH;v_HŒaqmfolrsm;u pDwef;vSnfhvnfyGJrsm;/ pnf;a0;yGJrsm; ðyvkyf+yD; wufa&mufvmolrsm;tm; ckcHqef‹usifr_wGif yl;aygif;yg0ifvkda=umif; tqkdðyv$mrsm; a&;om;wifoGif; apcJhygonf? &Jrsm;u aumufyJoD;ESHrsm;tm; zsufqD;ypfjcif;/ arG;jrLxm;aom wd&p>mefrsm;tm; armif;xkwfypf jcif;rsm;jzifh jyif;jyif;xefxef xkd;ESufwkef@jyefcJhygonf? tcsKdŒa'orsm;wGif v,form;rsm;u tcGefaumufcHolrsm; vufvSrf;rrDEkdifaomae&mrsm;okd‹ tpkvkduf tòyHvkduf a&$Œajymif;aexkdifr_rsm; ðyvkyfcJh=uygonf? tdENd,EkdifiH. tjcm;tpdwftykdif;rsm;wGif tcGefqef‹usifa&;v_yf&Sm;r_. t"duypfrSwfrSm a'owGif; t0iftxGuf toGm;tvmrsm;tm; &Judk owif;ay;ydk‹&aom csLuD'g;&D;pf (Chaukidaris) [k od=uaom apmifh=unfholrsm; twGuf &Gmrsm;u ay;aqmif&aom tcGefaiGjzpfygonf? rpfemyl&fa'orS v,form;rsm;rSm aus;vufvlr_b0xJodk‹ xkdokd‹usL;ausmfxkd;azmufvmr_tay: a'gojzpfcJh=u+yD; xkdolrsm;twGufyg tcGefaiGxrf;aqmifay;cJh&jcif;u olwkd‹ tm; ydkIcg;onf; emusnf;apcJhygonf? rkwfokef&moD0ifa&mufvmr_a=umihf qm; tmcHqef‹usifr_ &yfqkdif;xm; vkduf&onfhtcsdefwGif csLuD'g&Dpfrsm;onf vlxkqef‹usiftmcHr_. OD;wnfwkdufckduf&mypfrSwfrsm; jzpfvmcJh=uygonf? csLuD'g&Dpfrsm; tygt0if aus;&Gmwm0ef&Sdyk*~Kdvfrsm;rSm pdwftaESmifht,Suftay;cHcJh=u 0kdif;z,fusOfxm;cHcJh=u& ygonf? csLuD'g&Dpf vlOD;a&waxmifcef‹ tvkyfrSE_wfxGufcJh=u+yD; tcsKdŒae&mrsm;wGif vlq,fa,mufwGif &Spfa,mufcef‹txd tcGefaiGay;aqmif&ef jiif;qefcJh=uygonf? ukef;wGif;usaom tv,fydkif;jynfe,frsm;wGif aexkdif=uaom *Gef; (Gond) ESifh aumhul; (Korku) vlrsKd;pkrsm;tzkd‹ qm;csufvkyf&ef rvG,fulvSyg? olwkd‹onf EkdifiHykdifopfawmrsm;udk tokH;ðyEkdifcGifh uef‹owfcsKyfcs,fr_rsm;ESifh xkdae&m rsm;wGif arG;jrLxm;aom wd&p>mefrsm; pm;usufcscGifh&&Sda&;twGuf jrifhrm;aomtzdk;tcrsm; ay;&jcif;uJhodk‹ aom ydkIqkd;0g;onfh rw&m; rr#wr_rsm;udk óuHawG@ae=u&ygonf? aEG&moDwGif wkwfrsm;/ ykqdefrsm; ukdifaqmifxm;=u aom vlaygif;rsm;pGm opfawmrsm;okd‹ csOf;eif;0ifa&mufvmcJh=u+yD; opfyif0g;yifrsm; ckwf,lcJh=uygonf? olwkd‹.u|J EGm;rsm;udk Oya'udkqef@usifI pm;usufcscJh=uygonf? +Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfa&;rSm EkdifiHykdifypPnf;rsm;tm; zsufqD;aejcif;udk &yfqkdif;ypf&ef t=urf;enf;tokH;ðyzkd‹ tqifoifh&SdaecJhygonf? ‘u|Ekfyftaejzifh jyif;jyif;xefxef ±kdufESuf+yD; tenf; tusOf; ypfcwf&aumif; ypfcwf&ygvdrhfrnf’ [k ZlvkdifvtaESmif;ykdif;wGif tkyfcsKyfa&;rSL;u tpD&ifcH wifjycJhygonf? atmufwkdbmvukefykdif;wGif opfawmpD;eif;0ifa&mufr_rsm;tm; &Jujyif;xefpGm ESdrfeif;ta&;,lcJhygonf? aus;vufvlxk tmcHqef‹usifr_wGif uGef*&uftzGJ@taejzifh vlxktrsm;vufcHESpfoufaom v_yf&Sm;r_.aemufwGif usefaecJha=umif; r=umc%awGŒ&SdcJh&+yD; tcsKdŒaom!¸ef=um;csufrsm;udk azmfaqmif&efESifh t=urf;zufr_rsm; rjzpfay: ap&ef apmifh=unfh ppfaq;&efom tm;pkdufcGefpkdufóud;pm;aqmif&GufcJh=u&ygonf? (t+rJwrf;ratmifjrifcJhyg) òrdŒ}uD; rsm;rS qef‹usifuef‹uGufr_rsm;rSmrl qef‹usifbuftm;jzifh uGef*&uf. OD;aqmifv_yf&Sm;r_jzifh jzpfyGm;cJh&jcif;rsm;+yD;/ pHerlemtjzpftysufrsm;ESifhvnf; tajccHtm;jzifh wqufpyfwnf; &SdaecJhygonf? t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_ wDxGif }uHq r_t&mwGif bkHabxufykdI tjcm;rnfonfhae&mrS romvGefEkdifcJhyg? qm;qef‹usifuef‹uGufr_ avsmhus oGm;onhftcg uGef*&ufu uef‹uGufoydwfarSmufolrsm;tm; t0wftxnfESifh t&ufpwkd;qkdifrsm;a&S› vrf;rsm;ay:wGif uif;vSnfh &ef/ 0g'jzef‹pmrsm;jzef‹a0&ef/ nbufwGif EkdifiHjcm;jzpft0wftxnfrsm;tm; rD;ykH±_dŒ&efESihf vlaxmifaygif;rsm;pGm wuf a&mufaom pnf;a0;yGJ}uD;rsm;usif;y+yD; &J. rawmfrw&m;ðyr_rsm;/ zrf;qD;r_rsm;tm; qef‹usifuef‹uGufonfh tcsdef ydkif; taxGaxGoydwfrsm;a=unm&ef/ vrf;rsm;ay: c&D;&Snfcsw D ufr_rsm;tm; OD;aqmifr_ay;&ef wm0efay;tyfcJhygonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

86


tjrifhwufqkH; v_yf&Sm;r_rSm 'DZifbmv (12) &ufae‹Y bkHabwGif jzpfyGm;cJhygonf? uGef*&uftzGJ@rS xkwfjyefcsuft& EkdifiHjcm;jzpfukefypPnf;rsm; o,faqmifvmaom x&yfum;rsm;tm; wm;qD;&ef uef‹uGufoydwfarSmufolrsm; vrf; ay:wGif vSJcsvkdufonfhtcsdefwGif/ vli,fwOD;onf um;t}udwfcH&+yD;aoqkH;oGm; cJh&ygonf? owif;onf wòrdŒvkH; jyef@ESH‹pD;qif;oGm;cJh+yD; nykdif;wGif xkda=uuGJ0rf;enf;p&mtjzpf jzpfysufcJhaom ae&modk‹ vlrsm;vma&muf0wfðy qkawmif;cJh=uygonf? aemufwae‹wGif uGef*&uftzGJ@. v_yf&Sm;olrsm;u tjzpftysuf owif;vufurf;pmapmif rsm; ay;a0cJh=u+yD; aoqkH;ol.tavmif;tm; o,faqmifvmonfhvlwef;}uD;tm; acsmifywWD (Chowpatty) urf;ajc&Sd&modk‹ OD;aqmifoGm;cJh=uygonf? &Jrsm;u olwkd‹oGm;rnfhvrf;tm; vSHpGyfrsm;jzifh ydwfqkd‹wm;qD;cJh=u+yD; teD;tem; vrf;rsm;ay:rS apmifh=unfhaeolrsm;tm;vnf; zrf;qD;w&m;pGJqkdcJhygonf? wae‹wmvkH; ESpfzuftcsif;rsm; cJh=uygonf? +yD;onfESifh aoqkH;cJh&mae&monf yef;rsm;zkH;v$rf;aeaom bk&m;pifwckjzpfoGm;+yD; a&S@ucsESifhcJhaom yef;pnf;wcktm; &Ju z,f&Sm;&Sif;vif;vkdufonfhae&modk‹ yef;pnf;topfrsm; csufcsif;a&muf&SdvmcJhygonf? ‘+Adwdo#tpdk;&udkqef‹usifwJh a'go"mwfudk od&SdcHpm;zdk‹qdk&if cifAsm;wkd‹ bkHabrSm &SdaecJh=uzdk@aumif;w,f’ [k tmvl; 'wfpfwm (Aloo Dastur) u jyefajymjycJhygonf? r'&yfòrdŒawmf/ umvuwWm;òrdŒawmfESihf tjcm;ae&mrsm;rS uGef*&ufpnf;±kH;a&;rSL;rsm;u tvm;wl enf;y&d,m,f rsm;ukd cH,lusifhokH;cJh=u+yD; +Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfa&;tm; ajAmifqef‹usiftmcH=uygonf? odk‹r[kwf vlxkESifhqkdifaomae&m rsm;udk xdef;csKyfxm;cJh=uygonf? wcgw&H &Jrsm;u ‚if;wkd‹tm; onftwkdif;=unfhaecJh=u+yD; tjcm;tcsdefrsm;wGif eHygwfwkwfrsm;ESifh òzdcGJcHcJh=u&ygonf? apmihf=unfh&ef a&muf&SdvmcJh=uaom &maygif;axmifaygif;rsm;pGm&Sdonfh omref jynfolvlxk}uD;. tusKd;pD;yGm;twGuf pDpOfpOf;pm;cJh=uonfh ‚if;xdyfwkduf&ifqdkifr_rsm;onf +Adwdo# tkyfcsKyfa&; twGuf jrifomxif&Sm; xdckdufysufpD;r_tenf;tusOf;r#om vkyfaqmifEkdifcJh=uygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; t=urf;rzuf onfh trsKd;om;/ trsKd;orD;rsm;udk &Jrsm;u wkdufckdufESdrfeif;onfhjrifuGif;u vlx. k }uD;rm;aom pmemaxmufcHr_udk &&SdapcJhygonf? wzufwGifvnf; twkduftckdufjzpfaprnfhbufokd‹ OD;wnfonfhv_yf&Sm;r_wGif toGm;ESpfzuf&Sdygonf? ‚if;. tpGef; wzufu t=urf;zufr_vkdvm;olrsm;ukd qGJoGif;ovkdjzpfoGm;+yD; t=urf;zufr_twGuf wm0ef&Sdr_udk us,fjyef‹oGm;ap ygonf? =unfh±_olrsm;udk a=umuf&GHŒoGm;apygonf? xkd‹tjyif v_yf&Sm;r_tm; aES;auG;oGm;apEkdifaom ydkIjyif;xef =urf;wrf;onfh acsr_ef;r_ESifh &ifqkdif&p&m tEœ&m,fvnf; &Sdaeygao;onf? vlxktmcHqef‹usifr_onf pkaygif;v_yf&Sm;r_ykHo¿mef jzpfygonf? okd‹&mwGif v_yf&Sm;r_wGif yg0ifyl;aygif;vmol wOD; csif;taejzifh yk*~KdvfwOD;csif;qkdif&m qkH;jzwfcsufrsm;ESifh eifheifheJeJ oufqkdifaeygonf? vm[kd; (Lahore) rS wuUodkvf ausmif;om;rsm;u wtdrfwufqif; EkdifiHjcm;t0wftpm;rsm;udk vkdufvHpkaqmif;=u+yD; }uD;rm;onfh rD;ykH}uD;ay: wifI ±_dŒypf=ujcif;jzifh olwkd‹.wm0efudk &,lcJh=uygonf? &SDAm'l0 (Shiva Dua) .rdom;pkrSm um'D (Khadi) jynfwGif;jzpftxnfukd ajymif;vJ0wfqif=u+yD; EkdifiHjcm;jzpft0wftxnftrsm;pkukd pGef‹v$wfcJh=uygonf? usef&Sd aeaomt&mrSm 'l0 (Dua) aoqkH;oGm;olrdcifxHrS tarG&&SdcJhaom qm&Dwxnfygjzpfygonf? olrtaejzifh ‚if;ukd rD;ykHxJodk‹xnfhypfI r&EkdifcJhyg? okd‹aomf olr.tdrfeD;em;csif;rsm;u atmufzufvrf;ray:&Sd ausmif;om;rsm;qDokd‹ t0wftxnfrsm; ypfcsaeonfudk jrifawGŒ&onfhtcg olrvnf; vkyf&awmhrnfukd od&SdoGm;cJhygonf? ‘tarh[m awmh tarygyJ’ ‘'gayr,fh trdEkdifiHu tarhxufykd+yD; jrihfrm;w,fqkdawmh qm&Dvnf; oGm;awmhaygah v/ 'ga=umifh usr tJ'gukd ay;vdkufcJhwmyg’ [k olru ydkif;ykdif;jzwfjzwf ajymcJhygonf? +Adwdo#acgif;aqmifrsm;a&m uGef*&ufacgif;aqmifrsm;yg v_yf&Sm;r_xJodk‹ trsKd;orD;rsm; Tr# xufoeftm;aumif;pGm yg0ifvm=uvdrhfrnf[k ar#mfvihfrxm;cJhyg? trsKd;orD;rsm;u urf;ajcokd‹ a&waumif;}uD;rsm;tm; o,f aqmifoGm;cJh =u+yD; qm;csuf=uygonf? aus;&Gmrsm;wGif olwkd‹u odrf;qnf;ypPnf;rsm; avvHwifa&mif;csr_udk oydwfarSmufcJh=u +yD; 0,f,lolrsm;udkvnf; pdwftaESmifht,Sufay; t&Suf&apcJh=uygonf? olwkd‹onf &Jrsm;. ±kdufESufjcif;udk cHcJh& ovkd (1930) ckESpftwGif;wGif trsKd;orD; (20˜000) cef‹ axmifcscHcJh=u&ygonf? trsKd;orD;rsm;onf vlxktmcHqef‹ usifr_. jynfe,fESifh tdENd,EkdifiHvkH;qkdif&m tm%m&Sifrsm; jzpfvmcJh=uygonf? ‘+Adwdo#tpdk;&tm; tdENd,trsKd;orD; rsm;u xdwfvef‹tHh=ooGm;apcJhygonf?‘ ‘usrwkd‹[m usrwkd‹tdrfawG&JŒ eH&Hav;zufxJrSmyJ auseyfa&mihf&JaewwfwJh &Suf&GHŒtm;i,fwwfwJh pmrwwf ayrwwf trsKd;orD;awGr[kwfbl;’ [k vm[kd ausmif;om;qef‹usifuef‹uGufr_rsm; udk pnf; ±kH;v_HŒaqmfcJholwOD;u a&;om;cJhygonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

87


*ENDrSm tmcHqef‹usifr_twGuf pHðyv_yf&Sm;olrsm; jzpfvmapEkdifcJhonfh ydkI udk,fusihfoduQmoef‹pifr_ESifh temcHEkdifonfh pGrf;&nfrsm; trsKd;orD;wkd‹wGif ykdifqkdifxm;a=umif; odjrifcJhaomfvnf; trsKd;orD;rsm;ESihfywfoufv#if tpOftvm "avhxkH;pH 0g'DwOD;om jzpfcJhygonf? olonf tpydkif;wGif trsKd;orD;rsm;tm; Adkif;iifjcif;ESifh rdom;pktwGuf jynfwGif; jzpftxnf ,ufvkyfay;jcif;wkd‹wGifom uef‹owfxm;vkdpdwf &SdcJhygonf? aemufykdif;rSom olwkd‹tm; Oya'csKd;azmuf onfhtvkyfudk a,mufsm;rsm;omvkyfoifha=umif; ajymqkd+yD; t0wftpm;ESifh t&uf oydwfarSmufqef‹usifa&;wGif yg0ifaqmif&GufcGifhay;cJhygonf? trsKd;orD;rsm;u xkdcGJjcm;z,f&Sm;xm;r_ESifh ywfouf+yD; jyif;jyif;xefxef rausreyf jzpfvmcJhaom tcsdefa&mufrSom olaemifw&&SdcJhygonf? olŒtaejzifh trsKd;orD;tawmfrsm;rsm;tm; vlxktmcHqef‹ usifr_wGif yg0ifaqmif&Guf&ef vkyfaqmifr_&SdcJhonfrSm aocsmaomfvnf; trsm;pkrSm olŒa=umihfr[kwfyJ olwkd‹. udk,fykdifodjrifem;vnfr_ESifh yg0ifaqmif&Gufvmolrsm;jzpfygonf? ‘xdef;csKyfxm;jcif;/ tajccHajrudk qkH;±_H;apjcif;’ +Adwdo#wkd‹u t+yD;wkdif acsr_ef;&Sif;vif;ypf&ef tn‡mtwmrJhaqmif&Gufr_rsm; vkycf Jhaomfvnf; vlxktmcH qef‹usifr_ onf (1930) ckESpftawmtwGif; tdENd,EkdifiH. jynfe,fwkdif;okd‹ vufawGŒtajctaetm;jzifh aygufuGJ jzpfyGm;vmcJh ygonf? t}udrf}udrfyif tvm;wltajctaetwkdif; +Adwdo#tpdk;&taejzifh xdef;csKyfr_ jyefvnf&&Sdap&ef &Jrsm;tay: wGif rSDckdtm;ðycJh&ygonf? yuf&S0gwGif tcsdefwkdumvw}udrf/ *l*s&wfwGif vaygif;rsm;pGm eHygwfwkwfrsm;jzifh ±kdufESuf jcif;/ axmifcsjcif;rsm;jzifhyif xdef;csKyfIr&Ekdif jzpfcJhygonf? wm0ef&Sdtm%mydkifrsm;u olwkd‹taejzifh wcsKdŒae&mrsm; wGif tkyfcsKyfIyifr&awmha=umif; 0efcHcJh=uygonf? a&S›wef;usonfhae&m tawmfrsm;rsm;wGif ajrmufjrm;vSaom ta&;,lydwfqkd‹r_rsm;a=umifh/ +Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfa&;. b¾ma&;ESifh pdwf"mwfa&;&m tajccHtaqmuftODydkif;wGif tjyif;txef epfemqkH;±_H;r_rsm; jzpfapcJhygonf? t&ufoydwf/ ajrcGefawmfray;aqmifa&;ESifh csufuD'g&Dpfwdk@twGuf 0efaqmifcay;aqmif&r_/ opfawmpD;eif;r_ tm;vkH;u jynfe,ftawmfrsm;rsm;wGif tcGefaiGrsm;pGm usqif;oGm;apcJhygonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh bD[mESifh tv,fydkif; a'o (pD/ yD) wkd‹onf t&uftcGefaiGay:wGif rsm;pGmtrSDðyae&ojzifh ‚if;ae&mrsm;rS t&ufoydwfarSmufqef‹usifjcif; onf csufcsif;vufiif; xdckdufepfemapcJhygonf? t0wftxnf oydwfarSmufqef‹usifr_u A[kdtpdk;&u wkd;jr‡ifhowf rSwfxm;cJhaom taumufcGefa=u;rsm;udk avsmhusoGm;apcJhygonf? (+AdwdefjynfwGifvnf; pufr_vkyfief;qkdif&m tusKd; pD;yGm;rsm;udk xdckdufepfematmif xkd;ESufcHcJh&ygonf) t0wftxnf wifoGif;ukefwefzkd;rSm wESpfv#if xuf0ufr# usqif;vmcJhygonf? pD;yGm;a&;ysufuyfrSm wpdwftykdif;tm;jzifh ‚if;a=umifh jzpfcJh&jcif;jzpfygonf? ta=umif;rSm ‚if;u tdENd,pm;okH;olrsm;. 0,fvkdtm;udk jzwfawmufypfcJhaoma=umifh jzpfygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; t0wftxnf wifoGif;r_ usqif;r_u tjcm;vlokH;ukefypPnf;rsm;xuf rsm;pGm}uD;rm;cJh+yD; oydwf.rwljcm;em; xda&mufr_udk ay:vGif apcJhygonf? t=urf;rzuf ta&;,lydwfqkd‹r_rsm;a=umifh jzpfcJh&aom b¾ma&;tcuftcJrSm &Jvkyfief;rsm;. ukefusp&dwf }uD;rm;r_a=umifh ,dkpD;r_topfrsm;ESihf xyfrHusyfwnf;cufcJvmcJhygonf? ywD'grsm;ESifh v_yf&Sm;aqmif&GufcJhaom qm;csDwufr_rS (1931 ckESpftxd v_yf&Sm;aqmif&GufqJ) ajcmufaomif;cef‹om jynfolvlxkrsm;rSm vlxktmcH qef‹usifr_a=umifh wcsdefr[kwfwcsdef zrf;qD;axmifcsjcif; cHcJh&ygonf? bkHab/ b*Fvm;ESifh tv,fykdif;jynfe,f rsm;wGif tusOf;axmiftokH;p&dwfrsm; jr‡ifhwifay;cJh&ovkd tusOf;om;rsm;udk xm;&efae&mtwGuf ,m,D tajz&Smonfhoabm wJrsm;wnfaqmufay;cJh&onf? jy\em&Sdaomae&mrsm;wGif tykd&Jtiftm; csxm;ay;r_rsm; vkyfcJh&ygonf? w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;r_ jyefvnfwnfaqmufjcif;rSm a'oqkdif&m tpkd;&t&m&Sdrsm; r&yfrem; tvkH; t&if;ESifh EkwfxGufaer_a=umifh ydkI tcuftcJawGŒcJh&ygonf? okd‹&mwGif +Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfa&;ydkif;. t&m&Sd}uD;rsm;rSm vlxktmcHqef‹usifr_tm; wkdufckduf&jcif;twGuf b¾m aiGa=u; xdckdufqkH;±_H;r_rsm;xuf txl;ojzifh jynfe,f&Jt&m&Sd}uD;rsm;taejzifh v_yf&Sm;r_a=umifh olwkd‹iSm;&rf;xm; aom vufyg;aprsm;. pdwf"mwf}uH›ckdifr_tm; xdyg;±kducf wfvmrnfudkom ydkIydkI pkd;&drfcJh=uygonf? tmrpPwmòrd@tpkvkduf tòyHvkdufowfjzwfyGJ t+yD;wGif +Adwdo#tm%mykdifrsm;u tdENd, uef‹uGufqef‹usifolrsm;tm; òzdcJG&ef okd‹r[kwf xdef;csKyfwm;qD;&ef ppfwyftiftm; tokH;ðy&rnfukd wGef‹qkwfvmcJh=u+yD;/ &JwyfzGJŒtm; tm;udk; tm;xm;ðy&onfudk ydkIESpfoufvmcJh=uygonf? olwkd‹jywfom;&Sif;vif;pGm odem;vnfxm;cJh=uonfrSm tu,fI trsKd;om;a&;0g'Drsm; u &JwyfzGJŒwGif;&Sd tdENd,om;wkd‹. opPm&Sdr_ESifh pnf;urf;ao0yfr_tm; tm;enf;oGm;atmif

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

88


ðyvkyfEkdifcJhv#if/ olwkd‹ taejzifh tdENd,EkdifiHwGif qufvuftkyfcsKyfaeaom +Adwdo#wkd‹. tkyfcsKyfa&; tajccHtkwfjrpftm; ukdifv_yfoGm;Ekdif vdrhfrnfqkdonfhtcsufyif jzpfygonf? vlxktmcHqef‹usifr_onf &Jom;rsm;tay: a=umufp&maumif;aom 0efxkyf0efykd;udk wifxm;ay;cJhygonf? Owmy&m'uf&Sf&Sd tajctaeESifhywfoufonfh tpD&ifcHpmwcku ‘olwkd‹onf ajAmifususyif rzG,fr&m ðycH&/ a0zefykwfcwfcHcJh&+yD; t}udrfrsm;pGm wkdufckdufcHcJh&ygonf? aps;onfrsm;uvnf; tcgtm;avsmfpGm a&mif;cs&ef jiif;qkdcJh=u+yD; atmufajcodrf;tvkyfrsm;ukdyif vkyfay;rnfholr&SdcJhyg? olwkd‹ZeD;onfrsm;ESifh rdom;pk rsm;yifv#if vlr_oydwfarSmufr_udk r=umc% emcHcJh=u&ygonf?’ [k 0efcHxm;cJhygonf? bkHab &J}uD;=uyfa&;rSL;csKyfu olŒtaejzifh olŒwyfzGJŒ0ifrsm;onf tpdk;&.zdESdyfr_rsm;udk taumiftxnfazmfaqmif&Guf&ef pdwfcs&Ekdifrnf[k raocsma=umif; tpD&ifcHcJhygonf? bkHabòrdŒawmfwGif wm0efxrf;aqmifcJhaom +Adwdo#&Jt&m&SdwOD;jzpfol *|ef ukwf um&D (John Court Curry) u ol.ae@pOfrSwfwrf;wGif ‘Tt=urf;rzufaom vltkyf}uD;rsm;tm; òzdcGJ&ef vkdtyfr_tm; jyif;jyif;xefxef rESpfouf cJhyg? Oya'csKd;azmufolrsm;tm; &&SdapcJhaom xdcdkuf'%f&mrsm;rSm t+rJwrf;eD;yg; tao;tzGJrsm;yifjzpfaomfvnf;/ Todk‹aomvlrsm;tm; qef‹usifwkdufckdu&f ef tiftm;okH;&efpdwful;rSm tjcm;olrsm;tm; touftEœ&m,fay;Ekdif onfh t=urf;zufqlylaomif;usef;olrsm;tm; tiftm;okH;&ef ydkIvufcHEkdifaomvkdtyfr_ESifh rsm;pGmuGjJ ym; jcm;em; ygonf? vkyfxkH;vkyfenf;wckvkH;ay:wGif u|Ekfyf. jyif;jyaom rESpfòrd@r_onf uGef*&ufu }uD;rm;aom qENjyyGJ}uD; wckukd pDpOfvmcJhonfhtcgwkdif;/ jyif;jyaom ±kyfykdif;qkdif&m atmhESvkH;emr_wck cHpm;vm&onfh twkdif;twmtxd }uD;xGm;jyif;jyvmcJhygonf? æ’ [k 0efcHa&;om;xm;cJhygonf? +Adwdo#t&m&Sdrsm;u v_yf&Sm;r_. t"dutpdwftykdif;rsm;ESihf &ifqkdif&mwGif v_yf&Sm;olwkd‹tm; ulnDyHhykd;r_ay; ovdk &SdcJhygonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh r'&yftpdk;&u tjcm;t&yfzuf0efxrf;rsm;tay: csrw S fcJhaom/ vpmjzwfawmufr_ rsm;rS &JwyfzGJŒ0ifrsm;tm; uif;vGwfcGihfðycJhygonf? uef‹uGufqef‹usio f lrsm;ESihf tcsif;rsm;cJh=uaom &J0efxrf;rsm; tm; qka=u;aiGrsm; &uf&ufa&ma&m ay;cJh=uygonf? &Jom;rsm;tm; &ufpuf=urf;wrf;onf[k pGyfpGJcH&jcif;r&Sdap&ef &mxl;}uD;onfholrsm;udk toihfcsxm;ay;rnf[k tmrcHcsuf ay;xm;cJhygonf? E_dif;,SOf=unfhrnfqkdygu &J0efxrf; rsm;. opPm&Sdr_tm; zsufqD;ypf&ef uGef*&uf. óud;pm;tm;xkwfr_rSm worwfwnf; r&SdcJhyg? tpydkif;wGif uGef*&uf tzGJ@u olwkd‹. rsK;d cspfpdwf"mwfudk tEl;t!Gwf awmif;qkdcJhygonf? r'&yfwGif v_yf&Sm;aqmif&Gufolrsm;u &J0efxrf; rsm;xH ydk‹puwfrsm;ay;ydk‹I olwkd‹. nD&if;tukdrsm; tay:wGif t=urf;zufjcif;rsm;rS a&SmifusOf=uyg&ef/ awmif;yefcJh =uygonf? okd‹aomfvnf; &Jom;rsm;. vGefvGefuJuJ vkyfaqmifr_rsm;u uGef*&uftm; olwkd‹ESihf qef‹usifoGm;ap cJh ygonf? &Jrsm;tay: rkef;wD;pufqkyfr_uvnf; vltrsm; ESpfoufaxmufcHr_ ykdI&ap&ef taxmuftyHh jzpfapcJhyg onf? uGef*&uf. OD;wnf&nf&G,fcsuf jzpfaom +Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfa&;. w&m;0ifjzpfr_tm; av#mhcsypfa&;onf ckcH umuG,folwdk‹tay: atmifEkdifa&; jzpfonfh +Adwdo#wkd‹. &nfrSef;csufESifh qef‹usifuGJjym;aecJhygonf? (1930) ckESpf pufwifbmvwGif bk&ifcHu uGef*&uftzGJ@onf &JwyfzGJŒ0ifrsm;. pdwf"mwf}uH›ckdifa&;tm; wkefv_yf atmif vkyfaqmifr_wGif taotcsm ±_H;edrfhoGm;cJh+yD;jzpf+yD; &JwyfzGJŒopfrsm; pkaqmif;&mwGif tvG,fwulyif &Sdae cJhygonf[k vef'efukd tpD&ifcHEkdifcJhygonf? tusKd;quftaejzifh tdENd,wEkdifiHvkH;twkdif;twmt& vlxktmcH qef‹usifr_tm;jzifh xdef;odrf;tkyfcsKyfIr&onfh tajctaeokd‹a&muf&ef rvkyfEkdifcJh=uyg? vrsm; =umvmonfESifhtr# tm0ifESifh ol.vkyfazmfudkifzufrsm;rSm olwkd‹taejzifh uGef*&uf. wkdufckdufr_tm; awmifhcHxm;Ekdifonf/ v_yf&Sm; r_tm; a'oqkdif&m jy\emrsm;tjzpf cGJxkwfypfvkdufEkdifonf[k ydkIydkI ,kH=unfvmcJh=uygonf? (1930) ckESpf ESpf ukefykdif;vrsm;wGif v_yf&Sm;r_'Da&onf tjrihfqkH;okd‹a&mufvmcJh+yD; tm;enf;qkwf,kwfoGm;cJhonf[k xifcJh&ygonf? tcsKdŒae&mtenf;tusOf;wGif tcGefqef‹usifa&; v_yf&Sm;r_rsm; tm;aumif;ae=uqJ jzpfaomfvnf; tm%mydkifrsm; taejzifh/ aEGv,fydkif;u Oya'=urf;a&;qGJxm;cJhaom ta&;ay:tm%mOya' (Emergency Power Ordinance) tm; rnfonfhtcgrS jyÏmef;p&mrvkdawmh[k ,kH=unfpdwfcsr_ ckdifrmvmcJh=uygonf? uGef*&ufu trsKd;om;bmoma&;ppfyGJtjzpf tqifhxuf +Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfa&;tm; qef‹usifwkdufckdufaepOfyif ‚if;u wkdif;jynfweHwvsm; nDnDr#r# ppfcif;EkdifcJhjcif;r&SdyJ/ *ENDa&S@umv&Snf=umpGmu &SdESifhcJhaom vlrsKd;pkqkdif&m rwluGJjym; r_rsm;a=umifh tm;enf;vmcJhygonf? (1929) ckESpftukefykdif;wGif rGwfqvifacgif;aqmifrsm;taejzifh uGef*&ufESifh w&m;0ifyl;aygif;vmvdrhfrnfr[kwfa=umif; *ENDod&SdoGm;cJhygonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

89


odk‹&mwGif trsKd;om;a&;awmif;qkdr_rsm;ESifh pD;yGm;a&;qkdif&m rw&m;r_wkd‹tay: t=urf;zufta&;,lydwfqkd‹r_rsm; twlyl;wGJvkdufygu uGef*&uftaejzifh omref[dENLrsm;ESifh rGwfqvifwkd‹t=um; jzpfay:aeaom t,kHt=unf uif;rJhr_tm; ausmfv$m;aumif; ausmfv$m;Ekdifrnfjzpf+yD;/ omreftcsdefrsm;wGif &&SdEkdif&efcufcJaom rdwfzufjzpfr_ udkvnf; wkdufyGJt&Sdeft[kef jyif;aeqJwGif tckdiftrmwnfaqmufEkdifvdrhfrnf[k olu ar#mfvifhxm;cJhygonf? uGef*&ufu rnfonhfzGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfykH tajccHOya'qkdif&m tpDtpOfukdr# olwkd‹.oabmwlnDcsufr&yJ vufcH vdrhfrnfr[kwfa=umif; xyfrHuwday;jcif;jzifh rGwfqvifEkdifiHa&;orm;rsm; tmrcHcsufay;&ef óud;pm;cJhygonf? okd‹aomf vlxktmcHqef‹usifr_twGuf }uD;rm;aom rGwfqvifpdwf"mwf Ekd;=um;vmap&ef ðyvkyfcJhaom aumif;rGef aom}uH&G,fcsufrsm;jzifh EkdifiHa&;aqG;aEG;r_rsm;rSm ratmifrjrifjzpfcJh&ygonf? rGwfqvifacgif;aqmiftrsm;pkrSm uGef*&ufukd qufI±_wfcsae=uqJjzpf+yD; omrefrGwfqvifrsm;rSmvnf; a'oqkdif&mpnf; ±kH;a&;orm;rsm; azmfaqmif ay;aom uef‹uGufqef‹usifr_rsm;wGif yg0ifyl;aygif;&ef pdwfvkdvuf& r&SdcJh=uyg? trsKd;om;yg0ifaqmif&Gufr_ twkdif; twmtaejzifh (1930) ckESpf Ekd0ifbmv vlxktmcHqef‹usifwkdufckdufr_rsm; twGuf axmifxJa&muf&Sdae=uaomol (29000) ausmfwGif (1152) a,mufom rGwfqvifrsm;jzpfcJhygonf? tm;aumif;aomrGwfqvifrsm; yg0ifvmjcif; r&SdyJESifh v_yf&Sm;r_.taetxm;rSm usKd;}uJom jzpfaeEkdifcJhygonf? tjcm;a'orsm;Y rGwfqvifrsm;. pdwf0ifpm; wufºuGr_r&Sdjcif;u v_yf&Sm;r_tm; tm;aysmhaeaponfhtcsdefwGif rGwfqvifvlrsm;pkaexkdif&m yef*syfjynfe,fESifh qpf*f jynfe,frsm;taejzifh (1930) ckESpftwGif;wGif +Adwdo#wkd‹tm; 'kuQtenf;tusOf;om ay;EkdifcJhygonf? wckwnf; aomc|if;csufrSm tA'l *wfzm cef (Abdul Ghaffar Khan) u ol.yl;aygif;yg0ifaqmif&Gufolrsm;tm; *END. tajccHrl0g' oabmrsm;udk oGwfoGif;ay;EkdifcJhonfh tvSrf;a0;onfh taemufajrmufa'oom jzpfygonf? vlwef;pm;uGm[csufonfvnf; v_yf&Sm;r_.tiftm;ukd wjznf;jznf; tiftm;qkwf,kwfvmapcJhygonf? uGef*&uf wGif ygwDtm;aiGa=u;axmufyHhulnD+yD; t0wftxnfoydwftm; axmufcHtm;ay;aeaom pD;yGm;a&;orm;rsm;ESifh aus;vufa'orsm;. t"duau'grsm;jzpfaom ajr&Sifrsm;uJhokd‹aom tcGifhxl;cHtkyfpkrsm;ESihf b¾ma&;/ tzGJŒtpnf; qkdif&m qufpyfr_rsm; &SdaecJhygonf? *ENDtaejzifh vlŒtzGJŒtpnf;. tqif;&JqkH;tqifhxd tm;vkH;aomtv$mrsm;ESihf vufvSrf;rDaecJhaomfvnf; ygwDrSmedrfhusaomvlwef;pm;rsm;. awmifhwvkdvm;r_rsm;tm; r=um;rod=uaom csrf;omºuG,f0+yD; =oZmwduUr&Sdonfh tdENd,vlrsKd;rsm;ESifhom qufEG,fr_&SdaecJhygonf? *ENDu tdENd,pD;yGm;a&; vkyfief;rsm;ukda&m +Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfa&;udkyg xdckdufepfemapEkdifonfh taxGaxGoydwf}uD;qifEJ$&ef awmif;qkdjcif;tm; a&Smif&Sm;cJhaomfvnf;/ pufr_vkyfief;{&d,mrsm;&Sd aoG;ºuGtvkyform;vlwef;pm;rsm;rSm (1930) ckESpfwav#mufvkH; tokH;rðy&ao;aom pGrf;tm;&if;jrpfwcktjzpf usef&SdaeqJjzpfcJhygonf? ydwfyif[ef‹wm;r_rsm;tm;vkH;onf v_yf&Sm;r_. twGif;ta=umif;w&m;rsm;rScsnf; jzpfay:vm=uonf r[kwfcJhyg? tpkd;&u vkyfukdifaqmif&Gufcsufrsm;uvnf; xdef;csKyf[ef‹wm;r_rsm;udk jzpfapcJhygonf? A[kdxdef;csKyfr_av#mhcsa&; r[mAsL[mESihf cGJjzef‹ta&;,lydwfqkd‹r_rsm;u tapmykdif;umv zdESdyfacsr_ef;wkdufckdufr_rsm;wGif v_yf&Sm;r_tm; qufvuf&SifoefEkdifap&ef ulnDaxmufyHhEkdifcJhaomfvnf; eHygwfwkwfESifh±kdufESufjcif;/ tvkH;t&if;vkdufzrf;qD;jcif;/ &Jrsm;. ta&;,lpD;eif; wkdufckdufr_rsm;/ nrxGuf&trdef‹rsm;uJhokd‹aom ±kyfydkif;qdkif&m wkdufckdufr_rsm;ESifh tjcm;ykHo¿mefrsm; jzifh ta&;,ltjypfay;r_rsm;onf wkdif;jynf. tcsKdŒaomtpdwftydkif;rsm;&Sd vlxktmcHqef‹usifrr_ sm;ukd xdef;csKyf uef‹owfEkdifcJh+yD; tjcm;ae&mrsm;wGif òydysufoGm;apcJhygonf? tpdk;&.t=urf;zufESdrfeif;r_rsm;u v_yf&Sm;olrsm;tm; r+cdrf;ajcmufEkdifcJhaomae&mrsm;wGif +Adwdo# tkyfcsKyf a&;ykdif;u tmcHqef‹usif=uaom tdENd,EkdifiHom;wkd‹tm; tjypfay;&ef tjcm;enf;vrf;rsm; &SmazGEkdifcJh=u ygonf? ykdifqkdifajr,mESifh tcGefaiGrSwfykHwifwGJzufaomenf;rSm tjyif;txef qkH;±_H;ysupf D;apaom enf;y&d,m,fjzpfygonf? tusOf;axmifwGif;okd‹0if&ef jyifqifxm;cJholrsm;ESifh ±kyfydkif;qkdif&m wkdufckdufxkd;ESufvmr_rsm;ukd &ifqkdif&ef jyifqif xm;=uolrsm;yif olwkd‹.rdom;pktm; qif;&JEGrf;yg; jzpfusefcJhapEkdifonfh olwkd‹.ajr,mrsm; qkH;±_H;r_udk &ifqkdif&ef rsm;pGm tcuftcJ &SdoGm;cJh=uygonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh bD[me,frS v,form;rsm;rSm ajr,modrf;,lr_rsm;. zdtm; ay;r_a=umifh (1930) ckESpftukefydkif;wGif csufuD'g&dpfwdk@tm; tcGefay;aqmifr_udk jyefvnfpwifay;aqmifcJh=uyg onf? pD;yGm;a&;tm;enf;r_onfvnf; v_yf&Sm;r_tm; wef‹oGm;apcJhygonf? yxrydkif;wGif oydwfESihf yl;aygif;aqmif&Guf cJh=uaom t0wftxnfa&mif;0,folrsm;onfvnf; olwkd‹. qkH;±_H;r_txyfxyfa=umifh aoG;ysufvmcJh=uygonf? ZlvkdifvwGif

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

90


bkHabrSukefonfrsm;u +Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfa&;ESihf tay;t,lnd‡E_dif;aqG;aEG;&ef *ENDESifh ae±l;wkd‹tm; óud;pm;+yD; aoG;aqmifodrf;oGif;&eftwGuf oabmxm;aysmhaysmif;aom EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;ESifh qufoG,fyl;aygif; vmcJh=uygonf? xkdESpfaemufykdif;wGif t0wftxnfa&mif;0,f=uolrsm;u EkdifiHjcm;jzpf t0wftxnfrsm;ukd jznfhqnf;a&mif;csvm=uojzifh/ trsm;pkaygif; pnf;rsOf;pnf;urf;rSm bkHabòrdŒ jyifyae&mwkdif; eD;yg;wGif usKd;ysufpðy vmcJhygonf? (1930) ckESpf 'kwd,ESpf0ufykdif;wGif uGef*&ufukd,fYuvnf; tm;enf;vmcJhygonf? zrf;qD;r_rsm;u acgif;aqmifykdif; tm; zdESdyfr_rsm;a=umifh tcuftcJóuHae=u&aom A[dkxdef;csKyfr_ESihf jynfe,fxdef;csKyfr_òydysuf+yD; t=urf;rzuf pnf; rsOf;pnf;urf;rsm; wppysuf,Gif;vm=uonfh jynfe,faumfrwDrsm;tm; qkH;jzwfaqmif&GufcGifhrsm; ay;tyfap&ef/ wGef;tm;ay;cJh=uygonf? tmcHqef‹usifr_rsm;ESihf ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm tawGŒtóuH&SdESifhcJh+yD; t=urf;rzufa&;tay: pll;pkduf aqmif&GufcJh=uonfh ywD'grsm;&SdcJhonfh *l*sm&wfuJhodk‹ae&mrsm; tdE, dN Ekid fiHwiG f r&So d avmufyif jzpfomG ;cJ&h ygonf? rpfemyl&&f Sd tcGefqef‹usifa&;orm;rsm;/ tv,fydkif;a'o (pD/ yD) rS opfawm0ifa&mufpD;eif;cJholrsm;ESifh bkHabESifh umvuwWm;òrdŒ}uD;rsm;rS vlpkvla0;rsm;u t=urf;zufr_tEœ&m,frsm;ukd em;vnfr_ r&Sdoavmuf jzpfcJh=u+yD; &Jrsm;/ awmapmifhrsm;ESihf +Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfa&; wm0ef&Sdyk*~Kdvfrsm;tm; qef‹usifwkdufckdufr_rsm; rsm;jym;vmcJhygonf? *l*sm&wf wGifyif wm0efrSEkwfxGuf&ef jiif;qefcJhonfh a'oqkdif&mt&m&SdwOD; towfcHcJh&ygonf? r[mAsL[mOD;wnfcsufrsm; twGuf v_yf&Sm;jcif;xuf/ a'oqkdif&m cHjyif;a'gojzpfr_rsm;a=umifh vlxk tmcHqef‹usifr_ ay:aygufvmr_rsm;vmav/ t=urf;rzufr_pHrsm;rS aoGzDr_rsm; ykdrsm;jym;vmavav jzpfvmygonf? ‘typftcwf&yfpJjcif;’ uGef*&ufu ae&maygif;rsm;pGmwGif tm;enf;qkwf,kwfvmaeonfhv_yf&Sm;r_wckESifh ysufpD;òyduGJvmaeonfh tzGJŒ tpnf;wcktwGuf owdxm;aqmif&GufaepOfwGif +Adwdo#wkd‹u vef'efòrdŒ pm;yGJ0kdif;aqG;aEG;yGJwckY tjcm;tdENd, EkdifiHudk,fpm;vS,frsm;ESifh awGŒqkHaqG;aEG;aecJh=uygonf? ‚if;aqG;aEG;yGJonf atmufwdkbmvtaESmif;ykdif;rS pwifI ZEM0g&Dvv,ftxd =umjrihfcJh+yD; +Adwdo#t&m&Sdrsm;/ rif;apmfbGm;rsm;tkyfcsKyfxm;aom jynfe,frsm; (Princely States) rsm;rS udk,fpm;vS,frsm;/ rGwfqvif/ [dENLESifh vpfb&,facgif;aqmifrsm;yg0ifcJh=uaomfvnf; tdENd,EkdifiH jynfolrsm;twGuf pum;ajymqdk&ef wm0eft&SdqkH;jzpfaom tzGJŒtpnf;wckjzpfonfh uGef*&uftzGJ@rS tzGJŒ0ifwpkH wa,mufr# ryg0ifcJhyg? aqG;aEG;yGJu uGef*&uftzGJŒ0ifr[kwfaom aqG;aEG;olrsm;ESifh +Adwdo#wkd‹ ESpfOD;pvkH;yg0ifEkdifaom pD&ifaqmif&GufcGihf tm%mydkiftzGJŒu Oya'ðytzGJŒokd‹ wm0ef,lajz=um;&rnfh zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfykHtajccHOya'qkdif&m tajymif;tvJ twGuf enf;ykHpHwckudk xGufay:vmapcJhygonf? xdkyHkpHopfwGif rif;apmfbGm;rsm;tkyfcsKyfxm;onfh jynfe,frsm;u (Princely States) tdENd,jynfr}uD;ESifh zuf'a&;&Sif;wckozG,fwGJcsdwfxm;rnfh tpDtpOfvnf; yg0ifonf? tajymif; tvJumvtawmtwGif; bk&ifcHu umuG,fa&;ESihf b¾ma&;uJhokd‹aom udpP&yfrsm;ukd pDpOftkyfcsKyfcGihf txl; tm%mudk &,lxm;vdrhfrnfjzpfygonf? tdENd,vpfb&,frsm;twGuf oabmwlnDr_onf udk,fykdiftkyfcsKyfcGihf& tpkd;& (Self government) jzpfay:vmapa&;twGuf wkd;wufr_wcktjzpf jrifcJh=uonf? rGwfqvifrsm;rSm [dENL. =oZmv$rf;rkd;r_ tumtuG,fay;a&; aqmif&Gufay;Ekdifaom zuf'&,fykHpHpepftajccHwckjzihf tmrcHay;r_&&SdcJh=uyg onf? +Adwdo#vpfb&,frsm;ESifh tm0if. (1929) ckESpf ðyjyifa&;wifoGif;r_tm; jyif;jyif;xefxef qef‹usifcJh=uonfh wkd&Drsm; (uGefqmaA;wpfygwD0ifrsm;) yifv#if xkdtpDtpOfrsm;t& aqmif&Gufrnfh 'kdrDeD,Htqifh (Dominion Status) udk axmufcHcJh=uygonf? Oya'ðytzGJŒtwGif;&Sd 'Drkdua&pDenf;ustkyfcsKyfa&;r[kwfonfh rif;apmfbGm; rsm;tkyfcsKyfa&; jynfe,frsm;. =oZmtm%mESifh pD&iftkyfcsKyfcGifh txl;tm%monf +Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfa&;tm; tum tuG,fay;Ekdifacs &Sdygonf? odk‹&mwGif Todk‹aom udk,fpm;ðycGifhr&Sdaom tdENd,udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJŒESifh vkyfaqmifcJhaom vef'efvkyfief;pOfrSm uGef*&ufuom a&Smifaeygu zGHŒòzd;tm;aumif;vm&ef tvm;tvm enf;yg;vSygonf? aemufw}udrf aqG;aEG;yGJ okd‹wufa&muf&ef uGef*&uftm; pnf;±kH;odrf;oGif;Ekdifrnf[k tm0ifu r,kH=unfcJhaomfvnf; +Adwdo# tkyfcsKyfa&; a=umif;usKd;wus taxmuftxm;jzpfapEkdifaom ajz&Sif;r_wcktay: tdENd,. oabmwlnDr_ a&&SnfcHr_tvm; tvmrSm r=umrwiftwGif; xyfrH&&Sdvmrnfr[kwfonfudk olodaecJhygonf? olu ol. tpkd;&tay: ydaeonfh zdpD;r_rsm;ESifh vlxktmcHqef‹usifr_. ±_yfaxG; pdwftaESmuft,Sufjzpfp&mrsm;rS olŒtpdk;& . aiGa=u;,kdpD;ukefusr_ rsm;udkvnf; avsmhenf;oufomoGm;apcsifygonf? xkd‹a=umifh uGef*&ufESihf +idrf;csrf;a&;&aprnfh ðyrlaqmif&Gufr_ wckðyvkyf&ef Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

91


tcsdefusa&mufae+yDjzpfonfhtwGuf ZEM0g&Dv (24) &ufae‹wiG f olu tusOf;usae=uaom vkyfief; aumfrwD0iftm;vkH;tm; ¹cGif;csufr&Sd v$wfay;rnfjzpfa=umif; a=unmcsuf xkwfjyefcJhygonf? vGwfajrmufvmonfESifh *ENDu uGef*&uftaejzifh vlxktmcHqef‹usifr_tm; qkdif;iHhxm;vdrhfrnfr[kwfyJ tpkd;&u oydwfarSmufuef‹uGufqef‹usifcGihf/ qm;xkwfvkyfcGihfESihf tcGefqef‹usifolrsm;xHrS odrf;qnf;xm;aom OpPmypPnf; rsm;tm; jyefay;+yD;/ zdESdyfa&; txl;Oya'rsm;udk zsufodrf;ay;&ef jywfjywfom;om; awmif;qkdcJhygonf? okd‹&mwGif jrifuGif;rsm;.aemufuG,fY ‚if;tcsdefonf tpkd;&ESifh oabmwlnDr_,l&rnfhtcsdefjzpfonf[k uGef*&uf twGif;tjyif ESpfckpvkH;rS ajymqkdae=uonfudk =um;aecJh&ygonf? uGef*&uftwGif;rS oabmxm; aysmhaysmif;olrsm;rSm vlxktmcH qef‹usifr_ESifh ywfoufvmv#if tpOfojzifh csDwkHcswkH jzpfavh&Sd=u+yD; ‚if;udk pGef‹v$wfvdk=uygonf? ydkIaysmhaysmif; aom vrf;a=umif;wckudk qef‹usifaumif;qef‹usifvdkcJh=uonfh aoG;ºuGolrsm;rSm azazmf0g&Dv (6) &ufae‹wGif rkdwDvmae±l; (Motilal Nehru) aoqkH;oGm;cJhaoma=umifh OD;pD; acgif;aqmifwOD; qkH;±_H;oGm;cJh=uygonf? *ENDonf pD;yGm;a&;todkif;t0kdif;okd‹vnf; oGm;a&mufaqG;aEG;ajymqkdcJh+yD; ‚if;wkd‹onfvnf; tay;t,l nd‡E_dif;&ef tm;oefaecJh=ua=umif; awGŒcJh&ygonf? ‘av;pm;*k%f,lp&m ajz&Sif;r_wckudk&zkd‹ jzpfEkdifp&m&SdwmawGudk &SmazG =unhfoifhwJhtcsdef a&mufvm+yDqkdwm r[wWr*ENDeJ‹ uGef*&ufukd t}uHay;wm[m rrSm;Ekdifygbl;’[k Culcutta Indian Chamber of Commerce uvuwWm; ukefonf}uD;rsm;toif;. OuUXjzpfol 'DyD cdkifwef (D.P Khaitan) u azazmf0g&Dv (11) &ufae‹wGif a=unmcJhygonf? ‘usKyfwkd‹tm;vkH; +idrf;csrf;a&;vkdcsifw,f’? aemufqkH;wGif tmcHqef‹usifr_ ðyvkyfcJh=uolrsm; cHpm;ae&onf'kuQonf olwkd‹tm; qef‹usifae=uolrsm;.pdwfudk ajymif;vJoGm;atmif vkyfEkdifcJhvdrhfrnf[laom *END. ,kH=unfr_u tpkd;&ESifh rsufESmcsif;qkdif pum;ajymaqG;aEG;jcif; onf xkdtajctae ay:aygufvmEkdifp&m ta=umif;&Sdonf[k olŒtm; ar#mfvifhvmapcJhygonf? xkd‹a=umifhyif awGŒqkHaqG;aEG;&ef awmif;qkdonfh pmwapmifudk azazmf0g&Dv (14) &ufae‹wGif tm0ifxHokd‹ oluay;ydk‹cJhygonf? bk&ifcHuvnf; rqkdif;rwGyif vufcHcJhygonf? av;pm;xkdufaom vlaumif;wOD;tjzpf trsm;vufcHxm;cJh=uaom tm0ifu *ENDtm; olESifhyËdyuQudk ajz&Sif; ay;rnfh pHðyaqG;aEG;zufyk*~Kdvftjzpf txif}uD;av;pm;vmatmif vkyfaqmifEkdifcJhygonf? *END. wav;wpm;ðyr_udk wkef@jyefcJhonfh tm0ifuvnf; xkdav;pm;r_udk ckdif=unfoGm;atmif *±kwpkduf&SdcJhygonf? olu 0uf*sf0k'f bif (Wedgewood Benn) xHokd‹ olŒtaejzifh ol.±kd;om;r_/ n‡mwmaxmufxm;r_ESifh *END. ar#mfvihfcsufrsm;tay: em;vnfr_/ oHo,jzpfr_/ pdwfysuf&r_rsm;udk *END odjrifoabmaygufoGm;&ef óud;pm;rnfhta=umif; pma&;om;ay;ydk‹ cJhygonf? olonf tdENd,vlrsKd; vpfb&,fwOD;. t}uH^m%fudk&,l+yD; ol. tav;eufqkH; pdwf"mwftiftm;ESifh vnf; aqG;aEG;ajymqkdfrnf jzpfa=umif;vnf; azmfjycJhygonf? azazmf0g&Dv (13) &ufae‹ ae‹v,fcif;wGif okd;arG;òcHxnfwifxm;aom *ENDonf ESpftenf;i,ftwGif;u aqmufI +yD;pD;oGm;cJah om e,ll;a'vD&Sd bk&ifcHtdrfawmf. avScg;xpfrsm;udk ajcvSrf;usJusJjzifh wufvmcJhyg onf? a&yef;rsm;/ qif±kyfyef;ykrsm;ESifh jrifhrm;aom trkd;ckH;}uD;tkyfrkd;xm;aom tdrfawmfrSm tifyg,m}uD;. pGrf;tm;owWdrsm; jzmxGuf vufyaecJhygonf? olŒtm; }uD;rm;aomavScg;xpfrsm;rS wufa&mufI rD;vif;zkda&S› wGif aEG;aEG;axG;axG;xkdifEkdifonfh tm0if. pmzwfcef;okd‹ ac:aqmifoGm;cJhygonf? ae‹pOf tm0ifESifh pum;ajymqkdaqG;aEG;+yD;v#if *ENDu ol.rdwfaqG wOD;.tdrfodk‹jyefI vkyfief;aumfrwD0ifrsm;ESifh em&Daygif;rsm;pGm jyefvnfokH;oyfpOf;pm;cJhygonf? TaqG;aEG;ajymqkdr_rsm;onf tóudaESmifóud;rJhjzpf+yD; 'kw, d t}udrf aphpyfaqG;aEG;&mwGif tajccH&rnfh ta=umif; t&m taetxm;rsm;udk &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif;jzpfap&ef ðyvkyfcJh=ujcif;jzpfygonf? yxr r=umrDu+yD;pD;cJhonfh pm;yGJ0kdif; aqG;aEG;yGJrS ay:xGufvmcJhaom zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfykHtajccHOya'qkdif&mar;cGef;rsm; &SdcJhygonf? uGef*&uftzGJ@taejzifh zuf'&,fEkdifiHwck wm0ef&SdA[kdtpdk;&wckESifh tr_aqmifrsm;twGuf ,m,Dvsmxm;ay;xm;aom trsKd;rsKd;aom tm%mrsm;. abmiftwGif;rS aqG;aEG;nd‡E_dif;rnfavm/ 'kwd,vlxktmcHqef‹usifr_ESifh ywfoufI rnfodk‹aqmif &Guf=urnfqkdonfh ar;cGef;jzpfygonf? tm0ifu tu,fI uGef*&ufu ‚if;wdk‹. v_yf&Sm;r_tm; qkdif;ihHxm;cJhv#if olŒtaejzifh vlxktmcHqef‹usifa&;a=umifh zrf;qD;xm;aom tusOf;om;tm;vkH;tm;jyefv$wfay;rnf/ qufpyf aeaom txl;Oya'rsm; zsufodrf;ay;rnf/ ta&;,lzrf;qD;&ef apv$wfcsxm;ay;aom &JwyfzGJŒrsm;tm; jyefvnf ac:,lay;rnf paomtcsufrsm;udk &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; ajymqkdcJhygonf? okd‹aomf *ENDu E_wfxGufoGm;cJh=uaom a'o qkdif&mt&mxrf;rsm;. tvkyfae&mrsm;tm; jyefvnfcef‹xm;ay;&ef/ tcGefqef‹usifolrsm;xHrS odrf;qnf;xm;aom ajr,mrsm;tm; jyefay;tyf&ef/ qm;xkwfvkyfjcif;/

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

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t&ufESifh t0wftxnfqdkifrsm;tm; oydwfarSmuf pkHprf;ppfaq;ay;&efwkd‹udkyg tvkd&SdcJhygonf?

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&Jwkd‹.

rw&m;ðyusifhr_rsm;udk

tjiif;yGm;p&mtjzpfqkH; jy\emrsm;rSm rnfokd‹yifjzpfap zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfykH Oya'qkdif&mudpPrsm; r[kwf=uyg? tpkd;&. ðyjyifajymif;vJa&; v_yf&Sm;r_rSm vGwfvyfr_rsm;pGmenf;yg;aomfvnf; *ENDrSm aemufw}udrf pm;yGJ0kdif;aqG;aEG;yGJwGif tifyg,m}uD;rS tdENd,EkdifiH. cGJxGufcGifhukd uGef*&ufu wifoGif;Ekdifa&;twGuf tm0if. uwdpum;udk &&SdcJhygonf? ‚if;tjyif *END. yk*~Kdvfa&;em;vnfokH;oyfr_t& zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfykHqkdif&m jy\emrsm;jzpfonfh tdENd,EkdifiHonf 'kdrDeD,H tqifh&rnf (okd‹r[kwf) vkH;0vGwfvyfa&;&rnfESifh tul;tajymif; rnfokd‹a&S›qufaqmif&Gufrnf ponfwkd‹rSm *END. acgif;xJwGif r&Sdyg? ol. pdwftwGif;wGif olvdkvm;aom tdENd,EkdifiHtwGuf jzpfvmrnfh trsKd;om;tpdk;&trsKd;tpm; udk qkH;jzwfpOf;pm;xm;+yD;om; jzpfygonf? okd‹&mwGif *ENDtwGuf tjcm;udpPrsm;tm; pGef‹v$wfvkduf&ef rvG,fulvSyg? rnfokd‹yifjzpfap v_yf&Sm;r_wcktwGuf ol. r[mAsL[mrSm qm;vuf0g;}uD;tkyfr_ESifh t0wftxnfwifoGif;r_wkd‹uJhokd‹ +Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfa&;. tckdiftrm tusqkH; csrSwfxm;onfht&mrsm;tm; ckcHqef‹usifa&;jzpfygonf? tu,fI xkdudpPrsm;tm; ol tav#mhay;tnHhcH vkdufrnfqkdygu vlxktmcHqef‹usifa&; a&S›wef;usonfhae&mrsm;rS tdENd,om;rsm;u usqkH;r_tjzpfjrifoGm;=u rnfjzpfygonf? ywD'gv,form;rsm;twGuf zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfykHqkdif&m tajymif;tvJrSm olwkd‹. }uD;rm;vSaom ajr,mqkH;±_H;r_xufykdI ta&;rygEkdifcJhyg? ‚if;tjyif 'g&moemqm;usif;Y aoG;xGuo f H,dk jzpfcJh=uaom trsKd;om;/ trsKd;orD;rsm;taejzihf olwkd‹qef‹usifuef‹uGufr_. &nf&G,fcsufrysufr,Gif;&Sd+yD; &Jrsm;. t=urf;zufESdrfeif;r_vnf; uif;vGwfEkdifonfh tay;t,lrsKd;tm; óudqkdvufcH&ef rjzpfEkdifvSyg? TudpPrsm;tay:wGif tay;t,lvkyf&efrSm tm0iftwGufvnf; tcuftcJ&SdcJhygonf? ol. jynfe,ft&m&Sdrsm;u &Jrsm;tm; ta&;,ltjypfay;r_ okd‹r[kwf edpP"l0ta=umif;t&mrsm;wGif v_yf&Sm;r_tm; atmifjrifr_&apEkdifonfh ajz&Sif;r_wpHkw&monf +Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfa&;u ol.tiftm;tjzpf trSDðytm;xm;&aomolrsm;tm; pdwf"mwfusoGm;apEkdifa=umif; &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; odjrifxm;cJh +yD;jzpfygonf? ‘u|Ekfyfwkd‹onf wifjyvmonfh vkyfaqmifr_vrf;a=umif; wkdif;tm; uGef*&uftay: jzpfEkdifacs&Sdonfh oufa&mufr_rsm;tay: rsm;pGmrpOf;pm;yJ u|Ekfyfwkd‹tm; axmufcHolrsm;ESihf u|Ekfyfwkd‹.t&m&Sdrsm;/ vlrsm;tay: TudpPrsm;u oufa&mufjzpfay:vmEkdifacs&Sdaom oufa&mufr_rsm;tay: pOf;pm; qkH;jzwf=u&ygrnf’ [k a'vD aqG;aEG;yGJrusif;yrD &uftenf;i,ftvkdwGif tm0if. 0ef}uD;tzGJŒ0ifwOD;u owday;xm;cJhygonf? *ENDESifh tm0ifonf a'vDY azazmf0g&Dv (27) &ufae‹wGif xyfrHI aqG;aEG;wkdifyifr_udk pwifcJh=uygonf? olwkd‹onf zuf'a&;&Sif;wm0efcHtpdk;&ESifh txl;tm%mokH;csufay:wGif tajccHaom zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfykHqkdif&m aqG;aEG;yGJtwGuf enf;vrf;wckudk tvsiftjref oabmwlnDcJh=uygonf? okd‹aomf v_yf&Sm;r_rnfuJhokd‹tqkH;owfrnf qkdonfh jy\em wGifrl tm;vkH;òyduGJ&rvkd xifcJh&ygonf? aemufqkH;wGif tm0ifu tenf;i,fay;I *ENDursm;pGmay;+yD; olwkd‹ESpfOD; oabmwlnDr_wck &,lcJh=uygonf? vlxktmcHqef‹usifr_tm; tqkH;owf&rnf/ tpdk;&u zdESdyfa&;txl;Oya'rsm;udk zsufodrf;ay;rnf/ ESdrfeif;a&;&Jrsm;tm; ±kyfodrf;ay;rnf/ tusOf;om;rsm;v$wfay;rnf/ ydwfyifwm;qD;xm;aom toif;tzGJŒrsm;tm; jyefvnfv_yf&Sm;vkyfaqmifcGihfay;rnf/ tvkyfrSxGufcJh=uaom tdENd,0efxrf;rsm;tm; =um; umvtwGif; tvkyfrsm; t+rJwrf;rjznfhqnf;ay;Ekdifao;cif tvkyfjyefay;xm;rnf? tjcm;wzufwGifrl &Jrsm;. rw&m;ðyusifhr_rsm;udk pkHprf;ppfaq;r_rsm; ðyvkyfvdrhfrnfr[kwfyg? v,form;rsm; tae jzifh a&mif;cs+yD;jzpfaom odrf;qnf;v,f,majrrsm;tm; jyefvnfr&&SdEkdif=uawmhyg? t&ufESifh t0wftpm; qkdifrsm; tm; +idrf;csrf;aom oydwfarSmufqef‹usifr_ qufvufðyvkyfEkdifcGifh&Sdrnfjzpfaomfvnf; EkdifiHa&;qkdif&m ta&;,l ydwfqkd‹jcif; rjzpfap&yg? qm;Oya'rSm qufvuf&Sdaernfjzpfaomfvnf; jyefwGif;okH;pGJ&efjzpfaom tao;pm;qm; xkwfvkyfjcif;ukd tpkd;&u taESmihft,Sufay;vdrhfrnfr[kwfyg? *s0g[mvm ae±l;rSm tvGef trif;pdwfysufoGm;cJhyg onf? *ENDu vkyfief;aumfrwD. oabmwlnDr_udk vkHòcHpdwfcs&atmif pDpOfxdef;odrf;EkdifcJh+yD;/ rwfv (5) &ufae‹wGif typftcwf&yfpJa&;oabmwlnDr_udk vlxktm; a=unmEkdifcJhygonf? *ENDu uGef*&uf vlxktmcHqef‹usifr_tm; y,fzsufay;vdkufjcif;ESifh aemufrqkwfwrf; &ifqkdifzdtm;ay;jcif;xuf pm;yGJ0kdif;vkyfief;pOfwGif yg0ifyl;aygif;jcif;tm;jzifh ykdI&,lEkdifrnf okd‹r[kwf qkH;±_H;r_enf;yg;vdrhfrnfjzpfa=umif; tckdif trm ajymqkdcJhygonf? ae&mtawmfrsm;rsm;wGif olu rsufESmrysufatmif vkyfaqmifEkdifcJhaomfvnf;/ tajccH udpPrsm;wGif

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jywfjywfom;om; tEkdif&atmif rawmif;qkdEkdifcJhyg? aoG;ºuGolrsm;u *END. aphpyfajy+idrf;a&; vrf;a=umif;ESifhywfoufI ra=ureyf jzpfaecJh=uaomfvnf; acgif;aqmifrsm; tEœ&m,fuif;ae+yD; ,Eœ&m; ysufpD; aeaom uGef*&uftm; jyefvnfwnfaqmuf&ef tcsdef,laeqJ[k xifcJh&ygonf? olwkd‹tm; vrf;a=umif;ay:wGif qufvufwnf&SdaeapcJhonfht&mrSm tu,fI =o*kwfvwGif pwifusif;yrnfh pm;yGJ0kdif;aqG;aEG;yGJopfrS oabm wlnDr_wpkHw&m r&&SdcJhygu olwkd‹taejzifh tjyif;txef ckcHumuG,f+yD; v_yf&Sm;r_udktopfjyefvnf pwifEkdifvdrhfrnf [k ,kH=unfaejcif;yifjzpfygonf? a'vDpmcsKyf vufrSwfa&;xkd;+yD; av;&uft=umwGif tm0ifu vef'efrS 0uf*sf0k'fbif (Wadgewood Benn) xHokd‹ u|Ekfyfwkd‹ ESpfOD;pvkH;tm; pdwfylapcJhaom &Jrsm;.tðytrlESifh zdESdyfa&;enff;pepfuJhokd‹aom udpPrsm;wGif tav#mhay; aemufqkwfp&m rvkdtyfcJhawmhojzihf olŒtaejzifh pdwfoufom&m&cJha=umif; pma&;om;cJhygonf? cgwkdif;uJhodk‹yif bk&ifcHrSm oabmwlnDr_u taESmihft,SufrðycJhaom ol. xdef;csKyfa&;enf;vrf;rsm;ay:wGifyif pl;pdkufcJhygonf? tu,fI tay;t,lvkyfr_u uGef*&uftzGJ@tm; jyefvnfpkpnf;jcif;udk rwm;qD;cJhv#if ‚if;tm; tjynfht0 tm%mpkpnf;r_ &SdaeapcJhrnfjzpfonf? ‘tvkH;pkHjyefvnfokH;oyf+yD; u|Ekfyftaejzifh *ENDtm; vrf;a=umif;twkdif; ,ckxdvkdufygvmatmif aoG;aqmif&&SdcJhjcif;ukd tHhtm;oifhp&mwck[k oabmxm;cJhygonf’ [k tm0ifu rSwfcsuf cscJhygonf? &JwyfzGJŒESifh t&yfzufvkyfief;rsm;rS rsm;pGmaom tdENd,vlrsKd;rsm;rSm oabmwlnDr_udk tm0ifavmufyif pdwftm; xufoefr_ r&SdcJh=uyJ/ +Adwdo#t&m&Sdrsm;u &Jrsm;tm; aemuftopfwzef jyefvnfjzpfay:vmrnfh yËdyuQwckwGif ‚if;wkd‹.vufrsm;udk csnfaESmifxm;vdrhfrnfr[kwfa=umif; jyo&rnf[k qkH;jzwfcJh=uygonf? ‘&Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; t"dy`m,fwckwnf;xGufonfh a=unmcsufESifh aemufqufwGJ tvm;wl&Sif;vif;onfh vufawGŒrsufjrifoufaojyr_ vkyfjyjcif;jzifh tpkd;&u tkyfcsKyfa&; ysufjym;atmifvkyfaom v_yf&Sm;r_tm; rjzpfrae ESdrfeif;ypf&ef ydkif;jzwfxm;+yD; jzpfa=umif; jyojcif;onf &JwyfzGJŒ.opPm&Sdr_udk rvGJraoG&&Sdaprnf’ [k b*Fvm; jynfe,f tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJŒu owd ay;xm;cJhygonf? xkd‹a=umifhyif twdkuftckduf&yfpJa&; oabmwlnDcsuftay:rS rifajcmufv#ifajcmufjcif; wm0ef&Sd yk*~Kdvfrsm;u ta&;ay:tm%mOya'opfwckudk a&;qGJcJh=uygonf? zufESpfzufpvkH;rS oabmxm;wif;rmolrsm;u twkduftckduf&yfpJa&;udk csKd;zsufypf&ef tqifoifhjzpfae=uojzifh jzpf&yfrsm;rSm qkH;±_H;r_udk zdwfac:aeovkd jzpfaecJhygonf? ToabmwlnDr_. AdokumwOD;jzpfol avmh'ftm0if (Lord Irwin) rSm {+yDvwGif t*Fvefokd‹ t+yD;tydkifjyefoGm;cJh+yD; ol.ae&mtm; bk&ifcHtjzpf tpm;0ifa&mufvm ol avmh'f0Dvif'Gef (Lord Willingdon) taejzifh odjrifem;vnfxm;r_ vkH;0rwlnDyJ/ uGJjym;aeonf? ,cktcsdef wGif +idrf;csrf;a&;OD;wnfaqmif&Guf&if; a'oqkdif&m ta&;udpPrsm;wGif trsm;óudufv_yf&Sm;r_rsm; ðyvkyfaeonfh uGef*&uftzGJ@rSm jy\emjzpfvmcJhygawmhonf? *l*sm&wfESihf Owmy&m'uf&Sf tcsKdŒtpdwftydkif;rsm;wGif v,form; rsm;u ajrcGefay;aqmifr_tm; qufvuf&yfqkdif;xm;cJh=uqJ jzpfygonf? ‚if;wkd‹rSm pdkufysKd;a&; xGufukefrsm; aps;usqif;ae+yD; pD;yGm;a&;edrfhyg;a=umifh uef‹uGufqef‹usifae=ujcif; jzpfygonf? taemuf ajrmufykdif;a&S›wef; a'orsm;wGif tA'l *wfzmcef (Abdul Ghaffar Khan) . tiftm;pkrsm;u t0wftpm;qkdifrsm; oydwfarSmuf qef‹usif jcif;/ ajrcGefoydwfarSmuf&ef aqmf=ojcif;rsm;ðyvkyfI jyefvnfv_yf&Sm; wufºuGvmcJh=uygonf? *ENDurl wm0ef&Sdolrsm;udk tay;t,lvkyf nd‡E_dif;aqG;aEG;&ef wkdufwGef;aeonfh tcsdeftwGif; xdef;odrf;csKyfwnf;r_rsm;udk jyo=u&ef a'oqkdif&m v_yf&Sm;aqmif&Gufolrsm;tm; t}uH^m%fðyaecJhygonf? yaw;ESifh ae±l;uJhodk‹aom tjcm;uGef*&ufacgif;aqmifrsm;rSm twkduftckduf&yfpJr_wGif wG,fukwfxm;jcif;twGuf tusKd;aus;Zl;jzpfxGef;yg. avm? a'oqkdif&mvlxkrsm;. axmufcHr_rsm;qkH;±_H;r_u ydkIepfemaprnfavm[k pwifpOf;pm;vmcJh=uygonf? *ENDu =o*kwfvwGif uGef*&uf. t"duukd,fpm;vS,fwOD;tjzpf aemufxyfpm;yGJ0kdif;aqG;aEG;yGJwufa&muf&ef vef'ef okd‹ xGufcGmvmcJhygonf? TaqG;aEG;yGJwGif *ENDawG@&onfrSm +Adwdo#tm%mydkifrsm;ESifh tjcm;tdENd,ygwDukd,fpm; vS,frsm;udk qHkawG@&ygonf? +Adwdo#wkd‹url tdENd,EkdifiHtwGuf aemufqkH;jzpfvmrnfhtajctaerSm rwluGJjym;aom vlrsKd;pktkyfpkrnfr#yifjzpfap/ yg0ifukd,fpm;ðywufa&mufr_&SdEdkifonfh/ oabmwlnDcsuf/ rif;apmfbGm;rsm;tkyfcsKyfonfh jynfe,frsm;yg0ifEdkifaom z,f'&,ftkyfcsKyfyHkyif jzpfoifhonf[k twdtvif;ajymqdkwif;cHae=uygonf? olwkd‹ar#mf vifhxm;&SdcJhonfhtwkdif;yif tdENd,udk,fpm;vS,frsm;rSm Ttcsufrsm;tay:wGif a&S›rwkd;aemufrqkwfEdkifonfh vdyfcJ wnf;vnf;tajctae jzpfcJh=u+yD;/ ar#mfvifhcsufukefvkeD;yg; jzpfcJh&ygonf? olwkd‹.uGJjym;r_udk aphpyfay;&ef *END. óud;yrf;tm;xkwfr_rsm;rSmvnf; ratmifrjrifjzpfcJh&ygonf? 0ef}uD;csKyf &rf;aq;rufa':e,f (PM Ramsay MacDonald) u

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'DZifbmv (1) &ufae‹wGif aqG;aEG;yGJudked*Hk;csKyfcJhonf? odk@aomftdENd,EkdifiHrSm pwifajymqkdaqmif &GufcJhcsdefu&Sdxm;cJhaom 'dkrDeD,Htqifhtwef;xuf ydkIwdk;wufeD;pyf rvmcJhyg? rnfonfh&vm'frS jyop&mr&SdyJ pm;yGJ0kdif;aqG;aEG;yGJ +yD;qkH;oGm;cJh&onfhtwGuf/ ±_H;edrfhjcif;tm; 0efcHjcif;xuf wjcm; vkyfp&mrSm vlxktmcHqef‹usifr_tm; jyefvnf&Sifoefvmatmif ðyvkyfjcif;yifjzpfygonf? *END tdENd,EkdifiHokd‹ jyefvm cJhonfhtcsdefwGif tpkd;&u jyif;xefonfhqGay;r_rsm; ðyvkyfcJh+yD;jzpfygonf? jynfe,fwm0ef&Sdt&m&Sd rsm;u ae±l; tygt0if uGef*&ufacgif;aqmif tawmfrsm;rsm;tm; tusOf;axmifwGif jyefvnfzrf;qD;xm;cJh+yD; b*Fvm;/ Owm y&m'uf&SfESifh taemufajrmufa&S›wef;a'orsm;wGif zdESdyfa&;vkyfief;rsm; jyefvnfaqmif&GufaecJh+yD jzpfygonf? *ENDu Ttajctaetm;vkH;tm; ajymqkdaqG;aEG;&ef bk&ifcHopf avmh'f0Dvif;'Geftm; yef=um;awmif;qkdcJhaomfvnf;/ y,fcsjiif;qkdcHcJh&+yD; (1932) ckESpf. yxrqkH;ae‹wGif uGef*&ufu vlxktmcHqef‹usifr_tm; jyefvnfpwifawmh rnf jzpfa=umif; a=unmcJhygonf? okd‹&mwGif onfw}udrfY tpdk;&u jzpfvmrnfht&mudk od&SdaecJh+yD; t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_tm; ydwfqkd‹wm;qD;&ef ydkI ,kH=unfr_&SdaecJh+yDjzpfygonf? vtawmf=um=umu pDpOfxm;cJh+yD;jzpfonfh vufOD;r_&,lacsr_ef;r_rSm tqufrjywf zrf;qD;r_rsm;ESifh Oya'opfrsm;tm;jzifh pwifykHay:vmcJhygonf? *ENDukd,fwkdifvnf; Zefe0g&Dv (4) &ufae‹wGif jyefvnf tusOf;cscHcJh&ygonf? +Adwdo#wkd‹. rl0g'topfrSm ppfOya'yifjzpfcJhygonf? wcsdefwnf;wGifyif rsm;pGmaom uGef*&uf . trmcHaxmufcHolwkd‹rSmvnf; tapmykdif;v_yf&Sm;r_ qkdif;iHhcJh&r_rsm;ESifh a'oqkdif&m uef‹owf ydwfyifr_rsm;a=umifh v_yf&Sm;r_ +idrfouf&yfwef@aecJh+yD; jzpfygonf? ,cktcsdefwGif ‚if;wkd‹onf qef‹usifbufvrf;a=umif;odk‹ ajymif;vkdpdwf r&Sd=uy/J olwkd‹. touftkd;tdrfrsm;tm; aemufxyfv_yf&Sm;r_wckay:okd‹ ykHtyfxm;&ef 0efav;vmcJh=uygonf? vlxk . tmcHqef‹usifr_ta=umhopf aemufxyfESpfESpfwm yHkrSef+yD;qkH;oGm;cJhjcif; r&Sdaomfvnf; yxrajcmufv+yD;onf txd/ tpkd;&tm; jyif;jyif;xefxef pdefac:tHwkEkdifcJhjcif; r&SdcJhyg? æ

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(1930-1931) ckESpftwGif; tdENd,EkdifiH +Adwdo#qef‹usifa&; vlxktmcHqef‹usifa&;. tusKd;&v'frsm;rSm a'G;a&m ,SufwifjzpfcJhonfrSm aocsmygonf? uGef*&uf. taotcsmcsrSwfxm;aom &nfrSef;csufrsm;ESifh *s0g[mvm ae±l;uJhokd‹aom ckdifrmjywfom;onfh trsKd;om;a&;0g'Drsm;. ar#mfvihfcsufrsm;taejzifh v_yf&Sm;r_rSm ta&;±_H;edrfhcJh onf[k jrifygonf? (1934) ckESpftwGif; 'kwd,tqifh aemufqkH;aygufuGJcJhonfhtcsdefwGif tdENd,EkdifiHonf tifyg,mtwGif; 'kdrDeD,Htqifh okd‹r[kwf vkH;0vGwfvyfa&;twGufyg rqkdpavmufwkd;wufr_om ðyvkyfEkdifcJh ygonf? olwkd‹onf *ENDu ta&;}uD;onf[k pOf;pm;xm;cJhaom pD;yGm;a&; t"dutcGihfta&;rsm;ESifh ul;ajymif;a&; ta&;udpPrsm;wGif atmifjrifr_r&&SdcJh=uyg? okd‹&mwGif v_yf&Sm;r_u zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfykHqkdif&m tajymif;tvJ okd‹r[kwf ±kyf0wˆKqkdif&m tusKd;tjrwf ray;EkdifcJh aomfvnf;/ omreftdENd,vlrsKd;rsm;onfvnf;/ Tjzpf&yfrsm;udk appm;armif;Ekdifonfh tpGrf;owWd&Sda=umif; jyo ay;cJhygonf? tdENd,EkdifiH. ae&maygif;rsm;pGmwGif trsKd;om;a&;0g'Drsm;u tifyg,mtkyfpkd;r_tm; 0ef;&Hxm;aom zGJŒpnf;wnfaqmufr_tm; tm;enf;atmifvkyf&mwGif atmifjrifcJh=uygonf? tcGefqef‹usifa&;/ xkwfukefypPnf; oydwfarSmufuef‹uGufr_ESifh E_wfxGufr_rsm;onf tpkd;&. ºuGufom;rsm;jzpfonfh aiGa=u;ESifh 0efxrf;tiftm; ESpfck tm; qef‹xGufavsmhusoGm;apEkdifcJhygonf? {+yDvtukefydkif; yuf&S0grS tenf;tusOf;aom ta&;ygonfh tjzpf tysufrsm;/ (1930) ckESpftwGif; *l*s&wfrS tcsKdŒtjzpftysufrsm;t& vlxk tmcHqef‹usifr_u +Adwdo#wkd‹tm; tu,fIom olwkd‹taejzifh ukdvkdeDtpkd;&ESifh w&m;Oya'pkd;rdk;a&;twGuf wm0efxrf;aqmifaecJh=uaom tdENd, vlrsKd;rsm;. pdwfcs,kH=unf&r_tm; rodusKd;u|Hðyvdkufawmhrnfqkdygu rnfokd‹jzpfvmvdrhfrnfqkdonfukd jyocJhygonf? +Adwdo#wkd‹rSm ‚if;ae&mrsm;wGif pwifcJhaom vlpkvla0; v_yf&Sm;r_uav;rsm;/ rD;yGg;rsm;onf tjcm;tdENd,EkdifiH tpdwf tydkif;rsm;okd‹ ckefysHul;pufroGm;Ekdif-oGm;Ekdif qkdonfudkvnf; raocsmcJhyg? v_yf&Sm;r_udk rjyef‹yGm;atmif wm;qD; umuG,fr_onf ol. vkyfazmfukdifzufrsm;tm;

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

95


auseyfr_ray;Ekdifaom tokH;tE_ef;rsm;jzifh yËdyuQtm; ed*kH;csKyf&ef aphpyfnd‡E_dif;cJh&aom tm0iftm; a&$Œajymif;oGm;&onftxd wefzkd;}uD;rm;cJhygonf? okd‹&mwGif rsufESmjyifatmufwGifrl tpdk;&taejzifh tkyfcsKyfa&;qkdif&m taxGaxGtusyftwnf;ESifh rnfonfhtcgrS &ifrqkdifcJh&yg? trsKd;om;a&;0g'Drsm;u &JwyfzGJŒ.opPm&Sdr_udk qGJaqmifrodrf;oGif;EdkifcJh=uovdk/ zdESdyfr_tm; tm;aysmh oGm;atmifvnf; rvkyfaqmifEkdifcJh=uyg? r=umc% udk;,kd;um;,m;jzpfapcJhjcif;rsm;/ t+rJvkdvkdwefzdk;}uD;}uD;rm;rm; ay;I aqmif&Guf&r_rsm;&SdcJhaomfvnf;/ tpdk;& tkyfcsKyfa&;udkrl xdxda&mufa&muftaESmihft,Suf ray;EkdifcJh=uyg? v_yf&Sm;r_rSm rnfonfhòzdcGJa&;xkd;ESufcsufudkrqkd vrf;v$JoGm;ap&ef pDrHxm;cJhaomfvnf; tdENd,. tm;vkH;aomacgif; aqmifrsm; zrf;qD;cH&+yD;onfhtcsdefwGif/ a'oqkdif&m v_yf&Sm;aqmif&Gufolrsm;taejzifh pnf;csuftwdkif; qufvuf ruEdkif=uawmhyg? yg0ifv_yf&Sm;olrsm;vGef;jcif;/ e,fajrrsm;pGm wGif ysHŒESH‹r_rsm;vGef;jcif;rsm;u tm%mydkifrsm;twGuf qef‹usiftkHºuGr_tm;vkH;tm; acsr_ef;&ef rjzpfapEkdifcJhyg? okd‹aomfvnf; ±kdufESufjcif;/ zrf;qD;tusOf;csjcif;/ ajr,mESifh csKyfudkifxdef;odrf;jcif;ESifh tjcm;ta&;,laqmif&Gufr_rsm;u/ ae&maygif;rsm;pGmrS ckcHqef‹usifr_rsm;udk tm;enf;oGm; apcJhygonf? uGef*&uftaejzifh zdESdyfr_ajyavsmhoGm;ap&ef vkyfaqmifEkdifajc&SdcJhaom r[mAsL[m ðyjyifxdef;nd‡r_rsm; udk v_yf&Sm;r_wGifusifhoHk;EdkifcJhaomfvnf;/ xif&Sm;aomtcsufrSm tdENd,e,fajrtESH@tjym;wGif yl;aygif;yg0ifcJhjcif; r&SdcJh yJ aecJhjcif;jzpfonf? tdENd,EdkifiH. vlaexlxyf}uD;rm;aoma'orsm; rsm;pGmu|if;usefI v_yf&Sm;r_ESifh uif;uGm &SdaecJh onfqkdonfhtcsufukd ajymif;vJoGm;atmif raqmif&GufEdkifcJh=uyg? rGwfqvifrsm;. tiftm;jznfhwif;yg0ifr_ESifh pufr_vkyfief;tvkyform;rsm;. axmufcHyg0ifr_udkvnf; r&cJh=uyg? *END.aemufvkdufaemufygrsm; vkyfaqmifcJh=u aom vlxktmcHqef‹usifr_rsm;udkom vkyfaqmif atmifjrifr_&&SdEdkifcJh=uygonf? uGef*&uftaejzifh tdENd,-+Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfa&;tm; rzsufqD;EkdifcJhapumrl +Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfr_. w&m;0ifjzpfr_tm; usKd;ausysufapcJhygonf? &mpkESpfwckausmfcef‹ tpkd;&taejzifh ‚if;ukd,fYu odrfarG@aumif;rGeaf omtpd;k &tjzpf jyo cJyh gonf? aumif;rGefaompD;yGm;a&;aqmif,lay;aom/ wjznf;jznf;ðyjyifajymif;vJa&;vkyfay;aom/ a&&SnfwGif udk,fykdiftkyfcsKyfa&;udk ay;EkdifpGrf;aom tpdk;&tjzpf udk,fpm;ðyaqmif&GufcJhygonf? tdENd,EkdifiHom;rsm;u olwkd‹. pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm;tm; udkifwG,faqmif&Gufae+yD; tpkd;&. Oya'ESifh tzGJŒtpnf;rsm;ESifh yl;aygif;aqmif&GufaeoI +Adwdo#wkd‹u ‚if;tajctaeudk xdef;odrf;apmifha&Smufay;EkdifcJhrnfjzpfygonf? okd‹aomf vlxktmcHqef‹usifr_u TtcsufESifh w&m;0ifjzpfapr_udk òyduGJysufpD;oGm;apcJhygonf? wcsdef+yD;wcsdef/ wae&m+yD;wae&mwGif tdENd,EkdifiHom;wkd‹u olwkd‹rw&m;[kjrifcJh=uaom Oya'rsm;udk remcHcJh=uyg? olwkd‹tm; tkyfcsKyfolrsm;u ±kdufESufcJh=u/ axmifcscJh=u/ olwkd‹.OpPmypPnf;rsm;tm; ,liifcJh=u/ olwkd‹xkwfa0cJhaom pmtkyfpmwrf;rsm;tm; ydwfyifcJh=u/ olwkd‹.tzGJŒtpnf;rsm;udk rw&m;toif; a=unmcJh=uygonf? vufuaemif;òrd@ vrf;rrsm;ay:wGif/ 'g&moemqm;vkyfief;cGifrsm;wGif/ *l*sm&wf&Sd aus;&Gmrsm;wGif tpkd;&u ukdvkdeD pnf;rsOf;Oya'rsm; onf v$rf;rkd;xdef;csKyfr_. ykHo¿mefwckjzpfa=umif;/ ae‹ydkif;tcsdefrsm;wGif o±kyfazmfjyocJhygonf? +Adwdo#wkd‹u jzpfEkdif or#ae&mwdkif;rS tdENd,vlrsKd;wkd‹. oabmwlnDr_&,lEkdifcJh=uonfhtwGuf aysmf&$if tm;&cJh=uygonf? okd‹aomfvnf; oabmwlnDr_r&&Sdygu olwkd‹u eHygwfwkwfrsm;/ aoewfrsm;jzifh tkyfcsKyf=uvdrhfrnfjzpfygonf? vlxktmcHqef‹usifr_ u TtrSefw&m;udk zGihfjycJh=u+yD;/ aemufvmrnfhESpfrsm;wGif +Adwdo#ESifh tdENd,qufqHa&;udpPrsm;wGif Ttcsufudk jyefajymif; ajymqdkowd&ae=urnf jzpfonf? tdENd,EkdifiHom;rsm;taejzifh tusOf;axmifokd‹ oGm;=u&rnfh tajymif;tvJxuf tdENd,-+Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfa&; cHpm;& onfh tm%mykdifpkd;r_qkH;±_H;r_u ydkaecJhygonf? tusOf;uscH&r_onf wcsdefut&Suf&p&mtrSwftom;wck jzpfcJhaomf vnf;/ ,ckawmh *k%f,lp&moauFwwck jzpfvmcJhygonf? em&m,ef; a'qdkif;u ‘'Dwcgawmh ESpfESpfxufawmhavsmh p&mr&Sdbl;’[k ol.zcif (*END.twGif;a&;rSL;) tm; &JtcsKyfum;jzifh tusOf;axmifykd‹&ef ac:aqmifoGm;cHcJh&pOfu axmifuscH&onfh udpPudkyif aysmf&$if0rf;ajrmufpGm atmf[pfcJhykHukd jyefajymjycJhygonf? tusOf;csxm;jcif;onf ±kyfydkif; qkdif&m twif;tusyfðyr_wck jzpfaecJhao;aomfvnf; tdENd,EkdifiHom;trsm;pk. rsufpdxJwGifrl t&Suf&p&mwck tjzpf &Sdraeawmhyg? uGef*&ufacgif;aqmifrsm;rSm tusOf;axmifrSvGwfvm+yD;onfhtcsdefwGif tdENd,-+Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfa&;. *k%foduQm tm; ydkI zsufqD;EkdifcJh=uygonf? olwkd‹onf vlxkudk,fpm; pum;ajymqkdEkdifonhf tiftm;wckjzpfvm&ef óud;pm; cJh=uygonf? t=urf;rzuf vlxktmcHqef‹usifr_. teuft"dy`m,frSm +Adwdo#wdk‹u tdENd,EkdifiHom;wkd‹tm; tkyfcsKyf aeqJumvrSmyif/

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

96


uGef*&uftzGJ@u vlxktm; acgif;aqmifxm;cJha=umif;/ EdkifiHa&;t& ydkIomvGefpGmOD;aqmifEdkif a=umif; oufaotaxmuftxm; trsm;tjym;jyocJhygonf? Todk@jzifh +Adwdo#wkd‹xHrS EkdifiHa&;t&ta&;ygr_udk t&,lEkdifcJhygonf? uGef*&uftzGJ@u v_yf&Sm;r_tm; a=unmqkdif;iHhxm;cJh+yD;csdefwGif uGef*&ufacgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh yg0ifyl;aygif; aqmif&Gufolrsm;u vlxk.tmcHr_oabmw&m;ESifh jrifomxif&Sm;=urf;wrf;&ufpufr_ cHpm;cJh&aom vlxktmcHqef‹usifr_rsm;udk 0g'jzef@csdcJh=uygonf? yËdyuQjzpfysufaeonfhumvtrsm;pktwGif; *ENDESifh ol. &Jabmf rsm;u v_yf&Sm;r_wdkif;wGif vufOD;r_&,laqmif&GufEkdifcJh=uygonf? okd‹aomf olwkd‹.taetxm;rSm pdefac:cH&r_rsm;/ tEW&m,frsm;róuHawG@cJh&qdkonfawmh r[kwfyg? +Adwdo#wkd‹xuf tdENd,EkdifiHom;rsm;ESihfom ydkIywfoufqufqHcJh=u&aoma=umifhom tEW&m,fenf;cJhonfawmh r[kwfyg? uGef*&uf tzGJ@taejzifh ‚if;udk,fYu pnf;urf;useaom t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_twGuf vlxktm;vrf;!¸efjyoae&onf[k cH,lxm;cJhygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; ‚if;.A[dkESifh jynfe,facgif;aqmifrsm;u r=umc%qdkovdk/ olwdk@pdwfxif&m v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk cGifhðyay;cJh=u+yD;/ rxdef;csKyfEdkifaomtajctae/ rvdkvm;tyfaom&vm'frsm; óuHawG@cJh&onfrSm t}udrf}udrfjzpfygonf? wcgw&H uGef*&uftzGJ@taejzifh v_yf&Sm;r_udkOD;aqmifaeonfxuf/ aemufuvdkufae&aom taetxm;rsKd;udk awG@=u&ygonf? vlxkudkv_H@aqmf&onfxuf/ aemufuvdkufvHxdfef;csKyfae&onfrsKd; óuH=u& yg onf? xdk@tjyifv_yf&Sm;r_twGif;odk@ [dENL/ rlqvif/ qpfcfvlrsKd;rsm;tm;vHk;udk qGJaqmifrodrf;oGif;EdkifcJhaoma=umifh uGef*&uftzGJ@taejzifh tdENd,wEdkifiHvHk;udk,fpm;ðyI pum;rajymqdkEdkifaom tajctaersKd; jzpf&ygonf? xdktajc taersm;u +Adwdo#wdk@udkarmif;xkwf&onfxufydkI &Snf=umpGmawG@óuH&aom tdENd,EdkifiHtwGif;uGJjyJr_rsm;/ cg;onf; onfh vlrsKd;a&;yËdyuQrsm;ESifh vlr_a&;t"du&Hk;rsm;udkóudfwifI erdwfzwfaeonfhoa,mif&SdcJhygonf? rnfokd‹yifjzpfap vlxktmcHqef‹usifr_tawGŒtóuHudk jzwfoef;óuHawGŒcJh&olrsm;tzdk@ rsm;pGmajymif;vJoGm;apcJhyg onf? a&S@rsKd;qufwckr#om uGmaomtcsdefY tdENd,EdkifiH.trsKd;om;a&;jyif;xefxufoefpdwf[lonfrSm/ t"du tm;jzifh ynmwwfrsm;/ òrdŒjyae[dENLrsm;ESifh bmoma&;qdkif&mtkyfpkrsm;/ vlr_a&;qdkif&mtkyfpkrsm;ESifh qufEG,fxm;r_/ Zmwfpepfrsm;ESihf bmompum;tkyfpkrsm;twGif; uGufuGufuav;r#om &SdaecJhygonf? okd‹&mwGif tm;vkH;óuHawGŒae &aom rw&m;rr#wr_rsm;udk qef‹usifwkdufzsuf&eftwGuf pkaygif;I t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_toGifv_yf&Sm;aqmif&Guf cJh=u+yD;aemuf/ vltm;vHk;udkESvHk;om;twGif;odk@ Tv_yf&Sm;r_u eufeuf&d_if;&d_if;tjrpfwG,fapcJhygonf? vlr_pdwf"mwf topfwrsKd;u tdENd,EkdifiHw0Srf;wGif &Sifoefv_yf&Sm;vmcJh+yD jzpfygonf? qm;csufa&;v_yf&Sm;r_u jynfolvlxktm; yl;wGJawmif;qkdr_wckudk ay;tyfcJh+yD;/ rwluGJjym;aom twef;tpm;rsm;/ bmoma&;tkyfpkrsm;&Sd=uaom tdENd,EkdifiHom;rsm;t=um; a&&SnfcHaom csdwfqufr_rsm;udk oGef;xkay;cJhygonf? t0wftpm;oydwfarSmuf uef‹uGufr_ESifh yl;aygif;rdojzifh olwkd‹.&Syftusôrsm; qkH;±_H;cJh=uonfh bkHabukefonfrsm;/ oydwfarSmufuef‹uGufqef‹usifr_wGif yg0ifrdojzihf axmifoGif;tusOf;cscH=u&aom vm[kdwuUodkvf ausmif;om; rsm;ESifh 'g&moemqm;usif;wGif ±kdufESufcHcJh=u&aom uGef*&uftzGJ@ESifh yl;aygif;yg0ifaqmif&Guf=uolrsm;/ Ttm;vkH; aom tdENd,EkdifiHom;rsm;onf ,cktcsdefwGif wOD;ESifhwOD; r#a0cHpm;r_ &SdvmcJh=u+yD; *ENDESifh ae±l;wkd‹uJhodk‹aom av;pm;=unfndKp&macgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh awGŒóuHjzwfoef;ae&onfh orkdif;ESifhtwl EkdifiH.tusKd; pD;yGm;jzpfonfh +Adwdo#wdk‹tm; armif;xkwfa&;ukd jr‡ifhwif&eftwGuf olwkd‹tm;vkH;u olwkd‹. yk*~Kdvfa&;tusK;d pD;yGm;rsm;udk ab;z,f xm;cJh=uygawmhonf? tdENd,EkdifiHonf ajrykHum;csyfwckay:rS tuGufuav;wckr#om r[kwfawmhyg+yD? tdENd,onf vlxkw&yfvkH;&ifxJ&Sd &SifoefpD;qif;aeaom tawG;pdwful;jzpfvmygawmhonf? tm%mydkifrsm;tm; tmcHckcHqef‹usifjcif;qkdonfh ±kd;pif;onfhtðytrluav;onf udkvkdeDtkyfcsKyfa&;u au|;arG;ðypk xm;aom/ jzpfapvdkaom odrfi,fatmufwef;usr_ tikH@pdwfudk armif;xkwfypfvkduf+yDjzpfygonf? O&SmarwWm u olr.rdom;pkrS ouf}uD;ykdif; trsKd;orD;rsm; qm;csufonfho=u*[wGif yg0ifqifE$JcJh=uonfudk rnfr#*k%f,lcJh=u a=umif;/ jyefajymjycJhygonf? olr. 0rf;uGJtzGm;rsm;/ tzGm;rsm;u tdrfudk qm;&nfrsm;o,faqmifvm=u/ óudcsuf =u+yD; ‘igwdk‹ qm;Oya'udk csKd;azmufcJh=u+yD’ [k toHukef[pfaºuG;=uygonf? v_yf&Sm;r_u olwkd‹.ocifrsm;[k jrifae =uolrsm;tay:tjrifudkvnf; ajymif;vJay;cJhygonf? +Adwdo#wkd‹onf ,SOfòydifwkdufI tHwkIr&Ekdifolrsm; r[kwf=u awmhyg? olwkd‹.bk&ifcHqdkolu r[wWr*ENDESifh awG@qHkaqG;aEG;cJh&+yDjzpfonf? *ENDaqmif&GufcJhonfrSm ol.jynfolrsm; vdkvm;awmifhwaer_rsm;udk ajym=um;ay;EkdifpGrf;jzifh t&if;tjrpfusus tcGifhtm%mudkoHk;cJhjcif;om jzpfygonf? +Adwdo#wkd‹onf *ENDESihftwlxkdifI

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

97


raqG;aEG;ciftcsdefwkdifatmifyif ‘olwdk@tm;vkH;u qm[pfAf t&SifocifawG jzpfcJh =uw,f/ usaemfwkd‹u emcHcJh=u&ygw,f? tJ'D aemufykdif;rSmawmh r[kwfawmhygbl;’[k em&m,ef a'qdkif;u ajymqkd cJhygonf? vlxktmcHqef‹usifr_wGif&SdcJhaom *END. yk*~Kdvfa&;&m tcef;u¾rSm ar#mfpifuif;wyf}uD;wckyif jzpfygonf? oef; aygif;rsm;pGmaom tdENd,vlrsKd;rsm;twGuf olonf trsKd;om;a&; OD;wnf&nf&G,fcsuf. pdwf"mwftiftm; jzpfcJhyg onf? uGef*&uftzGJ@twGif;wGifvnf; ol.tqifhae&mu ol@udkrsm;pGmvkyfydkifcGifh &apygonf? olŒtaejzifh &efzuf jzpfaeaom/ qef‹usiftjiif;yGg;ae=uaomtkyfpkrsm;udk aphpyfay;&mYvnf;aumif;/ uGef*&ufygwDudk vlxktajccH EkdifiHa&;tzGJŒtpnf;tjzpf ajymif;vJoGm;ap&eftwGuf wGef;tm;ay;&mYvnf;aumif; rsm;pGmaqmif&GufEdkifpGrf;cJhyg onf? *END}uD;. pdwful;rsm;jzpfaom vlxktmcHqef‹usifa&; (o=u*[) ESifh trsKd;om;ukd,fykdiftpkd;& (qGm&mhcsf) wdk@ESifhywfoufaom pdwful;awG;jrifr_rsm;onfvnf; uGef*&ufau'gtrsm;pktzdk@ ouf0if,Hk=unfapcJhygonf? T au'gtrsm;pku (1930) ckESpfrsm;wGif t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_jzifh vGwv f yfa&;&,l&ef qufvufóud;yrf;cJh=uygonf? odk‹aomf *END.OD;aqmifr_aemufrS pD;qif;vmjcif;aomtawG;tac:jzpfonfh vlxktmcHqef‹usifr_v_yf&Sm;r_onf/ ol. OD;wnfvkdvm;&mpHowfrSwfcsuf pdwful;rsm;rS omreful;ajymif;r_wck oufoufr#om r[kwfyg? *END}uD; taejzifh rlvtpuyif vufcH,kH=unfxm;cJhonfhtwkdif; vlxktmcHqef‹usifr_ (o=u*[) .vd_if;tedrfhtjrifh/ pGrf;yum;onf tdENd,+Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfa&;. Oya'rsm;udk csKd;azmufjcif;ESifh pwifcJh+yD;aemuf/ +Adwdo#wkd‹udk xdk uef‹uGufqef‹usifolrsm;udk tjypf'%fay;vmap&ef wGef;tm;ay;cJhygonf? olwkd‹. 'kuQcHpm;r_a0'emrsm;onf zdESdyfolrsm;. ESvkH;om;ukdxdcwfoGm;cJh&ygonf? olwkd‹tkyfcsKyfr_pepf. rw&m;r_udk azmfxkwfjyo+yD; +Adwdo#wkd‹tm; xGufcGmoGm;zkd‹vrf;tm; a&G;cs,fvmap&ef tajctaersm;udk zefwD;ay;ygvdrhfrnf? *ENDu tm0if. aphpyfnd‡E_dif;&ef pdwftm;xufoefr_onf wukd,fa&pdwfcHpm;r_ ajymif;vJoGm;jcif;jzpfonf[k jzLpif±kd;om;pGmyif ,kH=unfvufcHcJhyHk &ygonf? okd‹aomf *ENDESifh tm0ifrSm xyfwlruscJhyg? tdENd,EkdifiHESifh +AdwdefEkdifiHwdk@ uGJvGJouJhodk@yif jzpfygonf? tm0ifrSm yk*~dKvfa&;t& *ENDtm; txif}uD;av;pm;cJhaomfvnf;/ olOD;aqmifaeaomtpkd;&taejzifh tdENd,vlrsKd; rsm;onf udk,fydkiftkyfpkd;EdkifpGrf;&Sdolrsm;tjzpf oabmrxm;EkdifcJh=uyg? tm0ifrSvGJI tjcm;aom+Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfaeolrsm;u EHktpGmjrifxm;aomtjrifrSm *ENDonf rodem;rvnfolvlxkudk v_HŒaqmfay;Ekdifaom vlrsKd;pkya&m*q&mwOD;r#om[k jrifxm;=uygonf? npfax;aya&aeolrsm;udk =umyGwfwdk@ =oZmay;aeol[k jrif=uygonf? csmcsDu wcsdefu olŒudk ‘zuD;,m’ (ulvDaumif) [kac:cJhygonf? *END. yHkoGif taejzifh bmoma&;olawmfpifESihf omrmefykxkZOfr[kwfol jrifhjrwfolwOD;ykH ay:vGifaeaomfvnf;/ *ENDonf tdENd, EdkifiHvGwfajrmufa&;. vufawGŒb0EkdifiHa&;udk em;vnfolwOD; jzpfygonf? olu vlxk.tmcHqef‹usifr_onf +Adwdo#tifydkif,m&Sifwdk@. xdef;csKyfr_udk xdxda&mufa&mufxdcdkufepfemapEdkif+yD;/ +Adwdo#wdk@v_yf&Sm;vmrnfh upm; yGJonf za,mif;wdkifwwdkifr#avmuf wefzdk;&Sdrnfr[kwfa=umif; odxm;cJhygonf? ol,Hk=unfxm;aom ‘trSefw&m; tiftm;’taejzifhvnf; TavmuD&nfrSef;csufyef;wkdiftwGuf aqmifusOf;ay;Edkifrnfh toifhawmfqHk;enf;jzpfonf udk olodxm;ygonf? ol. aemufvdkuftrsm;pk}uD;u t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_ wGif yg0ifaqmif&GufcJh=uonfrSmvnf;/ pdwf"gwfa&;&mwdk;wufajymif;vJr_twGuf &SmazG&eftwGuf r[kwfyJ/ olwkd‹.&efoludk tEdkif&ap&efom jzpfygonf? tdENd,EkdifiHukd odrf;,lxdef;csKyfxm;Ekdifp&m tajctaeudk jzpfay:apEkdifonfh olwdk@.yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_ESifh tcGefaiG rsm;udk jiif;qefvkdufjcif;tm;jzifh olwdk@vdkvm;r_rsm;&vmap&ef aqmif&Gufjcif;omjzpfygonf? +Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfolrsm; udk olwkd‹rSm;,Gif;a=umif; azmfaqmifjyovkdjcif;rSm olwdk@.aemufqHk;&nf&G,fcsufESifh rsm;pGmjcm;em;ygonf? olwdk@. &nfrSef;csufyef;wkdiftppfrSm +Adwdo#wkd‹udk tdENd,rSarmif;xkwfypfa&;om jzpfygonf? (1930) ESifh (1931) ckESpftwGif;wGif t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_u +Adwdo#wkd‹tm; armif;xkwfrypfEdkifcJhyg? *ENDar#mfvihf xm;cJhonfh vrf;a=umif;twkdif;vnf; rvkyfaqmifEdkifcJh=uyg? okd‹aomf v_yf&Sm;r_onf rsm;pGmtvkyfjzpfcJhygonf? uef‹uGufqef‹usio f lrsm; cHpm;&onfh 'kuQrsm;onf +Adwdo#wkd‹.pdwfxm;tm; rajymif;vJapEkdifcJh=uaomfvnf;/ tdENd,EkdifiHom;wkd‹u +Adwdo#wkd‹tay:xm;cJhaom pdwfoabmxm;wkd‹udkrl taotcsm ajymif;vJoGm;apcJhygonf? oef;aygif;rsm;pGmaom tdENd,EkdifiHom;rsm;twGuf +idrf;csrf;pGmtmcHqef‹usifr_ (o=u*[) ESifh ‚if;.tusKd;&v'frsm; u tdENd,-+Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfa&;ESifh yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_oabmudk ajymif;oGm;apcJhygonf? &dkaousKd;EGHpGm ESpfouf vufcHr_rSonf t=unfndKrJhr_tjzpf ajymif;vJoGm;apcJh+yD jzpfygonf? tdENd,. vkdufavsmoabmwlr_tay:wGif +Adwdo#xdef;csKyfr_ ZdrfususwnfaeEkdifcJhonfh

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

98


taetxm;a[mif;rSm ykdif;ykdif;usK;d jywfcJh+yDjzpfygonf? vlxktmcH qef‹usifr_. tv,fykdif;umvavmufwGif jynfe,ftkyfcsKyfa&;rSL;wOD;jzpfol qmcs;vfpf tif;eufpf (Sir Charles Innes) u jzpf&yfrsm;ay: ol.okH;oyfcsufudk ol.vkyfazmfudkifzufrsm;okd‹ jzef‹a0ay;cJhygonf? olu ‘t*Fvefonf oabmwlnDr_tm;jzifhom tdENd,udk odrf;ydkufxm;Ekdifvdrhfrnf? "m;rkd;tkyfcsKyfIrl r&Ekdifay’ [k 0efcHxm;cJhygonf? ‚if;oabmwlnDr_udk +Adwdo#wkd‹ qkH;±_H;cJh&+yD; vlxt k mcHqef‹usifr_u ydkI pnf;urf;pepf usevmapcJhygonf? uGef*&uftzGJ@uvnf; ‚if;. tusyfudkifonfhenf;vrf;rsm;rwqifhS +Adwdo#-tdENd,tkyfcsKyfa&;udk uGJjym;oGm;apcJh ygonf? xkd‹xufydkI tdENd,EdkifiHtm; ydkrdknD!GwfapcJhygonf? +Adwdo#rsm;taejzifh olwkd‹tifyg,m}uD;. tvif;vuf tawmufyqkH;ausmufrsufudk ar#mfvihfxm;onfhtcsdefxuf apmpD;pGmyif qkH;±_H;oGm;cJh&+yDjzpfygonf? ‘rkefwkdif;tpJ’ (1930) ckESpftv,fykdif; vlxktmcHqef‹usifa&; v_yf&Sm;r_qkdif;iHhaeqJ/ +Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfa&;vnf; qufvufwnf&Sdae qJtcsdefwGif tdENd,trsKd;om;a&;0g'Drsm;u vrf;a=umif;topfwckudk csrSwfaqmif&GufcJh=uygonf? *ENDrSm vrf; a=umif;. pnf;vkH;nD!Gwfr_oauFwtjzpf qufvufwnf&SdaecJh+yD; tcsdeftcgu awmif;qdkvmcJhonfhtcsdefwGif olu EkdifiHa&;pifjrihfay:okd‹ tvsiftjrefvSrf;wufcJhygonf? odk‹&mwGif *ENDrSm tjcm;t&mrsm;xuf tðyoabm aumif;usKd;aqmifaom vkyfief;rsm;ukdom pl;epfaqmif&GufcJhygonf? trsKd;orD;rsm;ESifh Zmwfedrfhrsm;udk vGwfajrmuf apjcif;/ aus;&Gmpufr_vufr_vkyfief;rsm;udk wkd;jrifhapjcif;/ ynma&;ESihf oef‹&Sif;a&;pepfrsm;udk ðyjyifajymif;vJa&; wkd‹udkom olu OD;pm;ay;aqmif&GufcJhygonf? pHerlemjyoonfhtaejzifh olu ol.tajccH pcef;t&S&rfudk tdENd, tv,fykdif;&Sd &SD0*&rf (Sevagram) &GmrS "rR&dyfomtopfokd‹ ajymif;a&$ŒaexkdifcJhygonf? uGef*&ufygwDu tdENd,EkdifiHvGwfvyfa&;.qkvmbfudk rsufjcnfrjywf=unfhaecJhaomfvnf; rJqENe,fcsJŒxGifjcif;/ a&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufcH&aom jynfe,fOya'ðytzGJŒrsm;tm; t&nftaoG;jrifhrm;vmapjcif;rsm; ðyvkyfcJhonf? (1935) ckESpf ðyjyifajymif;vJa&;rsm;t+yD;wGif uGef*&ufacgif;aqmifrsm;u pepftwGif;vkyfukdifaqmif&Gufa&;zufodk‹ OD;vSnfh cJh=uygonf? ‚if;wdk@tay:vlóudufrsm;axmufcHr_udk qENrJrsm;tjzpfajymif;,lEdkifcJh=uygonf? (1937) ckESpf a&G;aumuf yGJrsm;wGif ae&mtawmfrsm;rsm;Y trwfae&m tEkdif&&SdcJhygonf? aemuf jynfe,f/ c&dkiftpkd;&rsm; zGJŒpnf; EdkifcJh=uyg onf? 'kwd,urBmppfu Todk@yl;aygif;yg0ifaqmif&Gufvkyfukdifr_udk tqkH;owfypfvkdufygonf? +Adwdo#ygvDrefu qHk;jzwfcJh onfhtwdkif; tdENd,udkvkdeDtpkd;&uvnf; tdENd,v$wfawmfukd,fpm;vS,frsm;. t,ltqudk awmif;cHar;jref;jcif; r&SdyJ/ *smreDudk ppfa=unmcJhygonf? xdk@tjyif ‚if;wdk@opPm&Sd&Sdqufvufyl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_twGuf qkvmbftjzpf trsKd;om;0g'Dwkd‹. awmif;qkdr_rsm;tm;vHk;udkvnf; jiif;y,fcJhygonf? (1939) ckESpf atmufwkdbmvwGif uGef*&ufu ‚if;. jynfe,f0ef}uD;rsm;tm;vkH;tm; E_wfxGufv$mwifoGif;ckdif;vkduf+yD; xGufcGmcJhonfhtjyif/ twkduftcH ðyvkyfcJh=u ygonf? (1942) ckESpf tdENd,u E_wfxGufjcif; (Quit India) qkH;jzwfcsuftm; wnDwnmwnf;csrSwfcJh+yD;onfh aemufwGif/ vlxktrsm;. t=urf;zufykefuefxºuGr_rsm;vnf; tvdktavsmufpwifvmcJh=uygonf? Tykefuef t=urf;zufr_rsm;wGif vl (1˜000) ausmf aoqkH;cJh+yD;/ vl (100˜000) ausmf tzrf;cHcJh=u&ygonf? xdktcsdefwGif wkdif; jynfjyifya&mufaeonfh qlbwfpfcsef'&mbkd‹pf (Subbhas Chandra Bose) u tdENd, trsKd;om;wyfrawmfudk wnfaxmifvkduf+yD; *syefwkd‹ESifh,SOfwGJI +Adwdo#wkd‹tm; pwifwkdufckdufcJhygonf? tdENd,udkvdkeDtkyfcsKyfa&;onf Tjy\emESpfckpvkH;tm; ausmfv$m;EkdifcJhygonf? odk@aomfvnf; aocsmaomtcsuf rSm +Adwdo#wkd‹ppf+yD;onfESifh uGef*&ufygwD0ifwdk@. 'kwd,t}udrftmcHqef‹usifa&;udk rvGJraoG &ifqkdif=u&rnfjzpf ygonf? TtajctaeóuHygu vlxkv_yf&Sm;r_udk acsr_ef;&Sif;vif;rnfavm/ trsKd;om;a&;0g'Dwkd‹. awmif;qkdcsufudk vufcHvdkufavsmrnfavm[lonfh a&G;vrf;udk a&G;cs,fvm&awmhrnf jzpfygonf? olwkd‹onf t=urf;zufrsm;/ t=urf;rzuf ESpfckpvkH;yg0ifonfh/ jyif;xefonfh ckcHqef‹usifr_ESifh t&ifuyif t}udrfrsm;pGm &ifqkdifcJh&zl;ygonf? okd‹aomfvnf; pnf;urf;ao0yf opPm&Sd=uaom &JwyfzGJ@rsm;tajctaeu ppfyGJumvtwGif;qkd;qkd;0g;0g; ysufpD;,dk ,Gif;aeygonf? tdENd,ppfom;rsm;. ,kH=unftm;xm;&r_rSmvnf; pdwfcsp&m r&SdcJhyg? tdENd,trsKd;om;wyfrawmfrS +Adwdo#wkd‹tm; wkdufckdufcJholrsm;rSm ol&Jaumif;rsm;tjzpf óudqkd*k%fðyjcif;cHcJh=u&+yD; olwkd‹.erlemrsm;u tpdk;&ppf om;rsm;tm; olwkd‹.opPm&Sdr_twGufar;cGef;jzpfvmygonf? tpfdk;&ppfom;rsm;taejzifh udkvdkeDtpdk;&udkqufIopPm cHrnfavm/ tdENd,EkdifiHtwGufopPmcHrnfavmqkdonfudk ar;cGef;jzpfvmygonf? Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)

99


xkdr#ru tdENd,EkdifiHwGif aemufxyfzdESdyfr_topfudkaqmif&Guf&ygu +AdwdefEkdifiH. ppf+yD;umv ,dk,Gif;ysufpD;aeaom pD;yGm;a&;udk ydkI0efxkyf0efykd;}uD;apygvdrfhrnf? csmcsDu tdENd,tm; +Adwdeftifyg,m. tzdk;wefausmufrsufwvkH; tjzpf oGwfoGif;xm;vdkqJjzpfaomfvnf;/ +Adwdo#jynfolvlxktaejzifhvnf; Ttcsufudk us,fus,fjyef‹jyef‹vufcH aeqJjzpfaomfvnf;/ +AdwdefEkdifiH. tiftm;}uD;r[mrdwfjzpfonfh tar&dueftaejzifhpdwf0ifpm;zG,fudpPw&yf r[kwf yg? (1945) ckESpf ZlvkdifvwGif avbmygwDu wcJeuf tEkdif&&SdcJh+yD; +AdwdefEkdifiH udk,fxlukd,fxjyefvnfwnfaqmuf a&;udk OD;pm;ay;vkyfaqmif&ef uwday;+yD;onfhtcsdefwGif/ tdENd,EdkifiHtwGuf tajymif;tvJrsm;u tcsdeftcgtajc tae&ifhrSnfhvmcJh+yDjzpfygonf? ‚if;aemufykdif; rnfonfhEkdifiHa&;ajz&Sif; oabmwlnDr_rsKd;rqkd uGef*&uf.oabmwlnDr_udkomru/ rGwfqviftzGJŒ csKyf (Muslim League) . oabmwlnDr_udkyg &&Sd&efvdktyfvmcJhygonf? xdkrlqviftzGJ@csKyfrSm rlqvifbmom 0ifrsm;. pdwful;vdkvm;csufrsm;tay: xif[yfay:aygufvmjcif; jzpfygonf? ,cktcsdefwGif ay:aygufvmaomjy\ emrSm vGwfvyfaomtdENd,EkdifiHtwGif; rSDwif;ItwlwuGaexdkif=urnfh vlrsKd;tkyfpkrsm;t=um; qufqHa&; obm0 r[kwfawmhyJ/ EdkifiH (2) ckcGJI wnfaxmif&ef jzpfEkdifacs jzpfvmcJhygonf? rGwfqvifvlrsm;pk{&d,mrsm; aygif;pnf;xm; aoma'orsm;udk ygupfpwefoD;jcm;EdkifiHtjzpf zefwD;wnfaxmifvdk=uygonf? xkdudpPa=umifh EdkifiHESpfck=um;wGif =um;n‡yfaeovkd jzpfaeonfh qpfcfvlrsKd;trsm;pkaexdkifonfh yef*syfa'otzdk@ pdk;&drfzG,f&mtajctaejzpfvm yg onf? rGwfqvifrsm;u [dENLtrsm;pk=oZmv$rf;rkd;aomtdENd,rS cGJxGufa&; t&SdefjrihfwufvmonfESifhtr# [dENL/ rGwfqvifESifh qpfcftm;vkH; yg0ifqifE$JcJh=uaom vlr_a&;t=urf;zufr_rsm; (1946) ckESpfESifh (1947) ckESpfrsm;twGif; wif;rmr_aygufuGJjzpfyGm;vmcJhygawmhonf? ‚if;vlr_yÉdyuQwkd‹ESifhyif tdENd,EkdifiH òyduGJawmhrnfhykH rD;avmifudef;qdkufvmaomtcsdefwGif +Adwdo#wdk‹u tdENd,rS xGufcGmoGm;&ef pdwfxufoefvmcJh=uygonf? (1947) ckESpf arvwGif tpDtpOfa&muf&SdvmcJhygawmhonf? uGef*&uf/ rGwfqviftzGJŒcsKyfESifh qpfcfacgif;aqmifrsm;u tdENd,ESifh ygupfpweftm; 'dkrDeD,HtqifhEdkifiH owfrSwf ay;&ef tcsdefwdktwGif;rSmyif aqG;aEG;oabmwlcJh=uygonf? +Adwdo#ygvDrefESifh {u&mZfrS tdENd,vGwfvyfa&;tuf Oya'udk ZlvkdifvwGif twnfðyay;cJh=u+yD; ESpfEkdifiHrSm =o*kwfv (14) &ufae‹ noef;acgiftcsdefwGif vGwfvyfa&; &&SdcJh=uygonf? *ENDu a'vDwGifusif;ycJhaom xdkvGwfvyfa&;txdrf;trSwyf GJrsm;rS wrifwumyif rwufa&mufyJ ysufuGufjyocJhyg onf? tdENd,EkdifiH vGwfvyfa&; &&SdcJhyg+yD? okd‹aomfvnf; ESpfEkdifiHuGJxGufoGm;cJh+yD; ol.nD!Gwfa&;tdyfrufrSm vGifhpif aysmufuG,foGm;cJh&ygonf? tdENd,EkdifiHopfonfvnf; vlwef;pm;uGm[r_/ rsKd;&dk;ZmwfcGJjcm;r_/ vdifcGJjcm;zdESdyfr_ ponfh *ENDu tdENd, ,Ofaus;r_. pGef;xif;uGuf}uD;rsm;tjzpf ±_jrifcJhaomt&mrsm;vnf; qufvufwnf&SdusefaeqJyifjzpf ygonf? ynm&Sd}uD;taejzifh tdENd,udkvdkeDtkyfcsKyfa&;. tqkH;ed*kH;tm;=unfh±_awG@jrifcJh&aomfvnf;/ (1948) ckESpf wGif [dENLt,ltpGef;a&muf0g'DwOD;. vkyf}uHowfjzwfr_a=umifh qkH;yg;cJh&ygonf? olu aemufqkH;jrifawG@vdkaom vHk;0vGwfvyfaom trsKd;om;tpdk;&yHkpH (qGm&mhcsf) tcsKyftjcmEkdifiHwckjzpf&efc&D;rSm tvSrf;a0;aeqJyifjzpfygonf? *ENDtaejzifh tdENd,. EkdifiHvuQ%mowfrSwfcsufa=umifh pdwfysufaumif;ysufEkdifcJhaomfvnf; ol OD;aqmifv_yf&Sm;cJh aom t=urf;rzufvlxkv_yf&Sm;r_}uD;u ukd,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGifhwHcg;udk yxrqkH; zGifhvSpfay;EkdifcJha=umif; taotcsm odjrifcJh+yD;jzpfygonf? Todk@wHcg;odk@ vlxk}uD;udk olv_H@aqmfOD;aqmifac:,lEdkifcJhygonf? vlxkukd,fpm;rðyaom/ cHwyfcH ydwfqdk@tkyfcsKyfaeaom zdESdyfonfhtpdk;&w&yfudk pepfuseaomt=urf;rzufvlxkqef‹usifuef‹uGufr_u &J&J&ifh&ifh tkHºuGqef‹usifcJhr_rsKd; twdkif;twmt&/ atmifjrifr_t& ,cifur&SdcJhzl;yg? xkdqef‹usifuef‹uGuf twkduf tcHðyr_ tpkta0;ESifh wnfaqmufr_wdk‹u/ &SifoefzGHŒòzd;vmrnfh 'Drdkua&pDpepfwcktm; taumiftxnfazmf aqmif&Guf&mwGif ta&;ygt&ma&mufonfh EkdifiHa&;u|rf;usifr_udk tdENd,acgif;aqmifrsm;tm; oif=um;ay;cJhygonf? wdkif;jynf.orkdif;tm; ajymif;vJapcJhonfh v_yf&Sm;r_onf t"Gef‹&Snf wnfwHhckdif+rJonfh vlr_tzGJŒtpnf;wcktwGuf tajccHtkwfjrpfvkyfief;udkvnf; csrSwfay;cJhygonf? *ENDaemuf rsKd;qufokH;quf=umonftxd tdENd,EkdifiHwGif ,kH=unfudk;uG,fr_/ vlwef;pm;ESifh rsKd;Zmwfrsm; uGJjym;jcm;em; ae=uqJ jzpfygonf? rnfokd‹qkdap tdENd,onf vGwfvyfI 'Drdkua&pDpepf wnfwHhaeqJEdkifiHwckvnf; qufvuf&yfwnfaeqJjzpfygonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)100


ydkvefEdkifiH? aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfr_. tiftm; paeae@/ =o*kwv f 16&ufae@/ 1986 abmvfwpfurf;&dk;wef;ay:udk avajycyfoGJ@oGJ@wkdufcdkufaewJhnwn/ {&mrvDeifoabFmusif;}uD;rS v_yf&Sm;r_r&dSawmhonfh u&def;}uD;awG&J@atmuf/ aq;vdyfrD;cdk;aiGawGESifh jynfhzHk;xm;aom tcef;xJwGif tvkyform;ESpf'gZifcef@ xdkifaecJh=uonf? olwdk@wawG rdk;vif;tm&k%fOD;tcsdeftxd aqG;aEG;jiif;ckefcJh=u+yD;aemuf tvkyform; (50000) udk ukd,fpm;ðyrnfh awmif; qdkcsuf pm&if;wckudk &&dScJh=uonf? xdk awmif;qdkcsufrsm;wGif vpmwdk;jr‡ifhay;a&;rSonf om;zGm;cGifhumv ykdrdkwdk;jr‡ifh&&Sd a&;txd yg0ifcJh=uonf? xdkawmif;qdkcsufrsm;rS ta&;t}uD;qHk;tcsufwckrSm vmrnfh&ufowWywf (68) ygwftwGif; ydkvefEdkifiHtwGif; vHk;0ajymif;vJoGm;rnfh tvkyform;rsm;udk,fwdkiftkyfcsLyfcGifh&&Sdaom vGwfvyfaom tvkyform;or*~~ rsm; wnfaxmifEdkifcGifh&&Sda&;/ tvkyform;qdkif&mtcGifhta&;yifjzpfonf? (1980) ckESpf =o*kwfv ydkvefEdkifiHta&;onf (1930) {+yDv tdENd,EdkifiHtajctaersKd; odkr[kwf/ (1905) atmufwdkbm v &k&SEdkifiH&Sd tajctaersm;uJhodk@ ra&r&mjzpfaecJhonf? tEW&m,f}uD;vGef;vSonf? pdef@yDwmpbwf qdkAD,ufv_yf&Sm;r_/ odk@r[kwf tdENd,trsKd;om;uGef*&ufv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;ESifh rwlnDyJ *'ef@pfcfrS tvkyform;rsm;onf tpdk;&tajymif;tvJvkyf ay;&ef awmif;qdkaejcif;r[kwfcJhay? (1956) [efa*&DEdkifiHESifh (1968) csufudkpvdkAufuD;,m; EdkifiHjzpf&yfESpf}udrfóuHcJhovdk tajctaersKd;udk ,cifuwnf;uod&dScJh+yD;jzpfonf? xdkjzpf&yfrsm;wGif ta&S@Oa&myom;rsm;. ydkrdkvGwfvyfaom EdkifiHa&; pepfrsm; zefwD;wnfaxmifa&; óud;yrf;r_rsm;udk qkdAD,uf,leD,Hu oHcsyfumum;rsm;jzifh csKd;ajczsufqD;cJh=uonf? xkd tvkyform;rsm;onf ydkvefEdkifiHtwGuf xdkuJhodk uH=urRmrsKd; zefvmav&ef rpGef@pm;vdkcJh=uay? tvkyform;rsm;onf EdkifiHa&;tcGifhta&;qdkonfxuf pufr_vkyfief;qdkif&m tcGifhta&;rsm;udkom vdkcsifawmifhwcJh=uonf? aemufydkif;ae@rsm;wGif xdktpnfta0;cef;rxJrS trsKd;om;/ trsKd;orD;rsm;onf tm%mydkiftpdk;&rS ‚if;if;wdk@. t"du awmif;qdkcsufrsm;udk vufcHjcif;r&dSyJ oydwfwdkufyGJudk/ tiftm;csnfheJ@vmap&ef óud;yrf;csufrsm;udk pdwfysufa'gojzpfcJh& a=umif; az:jyonfh qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;udk woDcsnf; csrSwfaumif;csrSwfae=uayvdrfhrnf? ‚if;if;wdk@. r[mAsL[monf wuf ºuGaeaompdwft[kefa=umifh &kwfcsnf;jzpfvm&aom qHk;jzwfvkyfudkifonfhv_yf&Sm;r_rsKd; r[kwfay? ydkveftvkyform;rsm; udk,fYu ‚if;if;wdk@udk,fydkiftvkyform;or*~~rsm; wnfaxmifEdkif&eftwGuf wdkufyGJ0ifcJhonfrSm =um+yDjzpfonf? Toydwf onf yxrOD;qHk;t}udrfaqmif&Gufonfh oydwfwckr[kwfcJhay? xdk@tjyif Ttcef;xJrS vlawmfawmfrsm;rsm;onf xdk &nfrSef;csuftwGuf v_H@aqmfwdkufyGJ0if&mwGif ‚if;if;wdk@. b0rsm;udk ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm ay;qyf&if;ESD;cJh+yD; jzpfonf? olwdk@awG tvkyfawG ðywfcJh+yD;+yD/ umv=um=um &dkufESuf/ ppfaq;jcif;udkvnf; cHpm;cJh+yD;+yD/ axmifrsm;xJwGifvnf; tcsdef=um=um aecJh+yD;=u+yD? odk@aomf olwkd@wawG rnfodk@aomtpDtpOfawGudk yg;yg;eyfeyfcsrSwf&rnf/ yÉdyuQrsm;óuHvmaomtcg rnfodk@&J&J&ifh&ifh *&kwpdkuf &ifqdkifaqmif&Guf&rnfqdkonfudk avhvmxm;=u+yD; jzpfonfESifhtnD ,ckqkdv#if xdktod ynmrsm;udk vufawG@tvkyfxJY toHk;ðy&ef tqifoifh jzpfaeaomumvvnf; jzpfonf? ESpfq,f&mpk.aemufqHk;usefcJhrnfh q,fpkESpftwGif; ydkvefEdkifwGif }uD;rm;aom vlxktHkºuGr_}uD;wck jzpfay:vkqJqJjzpfae csdefESifh t=urf;rzufaom v_yf&Sm;r_udktoHk;ðyI wdkif;jynf.uH=urRmudk ajymif;vJypfawmhrnfh tcsdefvnf;jzpfaecJhonf?

udk,fxludk,fx toif;tzGJ@rsm; uwdu0wfrsm;/ uwdu0wfrsm; [,f&D x&l;rif;/ 0ifpwef csmcsDESifh *sKd;qufzf pwmvifwdk@oHk;OD; 'kwd,urBmppft+yD; ydk@pf'rf[k trnf&aom *smrefòrd@ wGifawG@qHkcJh=u+yD;/ ta&S@Oa&myajryHkudk topfwzef jynfvnfa&;qGJcJh=uonf? ‚if;if;wkd@oHk;OD;u ydkvefEdkifiH. e,fedrdwfudk taemufzufodk@ ajymif;vJowfrSwfap+yD;/ qdkAD,uf,leD,H. xdef;csKyfr_vufatmufodk@ v$Jajymif;ay;&ef oabmwlcJh=u onf? avsmfa=u;tm;jzifh *smrefydkife,fajrtm;jyefvnf &&dSrnfjzpfonf? abmvfwpfyifv,fqdyfurf;òrd@jzpfaom *smref tac: 'ef;Zpfydk;vfpfa'oESifh ydk;vfpf *'ef@pfcfa'orsm;udk jyefvnf&&SdcJhonf? *'ef@pfcf. tv,facwfyHkòrd@a[mif;ESifh ‚if;if;. acwfrDSpufr_qdyfurf;onf (1945) ckESpfwGif qdkAD,ufrsm;u *smrefwyfrsm; udk armif;xkwfcJhonfhtcsdefwGif jymyHktqifhodk@ avsmhcsqif;cJh&onf? puf&Hkrsm;/ vlaetaqmuftODrsm;/ wHwm;rsm;/ v#yfppf "gwftm;ay;puf&Hkrsm;ESifh avmifpmqDqdkifrsm;onfvnf; òydusysufqD;cHcJh=u&onf? xdka'orsm;wGif rsKd;&dk;pOfquf tvdkuf

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)101


aexdkifvmcJh=uaom *smrefrsm;udk rl&if;ae&modk@ jyefvnfarmif;xkwfcJh+yD;/ ‚if;if;wdk@. ae&mrsm;wGif ppfyGJa=umifh tdk;tdrrf Jh vm=uolrsm; ESifh qdkAD,ufwdk@. ta&S@t&yfodk@ usL;ausmfe,fcsJ@vmr_a=umifh pdwfyifyef;EGrf;e,faeaom ydkvef om; axmifaomif;ESifhcsDI a&mufvmcJh=uonf? xdkysufokOf;aeaom wpjyifodk@ rsufpdvnfvrf;rSm;+yD;/ 0ifa&mufvm=u olrsm;xJwGif tifem a0:vifwDEdk0pfZf[kac:aom q,fausmfouft&G,f rdef;ri,fav;wOD;vnf;ygvmcJhonf? ppfyGJ}uD;u a0:vifwDEdk0pfZfudk rdbrJhuav;i,fjzpfatmif vkyfypfcJhonf? olr. rdbESpfyg;pvHk; ppfxJwGif towfcHcJh&+yD;/ olr.tudkuawmh qdkAD,uftvkyfpcef;xJwGif b0qHk;cJh&onf? (1945) *'ef@pfcfe,fajrudk a&mufpwGif/ olru pdkufysKd;/ arG;jrLa&;jcHwckwGif tcdkif;taptdrfazmftjzpf yxrOD;qHk;pwif tvkyfvkyfonf? tjcm; ajrmufrsm;pGmaom tvkyfrsm; vnf; vkyfudkifcJhonf? (1950) ckESpfwGif *smrefrsm;xHrS uGefjrLepftpdk;& tarGqufcHvkdufonfh *'ef@pfcfoabFmusif; (aemif wGif vDeifoabFmusif;[kac:onf) wGif *a[qufol wa,mufjzpfvmcJhonf? uGefjrLepfrsm;onf vlxkaxmufcHr_vnf; tenf;i,fom&aom tkyfpkcyfao;ao;wck jzpfonf? xdkuGefjrLepfrsm;onf a&G;aumufyGJrsm;wGif uvdrfuuspf enf;rsm; oHk;jcif;/ twdkuftcH EdkifiHa&;òydifzufrsm;udk zrf;qD;axmifcsjcif;jzifh tm%mwnf+rJatmif aqmif&GufcJh=uonf? xdk@tjyif qdkAD,ufwdk@u wdkif;jynfwGif tm%m&Sifpepft"rRoGwfoGif;vmvdrfhrnf[laom +cdrf;ajcmufr_vSdrfhvHk;udkvnf; oHk;I tm%m+rJa&; vkyfaqmifcJh=uonf? olwdk@u tm%mudk twif;t"rRenf;jzifhvnf;aumif;/ vSnfhzsm;aomenf;rsm;jzifh vnf;aumif; &,lxm;pOftwGif;rSmyif/ jynfolvlxkrsm;udk twdwfumvu odxm;aom b0tajctaersm;xuf ydkrdk aumif;rGefaom wpHkw&mtajctaezefwD;ay;rnf[kvnf; uwdu0wfrsm;ðycJh=uonf? ‚if;if;wdk@taejzifh tkwfyHkb0ydkvef EdkifiHrS opfvGifwdk;wufaom ydkvefEdkifiHopftm; wnfaqmufjyrnf/ xdkEdkifiHopfwGif aumif;rGefaom ynma&;/ zGH@òzd;wdk; wufaom pD;yGm;a&;ESifhtwl vlom;tcsif;csif;wef; ydkIwef;wl&nfwl&dSaom vl@tzGJ@tpnf;wckudk wnfaqmufay;Edkif vdrfhrnf[k uwdu0wfay;cJh=uonf? xdkvl@tzGJ@tpnf;topfudk wnfaxmifolESifh xdktoD;tyGifhydkcHpm;&olrsm;onf vnf; tifem a0:vifwDEdk0pfZfuJhodk@aom tvkyform;rsm;yifjzpfvdrfhrnf[k qdkonf? a0:vifwDEdk0pfZf *'ef@pfcfodk@a&muf&Sd+yD;aemufydkif;wGif/ tvkyform;rsm;ESifh uGefjrLepfrsm;. ygwD (ykdvefbmomtm;jzifh twdkaumuf PZPR vdk@vlodrsm;onf//) onf trSefwu,fyif ydkvefEdkifiHopfudk wnfaxmifcJh=uonf? tjyifyef; oufaoom"uawGu [dwf[ef}uD;vSonf? Zm&ef Zeran armfawmfum;xkwfvkyfa&;puf&Hk. pufr_a'orsm;/ 0gaqm teD;tem;wGif&dSaom tmqyfpf Ursus x&ufwmvkyfief;rsm;ESifh u&mauma'otjyifbuf&dS Edk0g[lwm oHpuf&Hkrsm; pojzifhwdk;wufvmcJhonf? oef;aygif;rsm;pGmaom v,form;rsm;onf aus;vufa'orsm;udk pGef@cGgI xdkpuf&Hkrsm;wGif vnf;aumif;/ qDvDqD,m&dS ausmufrD;aoG;rdkif;rsm;wGifvnf;aumif;/ vdk@'ft&yf&Sd txnfpuf&rHk sm;wGifvnf;aumif;/ abmfvfwpfurf;&dk;wef;&dSoabFmusif;rsm;wGifvnf;aumif; tvkyfvkyfudkifcJh=uonf? (1960) ckESpfaESmif;ydkif;wGif *'ef@pfcf&dS vDeifoabFmusif;wGif tvkyform; (15000) cef@/ tdrfeD;csif; yifv,fqdyfurf;òrd@jzpfaom 'dkifeD,m&dS yJ&pfuGefjrL; oabFm usif;wGif tvkyform; (8000) cef@ ESifh &SDZif&dS 0gpuDoabFmusif;wGif tvkyform; (10000) cef@&dScJhonf? odk@aomf ydkvef&Sdvlr_b0rsm;udk uGefjrLepfrsm;. uwdu0wfrsm;u rjznfhqD;EdkifcJhay? t&if;tjrpfrsm;onf oHpuf&Hkrsm;/ "gwkaA'qdkif&m puf&Hkrsm;/ v#yfppfpuf&Hkrsm; ESifh owWKrkdif;rsm;ponfh pufr_qdkif&m tajccHtaqmufttHkrsm;qDodk@om a&muf&dSoGm;cJh=uonf? pdkufysKd;/ arG;jrLa&;vkyfief;rsm;. jyifyydk@ukefrS&aom aiGa=u;rsm;onf pufr_vkyfief;rsm;wGifom jyefvnf xnfhoGif;&if;ESD;jr‡KyfESHcJh=uonf? pm;aomufukef/ tdk;tdrfESifh vlom;qdkif&m 0efaqmifr_vkyfief;rsm;onf xdkpufr_ vkyfief;rsm;rS tºuGif;tusefr#udkom &&dScJh=uonf? xdk@a=umifh ydkveftvkyform;rsm;taejzifh 0,f,lae=u&aom vloHk; ukefypPnf;rsm; &Sm;ygjcif; odk@r[kwf t&nftaoG;rrDSjcif;rsm; óuHcJh=u&onf? npmxrif;pm;yGJwGif tom;qdkonfrSm &Sm; yg;awG@cJvSonf? udk,fydkiftdrfcef;rsm;&&Sd&eftwGuf apmifhqdkif;&aompm&if;wGifwifxm;+yD;/ ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm apmihf=u& onf? xdkumvrsm;wGifawmh puf&Hktaqmifrsm;. ¹yGwfodyf=uyfn‡yfaeaom tcef;rsm;wGif rdom;pkrsm; wdk;a0S@aecJh=u onf? awmfawmfrsm;rsm;onf tcef;wGif a&r&d/S w,fvzD kef;r&dS aexdkicf J=h u&onf? xdktcsdefwGif ygwDrS ydkvefEdkifiHtm; “tvkyform;jynfolrsm;. wkdif;jynf”[k atmifyGJcH[pfaºuG;aeonf? xdktcsdefwGif tvkyform;xku ‚if;if;wdk@onf Oa&my. t&if;&Sifwdkif;jynfrsm;&Sd b0wlvkyfom;rsm;xuf ydkrdkedrfhusqif;&Jae&Hkr#omru vGwfvyfr_twdkif;twmt&vnf; qHk;&_H;ae&rSef; oabmaygufaecJh=uonf? olwdk@wGifrJay;cGifh&dSonf/ odk@aomf uGefjrLepf ygwDrS EdkifiHa&;òydifzufrsm;udk ydwfyifxm;aoma=umifh/ ‚if;if;wdk@ay;aom rJrsm;onf rnfonfht"dy`g,fr# r&dScJhay? xdk@tjyif ta&;}uD;aom wu,fhqHk;jzwfcsufrsm;udk a&G;aumufcHudk,fpm;vS,frsm;rS qHk;jzwfcGifhr&dSyJ wHcg;aemufuG,frS ygwD PZPR aumfrwDrsm;rSom qHk;jzwfcsufcs=ujcif; jzpfonf? ygwDodk@0ifa&mufI AsL&dkua&pDrSwqifh &mxl;wdk;¹rSifhcH&olrsm; omv#if ajyma&;qdkcGifh &&dScJh=uonf? tvkyform;rsm;onf ‚if;if;wdk@tm; tvkyfcef@tyfxm;aom EdkifiHykdifvkyfief;rsm;twGif pnf;&Hk;EdkifcGifhESifh ‚if;if;wdk@udk,f ‚if;if;wdk@ udk,fpm;ðyEdkifcGifh tcGifhta&;rsm;r&dSc=Jh uay? (1945 - 1946) umvrsm;wGif tvkyforsm;rsm;taejzifh vGwfvyfaom or*~rsm;

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)102


zGJ@pnf;&efESifh oufomqdkifaumifpDrsm; (Shop-floor Councils) zGJ@pnf;&ef óud;yrf;cJh=uaomfvnf; tm%m ydkifrsm;. zsufodrf;jcif;cHcJh=u&onf? Todk@ vGwfvyfaomtvkyform;or*~rsm;tpm; tzGJ@0ifrsm;. toHudk em;axmif p&mrvdkyJ/ ‚if;if;wdk@. toHudk=um;apEdkifaom vufa&G;pifcef@tyfxm;olrsm;. !$ef=um;r_atmufwGif&dSaom w&m;0if tpdk;&ydkifor*~rsm;udk zGJ@pnf;ay;cJhonf? rltm;jzifh xdkor*~rsm;onf tvkyforsm;. rauseyfcsufrsm;tay:wGif aqmif &Guf=u&rnfjzpfonf? vufawG@wGifrl ‚if;if;wdk@onf vkyfcwdk;jr‡ifhay;a&;/ tvkyfcsdef avsmhcsay;a&;/ odk@r[kwf ydkrdkaumif;rGef aom vkyfief;cGifjzpfa&; ponfwdk@udk tvkyforsm;udk,fpm; nd‡Ed_if;tay;t,l vkyfay;EdkifcJhjcif; r&SdcJh=uay? “t&if;&Sif pepfatmufwGif or*~rsm;onf tvkyforsm;tm; t&if;&Sifrsm;&efrS tumtuG,fay;=u&efjzpfonf?” [kqdk&m [mo ysufvHk;wcku Todk@qdkao;onf? “qdk&S,fvpfpepfatmufwGifrl/ or*~rsm;onf qdk&S,fvpfrsm;tm; tvkyform;rsm; &efrS tumtuG,fay;ae=uonf?” odk@aomfjim;vnf; ykdveftvkyform;rsm;onf ‚if;if;wdk@. epfemcsufrsm;udk zdtm;ay;awmif;qdkwdkufy0GJ if&eftwGuf enf; vrf;rsm; &SmcJh=uonf? wcgw&H v#yfwysufqENjyyGJrsm; ðyvkyfjcif;/ tcsKd@qdkv#if vpmydkay;a&;ESifh ydkrdkaumif;rGefaom tajctaersm; jzpfay:a&;wdk@twGuf puf&HkygwDaumfrwDtpnfta0;rsm;wGif jiif;cHkajymqkdwifjycJh=uonf? tifem a0:vifwDEdk0pfZfonfvnf; TuJhodk@aomtvkyform;rsm;teufrS wa,mufjzpfonf? olronf EdkifiHwumvli,f uGef*&ufodk@wufa&muf&+yD;/ qktrsm;udk qGwfcl;EdkifcJhom pHjytvkyform;wa,muf jzpfcJhonf? xkd@tjyif uGefjrLepfrsm;rS ydkrkdaumif;rGefaom vltzGJ@tpnf;wck wnfaqmufay;rnfqdkaom uGefjrLepfwdk@. uwdpum;rsm;udkvnf; ,Hk=unfcJh onf? odk@aomfvnf; olronf vlom;csif;wef;wl&nfwl&dS&rnf[laom tawG;tac:ay:wGif ,Hk=unfouf0ifaom a=umifh qdkif=urf;jyifay:wGif&dSaeaom tvkyform;rsm;. bmr#rpGrf;Edkifaom tm%mrJhtajctaewGif tkyfcsKyfoltqifh topfwGif&dSaeaom ygwD. tr_xrf;wOD;taejzifh olru udk,fwifjyp&m&Sdonfrsm;udk xkwfaz:wifjyajymqdk&ef/ E_wf qdkif;aejcif; r&SdcJhay? a0:vifwDEdk0pfZfu olwdk@tay:Todk@ Todk@pdwftaESmufjzpfapr_rsm;a=umifh aemufydkif;wGif tvkyf ðzwfcHcJh&onf? tvkyform;'gZifaygif;rsm;pGmu olrzufrS&yfwnfIaxmufcHvwfrSwfxdk; wifjyay;=uaomtcgrSom olrtm; tvkyfjyefcef@cJhonf? (1956) wGif vkyfcwdk;jr‡ifhay;&ef jiif;qefaoma=umifh ydk@Zfeef/ *'ef@pfcfESifh 0gaqm vrf;rrsm;ay:odk@ tvkyform;rsm; xGufcJh =u+yD;/ qENjy=uonf? ygwDtaqmuftOD;wckudk 0ifa&mufpD;eif;cJh=uonf? tHhtm;oifhoGm;cJhaom tpdk;&onf qENjyol rsm;tm; aoewfESifhypfIESdrfeif;um wkef@jyefcJhonf? xdktjzpftysufa=umifh wdkif;oljynfom;trsm; a'gotrsufxGufcJh=u &onf? ygwDacgif;aqmifopfwOD; xyfwifcJh&onf? ‚if;if;ESihftwl ðyjyifajymif;vJa&;topfrsm;vnf; vkyfaqmifvmcJh& onf? vwfqwfaom avEkopfudk cHpm;&if;ESifhtwl tvkyform;rsm;onf oufomqdkifaumifpDrsm;udk jyefvnf&Sifoef ap&ef óud;yrf;cJh=uonf? odk@aomf aumifpDrsm;. vGwfvyfr_udk zdESdyfaESmifh,Sufr_rsm;ESifh ppf"gwfxufoefoltrmcHrsm;udk +cdrf;ajcmuft=uyfcdkifemcHvmapjcif;rsm;jzifh csdeJ@apcJhonf? odk@aomfvnf; a&S;uvdkyif jyefIvkyfaqmifcJh=uonf/ tvkyf orm;rsm;onf pepftwGif;wGif +idrfaeaom,EW,m;rsm;tjzpf aexdkif&ef jiif;y,fcJh=u+yD;/ pnf;&Hk;ydkifcGifhtcGifhta&;udk tcdkiftrm xyfrHawmif;qdkcJh=uonf? olwdk@awmif;qdkcsufrsm; &_H;edrfhcJh=u&onfvnf;&SdcJhonf? odk@aomf xdkolrsm;. vGwf vyfvdkaom pdwf"gwfrsm;u arS;rSdefroGm;cJh? jyefvnfvufpm;acsvdkr_rsm;jzifh wausmhjyefvm=up+rJ jzpfonf? w}udrf r[kwf ESpf}udrfr[kwfææt}udrf}udrf jyefvnfay:aygufvmcJhonf?

ykkefuefr_udk +zdKcGif;ypf&r,f (1960) aemufydkif;wGif ydkvefpD;yGg;a&;onf pwifI &yfwef@oGm;cJhonf? (1956) rSpI PZPR . yxrqHk; twGif;a&; r_;jzpfcJhol 0gvuf'Dqavm *dkvfrlvfumrS ydkvefEdkifiHonf tdrfeD;em;jcif;EdkifiHrsm;. aemufodk@usa&mufoGm;Edkifonf[k owday;cJhonf? *dkvfrlumu (pwmvif.avoHudk twkcdk;I) rS “b0rSm b,faerSmrqdk/ tm;enf;aewJhol[m tjrJwrf; xdk;ESufcH&rSmyJ”[k owday;cJhonf? rxda&mufaom trdef@ay;pD;yGm;a&;pepfudk jyefvnfðyjyif&rnfhtpm;/ uGefjrLepfrsm; onf ydkveftvkyform;vlwef;pm;tay:wGifom ydkrdkzdtm;ay;&efqHk;jzwfcJh=uonf? (1960) ESifh (1970) ckESpfrsm;wGif tpdk;&onf usef;rma&;ESifh tdk;tdrfpDrHudef; toHk;pm;&dwfrsm;jzwfawmuf&ef a=ujimcJh+yD;/ ESpfESpfpm vkyfcvpmwdk;ray;yJxm;jcif; ESifh ykwfjywfvkyfief;E_ef;rsm; avsmhcsjcif;wdk@ ðyvkyfcJhonf? qdkvdkonfrSm yHkrSefvkyfc ESifh tvkyrf sm;rsm; ydkvkyf&jcif;jzpfonf? puf&Hktpnf;ta0;rsm;ac:I tvkyform;rsm;tm; tvkyfydkóud;pm;vkyf=u&ef twif;t=uyf ajymqdkcJh=uonf? ydkvefEdkifiH. pD;yGg;a&;ratmifrjrifjzpf&jcif;rsm;udk EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;/ pDrHudef;qGJolrsm;udk tjypfzdk@&rnfhtpm;/ tvkyform;[k tjypfyHkcs owif;rsm;v$ifhcJhonf? *'ef@pfcfoabFmusif;rStvkyform;rsm;twGufrl owif;rsm;u txl;wvnf qdk;0g;vSonf? oabFmwnfaqmufa&;vkyfief;rsm;onf a&&SnfwGif wqifhpD z,f&Sm;ypfoGm; rnfjzpf+yD;/ ,ckumvwGifrl &if;ESif;jr‡KyfESHr_ tenf;tusif; &&dSrnfjzpfonf[laom owif;rsKd;ay:xGufvmcJhonf? urf;&dk; wef;wav#mufa'orsm;wGif vltrsm;. pdwfawGu tHk@!d_;aecJh=uonf? r=umrDyif xdkpdwfcHpm;r_rsm;u a'gorsm;tjzpf ajymif;vJvmcJhawmhonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)103


(1970) ckESpf 'DZifbmv 12 &uf paeae@wGif vDeifoabFmusif;wGifvkyfudkifaeaom/ PZPR tzGJ@0ifaygif; oHk;axmifcef@ udk naeav;em&Dcef@wGif txl;tpnf;ta0;wcktwGuf zdwf=um;pka0;apcJh=uonf? xdk@aemuf ygwD. ay:vpfAsL&dkxHrS pmwapmifudk us,favmifpGm atmfzwfjycJhonf? xdkpmwGif puf&HktwGif;rS pmaomufukefaps;E_ef;tm;vHk; jrifhwufoGm;+yD; jzpf+yD; ,ckoef;acgif,HtcsdefrSpI touf0ifrnfjzpfonf? tom;aps;E_ef;onf (17² 5) &mcdkifE_ef;/ ig;onf (11 ²7) &mckdif E_ef; pojzifh xdk;wufoGm;cJhonf? ygwD0ifrsm; =uufaoao tHh=ooGm;cJh=u&onf? tcsKd@ csHK;yGJcs idkaºuG;cJh=uonf? tvkyf orm;rsm;tzdk@ olwdk@vkyfc. w0ufeD;yg;udk pm;aomufa&;udpPrsm;tay:wGif oHk;pGJ&a=umif; olwdk@odxm;+yD;jzpfonf? xdk xufydkI 'kuQrsm;óuH&awmhrnfh tajctaeudkvnf; ar#mfvifhrd=uawmhonf? oabFmusif;tvkyform;rsm;onf *dkvfrlvfum. c&pfprwfvufaqmifudk we*FaEGae@wae@vHk; xdkifpOf;pm;cJh=uonf? weFvmae@t&k%frwufcifuwnf;u olwdk@wawG tvkyfudka&mufvmcJh+yD;/ olwdk@. t0wfrsm;odrf;qnf;&m AD'dka&S@wGif xdkifI nD;!laecJh=uonf? refae*smu tvkyform;rsm;udk tvkyfcGifwGif;0if&ef twif;armif;zkd@ óud;pm;cJh=uao;onf? tcsKd@u oydwfarSmuf&ef qHk;jzwfcJh=uonf? tifem a0:vifwDEdk0pfZf uJhodk@olrsm;u v_H@aqmfolrsm;wGif yg0if=u+yD;/ i,f &G,faom v#yfppfvkyfom; vufbm0ifqm Lech bm0ifqm vnf; pwifaphaqmfolxJwGif yg0ifcJhonf? uGif;jyifudkjzwfI vrf;wav#mufwGifawG@aom tvkyform;rsm;udkyg pnf;&Hk;I !Gef=um;a&;rSL;.&Hk;cef;qDodk@ csDwufcJh=uonf? rD&dkqavm rmpifepfu ae@vnfpmpm;&efacwWem;aeaom tcsdefjzpfonf? tvkyform;rsm; csDwufvmpOf/ oabFmjyifoltvkyf orm;rsm;. aºuG;a=umfoDcsif;qdkoHrsm; =um;vkduf&onf? “'ga=umifh usKyfvJ bmvJqdkwm odcsifwmeJ@ tjyifxGufcJh w,f”[k oluajymcJhonf? “oydwfarSmufvdrfhr,fqdkwmudk usKyfvHk;0udk rodcJhbl;? wu,fawmh oydwfqdkwm b,fvdk [mrSef;awmif usKyfrodcJhygbl;?” oluajymonf? odyfr=umcif tcsdeftwGif;rSmyif oydwfarSmufolrsm; !Gef=um;a&;rSL; &Hk;cef;a&S@Y pkrdcJh=uonf? xdkolrsm;u ukefaps;E_ef; rsm;wkd;jr‡ifhxm;aomtrdef@udk jyefvnf&kyfodrf;ay;a&;ESifh *dkvfrlum tygt0if wm0ef&dSolrsm;&mxl;rS xGufay;a&; ponf wkd@udk oydwfarSmufolrsm;rS awmif;qkdcJhonf? !Gef=um;a&;rSL;rS vkyfcqka=u;tydkay;I tvkyfodk@jyef=u&ef trdef@ay;cJh onf? xdktcsdefwGif vlwOD;u oabFmusif;rSaeI c&dkifygwDXgecsKyf&Hk;txd qufvufcsDwufoifha=umif;/ Tenf;tm;jzifh om rdrdwdk@.ra=ueyfcsufrsm;udk wifjyEdkifvdrrfh nf[k atmfajymcJhonf? reuf 11 em&Dywf0ef;usifwGif vlwaxmifcef@ uGif;jyifxJwGif pk&Hk;aerd=u+yD? rdrdudk,fudk ckcHumuG,f&ef wif;ykwfrsm;/ oHxnfud&d,mrsm;udkifaqmifI &ifjyifrsm;rS pD wef;xGufcJh=u+yD;/ ydkvefEdkifiHawmfoDcsif;ESifh qdk&S,fvpfaw;wckjzpfaom “tifwmae&Sife,f”udk oDqdkcsDwufvm=uonf? emusOf;r_tjynfhESifh csDwufcJh=uaomfvnf;/ rnfodk@ qufvufaqmif&Guf&rnfudk/ tenf;tusOf;om od=uonf? ygwDtaqmuftODodk@a&mufaomtcg “usKyfwkd@udk aygifrkef@ay;”/ “*dkvfrlum usqHk;ygap” pojzifh aºuG;a=umfcJh=uonf? &Jrsm;. rsufapha&S@arSmufrSmyif vltcsKd@u wHwdkif;rsm;ay:wGif &kyfajymifrsm;/ pmwrf;rsm; av#mufa&;cJh=uonf? ygwDrS vl}uD;wOD;rS oltaejzifh bmr# vkyfray;Edkifa=umif;ajymjy tajzay;+yD;aomtcg/ oydwfarSmufolrsm;onf *'ef@pfcf òrd@wGif; odk@ pDwef;vSnfhvnf=uawmhonf? tjcm;oabFmusif;rsm;rS tvkyform;rsm;ESifh ydkvDwuUedcfausmif;rS ausmif;om;rsm; udk oydwfwGifvma&mufylaygif;=u&ef aqmfatmajymqdkcJh=uonf? ygwDtaqmuftODa&S@odk@ jyefa&mufaomtcg Zdkrdk [k twdkaumufvlodrsm;aom jynfxJa&;vHkòcHa&;&Jrsm;. 0dkif;ywfumqD;xm;onfudk awG@&Sd=u&onf? odk@aomf eHygwfwkwf rsm;udk a&Smif&Sm;&if;/ ausmufcJhrsm;jzifh ypfcwf&if;/ rsuf&nf,dkAHk;rsm;udk jyefaumufI &Jrsm;bufodk@ jyefypf&if;jzifh/ xdk&J twm;tqD;rsm;udk ausmfv$m;Edkif&ef óud;yrf;=ujyefonf? ntcsdefa&mufvmaomtcg vrf;rrsm;ay:wGif qENjyolrsm;ESifh tiftm;aumif;azG;azG;v_yfae+yD jzpfonf? t*Fgae@reuf tvkyform;rsm; vDeifoabFmusif;odk@a&mufcsdefwGif/ nwGif;csif;yif tvkyform;acgif;aqmifrsm;udk ‚if;if;wdk@ .aetdrfrsm;rS vma&mufzrf;qD;oGm;cJh=u+yD[laom owif;ukd =um;vdkuf=u&onf? olwdk@aemufwzef oabFmusif;rS aeI òrd@xJodk@ vlpkvla0;}uD;jzihf xGufcGmcJhjyefonf? òrd@xJodk@a&mufaomtcg tjcm;EkdifiHydkif puf&Hk/ tvkyf&Hkrsm;rSqENjyol rsm; axmifESifhcsDI&Sdae=u+yDudk awG@cJh=u&onf? yxrqHk; ‚if;if;wdk@onf &Jpcef;odk@ 0ifa&mufpD;eif;I rae@nuzrf;xm;aom tusOf;om;rsm;udk v$wfay;&efóud;pm;cJhonf? xdk@aemuf tvkyform;or*~taqmuftOD;qDodk@ csDwufcJh=u+yD;/ wHcg;rsm; udk &dkufcsdK;/ twGif;odk@ w[kefwdk;ajy;0ifum/ a'gotavsmuf pm;yGJ/ ukvm;xdkifrsm;udk jywif;ayguf tjyifodk@ v$ifhypfcJh=u onf? eHeuf (10) em&DwGif ygwDtaqmuftODodk@a&mufaomtcg ausmufcJrsm;ESihfypfaygufjcif;/ rdkvdkawmhzf rD;avmifAHk; rsm;ESifh ypfaygufjcif;rsm; ðyvkyfcJhonf? twGif;rSaeI aoewfrsm;jzifh w&pyfypfcwfr_rsm;&dScJhaomfvnf; olwdk@aemufjyef rqkwfcJh=uay? ppfom;rsm;taejzifh aemufxyf xyfypfcwf&ef trdef@remcHawmhyJ jywif;aygufrSaeI olwdk@. aoewfrsm; ESifh bufeufrsm;udk v$wfypfcJh=uonf? tcsKd@qdkv#if ‚if;if;wdk@. abmif;bDrsm;udkyif c|wfIv$wfypfcJh=uonf? xdk@aemufwGif awmh taqmuftOD;udk rD;wif&dS@cJh=uawmhonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)104


ygwDXgecsKyf}uD; rD;awmufavmifaeonfudk atmifyGJwckuJhodk@ vltrsm;u atmifyGJcHcJh=uonf? odk@aomf rD;!Gef@rsm; wvl vlwufaecsdefwGif/ ygwDacgif;aqmifrsm;. qHk;jzwfcsufESifh oydwfudkESdyfuGyf&ef 0gaqmrS tm%m ukef&xm;aom ppfwyf wyfrESpfck *'ef@pfcfa'oodk@ OD;wnfcsDwufvmcJh=u+yD jzpfonf? ae@vnfydkif;wGif òrd@wGif;vrf;rrsm;qD odk@ ppfwyfrsm;udko,f aqmifvmaomum;rsm; armif;0ifvmcJh=uonf? tvkyform;rsm;onf ‚if;if;um;rsm;. ab;csKdifhrsm;twGif;odk@ rD;avmif aeaom t0wfprsm;xdk;xnfhjcif;/ um;wm,mrsm; &yfqdkif;oGm;ap&ef oHydkufrsm;xdk;xnfhjcif; pojzifh ðyvkyfcJh=uonf? tvkyform;wOD;udk um;usdwfoGm;cJhonf? xdknwGif ygwDay:vpfAsL&dkwOD;rS &kyfjrifoH=um;wGifxGufI oydwfarSmufol rsm;udk “ &mZwf0wfaumif/ tusifhysuf*dk%f;rsm;”[lI pGyfpGJajymqdkcJhonf? Tvkyf&yfonf wefjyefawmfvSefa&;jzpf a=umif;ajym+yD;/ “tvkyform;oHk;&m aocsifaoygap/ Tykefukefr_udkawmh acsr_ef;ypf&rnf” [k usdefwG,fajymqdkcJhonf? ygwDtaqmufttHk jymusoGm;+yD;aemuf t*Fgae@ae@vnfwGif tvkyform;rsm;onf/ oabFmusif;rsm;qDodk@ jyefvSnfhcJh=u onf? xdknwGif tvkyform;awmfawmfrsm;rsm; tdrfodk@jyefcJh=u+yD;/ oydwfacgif;aqmifrsm;onf oabFmusif;wGifyif quf vuf aeaecJh=uonf? t&k%frwufcif tdyf,mrS Edk;vm=uaomtcg/ oabFmusif;tm; wyfzGJ@rsm;/ oHcsyfum um;rsm; jzifh 0ef;&Hydwfqdk@xm;a=umif; olwdk@awG@vdkuf&awmhonf? yifv,fauG@twGif;&Sd ppfoabFmrsm;rSvnf; ‚if;if;wdk@tay: tajrmufrsm;jzifh csdef&G,fxm;cJh=uonf? i,f&G,faom tvkyform;wpk *dwf eHygwf (2) rS vrf;av#mufxGufvmaom tcg/ olwdk@tay: usnfqHrdk;&Gmovdk typfcHcJh=u&onf? q,fhig;a,muf '%f&m&+yD;/ av;a,mufaoqHk;cJh=u&onf? oydwfarSmufoltrsm; xGufoGm;=u+yD;/ tavmif;udkqGJI twGif;odk@jyefqkwfcJh=uonf? EkdifiHawmfoDcsif;udk oDqkd=u+yD; aemuf ydk;om;trJjzifh ðyvkyfxm;aom ydkvefEdkifiHawmftvHudk w0ufv$ifhxlcJh=uonf? *dwfeHygwf (2) wGif ypfcwfr_onf wpHkw&mtajymif;tvJjzpfap&ef tajctaeudk zefwD;ay;cJhawmhonf? twGif;wGif tvkyform;rsm;onf csufcsif;qdkovdkyif oydwfaumfrwDudka&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufcJh=u+yD;/ a0:vifwDEdk0pfZfESifh bm0ifqm wdk@tygt0if &J&Jawmufv_yf&Sm;oltrsm;qHk;yg0ifaom oydwfaumfrwDwckudk zGJ@pnf;cJhawmhonf? awmif;qdkcsufrsm;onf vnf; aygifrkef@/ axmywf udpP&yfrsm;udk ausmfvGefoGm;cJhonf? Oyrm tvkyform; or*~acgif;aqmifrsm;onf ygwDtzGJ@0if rsm;rjzpfap& ponfhwdk@udk tcdkiftrmawmif;qdkvm=uawmhonf? oabFmusif;jyifaom *'ef@pfcfrS oydwform;rsm;onf vnf; ppfwyf&kyfodrf;ay;a&;/ ygwDESifh ppfwyft&m&dS}uD;rsm; txl;cHpm;aeaom tcGifhta&;rsm;tm; csufcsif; &kyfodrf;ay; a&;ESifh tvkyform;or*~rsm;onf ygwD. pDrHtkyfcsKyfa&;rsm;ESifh oD;jcm;vGwfvyfpGm tkyfcsKyfEdkifap&rnf pojzifhawmif;qdk cJh=uonf? oydwf &kef;&if;qHcwfjzpfaeaom tcsdefwGif;rSmyif rdrdzmompkpnf;&if; tzGJ@tpnf;yHko¿efusaom udk,fxl udk,fx tzGJ@tpnf;wckwnfaxmif&eftwGuf pdwfydkif;jzwfcJh=uonf? tvkyform;rsm;twGuf ajyma&;qdkcGifh&dSaom ygwD uxdef;csKyfxm;aom tvkyform;or*~rsm;tay: ,HkrSwfrSm;csufrsm;udkvnf; &Sif;vif;xkwfEdkifcJh+yDjzpfonf? TtcsdefwGif ar;cGef;&SdvmaomudpPrSm tvkyform;xk.awmif;qkdcsufrsm;udk rnfodk@tiftm;jznfhrnfenf;qdkaom tcsufESifh tvkyform;rsm;. awmif;qdkcsufrsm;udk vlxkaxmufcHr_&dSap&ef rnfodk@aqmif&Guf=urnfenf;[laom tcsuf yif jzpfonf? ygwDXgecsKyfudk rD;±d_@vdkufjcif;a=umifh ppfwyfudka&mufvmapcJh+yD;/ tvkyform;xktwGuf taESmuft,Suf wckudkyifjzpfapcJhonf? ,ck Ak'<[l;ae@ eHeufwGif vDeifoabFmusif;udk ydwfqdk@vkduf+yDjzpfonf? twGif;Yae aeaomol rsm;onf tjyifxGufv#if bmjzpfrnfqkdwmudk odjrif+yD;jzpfonf? tnHhcHjcif;rSvGJI oydwfarSmuftvkyform;rsm;onf olwdk@twGuf zGifhay;xm;aom vrf;wvrf;udkom a&G;&awmhrnf? TonfrSm awmif;qdkcsufrsm; r&rcsif; qufvuf oydwfarSmuf&efEiS fh oabFmusif;udkodrf;ydkufa=umif; a=ujim&ef/ txJYyif qufvufaexdkif=u&ef qHk;jzwf=u&awmhonf? nykdif;a&mufvmonfESifhtr# oydwfarSmuftvkyform;rsm;onf/ ppfwyfrS 0ifa&mufpD;eif;r_rSumuG,fEdkif&ef rD;avmif vG,faomypPnf;rsm;/ aygufuGJapEdkifaom ,rf;rsm;pkaqmif;+yD;/ ukd,fhudkudk,f ckcHumuG,fEdkif&ef jyifqifxm;cJh=uonf? okd@aomf n (10) em&Dtcsdefa&mufvmaomtcg ppfwyf wyfrSL;rS jyif;xefaom&mZoHwckudk xyfrHcsrSwfvdkufa=umif; olwdk@ =um;vdkuf&onf? tu,fI tvkyform;rsm;taejzifh av;em&DtwGif; puf&HktwGif;rS xGufrvmygu/ oabFm usif;tm; ajrjyifwyfrsm;rS 0ifa&mufpD;eif;rnfjzpfouJhodk@/ aumif;uifrSvnf; AHk;=uJrnfjzpfa=umif; &mZoHay;vmcJhonf? t=urf;zufr_udk w0}uD; jrifawG@cJh&+yD;onfhESifhtnD/ oydwfvSefonfu taumif;qHk;jzpfa=umif; trsm;u rJay;cJh=u onf? xdk@aemuf &JESifh ppfwyfrsm;t=um; vrf;a=umif;twkdif; olwdk@ OD;acgif;awG atmufokd@ikH@xm;&if; vrf;av#mufxGuf vmcJh=uonf? “zrf;rdxm;wJhtusOf;om;awGvdkygyJ” [k tifem a0:vifwDEdk0pfZfu jyefajymif;ajymjycJhonf? ‚if;if;wdk@taejzifh Tw}udrfwGif ±H_;edrfhcJh&aomfvnf;/ aemifESpfaygif;=umaomtcg atmifjrifvmaprnfh t=urf;rzufaom enf;/ v_yf&Sm;r_ESifh ygwfoufaom r[mAsL[mtopfrsm; pwifcsrSwfEdkifcJh=uonf? tjcm;aom vkyfief;rsm;rS tvkyf orm;rsm;.axmufcHr_rsm;udk pkpnf;EdkifcJh=uovdk/ ‚if;if;wdk@. acgif;aqmiftqifhqifhrsm;udkvnf; v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;twGif;rS &SmazGawG@&dScJh=uonf? oufwrf;wdktzGJ@tpnf;rsm; zGJ@pnf;wnfaxmifEdkifcJhovdk/ t"dy`g,f&dSaom ajymif;vJr_rsm;twGuf awmif;qdkcsufrsm;udkvnf; wGef;wGef;wdkufwdkuf vkyfEdkifcJhonf? ppfom;/ &Jrsm;ESifh xdyfwdkuf ajymifpdefac:,SOfòydifjcif;onf

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)105


tcsnf;ESD;jzpfI tEW&m,f}uD;rm;a=umif;udkvnf; olwdk@avhvmawG@&SdcJh=uonf? oabFmusif;xJwGif aejcif;onf/ tjcm; wzufwGif tpdk;&ydkifypPnf;rsm;tm; zsufqD;EdkifpGrf;&Sdr_ESifh qENjyr_udk acsr_ef;&ef vltrsm;tm; owfjzwfacsr_ef;EdkifcGifhudk umuG,fay;xm;I vHkòcHr_&apa=umif; olwdk@awG@&SdcJhonf? rnfodk@yif jzpfapumrl aemufw}udrfóuHvm&rnfqdkygu/ oabFmusif;tvkyform;taejzifh rnfokd@vkyfudkifaqmif&Guf&rnfudk odoGm;=u+yDjzpfonf? 'dkifeD;,m;wGif&dSaom yJ&pfuGefjrL;oabFmusif; oydwfwdkufyGJwGifóuHawG@cJh=u&yHku/ vkyfief;cGifae&mrsm;udk rxdef;csKyfxm; EdkifI ydkItEW&m,fóuHcJh=u&a=umif; xif&Sm;&Sif;vif;pGm jyocJhonf? Ak'`<[l;ae@nwGif a&'D,dkrSaeI oydwfarSmufolrsm; aemufwae@tvkyfqif;&rnfjzpfa=umif; owday;ajym=um;vmcJhonf? wnvHk; ppfom;rsm; òrd@wGif;odk@0ifI ta&;}uD; aom taqmuftODrsm;wGif ae&m,lxm;cJh=uonf? t&k%frwkdifrDwGif tvkyform;rsm;tjynfhwifxm;aom "gwf&xm; rsm;onf oabFmusif;blwmokd@ a&muf&SdvmcJh=uonf? olwdk@ "gwf&xm;ay:uqif;+yD;/ 0if;twGif;qDodk@ vrf;usOf;av;xJ jzwfav#mufcJh=upOf toHcsJ@pufrsm;rS/ qlavmifpGm +cH0if;udkydwfvdkuf+yDjzpfa=umif;ESifh tm;vHk;tdrfodk@jyef=u&ef trdef@ay; aeoHudk olwdk@=um;vkduf&onf? "gwf&xm;rsm;quf0ifvmaeaoma=umifh aemufxyftopf a&mufvmolrsm;onf jyef qkwfvmolrsm;ukd ydwfxm;ovdkjzpfaecJhonf? ppfom;rsm;u TvltkyfxJodk@ aoewfESifhpwifypfcwfaomtcg a&S@rS&Sdae aomolrsm;onfusnfoifhcH&awmhonf? aemufrSaeaomolrsm;onfvnf; r&nf&G,fyJ usnfqHvm&m vrf;xJokd@ rdrdvl rsm;udk wGef;ydk@ovdkjzpfaecJhonf? ydkIar#mfvifhzG,f&maumif;aom oifcef;pmrsm;udk/ taemufbufrdkif&mESifhcsD+yD;a0;aom &SpfZift&yfrS ykdrdk a&muf&SdvmcJh onf? =umoyaw;ae@reufwGif 0gpuDoabFmusif;rS tvkyform;rsm; qENjycJh=uonf? *'ef@pfcfa'owGif jzpfcJhaom yHkpH twkdif; tvm;wljzpfcJhonf? 0gpuDtvkyform;rsm; òrd@v,facgifodk@ csDwufvmcJh=u+yD;/ tjcm;puf&HkrS tvkyform;rsm;ESifh aygif;rdcJh=uonf? ppfom;rsm;.taESmuft,Suf rsm;rsm;pm;pm;r&dSyJ ygwDaumfrwD taqmuftOD;udk rD;±d_@EdkifcJh=uonf? xdknwGif;yif &Jrsm;u oydwfwGif;yg0ifolrsm;.tdrfrsm;odk@0ifa&mufI zrf;qD;cJh=uonf? axmifwGif;odk@ armif;oGif;cJhonf? xdktcsdeftwGif;rSmyif 0gaqmrS ygwDacgif;aqmifrsm;onf wifhum;/ &[wf,Of/ a&wyfoabFmrsm;ESifh ppfom;tiftm; (60000) tygt0if ppfwyfudk jyifqif&ef trdef@ay;cJhonf? 0gpuDovkyform;rsm; aom=umae@eHeuf oabFmusif;odk@ a&mufvmaomtcg ppfwyfrS csxm;aom ydwfqdk@wm;qD;r_rsm;udk jzwfausmf+yD;rS txJodk@ 0ifa&muf&rnfjzpfonf? xdk@aemuf reufydkif; oydwfarSmufolrsm;onf ppfwyfrsm;udk oabFmusif;rS xGufI pwifwdkufckdufcJhonf? typfcH&+yD; ESpfa,muf usqHk;oGm;rSom twGif;odk@ jyefqkwfoGm;cJh=uonf? tvkyform;rsm; a'goykef xukef+yD? pufr_ydkif;qkdif&m ynm&Sifwa,mufu rkdufu&dkzkef;awG@&dSoGm;cJh+yD;aemuf puf&Hkukdodrf;ydkuf&ef aqmfatmcJhonf? oydwfaumfrwDudk rJay; a&G;cs,fzGJ@pnf;cJh=uonf? aumfrwDrS tjcm;oabFmusif;rsm;xHodk@ udk,fpm;vS,frsm; apv$wfIqufoG,fcJhonf? odrf; ydkufa&; oydwfwdkufyGJudk trdt&qkyfudkifxm;a&;jzpfonf? oydwfESpfzGJ@ aygif;I awmif;qdkcsuf ESpfq,fhwpfcsuf&&dScJhonf? ‚if;if;wdk@txJrS yxrOD;qHk;aomawmif;qdkcsufrSm A[kdtvkyform;or*~aumifpDudk zsufodrf;ay;a&;ESifh or*~topfrsm; zGJ@pnf;cGifhay;a&;wdk@ yg0ifcJhonf? owif;ydk@olrsm;u xdkawmif;qdkcsufrsm;pm&if;ukd,lI tjcm;puf&Hkrsm;xHodk@ ,loGm;=u onf? 0gpuDoabFmusif;xHodk@udk,fpm;vS,frsm;apv$wfI òrd@vHk;u|wfoydwfaumfrwDudk zGJ@pnf;EdkifcJh=uonf? tvkyform;rsm;. tcsdefonf tcGifhtcgaumif;jzpfoGm;cJhonf? aom=umae@nwGif qdkAD,ufoHtrwfrS ay:vpfAsL&dk xHodk@ tvkyform;rsm;tay: t=urf;zufESdrfeif;jcif;tay: jypfwif&_H@cs+yD;/ tvkyform;rsm;ESifh aphpyfnd‡Ed_if;a&;twGuf t}uHay;cJhonf? Todk@owday;csuf&&dS+yD;aemuf ay:vpfAsL&dkonf *dkvfrlum tm;xkwfI yÉdyuQrsm;tm; ajyvnf atmifðyvkyfay;rnf[laom tuf'0yf *J&ufudk tpm;xkd;cJhonf? paeae@reufydkif;wGif &SJZifrS t&m&dSrsm;onf pum;ajymqdka&;twGuf pwifurf;vSrf;cJhonf? yxrawG@qHkaqG;aEG;yGJonf oabFmusif;teD; pmoif ausmif;wGif ðyvkyfcJh+yD;/ aemufawG@qHkaqG;aEG;yGJ pum;0dkif;ESpf}udrfudk tjcm;ae&m&dS tpdk;&taqmuftODrsm;wGif ðyvkyfcJh onf? aphpyfaqG;aEG;olrsm;udk atmufajcESifhtqufjzwfypfonf? atmufajctzGJ@0if oydwfv_yf&Sm;ol tawmfrsm;rsm; onf ygwDtzGJ@0ifrsm;jzpf+yD;/ olwdk@.opPmcHr_u rjywfrom;ESpfzufvHk;tay:wGif &Sdae=uao;onf? aemufqHk;&&Sdaom oabmwlnDcsufonf tiftm;raumif;vSay? t&m&dSrsm;u vkyfcwkd;ay;&ef oabmwlcJhonf? tcsKd@ ukefaps;E_ef;}uD;jrifh r_udk zsufodrf;ay;cJhonf? tcsKd@t&m&dSrsm;udk xkwfvkdufonf? xdcdkuf'%f&m&/ aoa=ucJhol tvkyform;rsm;. rdom;pk rsm;udk avsmfa=u;rsm;xkwfay;cJhonf? odk@aomf t"du udpP&yfjzpfaom vGwfvyfaomtvkyform;or*~rsm; wnfaxmif &efudkrl oabmrwlcJhay? (1971) wGif abmfvfwpfurf;&dk;wef;wGif qENjyr_topfwck jzpfyGg;cJhjyefonf? Tw}udrfwGif ygwDonf tvkyform;rsm; tm; w&m;0iftodtrSwfðyaom uef@owftpnf;ta0;rsm;wGif awmif;qdkcsufrsm;udk wifjyEdkif&ef zdwfac:cJhonf? tvkyform;or*~jyefvnfzGJ@pnf;a&;onf aemufwzef awmif;qdkcsufrsm;. xdyfqHk;rSjzpfaecJhjyefonf? tm%mydkifrsm; u tpnf;ta0;udk puf&HkwGif;Y usif;y&efpDpOfcJh=uonf? xdkae&mY tvkyform;rsm;tm; EdkifiH. pD;yGm;a&;t=uyftwnf;udk 0dkif;0ef;ajz&Sif;&ef awmif;qdkcJhonf? 0gpuD;oabFmusif;wGif tvkyform;trsm;pku xdk[efaqmifaqG;aEG;yGJodk@ wuf a&muf&ef

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)106


jiif;qefcJh=uonf? t&SufuGJEdkifzG,f&mjzpfaom tpnf;ta0;&vm'fudk zHk;uG,fEdkif&eftwGuf/ tm%mydkifrsm; onf/ pdwf"gwfwufºuGaeaom vltkyf}uD;toGifaqmifxm;aom &kyjf rifoH=um;owif;wdkwckudk zefwnf; &dkuf,lcJh=u onf? 0gpuDtvkyform;rsm;u ygwDacgif;aqmif *J&ufESifhudk,fwdkifudk,fusawG@+yD;rSom jyefrnf[kwif;cH qENjycJh=uonf? Zefe0g&Dv (25) &ufae@wGif ygwDacgif;aqmifrS vDeifoabFmusif;wGif tpnf;ta0;wckðyvkyfay;cJhonf? olonfvnf; wcsdefu tvkyform;rsm;enf;wl tvkyform;wa,ufjzpfcJhzl;a=umif; &Sif;jy+yD;/ wdkif;jynfudk u,fw,fzdk@ rsKd;cspfwkdufyGJ }uD;wGif yg0if=uzdk@awmif;yefcJhonf? “cifAsm;wdk@ usaemfudkulnDrvm;´” [koluar;cJhonf? tifem a0:vifwDEdk0pfZfESifh vufcsf bm0ifqm tygt0if tjcm;aomtvkyform;trsm;u “ulnDygrnf” [k atmf[pfcJh=uonf? xdktcsdefwdkif atmif olwdk@taejzifh tm%mydkifrsm;.uwdrsm;udk ,Hk=unfvdkae=uqJjzpfonf? (1970 - 1971) ckESpfrsm;wGif aemufxyfpdwfv_yf&Sm;zG,f&m tjzpftysufwckjzpfcJhonf? xdktcsdefwGif jzpf&yf. A[dkonf ydkvefEdkifiHtv,fydkif;&Sd avmh'fZfòrd@wGif jzpfyGm;cJhonf? qef@usifoloydwform;rsm;onf vkyfctenf;i,fom&aom t0wfxnfpuf&Hktvkyform;jzpfI trsm;pkrSm trsKd;orD;rsm;jzpfcJhonf? ‚if;if;wdk@azaz:0g&DvwGif qENjyaomtcg 0ef}uD; csKyftygt0if ay:vpfAsL&dkt&m&dS}uD;rsm;onf av,mOfysHjzifhysHoef;oGm;cJh+yD;/ ,cif ygwDacgif;aqmif*J&uf vkyfovdkrsKd; vlxkpdwfygoa,mif vkyf&efóud;yrf;cJh=uonf? odk@aomf trsKd;orD;oHk;axmifcef@onf olwdk@tm; pum;ajymcGifh ray;cJhay? “&Sifh&J@rdef;ru” trsKd;orD;wOD;u 0ef}uD;csKyfudk atmf[pfajymqdkvdkufonf? “ol@&J@ pif;'Gpfcsfaygifrkef@xJrSm 0ufaygifajcmuf awGxnfhpm;aecsdefrSm usrcav;awGuawmh aygifrkef@ajcmufyJ pm;ae&w,f/ od&J@vm;”[k qENjyol xdktrsKd;orD;u ajym qdkcJhonf? ygwDtm; ulnDyg&efajymaomtcg olwkd@tm;vHk;rS woHwnf; “rulnDEdkifzl;” [kjyefajymcJh=uonf? aemuf wae@wGif tpdk;&onfaemufjyefqkwfI ukefaps;E_ef;rsm;tm; ,ciftwdkif; jyefvnfowfrSwfay;rnfjzpfa=umif;/ a=ujimcJh onf? xdkESpfaqmif;&moDonf ydkvefEdkifiH&Sd uGefjrLepf0g'tay: 0efxkwf0efydk;}uD; wckjzpfapcJhonf? *'ef@pfcf/ 'dkifeD;,m;ESifh &SJZifrS tvkyform;rsm;onf ppfom;ESifh &Jrsm;u olwdk@.&Jabmfrsm;udk ypfowfcJhaom jrifuGif;ukd b,fawmhrS arhEdkifvdrfhrnf r[kwfay? aemufvmrnfhESpfrsm;wGif xdkvlowfyGJESpfywfvnfae@rsm;onf w&m;r0if 0rf;enf;atmufarhbG,fae@rsm;jzpf vmcJhonf? wifhum;rsm;ESifh pufaoewfrsm;ESifh ppfom;rsm;ESifh qENjyolrsm;udk ajz&Sif;cJhonfhtjyif/ xdkolrsm;udk wefjyef awmfvSefa&;orm;rsm;/ vl&rf;um;rsm;[k orkwfcJhaom tpdk;&onf olwdk@onf tvkyform;.zufwGif&dSygonf[k xdkodk@aom tvkyform;rsm;udkyif jyefvnfem;cswdkufwGef;&efrSm vGefpGmrSyif cufcJygvdrfhrnf? tvkyform;rsm;wGifrl pkaygif;pGrf;aqmifr_rS tiftm;topfwckudk &&SdcJhonf? *'ef@pfcfESifh 'dkifeD,mwdk@wGif PZPR onf oydwfrsm;udk acsr_ef;ESdrfeif;Edkif&ef tiftm;toHk;ðycJhonf? odk@aomf ygwD.acgif;aqmifr_topfonf xdyfwdkufcdkuf&efjzpf& r_udk a&Smifz,fI t=urf;rzufaomenf;jzifh ajz&Sif;onfhenf;udk a&G;cs,fcJhonf? &SJZifwGif tm%mydkifwdk@onf oydwf arSmufolrsm;. aphpyfaqG;aEG;olrsm;udk tEdkifusihf Adkvfusaomfvnf;/ aqG;aEG;yGJrsm; qufvufaqmif&GufaeqJ jzpfonf? xdktajctaersKd;onf uGefjrLepfydkvefEdkifiHwGif wcgrS rjzpfcJhbl;ay? ESpfvr#=umaomtcg avmhf'fZfrS bl;cHjiif;aom trsKd; orD;xkaxmifESifhcsDI tmcH=uaomtcgrSom olwdk@tm;udk vdkufavsmay;vkduf&awmhonf? xdktcsufwGif ykdveftvkyf orm;rsm; pdwftm;xufoefpGm od&dSoGm;onfrSm tu,fI tvkyform;rsm; twlwuG qENjy=uv#if/ pepfwusv_yf&Sm; r_rsm; vkyfaqmif=urnfqdkv#if/ tpdk;&taejzifh jynfwif;rif;rcHEdkif[laom tcsufyifjzpfonf? xifxifay:ay:r&Sdjcif;onfvnf; tjcm;aomoifcef;pm,l&rnfh tcsufwckjzpfonf? abmfvfwpfurf;&dk;wef;rS tvkyf orm;rsm;onf tpdk;&ESifh yÉdyuQjzpf&if; oifcef;pmrsm;&&SdI v_yf&Sm;r_oabmobm0udk oabmaygufem;vnfvmcJh& onf? ygwDtaqmuftOD;rsm;udk rD;wif±d_@jcif;onf ppfaoG;ºuGolrsm;udk a=ueyfapcJhaomfvnf; r[mAsL[mt& rnfodk@r# atmifjrifr_ rjzpfaponfhtjyif/ tpdk;&zufu ypfcwfacsr_ef;&ef ta=umif;jycsufay;ovdk jzpfoGm;apcJhonf? tvkyform; rsm;onf xdyfwdkuf&ifqdkifwdkufckduf&ef ydkdrdkaumif;rGefaom enf;vrf;wckudk awG@&dSoGm;cJhonf? olwkd@oabFmusif;rsm;/ puf&Hkrsm;udk odrf;ydkuf"g;pm;cHðyI/ olwdk@twGif; pnf;&Hk;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm; aqmif&GufvkyfudkifEdkifjcif; jzpfonf? xdkpnf;&Hk;r_onf puf&Hkrsm;wGifom r[kwfyJ òrd@wGif;txdyg jyef@ESH@EdkifcJhonf? &SJZifrS oydwfarSmufolrsm;onf ygwD. q,fpkESpf (2) ck=um jiif;y,fcHxm;&r_rsm;udk ausmfv$m;EdkifcJh+yD;/ ‚if;if;wdk@.jy\emrsm;/ udpP&yfrsm;udk aqG;aEG;&ef zdtm;ay;EdkifcJhonf? tm;vHk; òcH=unfhrnfqdkygu tvkyform;rsm;onf ‚if;if;wdk@ óud;yrf;&óud;eyfavmufaom &nfrSef;csuf yef;wdkifwckudk &SmawG@oGm;cJh onf? vcwkd;ay;rnfqdkaom +idrfaq;xufydkaom/ EdkifiHa&;t&vnf; +cdrf;ajmcufr_tjzpfrxifrSwfap&avmufatmif tEW&m,fr}uD;aom/ olwdk@udk,fpm; udk,fpm;ðyajymEdkifjcif;vnf;&Sdaom or*~rsm;rSwqifhaqmif&Guf&rnfudk jrifvm=u onf? Tor*~rsm;ESifh atmifyGJrsm;onf/ ‚if;if;wdk@twGuf wu,fhatmifyGJrsm;jzpfonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)107


usKyfwdk@.vGwfvyfr_udk usKyfwdk@udk,fwdkifpwifrnf? vGwfvyfaomor*~rsm;wnfaxmif&eftwGuf awmif;qdkjcif;onf tcGifhtm%mtm;vHk;udkcsKyfudkifxm;vdkaomygwD twGuf t"dupdefac:r_jzpfonf? uGefjrLepfrsm; ydkvefEkdifiHudk odrf;,laomtcg ‚if;if;wdk@tm; ulnDaxmufcHcJhol qdkAD,uf ,leD,HEdkifiHyHkpHtwdkif;twk,lum puf&Hkrsm;udk EdkifiHawmfydkifodrf;,ljcif;/ A[dkcsKyfudkifpDrHr_rsm; wnfaqmufjcif;/ v,form; rsm;. v,fajrrsm;udkpkaygif;pdkufcif;rsm;twGif;odk@ aygif;pnf;jcif; ponfwdk@udk aqmif&GufcJhonf? owif;vkyfief;ESifh tEk ynmvkyfief;rsm;udkyg xdef;csKyfcJhonf? jyif;xefaom a&S;&dk;pGJt,ltqrsm;udk pmaya&;om;r_rsm;/ ajymqdkr_rsm;ESifh yef;csD rsm;wGif twif;tusyf oGwfoGif;apcJhonf? uufovpfausmif;rsm;udk usL;ausmfI ypPnf;rsm;odrf;,ljcif;/ bmoma&; ausmif;rsm;ESifh vpOfxkwfpmapmifrsm;tm; ydwfypfjcif;/ "rRq&mrsm;cef@tyfjcif; tcGifhtm%mudk vk,ljcif;/ c&pf,mef *dk%f;csKyfESifh bkefawmf}uD;pwDzif 0dkifZifpuDudk tdrftus,fcsKyfxdef;odrf;jcif;rsm;yg ðyvkyfcJhonf? ta&S@Oa&my we,fvHk;wGif tm%m&Sifrsm;. &nf&G,fr_ESifh wu,fhvufawG@b0uGm[csufwdk@ &dScJhaomfvnf; ydkvefonf uGm[csuft}uD;qHk;ae&mwck jzpfcJhonf? pwmvifaoqHk;+yD;aemuf oydwfarSmufyGJrsm;ESifh qENjyr_rsm;utpdk;&udk tvkyf orm;rsm;ESifh tay;t,lvkyf&ef zdtm;jzpfvmcJhonf? pwmvifao+yD;aemufwGif jzpfay:vmaom vGwfvyfyGifhvif;vm rnfh raocsmao;aomtajctaeonf (1956) ckESpfwGif t}uD;tus,f aemufvefusomG ;cJhonf? xdkodk@tvkyform;rsm; ESifhaphpyfaqG;aEG;r_rsm;twGuf/ oabmxm;aysmhajymif;r_. aemufuG,frS t"duv_yf&Sm;olrSm; 0gvufqavm *dkvfrlum jzpfonf? qifqmjzwfawmuf ydwfqdk@r_udk tavsmhay;cJhonf? bk&m;&dScdk;ausmif;rsm;udk olaemufvdkufrsm;tay: =oZm jyefvnf&dSvmatmifESifh owif;pmrsm; xkwfcGifhrsm; jyefvnfcGifhðycJhonf? vGwfvyfaom aqG;aEG;a&;toif;rsm;udk cGifhðy ay;cJhonf? tvkyform;rsm;rS a&G;cs,fwifa¹rSmufaom puf&HkaumifpDrsKd;udk todtrSwfðyay;jcif; ponfjzifh ðyvkyfay;cJh onf? vlr_a&;qdkif&m w&m;r#wr_/ udk,fydkifqHk;jzwfjyXmef;ydkifcGifhESifh 'Drdkua&pDqdkaom pum;vHk;rsm;yifv#if w&m;0if tpdk;&a0g[m& t0ef;t0dkif;wGif azmfjyoHk;pGJvmcJh=uonf? odk@aomf qdkAD,uftkyfpkonf [efa*&DEdkifiH&Sd vlxkrsm;.tHkºuGr_tay: t}uD;tus,fxdwfvef@oGm;cJh+yD;aemuf/ tpdk;&onf aemufxyfvGwfvyfcGifhay;onfh udpPrsm;udk wkef@qdkif;oGm;cJh&onf? puf&HkaumifpDrsm;. udk,fydkifvGwfvyfcGifhudkjyefvnf ydwfyifjcif;/ tpddk;&rl0g'ESifh qef@usifaom pma&;q&m/ ynm&Sifrsm;tm; +idrfoufapjcif; ponfhudpPrsm; aqmif&GufvmcJh onf? “tpdk;&u vlawGudk pOf;pm;cGifhawmhay;w,f/ 'gayr,fh pum;ajymcGifhray;bl;/ vlawGrSm oDcsif;nnf;cGifh&dSw,f? 'gayr,fh qkdcGifhawmhr&dSbl;” [k uAsmq&m t'rf Zm*g*sL;puD; u Todk@aumufcsufcsufcJhonf? ta&S@Oa&my. tjcm; ae&mrsm;xuf ydkI v_yfomvGef@omawmh &dScJhonf/ odk@aomfvnf; rnfolu t"duxdef;csKyfxm;onfqdkonfudkrl wOD; wa,mufur# oHo,r&dScJhay? ydkvefynmwwfrsm;t=um; ygwDwGif; ðyjyifajymif;vJa&;vkyfvdkolrsm; xdyfydkif;ae&mrsm; wGif tm%mjyefvnf&&dSrnf[laomar#mfvifhcsufrsm; &SdcJh=uaomfvnf;/ (1960) ckESpfaemufydkif;wGif Tpdwful;,Ofr_rsm; udk pGef@v$wfvdkuf=u&onf? (1967) ckESpfwGif *dkvfrlumu ay:vpfAsL&dkwGif; usef&dSaeao;aom ðyjyifa&;0g'Drsm;udk t+yD; wdkif z,f&Sm;&Sif;vif;ypfcJhavonf? (1968) ckESpf Zefe0g&DvwGif tm%mydkifrsm;onf q,fudk;&mpkrS vlcspfcifav;pm;aom jyZmwfa&;orm;/ uAsmq&m t'rf Zm*g*sL;puD; Adam Zagajewski . jyZwfwyk'fudk ydwfyifcJhonf? ‚if;if;jyZmwfonf &k&Sqef@usifa&;udkv_H@aqmfI jzpfonf[k ta=umif;jyonf? t'rf Zm*g*sL;puD;jyZmwfudk ydwfyifvdkufjcif;tay: ausmif;om;rsm;/ ynmwwftkyfpkrsm; qef@usifqENjyvmcJhonf? tpnf;ta0;rsm;/ awmif;qdkv$mrsm;ðyI vGwfvyfpGmxkwfaz:ajymqdkcGifhtwGuf awmif;qdkvmcJh =uonf? 0gaqmwuUodkvfrS ausmif;om;rsm; rwfv (8) &ufae@wGif qENjy=uaomtcg &Jrsm;u ausmif;0if;xJodk@ 0if a&mufpD;eif;I qENjyolrsm;udk &dkufESufcJhonf? ausmif;om;rsm;axmifESifhcsDI ausmif;xkwfcHcJh&onf? ygarmuQrsm;vnf; tvkyfðzwfcHcJh&+yD;/ vlaygif;&mausmf axmifcscHcJh&onf? *sL;qef@usifa&;pum;vHk;rsm; owif;rD'D,mrsm;wGif xGufay:vm aoma=umifh ygwD0ifrsm;tygt0if *sL;vlrsKd; axmifESifhcsDI wdkif;jynfrS xGufajy;=u&jyefonf? uGefjrLepfrsm;u ‚if;if;wdk@udk ydkvefEdkifiH&Sd tazmufjyefqHk;aom tiftm;pkrsm;[k orkwfowfrSwfcJh=uonf? ðyjyifajymif;vJa&;ar#mfvifhcsufrsm;udk aemufqHk;xdk;ESufcsufwcku òydusapcJhonf? =o*kwf (20) &ufae@wGif ydkvefwyfzGJ@ rsm;onf/ 0gaqmpmcsKyf (qdkAD,ufjynfaxmifpkESifh ta&S@Oa&myEdkifiHrsm;t=um; csKyfqdkxm;aom ppfa&;r[mrdwfpmcsKyf) tzGJ@0if wyfzGJ@rsm;ESifhtwl csufudkpvdkAufuD;,m;tm; 0ifa&mufusL;ausmf&efcJhonf? armfpudkrS !$ef=um;cJhjcif;jzpf+yD;/ csufudkpvdkAufuD;,m;EdkifiHrS uGefjrLepf ðyjyifajymif;vJa&;orm;rsm;. 'Drdkua&pDajymif;vJr_ pwifvkyfaqmifaejcif;udk acsr_ef;ypf&ef 0ifa&mufcJh=ujcif; jzpfonf?,ckqkdv#if ydkvefacgif;aqmifrsm;rS vGwfvyfr_twGuf awmif;qdkr_rsm;udk cGifhðy vdkOD;awmifrS/ armfpudku ydwfqdk@wm;qDrnfhtajctaeudk txif;om;jrifae&onf? ydkvefvlxkrsm;u ydkrdkyGifhvif;aom vl@tzGJ@tpnf;wck &nf&G,f=uaomfvnf;/ tvm;tvmu enf;vSonf? pdwfysufp&m jzpfaecJhonf? (1960) twGif;

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)108


twdkuftcHEdkifiHa&;aqmif&GufcJh=uaom vlawmfawmfrsm;rsm;u (1970) ckESpf tapmydkif;wGif/ EdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_topf rsm;twGuf r[mAsL[mrsm;csrSwfcJh=uonf? (1968) ckESpfaemufydkif;wGif tajctaersm;ESifh ydkrdkIvdkufavsmnDaxG ajymif; cJh=uonf? xdk r[mAsL[mxkqpfolrsm;=um;wGif vufpfZuf udkvmaumhpuD; Leszek Kolakowski/ ,Jquf ul&Gef Jacek Kuron ESihft'rf rDcsepf Adam Michnik wdk@jzpfcJh=uonf? olwdk@ wOD;csif;pDonf qdk&S,fvpf0g'udk ,Hk=unfouf0if olrsm;rSaeI ygwDwGif;tjzpftysufrsm;udk trSeftwdkif;odjrifvm=uaomtcg/ twdkuftcHtjynfht0jzpfvm=uolrsm; jzpfonf? 0gaqmwuUodkvfrS EdkifiHa&;ygarmuQjzpf+yD;/ touft&G,ft&vnf; t}uD;qHk;jzpfaom udkvmaumhpuD;onf (1950) ESpfrsm;tv,fydkif;wGif w&m;aorufpf0g'udk pGef@v$wfa=umif; a=ujimcJhonf? ygwDtzGJ@0iftjzpfqufvufwnf&dS aecJh+yD; ygwD. ql;an‡mifhwckozG,f jzpfvmcJhonf? ygwDu A[k0g' wnfaxmifay;rnf[laom uwdu0wfudk csdK;azgufcJh r_ESifhygwfoufI olut}uD;tus,faygufuGJonf? (1966) ckESpfwGif ygwDrS ol@tm; xkwfy,fcJh+yD;/ (1968) ckESpfwGif wuUodkvfrSyg xkwfy,fjcif;cHcJh&onf? xdk@aemuf wkdif;jynfrS pGef@cGmcJhaomffvnf;/ wkdif;jynfta&;udkawmh rpGef@cGmcJhay? (1956) ckESpfwGif ,Jquful&Gefonf 0gaqmwuUodkvfwGif ausmif;om;acgif;aqmif wa,mufjzpfcJhonf? olonfvnf; rufpf0g'udk ,Hk=unfI a0zefydkif;jcm;pGm pOf;pm;wwfjcif;onf ygwDwGif; vltrsm; tvkyfjzpfEdkifonf[kvnf; ,Hk=unfcJh onf? aemufrsKd;qufopfrsm;xJwGif uGefjrLepfwefzdk;rsm; pdrf@0ifwefzdk;xm;aeap&ef taysmfxrf;uif;axmufwyfzGJ@rsm;ukd olpkpnf;cJhao;onf? odk@aomf (1960) ckESpfrsm;twGif; olonf ra=ueyfr_rsm; jzpfay:vmcJh+yD;/ ol. vkyfaz:udkifzuf udk&dk;vf rdkZ,fvsL;puD; Karol Modzelewski ESihf wGJzufI tvkyform;rsm;. awmfvSefa&;udk acsr_ef;jcif;jzifhðyjyif ajymif;vJjcif;vkyfr&Edkif[kqdkaom“ygwDodk@ tdwfzGifhay;pm”wck t=urf;ðypkcJhonf? (1964) ckESpfwGif ul&Gef ygwDrSz,f&Sm; cH&+yD; aemufESpfwGif tzrf;cH&I axmifcscHcJh&onf? ul&GefaxmifrSjyefvGwfcsdefonf (1968) rwfv vlxkqENjyr_twGuf pnf;&Hk;aecsdef csdefudkufjzpf+yD;/ ESpf&uftwGif;rSmyif oludk,fol axmifjyefusaerSef; odvdkuf&cJhonf? uGefjrLepf ynmwwfwa,muf.om;jzpfol rDcsepfonf ol@toufq,fhwpfESpfwGif ul&Gef. taysmfxrf;uif;axmuf wyfzGJ@0ifwOD; jzpfcJhonf? “uGefjrLepfqdkwm vlr_qdkif&mw&m;r#wr_/ vGwfvyfr_/ nDr#r_ESifh qdk&S,fvpf0g'twGuf wdkufyGJ 0ifaeolwOD; jzpfw,f” [k oloif=um;cJh&onfudk aemufydkif;wGif jyefajymif;ajymjycJhonf? “ol,Hk=unfr_twGuf ol axmifxJrSm t=um}uD;aecJh&w,f/ jyefvGwfvmwmeJ@ ol&J@awmfvSefa&;tvkyfawGudk jyefvkyfwmyJ?”ol. vrf;!$efjyol q&mrsm;twdkif; ygwDxJwGif tawG;tac:orm;rsm;twGuf ae&mr&dSzl;qdkwm rDcsepfodvdkuf&onf? txufwef;ausmif; om;b0wGif olonf ul&GefESifh rdkZ,fvsL;puD;wdk@. “tdwfzGifhay;pm”rsm;udk jzef@a0r_jzifh tzrf;cHcJh&onf? (1968) ckESpf wGif 0gaqmwuUodkvfwGif; qENjyr_wGif yg0ifcJhjyefonf? aemufESpfwGif olukd,fwdkifaxmifwGif;odk@ a&mufcJhonf? (1970) tv,fydkif;ESifh tapmydkif;umvrsm;wGif xkwfa0aom jynfya&mufpmapmifrsm;ESifh ajratmuf*sme,frsm;wGif yg0ifaom aqmif;ygrsm;wGif xdkyk*~Kd vfrsm;onf ‚if;if;wdk@. trSm;rsm;udk qef;ppfcJh=uonf? tm%mpepfrsm;onf vlom; qefEdkifonf/ 'Drdkua&pDqefEdkifonf[k olwdk@u rSef;qcJh=ua=umif; rDcsepfu a&;om;cJhonf? uGefjrLepfxdyfoD;acgif;aqmif rsm;twGif;wGif “ðyjyifajymif;vJa&;orm;rsm;”&Sdvdrfhrnf[k ,Hk=unfudk;pm;cJh=uonf? odk@aomf (1968) ckESpfwGif ygwDESifh olwdk@ wkwfaESmifxm;aom csufóud;jzwfcJh&onf? udkvmaumhpuD;url uGefjrLepftkyfcsKyfr_. onf;cHpdwfr&dSr_ESifh &ufpuf =urf;óuyfr_rsm;onf acgif;aqmifqdk;rsm;. rSm;,Gif;r_ &dk;&dk;omr[kwf? Ttcsufrsm;onf tpdk;&awG. r&dSrjzpfvdktyf aom t&nftcsif;yJ[k ,ckqdkv#if &Sif;oGm;cJh+yD; [k rSwfcsufcscJhonf? odk@aomf ygwDonf vHk;0ar#mfvifhcsufrJhp&m jzpfaecJhv#ifaomfrS Tt&mtm;vHk;onf ar#mfvifhcsufrJh aeonf[k rqdkvdk ay? rnfonfht&mrqdk rajymif;vJyJ aeIr&[k ,Hk=unfonf? “o&Jabma=umifaom/ tavsmhay;vdkufemaom/ raumif;qdk;0g;rsm;ESifh aygif;pnf;aom vkyf&yftm;vHk;” onf bmukdr# ajymif;vJrypfEkid fa=umif; ,Hk=unfonf[k udkvm aumhpuD;u a&;om;cJhonf? ar;cGef;uawmh Tt&mrsm;udk rnfodk@rnfyHkqef@usif=urnfenf;qdkaomtcsufyif jzpf onf? tm%m&Siftpdk;&udk ðzwfcs&ef óud;pm;jcif;onf pdfwful;,Ofqefr_/ rjzpfEdkifaomvkyf&yfwck r[kwf[k rdcsepfu rSwfcsufcscJhonf? qdkAD,ufjynfaxmifpku [efa*&DESifh csufudkpvdkAufuD;,m;EdkifiHrsm;uJhodk@ ta&;wGif=um;0ifpGufzuf EdkifcJhonf? xdk@tjyif awmfvSefaom ajratmufvkyfief;rsm;onf &JwyfzGJ@rsm;twGufom tusKd;ðycJhonf? vlxktm; ydkI pdwfajcmufjcm;ap+yD;/ &JwyfzGJ@rsm;tm; &efpovdk ydkjzpfapcJhonf? uGefjrLepfrsm;onf ‚if;if;wdk@. axmufcHolrsm;twGif; wdwfwqdwf oyfv#Kdvmaom twdkuftcHrsm;udk acsr_ef;ypfvdrfhrnf? tu,fI atmifjrifyguvnf; tiftm;t=urf; ywrf;oHk;I atmifjrif&jcif;a=umifh/ w&m;aotpdk;&wckudk aemufxyf w&m;aotpdk;&wckjzifh tpm;xdk;onfhES,fom &Sdvdrfhrnf? “vuf&dS&dSaewJh bmpwD;vftusOf;axmifawGudk tiftm;oHk;+yD; òzdcGif;rnfqdkygu rdrdwdk@taejzifh tr_rJ@ trSwf rJh aemufxyfbmpwD;vftopfrsm;udk wnfaqmufrdvsufom; jzpfvdrfhrnf?”

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)109


wjznf;jznf;ajymif;vJrnfh ðyjyifajymif;vJa&;0g'onf tusKd;rJhvkyf&yfwckjzpfoGm;cJhovdk/ xdyfwdkufwdkufcdkufjcif;onfvnf; vrf;qHk;ydwfaeaom vkyf&yfwckvdk jzpfaecJhonf? odk@aomf udkvmaumhpuD;/ ul&GefESifh rdcsepfwdk@u wckckawmh&dS&rnf[k ,Hk=unfaecJhonf? tpdk;&udk ajymif;vJrnfhtpm; tpdk;&.twdkuftcHtiftm;pkrsm;onf ydkvefEdkifiH.vlr_b0udk ajymif;vJ apEdkifvdrfhrnf? ygwDuxdef;csKyfxm;aom zufpHkaxmifpHk&Sd b0rsm;. emcHaomtavhtxudk ckcHwGef;vSefjcif;jzifh ydkvef vlr_tzGJ@tpnf;udk ajymif;vJypfEdkifvdrfhrnf[k jrifonf? ygwD csKyfudkifr_. tjyifzufrS EdkifiHom;rsm;rS vGwfvyfpGm OD;aqmifOD;&Gufðyr_rsm;/ jynfolrsm;rS udk,fxludk,fx tzGJ@tpnf; erlemrsm;onf “EdkifiHawmf. vuf0g;}uD;tkyfr_rsm;ESifh tm%mt*wdvkyfpdkufr_rsm;udk pdefac:aejcif;omjzpfonf” [k ul&Gefua=ujimcJhonf? twkduftcHynmwwfrsm;. vufiif;wm0efonf “vGwfvyfolrsm;. ppfrSefaomae@pOfb0 vl@0ef;usif” wnfaqmuf&ef jzpfonf[k rdcsepfu a&; om;cJhonf? qef@usif0da&m"djzpfpGmyif/ ydkvefom;rsm;twGuf EdkifiHa&;qdkif&m ajymif;vJr_vrf;udk av#mufvSrf;zdk@&eftwGuf EdkifiHa&;rS uif;uGmp&rnfuJhodk@ jzpfaecJhonf? “usKyfwdk@&J@ vGwfajrmufr_udk usKyfwdk@udk,fwdkifyJ pwif&rnf” [k rdcsepfu aºuG;a=umf cJhonf? xdkodk@vkyf&ef vGefcJhaomESpfaygif;ajcmufq,fu *ENDtawG;tac:. 0dnmOfrsm;udk twk,lcJhonf? jAdwdo#xHrS EdkifiH vGwfvyfa&; r&,lrDumvrSmyif/ tdENd,jynfoljynfom;wdk@.b0wGif “udk,fhudkudk,ftkyfcsKyfa&;” qdkonfudk &,lEdkifcJh=u onf? ydkveftwdkuftcHrsm;. em,ursm;onf *END.r[mAsL[m OD;ao#mifrS &wem ESpfvHk;udk iSm;,lcJhonf? xdkt&m ESpfckrSm t=urf;zufenf;udk y,fcsjcif;ESifh udk,fudkudk,fwm0ef,lwwfolrsm;tjzpf tavhtusifhrsm; wdk;yGm;vmap&ef/ yk*~vduvkyfief;rsm; pwifvkyfaqmifapjcif;yifjzpfonf? okd@aomfvnf; vGwfvyfaom udk,fxludk,fxtoif;rsm;onf wdkif;jynftm; jyefvnfðyjyifjcif;qdkaom &nfrSef;csuu f dk pGef@v$wfvdkufjcif; r[kwfay? uGJvJoGm;onf[k rqdkvdkay? xdkt&monf tm%m&Siftpdk;&tm; ajymif;vJr_ðyvkyf&ef qGay;ovdk jzpfEdkifcJhonf[k ul&GefESifh rdcsepfu awG;qcJhonf? “vl@tzGJ@tpnf;tm; pkpnf;jcif;onf tm%mpGrf;tm;wck jzpfonf” ESifh “rnfonfhtm%mydkifrqdk rnfonfhtm%mjzpfap todtrSwfðyudk ðy&rnfjzpfonf?”[k ul&Gefu a&;cJh onf? “atmufajcrSvmaom zdtm;xuf rnfonfht&mur# tm%mydkifrsm;udk trdef@ray;Edkifay”[k rdcsepfu axmufjycJhonf? 'Drdkua&pDESifh vlxkvGwfvyfr_rsm;onf tEWdrqkv'frsm;jzpfI ydkvefjynfolrsm;tm;vHk; pnf;&Hk;jcif;ESifh v_H@aqmfjcif;onf rvkyfrjzpfvkyf&efvdkaom yxrtqifhrsm;jzpfonf[k qdkonf? Todk@vkyfaqmif&eftwGuf ynmwwfrsm;onf r[mrdwftiftm;pkrsm; vdktyfcJhonf? yxrqHk; odrf;oGif;&rnfholonf ydkvefynmwwfvlwef;pm;ESifh odyftxmrawG@vSaom/ uufovpfbk&m;ausmif;rsm;jzpfcJhonf? ‚if;if;wdk@onf ydkvefEdkifiH wGif wckwnf;aom vGwfvyfpGm xkwfaz:ajymqdkEdkifonfh tiftm;pkrsm;jzpf=uonf? udkvmaumhpuD;u (1950) ckESpfrsm; wGif xdkbmoma&;bk&m;ausmif;rsm;tm; “bmoma&;qdkif&m t,lonf;0g'”[lI ‚if;if;wdk@ESifh oufqdkifaomordkif; a=umif;udk ±H_@cscJhbl;ovdk/ bkef;awmf}uD; 0dkifZif;puD;uvnf; ynmwwfrsm;ESifhywfoufI “&kyfydkif;eSifh pdwfydkif;qdkif&m orkwdopPmvufawG@0g'Drsm;”[k nnf;wGm;cJhbl;onf? odk@aomf ,cktajctaeonf jyefvnfaygif;pnf;&eftwGuf &ifhrSnfhcsdefa&mufae+yDjzpfonf? bmoma&;bk&m;ausmif;rsm;onf uufovpfbmom0ifrsm;twGufom r[kwfyJ ynmwwfrsm;/ ydkvefjynfolrsm;twGufyg vl@tcGifhta&;rsm;ESifhywfoufI xkwfaz:ajymqdkcJh=u+yD;/ uGefjrLepf0g'ESifh ywfouf+yD; raumif;rSef;odvm&HkwifruyJ/ &kyfqefvGef;aom0g'ESifh tvGeftrif;usKd;a=umif;qifjcifr_udk toHk;csaom0g' udkyg raumif;rSef;odjrifvmcJh=uonf? xdk@a=umifh udk,fusifhw&m;&dSaom tm%mydkiftopfrsm;udk pwif &SmazGvmcJhonf? ul&GefESifh rdcsepfwdk@onf pufr_vkyfief;todkif;t0dkif;wGifvnf; vkyfaz:udkifzufrsm; &&dSap&efvnf; ar#mfvifhcJh=uonf? (1956) ckESpfESifh (1970) ckESpfrsm;wGif ESpf}udrfwkdifwdkif tvkyform;rsm;. qlylykefuefr_ESifh tpdk;xHrS oabmwlnDr_rsm; tm; zdtm;ay;n‡pfxkwf&,lEdkifcJhonfudk olwdk@ todtrSwfðycJh=uonf? ygwDonf tvkyform;xktm; tjcm;tkyfpkrsm; xuf ydka=umufonf? xdk@a=umifh ydkvefEdkifiHtm; 'Drdkua&pDqDodk@ wGef;ydk@aom rnfonfhv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;wGifrqdk xdktvkyf orm;xkonf yg0if&rnfjzpfonf[k rdcsepfu a&;om;cJhonf? (1970) ckESpfwGif ppfwyfESifh Zdkrdkac: axmufvSrf;a&;&Jrsm; wdk@u urf;&dk;wrf;a'orsm;wav#muf&Sd tvkyform;rsm;udkESdyfpufaomtcg ynmwwfrsm; pdk;pOf;r# rv_yfcJhonfhtwGuf a=umifh ul&Gef twGuf t&Suf&p&m jzpfapcJhonf? aemufwcsdefqdkv#ifawmh olwdk@taeESifh wpHkw&m aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfr_ jyo&vdrfhrnf jzpfonf?

vltzGJ@tpnf;onf ‚if;if;udk,f ‚if;if;pkpnf;&ef wm0ef&dSonf (1976) ckESpfwGif aemufw}udrf jyefjzpfcJhonf? Tw}udrfwGifvnf; pmaomufukefaps;E_ef;rsm;onf rD;yGm;rsm; wzefjzpfcJh jyefonf? ZGefv (24) &ufae@wGif 0ef}uD;csKyfu (6) ESpftwGif; yxrqH;k aom aps;E_ef;wufr_udk a=ujimcJhonf? o=um;/ 0uftlacsmif;paom ukefypPnf;tcsKd@rSm aps;ESpfqwufcJh+yD;/ tjcm;t&mrsm;onf (50) &mcdkifE_ef; aps;wufvmvdrfhrnf[k a=ujimcJhonf? aemufwae@wGif ydkvef wEdkifiHvHk; oyddwfarSmufcJh=uonf? avmh'fZfrS txnfpuf&Hkrsm;/ urf;&dk;wef;rS oabFmusif;rsm;/ ydk@ZeefrS

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)110


oHxnfpuf&Hkrsm;/ qDvDqD,mrS owWKrdkif;rsm;ESifh Edk0g[lwmrS oHpuf&Hkrsm;wGif oydwfrsm;jzpfyGm; cJhonf? 0gaqm.qifajczHk;rsm;wGif tmqyfpfx&ufwm puf&HkrS tvkyform;rsm;onf rD;&xm;oHvrf;rsm;udk zsufqD;cJh ojzifh 0gaqm - yJ&pf rD&xm; &yfwef@cJh&onf? òrd@awmfESifh rdkifav;q,fcef@a0;aom a&'Grf wGiftvkyform;rsm; ygwD taqmuftODrsm;udk rD;wif±d_@=uojzifh vGefcJhaom (6) ESpfrS jrifuGif;ESifh tvm;o¿mefwlcJhonf? &kef;&if;qefcwfr_rsm; t&dSefavsmhruscifrSmyif 0ef}uD;csKyfrS aps;E_ef;wufr_rsm;tm; &kyfodrf;vdkuf+yDjzpfa=umif; avvd_if;ay:rSaeI a=ujimcJhonf? (1970) uJhodk@yif tpdk;&rS jyefqkwfcJhonf? odk@aomf aemufxyf qENjyr_rsm;udkawmh rvdkvm;onfh [efyefrsm;jyocJhonf? a&'Grrf S qENjyolrsm;tm; “rl&l;aeaom vloGrf;rsm; ESifh &l;a=umifa=umif rdef;rrsm;”[lI ±H_@cscJhonf? tmCmw}uD;rm;pGm jzifh ae&mtESH@tjym;wGif oydwfarSmufolrsm;udk typfay;&ef pwifaqmif&GufcJhonf? qENjyoltcsKd@onf eHygwfwkwfudkif &Jrsm;t=um; n‡yfyl;n‡yfodyf tydwfcHcJh&onf? ESpfaxmifausmf tzrf;cHcJh&onf? oHk;&mausmf axmifwGif;toGif;cHcJh&+yD;/ tcsKd@rSm q,fESpfausmftxd axmif'%ftjypfay; cHcJh&onf? tvkyform; axmifESihfcsDI tvkyfðzwfcHcJh&+yD;/ vcom r[kwf/ tvkyfvufrJhrsm;. cHpm;cGifhjzpfaom wdkifjynfwGif;&dS aq;ukoapmifha&Smufr_rsm;vnf; qHk;±H_l;cJh=u&onf? Ttcsdefonf (1970) ckESpfuESifh rwlyJ ynmwwfrsm;onfvnf; tvkyform;rsm;zufrS pka0;&yfwnfcJhonf? &ufydkif; twGif;rSmyif ul&GefESifh rdcsepfonf bkefawmf}uD;ESpfygtygt0if tjcm;aomolrsm;ESihf wGJzufI oydwfarSmufolrsm;ESifh twl “aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;a=ujimpmwrf;” udk vufrSwfa&;xdk;cJh=uonf? ZlvdkifvwGif tmqyfpfrS tvkyform;rsm;ESifh ywfoufaom cHk&Hk;wifppfaq;r_pwifaomtcg w&m;cGifwGif w&m;cHrdom;pkrsm;/ EdkifiHjcm;owif;axmufrsm;/ t&yf0wf vHkòcHa&;&Jrsm;ESifh ,Jquful&Gef tygt0if 0gaqmrS twdkuftcH w'gZifr#ESifh jynfhv#HaecJhonf? olwdk@tm;vHk;onf tvkyf orm;rsm;. rdom;pkrsm;udk ulnD=u&ef a&mufvmcJhjcif;jzpfonf? odk@aomf rvG,fulvSay? vHkòcHa&;&J/ at;*sifhrsm;onf ‚if;if;wdk@aemufodk@ ae&mwumvdkufaejcif;/ "gwfyHk&dkuf,ljcif;ponfrsm; ðy=uonf? rdom;pk0ifrsm;onfvnf; vlpdrf;rsm;udk pdk;&drf=uonf? w&m;cH. trsKd;wa,mufjzpfaom idkaºuG;aeaom trsKd;orD;udk tjcm;twdkuftcHzufrS trsKd;orD;ESpfOD; u pmemudk,fcsif;pmr_ay;jcif;onf acwWem;aecsdef. +idrfoufr_udk òzdcGif;cJhonf? rdom;pk0ifrsm;u w&m;&Hk;rS cef@tyfaom a&S@aersm;udk ra=ueyfa=umif; taxmuftxm;ESihf ajymqdkcJh=uonf? twkduf tcHrsm;rSvnf; a&S@aetwGuf axmufcHcJh=u+yD;/ a&S@aepm;&dwfay;cJh=uonf? tvkyform;wOD;. uav;twGuf uav; xdef; pDpOfay;aoma=umifh ol.ZeD; w&m;cGifodk@ vmEdkifcJhonf? 0gaqmrS ynmwwfrsm;ESifh ausmif;om;rsm;onf tvm; wl tultnDrsKd;udk a&'GrfwGifw&m;&ifqdkifaeaom tvkyform;rsm;udkvnf; ulnDcJh=uonf? apmifh=unfhr_rsm;onf ydkrdk wif;=uyfvmcJhonf? aqmif&Gufolrsm;uvnf; csKyfaESmifjcif;/ &dkufESufjcif;rsm;udk &J0HhpGm&ifqdkifcJh=uonf? tpdk;&rS ul&Gef tm; ppfwyft&Hwyfom;tjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmif&ef ac:jcif;jzifh/ ol@tm; xdkjrifuGif;rS z,f&Sm;cJhonf? tvkyform;rsm;udk tultnDay;aeonfhudpPrsm;udk a&&SnftultnDay;Edkif&ef tcsKd@vli,fydkif; aqmif&Gufolrsm;onf ay:ay:xifxif v_yf&Sm;pnf;&Hk;vdk=uonf? xif&Sm;ausmf=um;+yD;aomolrsm;udk pnf;&Hk;odrf;oGif;vdk=uonf? xdkolrsm; ygvmygu acsr_ef;jcif;tm;jzifh emrnfqdk;&Edkifaoma=umifh tpdk;&zufrSvnf; xdef;odrf;udkifwG,fvdrfhrnf[k olwdk@,lq aoma=umifh jzpfonf? tcdsK@ touft&G,f}uD;&ifhaom ynmwwfrsm;onf w&m;0ifyHkpHtkyfpkzGJ@r_onf vG,fvG,fululESifh acsr_ef;Edkifonf[k pdk;&drfcJh=uonf? ydkvef b&if*sDbkefawmf}uD;*dk%f;. pufwufbm (9) &ufae@pGJyg/ tvkyform;qdkif&m tcGifhta&;rsm;tm; umuG,fjcif;ESifhywfoufaom xkwfjyefa=ujimcsufonf i,f&G,faom aqmif&Gufolrsm;. ESvHk; om;udk odrf;ydkufqGJiifEdkifcJhonf? xkdvli,fxkrS ydkvefbmomtm;jzifh twdkaumuf autdktm KOR [kac:aom tvkyf orm;tcGifhta&;tumtuG,fay;a&;aumfrwDw&yfudk zGJ@pnf;cJh=uonf? xdkaumfrwDonf ul&Gef/ rdcsepfESifh tjcm;aom olrsm;. r[mAsL[m pdwful;tay:wGif aemufqufwGJjzpfay:vmcJhjcif; jzpfonf? xdkaumfrwDrS tzrf;cH&aom tvkyf orm;rsm;tm; vGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifhay;&efESifh tvkyfðzwfcH&olrsm;udk tvkyfjyefoGif;ay;&efwdk@udk awmif;qkdcJhonf? “vl@ tzGJ@tpnf;wGif Oya'rJhr_udk ckcHumuG,f&ef pnf;vHk;nD!Gwfjcif;ESihf tjyeftvSefulnDjcif;rSvGJI tjcm;enf;emr&dS” [k KOR rS a=ujimcJhonf? “rnfonfhae&mwGif zdESdyfr_&dSap xdkt&mawGudk ckcHumuG,f&ef vl@tzGJ@tpnf;onf olwdk@udk,f olwdk@ pkpnf;&rnf/ Ttcsufonf vl@tzGJ@tpnf;. wm0efwckjzpfonf?” xdkOyrmonf “twkyftaESmifuif;aom v_yf&Sm;r_Xmetopfrsm; jzpfay:vmap&ef aphaqmfay;vdrfhrnf” [k olwdk@ar#mfvihfcJha=umif; pwnfaxmifolwOD;ua&; om;cJhonf? autdt k m KOR onf tzGJ@0if q,fhav;OD;jzifh pwifcJh+yD;/ rnfonfhtcsdefur#tzGJ@0if oHk;q,fxuf rydkcJhay? t"duyg0if =uolrsm;rSm ordkif;ynm&Sifrsm;/ vlr_a&;ynm&Sifrsm;/ a&S@aersm;/ pma&;q&mrsm;/ '\eduynm&Sifrsm;ESifh c&pf,mefbkef; awmf}uD;rsm; yg0ifcJhonf? emrnf}uD;yk*~dKvftcsKd@udkvnf; pnf;&Hk;odrf;oGif;EdkifcJhonf? emrnf}uD; 0wWKa&;q&m *smqD tef'a&*sL;puD;/ vltrsm;=unfndkaom abm*aA'ordkif;ynm&Sif tuf'0yf vDyif;puD;/ tu,f'rDqk&Sif &kyf&Sifrif;orD; [,fvDem rDudkvmhcsfpum;ESifh atmufpfpzdk@'f rS ygarmuQ vJZuf udkvmaumhpuD;wdk@yg0ifcJhonf? tjcm;tzGJ@0ifrsm;onf 'kwd,urBmppftwGif; ajratmuf *smrefawmfvSefa&;wGif ygcJhbl;olrsm; odk@r[kwf xdkrsKd;qufrS aygufzGm;vmolrsm;/ (1956) ESifh

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)111


(1968) ckESpfrsm;wGif tpdk;&tm; qef@usifcJholrsm; jzpf=uonf? tawG;tac:tm;jzifh xdktkyfpkonf uGJjym;r_ &dScJhonf? uufovpf ynmwwfrsm;/ qdk&S,f 'Drkdu&ufrsm;ESifh vpfb&,f0g'Drsm; ponfwdk@ yg0ifcJhaomfvnf; tm%m&Sif tpdk;&udk qef@usifjcif;ESifh 'Drdkua&pDESifh vl@tcGifhta&;rsm;tay:wGifxm;&dSaom wefzdk;xm;/ uwdu0wf&dSr_rsm;tay:wGif twlwuG vkyfaqmifEdkifcJh=uonf? xdktzGJ@tpnf;topfonf pGyfpGJcH&olrsm;/ &dkufESufcH&olrsm;ESifh tvkyfðzwfcH&ol tvkyform;rsm;tm; tpdk;&rS jiif;y,f aom 0efaqmifr_vkyfief;rsm;udk jznfhqD;ay;jcif;udk t"du vkyfaqmifcJhonf? autdktm KOR onf tvkyform;rsm; zufrS ckcHumuG,fEdkif&ef a&S@aersm;&Smay;jcif;ESifh w&m;cGifwGif oufaojyEdkif&ef tvkyform;rsm; cHpm;cJh&aom '%f&m '%fcsufrsm;twGuf oufaocH taxmuftxm;rsm;&,l&ef q&m0efrsm;&SmazGay;jcif;wkd@udk vkyfudkifcJh=uonf? w&m; r0if tultnDay;a&; &HyHkaiG wckwnfaqmuf&eftwGuf tzGJ@0ifrsm;/ bk&m;&Sdcdk;ausmif;rsm;/ jynfwGif;vlxkxHrS &HyHkaiG tajrmuftjrm;ESifh EdkifiHjcm;rSyg &HyHkaiGrsm;udk aumufcHcho J nf? aqmvf bJvdk;/ [def;e&pf bdk;ESifh *Gefwm *&yfpfuJhodk@aom EdkifiHjcm;emrnf}uD;pma&;q&mrsm;rS ydkvefwGifa&mif;aom ‚if;if;wdk@pmtkyfrlykid fcGifhrsm;udk vSL'gef;cJh=uonf? taemufOa&my tvkyform;or*~rsm;rSvnf; vSL'gef;cJh=uonf? KOR onf pkpkaygif; &or# aiGa=u;ZavmhwD zloty (3² 2) oef;udk (vl ajcmufq,fhig;a,muf. ESpfywfvnf 0ifaiGESifh wlnDonf?) 1976 pufwifbmrS ESifh 1977 pufwifbmtxd vlaxmif aygif;rsm;pGmudk ulnDay;EdkifcJhonf? KOR onf vlod&Sif=um; wdkufyGJrsm;az:Ivnf; ppftpdk;&udk zdtm;ay;cJhonf? ygwDt}uD;tuJ *J&ufonf vlxktjrif tay:wGif wdrf;!$wfEdkifyga=umif; az:jycJhonf? xdk@a=umifh xdktkyfpkonf qENjyyGJrsm;. jyefvnfajymqdkcsufrsm;/ tusdK; quf zdESdyfr_rsm; ESifh tvkyform;rsm;. w&m;cGifrsm;ta=umif;udk pmrsm;xkwfI jzef@a0cJhonf? xdk@tjyif ‚if;if;wdk@onf EdkifiHawmf w&m;a&S@ae&Hk;tm; &Jrsm;. rrSefruef qufqHr_rsm;udk ta&;,l&ef wGef;tm;ay;cJhonf? (1976) aemufydkif;wGif tmqyfpfESifh a&'GrfrS tvkyform; wpfaxmifausmfwdk@onf *J&uf xHodk@ qef@usifaom pmrsm;udk vufrSwfxdk;I ay;ydk@cJh =uonf? xdkwcsdefwnf;rSmyif &maygif;rsm;pGmaom ynm&Sifrsm;/ bkef;awmf}uD;rsm;/ pma&;q&mrsm;ESifh tEkynm&Sifrsm; onfvnf; Sejm (ydkvefygvDref) xHodk@ &Jrsm;. ESdyfpufr_rsm;ESifh ywfoufI pHkprf;ppfaq;ay;yg&ef awmif;qdkcsufrsm; yg0ifaom pmrsm;udk vufrSwfxdk; ay;ydk@cJh=uonf?

ygwDonf EdkifiHjcm;rSvmaom xifjrif,lqcsufrsm;udkd ydkvefEdkifiHom;rsm;ajympum;uJhodk@yif ta&;xm;rnf[k KOR u odaecJhonf? tb,fa=umifhqdkaomf ydkvefonf “vpfb&,fqefaom” vGwfvyfyGifhvif;aom uGefjrLepf tpdk;&wckjzpf onf[laom taemuf.,Hk=unfcsuf&rSom aiGa=u;qdkif&m aºuG;+rD&Edkifrnf[k odxm;aoma=umifh/ *J&ufonf EdkifiHjcm; wGif =uifem[efyHk&dyfudkjyxm;+yD;jzpfonf? KOR onf xdktm;enf;csufudk tqufrjywf wdkufcdkufcJhonf? ul&GefESifh vpfyf puD;wdk@onf 0gaqmwGif *smrefowif;axmufrsm;ESifh tifwmAsL;cJhonf? (1976) ckESpftwGif; taemufOa&mywGifvnf; rpfcsepfonf jyifopfESifh tDwvD owif;axmufrsm;ESifh tifwmAsL;cJhonf? ol/ udkvmaumpuD;ESifh 0avmhZifrm&pf b&kpf ESifh atmufpfpzdk@'f&dS tjcm; jynfya&mufolwOD;wdk@onf vef'efwGif owif;pm&Sif;vif;yGJwckðyvkyfI aiGa=u;tultnD rsm; awmif;cJh=uonf? ‚if;if;wdk@ta&;ESifh qufEG,faom aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;aumfrwDrsm; vef'ef/ yJ&pfESifh e,l;a,mufwdk@ wGif zGJ@pnf;EdkifcJh=uonf? xdkenf;AsL[mrsm;onf tvkyfjzpfcJhonf? (1977) rwfvESifh Zlvkid fvtwGif; vGefcJhaom ZGefvuwnf;u zrf;qD;xm; aom tvkyform;tm;vHk;udk jyefv$wfay;cJh+yD;/ tvkyfðzwfcHxm;&aom vltrsm;pkvnf; tvkyfjyef&cJhonf? tpdk;&rS ar#mfvifhxm;cJhonfh KOR . t"du awmif;qdkr_rsm;udk jznfhqnf;ay;jcif;jzifh jynfwGif; jynfy&dS zdtm;ay;r_rsm; avsmhus Edkif+yD;/ xdktzGJ@onfvnf; wjznf;jznf; aysmufuG,foGm;vdrfhrnf[k ppftpdk;&rS ar#mfvifhxm;cJhonf? odk@aomf tmqyfpf ESifh a&'Grf&Sd tvkyform;rsm;twGuf vkyfief; +yD;ajrmufoGm;aomtcg/ aqmif&Gufolrsm;onf tjcm;aom OD;pm;ay; vkyfief;rsm;buf vSnfhoGm;=ucJhavonf? “usKyfwdk@&J@ vkyfief;awGudk qufvufvkyfaqmifoGm;rSm jzpfygw,f/” “usKyfwdk@ wyftyfodxm;ovdkyJ tm%mydkifawGu csrSwfxm;wJh twm;tqD;awGukd wdkufcdkufzdk@&ef txda&mufqHk;vufeuf[m EdkifiHom;tm;vHk;&J@ wufºuGaom aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfr_yif jzpfygw,f?”[k ‚if;if;wdk@u a=ujimcJhonf? pmapmif/ pmtkyf xkwfa0a&;onf wckwnf;aom ta&;t}uD;qHk; vufeufwckjzpfcJhonf? tpdk;&. vlxk owif;ESifh rD'D,m wGif vuf0g;}uD; tkyfxm;r_udkòzdcGif;jcif;vnf;jzpfI/ tpdk;&. ydkvefvlxkb0tm; csKyfudkifxm;jcif;udk z,f&Sm;ypfa&; twGuf vGefpGmta&;}uD;aomvkyfief;vnf; jzpfcJhonf? vlxk=um;wGif qufoG,fa&;vrf;a=umif; r&dSygu rnfonfh vGwfvyfa&; óud;yrf;r_ aqmif&Gufcsufrsm; csdwfqufEdkifrnf r[kwfacs? twdwfumvrsm;wGif ydkveftwdkuftcHrsm;rS pdppfa&;rsm; avsmhayghay;&ef awmif;qdkcJh+yD;/ ppftpdk;&rSvnf; &Hzef &Hcg tenf;i,f zGifhay;cJhonf? odk@aomf tuef@towf rsm;onf qufvuf&dSaeqJ jzpfonf? tu,fI a0zefajymqdkygu rnfonfht&mr# xkwfvkyfcGifh r&awmhrnfudk a=umuf ±G@HcJhaom olrsm;t=um; xdk pdppfa&;rsm;u tvkyfjzpfcJhonf? (1976) ckESpf aemufydkif; ,ckqdkv#if twdkuftcHrsm;onf w&m;0ifrD'D,mrsm;udk OayuQmðyI udk,fydkif*sme,frsm;/ pmtkyfrsm; pwif xkwfa0cJh=uonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)112


(1976) ckESpf pufwifbmwGif KOR onf udjk rLeDuyf Komunikat (qufoG,fa&;) [k trnf&aom ol@. yxrOD;qHk; aom pmapmifudk xkwfa0cJh+yD;/ ‚if;if;pmapmifonf tenf;trsm;qdkovdk vpOfxGufcJhonf? xdkpmapmifwGif KOR . oabmxm; a=ujimcsufrsm;/ tvkyform;rsm;. w&m;cGifowif;rsm;ygovdk/ xdkta&;aqmif&Gufolrsm;tay: wefjyef uvJhpm;acs wdkufcdkufr_rsm;vnf; yg0ifcJh=uonf? ta&;tom;rsm;onf uspfvpfI tcsuftvufrSefuef=u+yD;/ ydkvefrS w&m;0if pmapmifrsm;ESifh rwlnDyJ ,Hk=unfpdwfcs&aom owif;xGufay:&m ae&mwcktjzpf wckom &nf&G,fxkwfa0jcif; jzpfcJhonf? yxrwGif tzGJ@0ifrsm;onf pmapmifrsm;udk vufESdyfpufjzifh &dkuf&onf/ xdk@aemuf tjcm;olrsm;xHvufqifh urf;um xdkpmapmifrsm;ay;I xdkolrsm;rS topfxyfrH&dkufI olwdk@t=um; jyefvnf jzef@a0cJh=u&onf? aemufydkif;wGif rdwWLpufrsm;udk EdkifiHjcm;rS cdk;oGif;I yHkESdyfjzef@a0cJh=uonf? KOR onf tjcm;aom owif;ESifh oabmxm;a&;&m *sme,f rsm; ay:xGufvma&;twGufvnf; ulnDay;cJhonf? xdktxJwGif tvkyform;rsm;tm; pnf;&Hk;jcif;/ vkyfief;cGif vHkòcHr_ &dSjcif;/ usef;rma&;apmifha&Smufr_ESifh vkyftm;crsm;ESihfywfoufaom t=uHnm%frsm; az:jyyg0ifonfh &dkabmhepfuf Robotnik uJhodk@aom pufr_vkyfom;rsm;twGuf *sme,fwckvnf; yg0ifcJhonf? (1978) ckESpf aemufydkif;wGif w}udrf xkwfv#if apmifa&ESpfaomif;udk xkwfa0jzef@csDEdkifcJh=uonf? KOR .aiGa=u;/ KOR . rdwLW ul;pufjzifh KOR .tzGJ@0ifvnf;jzpf/ "gwkaA'ynm&SifwOD;vnf; jzpfaom rD&dkqavm csKd*sDuD u

Edk0g [k ac:aom ajratmuf pmayxkwfvkyfa&;vkyfief;wck wnfaxmifchJonf? (1977) ckESpfwGif yxrOD;qHk; pmtkyfxGufay:vmcJh+yD;/ 0wˆKrsm;/ rSwfwrf;rsm;ESifh EdkifiHa&;qkdkif&m pum;ajyrsm; tygt0if pmtkyfw&mausmfESifh vuf urf;pmapmiftajrmuftrsm; qufwdkufxkwfa0EdkifcJhonf? tpdk;&. qifqmtzGJ@rsm;wGif b,faomtcgur# uif;vGwcf Jh k Gif jynfajy;tjzpfaexdkifaom vpfol jcif;r&dSonfh qufpavm rDavmhfZf Czeslaw Milosz (tar&duefjynfaxmifpw tm;eD;,ef;ESihf ydkvefpyfuAsmq&m/ aemifwGif pmayqdkif&m Edkvfb,fvfqk &&dScJholjzpfonf?) . uAsmrsm;ESifh a*smhcsf tdk0,fvfESifh uAsmq&mrsm;jzpf=uaom tdkqpfyf ref'JvfpwefESifh *sKdqufzd ba&mh'fpuDwdk@. vuf&mrsm; xGufay:vmcJh =uonf? Edk0gwGif ‚if;if;udk,fydkif yHkESdyfqdkifrsm;/ odkavSmif&Hkrsm;/ jzef@csDa&; uGef,ufrsm; ESifh a&mif;&aom aiGa=u;ESifh ulnDr_ rsm;uwqifh pwifvnfywfcJhonf? ydkvef twdkuftcHrsm;onf qifqmjzwfawmufjcif;udk ‚if;if;wdk@aemufausmrS jyefwdkufouJhodk@ twdkuftcHrsm;onf ygwD . tqifhjrifhynma&;tay: xdef;csKyfr_udk olwdk@ udk,fykdifoifcef;pmrsm;jzihf jyefvnf wefjyefwdkufcJh=uonf? (1977) ckESpf aqmif;tul;wGif KOR tzGJ@0ifrsm;onf tjcm;aom ynm&Sifrsm;ESifh ylaygif;I tjrifhysH wuUodkvf (Flying University) udk zefwnf;cJh=uonf? wuUodkvfòrd@rsm;&dS w&m;r0if ausmif;om;tkyfpkrsm;rS oifcef;pm wckjcif;pDtwGuf ae&meSifh ae@udk a=ujimay;cJh=uonf? (yHkrSeftm;jzifh yk*~vdutcef;rsm;wGif jzpfcJhonf?) ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh tjcm;olrsm; 'gZifESifhcsDI tcef;xJwGif jynfh=uyfaecJh+yD;/ y&dabm*ypPnf;rsm;udk &Si;f xkwf/ =urf;jyifay:wGif xkdifI t'rf rpfcsepf ydk@cs aom “ydkvefEdkifiHom;wdk@. ordkif;a=umif;” ESifh “,ae@acwfay: EdkifiHa&;t,ltqrsm;”pojzifh olwdk@wcgrS yHkrSef pmoif cef;rsm;wGif =um;&zl;jcif;r&Sdaom ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk em;axmifcJh=u&onf? u&maumwGif c&pf,mef omoemðybkef; awmf}uD;/ um&dk;vf 0csfwDvmwdk@rS vltrsm;ydkrdkvma&muf avhvmEdkif&efESifh &Jrsm;. aESmuf,Sufr_uif;a0;ap&eftwGuf bk&m;&dkcdk;ausmif;ydkif cef;rrsm;udk axmufyHhay;cJh=uonf? yxrESpf tqHk;wGif tjrifhysH wuUodkvfwGif oifcef;pmaygif; (120) ðyvkyfEdkifcJhonf? 1976 KOR ay:aygufvmcsdefwGif ‚if;if;onf wckwnf;aom vnfywfEdkifaom twdkuftcHtkyfpw k ckjzpfcJhonf? wESpf/ ESpf ESpf twGif;rSmyif xdktzGJ@onf udk,fxludk,fxtzGJ@tpnf;twGuf a,bk,syHkpHwck jzpfvmcJhonf? ausmif;om;aoG;pnf; nD!Gwfa&;aumfrwDonf ygwDxdef;csKyfaom ausmif;om;tkyfpkrsm;. tjcm;a&G;cs,fp&mtiftm;pktjzpf wuUodkvf (6) ckwGif zGJ@pnf;cJhonf? *'ef@pfcf/ &SpfZif ESifh umwdk0pfZfwdk@wGif KOR ESifh qufEG,faom tvkyform;rsm;onf puf&HkwGif;&Sd tiftm;rsm;udk OD;aqmifEdkif&ef vGwfvyfaom tvkyform;or*~rsm; wnfaxmifcJhovdk/ KOR tzGJ@0ifrsm;onf v,f orm;rsm; ta&;twGufudk,fhudkudk,f ckcHumuG,fEdkifaom aumfrwD tcsKd@udk pwif&mwGif ulnDcJh=uonf? wjcm; rwlnD aom KOR . t"duacgif;aqmifrsm;jzpf=uaom ul&GefESifh rpfcsepfwdk@. qdk&S,f'Drdku&ufzuf twdkuftcHtkyfpkrsm;udk ,drf;aomt,ltqtay: oabmrusolrsm;rS pwif zGJ@pnf;cJh=uonf? tvkyform;rsm;ESifh olwdk@.rdom;pkrsm;udk ulnDaeaom ynmwwfrsm;/ ygarmuQrsm; ESifh ausmif;om;rsm;onf ajratmufpmoifcef;rsm;ESifh ajratmuf *sme,frsm; yHkESdyfxkwfa0cJh=uonf? Todk@aomvkyf&yfrsm;rSm vlxkb0tay: ygwDuxdef;csKyfxm;r_udk 0ifa&mufrpGufapvdkaom tm%mydkiftpdk;&rsm;twGuf qef@usif tHwkr_jzpfcJhonf? &Jrsm;u wufºuGv_yf&Sm;olrsm;udk &dkufESuf/ zrf;qD;/ axmifcs/ axmufvSrf;apmifh=unfh+yD;ESifh tdrfwdkif,ma&muf 0if&SmcJhjcif;rsm; vkyfcJh=uonf? (1977) ckESpf arvwGif or*~ESifh ylaygif;aqmif&Gufol ausmif;om;wa,mufjzpfaom pepfepfqavm yD*smhpfonf u&maumawmif=um;wGif aoqHk;cJh+yD;/ trsm;pku vHkòcHa&;wyfzGJ@0ifrsm;. vufcsuf[k ,Hk=unfcJh=uonf? KOR .tzGJ@0if &kyf&Sifrif;orD; [mfvDem rDudkvmhcspf umonf tqufrjywf aESmuf,Sufwm;qD;cH&olwOD; jzpfcJhonf? olrtaejzifh apmfum;&dkif;jyaom zkef;ac:qdkr_rsm;/ pmrsm;vufcH&&dScJhovdk olrum;udkvnf; zsufqD;cHcJh&onf? wreufcif; wGif olrtcef;udk

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)113


a,mufusm; w'gZifcef@ cdk;0ifvmcJh+yD;/ olrukd jcdrf;ajcmuf atmf[pfcJh=uonf? tcsKd@aomwufºuGv_yf &Sm;aqmif&Gufolrsm;onfvnf; omrefjypfr_rsm;jzifh pGwfpGJcH&jcif;/ tvkyfðzwfcH&jcif;rsm; &dScJhonf? ausmif;om;aoG;pnf; nD!Gwfa&;aumfrwDtzGJ@0ifrsm;udk ausmif;xkwfcHcJh&onf? &Jrsm;onf pmtkyfxkwfa0a&; vkyfief;rsm;udk 0ifa&mufpD;eif;I ypPnf;rsm;ESihf pmtkyfrsm;udk odrf;qnf;cJh=uonf? (1979) cktapmydkif;wGif tjrifhysH wuUodkvfrsm;onf yHkrSef wdkufckdufr_udk cHcJh&onf? tm%mydkifrsm;u “aqG;aEG;ol rsm;”rsm;udk twef;twGif;xnfhoGif;I oifcef;pmrsm;udk aESmifh,Sufay;cJh=uonf? tjyifrSvlrsm;udkvnf; aESmifh,SufcJh onf? w}udrf rpfcsepfESifh tjcm; ausmif;om;ESpfOD;udk “opPmazmuf rif;udk pDtdkifatu b,favmufay;xm;vdk@vJ” [katmf[pfI wdkufcdkufolrsm;u &dkufESufcJh=uonf? ul&Gefudk avScg;ay:u wGef;cscJhzl;onf? wcg ol. tcef;wGif oifcef; pmvkyf&ef owfrSwfcJh+yD; tcsdefa±$@+yD;rS vl&rf;um;wtkyf ol.tcef;odk@ a&mufvmcJhonf? ol@ZeD;ESifh olzciftwGuf aq; tultnD awmif;cHaeaom ol@om;udk wkdufckdufcJh=uonf? wcsdefwnf;rSmyif &Jrsm;onf olaexdkif&m taqmuftOD;udk 0dkif;xm;aomfvnf; wpHkw&m =um;0ifjzefajzay;jcif;/ pGufzufjcif; r&SdcJh=uay? Todk@ EdSyfpufr_rsm;&dScJhaomfvnf;/ KOR ESihf tkyfprk sm;onf ‚if;if;wdk@vrf;a=umif;ay:wGif vkyfwdk@.vkyf[ef/ trSwftom;udk zGifhcscJhonf? Oyrm *sme,fwGif emrnfrsm;/ zkef;eHygwfrsm;ESifh t,f'Dwmrsm;. vdyfpmrsm;udk tpOfvdkuf az:jycJhonf? v#dK@0SufpGm vkyfaejcif;xuf olwdk@. ae@tvif; a&mifxJodk@ ajymif0ifcJhonf? xdkodk@vkyfaqmifjcif;jzifhom tjcm;olrsm;u olwdk@. pHerlemtwdkif; vkdufvm=u&ef wGef; tm;jzpfapvdrfhrnf[k ,lqaoma=umifhyif? xdkt&mu olwdk@udk ypfrSwftjzpf zefwnf;vdkufomtcg twkduftcHwGif rnfolu t"du acgif;aqmifqdkwmESifh ywfoufI ±_yfaxG;p&mr&dSawmhyJ/ aocsmaom umuG,fr_&apcJhonf? tpkd;& onf tu,fI ajymifajymifwif;wif;vkyf&rnfqdkygu vuf&G@Honf? twdkuftcHrsm; ydk+yD; jrifomxifom&dSav olwdk@udk wdkufxkwfypfa&;ESifh ywfoufI EdkifiHa&;t& ydkIwefzdk;}uD;avyif jzpfonf? vlxktmcHr_qdkif&m r[mAsL[monf tEW&m,frsm;aomfvnf;/ tvkyfjzpfcJhonf? tm%m&Siftpdk;&u rnfonfhtcgr# twdkuftcHudk t+yD;tydkif z,f&Sm;ypf&ef róud;pm;cJhay? tpkd;&onf vltcsKd@udk jypf'%f}uD;}uD; csrSwfI vltrsm;udk tv,ftvwf jypf'%fay;r_rsm; ðyvkyfcJhonf? tpnf;ta0;usif;yjcif;/ oifcef;pm rsm; wufa&mufjcif;ESifh vGwfvyfaom pmapmifrsm; jzef@a0jcif;onf cufcJI wcgw&H tEW&m,frsm;yif óuHawG@cJh=u& onf? odk@aomf vltrsm;udk wcgwnf; tpktðyHvdkuf zrf;qD;/ axmifcsjcif; r&SdcJhay? ta=umif;rSm tpdk;&onf (1970) ckESpfrsm;rSpI &&dSxm;aom EdkifiHjcm;ESifh pD;yGm;a&; qufqHr_ESifh jynfwGif; wnf+idrfr_udk rysufqD;vdkaoma=umifhvnf; jzpf onf? tpktðyHvdkuf +zdKcGif;r_a=umifh jzpfay:apEdkifaom jynfwGif;ESifh jynfy. a'goxGufr_udk pdk;&drfaoma=umifhvnf; jzpf onf? tu,fI KOR ESifh tjcm;tzGJ@rsm;wGif tuef@towfESifh vkyfydkifcGifh/ udk,fydkiftcsKyftcsmtm%m&dSaer_udk onf;cH Edkifjcif;onf tajctaew&yftxdomjzpfonf? odk@r[kwfygu wefzdk;ay;&vdrfhrnf jzpfonf? twkduftcHrsm;onf 0ef;&Hapmifh=unfhcHae&aom taetxm;jzpfqJ jzpfonf? xdkt&monf trmcHwufºuGolrsm;udk vkyfief;rsm;rS wm;qD;&ef rvHkavmufay? odk@aomf pmemr_&Sdaom EdkifiHom;rsm;udk twdkuftcHrsm;ESifh aygif;pnf;&ef azsmif;zs&eftwGuf vHkavmufaompnf;&Hk;a&;tiftm; jzpfcJhonf? “vl@tzGJ@tpnf;onf tm%mydkifrsm;udk rkef;wD;onf/ odk@aomf pdk;&drfylyefae=uao;onf?”[k pma&;q&m umZDrm&pfZf b&ef'pfu ol. (1979) rwfvtwGif; a&;om;cJhaom ol. 0gaqmae@pOfrSwfwrf;wGif rSwfwrf;wifcJhonf? “'gu olwdk@&J@ tusdK;pD;yGm;awGjzpfwJh vcwdk@/ aep&m tdrfcef;wdk@/ om;orD;awG wuUodkvfwufcGifh&zdk@twGufwdk@/ c&D;oGm;zdk@wdk@/ ae@w"l0b0wdk@ pojzifh tJ'gawG qHk;±Hl;oGm;Edkifwma=umifh jzpfw,f? 'guvnf; vlawGudk a=umuf&GH@atmif vkyfaewmyJ?” olu azmfjycJhonf? twdkuftcHrsm;onf ykdvefEdkifiHwGif vGwfvyfaom vlr_ESifh ,Ofaus;r_b0 topfjyefvnf rGrf;rHjcif;udk jzpfapcJhonf? wdkufwGef;tm;ay;cJh=uonf? twdkuftcHrsm;onf bk&m;ausmif;rsm;/ tvkyform;rsm;ESifh qufoG,fr_rsm; wnfaqmufcJh onf? odk@aomf udk,fxludk,fx tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;jzpfwnfjcif;onf tpdk;&.tm%mtm; ruef@owfEdkifygu xdktzGJ@tpnf; rsm;onf tiftm;csdeJ@aom/ omrmeftqifhYom wnf&dSaevdrfhrnf? tpdk;&tm; tuef@towfrsm;udk vufcHvmap&ef zdtm;ay;EdkifrSomv#if wdk;wufvmEdkifvdrfhrnf? odk@aomf Ttajctaeonf KOR .pGrf;aqmifEdkifr_. tjyifzufwGifom &dScJhonf? xdkt&mudk pGrf;aqmifEdkif&ef }uD;rm;I tiftm;}uD;aom/ EdkifiH. t"du tusdK;pD;yGm;rsm;udk oydwfarSmufEdkif aom/ tv$mpHkydkrdkyg0ifaom vlxkv_yf&Sm;r_w&yf vdktyfonf? odk@rSom ydkvefEdkifiH tem*gwftwGuf ppfrSefaom òydifyGJwGif uGefjrLepfrsm;ESifh wkzuf,SOfòydifEdkifvdrfhrnf jzpfonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)114


usKyfwdk@ ykd&J&ifh vmcJh+yD ara';ae@onf uGefjrLepfwdkif;jynfrsm;wGif t"du tm;vyf&yf ae@wae@jzpfonf? tm%m&Siftpdk;&rsm;twGuf q,fhudk; &mpktwGif; qdk&S,fvpf0g'. tpOftquftwGuf atmifyGJcHr_tjzpf usif;y&ef tcGifhta&; jzpfovdk/ om,maom &moD Owk.atmuf vrf;rrsm;ay:wGif omrefjynfolrsm;vnf; pDwef;vSnfhvnfcGifh tcGifhta&;wckvnf; jzpfonf? (1978) ck wGif xdkae@a&mufvmaomtcg “ydkveftvkyform;aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;ygwD t"Gef@&Snfygap/” “tvkyform; vlwef;pm; udk umuG,f=u/” ESifh “EdkifiHtm;vHk;&Sd ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm; nD!Gwf=u” pojzifha&;xm;aom acgif;pD;rsm;ESifhtvHrsm;/ T pmwrf;rsm;jzifh wefqmqifxm;aom vlaetaqmuftOD;rsm;udk ydkZfeefòrd@wòrd@vkH;wGif awG@cJh=uonf? xdktpdk;& taqmif ta,mifrsm;atmufwGifrl/ jywif;wHcg;wdkif;xufwGif tjcm;wpHkw&mvnf; &dSaecJhonf? ‚if;if;rSm tv,fydkif;acwfvuf&m jzpfaom/ ydkvefuufovpfbmom. tcspfjrwfEdkf;qHk; &kyfxkjzpfaom/ csufpfwdkcsKd0g r,fawmfrufa'gem;. teufa&mif &kyfxkyifjzpfonf? ydkZfeefòrd@rS rufa'gem;&kyfxkrsm;onf ydkvefEdkifiH. 0da&m"d b0udk azmfxkwfjyoaeonf? EdkifiH. w&m;0ifbmomrSm bmomrJh jzpfonf? odk@aomf we*FaEGae@wdkif;wGif ygwDtzGJ@0if trsm;tjym;tygt0if ydkvefEdkifiHom; oef;ESifhcsDI vlxk 0wfðyyGJrsm; wufa&mufcJh=uonf? xdkae&mwGif olwdk@awGtm;vHk;onf uGefjrLepf0g'. tqHk;trrsm;.a0;&m/ pdwfydkif;ESifh ,Ofaus;r_qdkif&m tjyifurBmxJodk@ 0ifa&mufoGm;cJh=uonf? “uGefjrL0g'atmufrSm aepOfrSmyJ/ 'Dwdkif;jynfrSm bmoma&; t,ltquvnf; jyefvnftm;aumif;vmaew,f?” &m'uf qDaumpuD;u ajymcJhonf? bD*dk&Spfòrd@wGif vltrsm; bk&m; ausmif;odk@oGm;aeonfh jrifuGif;udk atmufharhzG,f jyefvnfa&;om;cJhonf? bk&m;&dk;cdk;ausmif;yHk&dfyfawGonf ESpfpOfwdk;yGm; vmcJhonfhtwGuf tpdk;&onf t}uD;tus,f tHh=ocJh&onf? ygwD. w&m;aot,ltqtay: pdefac:r_vnf; jzpfonf? bk&m;&dScdk;ausmif;rsm;. owif;pum;rsm;uyif ‚if;if;wdk@. t,ltqudk xkwfaz:jyoaeonf? oif;tkyfq&mrsm;. pmrsm; ESifh a'\emusrf;pmrsm;onf/ ygwD. EdkifiHa&;rdef@cGef;/ &J&Jawmuf pum;vHk;rsm;ESifh rwlyJ&Sdae=uonf? TESpfckpvHk;u urBmavmu}uD;wGif tqdk;ESifh taumif;wdk@ vGefqGJaeonfhtay:wGif tajcðyajymqdkae=ujcif; jzpfonf? xdkolrsm; tm;vHk;uvnf; tºuGif;rJhtm%m&Sif.vrf;!$efr_udk vdkufem&ef,Hk=unfudk;uG,folrsm;udk awmif;qdkae=uonf? bk&m; ausmif;rsm;onfvnf; ygwDuJhodk@yif txufatmuftkyfcsKyfr_pepfrsKd; &dSaeonf? a&S@aqmifOD;jyr_tm;vHk;onf tay:u om qif;oufvmonf? &kwfw&uf=unfhrnfqdkygu vGwfvyfpGmawG;ac:Edkifr_ESifh 'Drdkua&pDudk aumif;csD;ozG,f owfrSwf xm;aom ydkvefEdkifiHom;rsm;twGuf bk&m;ausmif;rsm;onf ,kwWdwefaom r[mrdwfjzpfwef&m ta=umif;r&SdcJhay? odk@aomfvnf; xkdtcef;u¾udkyif vlxkrsm;u vufcHvdkuf=uonf? bk&m;ausmif;rsm;u vlxkESvHk;udk odrf;usKH;,liif&ef jzpfvmcJhonf? uGefjrLepfrsm;onf ae&mwdkif;wGif &dScJh+yD;/ ydkvefom;rsm;. b0rsm;axmifhaphwGif twif;tusyf ae&m,l xm;ae=ucsdefwGif/ bk&m;ausmif;rsm;u rdrdqENtavsmufvufcHr_ESifh qENtavsmuf yl;aygif;yg0ifr_udkom trDDSo[JðycJh onf? bmoma&; ,Hk=unfr_onf c&pf,mefbmomudkif;±d_if;olwa,muftwGuf vltrsm;ESifhqdkifaom tusdK;aus;Zl; wkef@jyeftusKfd;ay;r_twGuf tenf;i,fom cHpm;&zG,f&Sdaomfvnf;/ ydkveftpdk;&taejzifhrl Tolrsm;udkazmufjyefa&; t,ltq&Sdaomolrsm;tjzpf vufcH=uonf? ydkvefEdkifiH uGefjrLepfpepfatmuf qufvuf&Sifoef&efESifh wdk;yGm;vmap&ef twGuf bk&m;ausmif;rsm;onf vlxkrsm;. wu,fhvdktyfcsufrsm;udk jznfhqnf;cJhonf? *k%foduQm&dSaom &dk;&mtpOf tvmrsm;ESifh qufEG,fjcif;/ av;av;eufeuf wefzdk;xm;jcif;rsm; ðycJhonf? xdktwGufa=umifh xufatmufqufqHa&; pepf&Sdaom uufovpf tkyfcsKyfr_pepfonf bmoma&;,Hk=unfr_w&m;xuf ausmfvGefIoGm;onf? aemufqHk; wEdkifiH vHk;qdkif&m ar;cGef;rsm;udkyg xkwfaz:ajymqdkEdkifaomtaetxm; a&mufcJhonf? *dk%f;csKyf}uD; pwDzif 0dkifZif;puD;ESifh u&maume,fajrwGif tkyfcsKyfaom bkefawmf}uD; um&dk;vf 0kcsfwDvmwdk@onf (1970) ckESpfrsm;wGif bk&m;ausmif;tm; owdxm;I trSm;t,Gif;r&dSapyJ aqmif&GufcJh=uonf? odk@aomf (1970) ckESpf aemufydkif;wGifrl twdkuftcHrsm;zufodk@ csnf;uyfvmcJhonf? 0dkifZif;puD;. a[m=um;csufrsm;wGif puf&Hkvkyfom;rsm;. &kyfydkif;qkdif&m awmif;qdkcsufrsm;udk pmema=umif;az:jyI/ “ wpHkwOD;. &nf&G,fcsufrsm;twGuf pnf;&Hk;Edkifa&;/ nD!Gwf a&;qdkif&m tcGifhta&;ESifh vGwfvyfr_wdk@twGuf owWdajymifajrmufaom ckcH/ wGef;vSefr_/” wdk@udk tm;ay;csD;usL; axmyemðycJhonf? xdkpum;vHk;rsm;onf autdktmuJhodk@aom tkyfpkrsm;. vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;udk vHk;0eD;yg axmufcH ovdkjzpfcJhonf? bk&m;&dScdk;ausmif;. opfyif}uD;onf c&pf,mefr[kwfol vltawmfrsm;rsm; yg0ifaom tarmwaum ajy;vmol twdkuftcHrsm;tm; at;jraom t&dyftm0goudk ay;EdkifcJhonf? tu,fI ydkvefom;wdk@. b0wGif bk&m; ausmif;onf òydifbufr&dS &yfwnfEdkifaom jy,k*fjzpfcJhv#if (1978) omoem*dkif;csKyf}uD; 0kcsfwDvmtm; a&mr.omoem ydkifcsKyfbkef;awmf}uD;tjzpf a&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufcJhjcif;onf ‚if;if;. tm%m&dSr_udk ydkrdkcdkifrmapcJhonf? “vlawG[m 0gaqmòrd@&J@ vrf;awGay:rSm aysmf&$if+yD; cHkaygufajy;v$m;aecJh=uw,f” [k umZDrm&pfu a&G;aumufyGJa=ujimaom atmufwdkbm ae@ udk jyefajymif;owd&cJhazmfjycJhonf? bk&m;ausmif;odk@tjrJoGm;aom trsKd;orD;}uD;rsm;ESifh acwfynmwwfrsm;uvnf; “tHhcsD;zG,f&myJ” [k xkwfaz:ajymqdk cJh=uonf? csufcsif;qdkovdkyif bmwDuefESifh

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)115


ydkveftm%mydkifrsm;t=um; ,cktcg ykwf&[ef;rif;}uD;trSwf (2) jzpfawmhrnfh 0kcsfwDvmtm; ol. urBmht0Srf; &dkrefuufovpfbmom. acgif;aqmif wa,muftaejzifh ydkvefEdkifiHodk@ rnfhonfhtcsdefrqdk jyefvmEdkifrnfhta&;udk aphpyfaqG;aEG;cJh=uonf? (1979) ZGefv ESpf&ufae@wGif *|efaygvf-2 0gaqmòrd@odk acsjcaomtcg atmifyGJ&ifjyif (Apfx&D&ifjyif) wGif {&mrvlxk}uD; u óudaecJhonf? xdkvlxk}uD;a&S@wGif olurdef@cGef;ajymcJhonf? xdk@aemuf &[ef;rif;}uD;onf txdrf;trSwft& ta&;ygI jrifhjrwfaomae&mrsm;jzpfonfh “ykdvef uufovpfbmom. rlvblwae&m”[kac:Edkifaom EpfZfEdk Gniezno ESifh teufa&mif csufpwdkcsKd0g r,fawmfrm&D&kyfxk odr;f qnf;&m *sufpem*dk&mbkef;awmf}uD;ausmif;rsm;wGif &yfwef@I ol. arG;&yfZmwd u&maumwGif ol@. atmifyGJcHc&D;pOfudk &yfem;cJhonf? ykwf&[ef;rif;}uD;. pum;vHk;rsm;onf &Sif;vif;jywf om;I &dk;om;pGm =uufoa& &dSvSonf? EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;. &dk;tDaeaom pum;vHk;rsm;ESifh rwlnDay? olu tpdk;&udk tqifhESpfckwGif pdefac:cJhonf? bmomrJh0g'udk qef@usifI c&pf,efbmom ,Hk=unfr_udk xyfavmif;ajymonf? ydkveftm; qdkAD,ufwdk@. csKyfudkifr_ESifh vl@tcGifhta&; csdK;azmufr_rsm;udk oG,f0dkufI ±H_cscJhonf? ydkvef. tem*wfonf “vlb,fESpf a,mufonf &ifhusufvmI orm;&dk;ustpOftvmawGudk ckcHwGef;vSefolawG jzpfvmrvJ qdkonhftay:rSm rlwnfonf” [k olu a[mudef;xkwfcJhonf? (1979) tcsdefwdkif bk&m;ausmif;acgif;aqmifrsm;rS xl;jcm;aoma=ujimcsufrsm; rawG@&ay? &[ef;rif;}uD;topf. xl;jcm; ajymifajrmufvSaom pum;vHk;rsm;u avvd_if;xJysH@vGifhcJhonf? ol. toHudk vlaygif;oef;ESifhcsDI =um;EdkifcJhonf? tpdk;& . w&m;0if tcrf;tem;rsm;ðyvkyfavh&Sd&m atmifyGJ&ifjyifudk olutv$mpHk ydkvefom;rsm;. vlxkpifjrifhtjzpfajymif;vJcJh onf? “usaemfwdk@ bk&m;ocif vdkcsifw,f” qdkonfudk vlxkrsm;u =udrfzefrsm;pGm vma&mufatmf[pfcJh=uonf? olu urBmw0Srf;vHk;&Sd uufovpfbmomudk udk,fpm;ðyIajymonf? ol.tm%m}uD;rm;vSonfrSm ola&S@wGif uGefjrLepfygwD onfyifv#if a&iHk E_wfydwfae=u&onf? ykwf&[efrif;}uD;. tvnftywfc&D;pOfonf ykdvefom;rsm;tm; KOR tdrfrufrufcJhaom vGwfvyfaomvlxkpka0;r_ xufydkI rsm;pGmpnf;&Hk;v_H@aqmfr_rsm; vkyfEdkifcJhonf? tpdk;&onf ab;odk@xGuf&yf+yD;/ bk&m;ausmif;rsm;. tpDtrHrsm; twdkif; cGifhðycJh&onf? u&maumhwGif ausmif;om;wpfa,mufjzpfaom ,ef ulbpfESifh tjcm;olrsm;onf ae@a&m nyg teDESifh tjzL ydkveftvHrsm;ESifh t0ga&mif ykwf&[ef;rif;}uD;. tvHrsm;vkyfaepOf olwdk@udk oDv&Sifrsm;u olwdk@udk au|;arG;xm;cJh=uonf? ykwf&[ef;rif;}uD; ra&mufcifwGif eef;awmfwckay:wGif jirf;qifI tvSHrsm;csdwfqGJaepOf vrf;xJ&dS vrf;rD;wdkifrsm; xl;xl;qef;qef; rD;ysufoGm;cJhonf? csufcsif;qdkovdk vlrsm;onf olwdk@um;rsm;qDodk@jyefI tay:rD;rsm; xdk;I olwdk@tvkyfudk +yD;ajrmufatmifvkyfcJh=uonf? “bufx&DukefoGm;rSmudk b,folrS rjiLplcJh=ubl;” [k ulbpfu trSwfw& jyefajymjycJhonf? “usKyfwdk@vkyfEdkifor# tukefvHk; udk,fhbmomyJ vkyfcJhwmyJ” [k uufovpf ynmwwf wa,mufu tar&duef owif;axmufudk jyefI&Sif;jycJhonf? “usKyfwdk@twGuf tm%mydkifqdkwmawG rvdkygbl;”[k oluqdkonf? ykwf&[ef;rif;}uD;rvmcifae@rsm;wGif bmrsm;jzpfEdkifonfESifh ywfoufI ausmcsrf;zG,f aumv[mvrsm; xGufcJhonf? v,form;awG oef;ESifhcsD+yD;òrd@awmfudk odrf;=uvdrfhr,f/ ae&mwdkif;rSm tdyfcsifovdktdyf+yD;/ a&m*gawG/ rpifawG/ vlao aumifawG xm;cJhvdrfhr,fvdk@ aumv[mvawG xGufcJhygw,f? vlaxmifaygif;rsm;pGm wdk;wdkufrd+yD; ao=uvdrfhr,f[k qdkonf? odk@aomf pma&;olwpfa,muf vrf;rrsm;odk@ xGuf=unfhaomtcg “pnf;csufeJ@twl vrf;av#mufae=uaom” æ “a&vd_if;yrm wtdtdwufaeaom vltkyf}uD;”æ “vlawGu wOD;ESifh wOD; rxdcdkufap=uyJ/ tcsif;csif; vrf;z,f ay;ae=uyHkrsm;” æ udkom awG@cJ&onf? vlxkrsm;onf pnf;urf;&dScJh=uonf? &Jwa,mufrS jrifuGif;wGif rawG@cJh&? “axmifaomif;csDaom vltkyf}uD;onf ‚if;if;wdk@bmom pdfwfqHk;jzwfI ‚if;if;wdk@a&muf&dSrnf[laom cHpm;csufjzifh ‚if;if;wdk@udk ‚if;if;wdk@ tm;tifjzpfapcJhonf? tjcm;,Hk=unfolwOD;uawmh &[ef;rif;}uD;&J@ tvnftywfc&D;pOfudk aus;Zl;wifygw,f/ “vlawGwa,mufESifh wa,muf ydk+yD;eD;uyfoGm;cJh=uw,f” “usKyfwdk@ ykd&J&ifh vmcJhw,f” [kac:onf? ol. u&maumòrd@Y aemufqHk;tcsdfefwGif ydkvefEdkifiHordkif;wGif wcgr# Todk@ r}uD;rm;zl;aom vloHk;oef;twGuf qkawmif; yGJwGif pum;ajymcJhonf? wdkif;jynfonf csufcsif;qdkovdk wr[kwfjcif; urBmvHk;. tm&Hkpdkufr_udk &oGm;cJhonf? Tonf udkvnf; ydkvefEdkifiHom;wdkif;vnf; odcJhonf? Ttcsdefonf ydkvefEdkifiHtpdk;&twGuf vHk;0ta&;rygaom tcdkuftwef@ jzpfcJhonf? “ESpfv=um&SnfpGm tzdESdyfcHaewJholawG[m olwdk@ b0uH=urRmudk olwdk@zmomqHk;jzwfzdk@ csufcsif;qdkovdk olwdk@&J@ pGrf;tifawGudk jyef&vdkufovdkyJ” [k t'rf rpfcsepfu aumufcsufcscJhonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)116


*'ef@pfcfrS &ifqdkifwdkufyGJ aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfr. _ yxrqHk; t&om (1978) 'DZifbmv ol. ae@pOfrSwfwrf;wGif umZDrm&pf b&ef'pfu 0gaqmòrd@&dS ig;*dka'gif tjyifbuf npfypfaeaom AGufxJwGif [J&if;ig;oavmufwrsKd; a&mufvmrnf[klaom aumv[mvudk =um;+yD;/ vlwef;&Snf}uD; wef;pDapmifhaeyHkudk az:jyrSwfwrf;ðycJhonf? xdkpwdk;qdkifonf eHeuf (11) em&Dxd zGifhvdrfhrnf r[kwfyg/ odk@aomf yxrOD;a&mufaeaom vlpk onf eHeuf ESpfem&Duwnf;u a&mufcJh+yD; jzpfonf? xdknaewGif tpdk;&t&m&dSrsm;. wdkif;jynfpD;yGm;a&; atmifjrifr_udk csD;usL;axmyemðyaeyHkudk w,fvDaA&Sif;wGif awG@cJh&onf? omref ydkvefom;rsm;twGufuawmh xdkvlwef;rsm;onf t+rJ jzpfaeaom pddwfysufzG,f&mtjzpftysufwckom jzpfonf? tpdk;&twGufuawmh taES;ESifhtjrefqdkovdk 1970 ESifh 1976 ckESpfrsm;wGif rwnf+idrfr_rsm;óuHcJh&ovdk/ xyfrHrvkyfoihfawmhaom tvkyfwckjzpfonfh ukefaps;E_ef; jr‡ifhjcif;udk vkyf&vdrfh rnf[k qdkjyefonf? (1971) wGifol@. t&ifvlrsm;vkyfcJhonf ukefaps;E_ef;wdk;jr‡ifhr_udk y,fzsuf&ef *J&uf. qHk;jzwfcsufonf ydkvefpD;yGm;a&;udk wrsKd;wzHk ajymif;vJapcJhonf? rla[mif;jzpfaom pufr_vkyfief;udk iwfrGwfr_jzifh armif;ESifygu EdkifiHa&;t& aygufuGJr_rsm; jzpfcJhojzifh xdkvkyfyHkudkifyHkrsm;udk ol y,fzsufcJhonf? pm;oHk;olrsm;udk &kyfydkif;qdkif&mt& tcuftcJr&dSap&yJ pufr_vkyfief; tm; aiGtiftm;jznfhqnf;ay;&efrSm aºuG;+rDrsm;xkwfay;jcif;udkom rsufvSnfhaq;awmifa0S;wacsmif;uJhodk@ rSwfxifcJh/ toHk;ðycJh=uonf? tpdk;&onf taemufEdkifiHrsm;rSaeI aiGyrm%tvHk;t&if;ESifh acs;,lcJhonf? xdkaiGrmrsm;udk pufr_ vkyfief;twGuf/ enf;ynmrsm;twGufESifh aps;0,folrsm;twGuf pmaomufukefrsm; 0,f,l&mwGif toHk;ðycJh=uonf? pufr_vkyfief;rS xkwfukefwdk;wufvmonfESifhtr# taemufEdkifiHrsm;odk@ ydk@ukefrsm; ydkrdkwifydk@Edkif+yD;/ xdkaiGrsm;rS aºuG;+rDrsm; udk jyefqyfEdkifvdrfhrnf[k xifjrifcJh=uonf? EdkifiHa&;qdkif&m +idrf;csrf;wnf+idrfr_ESifh aexdkifr_tqifhtwef; wdk;wufvmEdkif aom pufr_vkyfief;qdkif&m toD;tyGifhudk tm%mydkiftpdk;&taejzifh cHpm;Edkifvdrfhrnf? Tonfuawmh oDtkd&Dt& awG; xifxm;csuf jzpfonf? ESpfumvtenf;i,fwdkif *J&ufonf zef;qif&SifvdkrsKd; jzpfaecJhonf? acs;aiGrsm;.aus;Zl;a=umifh &if;ESifhðrwfESHr_onf (1970) ckESpfwGif axmifwufoGm;cJhonf? pufr_xkwfukef wdk;wufr_onf urBmw0ef;wGif tjrifhqHk;xJ EdkifiHpm&if;wGif yg0ifcJhonf? pwdk;qdkifwef;rsm;wGif tjyma&mif *sif;abmif;bDrsm;/ v#ypf pfypPnf;rsm;/ tpm;taomufrsm;ESif tjcm; oGif;ukefrsm;ESifh jynfhv#HaecJhonf? wOD;csif; tom;0,f,l pm;aomufr_onf (1970) ESifh (75) ckESpfwGif (50) &mcdkifE_ef; txd wdk;wufcJhonf? tdrf,mrsm;ESifh usef;rma&; apmufa&Smufr_onfvnf; ydkrdkI tqifhjrifhvmcJhonf? odk@aomf*J&uf. pm;zG,faomufzG,fae@rsm;onf tuef@towfom jzpfcJhonf? tpdk;&onf A[dkcsKyfudkifr_pDrHudef;qdkif&m rsm;wGifwif;rmaom pepfrsm;ESifh EdkifiHa&;t& =oZmtm%m&dSaomfvnf; EdkifiHjcm;xkwfukeftwGuf tvm;tvmenf; aom oHvkyfief;/ oabFmaqmufvkyfa&;uJhodk@ t}uD;pm; pufr_vkyfief; ponhf vkyfief;rsm;udk ðyjyifajymif;vJ&eftwGuf óud;pm;tm;xkwfr_ trSefwu,frvkyfcJhay? tpdk;&onf &if;ESD;jr‡KyfESHr_rsm;xJrS aumif;ayhqdkaom tydkif;rsm;udk xkwf,loHk; pGJcJh=uonf? tusifhysuft&m&dSrsm;rS aiGrsm;udk uJh,lI ZdrfcH &GufavSrsm;ESifh ZdrfcHtyef;ajztdrfrsm; 0,f,lcJh=uonf? tvkyform;rsm;. 0ifaiG tvsiftjrefwdk;wufcJhonf/ odk@aomf arG;jrLa&;vkyfief;xkwfukefrsm; usqif;cJhaoma=umifh tpm;tpmrsm;ydkI wifoGif;cJh&jyefonf? aºuG;+rDrsm;pkyHkaecsdefwGif wifoGif;ukefrsm;rS tcGefb¾mrsm;onfvnf; wdk;wufvmcJhjcif;r&Sdaoma=umifh EdkifiHjcm; taºuG;'%fvnf; ydkrdk qdk;0g;vmcJhonf? taºuG;a[mif;rsm;udk qyf&if;jzihf taºuG;opfwGif ðryfaecJhonf? tpm;taomuf oGif;ukefEiS fh tjcm;oGif;ukefrsm;udk &yfqdkif;cJh&onf? tqHk;rSmawmh tpm;taomufrStp bvdyf'g;tqHk; tm;vHk;wGif tvdkjyaecJhawmhonf? (1980) wGif PZPR onf ‚if;. trSm;rsm;a=umifh ‚if;udk,fwdkif t=uyf&dkufcJhonf? tpm;tpm wifoGif;r_ av#mhcsjcif; onf tuef@towfjzihf &duQmaxmufyHh&aomtajctae jzpfvmonf? ukefaps;E_ef;rsm; jr‡ifhwif&ef vdktyfvmcJhonf? tm%mydkifrsm;u Zlvdkifv tpydkif;wGif aps;E_ef;rsm;jr‡ifhwif&ef a=ujimcJhjyefonf? tvkyform;rsm; rnfodk@ wHk@jyefrnfESifh ywfoufI tm%mydkfifrsm;taejzifh rnfodk@r# txifrSm;jcif;r&dScJhacs? odk@aomf tenf;qHk; rwnf+idrfr_udk umuG,fEdkifvdrfh rnf[k ar#mfvifhcJh=uonf? a'otm%mydkifrsm;tm; rnfonfh rD;udkrqdk vkyfcrsm;wdk;jr‡ifhay;jcif;jzifh+idrf;ouf&efESifh/ &duQm tom;rsm;udk jy\emay:ayguf&m ae&mrsm;odk@ ydk@ay;jcif;jzifh ajz&Sif;=u&ef !Gef=um;cJhonf? a'oqdkif&m oabmwlnDr_ rsm;jzifh xdka'gorsm;udk xdef;csKyfEdkifvdrfhrnf[k tpdk;&rS ar#mfvifhcJhonf? oydwfarSmufyGJrsm;onf 0gaqm twGif; tjyif tm;vHk;wGif csufcsif;qkdovdk ay:aygufcJhonf? tjcm;òrd@rsm;odk@ oydfwfyGJ rsm; jyef@ESH@oGm;pOf t&m&dSrsm;onf ‚if;wd@k . pdk;&drfcsufrsm;udk twif;rsdKcscJh&onf? odk@aomf Tw}udrfwGif ydkvefom;rsm; bmjzpfaeonfqdkwmudk tarSmifxJwGif xdef;odrf;xm;&ef jy\em &dScJhonf? ,Jquful&Gefonf ol@. 0gaqm tcef;rS aeI wEdkifiHvHk;&dS tvkyform;ta&;aqmif&Gufoltm;vHk;udk oydfwfowif;rsm;pkaqmif;jcif;ESifh jzef@a0jcif;rsm; ðyvkyf&ef aqmf=ocJhonf? olonf bDbDpD/ vGwfvyfaomOa&mya&'D,dkponfh ydkvefEdkifiHt0Srf;odk@ owif;jyefvnfxkwfv$ifhaom owif;Xmersm;rS EdkifiHjcm;owif;axmufrsm;ESifhvnf; qufoG,fEdkfifcJhonf? òrd@wòrd@rS tvkyform;rsm;onf tjcm;òrd@rS tvkyform;rsm; qENjyI

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)117


awmif;qdkr_rsm; &&dScJhonf[k =um;od&+yD; ‚if;wdk@udk,fwdkifvnf; vrf;ay:xGufI awmif;qdkvm cJh=uawmhonf? a&'Grf tygt0if tcsKd@ae&mrsm;wGif tm%mydkfifrsm;onf r+idrfoufr_rsm;udk óudwif[ef@wm;Edkif&ef vufOD;r_I vpmrsm;wdk;jr‡ifhcJhonf? oydwfarSmufyGJ vHk;0rjzpfcJhaom òrd@onf *'ef@pfcf jzpfcJhonf? *sLvdkifv tukefydkif;wGif vpmrsm;wdk;jrifhjcif;onf vSnfhuGufwckom jzpfaecJh+yD;/ tHkºuGr_vnf; +yD;qHk;oGm;cJhonf? tm%mykdifrsm; oufjyif;csrnf =uH&Hk&dSao;csdefwGif =o*kwfv tpydkif;wGif vDeif oabFmusif;rS t&m&dSrsm;onf olwdk@r=umcif aemifw&vdrfhrnfh wpHkwck udk xyfrHðyvkyfcJh=uonf? =o*kwfv (7) &ufae@wGif tm%mydkifrsm;onf oabFmusif;wGif ESpfaygif; oHk;q,fr# tvkyfvkyf cJhol/ aemufvtenf;i,ftwGif; yifpif,lawmhrnfh tifem a0:vifwDEdk0pfZfudk tvkyfðzwfcJhonf? tifem a0:vifwD Edk0pfZfonf tvkyfpvkyfcsdefwGif *a[qufol tvkyfor wOD;taeESifh vkyfudkifcJh+yD;/ aemufydkif; u&def;um; armif;aom tvkyfudk vkyfudkfifcJhonf? xdkvkyfief;uyif olrtm; vkyfief;taqmuftOD;rsm;t=um; vlodrsm;cJhonf? yGifh&dkuf 0wfpHk 0wfqifwwfaom tzGm;t&G,f ollronf &dkom;aom*k%fyk'fESifh b0wl tvkyform;rsm;twGuf rarmryef; awmif;qdk wdkufyGJ0ifol tjzpf vlodrsm;cJhonf? olronf vlodrsm;olwpfa,muf jzpfcJhonf? olronf *'ef@pfcf oabFmusif;tjyif zuf&Sd EdkifiHa&; twdkuftcHrsm;ESihf axmifaygif;rsm;pGmaom tvkyform;rsm;t=um; tquftoG,frsm; ðyvkyfay;cJh onf? (1978) ckEpS f aEGvwGif a0:vifwED kd0pfZf onf *'ef@pcf f &Sad qmif&Gufolrsm;u tvkyform;rsm;u ‚if;wdk@udk,fykdif tvkyf orm;or*~tzJG@rsm; zJG@pnf;csifonfqdkaom owif;udk bDbDpD toHv$ifhXmerS odcJh&onf? onfhaemufwGif olronf ‚if;tzGJ@odk@ oabFmwnfaqmufa&; tif*sifeD,mrsm; jzpf=uaom tif'a&0D,mpf'gESihf *sKdem 'l;'g 0D,mhpf'gwdk@ZeD;armifESH wdk@ESifhtwl yl;aygif;cJhonf? abmh'ef bdk&k0pfZfonf *'ef@pfcf &Sd KOR tzGJ@0ifwpfOD;jzpf+yD; 1968 ausmif;om;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm; wGif yg0ifcJhaom ordkif;ynm&SifwOD; jzpfonf? KOR . uGefjrLeDuwfpmapmifwGifygaombdk&l;0pfZf. rdef@cGef;udk zwf+yD; aemuf vDeifoabFmusif;&Sd aq;cef;wGif olemðy wpfOD;jzpfol tvDem yD,efaumhpumonfvnf; xdktzGJ@odk@0ifa&muf vmcJhonf? 1970 ckESpf qENjyyGJrsm;wGif acgif;aqmifwpfOD; jzpfcJhol vufcsf bm0ifqmonfvnf; a0:vifwDEdk0pfZfudk ESpfoufonfh tm;avsmfpGm wcsdefwnf;wGif 0ifa&mufcJh+yD; olwdk@onf vDeifoabFmusif;rS *smqD abm&dkZufESifh tif'a& udkvdkZD;/ tygt0ifteD;tem; t,fvfarm oabFmusif;axmufyHha&;vkyfief;rS abmh'efvpfZf paom vli,ftvkyform; rsm;udkvnf; pkaqmif;EdkifcJhonf? or*~ta&; v_yf&Sm;olrsm;onf bdk&k0pfZfrSwqifh òrd@xJwGif v_yf&Sm;aeaom twkduftcHtkyfpkrsm;ESihf csdwfqufrdcJhonf? olwdk@onf a'ow0dkuf&Sd puf&Hkrsm;odk@ tvkyform;*sme,f &dkabmhepfcfudk jzef@a0cJh=u+yD; (1978) =o*kwfvwGif urf;&dk; wef;vkyfom;rsm; (&dkabmhepfcf 0dkifb&D;Zm) [k trnf&aom owif;v$mudk pwifxkwfa0cJhonf? tkyfpkawmfawmfrsm;rsm; onf (1970) ckESpfwGif usqHk;cJhaom oabFmusif;tvkyform;rsm;udk *k%fðyaomtm;jzihf ESpfpOfESpfwkdif; 'DZifbmvwGif trSwfw& tcrf;tem; ðyvkyfusif;yEdkifa&;twGuf tpGrf;ukef óud;yrf;cJh=uonf? ESpfywfvnf tcrf;tem;rðyvkyfcif &ufowWywf awmfawmfrsm;rsm;rSpI a0:vifwDEdk0pfZfESifh olr. oli,fcsif;rsm;onf puf&Hktjyifzuf*dwfrsm;ESifh "gwf &xm;rsm;ay:wGif vufurf;pmapmifrsm; jzef@a0jcif;ESifh òrd@xJwGif ydkpwmrsm; vdkufvHuyfjcif;rsm; ðyvkyfcJh=uonf? ESpfywfvnfae@wGif oabFmusif; *dwftrSwf 2 . tjyifbufwGif vlrsm; pka0;um yef;rsm;=uJjcif;/ wpfrdepfr# +idrfouf jcif;/ trsKd;om;oDcsif;rsm;oDqdkjcif;ESifh rdef@cGef;rsm; em;axmifjcif;wdk@ ðyvkyf=uonf? trSwfw&atmufarhzG,ftcrf;tem;odk@ wufa&mufvm=uaomolrsm;udk tiftm;oHk;I vlpkcJGjcif;rsm; ðyvkyfavhr&SdcJh aomfvnf; xdktcrf;tem;jzpfajrmuf&ef pDpOfol wpfOD;csif;pDtaejzifh ay;qyf&r_rsm; &SdcJhonf? ‚if;wdk@onf ravsmfuef aomjypfr_rsm;jzihf tzrf;cH&jcif;/ acwWc% xdef;odrf;cH&jcif;/ wdwfwqdwf wdkufcdkufcH&jcif;/ ‚if;wdk@ tvkyfrS xkwfy,fcH& jcif;rsm; óuH=u=u&onf? (1979) ckESpf atmufarhzG,f tcrf;tem;jzpfajrmuf&ef ulnDcJhol tDvufx&dkrGefwpfyfpuf&HkrS vli,ftvkyform; wm'D&kpf &SpfZDyefpuDonf &ufowWywf tenf;i,f=umaemufydkif;wGif aysmufjcif;rvS aysmufoGm; cJhonf? aqmif;tukefwGifol. ysufpD;aeaom &kyftavmif;udk jrpfxJwGif aygavmarsmaeonfudk awG@cJh&onf? TuJhodk@aom &ufpuf=urf;ñuwfaom udpP&yfrsm;udk &ifqdkifajz&Sif;&ef y&d,m,fºuG,faomqHk;jzwfcsufwck vdktyfcJh onf? xdktxJwGif vufbm0ifqmxuf b,folrS rydkEdkifcJhay? (1967) ckESpfwGif olonf *'ef@pfcf odk@ a&mufvmcJhonf? xdk@aemuf topfa&muf&dSvmol 'gEkwm[k trnf&aom tvkyforwOD;udk vufxyfcJh+yD;/ v#yfppftvkyform;tjzpf oabFmusif;wGif tvkyf&cJhonf? (1970) oydwfarSmufcsdefwGif bm0ifqmonf acgif;aqmifwOD; jzpfaecJh+yD jzpfonf? olonf xufjrufolwOD;jzpf+yD;/ olpdwfxJ&dSonfudk yGifhyGifvif;vif; ajymwwfolvnf;jzpfonf? &,farmp&mrsm; ajym wwfol wOD;vnf;jzpfonf? ol.*k%foduQmrSm vkyfief;u|rf;usifr_&dSjcif;ESifh tvkyfóud;pm;jcif;jzpfonf? xdktwGufa=umifh oabFmusif;t&m&dSrsm;onf oltm; vkyfief;cGifus,fus,fjyef@jyef@vkyfydkifcGifh ay;&onf? (1970) aemufydkif; ESpfrsm;wGif olonf atmifharhzG,ftcrf;tem;rsm; ðyvkyf&mwGif }udrfzefrsm;pGm ulnDay;cJhjcif;/ or*~tpnf;ta0;rsm;rS t&m&dSrsm;udk armif;xkwfjcif;rsm;udk =udrfzefrsm;pGm óud;pm;vkyfudkifcJhonf? (1976) ckESpf pum;cyf&Snf&Snfwcg rsm;+yD;onfhaemufydkif; wGif/ ol@tm; tvkyfrS xkwfypfcJhonf/

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)118


aemufxyfESpfaygif;awmffawmf=um=umtwGif; bm0ifqmonf tvkyfwckrS wck ajymif;vdkuf txkwfcH&vdkuf jzpfaecJh onf? olESifh ol.wdk;yGm;vmaom rdom;pktwGuf tvkyfr&cif pyf=um; umvrsm;wGif bk&m;ausmif;/ KOR ESifh tjcm; aomtzGJ@rsm;. tvSLaiGjzifh aomfvnf;aumif;/ tvkyform;rsm;rS pkaqmif;aumufcHay;aom axmufyHhaiGjzifhaomf vnf;aumif; &yfwnfcJh&onf? tm%mydkifrsm;rS ol.b0&yfwnfr_tm; cufcJatmif ðyvkyfcJhaomfvnf;/ ol@tm; pkduf vdkufrwfwwf vkyfaqmifaompnf;&Hk;a&;orm;jzpfapa&;odk@ v_H@aqmfay;ovdk jzpfcJhonf? òrd@awmf. t}uD;qHk;vkyfief;wGif vlodrsm;aom olwa,mufjzpfaeaoma=umifh/ ol tvkyfwckrS wckodk@ ajymif;a&$@&pOf vGwfvyfaom or*~. owif; pum;rsm;udk a&muf&mpuf&Hkrsm;odk@ jzef@a0cJhonf? xdkumvrsm;wGif olonf EdkifiHta&;aqmif&Gufol tcsdefjynfh vkyfom; wa,muf jzpfcJhonf? wcgw&Hol@udk (1791) ydkvef 'Drdku&ufwpftajccHOya' pm&Gufrsm;jzifh uyfxm;aom ol@. um; ao;ao;av;jzifh òrd@wGif;wGif vSnfhywfarmif;aeonfudk awG@&wwfonf? *'ef@pfcf &dS EdkifiHa&;tkyfpkrsm; tpnf;ta0;odk@ vnf; ola&mufvmcJh+yD;/ ynmwwfrsm;ESifh ausmif;om;rsm;t=um; r[mrdwfrsm; &SmazGaewwfonf? vltm;vHk;udk olod +yD;/ ae&mwdkif;vnf; ola&mufcJhonf? w&m;0if or*~rsm;onf tvdrftnm wckomjzpfI tvkyform;rsm;onf tu,fI olwdk@. tusdK;pD;yGm;udk jr‡ifhwifcsif onf qdkygu ‚if;wdk@udk,fwkdif pnf;&Hk;I udk,fhtcGifhta&;twGuf udk,fudk,fwdkif ajym&rSm jzpfonfudk bm0ifqm ESifh a0:vifwDEdk0pfZf wdk@onf awmfawmf=um=um uwnf;u od&dScJh+yD; jzpfonf? (1970) oydwfu olwdk@udk aemufw}udrf oydwfarSmufygu b,ft&monf usqHk;EdkifI b,ft&monf tvkyfjzpfEdkifonfudk jyocJhonf? ,ckqdkfv#if 0D,mhpf'g/ bm&k0pfZfESifh tjcm;olrsm;ESifh tquftoG,f aus;Zl;a=umifh olwdk@onf oabFmusif;ESifh *'ef@pfcf wdk@udk ausmfvGefaom a'orsm;wGif tpdwftydkfif;wcktjzpf yg0ifae+yD jzpfa=umif; owdxm;vmrd=uonf? a0:vifwDEdk0pfZf onf KOR . avhvma&;pmapmifrsm;udk tm;xm;cJhonf? twdkuftcHpmapmifrsm;udk zwfcJhonf? tjrifhysHwuUodkfvfwGifvnf; oifcef; pmrsm; wufa&mufcJhonf? bm0ifqmonf tjcm;wdkif;jynfta&; aqmif&Gufolrsm;ESifh twlwuG vkyfaqmif&aom ol. tawG@tóuHudk “ppfrSefaom vlom;qdkif&m aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfr_. yxrqHk; t&om”[k cHpm;rdcJhonf? (1980) aEG&moDwdkifxd vGwfvyfaom tvkyform;or*~rsm;onf ul&GefESifh rpfcsepfwdk@ t=uHðycJhaom KOR rS usihfoHk; aeonfh twdkuftcHyHkpHudk qufvufusifhoHk;cJhonf? ajymif;vJ&eftwGuf toem;cH qENjyrnfhtpm;/ tpdk;&. vltzGJ@ tpnf;twGif; [efaqmifxdfef;csKyfr_udk zGifhcspdefac:cJhonf? vGwfvyfpGm xkwfaz:ajymqdkcGifhESifh toif;tzJG@ zGJ@pnf;cGifhudk rawmif;qdkyJ xdktcGifhta&;rsm;onf ‚if;wdk@xHwGif &dS+yD; jzpfovdk ðyrlI ‚if;wdk@ydkif owif;pmrsm; xkwfa0/ jzef@csDjcif;/ ‚if; wdk@ukd,fydkif tcrf;tem;rsm;usif;jyjcif;rsm; ðyvkyfcJhonf? xkdodk@ðyvkyf&eftwGuf tvkyform;rsm;udk owif;rjywfydk@ay; cJhonf? (1970) ckESpf. pdwf"gwfudk &Sifoefaeatmif ysKd;axmifcJhonf? tdfrfwdkif,ma,muf vGwfvyfaom tvkyform; or*~rsm;twGuf vdktyfcsufrsm;udk ajymqdkjcif;ESifh *'ef@pfcf rS ynmwwf twdkuftcHrsm;ESifh ppfaoG;ºuGaom tvkyform; rsm;t=um; qufqHa&;rsm;ysKd;axmifcJhonf? odk@aomfvnf; tjrifhqHk;&nfrSef;csuftjzpf vGwfvyfaom tvkyform;or*~rsm;twGuf ydkveftvkyform; tm;vHk;udk pnf;&Hk;&rnf[laom ydkrdkjrifhrm;aom &nf&G,fcsufxm;cJh=uonf? ‚if;. tzGJ@0ifrsm;onf pepftwGif;Yyif tajccHajymif;vJ r_rsm;ðyvkyfa&; zdtm;ay;&ef pdwf0ifpm;cJhonf? xdkrSom tvkyform;rsm;onf pnf;&Hk;ydkifcGifhESifh udk,fukdudk,f ckcHydkifcGifhrsm; &dSvmvdrfhrnfjzpfonf? ajymif;vJcsdefcgwefygu 0gaqmrS ynmwwfrsm; OD;aqmif&SmazGaom enf;emrsm;jzifh rvHkavmuf Edkifay/ axmifESifhcsDaom vltrsm;tay:wGif tajccHI axmifESifhcsDaom pk&Hk;jyifqifr_rsm; ðyvkyf&rnfjzpf+yD;/ tpdk;&ESifh vnf; tjyif;txef twdkuftcHjzpfvdrfhrnfjzpfonf? (1980) ckESpf aEG&moDwGif bm0ifqm ESifh ol@rdwfaqGrsm;onf olwdk@udk olwdk@ xdkuJhodk@aom v_yf&Sm;r_udk OD;aqmifaeonfudk trSwfrxif odvdkufcJh&onf? a0:vifwDEdk0pfZftm; tvkyf ðzwfcHvkduf&jcif;onf xdkpeufóud;udk rD;wdk@ay;vdkufaom rD;yGg;wp jzpfcJhonf?

usKyfwdk@ oabFmusif;udk odr;f ydkufawmhr,f a0:vifwDEdk0pfZf tvkyfðzwfjcif;cH&onfh xdknwGif q&m0efwpfOD;/ ydkvefvli,frS tzJG@0ifrsm; ESifh trsKd;om;a&;0g'D twdkuf tcHtkyfpkwdk@yg0ifaom *'ef@pfcf rSv_yf&Sm;ol 'gZif0ufcef@onf yDa,mh 'dkuf. aetdrfwGif awG@qHkcJh=uonf? bm0ifqmonf vnf; bm&dk0pfZf/ yD,efaumhpum/ tif'a& 0D,mhpf'gESifh vli,ftvkyform;ESpfOD; jzpf=uaom vDeifoabFmusif;Y tvkyf vkyfaeol abmh'ef zJvfpuDwdk@ESifhtwl yg0ifwufa&mufcJhonf? yJ&pf uGefjrL;oabFmusif;Y tvkyfvkyfcJh+yD; qENjyyJGjzpf ajrmufatmif v_H@aqmfóud;yrf;r_a=umifh tvkyfðywfcJh&aom tif'a& udkavmh'dZD;wdk@vnf; xdktpnf;ta0; ðyvkyfaom tdrfwGif &SdaecJhonf? olwdk@onf 'dkuf. tcef;twGif; tm%mydkifrsm;rS cdk;I em;axmifaomu&d,mrsm;wyfxm;rnfudk pdk;&drfcJh=uonf? xdktwGufa=umifh tyghref@tjyifbufodk@ xGufcJh=u+yD; qENjyyGJta=umif; ajymcJh=uonf? aemufxyf&uftenf;i,f=umaomtcgbm&k0pfZfESifh vli,foabFmusif;tvkyform;oHk;OD; jzpf=uaom zJvfpuD/ *smpD bdk&dkZufESifh vl;0pf y&mZif;puD;wdk@onf tpDtpOfrsm; csrSwfcJh=uonf? ZlvdkifvwGif qENjyyGJðyvkyf&ef óud;pm;cJhaomtcg

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)119


oabFmusif;tvkyform;rsm; rnfodk@r#rwHk@jyefcJhay? onfwcsdefwGif olwdk@wGif ypfrSwf (a0:vifwDEdk0pfZf) ESifh ygwfoufI aqmif&Guf&efykd+yD;eD;pyfaomta=umif;t&mwpfck&SdcJhonf? bma=umifh olr tvkyfðzwfcH&onf &Sif;jyjcif;/ olrudk tvkyf jyefcef@&ef awmif;qdkxm;jcif;/ vkyftm;crsm;wdk;jr‡ifhay;&efawmif;qdkjcif;ESifh (1970) 'DZifbmvwGif toufpaw;cJh&aom tvkyform;rsm;udk *k%fðyaomtm;jzifh ausmufwdkifwpfck ðyvkyfay;&ef ponfwdk@yg0ifaom axmifaygif;rsm;pGmaom vufurf;pmapmifrsm;udk olwdk@ jzef@a0cJh=uonf? oabFmusif;twGif;wGif bm&k0pfZfonf tvkyform;tcsKd@udk xdkta=umif;t&mrsm;onf olwdk@udk puf&HkjyifyxGufI oydwfarSmufEdkifavmufonfhtajctae&Sdygovm;[k wdwfwqdwf ar;=unfhaomtcg &Sdygonf[k ajzcJhonf? pDpOf aqmif&Gufol av;OD;onf olwdk@. tpDtpOfudk v#Kd@0Sufxm;cJh+yD; vGwfvyfaomtvkyform;or*~wGif yg0ifaom vkyfazmfudkifzufrsm;onfyifv#if qENjyyGJjzpfEdkifacs&Sdonfqdkonfr#omodonf? odk@aomf olwdk@zufwGif ydkI tawG@ tóuH&Sdaomol vkdtyfonfudk olwdk@odI =o*kwfv (12) &ufae@/ t*Fgae@wGif bm0ifqmqDodk@ oGm;a&mufum aemuf wae@eHeuf oydwfwdkufyGJwGif ‚if;tm; OD;aqmifI ulnDay;yg&ef ajymcJhonf? bm0ifqmonf ‚if;.ZeD; 'gEkwmvnf; olwdk@. ajcmufa,mufajrmufuav;arG;+yD;csdefjzpfojzifh ‚if;tem;rSm &Sdae&efvdktyfaoma=umifhoydwfwkdufyGJOD;aqmif &ef oabmwl+yD;umrS jyef&kyfodrf;oGm;cJhonf? odk@aomf =umoyaw;ae@wGif oltm;vdrfhrnfjzpfonf? xdk@a=umifh oydwf wdkufyGJtm; aemufw&ufodk@ a&$@cJhonf? =umoyaw;ae@reuf 4 em&DcGJwGif bm&k0pfZfonf *'ef@pfcf ajrmufydkif;qifajczHk; rS oabFmusif;odk@oGm;aom vrf;ay:wGif &yfxm;aom "gwf&xm;ay:wGif a0:vifwDEdk0pfZfta=umif;yg0ifaom vufurf;pmapmif axmifaygif;rsm;pGmudk a0iSaecJh onf? vrf;rD;awGpxGef;onfESifhwòydifeuf ol@. pm&Gufa0urf;a&;udpPtwGuf tjcm;taz:wa,mmufvnf; a&mufvm cJhonf? olwdk@txJrS vlESpfa,muf reufydkif; tvkyfqdkif;twGuf yxrOD;qHk; tvkyform; wtkyfudkwifI awmifbufodk@ oGm;rnfh "gwf&xm;ay:odk@ wufcJh=uonf? olwdk@ vufurf;pmapmifrsm;udk jzef@a0cJh+yD;/ aemufw*dwfwGif qif;cJh=uonf? xdk@aemuf aemuf "gwf&xm;wpD;ay: xyfwuf+yD;/ jzef@a0vdkufaepOf tjcm;wzGJ@onfvnf; awmifydkif;odk@oGm;aom tjcm; vdkif;rsm;wGif vufurf;pmapmifrsm; jzef@a0cJh=uonf? ol@. vufxJwGifpmapmif wapmifrS rusefawmhrS ajcukefvufyrf;usaeaom bm&k0pfwdk@tzGJ@ tdrfodk@jyefvmcJh=uonf? olwdk@ oabFmusif;odk@ a&mufaomtcg axmifESifhcsDaom tvkyform;rsm;onf a0:vifwDEdk0pfZf. toufarG;0rf; a=umif;vkyfief;ESifh olrtvkyfðzwfcH&jcif;udpPudk tao;pdwfudk odaecJh=u+yD jzpfonf? olwdk@awGu olr. aumif;jrwf aom *k%fowif;oHk;yg;/ tvkyform;xkudk udk,fpm;ðy+yD; olr. wdkufyGJ0ifr_ ESifh vGwfvyfaom or*~tkyfpkrsm;ESifh vufwGJ vkyfaqmifaer_awG tm;vHk;udk odaecJh+yD; jzpfaecJhonf? aemufqHk; olrudk tvkyfrS armif;xkwfcsdef =o*kwfv (7) &ufae@ txd/ tkyfcsKyfa&;u olrtay: rnfodk@ tEdkifusifh cJhyHkudk olwdk@wawG tm;vHk; odcJh=uonf? “tifem a0:vifwDEdk0pfZf. ta&;onf vufrcHEdkifp&m udpPwckjzpfvmcJh+yD” “tb,fa=umifhqdkaomf olronf tjcm;tvkyform;rsm;. ta&;udk tumtuG,af y;cJ+h yD;/ vkyfaz:udkifzuf tvkyform;rsm;udkvnf; pnf;&Hk;EdkifcJhonf?” [k xdkvufurf;pmapmifxJwGif xkwfjyefa=ujimcJhonf? “tu,fI u|Ekfyfwdk@rS Trw&m;r_udk rwGef;vSefEkdifygu/ tvkyfudkfwm wdk;jr‡ifhjcif;/ vkyfief;vkHòcHr_ pnf;urf;tm;csdK;azmufjcif; ESifh tvkyfcsdef ydkrdkvkyfcdkif;jcif; ponfwdk@ukd &J&J0ifh0ifh ajymqdk&Jol wOD;rS &dSawmhrnf r[kwf” [k a&;xm;onf? tifem a0:vifwDEdk0pfonf olwdk@tm; tumtuG,fay;cJh+yD;/ ,cktcsdefonf ‚if;wdk@rS olrStm; jyefvnfI tumtuG,fay;&ef tcsdefyifjzpfonf? vlESpf&m ywf0ef;usifcef@ ajcmufem&Drxdk;cifwGif au 5 oabFmi,f.udk,fxnf tpdwftydkif;rsm;wyfqifonfh *dka'gifi,frsm;rS olwdk@. t0wfAD'dkrsm;qDodk pdrfajyeajyjzifh av#mufvmpOf/ oydwfarSmuf&ef v_H@aqmfydkpwmrsm;udk awG@cJh&onf? wnvHk; tdyfraysmfcJhaom bm&k0pfZf apmapmpD;pD; v_H@aqmfa&; ydkpwmrsm;udk csdwfcJhonf? olwdk@ tjym a&mif tvkyform;0wfpHkudk vJaecsdefwGif bm&k0pfZfu olwdk@vufxJodk@ vufurf;pmapmifwckpD xnhfay;vkdufonf? xdkuJhodk@aomtcsif;t&mrsKd;onf wòydifeufwnf;rSmyif y&mZif;puD;tvkyfvkyfaeaom ydk}uD;onfh au 3 *dka'gifESifh zJvfpuD;tvkyfvkyfaeaom 'AvsL 5 *dka'gifwGif jzpfyGm;cJh+yD;/ tjcm;olrsm;uvnf; vufurf;pmapmifrsm; jzef@a0cJhonf? t0wfvJcef; ESifh tvkyf&Hkrsm;wGif zJvfpuD/ y&mZif;puD;ESifh bm&k0pfZfwdk@onf oydwfta=umif;udk &Sif;jyI uGif;jyifxJodk@ xGufvm&ef awmif;qdkcJh=uonf? tvkyform;awmfawmfrsm;rsm; txl;ojzifh touft&G,f}uD;aom tvkyform;rsm;rS wGef@qkwfqkwfjzpfcJhaomfvnf; tcsKd@u oabmwlcJhonf? “cifAsm;wdk@ pufawGudk xm;cJhyg/ usKyfwdkeJ@ vufwGJwdkufcdkuf prf;yg”[k olwdk@ oabFmukd,fxnfydkif;ESifh tvkyf&Hkrsm;udk jzwfausmfoGm;csdfef atmf[pfcJhonf? bm&k0pfZfESifh zJvfpuDwdk@. tkyfpkrsm;onf y&mZif;puD;. au-5 tkyfpkrsm;ESifh csdwfqufrd+yD;/ uGif;jyif.tqHk;wGif qHkawG@cJh=uonf? vl ESpfaxmif cef@ pkrdcJhonf/ xdk@aemuf olwdk@ puf&Hk.tjcm;zufqDodk@ jyefcsDwufcJh=uonf? olwdk@. udfef;*%ef;onf wpp wdk;yGm;vm aecJhonf? reuf udk;em&D enf;enf;ausmfcJhonfh tcsdefwGif (1970) wGif oydwfarSmufolrsm;udk aoewfESifh ypfoufcJhonfh eHrnfqdk; ESifh ausmf=um;cJhonfh *dwf eHygwf 2 udk OD;wnfcJhonf? vltcsKd@u oabFmusif;rSm raeyJ ygwDaumfrwD taqmuftOD; zufqDodk@

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)120


csDwuf=u&ef atmf[pfcJhonf? acgif;aqmifrsm;onf xdktwGuf jyifqifcJh+yD;jzpfonf/ 1970 qHk±H_;r_}uD;udk jyef vnf toufoGif;&ef qENr&dSawmh/ tmZmenfpm&if;topfudkvnf; xyfrðypkcsif=uawmhay? bm&k0pfZfESifh tjcm;olrsm; u (1970) wGif usqHk;oGm;aomolrsm;tm; atmufharhtrSwf&jcif; taejzifh acwWr# +idrfouf&ef awmif;qdkcJh=u+yD;/ EdkfifiH awmfoDcsif;udk tkyfpkvdkufoDqdk&ef olwdk@OD;aqmifcJh=uonf? tenf;i,ftenfxdkif+idrfoufoGm;rS/ OD;aqmifolwdk@onf olwdk@tm;vHk;udk oabFmusif;xJwGif xnfhxm;vkdufcJhonf? tenf;i,f=umaomtcg tkyfcsKyfa&; taqmuftOD;tjyif zuf uGif;jyifwGif oydwfarSmuform; tm;vHk; pkpnf;cJh=uonf? toufESpfq,fhESpfESpf t&G,fom&dSao;aom abm&dkZuf u axmifxm;aom ajrwl;pufa*:jym;ay:odk@ wuf+yD;/ puf}uD;udk yvufazgif;ay:odk@ vSnfhvkdufonf? olu toHcsJ@puf udk,lI aumfrwDwck a&G;cs,fwifajr‡muf&ef oydwfarSmufolrsm;udk aqmfatmcJhonf? “tvkyf&HkawGeJ@ tvkyform; tkyfpkrsm; twGif; =oZm tm%m&dS+yD;/ usKyfwdk@ ,Hk=unf&wJholawG &dSzdk@ vdktyfw,f?” *dka'giftoD;oD;/ XmetoD;oD;rS tvkyform;rsm;onf udk,fpm;vS,f pkpkaygif;ta,mufESpfq,f a&G;cJh=uonf? xdk@aemuf oabFmusif; 'g&dkufwm uvDrif epfcsfay:xGufvmcJh+yD;/ ajrwl;a*:jym;ay:odk@ wufvmcJhonf? epfcsfudk tvkyf orm;rsm;rS av;pm;I oabmus=uonf? oabFmudk,fxnf tpdwftydkif; vkyfom;wa,muf tjzpf ESpfaygif; ESpfq,f =um vkyfudkifcJh+yD; jzpfonf? tjcm;ygwDtzGJ@0ifrsm;uJhodk@yif (1970) 'DZifbm oydwfwGif olvnf; yg0ifcJhonf? ol@udk wdk;wufaom tjrif&dSol wa,muftjzpf owfrSwfcJh=uonf? xdk@a=umihf oydwfarSmufolawG tvkyfudk jyefwmeJ@ oydwf aumfrwDeJ@ pum;xkdif+yD;ajymrnf[k oluajymaomtcg awmfawmfrsm;rsm;u ol@tay: ,Hk=unf&ef toifhjzpfaecJhonf? Ttajctae oydwfonf em&Dtenf;i,ftwGif; oydwf òyduGJEdkifonfh yHkay:aecJhonf? &kwfcsnf;qdkovdk epfcsfonf bm0ifqm udk ol.eHab; ajrwl;a*:jym;ay: &yfaeonfudk &kwfw&ufawG@cJhonf? bm0ifqm u “cifAsm;usGefawmfhudk rSwfrdygovm;” [k 'g&kdufwmudk ar;cJhonf? oloabFmusif;. jcH0ef;udk rausmfcif ol@aemufu t+rJwap vkdufaewJh vHkòcHa&;0efxrf;rsm;udk rsufajcjywfap&ef wreufvHk; ol óud;pm;&if;jzifh tcsdefukefcJhonf? ,ck ol axmifaygif;rsm;pGmaom tvkyform;rsm;ta&S@wGif epfcsfudk zdI ppfaq;cJhonf? “oabFmusif;uae usKyfbma=umifh tvkyfðywfcJh&w,fqdkwmudk olwdk@udk ajymjyyg”[k olawmif;qdkcJhonf? “usKyf wpHkw&mrsm; cdk;cJhzl;ovm;/ usKyfu olcdk; wa,mufvm;/ usKyf oabFmusif;rSm q,fESpfausmf tvkyfvkyfcJh+yD; usKyfudk,fh udk,fudk wu,fh oabFmusif;tvkyf orm;tjzpf cH,laeao;w,f? 'g[m usKyf yHkrSeftvkyfwck&wJh tcsdefup&if av;ESpfausmfchJ+yD jzpfw,f?” bm&k0pfZfu bm0ifqmudk ESpfq,fhwpfa,mufajrmuf tzGJ@0iftjzpf owfrSwf+yD; oydwfaumfrwDwGif aygif;xJhvdkufaoma=umifh bm0ifqmu “usKyfwdk@ oabFmusif;udk odrf;ydkufawmhr,f” [k [pfaºuG;cJhonf? oydwfwdkufyGJwGif yg0ifolrsm;. vufckyf =obmoHrsm; xGufvm+yD; ‚if;u “'Dpuf&Hku pGef@cGmzdk@ aemufqHk; usefcJhr,fhol[m usKyfyJ” [k uwday;cJhonf? bm0ifqm a&mufvmjcif;onf pum;0dkif;rpEdkifcif oydwfwdkufyGJudk tqHk;owfEdkifvdrfhrnf[k xifxm;cJhaom epfcsf. ar#mfvifhcsufudk ysufpD;oGm;apchJonf? epfcsf.t=uHu =oZm&dSaom tvkyform;udk,fpm;vS,fawGudk vSnfhpm;Edkifrnf [laom t=uHjzpfonf? ajrwl;puf a*:jym;ay:rSm cufcufcJcJ vlom;ESpfOD; &yfaecsdefwGif oydfwfarSmufolwdk@u olwkd@ udk,fydkif vkdtyfcsufrsm;udk atmf[pfcJh=uonf? tifem a0:vifwDEdk0pfZfudk oydfwfaumfrwDtwGif; xnfhoGif;ay;&ef/ olrudk epfcsf.um;ESifh puf&HkwGif;odk@ ac:aqmifay;&ef awmif;qdkcJhonf? oydfwfarSmufolwdkonfh olwdk@tay:pD;rS &ae onfudk olwdk@odcJhonf? xkd@a=umifh txufvl}uD; wOD;OD;tm; odyfrjyif;xefaom uvJhpm;acscGifhtcGifhta&;wckudk t&omcHaecJh=uonf? bm0ifqmu 'kwd, tajctaewckudk xyfwdk;vdkufonf? xdkt&mrSm aphpyfaqG;aEG;a&;pum;0dkfif; rsm;udk toHcsJ@pufjzifh oabFmusif;wckvHk;=um;Edkifatmif xkwfv$ifhay;&rnf [lI jzpfonf? Todk@enf;jzifh oydwfwGif tqifhqifhwGif yg0ifol tm;vHk; vdkufygodEdkif+yD;/ udk,fpm;vS,frsm;onf ‚if;wdk@tm; a&mif;pm;aeolrsm;r[kwfqdkonfudk odEdkifvdrfhrnfjzpfonf? xdk@aemuf oydwfaumfrwDay:xGufvmcJhI bm0ifqm . tvkyf&Hka[mif;jzpfaom uefwif;wGif ,m,Dpcef;cscJhonf? vbuf&nfpmyGJ0dkif;wGif 0dkif;Ixdkif+yD;/ ‚if;wdk@onf vGefcJhaom em&Dykdif;twGif;u oydwfpnf;&Hk;v_H@aqmfolrsm; vdkufvH a[majymcJhonfh ta=umif;t&m;rsm;udk csHK@I awmif;qdkr_rsm;jzpfvmap&ef zefwnf;cJh=uonf? tifem a0:vifwDEdk0pfZf ESifh bm0ifqm ESpfa,mufpvHk;udk tvkyfjyefcef@&rnf? tvkyform;rsm; aexdkifp&dwfESifhtwl vcrsm; wdk;jr‡ifhay;&rnf/ tom;aps;E_ef;rsm; jrifhwufvmr_udk jyefcsay;&rnf? &JESifh ppfwyft&m&dSrsm;odk@ ay;xm;aom txl;tcGifhta&;rsm;udk jyefvnf &kyfodrf;&rnf? (1970) tmZmenfrsm;twGuf ausmufwdkifwck xlay;&rnf? oydwfarSmufolrsm;tm; tpkd;&rS uvJhpm;jyefracsyg[laom 0efcHcsuf vdktyfonf? bm0ifqm ESifh ol@. vkyfaz:udkifzufrsm; vGefcJhaom ESpfrsm;uwnf;u awmufav#mufawmif;qdkcJhonfh tvkyform;rsm;onfonf vGwfvyfaom tvkyform;or*~rsm; wnfaxmifcGihf tcGifh ta&; vdktyfonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)121


xdkawmif;qdkcsufrsm;ESifhtwl aumfrwDonf tkyfcsKyfa&;taqmufttHkodk@ oGm;a&mufum epfcsfESifh awG@qHkcJhonf? odk@aomf 'g&kdufwmonf TvdktyfcsufwpHkw&mudkr# jznfhqD;aqmif&Gufay;Edkifr_r&SdcJhacs? tpnf;ta0;cef;rwGif vlxktm; rdef@cGef;ajym&ef pepfwyfqifxm;r_rsm; r&SdonfhtwGufa=umifh pum;0dkif;udk toHv$ifh&ef rjzpfEdkif[k ol ajymcJhonf? “a0:vifwDEdk0pfZfudk pdwfnpfnL;&avatmif vkyfzdk@ b,fvdkrS ta=umif;r&dSygbl;/” “olrtaeeJ@ odyfaeraumif;av awmh/ 'Dvdkpdwfv_yf&Sm;p&mawGudk awG@+yD; 0rf;enf;oGm;Edkifw,f” [k oluqifajcay; ajymcJhonf? odk@aomf aumfrwD onf vG,fvG,fESifhawmh olwdk@. OD;wnfcsufrsm;udk ra&SmhcJhay? bm0ifqmonf Tvdktyfcsufrsm;r&rcsif; olwdk@ awG@qHk aqG;aEG;Edkifvdrfhrnf r[kwf[k a=ujimcJh+yD; udk,fpm;vS,frsm; tpnf;ta0;cef;rS xGufvmcJh=uonf? ae@vnfavmufwGif a0:vifwDEdk0pfZf ygvmaom rD;ckd;a&mifum;av; *dwf trSwf 2 rS 0if;twGif; odk@ 0ifvmaomtcg olwdk@ yxrqHk;wdkufyGJudk atmifjrifvdkuf+yDjzpfa=umif; 0if;twGif;&yfaeaom oydwfwkdufyGJ0ifolrsm; odcJhonf? oydwf wkdufyGJ0ifolrsm; um;teD;wGif 0ef;&Haeaoma=umifh a0:vifwED dk0pfZf um;xJrS xGufvmI ajrwl;a*:jym;ay:odk@ wufcJh onf? epfcsf&Hk;tjyifbuf&Sd ðcHykwfrS xdkreufurS cl;vmaom ESif;qDyef;rsm;jzifh olrudk urf;=uonf? ESif;qDyef;&eH@ESifhtwl olrpum;rajymEdkifbJ rsuf&nfrsm; pD;usvmcJhonf? aemufydkif;wGif epfcsfonf t&_H;ay;vdkuf+yD; pum;0dkif;ta=umif;udk avmpyDumESifh toHv$i&fh ef cGifhðycJh onf? aemufwae@ aom=umae@wGif pum;0dkif;udk pwifvdfrfhrnfjzpfonf? =umoyaw;ae@ae@vnfwGif oydwfwdkufyGJ0ifolrsm;onf oabFmusif;twGif;ae&ef ta&;ay:jyifqifcJh =uonf? 0if; tjyifzuf&Sd aq;cef;wGif tvkyfvkyfaom yD,efaumhpumonf *'ef@pfcf e,fajrodk@ tpm;tpmrsm;vSL&ef aqmf=ocJh+yD;/ wtdrfwufqif; vdkufvHpkaqmif;&ef ausmif;om;rsm;tzGJ@wzGJ@udk wm0efay;cJhonf? tjcm;ollrsm;onf uGif;jyif0if aygufrsm;udk apmifh=uyf=u+yD;/ t&ufraomuf&efvnf; wm;jrpfOya'xkwfI ydwfcJhonf? tcsKd@u aumif;uifóud;rsm; axmif+yD;/ vGwfvyfaomOa&my a&'D,dkvdkif;udk em;axmifEdkif&ef zrf;cJh=uonf/ uGif;jyifxJ&dS rD;avmifvG,faom ypPnf; rsm;udk z,fxkwfcJh=uonf? tcsKd@uawmh aomufa&oef@rsm;&&eftwGuf 0dkif;ulcJh=uonf/ xdkteD;wGif aeaomolrsm;u tdrfodk@jyefI zsmrsm; apmifrsm;jyef,lcJh=uonf? aea&mif wjznf;jznf; uG,faysmufonfESifhtr# ywWLprsm;ESifh zefwD; xm;aom &GufzsifwJòrd@uav; xGufay:vmcJhonf? oydwfwdkufyGJ0ifolrsm; twGif;wGif tvkyf±_yfaepOf/ yD,efaumhpumu oydwfESifh ywfoufI tcsuftvuf tao;pdwf &onfESifh csufcsif; ul&GefxHodk@ zHk;qac:cJhonf? ul&GefxHrSwqifh EdkifiHjcm;owif;axmufrsm;xHa&mufoGm;+yD;/ vGwfvyf aom Oa&mya&'D,dk rSwqifh ydkvefodk@ owif;jyefa&mufvmcJhonf? abmh'ef abm&k0pfZfonf qdyfcHabmwHwm;bufudk oGm;I qdyfcHtvkyform;rsm;udk bmawGjzpfaeonfudk ajymjyI ‚if;wdk@teD;tem; puf&Hkrsm;odk@vnf; qufvufajymjy&ef awmif;qdkcJhonf? xdkae&mESihfrqdkifaom tjyifvlwa,muftaeESifhrl oydwfarSmuf pGef@pm;&ef tjcm;olrsm;udk em;csEdkif vdrfhrnfr[kwfay? odk@aomfvnf; vGwfvyfaom tvkyform;or*~ tkyfpkrsm;onf *'ef@pfcf-'dkifeD,ma'otwGif; t"du puf&Hkawmfawmfrsm;rsm;&dS aoG;ºuGaomtvkyform;rsm;ESifh teD;uyfqufqHa&; &dScJhaoma=umifhvnf; ,ckvdk qufqHa&; tqifajzcJhjcif; jzpfonf// aom=umae@ eHeufwGif xdkvlrsm;onf ‚if;wdk@.v_yf&Sm;r_ pwifcJhonf? aom=umae@onf tif'a& udkavmh'fZD;vkyfaeaom yJ&pfuGefjrL;oabFmusif;wGif tvkyf0ifonfh 'kwd,ajrmufae@ jzpfonf? xdkreuf bwfpfum;ay:wGif toufESpfq,ft&G,f trnfrod vli,fwOD;u ol.vkyfaz:udkifzuf wOD;xHodk@ csnf;uyfoGm;cJh+yD;/ vDeifoabFmusif;wGif oydwfarSmufaea=umif;udk olwdk@udk ajymjycJhonf? olwdk@udkvnf; tvkyfrS xGufzdk@ awmif;qdkcJhonf? xdkowif;ta=umif;udk oabFmudk,fxnf tpdwftydkif;xm;&m *dka'giftxd ,loGm;cJh+yD;/ vkyfief; wae@wmtp vkyfief;tzGJ@rsm; vma&mufpkpnf;&m &ifjyiftxd xyfo,faqmifoGm;cJh=uonf? tvkyforsm;acgif;ESifh ygwDt&m&dSrsm;rS *dka'gifESifh oabFmudk,fxnfydkif;twGif;odk@ tkyfpktvsiftjrefcGJvdkufaomtcg olESifh tjcm;vli,f vH_@aqmfolrsm;. t}uHysufoGm;cJhonf? odk@aomf tenf;i,f=umaomtcg tvkyform; 'gZiftenf;i,f ‚if;wdk@tvkyfudk pGef@cGmI &ifjyifqDodk@ jyefvmcJhonf? ra&S;raESmif;rSmyif axmifESifhcsDaom tvkyform;rsm; vma&mufylaygif;cJhIo ydwf}uD; pwifcJh=uonf? vDeif oabFmusif;ESifh puf&HkeD;csif; wckjzpfaom t,fvfarmpuf&HkwGif xl;xl;jcm;jcm; tif'a&0D,mhpf'gESifh abmh'ef vpf qdk@onf vGwfvyfaom tvkyform; or*~ESifh qufEG,folwOD;jzpf+yD;/ tHhtm;oifhp&myif PZPR. puf&Hk aumfrwD OuUXvnf; jzpfaecJhonf? olwdk@uvlESpfaxmifcef@&dSaom oydwfudk OD;aqmifxGufvmcJhonf? tjcm;r[mrdwfwOD;jzpfol [ife&Dum u&dkifZD0dkEdkuvnf; jrLeDpDy,fo,f,lydk@aqmifa&; tvkyform;rsm;udkvnf; tvkyfrS xGufcGm&ef wdkufwGef; em;csEdkifcJhonf? oabFmusif;ðyjyifa&;rS tvkyform;rsm;ESifh *'ef@pfcfajrmufydkif; oabFmusif;rS tvkyform;rsm;onfvnf; tvkyfvkyfjcif;rS &yffem;vdkuf=u+yD;/ ajrmufydkif;qdyfurf;rS qdyfurf;vkyfom;rsm;onf xdkolrsm;uJhodk@ tvkyfrS &yfem;cJh=u onf? aom=umae@rGef;wnfhcsdefwGif tvkyform;ig;aomif;cef@ tvkyfrS pGefcGm&ef pnf;&Hk;wdkufwGef;EdkifcJh=uonf? puf&Hkwdkif;wGif oydwfarSmufolrsm;onf taqmuftOD;rsm;udk odrf;,l&ef tqifhoifhjyifxm;+yD;/ oydfwfaumfrwDrsm;udk a&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufxm;+yD;jzpfcJhonf? xdk@aemuf olwdk@. udk,fpm;vS,frsm;udk a'owckvHk;. tcsuftcsmusaom vDeifoabFmusif;odk@ ydk@cJhonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)122


=umoyaw;ae@ t&k%fwufwGifoydwftouf0ifcJh+yD; ESpfq,fhav;em&D tenf;i,fpGef;csdefwGif vufeufqdkI wkwfwdk wacsmif;rSrygyJ/ vufurf;pmapmifrsm;udk udkifaqmifxm;aom vufwqkyfpm vli,f wufºuGolrsm;onf tvkyform; xk}uD;udk qGJac:xkwfEdkifcJhonf? aemufwae@wGifvnf; a'owckvHk; tvm;wl jzpf&yfrsm; jzpfyGm;cJhonf? ae&mwdkif;wGif oydwfarSmufolrsm;onf òrd@wGif; jynfhv#Haer_ESifh &Jrsm;ESifh xdyfwdkufwdk;r_rsm;udk r&ifqdkifbJ aemufqkwfI uGif;jyifxJ/ puf&HkxJwGifom aecJh=uonf? olwdk@ 'Drdkua&pDuspGm pnf;&Hk;Edkifaom/ pepfwusxdef;csKyfEdkifaomaexdkfif&m xdkpuf&Hkrsm;ESifh uGif;jyifrsm;udkom tumtuG,fðyI aexdkifcJh=uonf? A[kdcsufrodk@ udk,fpm;vS,frsm;ydkjcif;tm;jzifh ‚if;wdk@onf oydwftm;vHk;udk vrf;a=umif;Edkifaom/ nD!GwfEdkifaom tzGJ@tpnf; wck ay:aygufap&ef pwif óud;yrf;cJhonf? vGwfvyfaom ukefoG,fa&; or*~rsm; awG;xifxm;onfxufyif ydkrkdaumif;rGefaom v_yf&Sm;r_wckudk pwif wdkufckdufjcif;jzifh yxrtqifhrsm;wGif tHhtm;oifhp&m t&dSefwdk;wufr_rsm;&dScJhonf? aqmif&Gufol rsm; tvkyform;rsm;udk tvkyfrS xGufvm&ef armif;ESif;+yD;wmESifh csufcsif;qdkovdk a&S@bmqufvkyf &rnfqdkwmudk tjynfht0 r!Gef=um;EdkifcJhay? tb,fa=umifhqdkaomf t&dSeft[kefonf aomif;ESifhcsDaom vlwOD;csif;qDrS xGufay:vmaom pdwfcHpm;r_rsm;rS xGufay:vmcJhaoma=umifh jzpfonf? odk@aomf t"du qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;rSm æ yxrae@wGif puf&Hkrsm;odrf;ydkuf/ pnf;&Hk;/ vGwfvyfaom or*~wck wnfaxmifjcif; qdkaom qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;rSm csufjcif;vufiif; xGufay:vmonfawmh r[kwfay? 1970 ckpdwfcHpm;r_rsm;/ pdwf"gwfrsm;rSwqifh jzwfoef;cJhaom tvkyform;rsm;rSwqifh oifcef;pmrsm;udk avhvm/ i,f&G,faom tvkyform;rsm;xH jzef@a0cJh=u&if; ay:aygufvmcJhjcif;jzpfonf? vGwfvyfaom tvkyform; or*~rsm;rS ESpfaygif;twef=um xkwfa0aom pmapmifrsm;wGifvnf; xdkta=umif; t&mrsm;udk xkwfa0cJh+yD; vnf;jzpfonf? “usaemfwdk@bma=umifh vrf;ay: rxGufoifhbl;/ bma=umifh twGif;rSmyJ aeoifhw,f qdkwmudk olwdk@udk &Sif;jyaep&m rvdkygbl;”[k bm&k0pfZfu jyefajymif; ajymjycJhonf? abmvfwpfurf;&dk;wef;a'ou tvkyform;rsm; uawmh bmvkyf&rnfqdkwm olwdk@ &Sif;vif;pGm odaecJh+yD;jzpfonf?

b,fol oyfdwfarSmufcsifvJ´ a'ow0Srf;vHk;&dS tvkyform;rsm; xdkta&;udk 0ifa&mufqifEGJ=upOfwGif a'otm%mydkifrsm;onf 0gaqmrS trdef@udk apmifhaecJh=uonf? qdkAD,uf ,leD,H odk@ tvnftywfc&D;pOf acwWa&mufaeaom*J&uf onf c&D;pOfudk zsufI 0gaqm odk@jyefvmcJhonf? tpdk;&onf *'ef@pfcfwGif awmufavmifaeaom t"du rD;udk +idfrf;oufjcif;jzifh oydwfudk acsmacsmarG@arG@ tqHk;owf&ef qHk;jzwfcJhonf? yxrtqifhonfòrd@ukd ydkveftjcm;ae&mrsm;ESifh vrf;a=umif;jzwfcJhonf? aom=umae@wGif *'ef@pfcfòrd@&dS w,fvDzkef;vdkif;rsm;ESifh a=u;eef;vdkif;rsm; jzwfawmufcJh+yD;/ vrf;rsm; tm;vHk;udkvnf; ydwfq@dk cJhonf? vDeif oabFmusif;wGif epfcsf.trdef@onf tvkyform;rsm;. pD;yGm;a&;qdkif&m awmif;qdkcsuf trsm;pkudk vufcH&efjzpfonf? “oydwftqHk;owfap&ef enf;vrf;tm;vHk;udk toHkðyyg”[k oludktrdef@ay;cJhonf? tvkyform;rsm;. “EdkifiHa&; qkdif&mawmif;qdkr_” txl;ojzifh vGwfvyfaomor*~rsm;awmif;qdkr_udk y,fcsypf&rnf? oabFmusif;u tvkyform;awG oabmwlnDr_ vufcHonfESifhwòydifeuf/ tjcm;ae&mrS oydwfwdkufyGJ0ifolrsm;udk tcsdKowfI tvkyfodk@jyefoGm;Edkif onf[k t&m&dSrsm;rS ,Hk=unfcJh=uonf? TpDrHudef;. jy\emrSm xdkoyddwfaumfrwDwGif a&G;aumufxm;aomol trsm;pkrSm ppfaoG;ºuGaom olrsm;jzpfI vli,fydkif;wGif bm&k0pfZfuJhodk@ tm;udk;&aomolrsm;ESifh acgif;rmaom 0g&ifholrsm;jzp=ufonfh bm0ifqmESifh a0:vifwD Edk0pfZf wdk@ yg0ifaejcif;yifjzpfcJhonf? xdkolrsm;udk vpmwdk;ay;wmESihf 0,f,lI r&Edkifacs? epfcsfu oydwfaumfrwD wdrf;!Gwfap&ef tvdrfuGufwck qif,ifcJhonf? aom=umae@reuf aqG;aEG;yGJpum;0dkif; zGifhvSpfaomtcg ol.wifjy csufudk toHcsJ@pufrSwqifh tm;vHk; =um;cJh&onf/ olu aumfrwD udk,fpm;vS,frsm;onf oabFmusif;rS XmetcsKd@udkom ukd,fpm;ðyaoma=umifh Xmewdkif;rS udk,fpm;vS,f oHk;OD;pD a&G;cs,fI ukd,fpm;ðyr_ydkrdkyg0ifaom aumfrwDwck ðyvkyfoifhonf[k tqdkwifoGif;cJhonf? xdktcsufonf aemufvdkufoydwfarSmufolrsm;. em;=um;v#if=um;csif; oHo,&SdcJhonf? pdk;&drfcJh=uonf? txl;tcGifhta&;&xm;=uaom tpdk;&zGJ@ay;onfh or*~rsm;. udk,fpm;vS,frsm;u/ wpHkwOD;udk ðzwfydkifcGifhESifh ae&m ajymif;a&G@cGifh&dSaom w&m;0ifor*~rsm;ESifh ygwDrSvlrsm;onf tvkyform;rsm;udk wGef;tm;ay;Iaomfvnf;aumif;/ olwdk@udk,fwdkifaomfvnf;aumif;/ vkyfydkifciG fh&Sdolrsm; jzpfonf? olwdk@. ouFruif;jzpfr_onf a=umif;usdK;qDavsmfr_ &dScJhonf?xdkae@aemufydkif; ydkrdktiftm;}uD;rm;aom aumfrwDtopf pkpnf;+yD;aomtcg oydwfjzpfjrpfatmif pnf;&Hk;aphaqmfcJholrsm;onf a&S;&dk;pGJ tkyfpkrsm;=um;wGif tkyfpki,fjzpfoGm;cJhonf? aom=umae@ aqG;aEG;yGJpum;yGJrsm;wGif epfcsfonf oydfwfarSmufolrsm; awmif;qdkaomtcsuf trsm;pkudk ay;cJhonf? bm0ifqm ESifh a0:vifwDEdk0pfZf wdk@ tvkyfjyef0ifEdkifonf? a'oqdkif&m ygwD twGif;a&;rSL;rS oydfwfarSmufolrsm;tm; rnfodk@r#vufpm;acs&ef r&dSa=umif;udk tmrcHay;onf? 1970 usqHk;olrsm;twGuf txdrf;trSwf ausmufwdkifwck aqmufay;rnf? 'g&dkufwmrS

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tpm;taomuf aps;E_ef;wufjcif;udk zsufodrf;ay;&efESifh vuf&dSor*~rsm;udk jyefvnfjyifqif&efudkawmh a0a00g;0g;uwdom ay;cJhonf? xdkae@ tqHk;owfcgeD; tcsdefwGif usefaeaom udpP&yfrSm vkyfc wdk;jrihfa&; rnfr#wdk;rnf[laom yrm%omusefawmhonf? aom=umae@ ae@vnfydkif;ESifh naeydkif; udk,fpm;vS,frsm; a&mufvmpOfwGif oydwfwdkufyGJonf a'ovHk;&dS tiftm;rsm;&aecsdefwGif wdkufyGJ. tv,fwGif òydusvkeD;yg jzpfaeonfudk awG@&dScJhonf? paeae@ reuf pum;0dkif;rsm;jyefpaomtcg epfcsfu acwW&yfem;+yD;/ rlvawmif;qdkonfh yrm%ESifh eD;pyfaom vcudk wdk;jr‡ifhay;&ef oabmwlcJhonf? aumfrwD tzGJ@0ifrsm;onf ydkufqH,l+yD;/ tdrfjyefzdk@ wmplaecJh=uonf? odk@aomf bm0ifqm onf aemufqHk; toHwcsuf xGufvdkufonf? olu aumfrwD0ifrsm;tm; olwdk@vkdcsifcJhonfh aps;E_ef;wufr_udk zsufodrf;a&;/ oydwfarSmuf epfema=u;ESifh txl;ojzifh vGwfvyfaom tvkyform;or*~rsm; wnfaxmifcGifh tcGifhta&; r&rcsif; awmifhcHoifhonf[k ajymcJhonf?epfcsfu tu,fI oydwfvSefvdkufygu vdkcsifwmawG tm;vHk; &Edkifonf[k uwday;cJh+yD;/ olEkdifoGm;cJhonf? rJtrsm;pku oydfwftqHk;owf&ef rJay;cJhonf? bm0ifqmtwGuf a&G;cs,fp&mr&dS/ oabmwl&efom &dScJhonf? rdkufu&dkzkef;udk ,lI oydfwfarSmufyGJ+yD;+yD jzpfa=umif; a=ujimcJhonf? oabFmusif;wGif vGefcJhaomESpfn aecJhaom axmifESifhcsDaom tvkyform;rsm;vnf; ukef;xI *dwfrsm;qDdodk@ OD;wnfav#mufvSrf;cJhonf? taqmuftOD;&J@ tjyifbufwGif &kef;&if;qHcwf jzpfaecJhonf? olwdk@ tjyifodk@a&mufaomtcg bm0ifqm ESifh tjcm;aumfrwD0ifrsm;tm; tjcm; tvkyf&Hkrsm;rS udk,fpm;vS,frsm; 0dkif;tHkvmcJh=uonf? “ *'ef@pfcf oabFmusif;u igwkd@udk oPmazguf+yD/” olwdk@txJu wa,mufu aigufirf;cJhonf? bm0ifqmudk aumif;pGmodaom [efe&Dum u&dkifZD0dkEdku ol@udk rsufESmcsif;qdkifI “vufcsf/ rif;'Dvdk rvkyfoifhbl;/ rif;uigwdk@udk pGef@cGmoGm;r,fqdk&if/ igwdk@awG tm;vHk; ±_H;+yD”? oltaejzifh 'DvdkrsKd; toem;cHr_awGudk rsufuG,f rðyoifhbl; qdkwmudk bm0ifqm csufcsif;qdkovdk odcJhonf? “usaemfwdk@ 'Drdkua&pDudk av;pm;&r,f/ 'ga=umifh taumif;qHk;}uD;r[kwfcJhbl;qdkwmawmifrS 'DESpfzuf oabm wlxm;udkfvnf; vufcH&r,f/” [k vltkyf}uD;udk ajymcJhonf? “odk@ayr,fh usaemfwdk@rSm tjcm;olawGudk pGef@cGmypf&ef tcGifhta&;r&dSbl;? usaemfwdk@ tm;vHk; atmifjrifonftxd aoG;pnf; nD!Gwfr_udk jywJhtaeeJ@ oydfwfudk qufarSmuf &r,f? usaemf[m 'DoabFmusif;uae aemufqHk; xGufwJhol jzpf&r,fvdk@ usaemfajymcJhygw,f? usaemf wu,fajymcJh wmyg? tu,fI tck'Dae&mrSm &dSae=uwJh tvkyform;awGuae 'Doydwfudk qufarSmufcsifygu qufarSmufr,f? uJ tck b,fol oydwfquf arSmufcsifovJ´?” “usKyfwdk@ qufwdkufr,f” vdk@ olwdkwawG óuH;0g;cJh=uonf? a0:vifwDEdk0pfZf ESifh yD,efaumhpumwdk@ESpfa,muf oydfwfqufvuf arSmufrnf qdkwJh ta=umif;udk a=ujim&ef tpnf;ta0;cef;xJodk@ uaomuarsm ajy;oGm;cJhonf? odk@aomf óud;ðzwfxm;aom rdkufuzkef;udkom awG@cJh&onf? epfcsf uol. &Hk;cef;rSaeI tvkyform;rsm;udk oydwf+yD;+yDjzpfwJhta=umif;ESifh tdrfjyef=u&ef/ naeajcmufem&D aemufydkif; awG@ ol rnfolrqdktm; ta&;,lrnf[k toHcsJ@pufrS ajymcJhonf? awmfawmfrsm;rsm;onfvnf; jyefukef+yDjzpfonf/ epfcsf. ajympum;udkom =um;aom usefaomvltkyfpkonfvnf; wajz;ajz;ESifh jyefukef=uonf? odk@aomf trsKd;orD;ESpfOD;onf *dwfeHygwf 3 odk@ tm;ukefajy;oGm;cJhonf?t&ifu cyfat;at;aewwfaom yD,ef aumhpumonf pyDumudkqGJ,l/ *dwfwHcg;udkydwf/ acwWwdwfqdwfae&ef awmif;qdk+yD;/ a=ujimcsufxkwfcJhonf? “oHk;rdepftwGif;rSm vlawGtm;vHk; xGufcGm oGm;Edkifygw,f/ 'gayr,fh usr pum;enf;enf;ajymcsifygw,f/ &Sifwdk@tm;vHk; 'DoHk;rdepfudk apmifhEdkifygw,f?” ypPnf;odkavSmifaom uGefwdefemwvHk;ay:wGif rwfwyf&yfI tvkyform;xkudk 'g&dkufwm ajymaompum;rsm;onf tvdrftnmrsm;om jzpfa=umif; ajymcJhonf? tvkyform;rsm;. awmif;qdkcsufrsm;onf &&Sdjcif; r&dSao;/ vGwfvyfaom tvkyform;or*~rsm;vnf; ay:aygufvmrnfr[kwf/ “&Sif'DuaexGufoGm;wmeJ@ 1976 uvdkyJ jzpfvdrfhrSmyJ/ xGufoGm;wJhvlawGudk ppfwyfu 0dkif;+yD;/ acsr_ef;ypfvdrfhr,f? +yD;&if olwdk@tm;vHk; tvkyfðzwfcH&vdrfhr,f/ æ “&Sifwdk@vdkcsifwm 'gvm;?” olr yHk=unfh&onfrSm tvkyform;rsm;tay: v$rf;rdk;EdkifyHk &aecJhonf? “ta&;}uD;qHk;t&monfvlwdkif;/ puf&Hkwdkif;/ tvkyform;wkdif; aoG;pnf; nD!Gwfa&;yifjzpfonf?” tvkyform; aumif;csD; =obmay; aepOf 0ifwHcg; jyefzGifhaomtcg vlav;a,mufom jyefoGm;cJonf? yD,efaumhpumvnf; v#yfppfwGef;vSnf;udk pD;I tjcm;*dwfrsm;qDodk@ oGm;a&muf tvm;wlxyfrHwdkufwGef;jyefonf? oabFmusif;. t&G,fyrm%onf }uD;rm;vGef;aoma=umifh vlwdkif;odavmufatmif ajymjy&ef tcuftcJjzpfapcJhonf? oydfwfarSmufol awmfawmfrsm;rsm;onf vGefpGmrS yifyef;ae+yD;/ jyefzdk@om pdwfoefaecJhonf? xdk@a=umifh yD,efaumhpum rSóud;pm;cJhaomfvnf; ae@vnfcif;tcsdefwGif oydwfarSmufol awmfawmfrsm;rsm; jyefoGm;=u+yDjzpfonf? b,fESpfOD; usefcJhonfudk taotcsmrajymEdkifyg/ tcsKd@u av;/ ig;&mESif tcsKd@u wpfaxmif ywf0ef;usif[kajym=uonf? xkd acgif;rmolrsm;onf &Hk;ydwf&uf pae/ we*FaEG ESpf&ufvHk; awmifcH=u&rSm jzpf+yD;/ wevFmae@ olwdk@ vkyfaz:udkifzufrsm; jyefa&mufvmaom tcsdefwGif oydwfudk wausmhjyefpEdkifrnf[k ar#mfvifhcJh=uonf? xdktcsdeftwGif;rSmyif owif;qufom;rsm;onf tjcm;oydwfarSmuf puf&Hkrsm;odk@ tajy;waumoGm;I oydwfrvSefao;a=umif;ESifh rnfonfht&mr# rajz&Sif;&ao;a=umif;udk owif;ydk@cJh=uonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)124


wEdkifiHvHk;twGuf oabFmusif;twGif; ydwfrdae=uaomwufºuGv_yf&Sm;olrsm;usefaeaoma=umifh oydwfudkqufvufxdef;odrf;xm;Edkifvdkuf=u onf? Toydwftm;jzifh vGwfvyfaomtvkyform;or*~rsm;zGJ@pnf;cGihf&a&;twGuf awmif;qdkv_yf&Sm;aeaom v_yf&Sm;r_udk vnf; qufvufxdef;odrf;xm;EdkifcJhonf? odk@aomfvnf; vGwfvyfpGmpnf;&Hk;cGifh tcGifhta&;&&Sda&;twGufrl/ urf;ajcwav#muf vHk;wGif&Sdaeaom tvkyform;vlxkrsm;w&yfvHk;/ jzpfEdkifygu ydkvefEdkifiHtESH@tjym;wGif&Sdaeaomtjcm;vlxkrsm;udkvnf; pnf;&Hk; v_H@aqmf&ef vdktyfaeay;onf? tus,ftjyef@aom oydwfwdkufyGJ}uD;wckqifE$JrSom/ tpdk;&. pD;yGGg;a&;vkyfief;rsm;&yfqdkif;ap a&;twGuf vHkavmufaom+cdrf;ajcmufr_jzpfaprnfjzpf+yD;/ Todk@aom t"duyifrusonfhjy\emrsm;udk vdkufavsmtavsmh ay;vm&rnf jzpfonf? ,ckawmh olwdk@u epfcsfoabmusif;rS tus,ftjyef@rD;rjyef@yGg;oGm;ap&ef/ rD;ravmifrDuyif +idrf;Edkif vdkuf=uonf? TtcGifhta&;u tus,ftjyef@aomv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk pkpnf;apEdkifrnfh tcGifhtcgaumif;jzpfonf? yxrtaejzifh olwdk@wGiftpDtpOfwck&Sd&ef vdktyfonf? “tvH/ acgif;pD;pmwef;rsm;/ 'Dvdkacgif;pD;rsm;aemufu vlwdkif;tm;vHk; vdkufEdkif&r,f? ” abm&kpf0Zf pum;u Tod@k qdkonf? paeae@naewGif qENjyyGJqifEGJae=uaom puf&Hkvkyfief; (20) wdk@rS udk,fpm;vS,frsm;awG@qHkEdkif=uonf? oabmFusif;. usef;rma&;ESifhvHkòcHa&;qdkif&m&Hk; taqmuftOD.tpnf;ta0;crf;rtwGif; qHk=ujcif;jzpfonf? Tae&mwGifyif epfcsfrSvlrsm;ESifh pwifqHkqnf;aqG;aEG;Edkif=ujcif;yif/ xdktpnf;ta0;rSwqifh olwdk@udk,f olwdk@/ puf&Hkaygif;pHkoydwfaumfrwD tjzpfzGJ@pnf;a=umif; a=ujimEdkifcJhonf? (TtzGJ@udk ydkvefbmomtm;jzifhtwdkaumuf trfautufpf MKS [kac:onf?) bm0ifqm/ 0gvifwDEdk0Zf/ *0pfZmESifh u&dkifZD0dkEdk wdk@u ToydwfaumfrwD.ESvHk;om; ozG,facgif;aqmifrsm; jzpfonf? ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm vufurf;v$mrsm;a0iSae&if;/ txdrf;trSwfyGJrsm; }udrfzefrsm;pGmusif;yae&if;/ vHkòcHa&;&Jrsm;. zdESdyfr_rsm;udkcHpmae&&if;/ aqmif&GufcJh=uaomolrsm;onf/ ,ae@awmh axmifaygif;/ aomif;aygif;rsm;pGmaom tvkyform;xkrsm;udk udk,fpm;ðyaomajyma&;qdkcGifh&SdolawG jzpfvmcJh+yD? xdk@tjyif xdkaumfrwDwGif twdkuftcHoabmxm; uGJvGJaomynm&Sifrsm;vnf; yg0ifvm=uonf? xdkynm&Sifrsm;u umv=um&Snfuyif tvkyform;or*~rsm;ESifhyl;wGJaqmif &GufcJh=uolrsm; jzpfonf? xdkolrsm;ESifhtwl paeae@noef;acgifausmfatmif/ we*FaEGae@wae@vHk; tvkyfvkyf=uonf? xdkvkyfief;rsm;aqmif&Guf+yD;pD;awmh olwdk@wGifawmif;qdkcsuf (21) cku toifhjzpfae+yD jzpfonf? xdkawmif;qdkcsufrsm;teufrS eHygwf (1) u vGwfvyfaomtvkyform;or*~rsm;zGJ@pnf;cGifh&&Sda&; jzpfonf? xdktvkyform; or*~rsm;u ygwDESifh uif;vGwfwnf&SdcGifh&Sd&rnf? Ttcsufu epfcsoabmFusif;&Sdtvkyform;rsm; wufºuGv_yf&Sm;olrsm; twGuf aom=um=u,fozG,far#mfudk;&mjzpf+yD;/ urf;ajca'o&Sd vkyfom;xk}uD;-i,fw&yfvHk;twGuf (1970) ckESpfrsm; uwnf;u ar#mfvifhvmcJhaomtdrfrufjzpfonf? 'kwd,awmif;qdkcsufu jyefvnfvufpm;acsrnfhta&;,lr_rsm;u uif;vGwf csrf;omcGifh&a&; jzpfonf? xdk@aemufawmif;qdkcsufrsm;u vufqkyfvufudkifjyEdkifaom tusKd;pD;yGg;rsm;&&Sdaqmif&Gufay;&ef awmif;qdkxm;onf? Oyrm oydwfumvtwGif;vcrsm; jyefvnf&&Sda&;/ (2000) ZavmhwD vcwdk;a&;/ vlaer_pm;&dwfrsm; cHpm;&&Sda&;wdk@ jzpfonf? a*smf*sDa*yGefESifh ol.&k&Sm;&Jabmfrsm;u Zmbk&ifxHawmif;qdkcJhaom/ aoG;pGef;aom we*FaEGae@u awmif;qdkcsufrsm;uJhodk@yif/ ,ckawmif;qdkcsufrsm;uvnf; tajccHw&m;r#wr_ESifh tajccHtcGifhta&;rsm;udk awmif;qdkxm; onf? xdktxJwGif vGwfvyfpGmajymqdkazmfjycGifh/ vGwfvyfpGm yHkESdyfxkwfa0cGifh/ tvkyfrSxkwfypfcH&olrsm;udk jyefvnftvkyf vufcHa&;/ olwdk@. ,Hk=unfcsufrsm;a=umifh wuUodkvfrsm;rSxkwfy,fcH&olrsm;udk jyefvnfvufcHa&;udpPrsm; yg0ifonf? xdk@ tjyif ygwDacgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh vHkòcHa&;qdkif&mXme0efxrf;rsm;twGuf xm;&Sdaomtxl;tcGifhxl;cHtajctaeudk jyefvnf&kyf odrf;ay;&ef udpPrsm;yg0ifonf? xdk@tjyifolwdk@. awmif;qdkcsufrsm;wGif/ tvkyform;rsm;.ta&;twGufomru vlwdkif;. b0wdkif;udk xda&muftusKfd;oufa&mufr_ &Sdaprnfhawmif;qdkcsufrsm;vnf; yg0ifonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh tem;,l (yifpif,l) &rnfhtouftydkif;tjcm;udk avsmhcsay;a&;/ usef;rma&;apmifha&Smufr_vkyfief;rsm; wdk;jr‡ifh&&Sda&;ESifh ae@uav;xdef;apmifh a&Smufr_vkyfief;rsm; ydkrdkaqmif&Gufay;a&;/ om;zGm;cGifhumv ydkI=um&SnfpGm&&Sda&;udpPrsm;/ paeae@rsm;wGif tm;vyf&uf&&Sd a&;udpPrsm; yg0ifonf? xdk@tjyif Tawmif;qdkcsufrsm;u tpdk;&.tm%mcsKyfudkifxm;r_udkvnf; pdefac:&ef/ rysufuGufcJhay? paeae@naewGif pdwf oabmxm;jynfh0aom vl@tcGifhta&;wufºuGv_yf&Sm;ol wm'J,kpf pu'favmpuD; u pmayqifqmjzwfawmufaer_rsm;udk vHk;0&kyfodrf;ay;yg&ef awmif;qdkvdkufonf? bm&kpf0Zfu jiif;y,fcsonf? olwdk@taejzifh yDZufpfyDtm PZPR . EdkifiHa&;t& csKyfudkifxm;r_udk r+cdrf;ajcmufoifh[k oluwif;cHonf? “cifAsm;wdk@od=uwJhtwkdif;ygyJ/ (1968) ckESpfu csufudkpvdkAufuD;,m; rSm qifqmpDppfwm&kyfodrf;vdkufawmh bmjzpfoGm;ovJ” olu vltrsm;udk owday;onf? olwdk@taejzifh vufawG@tajc taeudk owdðyrd&efvdkonf? vufawG@wGif ydkvefEdkifiHonf qdkAD,ufjynfaxmifpktkyfpk0ifEdkifiHwcktjzpf &SdaeqJjzpf+yD;/ uGefjrL epftkyfcsKyfr_Y qufvuf&Sdae&efudk vdktyfaeao;onf? xdkta=umif;jycsufa=umifhyif vGwfvyfaoma&G;aumufyGJrsm;usif;y ay;&ef awmif;qdkcsufudkvnf; y,fcsonf? oydwfaqmif&GufI (3) &ufr#=umaomumvwGifyif/ oydwfacgif;aqmifrsm;tae jzifh

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)125


olwdk@.v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;u vuf&Sdtpdk;&tay:&dkufcwfaeaomtajctae/ olwdk@oGm;&rnfhE_ef;ESifh óuHawG@&rnfhtwm;tqD; rsm;udk cef@rSef;Edkif=u+yD? tpydik ;f wGi/f trfautufpf MKS acgif;aqmifrsm;u olwdk@.oydwfwdkufyGJudk taxGaxGvlxkv_yf&Sm;r_}uD;. yifra&pD;tjzpf }uD;xGm;apvdk=uonf? tu,fI vlxkrsm;u tus,ftjyef@ryg0if/ ryl;aygif;vmygu olwdk@.tvkyform;v_yf&Sm;r_atmifjrif r_r&Edkifonfudkvnf; oabmayguf=uonf? xdktwGufa=umifh olwdk@uoydwfudkjy,k*ftjzpfomxm;+yD;/ xdkrSwqifh vltrsm; vufcHEdkifrnfh wefzdk;xm;csufrsm;/ ydkus,fjyef@aomawmif;qdkcsufrsm;twGuf vltrsm;yg0ifvmap&efv_H@aqmfvdk=uonf? we*F aEGae@eHeufwGif bkef;awmf}uD;zmom [if;'&uf *sefaumpuD;u *dwftrSwf (2) odk@ vlxk}uD;udk tm;ay;csD;jr‡ifh&ef a&mufvmcJh onf? xdktcgwGif òrd@xJrSvlaxmifaygif;rsm;pGmuvnf; pk&Hk;vm=uonf? xdkolrsm;u vufrsm;wGifyef;rsm;udk udkifaqmifvm=u +yD;/ acgif;ay:wGif ydkvefEdkifiHawmftvHrsm;u wvlvlvGifhI o,faqmifvm=uonf? vlwOD;u ykwf&[ef;rif;}uD; *|efayg (2) ."gwfyHkudk puf&HkwHcg;0wGif uyfxm;onf? puf&Hk0if;twGif;&Sd tvkyform;rsm;ESifh puf&Hk*dwfjyifywGif&Sdaeaom òrd@vlxkrsm;u oDcsif;oHòydifqdk=uonf? bmoma&;acgif;aqmif bkef;awmf}uD;rsm;u (1970) ckESpfu tvkyform;rsm;owfjzwfcHcJh&aom ae&mwGif vuf0g;uyfwdkifudk csI*k%fðyvdkufonf? aemufydkif;wGif trsKd;om;a&;oauFwjzpfaom teDESifhtjzLa&mifygzJóud; rsm;ESifhvnf;aumif;/ teufa&mif r,fawmfrufa'gem;yHkawmfjzifh vuf0g;uyfwdkifudk csnfaESmifvdkufonf? vuf0g;uyfwdkif. xdyfwGif pm&Gufwckuyfxm;+yD;/ ‚if;ay:wGif yxrurBmppfumvtwGif;u &k&Sm;EdkifiHrS ydkvefEdkifiHvGwfvyfa&;&&Sda&;twGuf v_yf&Sm;wdkufyGJ0ifcJhol ol&Jaumif; *sKd;qufzf yDvfqGwfpuD;. rdef@cGef;aqmifyk'fudk uyfxm;onf? “vdkcsifwmudk/ &atmifpGrf; Edkif&r,f” [lI jzpfonf? oydwfwdkufyGJ0ifvkyfom;rsm;ESifh ydkvefjynfolrsm;ESifh ESvHk;om;wdk@csdwfqufaygif;ul;rd=u+yD? &ufowWywftm;vyf&uf ukefqHk;oGm;csdefwGif/ trfautufpf MKS taejzifh olwdk@.oydwfudk puf&Hk (22) ckESifhoabFmusif; xufausmfvGefI tjcm;tus,ftjyef@yg0ifvmatmif csJ@xGifvmEdkifcJhonf? *'ef@pfcfa'ou tvkyform;axmifaygif;/ aomif; aygif;rsm;pGm yg0ifvm=uonf? xdk@tjyif ausmufrD;aoG;wGif;rsm;&Sd&m qDvDqD,ma'oodk@yg csJ@xGifvmEdkifcJhonf? xdk@tjyif pufr_vkyfief;rsm; tajcðy&m/ u&maum/ 0gaqma'orsm;odk@yg jyef@ESH@vmcJhonf? abmvfwpfa'oqdyfurf;òrd@jzpfaom &SDZif odk@yg jyef@ESH@vmonf? ,cktcgwGifawmh tpdk;&xdef;csKyfxm;aom owif;rD'D,mrsm;u oydwftay:jyif;jyif;xefxefwdkufcdkuf a0zefvmcJh+yD jzpfonf? *'ef@pfcfa'owGif xkwfa0aomowif;pmu Toydwfa=umifh pD;yGg;a&;udkydkIxdcdkufzG,fjzpfapvdrfhrnf jzpfa=umif;a&;onf? 0ef}uD;csKyfu w,fvDaA;&Sif;a&S@xGufI/ ydkvef. rdwfaqGrsm; (v#Kd@0SuftoHk;tjzpfac:aom qdkAD,uf ,leD,H. trnf) u Ttajctaeudk ESpfouf=uvdrfhrnfr[kwfa=umif;ESifh tu,fIoydwfwdkufyGJrsm; tcsdefwdktwGif;r&yf qdkif;oGm;ygu jy\em&Sda=umif;” ajymcJhonf? oabFmusif;twGif;&Sdae=uaom oydwfwdkufyGJ0ifaeolrsm;udk ,cktcsdefwdkif zsufqD;vdkaom&nf&G,fcsufjzifh ra=ueyfqlylae=uaom vlwpk/ vltrsm;pkvkyfief;cGif0if&eftwGuf taESmuft,Sufðyae=u aomvlwpktjzpfom yHkazmfajym qdkaeao;onf? we*FaEGae@nwGif ajratmufyHkESdyfpufwckrS yxrOD;qHk;t}udrf trfautufpf MKS .ta=umif;azmfjyxm;aom vufurf; v$mrsm;ESifh ‚if;.awmif;qdkcsufrsm;udk yHkESdyfxkwfa0cJhonf? aemufwae@wGif owif;ydk@aqmifolrsm;uGef,ufrsm;rSwqifh vkyfief;paewif jzef@a0aecJh+yD jzpfonf? xdkvufurf;v$mrsm;u urf;ajcwav#muf&Sd puf&Hkrsm;odk@yvlysH jyef@ESH@ae+yD? vDeif oabFmusif;odk@ ukefwifukefcsvkyfay;aom x&yfum;armif;ol '&dkifAmrsm;u olwdk@jzef@jzL;&rnfhpuf&Hkrsm;odk@ owif;rsm;udkyg o,faqmifoGm;=uonf? *'ef@pfcf oabFmusif;odk@oGm;&mvrf;wav#mufwGif twm;tqD;jzpfap&ef ydwfqdk@xm;aom vrf;ydwf qdk@r_rsm;a=umifhom tcufóuH=u&onf? odk@aomfvnf; tvkyform;rsm;v_yf&Sm;r_tay:pmemaom ausmif;om;rsm;/ q&m0ef rsm;/ tif*sifeD,mrsm;u xdktwm;tqD;rsm;udk ausmfv$mta&mufvm=uonf? ydkvefEdkifiHwav#mufvHk;wGifvnf; vGwfvyf aom Oa&mytoHa&'D,dkrSwqifh trfautufpf MKS ta=umif;ESifh ‚if;wdk@.awmif;qdkcsufrsm;udk tenf;i,fodvm=u onf? xdkowif;rsm;udk 0gaqm&Sdul&Gefuwqifh jzef@jzL;cJhjcif; jzpfonf? wevFmae@wGif tvkyform;axmifaygif;rsm;pGm jyefpk&Hk; rdvm=uonf? paeae@utdrfjyefoGm;cJh=uaomtvkyform;rsm;u jyefvmum/ usefaecJh=uaom oabFmusif;&Sdtvkyform; rsm;ESifh yl;aygif;=uonf? xdk@tjyif aemufxyftopf oydwftwGif;yl;aygif;vmaom puf&Hk (30) ausmfrS udk,fpm;vS,frsm; vnf; a&muf&Sdvm=uonf? wae@ywfvHk; uif;apmifhaeolrsm;xHrS aemufxyfudk,fpm;vS,ftopfrsm;xyfrHa&muf&Sdvmae a=umif; a=ujimaeoHudk=um;=u&onf? naeapmif;aomtcg trfautufpf MKS taejzifh xdka'o&Sdpuf&Hkaygif; (150) ausmfudk udk,fpm;ðyxm;aom tiftm;pkjzpfvmcJh+yD? Todk@xyfrHyHhydk;vmaomtiftm;rsm; t&Sdefaumif;vmr_.aemufwGif/ trfautufpf MKS taejzifh awG@qHkaqG;aEG;&ef twGuf toifhjzpfaecJh+yD? tcktcsdefwGif aqG;aEG;yGJpm;yGJ0dkif;udk urf;vSrf;xm;+yDjzpfaomfvnf;/ tm%mydkifrsm;zufurl ausmuf eH&Humydwfqdk@aeqJ jzpfonf? wevFmae@wGif tm%m&ygwD. ay:vpfAsL&dktzGJ@0ifwOD;jzpfol pwefeifavm uefeD,m u a'o qdkif&mygwDaumfrwD0ifrsm;udk ac:,lIawG@qHkonf? Tjy\emt=uyftwnf;udk ajyvnfapEdkifrnfhenf;vrf;rsm;xyf&Sm=u onf? ,cifw}udrfu tpdk;&tm%mydkifrsm;u oydwf.A[dkcsufrudk òzdIoydwfòyduGJap&ef óud;yrf;cJh=uonf? oabFmusif;vkyf om;rsm;ESifh oabmwlnDr_&,l+yD; aqmif&GufcJh=uonf? ,ckw}udrfwGifawmh qef@usifzuftjcm;enf;vrf;wckudk óud;yrf;vmcJh jyefonf?

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oydwfarSmufae=uaom ,ckwdkiftrfautufpf MKS tzGJ@0iftjzpf&Sdraeao;aom puf&Hkrsm;/ vkyfief;rsm;ESifh aqG; aEG;onf? vcwdk;jrifhvmapa&;twGuf uwday;onf? odk@aomfvnf; trfautufpfESifhyl;aygif;aeaompuf&Hkrsm;udk z,fusOf onf? olwdk@udk tjcm;aps;wrsKd;ay;onf? odk@aomfvnf; TaemufuG,fwGifaqmif&GufaeaomAsL[mrSm wckwnf;omjzpf onf? tvkyform;rsm;udk tcGifhta&;ay;0,f,lI/ olwdk@udk olwdk@.awmif;qdkxm;csufjzpfaom vGwfvyfaomtvkyform; or*~rsm;&&Sda&;awmif;qdkcsufrS cGgapa&;jzpfonf? wòydifeufwnf;rSmyif oydwfrsm;.jyifyjyef@ESH@csJ@xGifr_udk wm;qD;Edkif&ef twGuf/ *'ef@pfcfoabFmusif;odk@oGm;aom vrf;rsm;udkydwfqdk@onf? w,fvDzkef;vdkif;rsm;udk jzwfawmufonf? owif;ay;ydk@ ay;olqufom;rsm;udk zdESdyfonf? twdkuftcHacgif;aqmifrsm;udk zrf;qD;axmifcsonf? xdktxJwGif ul&Gefvnf;tygt0ifjzpf onf? xif&Sm;aomtcsufrSm wckwnf;om&Sdonf? xdktcsufrSm trfautufpf MKS udk vHk;0todtrSwfrðya&;yifjzpfonf? t*Fgae@wGif ygwDacgif;aqmifrsm;u tjcm;a&G;vrf;wckudkprf;oyfaqmif&Guf=unfhrnf[k c%wmpOf;pm;=uao;onf? xdkvrf; rSm oydwfrsm;udktiftm;oHk;I òzdcGJ&efjzpfonf? xdkowif;ygwfukefumvwckvHk; vDeifoabFmusif;&Sdvkyfom;rsm;rSm xdk;ppfqif vmrnfhtEW&m,fudk pdk;&drfa=umufvef@aecJh&onf? olwdk@u avxD;wyfom;rsm;aumif;uifay:u qif;oufvm=uvdrfhrnf[k ar#mfvifhaecJh=uonf? *'ef@pfcfoabFmusif;&Sd ygwDacgif;aqmif (2) OD;jzpfaom umeD;,m;ESifh wm'J,kZf zpf&Sfbufcfwdk@u jy\emrsm;udk at;csrf;pGmajyvnfoGm;=uonfudk vdkvm;=uonf? (1980) ckESpfonf (1970) umvrsm;vdk r[kwfawmh? tajctaerwlnDawmhay? *D;&ufuf onfvnf; *dkvfrl;um; (csufacgif;aqmifa[mif;) r[kwfay? ygwDacgif;aqmifu t}udrf }udrf &kef;&if;qefcwfjzpfr_rsm;/ xdef;rEdkifodrf;r&tajctaeudk ausmfv$m;Edkif&eftwGuf ol@taejzifhwwfEdkifor# oD;cHaqmif&Guf rnfjzpfa=umif; ajymonf? ul&Gefudk aus;Zl;wifp&m&SdaomtcsufrSm aemufydkif;wGif EdkifiHjcm;owif;axmufrsm;*'ef@pfcfodk@ a&muf&Sdvm=uonf? oabFmusif;&Sd jzpfysufaeaom&ifcHkpdwfv_yf&Sm;zG,f&m Zmwfvrf;rsm;udk ydkvefvlrsKd;xkrsm;=um;wGifom ru/ wurBmvHk;uyg od&SdvmEdkif=uawmhonf? tvkyform;rsm;odrf;ydkfufxm;aom tzdk;wefoabFmrsm;/ pufrsm;u xdk vkyfom;rsm;twGuf tumtuG,fozG,fjzpfae=uonf? xdk@tjyif xdktvkyform;rsm;. xif&Sm;ausmf=um;aer_u wdkufcdkuf cH&rnfhtEW&m,fu ydkIyifumuG,fay;xm;ao;onf? aemufqHk; tcsdeftenf;i,fwdkifatmif/ tm%mydkifrsm;u vmbfxdk;aoG;aqmifaomfvnf;/ owif;trSm;rsm;ay;jcif;/ +cdrf;ajcmufjcif;rsm;aqmif&GufI oydwfòyduGJ&ef=uHpnfcJh=uaomfvnf;/ yÉdyuQjy\emu qufvufwnf&Sdae&Hkr#ru/ v_H@aqmfr_ rsm;a=umifh ydkItiftm;aumif;vmum/ wevFmae@uxufydkIpkpnf;rdvm=uonf? tu,fI Ttajctaeomr&SdcJhygu oydwftaejzifh ydkIus,fjyef@Edkifp&mta=umif;&Sd+yD;/ umvtm;jzifhvnf; ydkI&Snf=umwnfwHhaezG,f&mta=umif;&Sdonf? aemufqHk;wGif tm%mydkiftpdk;&taejzifh rESpfoufvSaoma&G;cs,pf &m (2) ckteufrS wckckudka&G;=u&awmhrnf jzpfonf? yxrwcsufrSm trfautufpf MKS ESifh awG@qHkaqG;aEG;rnfvm;/ odk@r[kwf ppfwyftiftm;oHk;òzdcGif;rnfvm;qdkonfh tajc taejzpfonf? xdktcsdefwGif oabFmusif;/ crf;r&Sdpm;yGJwef;vsm;&Snf}uD; (3) ckwGif trfautufpf MKS acgif;aqmifrsm;u/ tvkyform; oydwfudk,fpm;vS,ftopfrsm;. tjrifrsm;udkem;axmifae=uonf? tcsif;csif; jiif;ckefaqG;aEG;ae=uonf? tpDtpOfa&;qGJ ae=uonf? xdktcsdefwGif olwdk@acgif;ay:Y vDeif&kyfxku wnf&SdaeqJjzpfonf? xdkcrf;r. aemufzufcrf;wGif Ttpnf;ta0; udk oabFmusif;&Sdtvkyform;tm;vHk;=um;Edkifa&;twGuf enf;ynmu|rf;usifolynm&Sifrsm;u wdkuf&dkufxkwfv$ifhay;aeonf? tjcm;puf&Hk&Sfdvkyfom;rsm;xH ay;ydk@&eftwGuf wdyfacGul;,lae=uonf? Tcrf;r.tjyifzufwGif oabFmusif;.*dwfrsm;Y vHkòcH a&;wm0ef,lxm;olrsm;u rvdkvm;tyfaom{nfhonfrsm;/ txl;ojzifh vHkòcHa&;&Jrsm;r0ifa&mufEdkifatmif ppfaq;apmifh=uyf ae=uonf? tcsKd@u oabFmrsm;/ pufu&d,mrsm;rysufpD;&apa&;twGuf ppfaq;apmifh=uyfay;=uonf? bmomjyefolrsm;u EdkifiHjcm;owif;axmufrsm;ESifh "gwfyHkq&mrsm;udk ulnDaqmif&Gufay;ae=uonf? om;owform;rsm;u 0ufrsm;ESifh trJrsm; ay:+yD; pm;aomufp&mrsm;twGuf jyifqifae=uonf? pm;aomufp&mrsm;u vltrsm;utoD;oD;o,faqmifvm=uaom tom;rsm;/ tmvl;rsm;/ 'defcJrsm;/ aygifrkef@rsm;ESifh pDrHxm;jcif;jzpfonf? &ufowWygwftv,favmufwGif trfautufpf MKS rSa=ujimcsufwapmifðyonf? Ta=ujimcsufwGif “,ckwdkufyGJ0ifae jcif;onf olwdk@.tenf;i,fr#aomtusKd;pD;yGg;twGufr#omaqmif&Gufaejcif; r[kwfyJ/ wEdkifiHvHk;. w&m;r#wr_twGuf wdkuf yGJ0ifaejcif;jzpfa=umif;” azmfjyxm;onf? xdkazmfjycsufudk wEdkifiHvHk;uvnf; vufcHyHk&onf? ae@pOfESifhtr# puf&Hk*dwf0rsm; wGif oydwfudkvma&muftm;ay;olrsm;/ axmufcHtiftm;jyolrsm;ESifh jynfhaeonf? Ak'<[l;ae@wGif *'ef@pfcfydkvDwuUedcfausmif;rS udk,fpm;vS,fa&muf&SdvmcJh+yD;/ ‚if;wdk@uvnf; axmufcHa=umif;azmfjycJhonf? *'ef@pfcfpma&;q&mrsm;or*~ESifh *'ef@pfcfwuUodkvf wdk@rSvnf; aemufwae@wGif tvm;wlvma&mufaxmufcHcJh=uonf? vGwfvyfaomOa&mytoH a&'D,dkrSvnf;oydwftoD; oD;. axmufcHtm;ay;r_rsm;udk jyefvnfxkwfv$ifhay;onf? uufovpftygwfpOfpmapmif t,f'Dwm wm'D,kZf rmaZm0DpuD url=urf;a&;om;aom/ 0gaqmòrd@&Sdynm&Sifrsm; (64) a,mufvufrSwfa&;xdk;aom axmufcHa=umif;azmfjyonfhpmudk xkwfv$ifh ay;cJhonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)127


aom=umae@nydkif;aemufwGif rmaZm0DpuDESifh xif&Sm;I vltrsm;av;pm;aomordkif;ynm&Sif b&GefeDqavm *D&Drufwdk@u 0gaqmrSaeI bm0ifqmESifh awG@qHk&efa&mufvm=uonf? tjcm;aomynm&Sifrsm;u (xdktxJwGif ul&Gefvnf;ygonf?) vGwfvyfaomtvkyform;or*~awmif;qdkaer_onf odyf+yD;tpGef;a&mufovdkjzpfaea=umif;ESifh/ xdyfwdkuf&ifqdkifawG@r_rsKd;jzpf vmrnfudk pdk;&drfrda=umif; azmf=ujyonf? xdkolrsm;u bm0ifqmudk aysmhajymif;vmatmif em;rcsEdkifcJh=uay? odk@aomfvnf; xdkolrsm;u oabFmusif;twGif;Yyif qufvufaexdkif&efqHk;jzwfcJh=u+yD;/ bm0ifqm. urf;vSrf;csuft& t=uHay;tjzpfwm 0ef,l&ef oabmwlcJh=uonf? TumvtawmtwGif;wGif urf;&dk;wef;a'owav#mufvHk;Y oydwfrsm;wvHk;+yD;wvHk;aygufuGJ}uD;xGm;vmaecJhonf? t*Fgae@ ukefoGm;aomtcg trfautufpf MKS wGif puf&Hk tvkyf&Hkaygif; (263) ckudk udk,fpm;ðyxm;Edkifaom taetxm;jzpfvmcJh onf? aemufw&ufwGif aemufxyfpuf&Hk/ tvkyf&Hk (40) ausmfrS xyfrHyl;aygif;vm=ujyefonf? oydwfwdkufyGJrsm;qifE$Jaeaom owif;onf *'ef@pfcfa'owv$m;wGif pdrfh0ifjyef@ESH@ae+yDjzpfonf? &SJZif&Sd 0gpuD;oabFmusif;&Sd tvkyform;rsm;u wevFmae@wGif tvkyfrSE_wfxGufqENjy=uonf? rsm;r=umrDyif xdka'otwGif;&Sdtjcm;aompuf&Hkrsm;wGifvnf; puf&Hkaygif;pHkoydwfaumfrwD udk olwdk@zmomzGJ@pnf;vm=uonf? qdkAD,uf,leD,HESifh e,fedrdwfcsif;uyfv#ufwzufurf;jzpfaom tJvfbvufwGifvnf; oydwfay:aygufvmcJhonf? =umoyaw;ae@na&mufaomtcg *'ef@pfcfa'o&Sdpuf&Hktvkyf&Hkrsm;rS tpdk;&ESifhoD;jcm;aqG;aEG;ae=u aom oydwfarSmufv_yf&Sm;olrsm;/ puf&Hkrsm;uvnf; trfautufpf MKS ESifhyl;aygif;vmcJh=uonf? tm%mydkifrsm;. aoG;cGJtkyfcsKyfEdkifa&;tpDtpOfvnf; usqHk;&av+yD? &ufowWygwfpwifpOfuwnf;uyif/ oydwform;rsm;u *'ef@pfcfa'o. vlxkrsm;tonf;ESvHk;udk ydkifpdk;vdkufonf? oydwfarSmufwdkufyGJrsm;wGif vltrsm;updwf0ifpm;vm=uonf? EdkifiH jcm;owif;axmuftrsm;tjym;udkvnf; aqmifusOf;vmEdkif=uonf? oydwfwdkufyGJrsm;a=umifh *'ef@pfcf-'dkifeD,ma'owcGifvHk; wGifvkyfief;rsm; vnfywfr_r&Sdoavmufjzpfaeay+yD? xdktajctaeu tjcm;a'orsm;odk@ygul;pufawmhrnf? aom=umae@n a&mufaomtcg tpdk;&tm%mydkifrsm;taejzifh enf;vrf;topfwckudk xyfrHvkyfaqmif=unfh&ef toifhjzpfae=u+yD? olwdk@ taejzifh trfautufpf ESifhaqG;aEG;oabmwlnDr_rsm; &,lEdkifaomfvnf;/ trfautufpfuvnf; tpOfojzifhawG@qHkaqG;aEG; &eftwGuf awmif;qdkwHcg;zGifhxm;cJhaomfvnf;/ tpdk;&zufu vdkufavsmaqmif&Gufvdkr_r&Sdao;ay? xdkodk@aom ar#mfvifhcsuf rsKd;jzifhyif/ olwdk@taejzifhoabFmusif;odk@ paeae@wGifvmrnfjzpfa=umif; ta=umif;=um;vmcJhonf? &ufowWygwfausmf=um vdyfcJwif;vif;/ olwifudk,fwiftajctaejzpfae+yD;aemuf/ aemufqHk;v_yf&Sm;r_ oydwfwdkufyGJrsm;. pGrf;tm;a=umifh tpdk;&taejzifh trfautufpf MKS udk/ vufrcHvdkaomfvnf;/ vkyfom;xk.udk,fpm; toHtjzpftodtrSwf ðy&awmhonf? Todk@aomtajctaersKd; jzpfay:vmap&eftwGuf oydwfarSmufacgif;aqmifrsm;onf (1970) ckESpfu óuH& aomtawG@tóuHrsm;udk ausmfvGefpOf;pm;cJh=u&onf? olwdk@taejzifh r[mrdwftiftm;topfrsm;zGJ@pnf;I vGefcJhaomESpfrsm; twGif; zGH@òzd;wdk;wufapcJh=uonf? v,form;rsm;ESifh òrd@aevlxkrsm;u oydwfwdkufyGJ0ifrsm;twGuf axmufyHhr_ay;=uonf? ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh ynm&Sifrsm;u urf;ajca'owav#mufwGif tvkyform;rsm;. pum;rsm;udkvufqifhurf;jzef@jzL;ay;=u onf? ynm&Sifrsm;ESifh twdkuftcHEdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;u EdkifiH&yfjcm;owif;rD'D,mrsm;twGuf bmomjyefay;=uonf? trfau tufpf MKS udk t=uHnm%frsm;ay;=uonf? Todk@aomus,fjyef@onfhwyfaygif;pkozG,fv_yf&Sm;r_u oydwform;rsm;udk txD;usefjzpfap&ef/ aemufqHk;EGrf;e,ft&H_;ay;ap&ef =uHaeaomtpdk;&tm%mydkifrsm;udk pdwfysuftm;avsmhap&awmhonf? (1970) umvrsm;ESifh rwlaomtajctaerSm tvkyform;rsm;csnf; oD;oef@omr[kwfawmhay?

usKyfwdk@&Edkifoavmuf tm;vHk;,l&r,f? paeae@naeydkif;wGif ESpfzufudk,fpm;vS,frsm; puf&Hk.usef;rma&;ESifh vHkòcHa&;&Hk;pnf;a0;crf;rwGif awG@qHk=uonf? TawG@qHkyGJ ukdrSefcsyfjzifhumxm;+yD;/ wzufrS &mESifhcsDaom trfautufpf MKS udk,fpm;vS,frsm;u =unfhae=uonf? aqG;aEG;yGJwGif aqG;aEG;ajymqdkor# pum;vHk;wdkif;udk axmifESifhcsDaomoydwfarSmufvkyfom;rsm;u =um;=u&onf? xdktvkyform;rsm;udkjzwf I tpdk;&zufrSaqG;aEG;rnfholrsm;u Ttcef;odk@vmpOfu jzwfoef;0ifvmcJh=u&onf? 'k-0ef}uD;csKyf rpfZDqavm *sm*,fvf puDu tpdk;&zufrS udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@udk OD;aqmifvmcJhonf? xdkolu jy\emrsm;udkajz&Sif;Edkifonf[k emrnfaumif;&xm; oljzpfonf? vlbvifa'owGif&Sdaom taxGaxGoydwfudk ZlvdkifvwGifòzdcGJEdkif+yD;aemufydkif;/ Todk@trnfaumif;&vmcJhjcif; jzpf onf? bm0ifqm/ 0D,mZf'g/ u&dkifZD 0dkEdkpf/ udkavmh'fZD;/ yD,efaumhpumESifh tjcm;aomoydwfarSmufacgif;aqmifrsm;u trf autufpf MKS zufu udk,fpm;ðyajym=uonf? puf&Hk/ tvkyf&Hk&mESifhcsDwGif&Sdaeaom oydwfarSmuftvkyform;rsm;taejzifh ,cktcg acgif;pOfwckwnf;atmufwGifaygif;pD;rdae =u+yD jzpfonf? trfautufpftaejzifh twm;tqD;rsm;udkausmfv$m;I ydkIus,fjyef@aomv_H@aqmfr_aqmif&Guf&eftwGufvdk vm;ae=uonf? olwdk@taejzifh oydwfrSowif;ay;ydk@aeaom qufom;rsm;udk zrf;qD;aejcif;/ &dkufESufaejcif;ðyaeor#umv ygwfvHk; awG@qHkaqG;aEG;&efudk olwdk@ujiif;y,f=uonf? awG@qHkaqG;aEG;yGJowif;udkvnf; tpdk;&.w&m;0ifowif;Xmersm;rS a=ujimay;&ef

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)128


olwdk@utvdk&Sdonf? 0gaqmodk@ qufoG,fEdkifaomw,fvDzkef;vdkif;rsm;udkvnf; jyefwyfay;&efawmif;qdk=u onf? 'k-0ef}uD;csKyf *sm*JvfpuD;ESifh ol@udk,fpm;vS,frsm;jyefqkwfvmcJh&onf? puf&Hk/ tvkyf&Hkrsm; oydwftzGJ@ESifhxyfrHyl;aygif; vmonfESifhtr# olwdk@.taetxm; tm;aysmhcsdeJ@vmawmhrnfudk olwdk@uod=uonf? olwdk@u a,bl,sqefaomtmrcHrsKd; omay;=uonf? enf;emydkif;qdkif&m/ vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;qdkif&m tcuftcJrsm;udk axmufjy=uonf? olwdk@.aqG;aEG;yGJrsm;udk t"duawmif;qdkcsufrsm;qDodk@ jyefa&mufap&efvrf;a=umif; vSnfhEdkif&ef óud;pm;cJh=uonf? wOD;uqdkv#if w,fvDzkef;jyefwyf ay;&eftwGufrjzpfEdkifa=umif;/ ta=umif;rSm vGefcJhaomnu 0gaqmwGif[m&Dudef;rkefwdkif;wdkufcwfoGm;aoma=umifhjzpf a=umif;/ 0gaqmòrd@ae&m tawmfrsm;rsm;ESifh w,fvDzkef;pufcvkwf&Hk;rsm;yg ysufpD;oGm;Ijzpfa=umif; ajymao;onf? “usaemf axmufjycsifwmu w,fvDzkef;vdkif;jywfoGm;wmu vGefcJhwJhaom=umae@uwnf;uyg? wywf&Sdaeyg+yD? ” yD,efaumhpum u ajymonf? “aemufydkif;rSmawmh [m&Dudef;ta=umif; rajym=uawmhzl;?” trfautufpf acgif;aqmifrsm;u olwdk@taejzifh awmif;qdkxm;aom aqG;aEG;yGJpwif&ef óudwiftajctaersm;jynfhpHkonftxd apmifhqdkif;Edkifa=umif;wkef@jyefcJhonf? olwdk@u ,cktcg tiftm;aumif;aumif;jzifh/ tompD;jzifhqufqHae&jcif;jzpfonf? Ttiftm;udk oHk;&rnf[koabmayguf=uonf? tpdk;&zufu tvm;tvmaumif; jyra,mifjzpfao;onf? wevFmae@naeydkif;txd *'ef@pfcfESifh0gaqmt=um; w,fvDzke;f vdkif;rsm;jyefvnfqufoG,fay;cJhonf? oydwftzGJ@rsm;ESifh awG@qHkaqG;aEG;aeaomta=umif;udkvnf; tpdk;&owif;Xmersm;u xkwfv$ifhay;vmcJhonf? TaqG;aEG;yGJrsm;udk t*Fgae@wGif wzefjyefp=ujyefonf? oydwfwdkufyGJrsm;u ydkIvlodrsm;ausmf=um; vmcJhonf? xdkae@wGifyif 0&dkuavma'opuf&HkrStvkyform;rsm;u oydwfarSmuf=u+yD;/ aumfrwDwckxyfrHzGJ@pnf;cJh=ujyef onf? oydwf}uD;taejzifh EdkifiH.toufaoG;ausmjzpfaom qDvDqD,ma'otxufydkif;&Sd ausmufrD;aoG;wGif;rsm;qDodk@yg ul;pufvmcJh+yD jzpfonf? Ak'<[l;ae@a&mufaomtcg 'ef@pfa'owGif;&Sd puf&Hk tvkyf&Hk (500) ausmfrSm oydwfwdkufyGJwGifyl;aygif; +yD;jzpfonf? xdk@tjyif pufr_t"dua'oESpfckjzpfaom bpf*dk&SJESifh wdk&efa'orsm;wGifyg oydwfrsm;jyef@ESH@vmcJhonf? xdktcsdefwGif t}uD;rm;qHk;aom pwD;vfoH&nfusKdpuf&Hkjzpfaom Edk0g[lwmwGifvnf; tvkyform;rsm;u oydwfarSmufxGufcGg&ef pdkif;jyif;ae =ucsdefjzpfonf? aom=umae@a&mufaomtcg rdkif;vkyfom; (20000) ausmfu oydwfwGif vma&mufyl;aygif;=ujyefonf? ydk@Zef &Sd pD*JvfpuD pufr_vkyfief;rsm;puf&HkrSvnf; tu,fI *'ef@pfcfa'o&SdaqG;aEG;yGJrsm;rS ajyvnfr_r&&Sdygu olwdk@taejzifhvnf; oydwfarSmuf&rnfjzpfa=umif; owday;vmcJhonf? ,cktcg tpdk;&taejzifhtcsdefqGJaeI r&awmh? ae@pOfESifhtr# oydwfrsm;u wdkif;jynfpD;yGg;a&;udk +cdrf;ajcmufr_ydkydk}uD;vmae+yD jzpfonf? ,cktcsdefwGif EdkifiH.vkyfom;tiftm;pkrsm;tay: xdef;csKyfEdkifrr_ &Sdawmh+yD/ qufoG,f=oZmv$rf;rdk;Edkifr_ r&Sdawmh+yDudkodaomf vnf;/ tpdk;&xdyfydkif;acgif;aqmifrsm;u awG@qHkaqG;aEG;yGJrsm;wGif wpHkwcktay;t,lvkyfI tajctaeudkjyefu,fwifEdkifrnf ,lqae=uao;onf? tu,fI pD;ygG;a&;qdkif&mawmif;qdkcsufrsm;udk vdkufavsmay;vdkufygu/ tajccHusaomðyjyifajymif;vJ a&;vkyfief;rsm; rvkyfyJaeI &Edkifao;onf[k ,lqae=uonf? txl;ojzifh ray;vdkonfrSm vGwfvyfaomtvkyform;or*~ rsm;zGJ@pnf;a&;udpP jzpfonf? tpdk;&taejzifh tvkyform;rsm;.tHkºuGawmif;qdkr_rsm;udk (1956) ckwGif w}udrf/ (1970) wGif w}udrfóuHcJh&aomfvnf;/ ESpf}udrfvHk;wGif aygifrkef@-axmywf paomvdkufavsmr_rsm;ESifh rD;udka&ESifh+idrf;owfEdkifcJh=uonf? vuf&Sdtvkyform;or*~rsm;udk jyefvnfjyifqifzGJ@pnf;ay;ygrnf[k uwdðyac|;odyfEdkifcJh=uonf? trfautufpfudk t=uHay;ae aomtcsKd@aom ynm&Sifrsm;uyif/ vuf&Sdtpdk;&zGJ@xm;aom tvkyform;or*~rsm;udk 'Drdkua&pDenf;usðyjyifajymif;vJa&;vkyf ,ljcif;onfom taumif;qHk;jzpfa=umif; wdkufwGef;cJh=uao;onf? tu,fI jiif;y,fvdkufygu tpdk;&ajyvnfa&;ysufjym;Edkif onfudkvnf;pdk;&drf=uao;onf? odk@aomfolwdk@u vGwfvyfaomtvkyform;or*~rsm;zGJ@pnf;cGifh&a&;udk t"duawmif;qdkcsuf xm;v_yf&Sm;aeolrsm;ESifh pum;ajym=uaomtcg/ rnfonfhenf;ESifhr# vufrav#mhEdkifa=umif; xdkolrsm;u qdk=uonf? t*Fgae@wGif awG@qHkaqG;aEG;yGJrsm; jyefvnfpwifaomtcg/ *sm*JvfpuD;u tpdk;&.tvkyform;or*~rsm;udk jyefvnfjyifqifzGJ@ pnf;ay;ygrnf[k uwdðyonf? trfautufpf udk,fpm;vS,frsm;u &yfwnfcsufra&G@ &yfcHae=uonf? “ta=umif;uawmh tck&SdaewJh usaemfwdk@tvkyform;or*~awGu bmrSvkyfwmr[kwfzl;? bmrSvkyfaqmifay;cJhwmvnf; r&Sdzl;? ” oabFmusif; tvkyform;udk,fpm;vS,fwOD;u ajymonf? abmh'ef vpfpfuydkI aoaocsmcsmajymonf? “usaemfwdk@vdkcsifwmu aoG; opfxyfjznfhwmrsKd; vdkcsifwmr[kwfzl;? usaemfwdk@vdkcsifwmu vHk;0topfjzpfwJh udk,fcE<mwckyJ? ” acwWem;=u+yD;aomtcg *sm*JvfpuD;u ESpfzufpvHk;rS “u|rf;usifolrsm;” cef@tyfI oabmwlnDcsuftwGufpmom;rsm;nd‡Ed_if;&ef wHcg;ydwfaqG;aEG;yGJ rsm;wGif qufvufaqG;aEG;ap&ef t=uHðyonf? xdktcsdefwGif t"duaqG;aEG;olrsm;u vljrifuGif;a&S@wGifqufvufaqG;aEG;ae =uvdrfhrnf jzpfonf? TonfrSm =o*kwf (14) &ufae@rSpI oydwfacgif;aqmifrsm; pOfqufrjywfawmif;qdkvmcJhaom yGifhvif; r_udk csKd;azmufjcif;omjzpfonf? odk@aomfvnf; bm0ifqmESifh tcsKd@aomolrsm;u oabmwlvdkuf=uonf? olwdk@oHk;oyfrd onfrSm/ olwdk@,lqcsufomrSefrnfqdkygu tpdk;&taejzifhqkwfvdkaomtaetxm;wGif&Sdae+yD;/ Ttaetxm;udk vltrsm; ta&S@ESifh EdkifiHjcm;owif;axmufrsm;.a&S@arSmufY rvkyfvdk[k oabm&=uonf? aemufqHk; uGefjrLepfrsm;taejzifh oydwfwdkufyGJ0ifvkyfom;rsm; t"duxm;awmif;qdkaeaomtcsufrsm;udk tavsmhay;vdkuf avsmvdkae=u+yD? xdk@tjyif oabmwlnDr_&&efvnf; jzpfEdkifao;onf? ta=umif;rSm trfautufpfzufu taumif;wkef@jyef

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)129


vdkaomqEN&Sdaeaoma=umifhyif? xdkolrsm;udk opPmapmifhodaomtwdkuftcHrsm;taetxm;jzifhxm;jcif;u/ ygwDudk+cdrf;ajcmuf aeaomtaetxm;xuf aumif;onf[k,lqonf? odk@aomf TonfrSmtxiftjrifrSm;csufomjzpfonf? rnfodk@yifjzpfap umrl T,lqcsufa=umifh aqG;aEG;yGJajyvnfacsmarG@apa&;twGuf acsmqDozG,fjzpfcJhonf? bm0ifqmu t*Fgae@tpnf; ta0;tzGifhrdef@cGef;ajym=um;&mY tvkyform;rsm;onf qdk&S,fvpfpepfudk qef@usifzsufodrf;&ef wdkufyGJ0ifaejcif;r[kwfa=umif; ajymonf? xdk&owWygwfaemufydki;f wGif u|rf;usifolynm&Sifrsm;tpnf;ta0;Y/ tpfdk;&zufu OD;aqmifaqG;aEG;olu trfau tufpftaejzifh ygwD.OD;aqmifr_tcef;u¾udk todtrSwfðy&rnf[k twif;t=uyfawmif;qdkvmcJhonf? tvkyform;rsm; zufuvnf; oabmwlay;onf? odk@aomfvnf; ygwDtaejzifh rdrt d m%mudk vHk;0csKyfudkifxm;a&;qdkonfrSm vHk;0rjzpfEdkif cufcJaomtaetxm; jzpfonf? odk@aomfvnf; ‚if;wdk@udkEdkifiHa&;t& t&SufwuGJtusKd;eJjzpfapaom taetxm;udkwGef;ydk@ rnfqdkygu tEW&m,f&SdvmEdkifonf? trfautufpfzufrS aemufxyfvdkufavsmr_wck xyfrHvkyfaqmifay;cJhao;onf? ‚if;wdk@taejzifh ydkvefEdkifiHwv$m;&Sd tvkyf orm;rsm;tm;vHk;twGuf vGwfvyfaomtvkyform;or*~rsm;zGJ@pnf;cGifh &vdkvSaomfvnf;/ tm%mydkifrsm;u jiif;qdkonf? *'ef@pfcfpuf&HktjyifzufrS tjcm;aomtvkyform;rsm;onf olwdk@zmomolwdk@. tcGifhta&;udkawmif;qdk&vdrfhrnf[k qdkonf? tcsKd@aom oydwfarSmufacgif;aqmifrsm;u Ttcsufudk tavsmhray;wif;cHvdk=uonf? odk@aomf bm0ifqm/ 0D,mZf'gESifh tjcm;aomt=uHay;rsm;u vdkufavsmvdkuf=u&ef awmif;qdkonf? Todk@ESifh a&S@c&D;qufEdkifcJh=ujyefonf? &ufowWygwfukefaomtcsdefwGif oabmwlnDcsufrsm;u toifh+yD;vkeD;yg; jzpfae+yD? xdktcsdefwGif PZPR taejzifh trSefw&m; ESifh rsuf0g;xifxifóuH&aomtcsdefjzpfonf? 0gaqmwGif jyefIay:vpfAsL&dktpnf;ta0;usif;yaomtcg Tawmif;qdkcsufrsm; twdkif;vdkufavsmrnfavm/ vufeufjzifh tiftm;oHk;acsr_ef;rnfavm[lonfh aqG;aEG;yGJudk jyefqdkuf&jyefonf? vHkòcHa&;Xme t&m&Sd umeD,mESifh umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;/ AdkvfcsKyf 0dk*sDtufcsf *sm&lZJvfpuD;wdk@u zdEdSyfr_rvkyf&ef awmif;qdkjiif;qef=uonf? olwdk@.wyfrsm;u aemufqHk;trdef@remcHawmhyJ/ oabFmusif;tygt0if/ tjcm;aompuf&Hktvkyf&Hkrsm;udkvnf; zsufqD;ypf=u vdrfhrnfudk pdk;aoma=umifhjzpfonf? xdkae@aemufydkif;wGif *sm*JvfpuD;taejzifh ToabmwlnDcsufudk jrefEdkifor#jrefatmif tqHk;owfed*Hk;csKyf&ef !$ef=um;csuf&vmcJhawmhonf? paeae@ESifh we*FaEGwae@vHk;wGif awG@qHkaqG;aEG;yGJrsm;quf=u+yD;/ tao;pdwfvdktyfonfrsm;udk qufvufnd‡Ed_if;=uonf? tpdk;&taejzifh tvkyform;rsm;. olwdk@zmomtvkyform;or*~rsm; pnf;&Hk;zGJ@pnf;cGifh&aSd om tcGifhta&;udktodtrSwfðy av;pm;&ef vdktyf+yD;/ tvkyform;or*~rsm;zufuvnf; EdkifiHawmfwGif PZPR ygwD.EdkifiHa&;OD;aqmifr_udk todtrSwfðy& rnf[k jyefvnfpnf;aESmifxm;onf? xd@k tjyif vuf&dSEkdifiw H umESihf r[mrdwfzGJ@pnf;xm;aompepftay:wGifvnf; qef@usif jcif;rðyyg[k oabmwl=u&onf? TonfrSm vdkcsifonfhtcsufyifjzpfonf? tvkyform;rsm; or*~&rnf/ odk@aomfTor*~ rsm;onf EdkifiHa&;.jyifywGifae=u&rnf? qdkAD,ufudkvnf; rqef@usif&? xdk@tjyif oydwfwdkufyGJ0ifvkyfom;rsm;taejzifh oydwfarSmufqENjycGifh/ owif;pmqdkif&m Oya'topf/ EdkifiHa&;zdESdyfji‡if;yrf;r_rsm;udk jyefvnfppfaq;ay;a&;/ ponfwdk@tjyif pD;yGg;a&;qdkif&m uwdu0wfrsm;vnf;&&Sd=uonf? xdk@tjyif oydwfarSmufolrsm;udk wkef@jyefvufpm;acsonfhtaejzifh ta&; r,l&efESifh ‚if;wdk@udkulnDolrsm;udkvnf; ta&;,ljcif;uif;vGwfap&ef tmrcHcsufrsm;vnf; &&SdcJhonf? we*FaEGae@naeydkif; ed*Hk;csKyfaqG;aEG;csdefa&mufaomtcg/ bm0ifqmodcJh&onfrSm trfautufpftzGJ@0ifrsm;tm;vHk;/ oydwf arSmufvkyfom;rsm;/ twdkuftcHrsm;tm;vHk;u ToabmwlnDcsuftay:a=uvnfr_ r&Sd=uqdkaomtcsufyifjzpfonf? txl; ojzifh ygwD.EdkifiHa&;OD;aqmifr_tcef;u¾ESifh ygwfoufIjzpfonf? “usaemfwdk@tm;vHk; vdkcsifwmudk &cJh=u&J@vm;?” oluar; onf? “r&ao;ygbl;? vdkcsifwmtm;vHk; r&ao;ygbl;? 'gayr,fh usaemfwdk@odxm;zdk@u usaemfwdk@trsm;}uD;&cJh=uygw,f? usaemfwdk@ &Edkifoavmuftm;vHk;&cJh=uygw,f? usefwmawGvnf; usaemfwdk@ quf&ygvdrfhr,f? ta=umif;uawmh usaemfwdk@ rSm udk,fhzmompDrHcef@cGJtkyfcsKyfcGifh&SdwJh/ vGwfvyfwJh tvkyform;or*~&ae+yD jzpfvdk@ygyJ? 'DtcsufuyJ usaemfwdk@tem*gwf twGuf tmrcHcsufyg? ” xdk@aemuf olu oydwfvSefa=umif;udk a=ujimonf? xdk@aemufolESifh *sm*JvfpuD;wdk@uoabmwlnD csufudk vufrSwfa&;xdk;=uonf? xdktcsdefu we*FaEGae@naeydkif;jzpfonf? =o*kwfv (31) &uf? axmifaygif;aomif;aygif;rsm; pGmaomtvkyform;rsm; reufjzefqdkv#if vkyfief;cGifodk@wzefjyefI 0if=u&OD;awmhrnf? TpmcsKyft& trfautufpf MKS udk *'ef@pfcf-'dkifeD,ma'o&Sdtvkyform;udk udk,fpm;ðyaom or*~topf/ jyefvnfzGJ@pnf; a&;aumfrwDw&yf tjzpftodtrSwfðyonf? &uftenf;i,ft=umrSmyif *'ef@pfcf qifajczkef;a'o&Sd a[mfw,fta[mif;wck wGif aps;qdkifrsm;axmifvdkuf=uonf? bm0ifqmu OuUXjzpfvmonf? olu ,mquful&Gefudk zdwfac:+yD;/ txl;t=uHay;csKyf tjzpfwm0efay;onf? oydwfwdkufyGJ0ifvkyfom;rsm;u olwdk@.tvkyform;or*~topfudk “aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;tvkyfo rm;or*~” tjzpf trnfay;=uonf? xdktrnfu oabFmusif;tvkyform;rsm;oydwfumvtwGif; xkwfa0cJhaompmapmif trnfjzpfonf? Ttrnfu (1970) ckESpf v_yf&Sm;r_umvu vltrsm;.pdwf"gwfudk jyefvnfazmfusL;xm;jcif; jzpfonf? &SJZif

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)130


a'o&Sd oydwfarSmuftvkyform;rsm;uvnf; tpdk;&tm%mydkifrsm;ESifh oD;jcm;oabmwlnDcsufw&yfudk =o*kwfv (30) &uf ae@wGif vufrSwfa&;xdk;cJh=uonf? xdktvkyform;or*~udkvnf; tvm;wltrnfudkyif a&G;cs,fay;cJh=uavonf? uwday;xm;onfhtwdkif; tpdk;&owif;pmrsm;u oabmwlnDcsufrsm;udk yHkESdyfazmfjyay;=uonf? ydkvefvlxktrsm;u tvkyf orm;rsm; atmifyGJcHcJh+yDjzpfa=umif; oabmayguf=uonf? aemuf&ufrsm;twGif;rSmyif tjcmaoma'otoD;oD;rS tvkyf orm;rsm;uvnf; tvm;wltcGifhta&;rsm;awmif;qdkvm=uawmhonf? xdkolrsm;u *'ef@pfcf&Sd aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;tvkyf orm;or*~xHrS puf&Hkrsm;udk rnfodk@odrf;ydkuf&rnf/ puf&HkwGif; oydwfaumfrwDrsm;rnfodk@ zGJ@pnf;=u&rnfudk t=uHnm%frsm; awmif;=uonf? =o*kwfvtwGif; urf;ajcwav#mufjzpfyGg;cJhaom oydwfwdkufyGJrsm;udk tm;usI tjcm;aomydkvefwv$m;&Sd tvkyform;rsm;uvnf; or*~zGJ@pnf;a&;twGuf tcGifhta&;udk t&,lawmif;qdkvm=uonf? pufwifbmv (17) &ufae@ wGif wEdkifiHvHk;rSudk,fpm;vS,frsm; *'ef@pfcfwGifpHknDI wEdkifiHvHk;qdkif&mzGJ@pnf;yHkudk vkyf=uonf? wEdkifiHvHk;qdkif&m yl;aygif;aqmif &Gufa&;aumfrwDudk a&G;cs,fwifajr‡muf=uonf? xdkaumfrwDrSwqifh a'oqdkif&mtvkyform;or*~rsm;udk vrf;!$efr_rsm;ay; =urnf jzpfonf? xdktcsdefwGif aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;tvkyform;or*~wGif ta&twGuftm;jzifh tzGJ@0if (3) oef;&SdvmcJh+yD jzpfonf? xdkESpfukefwGif ydkvefEdkifiHom;tzGJ@0if (10) oef;ausmf &SdvmcJhonf? =o*kwv f twGi;f ae@&ufrsm;u t'rf rpfcsepftaejzifh oydwfarSmufwdkufyGJ0ifaeolrsm; rjzpfEdkifonfudkawmif;qdkae=uonf[k ,lqcJhonf? vGwfvyfaomtvkyform;or*~rsm;udk twif;wif;cHawmif;qdkaeonf[k olxifcJhonf? tjcm;aomtwdkuftcH acgif;aqmifrsm;odk@yif tm%mydkifrsm;u rnfodk@r#Tawmif;qdkcsufudk vdkufavsmvdrfhrnfr[kwf? Todk@vdkufavsmygu olwdk@ .xdef;csKyfxm;aomeH&HwGif tufuGJa=umif;jzpfvmvdrfhrnf[k ol,lqcJhonf? odk@aomf abmvfwpfyifv,fqdyfurf;ajc&Sd vkyfom;rsm;u tm%mydkifrsm;twGuf tjcm;a&G;cs,fp&mvrf;ray;cJh? aemufqHk;awmh ydkvefEdkifiH&Sdtvkyform;trsm;pkonf tpdk;&tm%mydkifrsm; xdef;csKyfr_rSuif;vGwfaeaom wEdkifiHvHk;qdkif&m qufoG,fzGJ@pnf;xm;aom tzGJ@tpnf;wck. tzGJ@0if rsm;jzpfvm=uawmhonf? ,cifu TuJhodk@tjzpftysufrsKd;óuH&zl;jcif; r&SdcJh? tvm;wl tjcm;aomuGefjrLepfEdkifiHrsm;wGifvnf; jzpfay:cJhzl;jcif; r&Sday?

(16) v a&S@rsufEmS pm/ qufudkwnf+rJaeap&rnf? =o*kwfvoydwfwdkufyGJrsm;+yD;I/ tenfxdkifoGm;aomtcgaoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~udk jyefvnfzGJ@pnf;cJhonf? olwdk@pwifwnf axmifcJhaomae&monf Zmbk&ifudkqef@usifykefuefolrsm; (1905) ckESpf atmufwdkbmawmfvSefa&; a=ujimpmwrf;xkwfjyef aomae&mESifh twlwljzpfaeonfudk awG@=u&onf? v_yf&Sm;r_taejzifh zdtm;ay;+yD; tpdk;&taejzifh rvdkufavsmyJraeEdkif&av atmif tajymif;tvJjzpfay:vmatmif pGrf;aqmifEdkifcJh=uonf? aemufydkif;wGifawmh tpdk;&twGif;wGifoabmxm;aysmhajymif; olrsm;ESifh wif;rmolrsm;[lI uGJjym;vmcJhonfudk awG@=u&avonf? xdkolrsm;u ,ciftajctaetwdkif;t"rRtiftm;oHk;I ,cifvrf;a=umif;twdkif; jyefajymif;vdk=uonf? oabFmusif;rSaeI pwifcJhaomyÉdyuQonfvnf;/ wEdkifiHvHk;twdkif;twm jyef@ESH@}uD;xGm;um jyefIt&SdefowfEdkifzG,f&m ta=umif;r&Sdawmhay? tusOf;oabmtjrifjzifh ajym&v#if aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~.vdkvm;csufrSm *'ef@pfcfoabmwlnDcsufwGifyg0ifonfhtwdkif;/ tcsuf (21) csufudk vdkufavsmtaumiftxnfazmfvma&; jzpfonf? xdktcsufrsm;teufrS tvkyform;or*~rsm;zGJ@pnf;cGifh &a&;onf xdyfqHk;ujzpfonf? aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~udk oydwfwdkufyGJwckrSpwifarG;zGm;cJh+yD;/ ,ckwdkif or*~tjzpfomwnf &Sdaeao;onf? odk@aomfvnf;olwdk@aqmif&GufEidk fonfu vlr_v_yf&Sm;r_}uD;wck. tpGef;tzsm;om jzpfaeao;onf? vkyfaqmif Edkifygu oef;ESifhcsDaomvlxkrsm; ygvmatmifaqmif&GufEdkif=uzG,f&Sdao;onf? vltrsm;pkrSm puf&Hkrsm;wGiftvkyfvkyf=uaom pufr_tvkyform;rsm; r[kwf=uay? tu,fI ydkvefvlrsKd;rsm;udk vGwfvyfpGmpnf;&Hk;ydkifcGifh&Sdaom vkyfydkifcGifhtajctaersm;zef wD;ay;Edkifygu xdkolrsm;tzdk@v_yf&Sm;pnf;&Hk;vm=urnfrSm rkcsyif? vufawG@wGifrl aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~onf (1970) ckESpf oydwfarSmufv_yf&Sm;olrsm;ESifh (autdktm) uJhodk@ ynmwwfrsm;twGuf ydkI}uD;us,faom EdkifiHa&;ar#mfvifhcsufjzpfaeonf? Tolrsm;ukd tpdk;&zufuvnf; uGefjrLepf0g'udk +cdrf;ajcmuftEW&m,fðyrnfholrsm;tjzpf ,lqxm;=uonf? =o*kwfv_yf&Sm;r_ +yD;aemufydkif; v_yf&Sm;r_wGif a&S@wef;rSyg0ifae=uolrsm;u tpdk;&taejzifht=urf;zufòzdcGJr_zufudk jyefvnfwdrf;!$wfvm&ef tvm;tvm&Sda=umif;ESifh ydkIqdk;onfrSm/ qdkAD,uf,leD,H. ppfa&;t&pGufzufvmzG,f taetxm;rsm;udkvnf; odxm;=u onf? xdktwGufa=umifh (1980) aqmif;&moDwGifajym=um;or# rdef@cGef;tawmfrsm;rsm;wGif aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;acgif;aqmif rsm;u olwdk@onfuGefjrLepf0g'qef@usifa&;orm;rsm; r[kwf=ua=umif;/ ygwD. OD;aqmifr_tcef;u¾udk vufcHa=umif;ESifh 0gaqmpmcsKyfoabmwlnDcsufudk vufcHa=umif;udk xyfcgwvJvJ ajymcJh=uonf? =o*kwfoydwfwdkufyGJumvwGif olwdk@aqmif &GufcJh=uovdk ppfrSefaom'Drdkua&pD&&Sda&;udpPudk t"duacgif;pOfrsm;atmufrS z,fxm;cJh=uonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)131


TuJhodk@ tuef@towfrsm;atmufrSaqmif&Gufae=u&aomtajctaewGif uufovpfbk&m;&Sdcdk;ausmif; csmhcsfrsm;onf/ aoG; pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~vdkvm;aom pHerlemyHkpHwckozG,f jzpfaecJhonf? umvtrsm;pkwGif bk&m;ausmif;rsm;onf rdrdta&;udpP rsm;udk vGwfvyfpGmvnfywfaqmif&Guf=u+yD;/ vltrsm;pku vufcHaomudpPrsm;udk aemufuvdkufay;cJhonf? tjyeftvSeftm; jzifh wzufuuGefjrLepf0g'zufrS xdyfwdkufa0zefcH&r_rsKd;udk a&Smif&Sm;EdkifcJhonf? odk@aomfvnf;wzufwGif bk&m;ausmif;rS bmoma&;qdkif&myk*~dKvfwOD;csif;u tpdk;&udkvl@tcGifhta&;av;pm;vdkufemzdk@ em;cscJh=uonf? tcsKd@aomolrsm;u aoG;pnf;nD !Gwfa&;or*~onf TuJhodk@aomoD;jcm;uif;vGwfaom/ wnf+idrfaomvlxkrsm;. 0ef;usifwcktjzpf ,lqcJh=uonf? tjcm; aom,Hk=unfr_trsKd;rsKd; &Sdolrsm;twGufcdkv_Hay;Edkifaom xD;rdk;wckozG,f,lq=uonf? TtajctaewGif uGefjrLepfygwD tkyf pdk;csKyfudkifxm;r_rSm trnfemrom&Sdvdrfhrnf? 'Drdkua&pDpepfoaE<wnfvmyHkrsKd; pwifvmEdkif+yD;/ rdrdzmomzGJ@pnf;xm;aom vlr_ tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;wnfaqmuf,ljcif;tm;jzifh qdkAD,uf. 0ifa&mufpGufzufr_udkvnf; umuG,fxm;ay;Edkifvdrfhrnf[k ,lq=u onf? “ydkvefEdkifiH[m a&S;rlrysufxdef;odrf;xm;zdk@trdef@cscHxm;&wJh tdrftdka[mif;wckvdkygyJ? ” +Adwdo#owif;pmq&mwOD; jzpfol eD;vf tufcsmqifua&;cJhzl;onf? “tdrftwGif;tjyiftqifudk acwfrDatmifðyjyifvdku ðyjyifEdkifzG,f&Sdonf? aemufqHk; ðzwfvJvdku topfyifvJEdkifonf? odk@aomfrsufESmpmESifh trdfk;uawmh Ttwdkif;qufvufwnf&Sdae&ef vdktyfonf? ” [k oluOyrmay;a&;onf? aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~.pDrHcsufrSm ydkvefEdkifiH.tem*gwfudk ygwDESifhtwl&Sifoef&yfwnfI/ xdef;csKyfcGifh&a&;yifjzpfonf? olwdk@udk,folwdk@ wdkif;jynftm%m.xdyfqHk;ae&mudk &,l&efvnf;ar#mfvifhxm;r_ r&Sd=uay? Todk@aomtaetxm;wGif rdrd zmomxdef;odrf;r_}uD;rm;pGmjzifh csifhcsifhcsdefcsdefoGm;ae&ovdk/ wzufwGifvnf; ‚if;.tajccHvlxkaxmufcHr_zuftoD;oD;rSvm aom zdtm;rsm;vnf; &Sdaeao;onf? Todk@ar#mfrSef;csufrsm;atmifjrifapa&;twGuf/ or*~udkaxmufcHtm;ay;ae=uolrsm; Todk@ “rdrdzmomxdef;csKyfxm;&aom&nf&G,fcsuf”aemufY wpkwpnf;wnf; nD!GwfpGm&yfay;ae=u&ef vdkonf? odk@aomf aemufuG,fwGif trsm;tjym;Y tm;rvdktm;r&r_rsm;/ ra=ueyfr_rsm;&Sdae=uao;onf? oydwfwdkufyGJumvwckwnf;rSmyif/ bm0ifqm. yk*~Kdvfa&;qdkif&m&yfwnfcsufESifh EdkifiHa&;t&nftcsif;rsm;a=umifhom ygwD.OD;aqmifr_udk vufcHaom aemufqHk; oabmwlnDcsufrsm;udk vltrsm; róudufaomfvnf; atmifhumerf;&avatmif/ wdwfqdwfae&avatmif pGrf;aqmifEdkifcJh onfr[kwfygvm;? TtoHrsm;uyif qdkAD,ufu0ifa&mufpGufzufonfjzpfap/ rpGufzufonfjzpfap *&krxm;yJ 'Drdkua&pD c&D;wdkifqufwGef;a&;twGuf zdtm;ay;aeonf? TudpPrsm;udkyif ajym&zdk@wzefjyefjzpfvmonf? tu,fI wdkif;jynf.pD;yGg;a&; qufvufusqif;aeygu/ tpdk;&taejzifh olwdk@uwdu0wfðyxm;aom &kyf0wˆKqdkif&mjznfhqD;r_rsm; rðyEdkifygu/ aoG;pnf; nD!Gwfa&;or*~taejzifh vkyfcvpmrsm;udpP/ ukefaps;E_ef;rsm;udpP/ ponfwdk@udk xyfrHwdkufyGJ0ifawmif;qdk&zG,ftajctae&Sd aeonf? Ttcsufa=umifhvnf; atmufajcxkrsm;.axmufcHr_avsmhenf;apEdkifaom tvm;tvm&Sdaeonf? aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~. =oZmwufvmr_onf/ ygwDtaejzifh ‚if;.=oZmavsmhusvmaer_udk todtrSwfðyvdkufjcif;ESifh tr# wdk;wufvmcJhonf? =o*kwfvoabmwlnDcsufrsm;udk vufrSwfa&;xdk;+yD;aemufydkif;ae@rsm;wGif tJuf'0yf *J&ufonf ESvHk;a&m*gjzifh tdyf,mxJvJcJh&onf? pwefepfpavm uefeD,mudk yxrtwGif;a&;rSL;tjzpfa&G;cs,fjcif;cH&onf? Ttajc taeu ygwDwGif;wGifvufawG@usaomolrsm; ae&m&vmjcif;udkjyonf? olu ygwDudk “jyefvnfopfvGifa&;”[laom acgif; pOfjzifh v_H@aqmfonf? ol@taejzifh oydwfarSmufwdkufyGJ0ifolrsm;ESifh oabmwlnDcsufrsm;&,l&eftoifh&Sd+yD;/ aemufxyfxdyf wdkufawG@r_rsm;udkvnf; a&Smif&Sm;vdkaom oabmxm;&Sdonf? odk@aomfvnf; ygwD.tpdwftydkif;trsm;tjym;ESifh vHkòcHa&;wm 0ef,lxm;onftrsm;tjym;rSm Todk@oabmaygufodjrifEdkifjcif; r&Sd=uao;ay? xdkolrsm;uaemufxyfvdkufavsmr_ay;&rnfh tajctaersKd;udk rvdkvm;=uay? aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~taejzifh vdkvm;csufrsm;tawmfrsm;rsm;udk ar#mfvifhxm;onfhtwdkif; &&Sdonf? aemufydkif;wGif qdkAD ,uf,leD,Hudk rSDcdkae&aomtaetxm;udkvnf; xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;p&m rvdkonfhtaetxm;jzpfvmcJhonf? odk@aomfvnf; =o*kwfoabmwlnDcsufudk vufrSwfra&;xdk;rDumvu armfpudku owday;csufrsm;a&mufvmcJhao;onf? y&my'gowif;pm ESifh tpfpfAuf&Sm;owif;pmwdk@u Tv_yf&Sm;r_udkwefjyefawmfvSefa&;v_yf&Sm;r_[k uifyGef;wyfcJh+yD;/ qdk&S,fvpf0g'qef@usifa&; t,l&Sdaom ynmwwfrsm;u tvkyform;vlwef;pmudktoHk;csr_wcktjzpf azmfjycJh=uao;onf? ta&S@*smr%DESifh csufudkpvdk AufuD;,m;wGif&Sdaeaom a&S;&dk;pGJ0g'Dtpdk;&rsm;u ydkIjyif;xefonf? tjcm;aomta&S@Oa&my&Sd uGefjrLepfEdkifiHòrd@awmfrsm;u vnf; 0gaqmtaejzifholwdk@a'owGif aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~rsKd;udk vufcHrxm;oifha=umif; azmfjycJh=uonf? Ttajc taersKd;wGif nDaemif&if;yrmulnDr_rsKd;udk olwdk@taejzifhzdwf=um;onfjzpfap/ rzdwf=um;onfjzpfap ay;vmEdkifonf[k qdk=u onf? EdkifiHwumtaetxm;t&t&vnf; ydkvefEdkifiHudkusL;ausmfodrf;ydkufr_twGuf ppfa&;t&ukefuspm;&dwf/ pD;yGg;a&;t& xdcdkuf&r_ t}uD;tus,f&SdEdkifonf? odk@aomfTodk@aomukefus&r_rsKd;udk qdkAD,uf,leD,HutukeftuscHvdrfhrnf[k rar#mfvifh xm;=uay? “a,bl,sajym&&ifawmh usaemfwdk@ydkvefudk tqHk;&_Hl;cHvdk@vJ rjzpfzl;? cHvdk@vJ r&zl;? ” qdkAD,ufjynfaxmifpkEdkifiH jcm;a&;0ef}uD; tef'a&*&dkrDudku ajymcJhonf? Todk@ajym=um;csufudk armfpudk&Sd atmufwkfdbm (29) &ufae@wGifðyvkyfaom ay:vpfAsL&dktpnf;ta0;wGif ajym=um;cJhonf[k owif;rsm;u azmfjy=uonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)132


ppfqifa&;avhusifhcef;rsm;ESifh O=ooHrsm; (1980-81) aqmif;&moDESifh aqmif;OD;&moDrsm;wGif t=uyftwnf;rsm;/ jyefvnfavsmhay;r_rsm;/ wzefjyefIawG@aomt=uyf twnf;rsm; ponfhtjzpftysufrsm;u ydkvefudkxdef;csKyfxm;cJJhonf? tpdk;&zufu tm%mydkifrsm;u =o*kwfvwGifoabmwl nDcJhaom oabmwlnDcsufudk t}udrf}udrfcsKd;azmufcJh=uonf? txl;tjzifh tESpfom&tm;jzifhoabmwlnDcsufrsm;udkyg csKfd; azmufcJh=uonf? vpmrsm;wdk;jr‡ifhay;&if; olwdk@&or#tcsdefqGJcJh=uonf? qifqmydwfyifr_ESifh ygwfoufaomOya'topfwckudk xyfrHa&;qGJjyXmef;onf? tvkyform;or*~rsm; topfxyfrHzGJ@pnf;&efóud;yrf;olrsm;udk +cdrf;ajcmufESdyfuGyfonf? Edk0ifbmvwGif &Jrsm;u 0gaqm&SdaoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~ a'oqdkif&m&Hk;udk 0ifa&mufpD;eif;cJh+yD;/ vli,fyHkESdyform;wOD;jzpfol ,ef em&dkZepf udkzrf;qD;cJhonf? xdkvli,fudk EdkifiHawmfv#Kfd@0Sufcsufrsm;ayguf=um;aponf[k pGyfpGJumcHk&Hk;wifcJhonf? ZEM0g&DvwGif tpdk;&u trdef@wckxyfrHxkwfjyefcJhonf? Ttrdef@t& ydkveftvkyform;rsm;taejzifh wvv#if paeae@ESpf}udrf tvkyfcGiftwGif;&Sdae& rnf[k qdkonf? TonfrSm paeae@rsm;wGif tm;vyf&uf&aprnfqdkaom ,cifoabmwlnDcsufudk csKd;azmufjcif;jzpfonf? tpdk;&ydkifowif;Xmersm;/ txl;ojzifh &kyfjrifoH=um;xkwfv$ifhcsufrsm;uvnf; autdktmudk txl;wvS,fwdkufcdkufazmfjy+yD;/ ‚if;wdk@. EdkifiHawmfqef@usifa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk pHkprf;ppfaq;cJhonf? ,Jquf ul&Gefudk rwfv (5) &ufae@wiG zf rf;qD;cJ+h yD;/ (6) em&Dr# zrf;qD;xdef;odrf;cHcJh&onf? Todk@xdyfwdkufawG@r_rsm;u a&S@wdk;aemufqkwf&cufaomt=uyftwnf;tajctaeudk zefwD;ay;cJhonf? tu,fI aoG;pnf; nD!Gwfa&;or*~u wckr#rv_yf&Sm;ygu/ rdwfaqGrsm;ua&m/ &efolrsm;uyg puULusm;ozG,f tqdyfr&Sd[kxif=uawmhrnf? =o*kwfvoabmwlnDcsuftay: tiftm;jznfh&yfwnfr_ r&Sdawmh+yDavm[k xifp&m&Sdvmvdrfhrnf? tu,fI tjyif;txef wGef;wGef;wdkufwdkufaqmif&Gufrdyguvnf;/ tpdk;&zufu acgif;rm*dk%f;om;rsm;. wkef@jyefr_udkzdwfac:ovdk jzpfvmEdkifonf? or*~rsm;u rZÆdrvrf;pOf tv,ftvwfvrf;udka&G;cJh=uonf? v_yf&Sm;wdkift}udrfwdkif;wGif tpdk;&udktqHk;pGeftxdwGef;&ef róud;yrf;yJ/ jzpfay:vmEdkifaomwkef@jyefr_rsm;udk wGufq&if;/ v_yf&Sm;r_t&Sdeft[kefukv d nf; rysufatmifxdef;odrf;&if; aqmif&Guf cJh=uonf? olwdk@taejzifh awmif;qdkr_rsm;ðyaumif; ðyrnf? oydwfwdkufyGJqifE$Jrnf[k +cdrf;ajcmufaumif; +cdrf;ajcmufrnf? oydwfwdkufyGJqifE$Jaumif;vnf; qifE$Jrnf? odk@aomfaemufqHk; tm%mydkifrsm;ESifhawG@qHkI aphpyfnd‡Ed_if;r_vkyf=urnf jzpfonf? Tenf;tm;jzifh vkyfcvpmopfrsm;wdk;wuf &&Sdvm=uonf? em&dkZepfudk jyefvnfvGwfajrmufapcJhonf? wvv#if paeae@ w&ufwnf;om tvkyfvkyf&aom tajctaeudkvnf; aqG;aEG;,lEdkifcJhonf? &kyfjrifoH=um;ESifh a&'D,dkxkwfv$ifhr_rsm;udkvnf; &,lEdkifcJhonf? owif;pmrsm;rSvnf; azmfjycHcJh=u&onf? odk@aomfvnf; aygifrkef@wydkif;om&aomtajctaeudk Tor*~rsm; udkaxmufcHolrsm;u a=ueyfa&mifh&JEdkifr_ r&SdcJh=uay? bm0ifqmESifh tjcm;aomacgif;aqmifrsm;rSm oydwfawmif;qdkcsufwck& +yD;onfESifh tjcm;aomoydwfqifE$J&ef awmif;qdkcsufrsm;tjynfh&Sdaewwfonf? odk@aomfvnf; aemufxyfoabmuGJvGJr_wck tay:aygufrcsif; tajctaeudkwnf+idraf t;aq;aeatmif xdef;xm;EdkifcJh=uonf? aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~taejzifh wzufwGif tm%mydkiftpdk;&udkxdef;xm;&if;/ tjcm;wzufwGifvnf; rdrd.}uD;xGm;vm aom tiftm;udkxdef;xm;&onfh 0da&m"dóuHcJhonf? Todk@aom aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~óuHae&aom 0da&m"drSm (1981) ckESpf rwfva&mufaomtcg ydkIjyif;xefvmcJhonf? aqmif;OD;&moD v,fpdkufysKd;olv,form;rsm;taejzifh olwdk@udk,fydkif or*~udk todtrSwfðyr_ &vdkvSonf? Tor*~udk olwdk@u aus;vufaoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~[kac:=uonf? xdkolrsm;tae jzifh aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;tvkyform;or*~rsm;zufua&m/ bk&m;ausmif;rsm;zufuyg cdkifrmaomausmaxmufaemufcH&Sdonf? odk@aomfvnf; EdkifiHawmftpdk;&u Tor*~rsm;udkw&m;0ifrSwfyHkwifcGifh&&ef ta=umuftuefjiif;qefaeonf? ta=umif;jy csufrSm v,form;rsm;onf vcpm;vkyfom;rsm;r[kwf=uyJ/ xdktwGufa=umifh or*~vkyfp&mrvdk[kqdkonf? Todk@vaygif; rsm;pGm vdyfcJwif;vif;jzpfae&if;/ Tjy\emuae wEdkifiHvHk;twdkif;twmjy\emtjzpf jyef@ESH@vmawmhonf? rwfv (19) &ufae@wGif aus;vufaoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~tzGJ@0if udk,fpm;vS,frsm;onf a'oqdkif&maoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&; tvkyform;or*~acgif;aqmif ,ef &lvJpuD;ESifhtwl bD*dk&SpfwGifusif;yaom òrd@e,faumifpDtpnf;ta0;odk@oGm;a&mufcJh=u onf? olwdk@udk tm%mydkifrsm;uajymonfrSm olwdk@taejzifh w&m;0ifrSwfyHkwifxm;aomv,form;tpktaejzifh udk,fpm;ðy ajymEdkif=uonfqdkaomfvnf;/ olwdk@ajymcGifhtvSnfh ra&mufrDrSmyif tpnf;ta0;udk &ufa&$@qdkif;vdkuf=uonf? xdktcg wuf ºuGv_yf&Sm;olrsm;ESifh tcsKd@aomòrd@aumifpD0ifrsm;onf a=ujimcsufwckyl;aygif;ðyvkyf&ef usefaecJh=uonf? olwdk@onf &Jt&m&Sd (200) cef@u (2) }udrfwdkifwdkif tcef;xJuxGufay;&ef awmif;qdkaeonfh=um;rS naewdkifusefae&pf=uonf? olwdk@uxGufay; &ef jiif;qef+yD;/ vufrsm;udkcsdwfqufum/ puf0dkif;yHkxdkifI EdkifiHawmfoDcsif;udk oDqdk=uonf? aemufqHk;&Jrsm;u t"rRqGJxkwf=u &onf? tcsKd@aomolrsm;u olwdk@udk (1976) v_yf&Sm;r_u tvkyform;rsm;udk vkyfcJh=uovdk/ twif;t"rRjyJuGJonftxd qGJ xkwfcJh=uonf[k qdkonf? &lvJpuD;tygt0if 3-OD;rSm udk,fcE<mtESH@tjym;wGif tndKtrJrsm;pGJI usefcJh&onf? Todk@aomaemufqHk;rD;yGg;onf ydkvefEdkifiHtESH@tjym;udk &dkufcwfoGm;cJhonf? vltrsm;tjym; a'gojzpf=u&onf? bD*dk&Spfòrd@wGif vlxkrsm;u “*ufpfwmydk” [katmf[pf=uonf? aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~u pHkprf;ppfaq;r_vkyfay;&efawmif;qdkonf? olwdk@

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.&kH;rsm;wGif aoG;rsm;ayusHaeaomvlxkrsm;. "gwfyHkrsm;udk uyfxm;cJhonf? aemufw&ufwGif wEdkifiHv;Hk qdkif&maumfr&SiftzGJ@ 0ifrsm;u bD*dk&SpfwGifawG@qHk=u+yD;/ rnfodk@ qufvufaqmif&Gufrnfudk aqG;aEG;=uonf? vltrsm;u tjyif;xefqHk;zdtm;ay; &ef/ taxGaxGoydwfac:a&;twGuf &mZoHay;&ef awmif;qdk=uonf? =o*kwfvv_yf&Sm;r_twGif;u t=uHay;jzpfolESifh v_yf&Sm; r_OD;aqmifcJholrsm;jzpfol wm'J,k rmaZm0DpuD;ESifh b&Gefepfpavm *J&Drufwdk@u taxGaxGoydwfac:jcif;tm;jzifh tpdk;&twGif; &Sdacgif;rm*dk%f;om;rsm;twGuf zdESdyfap&eftcsuf&oGm;vdrfhrnfjzpfa=umif; ajymqdk=uonf? aemufwae@wGif bm0ifqmu aom=umae@ (rwfv 27-&uf) rwdkifrD óudwifowday;onfhtaejzifh av;em&D=umtaxGaxGoydwfqifE$J&ef a=ujimcJhonf? tu,fI 4-&ufajrmufaomae@wdkifatmifrS tpdk;&tm%mydkifrsm;ESifhoabmwlnDr_ r&&Sdygu/ taxGaxGoydwfac:rnfjzpf a=umif; &mZoHay;onf? odk@aomfvnf;udk,fpm;vS,frsm;u csufcsif;yif taxGaxGoydwfac:vdk=uonf? aemufqHk;bm0ifqm uol.tpDtpOfudkvufcH&ef twif;t=uyf}udrf;armif; ajymqdk&awmhonf? olwdk@wGif awmif;qdkcsuf (5) ckyg&Sdonf? ‚if;wdk@ wGif bD*dk&SpfwGif t=urf;ywrf;aqmif&GufcJh=ur_rsm;twGuf wm0ef&Sdolrsm;udk tjypfay;&efEiS fh aus;vufaoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&; or*~udk todtrSwfðyay;&efwdk@ yg0ifonf? aemufae@rsm;wGif tajctaeuoD;rcHEdkifp&maumif;vSatmif wif;rmaecJhonf? qdkAD,ufacgif;aqmifrsm;u 0gaqmppfpmcsKyf udkwdk;csJ@vdkuf+yD;/ ydkvefwGif ppfa&;avhusifhr_ðyvkyfonf? qdkAD,ufwyfzGJ@rsm;u ydkvefEdkifiHòrd@awmfESifh vufvSrf;rDaomae&mwGif ae&m,lxm;=uonf? tar&duef&Sd 0g&Sifweftpdk;&ESifh taemufOa&myEdkifiHrsm;u qdkAD,ufusL;ausmrf _jzpfvmEdkifzG,f&Sda=umif; owday;ajymqdk=uonf? xdktcsdefwGif aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~uvnf; ‚if;.tzGJ@0ifrsm;udk v_H@aqmfwyfvSef@aecJhonf? wEdkifiHvHk;qdkif&maumfr&Sifu vDeifoabFmusif;twGif;wGif ‚if;wdk@&HkudkzGifhxm;onf? a'oqdkif&mXmecsKyfrsm;uvnf; tum tuG,frJhaomtaqmuftODrsm;rSaeI puf&rHk sm;twGif;ajymif;0ifum cHwyfðyIaeonf? bDd*dk&SpfwGif aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&; or*~onf ‚if;wdk@.tvkyfrsm;udk &xm;0if;twGif;ajymif;a&$@Ivkyfonf? &xm;rsm;ESifh &xm;jyifwGifcHkrsm;u tumtuG,f ozG,f jzpfap=uonf? tu,fI taxGaxGoydwf}uD;qifE$J&rnfqdkygu tvkyform;rsm;taejzifh puf&Hkrsm;udkodrf;ydkuf+yD;/ vGefcJhaom=o*kwfvoydwf}uD;wkef;u vDeifoabFmusif;ESifh trfautufpfwdk@ aqmif&Gufovdk vkyf=uvdrfhrnfjzpfonf? tu,fI tpdk;&taejzifh ta&;ay:tajctaea=ujimyguvnf;/ oydwfarSmufwdkufyGJ0ifolrsm;u tu,fI aoG;pnf;nD!Gwf a&;aumfrwD0ifrsm;zrf;cHcJh&ygu/ ta&;ay:aqmif&GufEdkif&ef t&HoifhaemufcH &SJ'dk;aumfrwDrsm;zGJ@pnf;Ixm;=uonf? tu,fI qdkAD,ufwyfrsm;usL;ausmf0ifa&mufvmyguvnf; òrd@olòrd@om;rsm;u vrf;jyqdkif;bkwfrsm;udkajymif;vJI/ rnfonfhtultnD r#ray;ap&ef pDpOfxm;cJh=uonf? aom=umae@a&mufvmaomtcg/ eHeuf (8) em&DY ydkvefEdkifiHtpGef;wzuf&Sd puf&HkwckrSO=ooHxGufay:vmcJhonf? O=ooHrsm; puf&Hkrsm;tvdkuf vufqufurf;oGm;cJh+yD;/ tvkyform;rsm;vnf; olwdk@.u&d,mwefqmyvmrsm;udk vufucsvdkufawmh onf? ygwDtrdef@udkqef@usifum ygwD0ifaygif;woef;ausmfu oydwfawmif;qdkoHudk vdkufemaqmif&GufcJh=uonf? &kyfjrifoH =um;jrifuGif;rsm;u yvm? aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~-qENjyaeonf[kom vmonf? tcsKd@ta&;}uD;vGef;aompuf&HktcsKd@om usefonf? Oyrm r&Sdrjzpfvdktyfaomvkyfief;rsm;/ oHr%dpuf&HkESifh vufeufpuf&Hkrsm; jzpfonf? “jrif&wm wrsKd;}uD;xl;qef; aew,f” txufwef;ausmif;omwOD;jzpfol &m'uf qDaumpuD;u ajymonf? “tenf;qHk; vrf;ab;ukefpHkqdkifav;awmif rzGifhzl;? vrf;ay:rSm um;wpD;wav/ bwfpfum;wpD;wavrS rawG@&zl;? ” taqmuftODrsm;wGif tjzL/ teDa&mift0wfp rsm;jzifh wGJvGJcsxm;=uonf? vltrsm;u tjzLa&mifESifh teDa&mifvufarmif;ywfrsm;udk ywfxm;=uonf? ae@vnfydkif;a&muf aomtcg O=ooHjyef=um;&+yD;/ oydwfudk &yfqdkif;vdkuf=uay+yD? aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~u olwdk@.tm;udkjyvdkufonf? tvm;wlyif qdkAD,ufuvnf; olwdk@.tm;udk jyjyefonf? ,ck tcsdeftxd wifhum;rsm;u aus;vufa'orsm;wGif ckwfarmif;oGm;vmaeqJjzpf+yD;/ qdkAD,ufowif;Xme wyfpfuvnf;/ tzsuftarSmufaqmif&Gufvdkaomtiftm;pkrsm;u ydkvefEdkifiHwGif tm%modrf;ydkuf&ef=uHpnfaea=umif; aoG;&l;aoGG;wef; owif;v$ifhaecJhonf? aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~u t*Fgae@wGif taxGaxGoydwfarSmuf&ef jyifqif=uaomtcg/ *g&Jruf ESifh rmaZm0DpuD;wdk@u bm0ifqmudk tpGef;xda&mufaomtaetxm;rS aemufjyefqkwfyg&ef wdkufwGef;=uonf? *dk%f;csKyfbkef; awmf}uD; 0gZif;puD;uvnf; Tt=uyftwnf;rSvGwfajrmufEdkifaom tjcm;enf;vrf;rsm;&Sm=uH=uyg&ef wdkufwGef;onf? a&mrrSaeIvnf; ykwf&[ef;rif;}uD;u awG@qHkaqG;aEG;oabmwlnDr_,l=uyg&ef wdkufwGef;onf? bm0ifqmtaejzifhvnf; Todk@owday;ajym=um;csufrsm;udk tav;teufoabmaygufonf? odk@aomfolodaeonfu atmufajc&Jabmftrsm;tae jzifh oydwfarSmuf&efpdwftm;xufoefae=uonf? oltaejzifh aemufqHk; qHk;jzwfcsufcs&awmhonf? 'Drdkua&pDwGif tuef@ towfawmh&Sd&rnf? xdktwGufa=umifh T&ufowWygwfukefESifh olESifh ol.or*~acgif;aqmifrsm;u tm%mydkifrsm;ESifh tajz &Sma&;twGuf aqG;aEG;=uawmhrnf[k qHk;jzwfvdkufonf? bm0ifqmtaejzifh tpdk;&.awG@qHkaqG;aEG;a&;udk,fpm;vS,f rDZD qavm &maumpuD;ESifh rsufESmcsif;qdkifawG@=uonf? tjcmaomacgif;aqmifrsm;u 0gaqm&Sd[dkw,ftcef;wckwGif usefcJh onf? rnfonfhtajctaerS rod&?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)134


wevFmae@eHeuf (7; 30) em&Da&mufaomtcg/ vltrsm;u tvkyfydwf&ufrsm;twGif; oydwf}uD;qifE$J&eftwGuf tpm; taomufrsm;jyifqif+yD;=u+yD/ tdyf,mrsm; jyifqif+yD;=u+yD? ydkvefvlrsKd;rsm;u &kyfjrifoH=um;udkzGifhvdkuf=uonf? olwdk@jrif& onfu tif'a& 0D,mZf'gu a=ujimcsufwckudk zwfaeonf? xdka=ujimcsufrSm aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~ESifh tpdk;&wdk@ oabmwlnDcsufwckudk vufrSwfa&;xdk;cJhonfh ta=umif;yif? tm%mydkifrsm;u bD*dk&SpfwGifjzpfcJhaom &Jrsm;.vkyfaqmifr_ rsm;rSm rSm;,Gif;a=umif;0efcH+yD;/ ,cifoabmwlnDcsufrsm;. tajccHjzpfaom jy\emrsm;udk awG@qHkaqG;aEG;aomenf;jzifh ajz&Sif;a&;udkvnf; csKd;azmuf&ma&mufa=umif; 0efcHonf? xdkodk@&dkufESufr_rsm;twGuf 0rf;enf;a=umif;udkvnf;azmfjyonf? wm0ef&Sdolrsm;udkvnf; ta&;,lrnf[k qdkonf? tpdk;&taejzifhvnf; aus;vufaoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~udpPwGif xyfrH pGufzufvdrfhrnfr[kwfa=umif; ajymonf? odk@aomfrSwfyHkwifa&;udpPudkrl qdkif;iHhxm;ao;onf? xdktcg aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&; or*~zufu oydwfudkrvkyfawmhyJ avsmhay;vdkufonf? “usaemhtjrift&awmh tEW&m,fu odyf}uD;w,f?” bm0ifqmu olu aemufxyfoabmwlnDr_wckudk vkyfcJhonfhta=umif; jyef&Sif;jy&if;/ aemufydkif;wGif jyefajymonf? EdkifiHvHk;qdkif&m aumfr&Sifu t*Fgae@ESifh Ak'<[l;ae@rsm;wGif *'ef@pfcfY awG@qHk=uonf? udk,fpm;vS,frsm;u olwdk@.a'gorsm;udk bm0ifqmtay: yHkcs=uonf? qdkAD,ufwifhum;rsm;a=umifh a=umufvef@oGm;+yDavm[k trsufxGuf=uonf? rsm;rsm;pm;pm; tusKd;tjrwfjyefvnf&&Sdjcif;r&SdyJ/ tpdk;&udk ig;rsm;csdwfrSvGwfay;vdkufonf[k olwdk@uqdk=uonf? xdk@tjyif 'Drdkua&pDrqef aomol. vkyf&yftay:vnf; tjypfzdk@=uonf? oydwfwdkufyGJudk &yfqdkif;vdkufzdk@ bm0ifqmwdkufwGef;r_a=umifh a=ujim&ol 0D,mhZf'gudkvnf; ol.aysmhnHhr_a=umifhtjypfwif=u+yD;/ obmywdtzGJ@0iftjzpfrS E_wfxGufay;&ef awmif;qdk=uonf? tefem a0:vifwDEdk0pfZfu aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~taejzifh a&S@udkqufvufcsDwufoifha=umif;ESifh b,fvdkjzpfjzpf oydwfudkqifE$J oifha=umif; ajymonf? olrudk vDeifoabFmusif;tvkyform;rsm;. udk,fpm;vS,ftjzpfrSz,f&Sm;cH&onf? or*~udkpwif wnfaxmifchJaom tjrLawonf,ckawmh wppDòyduGJ&+yD? bD*dk&SpfudpPwGif oabmxm;uGJvGJ=u&aomfvnf;/ aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~. (1981) aEGOD;umvwav#mufvHk; &&SdpGrf; aqmifEdkifcJhaom&vm'frsm;onf/ vHk;0aygufuGJa&;r[kwfyJ xdef;nd‡oGm;aom r[mAsL[mutvkyfjzpfa=umif; jyocJhonf? or*~. txda&mufqH;k aomzdtm;vufeufrSm taxGaxGvkyfief;cGifoydwfjzpf+yD;/ (1980) =o*kwfvwGif urf;&dk;wef;a'o tvkyform;rsm;upwifum/ aemufydkif;wGif ydkvefwEdkifiHvHk;tESH@tjym; twk,lusifhoHk;vm=uaomenf; jzpfonf? wEdkifiHvHk; tESH@tjym; or*~tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;wGif tiftm; (10) oef;cef@&SdI/ oydwfpwifvdkufygu tcsdefwdktwGif;rSmyif wEdkifiHvHk;.pD;yGg; a&;udk v_yfcgoGm;apEdkifonf? Twif;ykwfvufeufudk trSefwu,ftoHk;rðyyJ/ csdef&G,f&if;jzifh aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~onf aoG;xGufoH,dkr_rsm;udk a&Smif&Sm;EdkifcJhonf? ydkvefEdkifiHudkvnf; rxifrSwfxm;aomtaetxm;txd ajymif;vJvmapcJhonf? t"du tajccHtajymif;tvJrSm ,cktcgtus,ftjyef@aomydkvefvkyfom;xk}uD;rSm/ ygwDxdef;csKyfr_ jyifywGifzGJ@pnf;rdvmjcif; jzpfonf? aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~tzGJ@0ifrsm;wGif puf&Hkvkyfom;rsm;r#omruyJ/ ausmif;q&mrsm;/ q&m0efrsm;/ olemðyrsm;/ tif*sifeD,mrsm;ESifh pufr_ynm&Sifrsm;vnf; yg0if=uonf? aemufqHk; &Jt&m&Sdrsm;yg yg0if=uonf? woef;ausmfaomv,f orm;rsm;rSm aus;vufaoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~atmufwGif pk&Hk;rd=u+yD? wuUodkvfausmif;om;rsm;uvnf; olwdk@zmom or*~zGJ@pnf;=uonf? uGefjrLepfEdkifiHawmfwcktwGif;Y rdrdzmomzGJ@pnf;xm;=uaomtiftm;pkrsm;&yfwnfaeEdkifaom tae txm;onf wu,fhudk&Sm;&Sm;yg;yg; jzpfonf? Ttjzpftysufu vtenf;i,ftwGif;rSmyif trSefwu,fjzpfvmcJhonf? tvm;wl pdwfv_yf&Sm;zG,f&maumif;aomudpPrSm vlxkrsm;.b0twGif; jzpfay:vmcJhaomtajymif;tvJ jzpfonf? aoG;pnf; nD!Gwfa&;or*~acgif;aqmifrsm;/ PZPR ygwD0ifrsm;/ bk&m;ausmif;tzGJ@0ifrsm;tygt0ifjzpfaom vlwodef;ausmfrSm 'DZifbm (16) &ufae@wGif vDeifoabFmusif;a&S@Y pk&Hk;rd=uonf? olwdk@.a&S@wGif (1970) vltpktòyHvdkufowfjzwfcH&r_wGif usqHk;oGm; &olrsm;twGuf *k%fðyxm;aom ay (140) ausmfjrifhonfh txdrf;trSwfausmufwdkif &Sdonf? Ttcrf;tem;wav#mufvHk; vltrsm;u aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~rS wm;jrpfxm;aom t&ufydwfyifr_udk vkdufemaqmif&GufcJh=uonf? olwdk@u vltrsm; 0ef;enf;a=uuGJ&r_udk jycJh=uonf? aocsmonfrSm Tolrsm;udktpdk;&taejzifh qGJaqmifpnf;&Hk;&efrjzpfEdkifawmhjcif;yif jzpf onf? udkvufaumpuD;/ ul&GefESifh rDcsDepfcfwdk@pnf;&Hk;ajymqdkcJh=uaom yk*~vduqdkif&m vlr_tzGJ@tpnf;rsm; rsuf0g;xifxifay: aygufvmcJh=ujcif;yif jzpfonf? owif;jyef=um;a&;Xmersm;tay: tpdk;&csKyfudkifxdef;csKyfr_onfvnf; (1980) ckESpfaqmifydkif; tpydkif;umvrsm;wGif twefi,f aysmhajymif;vmcJhonf? ,cifu tpdk;&xdef;csKyfxmaomowif;pmrsm;udk &&Sda&;twGuf vltrsm;u ukefpkHqdkifrsm;wGif wef;&Snf}uD;pDI apmifhqdkif;cJh=u&onf? ,cktcg Towif;pmrsm;wGif EdkifiHa&;t&tjiif;yGg;zG,fjzpfaom owif;azmfjycsufrsm;/ obm0ygwf0ef;usifysufpD;apaom ta=umif;rsm;udkazmfjycsufrsm; ygvm=u+yD? aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~. a'oqdkif&mXmecGJ wdkif;uvnf; owif;pmrsm;xkwfa0ae=u+yD? odk@aomf &kyfjrifoH=um;rsm;wGif xdef;csKyfr_rsm;u wif;wif;=uyf=uyf&SdaeqJyif? odk@aomfvnf; aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~twGuf xkwfv$ifhcsdefudk &kyfjrifoH=um;ESifh a&'D,dktwGuf oD;oef@cGJay;onf? we*FaEG

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)135


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jyif;xefaompum;vHk;rsm;? tm;ausmhaomtdyfrufrsm; aoG;pnf;nG!Gwfa&;or*~. nD!Gwfr_rSaeI tm%mwckay:xGef;mvcJhonf? Ttmtmjzifh oydwfrsm;jzihfr+idrfroufjzpfae aom wdkif;jynf}uD;udkxdef;xm;&onfh tpdk;&tm; +cdrf;ajcmuf/ t=uyfudkifEdkifcJhonf? Todk@tvkyform;rsm; tm%m&Sdvm aomtajctaea=umifh ydkvefEdkifiH.usefaomvltzGJ@tpnf;rS tiftm;pkrsm;onfvnf; rdrdwdk@zmompk&Hk;vm=uonf? bD*dk&Spf t=uyftwnf;onf Oyrmwckjzpfonf? v,form;rsm;tay: wdkufcdkufr_pwif&mrS aemufqHk;aus;vufaoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&; or*~ay;vdkuf&aom tajctaejzpfoGm;chJonf? odk@aomf (1981) ckESpftwGif; vtenf;i,fjzwfoef;&if;/ Ttm%mudk&vm aqmif&Gufay;cJhaom r[mAsL[ma=umifh Ttm%mudktoHk;ðy&efydkIcufcJa=umif; awG@vm=u&onf? aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~zufrS csOf;uyfyHkonf/ rdrd.qef@usifzuftiftm;pkzufrSpdwfaumif;apwem&Sdr_tay: vHk;0ar#mfvifh xm;yHk&onf? (1970) ckESpfrsm;uwnf;uyif rpfcsepfua&;cJhzl;onf? PZPR ygwDonf vufawG@0g'Drsm;ESihfa&m/ tcGifhta&; orm;rsm;ESifhygpkzGJ@xm;onf? rmufpf-vDeif0g'udk trSefwu,f,Hk=unfolrsm;jzifh zGJ@pnf;xm;jcif;r[kwf? “ygwD. vufawG@ 0g'Drsm;onf 'Drdkua&pDðyjyifajymif;vJa&;udk vufcH=uvdrfhrnf r[kwf? A[k0g'ESihf trSefwu,fudk,fydkifjyXmef;cGifh&Sdaom tpdk;&tajctaeudk ajymif;ay;=uvdrfhrnf r[kwf? ” rpfcsepfu a&;cJhonf? “odk@aomfxdkolrsm;taejzifh óuHvm&aom A[k 0g'ajymif;vJvdkonfhzdtm; ESifh awG@qHknd‡Ed_if;ajz&Sif;jcif;uom taumif;qHk;jzpfEdkifonfudk odEdkifaomt&nftcsif;&Sdonf?” xdkolrsm;twGuf zdESdyfjcif;onfjy\emrsm;udkajyvnfapvdrfhrnfr[kwfa=umif;ESifh aemufxyfjy\emwckxyfrHjzpfyGg;apa&; twGuf aygufuGJap&efta=umif;zefay;jcif;omjzpfa=umif;/ odEdkifonf? Todk@awG@&aom &vm'fudk a&SmifvGJ@Ir&Edkif? ”[k qdk onf? tu,fI rpfcsepfomrSefcJhv#if/ yHkrSef xdef;csKyfxm;aom/ pepfwusay;aom aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~. zdtm;onf awG@qHkaqG;aEG;yGJrsm;wGif trSefwu,fatmifyGJ&ap&ef pGrf;aqmifEdkif=uvdrfhrnf? vlwOD;csif;u vlr_tajcðyvlxktzGJ@pnf;rsm; xGef;um;a&;twGuf aqmif&GufEdkif=uayvdrfhrnf? =o*kwfvv_yf&Sm;r_aemufydkif;wGif xdyfwef;tm%m&,lxm;aom uGefjrLepf (2) OD;onf/ rpfcsepfu orkwfazmfjyxm;cJhaom vufawG@0g'Drsm;yHkpHtwdkif; jzpfvmcJhonf? pwefepfpavm uefeD,monf uGefjrLepfacgif;aqmifrsm;teufrS yxrtwGif;a&; rSL;jzpf+yD;/ tuf0yf *J&uftwdkif; wyHkpHwnf;/ waoGrwdrf;jzpfvmcJhonf? ol@,cifuqufcHonfholtwdkif; olonfvnf;qif;&J aomrdom;pku aygufzGm;vmI/ ygwDxdyfydkif;acgif;aqmifae&m a&mufvmonftxdv_yf&Sm;&kef;uefcJh&onf? xdkumvrsm; twGif;EdkifiHa&;upm;yGJrsm;udk u|rf;u|rf;usifusifjzwfoef;vmcJh&onf? olu xdyfwdkufyÉdyuQrsKd;rawG@&avatmif/ &Snf&Snf a0;a0;oGm;vdkvSonf? aus;Zl;wifp&maumif;aomtcsufrSm =o*kwfvoabmwlnDcsufrsm;vufrSwfa&;xdk;Edkifa&;twGuf ygwDzufwGif ol.pGrf;aqmifcsufrsm;ygonfqdkaom tcsufyifjzpfonf? t=urf;zufvrf; ra&G;cJhonfudkyif aus;Zl;wif&rnf? aemufydkif;wGif or*~topfESifh awG@qHkaqG;aEG;yGJrsm;Y olygvmcJhonf? umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;/ AdkvfcsKyf0dkpDtufcsf ,m&lZJpuD;onf (1981) ckESpf azaz:0g&DvwGif 0ef}uD;csKyfjzpfvmcJhonf? xdkoluvnf; tjcm;xl;jcm;aom toGifwrsKd;aqmifjyefonf? (1980) ckESpfrsm;txd ygwDxdyfwef;acgif;aqmifrsm;onf ynmt&nftcsif; tenf;i,fom&Sd=uaom/ tEkpdwfudpPrsm;udk tenf;i,fompDrHcef@cGJEdkif=uaom olrsm;jzpfonf? Ttcsufuyif twdkuftcH rsm;zufu ynmwwfrsm;. &,foGrf;aoG;p&mtcsufjzpfcJhonf? xdkolrsm;ESifh Ed_if;,SOfcsuft&qdkv#if ,m&lZJpuD;onf/ ajr&Sif rdom;pkrSaygufzGm;vm+yD;/ ol@toGifwGifvnf; azmfjyaeonf? ol@wGif rdrdzmompnf;urf;aumif;r_ESifh &dk;om;r_twGufemrnf aumif;&oljzpfonf? (1970) ckESpfrsm;twGif; ygwDacgif;aqmifrsm;t=um;jzpfyGg;aecJhaomjcpm;r_rsm;=um;Y uif;uGmatmifae EdkifcJholjzpfonf? vltrsm;pku rSm;,Gif;pGm,Hk=unfaeaomtcsufrSm (1970) qENjyyGJrsm;jzpfygG;pOfu aoG;ajrusr_rsm;rjzpfyGg;& avatmif TAdkvfcsKyfuvdkvm;cJhonf[k ,lqae=uonf? TAdkvfcsKyftaejzifh 0ef}uD;csKyfjzpfvmaomtcg/ bm0ifqmu ol@ udk “ydkvefEdkifiHom;aumif;wOD;”tjzpf E_wfqufcJhonf? bD*dk&Spft=uyftwnf;umvuqdkv#if xdkAdkvfcsKyfudk usaemfwdk@ ,Hk=unfEdkifaom wOD;wnf;aom,leDazmif;0wf[lI ajymcJhao;onf? uefeD,mESifh ,m&lZJpuD;wdk@onf usKd;a=umif;qDavsmfpOf;pm;wwfaom/ qifjcifwHkw&m;&Sdaomolrsm; jzpf=uonf? xdkolrsm; u aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~ESifhoabmwlnDxm;aomtcsufrsm;/ vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;rsm;udkvnf; vdkufemapmifhxdef;Edkifolrsm; jzpf=uonf? ta=umif;rSm olwdk@uvdkvdkvm;vm;apmifhxdef;vdkaoma=umifhr[kwfyJ/ tjcm;aemufwvrf;rSm ydkIqdk;&Gm;aom a&G;cs,fp&m jzpfaoma=umifhyif? od@k aomfvnf; tpdk;&xJwGifTodk@tjrifudk vufrcHvdkaomtiftm;pkrsm;vnf; tajrmuf trsm;&Sd=uonf? or*~opfay:xGufvmonfudk r&_pdrfhEdkifaomor*~a[mif;rS t}uD;tuJrsm;/ =o*kwfvoabmwlnDcsufrsm; twdkif;aqmif&Gufygu tcGifhxl;avsmhyg;oGm;zG,f&m&Sdaom ygwDAsL&dku&ufrsm;/ vkyfief;cGifwGif 'Drdkua&pD&Sdvmjcif;tm;jzifh olwdk@.=oZmavsmhyg;oGm;Edkifaom pufr_vkyfief;rsm;rS refae*smrsm;u rvdkvm;=uay? Todk@,cifu róuHcJh&zl;aomawG@qHk

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)136


aqG;aEG;yGJrsm;vkyfae&onfuyif olwdk@udkapmfum;ovdkjzpfaecJhonf? a&'D,dkvd_if;rsm;rSvnf;aumif;/ owif;pmrsm;rSvnf; aumif;=um;ae&onf? tpdk;&.jypfr_rsm;ESifh trSm;t,Gif;rsm;udk =um;ae&onf? xdkolrsm;twGuf uefeD,mtaejzifh aoG; pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~rsm;ESifh vdkufavsmqufqHaejcif;rSm ygwDudka&mif;pm;ovdkjzpfaeonf? rif;rJh0g'tajctaerjzpfcif wyfqkwfae&ovdk jzpfaeonf? ygwDwGif;a'golykefxae=uaomvkyfazmfudkifzufrsm;xufpmv#if uefeD,mESihf ,m&lZJpuD;wdk@ydkIpdk;&drfzG,faumif;aom udpP&Sd aeao;onf? qdkAD,ufacgif;aqmifrsm;u aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~udk taumif;enf;enf;rSrjrifEdkif/ olwdk@u aoG;pnf;nD !Gwfa&;or*~udk qdk&S,fvpf0g'qef@usifa&;&efolrsm;. tumtuG,fwck[k jrif=uonf? qdkAD,uf,leD,HESifh ydkvefqufqH a&;udk jzwfawmufypfrnfhudpPwck[k jrif=uonf? &k&Sm;qef@usifa&;pdwf"gwfazmfjycsuf rnfonfhenf;ESifhazmfjyr_rqdk u&if rviftpdk;&u a'goxGufonf? ylvdk0Da'o òrd@i,fav;wckrS aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;owif;pmwGifazmfjyxm;aom umwGef;wck wGif qdkAD,ufacgif;aqmif vD,dkepf b&ufZnufyHkudkqGJxm;jcif;udpPudkyif apm'uwufcJhonf? b&ufZnufudk,fYu uefeD ,mudkw,fvDzkef;jzifhqufoG,fI zdtm;ay;cJhao;onf? wcgw&Hwae@v#if w,fvDzkef; (3) }udrfcef@ac:onf? ppftkyfcsKyfa&; Oya'xkwfoifhonf[k awmif;qdkonf? u&ifrvif&Sd tpdk;&t}uD;tuJ u aemufqHk;tpdk;&taejzifh vufeufrsm;udkwae&m wGifpkòyHxm;+yD;/ aemufqHk;aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~u vkyfav[efjzpfatmif zefwD;zdk@yif t=uHay;ao;onf? Ttcsufudk ta=umif;jyI zdESdyfacsr_ef;a&;vkyfEdkifonf? uefeD,mESifh ,m&lZJpuD; ESpfOD;pvHk;uqdkAD,ufay:vpfAsL&dkacgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh awG@ &rnfhtpnf;ta0;udk tcsdefrsm;pGm qkdif;iHhaecJhonf? t}udrf}udrfa&$@qdkif;aecJhonf? Ttpnf;ta0;rsm;wGif olwdk@taejzifh em&Daygif;rsm;pGmqlyl}udrf;armif;cHae=u&rnfjzpf+yD;/ olwdk@.twdkuftcHrsm;ESifh yl;aygi;f =uHpnfaeonf[k pGyfpGJcH=u&rnfjzpf onf? ,m&lZJpuD;u aemufydkif;jyefvnfajymjy&mwGif ol@taejzifh (1981) umvrsm;twGif;/ ol.ZeD;ESifh orD;ESifhae&aom tcsdefxufpmv#if qdkAD,ufppfacgif;aqmif rm&S,fApfwmulvDaumhzfESifh aeaomtcsdefu ydkIrsm;cJha=umif; ajymjyonf? xdktcsdefwGif aygufuGJzG,f&mtjcm;t&if;tjrpfwckvnf; &Sdaeao;onf? =o*kwfoydwfwdkufyGJrsm;u ygwDatmufajcxk twGif;wGif vlxktHkºuGr_}uD;jzpfapcJhonf? tiftm; 3-oef;&Sdonfhteuf tiftm; (2) odef;cef@uygwDrSE_wfxGufoGm;=uonf? xdk@tjyif tjcm;woef;cef@rSm aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~rsm;ESifh yl;aygif;aeEdkifao;onf? trsm;pkaomtiftm;pkrsm;rSm tv,ftvwfwef;ygwDacgif;aqmifrsm; r[kwf=uyJ/ atmufajc&Jabmfxkrsm; jzpf=uonf? xdkolrsm;u ygwDudk'Drdkua&pDðyjyif ajymif;vJa&;vkyf&ef awmif;qdk=uonf? txl;tcGifhta&;rsm;&yfqdkif;&ef/ ygwDtpnf;ta0;rsm;wGif vGwfvyfyGifhvif;pGmjiif;ckef cGifhay;&ef/ txufydkif;acgif;aqmifrsm;a&G;cs,fwifajr‡muf&mY a&G;aumufyGJrsm;udkw&m;r#wpGmvkyf&efwdk@ awmif;qdkvmcJhonf? Ttcsufrsm;u ygwDwGif;&Sdacgif;rmtiftm;pkrsm;twGufa&m/ aysmhajymif;aomtiftm;pkrsm;twGufyg +cdrf;ajcmufr_[k jrif=u onf? umvwdkwcktcsdeftxd ðyjyifajymif;vJa&;orm;rsm;u tompD;&aeoa,mifxifae&onf? (1981) ckESpftapmydkif;a&muf aomtcg/ a'oqdkif&mygwDXmecGJrsm;u vGwfvyfpGmòydifqdkifcGifh&Sdaoma&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufyGJrsm; usif;y=u+yD;/ ZlvdkifvwGifusif; yrnfhuGef*&ufwufa&muf&ef udk,fpm;vS,fudka&G;cs,f=uonf? Ta&G;aumufyGJrsm;u vGwfvyfpGmaqmif&Gufae=u+yD;/ &kef; &if;qefcwfvnf; EdkifvSonf? udk,fpm;vS,frsm;u ygwDacgif;aqmifrsm;udka0zefwdkufcdkuf=u+yD;/ ygwDwGif;vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;rsm; udk ðyjyifajymif;vJa&;vkyf=uonf? odk@aomftrsm;pkudk qdkAD,ufay:vpfAsL&dku +cdrf;ajcmuf}udrf;armif;onfudkcH=u&+yD;/ aemuf ydkif;wGif 'Drdkua&pDðyjyifajymif;vJa&;óud;yrf;r_rsm;udk “ygwDudkzsufodrf;&ef óud;yrf;r_tjzpf” wHqdyfwyfcH&onf? tu,fI trsm;}uD;wGef;xdk;aqmif&Gufygu tEW&m,fóuHvmEdkifonf[k axmufjy=uonf? odk@aomfudk,fpm;vS,ftrsm;pku ,cif A[dk aumfrwD0iftrsm;pkESifh ay:vpfAsL&dktzGJ@0ifrsm;udk jyefvnfa&G;cs,f&efjiif;qef=uonf? ðyjyifajymif;vJa&;orm;vlenf;pkrsm;u acgif;aqmifr_ &vmcJh=uonf? xdyfydkif;wGifrl tvkyform;rsm;ESifhnd‡Ed_if;ajyvnfr_,lvdkolrsm;ESifh ydwfqdk@[efwm;vdkolrsm; t=um;tm;òydifr_u qufIwnf&SdaecJhonf? ygwDwGif;jzpfysufaer_tajctaeudk aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~tzGJ@0ifrsm;u pdwf0ifpm;r_tenf;i,fom&SdcJhonf? trsm;pkaom wufºuGv_yf&Sm;olrsm;.tjrifwGif PZPR ygwDonf/ rD;ZmukefqDcrf;aeaom tiftm;pkjzpfaeay+yD? olwdk@u ygwDxHrSar#mf vifhxm;aomtajctaerSm *k%foduQm&Sdaom aemufqkwfxGufvrf;yifjzpfonf? ygwDxdyfydkif;&Sad oae+yDjzpfaom tav;csdefwdk@ u atmufajcrSEkysKdxdk;xGufvmaom vlr_tzGJ@tpnf;topf.zdtm;udk rcHEdkifawmhay? xdyfydkif;rSacgif;aqmifwOD;jzpfaom ,m&lZJpuD;u ygwD.tcef;u¾udkavsmhcsay;&ef oabmxm;&Sda=umif; olwdk@od&SdcJhv#ifawmifrS/ aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~ uJhodk@ olykefxolrsm;u bma=umifhar#mfvifhcsufqufxm;ae&OD;rnfenf;[k ar;p&m&Sdvmonf? odk@aomf ydkvefuGefjrLepfrsm;onf olwdk@ta&;udpPrsm;udk olwdk@udk,fwdkifzefw;D EdkifcGifh &Sdolrsm;r[kwf=uay? u&ifrvifrSvmae aomtoHrsm;udk vspfvsLðyIrxm;Edkif=uay? em;yif;csifa,mif aqmifaeIr&ay? ppftkyfcsKyfa&;Oya'xkwf&efvdktyfygu jyif qifxm;aomtajctae ta&;ay:pDrHcsufwapmifudk ,m&lZJpuD;vufrSwfjzifhyif rwfvqef;ydkif;wGif armfpudkodk@wifjyvdkuf =u&onf? Ttajctaeu bD*dk&Spftjzpftysuf rjzpfcif (2) ygwftvdkwGifjzpfonf? wv=umaomtcg uefeD,mESifh ,m&l ZJpuD;wkd@ Zmyk0grsm;um&Hxm;aomvlrsm;pGef@cGgoGm;onfh &xm;ay:wGif olwdk@udk,folwdk@awG@vdkuf=u&awmhonf? xdk&xm;u

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)137


qdkAD,ufEdkifiHe,fajrtwGif;wGif jzpfonf? qdkAD,ufxdyfwef;ay:vpfAsL&dkacgif;aqmif (2) OD;jzpfol ,l&D tif'&dkaygzfESifh 'DrDx&D tlpwDaemhzfwdk@u (6) em&Dausmf=um }udrf;armif;onfudkcHae&onf? xdkolrsm;u rnfonfhae@&ufwGifacsr_ef;rnfudk &uf awmif;ae=uonf? ydkvefacgif;aqmifrsm;u t=uyf&dkuf=u&onf? ar;cGef;u acsr_ef;a&;/ racsr_ef;a&;r[kwf? rnfonfhtcsdef wGifacsr_ef;rnfenf;[lI jzpfaeonf? pufwifbmvv,fa&mufaomtcg ppftkyfcsKyfa&;Oya'pDrHcsufu tacsmowff+yD;ae+yD? atmufwdkbmv (18) &ufae@a&mufaomtcg uefeD,mu ygwDtwGif;a&;rSL;tjzpfrSuefxkwfcHcJh&+yD;/ ol@ae&mwGif ,m&lZJ puD;wufvmcJhonf? xdktajctaewGif ppfa&;t&pGufzuf&efrSm a&Smifv$JrjzpfEdkifawmh/ odk@aomfaemufa=umif;jyefI=unfhaomtcg Todk@pGufzufcJh r_rsKd;udk &SmIyifrawG@Edkif? ppftkyfcsKyfa&;Oya'usifhoHk;a&;twGuf jyifqifaer_rsm;onf aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~vufvSrf;rrD Edkifaom ae&mwGifjyifqifaecJhonf? xdktwGufa=umifh or*~taejzifhtqdk;qHk;tajctaetwGuf olwdk@jyifqifxm;=u&awmh rnfudk rodEdkifcJh=u? vufbm0ifqmu ol.vkyfazmfudkifzuf&Jazmfrsm;udk tpdk;&udktxifao;av#mhrwGufrdap&ef owday; ajym=um;cJhaomfvnf;/ olvnf;aoaocsmcsm rod&SdcJh? or*~acgif;aqmifrsm;u olwdk@&Jabmfrsm;udka&S@wGiftEW&m,frsm;óuH& EdkifzG,f&Sda=umif; owday;ajym=um;aeaomfvnf;/ v_yf&Sm;r_twGif; tpdk;r&aomtajctaea=umifh vrf;a=umif;udkaemufwck a&$@ajymif;csrSwf&efyif cufcJvSonf? (1981) ckESpf vltrsm;óudufv_H@aqmfr_udk pepfwusaoe*FAsL[mt&pOf;pm;wGufcsufr_r&Sd ygyJ aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~tzGJ@0ifrsm;u v_H@aqmfcJhjyefonf? xdkodk@yÉdyuQtajctaeudk ydkIqdk;aponfrSm EdkifiH.pD;yGg;a&;tajctae rdk;wdrfom;rsm;a=umifh jzpfonf? ukefypPnf;rsm;u ydkrdk &Sm;yg;vm+yD;/ aps;0,f&mwGif wef;pD&aomvdkif;u ydkI&Snfvsm;vmcJhonf? o=um;/ *sKHESifh tom;rsm;udk,cktcg cGJwrf;pepfjzifh oma0ay;awmhonf? Todk@v&Snf=umpGmóuHae&aom tcuftcJrsm;u/ *'ef@pfcfpuf&Hkatmifjrifcgpu wufºuGaeaomvl trsm;. cHpm;r_rsm;udkcsKd;ESdrf}udwfcsvdkufovdk jzpfaecJhonf? vltrsm;.tajccHvdktyfcsufrsm; rjynfhpHkaomtcsdefwGif vGwf vyfr_t&omudk cHpm;&efqdkonfrSmcufvSonf? Todk@&Sm;yg;ae&aomudpPrSm jcpm;r_rsm;a=umifhyifjzpfrnf[k vltrsm;u,Hk =unfae=uonf? acgif;rmaeaom AsL&dku&ufrsm;u wrifzsufqD;aeaoma=umifh/ ydkvefpD;yGg;a&;tay: qdkAD,uf,leD,Hu acgif;yHkjzwfaer_a=umifh[k ,lq=uonf? (1981) ckESpf aEG&moDESifh aqmif;OD;&moDa&mufaomtcg/ tcsKd@aomtiftm;pkrsm;u rxifrSwfyJpwifoydwfarSmuf=u+yD;/ pm;a&&duQmtwGufawmif;qdkaom oydwfrsm;vnf; jyef@ESH@oGm;awmhonf? xdkodk@iwfrGwf aeaomvltkyf}uD;. t=urf;zufr_rsm;vnf; ra&SmifEdkif/ rv$JEdkif&Sdvmawmhonf? pD;yGg;a&;t=uyftwnf;a=umifh aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~. r[mAsL[mcsrSwfa&;tay: jy\em&SdvmcJh&onf? tzGJ@0ifrsm; cHpm;ae=u&aomtaetxm;Y or*~rsm;u vufydkuf=unfhaeI r&Edkifay? odk@aomfydkIvGwfvyfaomvlr_vl@abmiftwGuf vkyfydkifcGifhrsm;&&Sd&ef aqmif&Gufaeaomvkyfief;rsm;onf/ vpmwdk;a&;/ tpm;taomuf&a&;udpPr#ESifh tpdk;&ESifhzufòydifae&&if; vdk&mra&muf jzpfEdkifonf? oydwfrsm;a=umifh ,ckvuf&Sdysufae&aompD;yGg;a&;udk ydkI,dkifvJapEdkifonf? ,ckyifEdkifiHjcm;aºuG;+rD rsm;udk jyefrqyfEdkifawmh? tjcm;aom oabmwlnDcsufrsKd;&&Sdygu tajctaeydkIaumif;Edkifonf? tu,fIaoG;pnf;nD!Gwf a&;or*~rsm;u olwdk@.tzGJ@0ifrsm;udkxdef;odrf;Edkif+yD;/ tpDtpOfr&Sd arSmufaeaomoydwfrsm;udkvnf; wm;Edkifygu/ paeae@ tvkyfqif;&ef wdkufwGef;Edkifygu/ axmufyHha=u;rsm;yif ydkI&&SdvmEdkifonf? tm%mydkifrsm;ut=uHðyxm;ovdk aoG;pnf;nD !Gwfa&;or*~taejzifh pD;yGg;a&;rl0g'rsm;csrSwf&mwGif ydkIta&;ygvmEdkifonf? Tenf;tm;jzifh aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~rsm; rS tm%mcGJa0ay;&efygawmif;qdkvmEdkifaomtqifh jzpfvmEdkifonf? (1981) ckESpfae@&ufrsm;ukefvmonfESifhtr# aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~taejzifh (1980) ck =o*kwfvoydwfumvu olwdk@ udk,folwdk@wm;jrpfcsKyfaESmifxm;aomtajctaerS jyefIz,fcgG vmcJhonf? yxrOD;qHk;t}udrf trfautufpftpnf;ta0;udk vDeifoabFmusif;wGifðyvkyf=uaomtcg/ EdkifiHa&;awmif;qdkcsufrsm;udk ab;z,fxm;=uonf? aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~ wufºuGv_yf&Sm;olrsm; udk,fYuqifqmwnf;jzwf xdef;csKyfxm;cJh=uonf? trsm;pkrSm qdkAD,ufv$rf;rdk;cs,fvS,fr_udkemusnf; cg;oD;=uaomfvnf;/ 'Drdkua&pDtxl;vdkcsifvSaomfvnf; rajymcJh=u? Todk@vdktyfaomtajctaeudkvnf; tm;vHk;uonf;cH EdkifcJh=uonf? tu,fI Todk@raqmif&GufcJhygu olwdk@.zufòydiftiftm;pkrsm;uacsr_ef;vdkuf=uvdrfhrnf? odk@aomfvnf; or*~ udkarG;zGm;+yD;I wESpfom;a&mufaomtcg/ Todk@wm;jrpfcsufrsm;u arS;rSdefvm=u+yD? vlxktrsm;pkaxmufcHr_aemufwGif ,pfrl;vm=uonf? EdkifiH&Sdvlxktrsm;pk cHpm;ae=u&aomtwdkif; xif[yfwkef@jyefvdk=uonf? twdkuftcHtiftm;pkrsm;. ppf aoG;ºuGtiftm;pkrsm;. toHuydkIus,favmifvmcJhonf? txl;ojzifh trsKd;om;a&;0g'Drsm;tiftm;pkzufrS vufrcHEdkifzG,fjzpfaomoabmxm;/ ajymqdkcsufrsm;xGufay:vmcJhonf? vGwfvyfaomydkvef uGefz,f'a&;&Sif; (KPN) qdkaomtzGJ@u vGwfvyfaoma&G;aumufyGJrsm;awmif;qdkvmcJhonf? Todk@ qdkv#if PZPR ygwD.tkyfcsKyfa&;ed*Hk;csKyfoGm;zG,f&m &Sdonf? qdkAD,ufzufrS rnfodk@wkef@jyefrnfenf;qdkonfrSm “qdkAD,uf ,leD,H&J@+cdrf;ajcmufr_[m pdwful;,Ofaewmvm;/ wu,fvm;qdkwm odvdkuf&wJhtcsdefrSm odyfaemufusoGm;+yD jzpfaer,f?” ,ef &lvJpuD;ua=ujimcJhonf? olu bD*dk&Spfta&;tcif;wkef;u &dkufcHcJh&olwOD;jzpfonf? odk@aomf auyDtJefacgif;aqmifrsm; u “usaemfwdk@qEN&Sd&if rjzpfEdkifzl;qdkwm bmrSr&Sdzl;” [k wkef@jyefcJhonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)138


odk@aomfaoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;acgif;aqmifrsm;u xufoefwufºuGaomtoHrsm;aemufrS aemufusefae&pf&efvnf;rjzpfEdkifay? wyfOD;tjzpf a&S@u&Sdae&efvdkao;onf? ygwD. EdkifiHa&;vuf0g;}uD;tkyfcsKyfudkifxm;r_udk tqHk;owf&eftwGuf rawmif;qdkaomf vnf;/ “'kwd,urBmppf+yD;aemufydkif; ta&S@Oa&myay:aygufvmcJh&aom tm%mpepf”udkawmh todtrSwfðy tav;xm;& onf? or*~u ‚if;.&yfwnfcsufrsm;udk atmufwdkbmvwGifjyefI jyifqifowfrSwfcJhonf? ydkvefEdkifiHudku,fwif&eftwGuf wckwnf;aomenf;vrf;rSm “ydkvefEdkifiH. EdkifiHa&;pD;yGg;a&;pepfudk 'Drdkua&pDtajccHESifh vlwdkif;yg0ifaqmif&GufcGifh óud;yrf;cGifh&Sd onfqdkaomtajccHay:wGif jyefvnfjyifqif,ljcif;uom taumif;qHk;jzpfonf” [k qdkcJhonf? a'oqdkif&mtpdk;&rsm;udk 'Drdk ua&pDenf;us ðyjyifajymif;vJ&efvdkonf? EdkifiHom;wdkif;onf w&m;Oya'.a&S@arSmufY wef;wlcGifh&Sd&efvdktyfonf? w&m; ol}uD;rsm;onf oD;jcm;vGwfvyfolrsm;jzpf&rnf pojzifh awmif;qdkonf? Todk@aoGpnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~u a=ujimpmwrf;topfudk jyifqifa&;qGJa=ujim+yD;aemuf/ aemufxyfoabmwlnDr_topf rsm; nd‡Ed_if;&,lEdkifa&;twGuf wifjycJhonf? ,m&lZJpuD;ESifh ol.aemufvdkufrsm;u ppfOya'xkwf&efjyifqifae=uay+yD? odk@ aomfolwdk@wyfzGJ@rsm;. emcHEdkifr_taetxm;/ tm;udk;&EdkifzG,f tajctaeudkwGufqae=uonf? yHkrSef&JwyfzGJ@0ifrsm;onf vuf awG@wGiftenf;i,fr#om toHk;0ifawmhonf? &JwyfzGJ@0ifrsm;. av;yHkwyHkausmfonf aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~tzGJ@0ifrsm;jzpf ae=u+yD? ppfom;rsm;rSmrl ppfom;pkaqmif;xm;olrsm;jzpf+yD;/ olwdk@udkoDoef@cGJjcm;xm;um aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~qef@usif a&;0g'jzef@csdr_rsm; oGwfoGif;xm;ay;=uonf? odk@aomf (2) ESpfppfr_xrf;=u&aom oufwrf;rSmatmufwdkbmvwGif ukefawmh rnf? aemufxyf ppfom;opf (150000) 0ifvmzG,f&Sdaomfvnf;/ Tolrsm;. opPmcHr_rSm pOf;pm;Ir&Edkiaf o;aomtajctae jzpfonf? aocsmaomtaetxm;zufuwGufrnfqdkv#if tpdk;&taejzifh ,ckvuf&SdwyfzGJ@0ifrsm;rxGufcif tcsdef (2) vom &Sdonf? odk@aomfvnf; rnfonfhudpPwdkif;Yrqdk ajcvsifppfwyfrsm;udk'kwd,wef;ae&mwGifom xm;&SdcJhonf? xdyfqHk;0ifa&muf =urnfhwyfrSm t&Htxl;wyfzGJ@rsm;jzpfonf? ‚if;wdk@tiftm;rSm jynfwGif;umuG,fa&;wyfzGJ@rsm;twGif; (100000) cef@&Sd+yD;/ Zdkrdk ac:t=urf;zufESdrfeif;a&;wyfzGJ@rsm;udkvnf; oHk;Edkifonf? xdkwyfzGJ@rsm;rSm aumif;pGmau|;arG;xm;+yD;/ ydkvefvlxkrsm;ESifhvnf; tqufjzwfxm;=uonf? xdktwGufa=umifh xdkolrsm;taejzifh trdef@emcH=urnfqdkonfrSm oHo,&Sdp&mrvdk? ppfOya'xkwfjyefrnfhudpPudk v#Kd@0SufjyifqifaecJhaomfvnf;/ tpdk;&.r[mAsL[mudk vltrsm;urjrifyJ r&Sd=uay? vGefcJhaomESpf aEG&moDrSpI tpdk;&0g'jzef@csDa&;owif;rD'D,mrsm;u or*~rsm;udkwdkufcdkufvmcJh=uonf? aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~ESifh aqG;aEG;yGJrsm; pum;qufajymaeaomfvnf;/ pD;yGGg;a&;rl0g'rsm;csrSwfa&;ESifhywfoufaom tm%mcGJa0ay;a&;udkrl jiif;qef=u onf? tpdk;&taejzifh pD;yGg;a&;qkwf,kwfusqif;aeonfudk a=ueyfae[ef&Sd+yD;/ or*~rsm;a=umifh[k tjypfzdk@vko d nf? xdk@tjyif ppfwyfxJwGif xl;xl;jcm;jcm;wckckjzpfaeonfrSm aocsmvSonf? xdkESpfatmufwdkbmvwGif tpdk;&uppfwyfrsm;udk aus;&Gm aygif; (2000) ausmfodk@ae&mcsxm;rnfjzpfa=umif;/ vlxkrsm;. &duQm&&Sda&;twGufulnD&ef/ w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;a&;ESifh +idrf0yf ydjym;a&;udpPrsm;udk ulnDrnf[k ta=umif;jyonf? aemufwvwGif ppfwyfrsm;udk puf&Hk}uD;rsm;odk@xyfrHydk@jyefonf? Edk0ifbm vukefaomtcg ygwDA[dkaumfrwDrS ykdvefv$wfawmfodk@tpdk;&. txl;tajctaea=ujimcGifh vkyfydkifcGifhtm%mrsm;ay;&ef wif jyawmif;qdkvmcJhonf? xdktm%mxJwGif oydwfarSmufaer_rsm;udk ydwfyifwm;qD;&ef tm%myg yg0ifonf? aemufqHk; 'DZif bmv (2) &ufae@wGif Zdkrdkac: t=urf;zufESdrfeif;a&;&JwyfzGJ@rsm;u olwdk@vkyfief;udkpvmcJhonf? v#yfwjyuf0ifa&mufpD;eif;jcif; jzpfonf? [,fvDaumfywmrsm;jzifh acgifrdk;rsm;ay:qif;I ausmif;om;rsm;odrf;ydkufxm;aom 0gaqmrD;owftaqmuftODudk 0ifa&mufpD;eif;cJh=uonf? TtjzpftysufrSm tm%mydkifrsm;taejzifh ydkvefvlr_todkif;t0dkif;. yGifhaeaomjyLwif;wHcg;rsm;udk jyefydwfvdkjcif; jzpfonf? xdkwHcg;rsm;udk olwdk@.aemufuG,fwGif aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~rsm;u zGifhay;cJh=uonf? odk@aomfvnf; Todk@tjzpftysuf rsm;udk or*~acgif;aqmifrsm;u owdrrlrd=u? olwdk@uae@pOfvkyfief;rsm;ESifh &_yfae=uonf? ,m&lZJpuD;taejzifh wif;=uyfvm aerSef;odonf? odk@aomfxdk;ESufcsufu rnfr#jyif;xefrnfudk rnfolr#rcef@rSef;xm;=u? olwdk@awG@zl;xm;onfu aqG;aEG;yGJpmyGJ 0dkif;wzufjcrf;&Sd tpdk;&udk,fpm;vS,frsm;jzpf=u+yD;/ olwdk@udk olvdkudk,fvdkvlrsm;tjzpfom jrif=uonf? olwdk@udk &ufpuf=urf; óuwfrnfholrsm;tjzpf rjrifEdkifcJh=u? odk@r[kwf vuf&Sdtpdk;&.xdyfydkif;acgif;aqmifwm0ef,lxm;olrSm ,leDazmif;0wfwOD;jzpf +yD;/ ol@taejzifh rSefaomudpPrsm;udkomvkyfaqmifvmvdrfhrnf[k wGufqxm;aoma=umifhvnf; jzpfEdkifonf? qdkvdkonfrSm ydkvefEdkifiHom;wOD;twGuf ydkvefvlrsKd;rsm;.aoG;ajrus&rnfhtr_udk vdkvm;vdrfhrnfr[kwf[k jrifae=uonf? (1905) ckESpf olwdk@.&k&Sm;q&mrsm;uJhodk@yif ppfwyfrsm;twGif;&Sdaeaom olwdk@.aoG;om;rsm;u aoewfjzifhypfcwf=uvdrfhrnfr[kwf[k xif aecJh=uonf? tcsKd@u tu,fIwdkufcdkufr_vkyfvmcJhv#ifaomfrS or*~taejzifhtaxGaxGoydwf}uD;wckxyfraH c:Edkif+yD;/ &uf tenf;i,ftwGif; tpdk;&udk'l;axmufvm&apatmif vkyfEdkif=uvdrfhrnf ,lqae=uonf? rnfodk@yifjzpfap/ aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~acgif;aqmifrsm;u ppftkyfcsKyfa&;trdef@xkwfvmrnfhtajctaeudk óudwGufI/ óudwifjyifqifr_ rnfodk@r#vkyfrxm;cJh=uay? tcsKd@aomyHkESdyfpufrsm;udkom odrf;xm;cJh=uonf? olwdk@udk,folwdk@ (20) &mpk. aemufqHk;ESpf0ufydkif;wGif vlxkaxmufcHr_trsm;qHk;&Sdaom v_yf&Sm;r_tjzpfcH,lxm;=uonf? olwdk@u aea&mufatmufwGif rnfodk@vkyfudkifaqmif&Guf&rnfudkom od=uonf? xdktcsdefwGif tarSmifxkucsOf;uyfvmcJh+yD?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)139


ppftajctae aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~. wEdkifiHvHk;qdkif&myl;aygif;aqmif&Gufa&; aumfr&Sifu *'ef@pfcfwGif aom=umae@/ 'DZifbm 11-&uf ae@YawG@qHk=uonf? udk,fpm;vS,frsm;rSm vDeifoabFmusif;. usef;rma&;ESifh vHòk cHa&;Xme&H;k pnf;a0;crf;rY tpnf;ta0; pwifaomtcg xkH;pHtwdkif;&yfwnf=uonf? wESpfwmumvywfvHk; tzGJ@0ifrsm;udk owdxm;=u&efESifh awG@qHkaqG;aEG;tajz &Sma&;onf jzpfEdkifaomtajctaewGif&Sdaeao;a=umif; wzGzGem;cscJhonfh bm0ifqmonfvnf; Ttwdkif;jrifaeao;onf? “usaemhudk tyfESif;xm;wJhtm%mudk toHk;ðyvdk@usaemf a=ujimvdkufygw,f? usaemfwdk@[m oabmwlnDcsufawG&zdk@ tqif oifh&Sdaeygw,f?” [kqdkonf? odk@aomftjcm;olrsm;uawmh ydkvefv$wfawmfrS Todk@ta&;ay:tajctaea=ujimcGifhtm%mudk v$Jajymif;ay;tyfcJhr_ESifhywfoufI uef@uGufqENjyr_wckck vkyfvdk=uonf? xdktwGufa=umifh aemufqHk; 'DZifbm (17) &ufae@ udk qENjyyGJvkyfrnfhae@tjzpf oabmwlowfrSwfcJh=uonf? aemufw&uf aumfr&Siftpnf;ta0;xyfqufjyefonf? xdktcsdefwGif yHkrSefr[kwfaomtpdk;&wyfzGJ@rsm; ae&mcsxm;v_yf&Sm;r_ rsm;&Sdae+yD[k aumv[mvowif;rsm;vnf; 0ifvmcJhonf? ,cifuxHk;pHtwdkif;yif &lvJpuD;u tqHk;pGefvrf;udkav#mufjyef onf? olu vlxktrsm;taejzifhtpdk;&tay: t,Hkt=unfr&SdrJcGJEdkif&eftwGuf vlxkqENcH,lyGJw&yfudk vmrnfhESpfqef;ydkif;wGif usif;y&eftqdkðyonf? Tenf;tm;jzifh aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~rS pifòydiftpdk;&zGJ@pnf;Edkifa&;twGuf vrf;zGifhvdkjcif;jzpfonf? vltrsm;pku ol.t=uHtpnfudkaxmufcHrJay;=uonf? bm0ifqmu tcef;wGif;vlrsm;udk vdkuf=unfhonf? ol.rdwfaqGrsm; ESifh wdkifyifonf? eHeuf (10) em&Dxdk;aomtcg owif;wcka&mufvmcJhonf? *'ef@pfcfodk@qufoG,fxm;aom a=u;eef;óud; w,fvDzkef;vdkif;rsm;udk jzwfawmufvdkuf+yD[lonfh owif;yif? neufydkif;wGif tpnf;ta0;+yD;qHk;aomtcg/ tjcm;a'orsm;rS vm=uaomudk,fpm;vS,frsm;u [dkw,fodk@jyef=uonf? bpfe,l; bl*sufu tmqyfpfwuUodkvfrSvmaom touf (27) ESpt f &G,f&Sd pufr_ynm&SifwOD; jzpfonf? olu [dkw,fodk@ rjyefawmh? Todk@jyefrnfhtpm; olESifh 0gaqmrSvmaomtjcm;udk,fpm;vS,fwOD; jzpfol bpfe,l;pf *smempfwdk@u blwm&Hk odk@wef;oGm;I &xm;vufrSwf0,f+yD;/ ncsif;jyef=uonf? &xm;yvufazmif;rSaeI olwdk@jrifae&onfrSm Zdkrdkac:vHkòcHa&;wyfzGJ@ rsm;u rdkEdkydkvfa[mfw,fudk 0dkif;xm;=ujcif;yifjzpfonf? TonfrSm udk,fpm;vS,f rsm;wnf;ae=uaom [dkw,f (2) ckteufrS wckjzpfonf? wuUpDum;armif;orm;rSvnf; tjcm;[dkw,fwckwGifvnf; tvm;wljzpfaea=umif; ajymjyonf? wem&Dcef@ =umaomtcg ZdkrdkwyfzGJ@rsm;xGufoGm;=uawmhonf? bl*sufESifh *smem;pfwdk@vGwfoGm;aomfvnf; olwdk@odvdkufonfrSm aoG; pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~tzGJ@. obmywdtzGJ@0iftm;vHk; xdef;odrf;cHvdkuf&+yD[laom owif;jzpfonf? vHkòcHa&;wyfzGJ@0ifrsm;u udk,fpm;vS,frsm;udk wcef;0ifwcef;xGuf vdkuf&Sm=uonf? vrf;ray:a&mufaomtcg bm0ifqm.tdrfcef;&Sd&mtaqmuftOD ESifh or*~.XmecsKyfudkvnf; 0dkif;xm;+yDjzpfa=umif;od&onf? aemufwae@wGif bk&m;ausmif;wGifawG@qHkrnf[kcsdef;qdkvdkuf=u+yD;/ olwdk@vrf;cGJvdkuf=uonf? ydkvefwEdkifiHvHk;wGif toHwdwfoGm;onf? &Jrsm;u aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~tzGJ@0ifwufºuGolrsm;/ ynm&Sifrsm;/ tjcm;aom v_yf&Sm;olrsm;pGmudk &SmazGzrf;qD;onf? òrd@}uD;rsm;udk ydwfqdk@xm;onf? w,fvDzkef;vdkif;ESifh a=u;eef;qufoG,fa&;udk jzwf awmufxm;onf? wyfzGJ@rsm;u vrf;rsm;udkydwfqdk@xm;=uonf? ppfwyfzGJ@rsm;u &kyfjrifoH=um;ESifh a&'D,dktoHv$ifhXmersm;udk pD;eif;xm;=uonf? aemufw&ufwGif ydkvefEdkifiHvlxkrsm;u &kyfjrifoH=um;zGifh=unfhaomtcg/ owif;a=ujimolu ,leDazmif; ESifh jzpfaeonf? ,m&lZJpuD;u (23) rdepf=umrdef@cGef;ajym=um;onf? t}udrf}udrfjyefv$ifhonf? xdkrdef@cGef;xkwfv$ifhonfh=um; wGif &_dyif.wa,mvufoHudk zGifhxm;ay;onf? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;u ajym&mY aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~acgif;aqmifrsm;u vGefcJh aomnu EdkifiHawmftm%modrf;ydkufa&;twGuf=uHpnfcJh=ua=umif;/ TtwGufa=umifh ydkvefEdkifiHudk acsmufxJus&awmhrnfh tajctaerS u,fwif&jcif;jzpfa=umif;ajymonf? ppfwGif;tajctaetjzpf EdkifiHawmfw0Srf;a=ujimonf? ,cktcg EdkifiHawmf udk trsKd;om;umuG,fa&;ppfaumifpDrS tkyfcsKyfoGm;rnfjzpfa=umif;ESifh ‚if;tzGJ@wGifxdyfwef;t&m&Sd (21) OD;yg0ifrnfjzpfa=umif; a=ujimcJhonf? ppfwyftaejzifh rsKd;cspfwm0efxrf;aqmifrnfqdkonf? rif;rJhtajctaeudk+yD;qHk;ap+yD;/ pD;yGg;a&;jyefvnfOD;armh vmap&ef aqmif&Gufrnf[k qdkonf? tpdk;&xkwfjyefaomtrdef@rsm;wGif vltrsm;pka0;jcif;ESifh oydwfarSmufjcif;rsm;udkvnf; wm;jrpfonf? aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&; or*~udkvnf; &yfqdkif;cJhonf? n (10) em&DrS eHeuf (6) em&Dtxd ae0ifrD;+idrf;trdef@&Sdrnf jzpfonf? w,fvDzkef;qufoG,fr_ rsm;ESifh pmrsm;udkjzwfawmufppfaq;rnf jzpfonf? tu,fIwpHkwOD;taejzifh EdkifiHawmftay:tEW&m,fðyvmrnf[k,lqyg u cHk&Hk;rwifyJ umvtuef@towfr&Sdxdef;odrf;xm;Edkifonf[k a=ujimcJhonf? ppfwyftaejzifh ta&;ygaompufr_vkyfief; rsm;udk odrf;,lrnfjzpf+yD;/ tvkyform;rsm;taejzifh trdef@remcHjcif;/ ysufuGufjcif;rsm;jzpfygu ta&;,lcH&rnf[k a=ujimcJh onf? tu,fI aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~zufrSckcHr_wpHkw&maqmif&GufvmcJhygu/ vGwfajrmufusefaeao;aom wufºuGv_yf&Sm; olrsm;. qENtvdktwdkif;omjzpfonf? 0g&dkuavmrS udk,fpm;vS,frsm;onf *'ef@pfcfrSaeI&xm;ay:ckeful;ajymif;xGufEdkifcJh+yD; 0g&dkuavmblwmra&mufrDyif qif;vdkuf=uonf? xdkae&mwGif axmufvSrf;a&;&Jrsm;uapmifhqdkif;aeEdkifonf? bl*sufESifh

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)140


tenf;i,faomolwdk@u zrf;qD;xdef;odrf;r_rSuHaumif;axmufrpGm vGwfajrmufcJh=u+yD;/ *'ef@pfcfwGifyif &SdaecJhonf? xdkolrsm; twufrS tcsKd@uwe*FaEGae@wGif vDeifoabFmusif;odk@oGm;=uonf? wEdkifiHvHk;qdkif&moydwfaumfrwDudkzGJ@pnf;vdkuf=uonf? xdk@aemufvlxktrsm;xHodk@ taxGaxGoydwf}uD;qifE$J=uyg&ef/ arwWm&yfcHyef=um;v$mudk xkwfa0onf? Toydwf}uD;udk ,ck ppfumvtkyfcsKyfa&;tajctae&kyfodrf;ygrS/ zrf;qD;cHxm;&olrsm;tm;vHk; jyefvnfvGwfajrmufygrS oydwfvSef=uyg&efyef=um; onf? wevFmae@wGif puf&Hkodrf;ydkufaomoydwfudk oabFmusif;wGif pwifqifE$JcJhonf? aemufw&ufESpf&uftwGif;rSmyif EdkifiH. tjcm;aoma'orsm;Yvnf; tvm;wloydwfrsm;ay:aygufvmcJhonf? Tw}udrfwGif tpdk;&taejzifhaqG;aEG;&efvdkvm;aom [efvHk;0rjy? pdwf0ifpm;r_r&Sd? xdk@tjyif puf&Hkrsm;udkwyfrsm;jzifh 0dkif;&Hydwfqdk@xm;vdkufonf? wifhum;rsm;u puf&Hkrsm;.0if; wHcg;rsm;/ eH&Hrsm;udk eif;acszsufqD;=uonf? xdktcsdefwGif Zdkrdk.trnf&aom t=urf;zufESdrfeif;a&;wyfzGJ@rsm;u w&=urf;ajy; 0ifvmcJh=uonf? rsuf&nf&dkAHk;rsm;ypfv$wfI qENjyoydwfarSmufolrsm; raeEdkifatmifarmif;xkwfonf? acgif;aqmifrsm;udkzrf; qD;onf? xdk@aemufoabFmusif;udk ydwfypfvdkufonf? odk@rSomoydwfarSmufqENjyolrsm; xyfrHodrf;ydkufrnfhab;rSumuG,fEdkif vdrfhrnf jzpfonf? *'ef@pfcfESifh 'dkifeD,ma'orsm;wGif qlylr_t"du&Hk;rsm;jzpfyGg;+yD;/ vl&mESifhcsDI xdcdkuf'%f&m&onf? aemufqHk; usef&Sdaeaomoydwfpcef;rSm owWKrdkif;vkyfom;rsm;jzpfI/ vkyfom; (1000) cef@u ajratmufay (1000) eufaomae&mwGif rdkif;udkodrf;ydkufI aeae=uonf? xdkae&mwGif ESpfywfausmf=um tpmtiwfcH/ tcsrf;tat;cH+yD;aeae=uonf? xdk@aemuf tavsmhay;vdkuf=uonf? ,cktcsdefwGif ,m&lZJpuD;. ,leDazmif;0wfppfom;rsm;u ae&mtawmfrsm;rsm;udkaooyfpGmxdef; csKyfxm;Edkifvdkuf=uay+yD? ,cktcgwGif aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~udk tjrpfE_wfEdkifcJh+yD? &uftenf;i,ftwGif;rSmyif rdrdxdef;csKyfr_pGef@v$wf&rnfudkpdk;&drfae =uaom ydkvefEdkifiHtm%mydkifrsm;u jyefvnfxdef;csKyfEdkifcJhonf? tu,fI &ufaygif; (500) ausmftjrpfwG,faecJhaom aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~rsm;. tzGJ@tpnf;qdkif&mtajctjrpf/ vGwfvyfaomvlxktajccH vlr_tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;udk z,f&Sm; r&Sif;vif;Edkifygu qdkAD,uf,leD,H.zdtm;ay;vmr_udkvnf; pdk;&drfae&ao;onf? wufºuGv_yf&Sm;olrsm;ESifhacgif;aqmifrsm; axmifESifh aomif;ESifhcsDI z,f&Sm;&Sif;vif;Edkifvdkufonf? olwdk@.tzGJ@0iftiftm; (10) oef;qdkonfrSmvnf; ,ckawmhjynfol vlxka&S@arSmufpifjrifhay:rS =uufaysmufiSufaysmuf aysmufukef=u+yD? ppftkyfcsKyfa&;udpPrsm;atmifjrifr_twGuf wzufuvnf; r&nf&G,fygyJESifh aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~zufuvnf; tm;ay; ovdkjzpfaecJhonf? umvtajctae tajymif;tvJESifhtnD EdkifiHa&;tajymif;tvJrsm;udk raqmif&GufEdkifcJh? (1980) =o*kwf vESifh (1981) ckESpfrwfvt=um;wGif aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~taejzifh t=urf;rzufaomEdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk u|rf;usif pGm tpGrf;jyEdkifcJh+yD;/ t=urf;zufwdkufwGef;r_rygyJ xdef;csKyfr_rsm;aqmif&Gufxm;EdkifcJhonf? taxGaxGoydwf}uD;qifE$Jrnf[k +cdrf; ajcmufjcif;tm;jzifhaomfvnf;aumif;/ pnf;&Hk;qifE$Jjcif;jzifhaomfvnf;aumif; uGefjrLepfrsm;udk tpOftjzifh a&G;cs,fp&mvrf; (3) oG,fudk wdkufwGef;aecJhonf? tvkyform;rsm;udk tiftm;wdk;apI/ tm%mydkifrsm;udk yifyef;csdeJ@ap&ef &nf&G,fcJhonf? tiftm;ESifh wdkufcdkufzdtm;ay;+yD;/ aemufqHk;awG@qHkaqG;aEG;r_jzifh tajzxkwfEdkifaomtajctaeudk &,lEdkifcJh=uonf? pD;yGg;a&; usqif;xdkif;rd_if;aer_u yxra&G;vrf;udktm;aysmhapcJhonf? (1970) ckESpftajctaeudk jyefa&mufoGm;rnfpdk;&drfaompdwf a=umifh 'kwd,a&G;vrf;udk apmpD;pGmuyif ydwfxm;cJhovdk jzpfaecJhonf? tm%mydkifrsm;uoabmwlnDr_rsm;&,l+yD;aom tcsdef wdkif;wGif/ Todk@wpdwfwydkif;atmifyGJrsm;rSaeI aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~.e,fedrdwfudkcsJ@xGifEdkifcJh=uonf? ydkvefjynfolrsm;. vGwfvyfaomvlr_b0e,fyg,fudk csJ@xGif,lEdkifcJh=uonf? odk@aomfvnf; (1981) ckESpftapmydkif;umvwGif/ vdkufavsmqufqHr_odyfr&Sdaom taetxm;zufodk@wajz;ajz;csOf;uyfvmcJh onf? qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;csrSwf&mwGif v#Kd@0Sufr_udkusifhoHk;jcif;ESifh acgif;aqmifr_twdkif;qufvufxm;&Sdjcif;wdk@a=umifh tajctae udk[efrysuf zkef;uG,fxm;EdkifcJh=uonf? xdkESpfukefydkif;wGif qdkAD,uf.Adkvfuszdtm;ay;r_a=umifh aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~udk zdtm;rsm;pwifay;vmcJhonf? aemufqHk; ,m&lZJpuD;udk,fwdkif ola&Smifv$JvdkvSaom/ rvkyfcsifaomtvkyfudk vufavsmh aqmif&Guf&awmhonf? Todk@ xdk;ESufcsuf0ifvmaomtcgwGifvnf;/ or*~rsm;taejzifh olwdk@,cifuaqmif&Guf=uovdk aqmif&Guf&ef óud;yrf;=uao;onf? taxGaxGoydwf}uD;twGuf v_H@aqmf&efaqmif&Guf=uao;onf? odk@aomfvnf; tm%m ydkifrsm;u ,cifqufqHxm;aomtaetxm;rSaeI oifcef;pmrsm; rsm;pGm&&Sdae=u+yD jzpfonf? 'DZifbm (12) &ufae@nydkif; 0ifa&mufpD;eif;zrf;qD;r_onf/ upm;yGJrpwifrDuyif aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~acgif;aqmifrsm;tawmfrsm;rsm;udk zrf;qD;xdef; odrf;EdkifcJh=uonf? vrf;rsm;udkydwfqdk@+yD;/ owif;qufoG,fa&;rsm;udk =um;jzwfcJh=uaoma=umifh oydwfrsm;udkòrd@rsm;twGif;Y yif uef@owfxdef;odrf;xm;EdkifcJhonf? xdk@tjyifwyfzGJ@rsm;ESifh wifhum;rsm;uvSnfhvnf 0ef;&Hxm;aoma=umifh òrd@wcktwGif;rSm yif yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_&&eftwGuf cufcJvSonf? xdk@tjyif ,ckw}udrfonfoydwfrsm;qifE$J&eftwGuf óudwifjyifqifcsdef vnf;r&yJ/ vufylwdkufvkyf&aomudpP jzpfonf? wyfzGJ@rsm;u oydwfarSmufaompuf&Hkrsm;udk 0ifa&mufpD;eif;odrf;ydkuf=uonf? xdcdkuf'%f&m&r_rsm;yif &Sdonf? Ttajctaeonf aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~taejzifh ,cifuóuHawG@cJh&aomtajctaersm; ESifhpmv#if ydkIaumufuspfaomvkyfyHkvkyfenf;rsKd; jzpfonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)141


ppfat;acwfwdkufyGJrsm;u ae&mcsxm;cJhaom ta&S@-taemufpOf;pm;yHkrsm; vlxkrsm;wGif&SdaeonfrSm &,fp&mvnf;jzpfonf? 0g&SifwefwGif&Sdaeaom tar&dueftpdk;&t&m&Sdrsm;u ,m&lZJpuD;. acsr_ef;rnfh tpDtpOfudk óudwifIod=uonf? odk@aomf aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~tzGJ@0ifrsm;udk wcGef;r#óudwifowday;cJhjcif; r&SdcJh? aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~taejzifh uGefjrLepftkyfpk EdkifiHrsm;twGif; vGwfajrmufa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk tiftm;taumif;qHk;pwiftaumiftxnfazmf=uaom tiftm;pkrsm;jzpf onfhwdkifatmif rodovdkaecJhonf? xdktcsdefrwdkifrD wESpftvdku orw*sifrDumwmu ‚if;.t=uHay; bpfe,l; b&mZif; puD; (rl&if;ydkveftrsKd;om;) xHrSwqifh aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~ESifh ykwf&[ef;rif;}uD;xHodk@ (1980) 'DZifbmvu qdkAD,uf wyfzGJ@rsm;0ifa&mufusL;ausmfEdkifaom tEW&m,f&Sdaea=umif; owday;cJhao;onf? odk@aomfvufawGwGifrl jzpfrvmcJh? olTodk@ aqmif&GufEdkifcJhjcif;rSmvnf; ydkvefwyfrawmf ppfqifa&;pDrHcef@cGJr_rsm;. 'kwd,t}uD;tuJ AdkvfrSL;}uD;&dkif;Zwf uGwfvif;puD;u pDtdkifattwGuf tvkyfvkyfay;aeaoma=umifhyif? (1981) ckESpf Edk0ifbmvtxd uGufvif;puD;xdkae&mwGif &Sdaeao;aomf vnf;/ a&*iftkyfcsKyfa&;&Sd t&m&Sdrsm; (EdkifiHjcm;a&;0ef}uD;/ pDtdkifat 'g&dkufwmwdk@rS r[kwfyg)/ odk@r[kwf 'k-orw a*smhbk&Sf OD;pD;aom tdrfjzLawmf&Sd ydkvefEdkifiHudpPudkifwG,folrsm;/ wdk@u ,m&lZJpuD;.t=uHudk aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~odk@today;&ef toifhawmfqHk;olrsm; jzpf=uonf? olwdk@tm;vHk;u qdkAD,uf,leD,Hrnfodk@wkef@jyefvmrnfudkom awG;Ipdk;&drfae=uonf? ydkveftpdk;&zufu aqmif&GufvmEdkifaomtajctaeudk pOf;pm;azmfjyjcif; rðycJh=uay? tu,fI aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~tzGJ@0ifrsm;om óudwifod&SdcGifh&Sdygu/ Txdk;ESufcsufudk tm;ysufoGm;ap&eftwGuf rnfodk@ aqmif&GufEdkifcJh=urnfenf;? taumif;qHk;jyifqifxm;Edkifaom taetxm;rSmvHkòcHa&;t& ykef;tdrfrsm;cGJzjzef@csxm;jcif;yif jzpf onf? owif;ydk@rnfholrsm;/ ajratmufo,f,lydk@aqmifa&; uGef,ufrsm;udkvnf; pDpOfxm;Edkif=uvdrfhrnf? acsr_ef;rnf[k tvm;tvmjrifonfESifh wòydifeuf acgif;aqmifrsm;/ wufºuGv_yf&Sm;olrsm; csufcsif;cGJjcrf;+yD; v_yf&Sm;Edkif=uvdrfhrnf? tjcm; aqmif&GufEdkifrnfhwenf;rSm ta&;ay:&HyHkaiGaxmufyHhr_rsm; aqmif&GufEdkifrnfh taetxm;jzpfonf? (or*~. b%fpm&if;udk tpdk;&uydwfypf odrf;qnf;Edkifonf?) xdk@tjyif oydwfarSmufvkyfom;rsm;twGuf pm;a&&duQmrsm;/ tjcm;vdktyfonfrsm; puf&Hkrsm;teD;w0dkufwGif jyifqifEdkif=uvdrfhrnf? tu,fI wyfzGJ@rsm;u0ifa&mufpD;eif;jcif;r&Sdygu umv=um&Snfodrf;ydkufxm; Edkif=uvdrfhrnf jzpfonf? tu,fI or*~uom ‚if;wdk@.acgif;aqmifrsm;/ t&if;tjrpfrsm;udk umuG,fxm;ay;EdkifcJhygu/ pepfuseaomajratmufv_yf &Sm;r_}uD;wcktoGifudk ul;ajymif;oGm;Edkifonf? odk@aomfvnf; aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~onfpwifzGJ@pnf;csdefuyif 'Drdkua&pD tzGJ@tpnf;jzpfaoma=umifh/ yGifhvif;aomtzGJ@tpnf;wckjzpfaoma=umifh rlvobm0t&udkyif v#Kd@0SufpDpOf&rnfhtaetxm; ESifh udkufnDaomoabmawmh r&Sday? (1981) ckESpfaemufydkif;wGif aiGa=u;rsm;udk odrf;qnf;&efESifh yHkESdyfpufrsm;udk0Suf&ef óud;yrf;cJh=uaom wufºuGv_yf&Sm;oltcsKd@rSmvnf; ppfaoG;ºuGtzGJ@0ifrsm;. ajymifavSmif&,farmr_cHcJh=u&onf? (1905) ckESpfu &k&Sm;twdkuftcHrsm;uJhodk@yif/ vufeufudkifwyfzGJ@rsm;twGif; oyfv#KdòzdcGJpnf;&Hk;&ef rnfodk@r#óud;yrf;aqmif&Gufr_ r&SdcJhay? tu,fI Todk@aqmif&Gufxm;Edkifygu zdESdyf&eftwGuf tpdk;&utrdef@ay;vmpOfrSmyif/ wyfzGJ@rsm;u trdef@udkjyefI jiif;qefEdkif=uonf? ,m&lZJpuD;udk,fYuyif Todk@jzpfvmavEdk; pdk;&drfcJh&ao;onf? (1980) ckESpf atmufwdkbmvwGif qdkAD ,ufEdkifiHjcm;a&;0ef}uD; tef'a& *&dkrDudku ay:vpfAsL&dkodk@ajym=um;&mY ,m&lZJpuD;u “ppfwyfrsm;u ydkveftvkyform; rsm;udk racsr_ef;yJaevdrfhrnfudk pdk;&drfa=umif;” ajymcJhonf? trSefwGif acsr_ef;r_rsm;pwifvmcJhaomtcg/ *'ef@pfcfodk@oGm;aom vrf;rrsm;ay:wGif pufysufIvJaeaomwifhum;rsm;u pufr_jy\ema=umifhr[kwfyJ/ tvkyform;rsm;udk rwdkufcdkufvdkaom a=umifh ydkIjzpfEdkifzG,f&Sda=umif; abmh*f'ef ba&mufpf0pfZfu ajymcJhonf? olu vDeifoabFmusif;odk@vmaeaom Twifhum; ppfom;rsm;xHwGif rsuf&nfusaeonfudk awG@cJh&a=umif; jyefajymjycJhonf? odk@aomfvnf; ,m&lZJpuD;u Todk@ol.wyfzGJ@&Sd ppfom;rsm;twGif; ra=ueyfr_t}uD;tus,frjzpfapa&;twGuf aoG;pnf; nD!Gwfa&;or*~qefusifa&; 0g'jzef@oifwef;rsm;ay;pOfu tmrcHuwdðyajym=um;cJ+h yD;/ or*~rsm;zufu TuJhodk@tmrcHajym =um;r_rsm; r&SdcJhay? ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm=um+yD;aemufwGif bpfe,l; bl*sufu TtcsufudktrSm;wck jzpfcJhonf[k jyefajymonf? ppfom;rsm;tzdk@,Hk=unfae=uonfrSm aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~tzGJ@0ifrsm;taejzifh EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;ESifh ‚if;wdk@.rdom;pk0if rsm;udk owfjzwf=uvdrfhrnf[k ,Hk=unfaecJh=uonf[k qdkonf? odk@aomf‚if;wdk@.rdom;pk0if rsm;udk owfjzwf=uvdrfhrnf[k ,Hk=unfaecJh=uonf[k qdkonf? odk@aomf yHkrSefwyfzGJ@0ifrsm;udkrl aemufausmrSomt&Htjzpf xm;IoHk;cJh=uonf? xkd;ppf. a&S@qHk;wGif Zdkrdkac: wyfzGJ@rsm;ESifh tjcm;aomvufa&G;pifwyfrsm;udkom oHk;cJh=uonf? Tenf;tm;jzifh ppfwyftwGif;aoG;uGJr_ enf;&avatmif pDrHEdkifcJhonf? aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~taejzifhrl Todk@tiftm;òydifyGJudk tu,fItEdkif&yguvnf;/ &_H;&onfESifhtvm;wl &Sdvdrfhrnf? tu,fIydkveftpdk;&udk,fYu EdkifEdkifeif;eif;ruGyfn‡yfEdkifcJhaomf/ jzpfvmrnfh&vm'frSm aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~ESifh aemuf xyfpmcsKyf oabmwlnDcsufwckvkyfEdkifaom taetxm;&SdcsifrS&Sdvrfhrnf? ydkvefppfacgif;aqmifrsm;twGuf t&SufwuGJjzpf &aomt&_H;rsKd;onf/ 0gaqmpmcsKyft& usL;ausmfr_udk zdwfac:ovdk jzpfvmEdkifonf? (1981) ckESpfumvuqdkv#if armfpudk tpdk;&taejzifh rnfonfhtajctaewGifr# ‚if;.tqHk;tjzwfay;rnfhe,fajrwck[k owfrSwfxm;aomtaemufzufe,fedrdwf

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)142


pnf;&dk;udk pGef@v$wfvdkvdrfhrnf r[kwfay? xdkv_yf&Sm;r_u oHk;oyfxm;cJhovdk uGefjrLepfacgif;aqmifrsm;twGuf t}uD;qHk;+cdrf; ajcmufr_wck[k ,lq=uayvdrfhrnf?

tysuftpD;yHkay:rS aqG;aEG;yGJpum;0dkif;qDodk@ wajz;ajz;òyduGJjcif; (1981) ckESpf 'DZifbm (31) aemufydkif;ae@rsm;wGif tenf;pkaomaoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~tzGJ@0ifrsm;om axmufvSrf;a&;rsm; udka&Smif&Sm;&if; vGwfajrmufaeEdkif=uawmhonf? rdwfaqGrsm;. wdkufcef;rsm;/ axmufcHpmemolrsm;. tdrfcef;rsm;wGifykef; atmif;ae=u&onf? wajz;ajz;ESifh tcsif;csif;=um; jyefvnfqufoG,fvmrd+yD;/ wpwpESifh ajratmufqufoG,fa&;uGef,uf udk jyefwnfaqmufEdkif=uonf? *'ef@pfcfwGif&Sdaeaom uvyfpnf;tjrKawY abmh'ef bm&k0pfZf/ abmh'ef vpfZf/ tvufZef'g a[mwdk@yg0if=uonf? a[monf trsKd;om;a&;0g'DtkyfpkrSxkwfaom *sme,fwck. t,f'Dwmwckjzpfonf? bl*sufu &xm; vrf;vkyfom;tjzpf[efaqmifum 0gaqmodk@jyefoGm;onf? Zefe0g&Dvqef;ydkif;wGif twdkuftcHtiftm;pkrsm; awG@qHktpnf; ta0;ac:Edkif=uonf? tvm;wkl qJvfrsm;udk 0g&dkuavmESifh u&mauma'orsm;wGifvnf; zGJ@pnf;EdkifcJh=uonf? &ufowWygwf tenf;i,ftwGif;rSmyif aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~onf vrf;rrsm;ay:wGif tzGJ@0if (10) oef;&SdaomtajctaerS ykef;atmif; ae=u&aom trSefwu,fouf0if,Hk=unfol &m*%ef;r#aomtajctaea&mufoGm;cJhonf? (1982) ckESpftapmydkif;wGif òrd@jya'orsm;Y tajcpdkufaomtkyfpkrsm;onf/ owif;ay;ydk@olrsm;rSaomfvnf;aumif;/ wEdkifiHvHk; twkdfif;twmaqmifaom ajratmufuGef,ufrsm;qufoG,fEdkifa&;twGuf óud;yrf;cJh=uonf? {+yDvwGif vpfZf/ bl*suf (0gaqm)/ v'fqavm z&ufqDEkuf (0g&dkuavm)/ v'fqavm [m'uf (u&maum) wdk@awG@qHk=u+yD;/ olwdk@udk,folwdk@ =um;jzwfyl;aygif;aqmif&Gufa&;aumfr&Sif tjzpfxkwfjyefa=ujimcJh=uonf? (ydkvefbmompum;twkdaumufjzifh wDauau TKK [k ac:onf? vpfESifh bl*sufwdk@u A[dkcsKyfudkifr_xm;aomtzGJ@tpnf;yHkpHrsKd; rvdkvm;=uay? tu,fIacgif;aqmifr_ wGifyg0ifolrsm; xyfrHtzrf;cH&ygu acgif;jzwfypfouJhodk@ repfemap&&ef jzpfonf? TKK taejzifh a,bl,svrf;a=umif;udk omcsay;onf? trSefwu,fpkzGJ@pnf;r_udk atmufajcrSom vkyf&efvdkvm;=uonf? *'ef@pfcfESifh 0g&dkuavmwGif&Sdaom aumfrwDwdk@u ppftkyfcsKyfa&;Oya'a=ujimxm;csufudk qef@usifwdkufcdkufaomv_yf&Sm;r_wck vkyf&ef/ puf&Hkrsm;udk pnf;&Hk;&efqHk;jzwf=uonf? ajray:wGif&Sdae=uao;aom ppfaoG;ºuGvkyfom;rsm;udk v#Kd@0Sufpuf&HktwGif; zGJ@xm;aom aumfrwDrsm;u v_H@aqmf=uonf? tu,fI tvHktavmufaomtiftm;udk v_H@aqmfEdkifygu/ taxGaxGoydwf }uD;ac:Edkifrnf? Toydwfudk jyefvnfydwfqdk@&eftwGuf ppfwyftiftm;udkxyfrHtoHk;ðy&ef ac:qdk&OD;rnf? TtajctaewGif ppfwyftwGif; ykefuefr_ygjzpfay:apEdkifonf[k olwdk@uwGuf=uonf? xdktajctaewGif awmfvSefa&;v_yf&Sm;r_&Sdaeao;a=umif; jyo&eftwGuf vpOf (15) rdepf=um tvkyfydwfqdk@r_udk yHkrSefvkyfae=uao;onf? (1980) ckESpftwGif;oabmwlnDcJhaom *'ef@pfcf oabmwlnDcsufESpfygwfvnfjynfhrnfhae@wGif/ vrf;ray:qENjyyGJrsm; vkyf&efpDpOfxm;=uonf? odk@aomf 0g&dkuavm. ajratmufv_yf&Sm;r_tpkrsm;udk zrf;qD;r_rsm;pwifvmcJhonf? tvkyf&yfqdkif;oklrsm;udk tvkyfrSxkwf ypfjcif;/ zrf;qD;axmifcsjcif;rsm; ðyvkyf=uonf? *'ef@pfcf vlxkpka0;yGJvkyfaomtcg xGufvmaomtiftm;u enf;vSonf? vDeif oabFmusif;u atmufwdkbmvwGifoydwfarSmuf=uaomtcg/ aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~udk w&m;r0iftjzpfa=ujimcHcJh& onf? ajratmufv_yf&Sm;r_acgif;aqmifrsm;u ydkIus,fjyef@aomv_yf&Sm;r_vkyf&ef pdkif;jyif;=uonf? odk@aomfoydwfu tcsdefwdk twGif; òyduGJ=uonf? xdktpm; TKK u Edk0ifbmv (10) &ufae@wGif 4-em&Dausmf=um owday;aomoydwfvkyf&ef pDpOf=u onf? tvkyform;rsm;zufrS wkef@jyefr_utm;aysmhvSonf? ppftkyfcsKyfa&;a=ujimxm;csuft& Todk@v_yf&Sm;r_jzpfrnfqdkygu EdkifiHawmfykefuefvkyf=uHr_rsKd;tjzpf owfrSwfvdrfhrnf? (1982) ckESpfwGif&Sdaeaom twdkuftcHtiftm;pkrsm;udk tvkyform;xk u w&m;0iftjzpfrjrif=uay? aoG;pnf;nD!w G af &;or*~vy_ f&mS ;pOfu w&m;0ifv_yf&Sm;cJh=u+yD;/ (1980-81) ckESpfrsm;umvwGif 'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@tpnf;wcktjzpf &yfwnfv_yf&Sm;cJh=uonf? ajratmufv_yf&Sm;olrsm;twGuf olwdk@.aemufxyfenf;vrf;udk pOf;pm;&ef jzpfvm&awmhonf? ,Jquf ul&Gefu (1982) ckESpf azaz:0g&DvwGif axmiftwGif;rSaeI aqmif;yg;wyk'fa&;I cdk;xkwfvmcJhonf? olu aoG;pnf; nD!Gwfa&;or*~udk wif;usyfpGmzGJ@pnf;xm;aom/ A[dkcsKyfudkifr_jzifh zGJ@pnf;xm;aom/ wEdkifiHvHk;twdkif;twmaqmifaom taxGaxGoydwfjzpfay:vmapa&;twGuf pk&Hk;v_yf&Sm;oGm;=uapvdkonf? “owif;ESifh tm%m.tcsuftjcmusaomae&m rsm;udk zufaygif;pHkrS wcsdefwnf;wòydifwnf; wdkufcdkuf&efvdkonf”[k azmfjycJhonf? wòydifeufwnf;rSmyif ul&GefuwdkufwGef; onfrSm twdkuftcHtiftm;pkrsm;taejzifh awG@qHkaqG;aEG;oabmwlnDcsuf&,l&ef toifh&Sdaea=umif;udkvnf; oabmxm; jyxm;oifhonf[k t=uHay;cJhonf? xdk@tjyif “qdkAD,uf,leD,Hodk@vnf; oabmxm;aumif;a=umif;/ tjrifaumif;a=umif;” jyxm;&efvdkonf? Tenf;tm;jzifhom usL;ausmfvmr_udk xdef;odrf;xm;Edkifrnf[k qdkonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)143


bl*sufESifh vkyfazmfudkifzufrsm;jzpfaom 0pfawm ulvmpuD;wdk@u oabmrwl=uay? ajratmufpmapmifazmfjycsufrsm;wGif xdyfwdkuf&ifqdkifawG@qHkjcif;onf ydkIzdESdyfr_rsm;jzpfvmaprnfomru/ qdkAD,ufusL;ausmfr_udkyg zdwfac:ovdkjzpfEdkifonf[k a&;cJhonf? A[dkwae&mwnf;rS csKyfudkifxm;aomOD;aqmifr_onf xdk;azmufoyfv#Kdfjcif;cH&Edkifonf? tcsdefwdktwGif;acsr_ef;ypf Edkifonf? xdkvkyfief;rsm;tpm; tcsdefwdktwGif;ESifh xda&mufaomxdk;ESufr_ðyygu twdkuftcHtiftm;pkrsm;u “tðyoabm aqmifaomppfyGJ”udkvkyfEdkifvdrfhrnf? odk@aomf umv=um&Snf/ jyif;xefpGmvkyf=u&vdrfhrnf[k jrifonf? twdkuftcHtiftm; pktm;vHk;u “tpdk;&. b0.zufpHkaxmifpHkY vuf0g;}uD;tkyfcsKyfudkifxm;aom xdef;csKyfr_vkyfief;rsm;tm;vHk;udk ckcHwdkufcdkuf aomvkyfief;pOfrsm;”aqmif&Guf=u&vdrfhrnf [k azmfjycJhonf? puf&Hkrsm;twGif;&Sd pnf;&Hka&;rSL;rsm;taejzifh tvkyform;rsm; .tcGifhta&;rsm;umuG,fay;a&;/ vdktyfygu oydwfrsm;/ qENjyyGJrsm;aqmif&GufI umuG,fay;=u&vdrfhrnf[k azmfjycJhonf? bk&m;ausmif;rsm;uvnf; aumfrwDrsm;zGJ@pnf;I qif;&Jolrsm;ESifh EdkifiHa&;t& tvkyfxkwfc&H aomolrsm;udkulnDapmifha&Smuf ay;oifhonf[k qdkonf? twdkcsKyftaejzifhqdk&aomf olwdk@taejzifh (1980) rwdkifrD v_yf&Sm;r_enf;emrsm;twdkif; jyefvnf taumiftxnfazmf=u&ef jzpfonf? ulvmpuD;u Ttcsufrsm;udkr[mAsL[mt& ajymif;IazmfjycJhonf? olwdk@taejzifh rkefwdkif;qifE$JIr&ygu/ pepfwajz;ajz; òyduGJr_udk ar#mfvifh&vdrfhrnf[k azmfjycJhonf? A[dkOD;pD;csKyfudkifr_ rxm;aom/ jzef@cGJxm;aomv_yf&Sm;r_onf qdkifwckcsif;udk awmh xdef;csKyfEdkifvdrfhrnf? aps;uGufudkawmh rxdef;csKyfEdkif[k qdkonf? tpdk;&xdef;csKyfxm;aom vlxk0g'jzef@csda&;,EW,m;rsm;udk xdef;Edkifvdrfhrnf? odk@aomf owif;pD;qif;r_wckvHk;udkawmh rxdef;csKyfEdkif/ pmwdkufESifh w,fvDzkef;rsm;udkawmh xdef;csKyfEdkifvdrfh rnf/ odk@aomfqufoG,fa&;wckvHk;udk rxdef;csKyfEdkif/ ausmif;wckudkawmh xdef;csKyfEdkifvdrfhrnf/ odk@aomf ynma&;wckvHk;udk awmhrxdef;csKyfEdkif [k qdkcJhonf? tu,fI tpdk;&taejzifh vlr_todkif;t0dkif;tay:csKyfudkifxm;r_ avsmhoGm;ygu/ olwdk@tae jzifh wajz;ajz;ajymif;aom vGwfvyfyGifhvif;vmapa&;ESifh 'Drdkua&pDðyjyifajymif;vJa&;rsm; rjzpfraevkyfvm=u&awmhrnf[k qdkonf? bl*sufu qdkcJhonfhtwdkif; Tr[mAsL[mrSm twdkuftcHrsm;.acgif;aqmifr_ ycHk;ay:rS&Sdaeaomwm0efudk/ vlr_ todkif;t0dkif;wGif; jyefvnfcsay;jcif;jzpfonf? TKK taejzifh taxGaxGoydwfazmfaqifa&;[laom enf;y&d,m,fudkawmh ypfy,f&_H@csjcif; r&Sdao;ay? odk@aomf bl*sufESifh

ulvm;puD;wdk@.awG;ac:r_ay:wGifom trsm;qHk;rSdcdkvkyfudkif=uawmhonf? ydkvefEdkifiH&Sdvlxkrsm;uvnf; Tvrf;a=umif; twdkif;om vdkufemvkyfudkif=uonf? zdESdyfcH&aomolrsm;xHodk@ KOR rSaxmufyHhulnDay;aom (1970) ckESpfrsm;u vkyfxHk;rsm; udk jyefvnfvkyfjcif;/ puf&HkaumfrwDrsm;uvnf; oifhavsmfaomtca=u;aiGrsm;aumufcHjcif;/ oif;tkyfq&mrsm;uvnf; tvkyfðzwfcH&aom tvkyform;rsm;twGufxnfh0ifaiG/ tvSLaiGrsm;ay;=u&ef tvSLcHjcif;rsm;aqmif&GufcJh=uonf? (1981) 'DZifbmvwGif tzrf;cH&aomolrsm;ESifh aemufydkif;wGifzrf;cH&olrsm;twGuf axmufyHhaiGrsm;utv#Hyg,f&vmcJhonf? “usaemhrdom;pku tultnDawGtrsm;}uD; &cJhw,f?” aemufydkif;wGif tusOf;om;wOD;ujyefajymjyonf? “usaemfwdk@awG u usaemfwdk@EdkifiH&J@vSywJh t&nftcsif;awGteufu tESpfawGjzpfvmcJhw,f?” Tenf;tm;jzifh ydkvefvlrsKd;rsm;. pdwf"gwfxJwGif aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~u jyefvnf&SifoefvmcJhonf? trsKd;orD;wOD;qdkv#if ol.a,mufsm;tzrf;cH&a=umif;=um;od&aom tcg vwfwavmawmif;awmhrnfh tdrfaxmifuGJ&efpmcsKyfudkyif jyefIqdkif;iHhcJhonf? “'gu usruwwfEdkifwJh *k%fðywJhenf; wrsKd;ygyJ?” olru jyefajymcJhonf? vGwfvyfaom yHkESdyfxkwfa0r_rsm;u tcsdefwdktwGif;jyefI xGufvmcJhonf? pma&;q&mrsm;/ t,f'Dwmrsm;/ yHkESdyfolrsm;/ jzef@a0 olrsm;u olwdk@.,cifenf;emrsm;twdkif; jyefvnfv_yf&Sm;vm=uonf? ajratmufaumfrwDu olwdk@.*sme,fESifh pmapmif rsm;udk yHkrSeftwdkif;jyefvnf jzef@a0onf? 0gaqmaumfrwDwckwnf;uyif owif;pmapmifa& wygwfv#if (15000) ESifh (40000) =um; jzef@a0Edkifonf? (1984) ckESpfwGif bl*suf.cef@rSef;csuft& w&m;r0ifxkwfa0aeaom owif;pmzwf&_aeol aygif;rSm woef;cef@&Sdrnf[k cef@rSef;onf? Edk0g NOWA [ktrnf&aom ajratmufyHkESdyfwdkufvnf; yHkrSeftwdkif;jyefvnf vnfywfaeonf? vkyfom; (200) ausmf&Sdonf? ysHoef;aeaomwuUodkvfrsm;vnf; jyefvnfay:aygufvmcJhonf? ,ckw}udrfwGifvnf; ydkveftkyfcsKyfolrsm;taejzifh zdESdyfr_udkolzmom pnf;&Hk;IjyefIckcHaeaom twkduftcHtiftm;pkrsm;udk óuHae&jyefonf? olwdk@zmom owif;jzef@a0r_rsm;/ vlr_a&;vkyfief;rsm;aqmif&Gufae&if;&Sdaeaoma=umifh/ twdkuftcHrsm;udk tm%mydkifrsm;taejzifh a&&SnfvspfvsL&_xm;I r&awmhay? odk@aomf ‚if;wdk@vkyfaqmifae=uonfrSm rlvenf;y&d,m,f a[mif;twdkif;yif jzpfonf? ppftkyfcsKyfa&;umvrSmyif ydkvefEdkifiHom;rsm;u topfaomta&;,lydwfqdk@r_rsm; vkyfcJh=uao; onf? oydwfarSmufyGJrsm; &SdcJh=uao;onf? aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~udk ydwfyifxm;pOftwGif;/ topfzGJ@pnf;cJhaom or*~ onf olwdk@.ypfrSwfjzpfonf? TKK u “jiif;y,fa&;tiftm;pkwyfOD;”udkzGJ@pnf;&ef wdkufwGef;cJhonf? (Tpum;vHk;rSm tpdk;& owif;Xmersm;rS pwifoHk;pGJcJhjcif;jzpf+yD;/ tpPa&;EdkifiHudk todtrSwfðy&ef 0dkif;y,fxm;=uaom tm&yfEdkifiHrsm;udk &nf!$ef;jcif; jzpfonf? tvkyform;rsm;taejzifh or*~topfudk r0ifoifh/ Todk@yg0ifoludkvnf; z,fusOfxm;&efjzpfonf? “olwdk@taeeJ@ olwdk@udk,fydkifjyXmef;cGifh vufvGwf+yDqdkwmeJ@” vpfZfuajymonf? “udk,fhzmom0efcHajzmifhcsufay;wJh opPmazmufawGom 'Dor*~eJ@ aygif;=uvdrfhr,f?”

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)144


tpdk;&owif;Xmersm;onf olwdk@. 'kwd,ajrmufoydwfarSmuf&ef ypfrSwfrsm;jzpf=uonf? EdkifiH.taumif;qHk;o&kyfaqmifu &kyfjrifoH=um;wGif o&kyfaqmif&ef jiif;yg,fonf? pum;0dkifrsm; awmhcf&_d;rsm;rSxGufcGgonf? jrifuGif;ydwfum;rsm;wGif jy+yD;om; jyefjyom rsm;vmawmhonf? a&'D,dk qkyfatmfy&mxkwfv$ifhaom xkwfvkyfolrsm;uvnf; wzufvSnfhESifh rnfonfhtwGuf a=umifh emrnf}uD;o&kyfaqmifrsm; aysmufae=ua=umif; azmfxkwf=uonf? or*~rsm;ESifh ygwfoufIrl/ qef@usif&efysufuGuf olrsm;udk jyefIqef@usif=uonf? wcgw&HwGif owif;rD'D,mrsm;udk oydwfarSmufr_rsm;u vdkonfxufydkcJhonf? qGpf'fepfcfòrd@ &Sdolrsm;u naecif;owif;vmcsdefwGif vrf;av#mufxGuf=uonf? (1980) ckESpfv,frsm;a&mufaomtcg tpdk;&ESifh twdkuftcHrsm;t=um;jzpfay:aeaom yÉdyuQonf a&S@rwdk;om/ aemuf rqkwfomtajctaeodk@ a&mufvmcJhonf? ygwDzufu=unfhv#if zdESdyfr_rsm;onf xda&mufr_&Sdonf? vlaxmifaygif;rsm;pGm udk axmifoGif;tusOf;csxm;EdkifI/ vlr_tcGifhta&;rsm;udk qdkif;iHhxm;Edkifonf? aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~udk jyef@usJvluGJoGm;apI/ taxGaxGoydwftjzpf jyefvnfxdk;vSefrnfh&efudkvnf; wm;qD;xm;EdkifcJhonf? ygwDtaejzifh t}udrfaygif;rsm;pGm vdkufavsm oabmwl&onftxd zdtm;ay;EdkifcJhaom ajymifajymifwif;wif;twdkuftcHðyolrsm;udk z,f&Sm;&Sif;vif;EdkifcJhonf? odk@aomf vnf; wufºuGv_yf&Sm;olrsm;u olwkdf@.r[mAsL[mrsm;udk jyefvnfoHk;oyf+yD;/ ulvmpuD; ar#mfjrifazmfjycJhaom “ajratmuf vlr_tzGJ@tpnf;” udk ouf0ifatmifvkyfEdkfifcJh=uonf? tpdk;&taejzifh ajymifqef@usiftmcHaeaom/ v_yf&Sm;pnf;&Hk;aeaom twdkfuftcHrsm; r&Sdawmh? odk@aomf ae&mtESH@tjym;wGif tmcHr_ti,fpm;rsm;&Sdaeonf? tpdk;&. w&m;0ifr_onf axmifaygif; rsm;pGmaom xd&S&mrsm;rS aoG;pdrf;&Sif&SifxGufaeawmhonf? ydkvefEdkifiHwGif uGefjrLepfrsm;.xdef;csKyfr_onf ESpfaygif;rsm;pGmuwnf;uyif vlxk.pdwfcHpm;r_Y t&mxifxifr&Sdawmhay? (1981) 'DZifbmv òzdcGJacsr_ef;r_+yD;uwnf;u tm;enf;aysmhcsufcsufwcktjzpfom jrif=uawmhonf? (1981) ckESpfwGif òyduGJaeaom twdkuftcH.tpdwftydkif;rsm; wufºuGv_yf&mS ;vm=uaomfvnf;/ aemufqHk; t+yD;wdkifòyduGJr_udk rpGrf;omcJhay? xdkolwdk@u ydkvefEdkifiH. aemufxyfopfvGifaomtem*gwfckudk udk,fpm;ðyxm;olrsm; jzpfae=uonf? vlxktrsm;. ESvHk;om; xJY&Sdaeaom/ twl &Sifoefaeaom tiftm;pkjzpfaeonf? aemufqHk;wGif tm%m&Siftpdk;&tzdk@ a&G;cs,fp&mvrf;rsm;ukef oGm;awmhonf? olwdk@taejzifh Tpnf;0dkif;twGif;odk@0ifyl;aygif;I ydkvefEdkifiH. aemufxyftem*gwftopfwckudk wnfaqmuf =u&Hkom &Sdawmhonf? obm0. oa&mfr_jzpfaomtcsufwckrSm ppftkyfcsKyfa&;onf uGefjrLepfrsm;. tompD;&aer_tajctaeudk ed*Hk;csKyfoGm;apcJh jcif;jzpfonf? ,m&lZJpuD;taejzifh ,cifae@a[mif;rsm;udk jyefvnftpm;xdk;&ef pdwfrul;awmh? xdktpm;/ ol@taejzifh vHkòcH a&;tpDtrHrsm;udk =uyf=uyfrwfrwfxdef;csKyfxm;+yD;/ twdkuftcH acgif;aqmifrsm;udk wOD;+yD;wOD; axmifoGif;tusOf;csaecJh onf? 0g&dkuavm&Sd z&mqDEkuf (1982) ckESpf atmufwdkbmvwGif axmiftwGif;ygoGm;onf? vpfZfu (1984) ZGefwGif zrf;cH& jyefonf? bm&k0pfZfESifh bl*sufwdk@u (1986) ckESpfwGif tzrf;cH&onf? ,m&lZJpuD;u vltrsm;tm&HkóudufEdkifaomudpPrsm;udk vnf; zefwD;&ef óud;yrf;cJhao;onf? aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~uawmif;qdkaom tcsuftawmfrsm;rsm;udk ðyjyifajymif;vJr_ vkyfay;cJhonf? odk@aomf taysmhpm;ajymif;vJr_rsKd;om jzpfonf? (1980) ckESpfuwnf;u a=ujimxm;cJhaom ppfa&;umv tajctaerS (1980) rwdkifrD tajctaersm;twdkif; jyef&atmifvkyf,ljcif; jzpfonf? vkyfom;rsm;udk tvkyform;or*~topf rsm;zGJ@pnf;ay;rnfjzpfa=umif;ESifh oydwfarSmufcGifhudkyg jyef&aprnfjzpfa=umif; ajymonf? tpdk;&.owif;Xmersm;rSvnf; tus,ftjyef@aom toHaygif;pHkudk xkwfv$ifhay;cJhonf? &nf&G,fcsufu ynm&Siftrsm;tjym; ,m&lZJpuD;.ðyjyifajymif;vJa&; aemufwGif 0ef;&Hvmapa&;jzpfonf? (1950) ckESpfrsm;u ynmwwfrsm;u *dkrl;vfum;aemufwGif 0ef;&Hay;cJh=uzl;onf? bk&m; ausmif;rsm;udkvnf; qGJaqmifpnf;&Hk;onf? (1983) ckESpfwGif ykwf&[ef;rif;}uD;udk aemufw}udrftvnftywfvma&mufcGifh ay;I vnf;aumif;/ bk&m;ausmif;topfrsm;aqmufvkyfay;Ivnf;aumif;/ tDpwm0wfðyyGJrsm;udk toHv$ifhay;jcif;rsm;jzifh vnf; qGJaqmifcJhonf? ,m&lZJpuD;. ðyjyifajymif;vJa&;vkyfief;rsm;u ol@udktwdkuftcHðy qef@usifae=uaomolrsm;xHudkyif a&mufcJhonf? vufcsf bm0ifqmudk (1982) ckESpf Edk0ifbmvwGif jyefv$wfay;onf? aemufESpfESpf=umaomtcg ajratmufacgif;aqmifrsm;udk olwdk@ zmomvma&muftyfESHygu vGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifhay;rnf[k a=ujimay;onf? odk@aomf vltenf;pkuomvufcHcJh=uonf? aemufqHk; (1986) ckESpfaqmif;&moDa&mufaomtcg ppftkyfcsKyfa&;Oya'atmufwGif tzrf;qD;cH=u&oltm;vHk; taxGaxG vGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifh &&Sd=uonf? odk@aomfTaqmif&Gufcsuftrsm;pkonf txl;ojzifh jyifyEdkifiHrsm;rSrsufESmaumif;&&Sdap&ef jzpfonf? txl;ojzifh taemufEdkifiHtpdk;&rsm;ESifh (1981) ck 'DZifbmvrSpI pD;yGg;a&;jypf'%fcwfxm;aom EdkifiHrsm;udk&nf&G,f onf? (1986) ckESpftukefwGif ,m&lZJpuD;. r[mAsL[mrSm tajctaewdkufwGef;vdktyfcsufa=umifh ay:aygufvm&jcif; jzpfonf? wajz;ajz;qdk;&Gm;vmaeaom pD;yGGg;a&;jy\emrsm;twGuf EdkifiHa&;t&ajzaq;/ arhaq;ay;&ef vdktyfaeonf? &Sm;yg;jywfvyfr_ rsm;u jyefvnfay:aygufvm+yD;/ ypPnf;rsm;0,f,lEdkif&ef wef;pD&aomvdkif;uvnf; &Snfvsm;vmcJhonf? wif;=uyfaomcsKfd;jcHr_ rl0g'rsm;csrSwf&efvnf; ta&;ay:vdktyfaeaom tajctaejzpfonf? odk@aomfTw}udrfwGif ukefaps;E_ef;rsm;wuf&jcif;rSm pD;yGg;a&;ðyjyifajymif;vJr_rsm;ESifh ydkIoufqdkifaeonf? txl;ojzifh wzufwGifyk*~vduydkifvkyfief;rsm; ydkrdk}uD;xGm;vmaom

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)145


a=umifhvnf; jzpfonf? xdktajctaewGif tpdk;&uyGifhyGifhvif;vif;a0zefajymqdkwwfaom twdkuftcHrsm;.toHudk xnfhoGif; pOf;pm;vm&onf? aemufxyfoabmwlnDr_wckvkyf&ef tajctaeujyefIyHkay:vmcJhonf? tpdk;&taejzifh vlxkrsm;.b0udk ydkrdkvGwfvyfcGifhay;&ef pOf;pm;vmcJh+yD; twkduftcHacgif;aqmifrsm;ESifhvnf; aqG;aEG;vmcJhonf? ,ckw}udrfwGifawmh xdkolrsm; url0g'topfrsm;udk yl;aygif;=uHqEdkif=uawmhrnf jzpfonf? ygwDacgif;aqmifrsm;. ajymqdkcsuft&/ ,cktcgtwdkuftcHrsm;udk “EdkifiH EdkifiHa&;vrf;jyajryHktwGuf aemufqHk;vdktyfaeaom t&m”tjzpftodtrSwfðyvm=uawmhonf?

atmifyGJxdkicf Hkrsm; (1986) ckESpfwGif qdkAD,uf,el D,H&Sd uGefjrLepfygwDacgif;aqmifrsm;taejzifh ta&;ygaomjynfwGif;pD;yGg;a&;ESifh EdkifiHa&;ajymif;vJ r_rl0g'rsm; csrSwfusifhoHk;vm=uvdrfhrnf[k rnfolur#óudwifar#mfvifh rxm;Edkif=uay? xdktcsdefwGif “yJ&Dpx&dkufum”ESifh “*vyfpaemh”ac: rl0g'rsm; csrSwfusifhoHk;vm+yD;/ Trl0g'rsm;a=umifh ta&S@Oa&mywcGifwGifvnf; tajymif;tvJrsm;jzpfay:vm &awmhonf? (1980) ckESpfoydwfumvwkef;u yg0ifqifE$J&eftvGefi,f&G,fcJhaom ydkvefEdkifiH.aemufxyftopfaomrsKd;quf jzpfonfh tvkyform;rsm;/ twdkuftcHtiftm;pkrsm;ESifh xdawG@qufpyfr_ tenf;i,fom&SdcJhaom tvkyform;rsm;taejzifh tpdk;&.wajz;ajz;vkyfaeaom ðyjyifajymif;vJa&;ajcvSrf;rsm;udk jrefjrefqefqefjzpfap&ef xyfwGef;&rnfhtajctaeu ydkI xif&Sm;vmcJhonf? (1980-81) umvrsm;u t"duOD;aqmifv_yf&Sm;cJholrsm;u pifjrifhrsm;ay:wGif qufvufOD;aqmifae=uqJjzpfonf? odk@aomf xdkolrsm;u olwdk@twGufaemufxyftcef;u¾topfudk owfrSwfjyXmef;+yD;=uay+yD? ,m&lZJpuD;u ol@taejzifhydkvefEdkifiH. a8:bmacsmhzfozG,fjzpfaea=umif; awG@&Sdvdkuf&onf? Todk@wlnDonf[k Ed_if;,SOfajym&onfrSmvnf; ta=umif;&Sdonf? olu uGefjrLepfygwD.=oZmavsmhcsa&;/ xdef;csKyfr_avsmhcsa&; csnfpudk pqGJvdkufoljzpfaomfvnf;/ odyfr=umrDrSmyif ol.tajymif; tvJrsm;. t&Sdeft[kefavvd_if;'%fudk oludk,fwdkifrcHEdkif jzpfvmcJhonf? aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~taejzifhrl (1980) ckESpf rsm;uJhodk@ vlxkoef;csDudkOD;aqmifEdkifaom vlxkv_yf&Sm;r_}uD;tjzpf ac:qdk&efrjzpfEdkifawmhaom tajctaejzpfvmcJh&onf? aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~qdkonfrSm ,cifor*~a[mif;I OD;aqmifolrsm;ESifht=uHay;olrsm; jzpf+yD;/ olwdk@udk,folwdk@ tiftm; i,faomfvnf; vlav;pm;aomEdkifiHa&;wyfOD;wcktjzpf ajymif;vJcJh=uonf? Todk@OD;aqmifr_odyfrvkyfaom tajctaewGif yif EdkifiHa&;ðyjyifajymif;vJr_vkyfief;rsm;twGuf t"duyifrtcef;u¾u yg0ifcJh=uonf? aemufrsm;r=umrDyif ydkvefEdkifiHwGif ygwDpHk'Drdkua&pDpepf jzpfay:vmcJh&onf? (1988) ckESpf {+yDvwGif aemufw}udrfukefaps;E_ef; }uD;jrifhr_rsm;xyfrHjzpfay:vmcJhonf? aemufxdyfw}udrfoydwfrsm;vnf; xyfrHay:aygufvmjyefonf? odk@aomfTw}udrfwGifrl aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~u ac:,lawmif;qdkjcif;r[kwfawmh? “usaemf wdk@oydwfac:,lwmr[kwfzl;/ 'gayr,fh usaemfwdk@u 'DoydwfawGudk rqef@usifzl;?” vufcsf bm0ifqmuajymcJhonf? xdk@tjyif oludk,fwdkifu *'ef@pfcfwGif 9-&uf=um tvkyfydwfoydwftwGuf ulnDay;cJhao;onf? rD;awmufavmifaeaom wufºuG v_yf &Sm;aomvli,frsm;u ,cktcgqDaewm bm0ifqmuJhodk@aomvlrsm;udk pdwfysuftm;rvdk tm;r&jzpfvm=uonf? ,cktcg xdkolrsm;u tpdk;&zufu ydkIwm0ef&Sdoa,mifxifae=uonf? aemufxyf (4) v=umaomtcg aemufxyfoydwfrsm;xyfI jzpfay:vmjyefonf? ,m&lZJpuD;u qHk;jzwfvdkufonfrSm olwdk@rxdef;csKyfEdkifawmhaomtajctaewGif tpdk;&utultnD vdktyfaeonfrsm;udk awmif;cH&efjzpfonf? =o*kwfv (26) &ufae@wGif AdkvfcsKyf}uD;u ay:vpfAsL&dkodk@ twdkuftcHrsm;ESifh EdkifiHa&;aqG;aEG;yGJrsm;usif;y&efvdktyfa=umif; wifjyvdkufonf? Tw}udrfwGifawmh rnfonfhowfrSwfcsufrSrxm;vdkawmh? Ttcg acgif;rmaomygwDacgif;aqmifrsm;u tjyif;txefqef@usif=uonf? odk@aomf (5) &uf=umaomtcg umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;u bm0ifqmxHodk@yk*~dKvfa&;t&qufoG,f um aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~udk tu,fIoydwfrsm;+yD;qHk;atmifulnDay;Edkifygu/ w&m;0iftodtrSwfðyay;rnfjzpfa=umif; ajym=um;vmcJhonf? bm0ifqmu tajctaeyGifhvif;vmawmhrnf[k jrifonf? oluurf;vSrf;vmaomvufudk vufcHcJh onf? xdk@aemuf&owWygwfrsm;tenf;i,f=umaomtcg oluuGefjrLepfygwDtvkyform;or*~acgif;aqmifESifh &kyfjrifoH=um; wGif pum;ppfxdk;ajymqdkcGifh&onf? ol.,Ofaus;wnf=unfaom taetxm;t&/ olu ol.qef@usifzufacgif;aqmifudk vufeufðzwf&ef pGrf;aqmifEdkifcJhonf? ,m&lZJpuD;twGufrSmrl TtajctaeonftoHk;wnfhvSaom &_H;edrfhr_jzpfonf? ol. ygwDtwGif;&Sd acgif;rmwif;cHae=uaomolrsm;u ,ckacgif;aqmifudk rnfodk@jyif;jyif;xefxefwif;wif;rmrmqufjiif;aeEdkif=u rnfenf;[k oljrifvmcJhonf? Zefe0g&DvwGif ygwD nDvmcHtóudtpnf;ta0;rsm;usif;yaomtcg olu aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~udk ydkrdk&_H@csjypfwif=uaom toHrsm;udk =um;&onf? tu,fI aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~ESifhawG@qHkaqG;aEG;yGJrsm;udk jiif;qefygu AdkvfcsKyf}uD;taejzifh ygwDrS E_wfxGuf&ef+cdrf;ajcmufonf? olu Todk@ajymItpnf;ta0;rS xGufcGgoGm;onf? TwGiftajctaeu vrf;yGifhvmcJh onf? (1989) ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv (6) &ufae@wGif 8-rDwmausmf&Snfvsm;aom ydkvefEdkifiH0ufopfcsom;jzifhðyvkyfxm;onfh pm;yGJ0dkif;}uD;Y ygwDrSudk,fpm;vS,f (29) OD;u/ aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~ESifh bk&m;ausmif;rsm;rS udk,fpm;vS,f/ avhvmol (26) OD;jzifh

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)146


ydkvefEdkifiHa&S@a&;twGuf pwifaqG;aEG;Edkif=uawmhonf? ygwDudk,fpm;vS,fwOD;u aemufydkif;wGifor*~acgif;aqmif rsm;udk jyefajymjyonf? “usaemfwdk@u t&dkif;qHk;vdk@xifxm;wJholawGu usKd;a=umif;qDavsmftpOf;pm;EdkifqHk; jzpfae=uwm awG@&w,f?” [k jyefajymjyonf? (,m&lZJpuD; udk,fYu aemufydkif;wGif t'rfrpfcsepf.pmtkyfrsm;udkjyefzwf+yD;/ ol@udk,fol ESifh ol@rlrsm;tay:wnf=unfpGm &yfwnfol[k ajym=um;cJhonf?) bm0ifqm/ rpfcsepf/ bl*suf/ vpfZf/ ul&GefESifh twdkuftcHtiftm;pk pwifpnf;&Hk;olrsm;twGufrSmrl TaqG;aEG;yGJrsm;Y EdkifiH.a&S@a&;twGuf t"duolwdk@udk OD;wnfxm;aqG;aEG;cJh=ua=umif; awG@vmcJh&onf? {+yDv (6) &ufae@wGif olwdk@.pdwf ESvHk;rStpOfwpdkufOD;wnfcJhaom &nfrSef;csuftwdkif; olwdk@jynfhajrmufEdkifcJhonf? vGwfvyfaomor*~rsm;zGJ@pnf;cGifh/ vGwfvyf aomowif;xkwfa0cGifhESifh pkpnf;cGifh/ vGwfvyfaom w&m;pD&ifa&;pepfESifh vGwfvyfaomygwDpHka&G;aumufyGJrsm;usif;ya&; twGuf oabmwlnDr_&,lEdkifcJh=uonf? (1989) ckESpf ZGefv (4) &ufae@a&mufaomtcg olwkd@tay:vlxkuvdkvdkvm;vm; axmufcHr_udk qENrJjym;rsm;tjzpfajymif;,lEdkifcJh=uonf? uGefjrLepfygwDudkausmfI tjywftowfatmifyGJcHEdkifcJh=uonf? =o*kwfv (24) &ufae@wGif qm*srfv$wfawmfrS wm'D,kpf rmZdk0D;puD;udk aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~OD;aqmifaomtpdk;&. 0ef}uD;csKyftjzpf/ a&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufcJh=uonf? ydkvefEdkifiHtwGuf tm%m&SiftkyfcsKyfa&;ed*Hk;csKyfoGm;cJh+yD jzpfonf? (1999) ckESpfwGif pm;yGJ0dkif;awG@qHkaqG;aEG;yGJ (10) ESpfajrmufESpfywfvnftjzpf/ axmifaygif;rsm;pGmaom ydkvefvlxkrsm; at;cJ aomaqmif;&moDwGifvrf;rsm;ay: xGufvmcJh=uonf? ydkvefEdkifiHeef;awmfodk@vrf;av#mufcsDwuf=u+yD;/ aqG;aEG;yGJcrf;rxJodk@ 0if=unfh=uonf? ,cif&xm;vrf;vkyfom;wOD;u “'Dae&m[m vGwaf jrmufa&;pwifcJhwJhae&myJ” [kajymonf? olajymonf rSm rSm;onf? ol.vGwfajrmufr_rSm ydkvefEdkifiH. tjcm;aomae&mtrsm;tjym;rSpwifvmcJhjcif; jzpfonf? oydwfarSmufwdkufyGJ 0ifolrsm;u (1970) ckEpS fwiG f olw@kd u, kd w f kdifor*~rsm;zG@J pnf;Edkifa&;twGuf awmif;qdkv_yf&Sm;=uwdkif;/ (1976) ckESpfwGif tusOf;usrdom;pkrsm;twGuf aiGrsm;/ axmufyHhr_rsm;ulnDay;urf;=uwdkif;/ (1980) umvrsm;wGif tvkyform;rsm;u olwkd@. vufeufu&d,mrsm;udkcsI tvkyfvkyfudkif&efjiif;qdk=uwdkif;/ (1980) ckESpfrsm;wGif vlwOD;OD;uajratmufowif;pmzwfae=u wdkif; vGwfajrmufr_pwifaecJhonf? awG@qHkaqG;aEG;yGJrsm;u tajymif;tvJudkxkwfvkyfay;&Hkomjzpf+yD;/ aemufqHk;tm%mcsdefcGif v#majymif;vJ oGm;&jcif;omjzpfonf? (1989) ckESpfwGif ,m&lZJpuD;u ydkvefEdkifiH.tdrfawmfaomhudktyfESHcJhaomfvnf;/ ol@xHrS acgif;aqmifr_udk tjcm;olrsm;u vk,lxm;cJhonfrSm =umjrifhcJh+yDjzpfonf?

ÚÚÚ uGefjrLepftm%m&Sifpepf ed*Hk;csKyfoGm;cJh&jcif;onf ydkvefEdkifiH.t=urf;rzufaom v_yf&Sm;r_ed*Hk;csKyfoGm;cJhjcif; r[kwfay? uGefjrLepftpdk;&rsm;onf (1989) ckESpfY ta&S@Oa&mywv$m;Y òyduGJoGm;=uonf? ckcHr_tvdktavsmufpwifcJhaom/ aocsmpepf wuspkpnf;r_r&Sdaom EdkifiHrsm;Yyif uGefjrLepftpdk;&rsm; òyduscJh&onf? tu,fI autdktm r&Sdv#ifaomfrS ydkvefEdkifiHuGefjrLepf ygwDtaejzifh oufqdk;r&SnfEdkifay? tu,fI =o*kwfvoydwfwdkufyGJrsm;r&SdaomfrS/ ul&Gefvdk/ a0:vifwDEdk0pfZfvdk vlrsKd;r&Sdaomf rS/ bm0ifqmvdk/ bl*sufvdk acgif;aqmifrsKd;r&Sdv#ifaomfrS a&&SnfcH&efta=umif; r&Sday? odk@aomfTtrnfrsm; xif&Sm;&aom ta=umif;rSm tm%m&Sifpepf.ed*Hk;umv tajymif;tvJudkjzpfapcJholrsm; jzpfaoma=umifh jzpfonf? xdkolwdk@u ydkvefEdkifiH. udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfa&;udk uGefjrLepfrsm;rusqHk;rDuyif pwifcJh=uolrsm; jzpfaoma=umifhyif? Tvrf;. yxrOD;qHk;aomrdkifrsm;udk (1970) ckESpfrsm;uyif pwifcif;cJh=uonf? ydkvefEdkifiH&Sd ynmwwfrsm;u wdkuf&dkufv_yf&Sm; r_rsm;vkyfcJh=uonf? tvkyform;rsm;udk ulnDjcif;/ *sme,f r*~Zif;rsm;xkwfa0jcif;/ oifwef;rsm;ay;jcif;rsm; aqmif&GufcJh=u onf? odk@aomf autdktmESifh tjcm;aomwufºuGv_yf&Sm;olrsm; rpGrf;aqmifEdkif=uaomudpPrSm tpdk;&tm%mydkifrsm;udk olwdk@ .zGJ@pnf;yHkt& tm%musifhoHk;r_udkuef@owfusifhoHk;&eftwGuf vufcH&efrwwfEdkif=ujcif; jzpfonf? vGwfvyfaomvl@abmif twGuf Oya'a=umif;t&ae&mrsm;/ tcGifhtvrf;rsm;zefwD;ay;&ef rpGrf;EdkifcJh=ujcif;jzpfonf? olwdk@u (1980) ckESpf=o*kwf vwGif tus,ftjyef@aomt=urf;rzufonfh v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk aqmif&GufcJh=uonf? (1970) ckESpfu trSm;rsm;udkoifcef;pm xkwf,lI/ autdktm. tawG@tóuHrsm;udkaygif;pyfI abmvfwpfyifv,furf;ajca'o&Sdvkyfom;rsm;onf &ufowWygwfaygif; rsm;pGm tus,ftjyef@aomv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk vkyfcJh=uonf? vlxkrsm;udk xºuGapcJh=uonf? puf&Hkrsm;twGif;&Sd ygwDXmersm;udk awG@qHkaqG;aEG;vm&avatmif tiftm;oHk;zdtm;ay;EdkifcJh=uonf? aemufydkif;wGif aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~onf vltrsm;tm;vHk;vdkufygEdkifrnfh ,mOfwckozG,fjzpfvmcJhonf? or*~topfu oydwfarSmufrnf[laom+cdrf;ajcmufr_udkoHk;I tm%mydkiftpdk;&udkxdef;csKyfxm;EdkifcJh=uonf? olwdk@.wnf&Sdaer_udk tod trSwfðy&Hkomru/ tvkyform;rsm;twGuf vGwfvyfaomajyma&;qdkcGifh&&ef tajctaersm;zefwD;ay;EdkifcJhonf? tu,fI autdktmtaejzifh vGwfvyfaomvlxkae&m/ v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;twGuf t=urf;rzufaomjymufusm;ppfyGJudkomqifE$JcJh&if;/ aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~taejzifh yifv,furf;ajca'owav#mufvHk;wGif vGwfajrmufr_&&eftwGuf vlxkaxmufcHr_rsm;udk pkpnf;EdkifcJh=uonf? Todk@wdkawmif;aom awmufajymifvif;vufonfhumvtwGif; uGefjrLepfpepfjzifhtkyfcsKyfaeaomydkvef

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)147


EdkifiHwGif vGwfvyfaom/ vlxktajcðy vlr_tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;udk zefwD;xm;EdkifcJhonf? acsr_ef;a&;+yD;aemuf or*~òzdcGJcHcJh&+yD;aemuf wGifvnf; twdkuftcHrsm;taejzifh ydkvefEdkifiHvlxkrsm;. b0rsm;jyefvnf&&Sdap&eftwGuf wdkufyGJqifcJh=u&ao;onf? ppftkyf csKyfa&;umvatmufwGifyif/ rdrdzmomzGJ@pnf;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm; qufvufIjzpfay:aecJhonf? Todk@jzifh q,fpkESpfwckukefqHk;aom tcg ,m&lZJpuD;taejzifh epfðryfaeaompD;yGg;a&;tajctaeudk u,fwifEdkif&ef/ aemufw}udrfvd_if;wefydk;xefvmrnfhtajc taeudk ukpm;Edkif&ef tjcm;aomtm%mtiftm;pkrsm;xHrS tultnDudkawmif;cHcJh&awmhonf? Todk@jzifh aoG;pnf;nD!Gwf a&;or*~ydkI awmufajymifvm&onf? odyfr=umrdyif ,m&lZJpuD;tzdk@ed*Hk;udk awG@vdkuf&awmhonf? ydkvefEdkifiH.ordkif;udk ajymif;vJapcJhaom v_yf&Sm;r_'Da&jrifhwufvmcJh&jcif;onf jynfolvlxkrsm;.tm%m rnfr#}uD;rm;onf udkjycJhjcif; jzpfonf? TonfrSm r[wWr *ENDtaejzifh +Adwdo#rsm;.tdENd,tkyfcsKyfa&;tajccHudk udkifv_yfcJh+yD;aemufydkif;wGifjzpf cJhaom }uD;rm;onfhOyrmwck jzpfcJhonf? &mpkESpfwckESifh w0ufeD;yg;wGif +Adwfdo#rsm;u tdEd, N vlrsKd;rsm;.yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_ udk&,lI tdENd,udktkyfpdk;xm;EdkifcJh=uonf? tvm;wlyif ydkvefEdkifiHwGifvnf; vlxkrsm;.ra=ueyfr_rsm;udk xdef;odrf;&if;uGefjrL epftpdk;&taejzifh ESpfaygif; (30) ausmftkyfcsKyfcJh=uonf? olwdk@u ðyjyifajymif;vJa&;orm;rsm;udk odrf;oGif;&if;/ tjcm;twdkuf tcHtoHrsm;udk z,fusOfxm;&if; tkyfcsKyfxm;Edkif=uonf? zdESdyfr_udkqef@usiftHwkEdkifaom tjcm;aomenf;emrsm;róuH&rDrcsif;/ cHcJh=u&onf? aemufydkif; tpdk;&tm%mydkifrsm;ESifh qufqHr_jzwfawmuf&if;/ jynfolrsm;ESifh qufqHa&;xlaxmif&if;enf;emopf rsm;udk aqmif&GufEdkifcJh=uawmhonf? bpfe,l; bl*sufu Amqvuf[mA,f. tufaq;wyk'fjzpfonfh “tm%mrJholrsm;. =oZmcGeftm;”[laomtufaq;wGif azmfjyxm;csufjzpfaom vrf;!$efrsm;u ol.vkyfief;rsm;twGuf&Sif;jy&mwGif rsm;pGmtaxmuftuljzpfapcJhonf[k qdkonf? [mA,fuawG@&SdcsufrSm tm%m&Siftpdk;&rsm;tay:rSDcdkae&aom/ vlxkrsm;u yl;aygif;aqmif&GufaeaomtajctaerSm tm; enf;csufwckjzpfonf[kqdkonf? ta=umif;rSmxdkolrsm;udk rkom;jzifhqufvuf&Sifoefap&ef axmufcHxm;ay;aoma=umifhjzpf onf? trSefw&m;ESifhaexdkifr_twGuf tcGifhae&mudkawG@&Sdvmolrsm;u wckwnf;aom/ aygufuGJvG,faom/ rwdkif;qEdkifaom EdkifiHa&;tm%mudk vrf;yGifhap&efzefwD;ay;Edkif=uawmhonf[k qdkonf? rkom;ESifhaexdkifjcif;Y qufvufusefaeolrsm;ESifhrl trSefw&m;ESifhaexdkifolrsm;u tcsdefra&G;xdyfwdkufawG@Edkif=uonf? vlxkv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;jzifh olwdk@udkajymif;vJvmonfESifhtr# trSefw&m;udkvltrsm;uydkI odjrifvmEdkif=uonf[k qdkonf? vlxkv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;&kwfcsnf;aygufuGJvmaomumvwGif/ ,cif u wpkwpnf;wnf;oHr%dyrm&Sdaom tm%mzGJ@pnf;yHktwGif;Y yÉdyuQrsm;xif&Sm;pGm ay:aygufvm&awmhonf[k qdkonf? awmiftmz&duEdkifiHwGif vGefcJhaomESpf (80) cef@u/ *ENDu TtrSefw&m;ESifh ywfoufIazmfxkwfcJhonf? olu “p=u*[” [kac:onf? Toludk ckcHqef@usifolrsm;uudkifpGJcJh=u+yD;/ zdESdyfolrsm;xHrSaeI tm%mudk qGJ,lodrf;ydkufEdkifcJh=uonf? tvm; wlyif ydkvefEdkifiHwGifvnf; aqmif&GufEdkifcJh=uonf? vufcsf bm0ifqmu oabFmusif;wGifvGwfvyfaomae&mrsm;zefwD;ay; EdkifcJh+yD;/ aemufqHk;tpdk;&u vdkufavsmawG@qHkaqG;aEG;vm&onf? bl*sufu ajratmufv_yf&Sm;r_tjzpfqif;oGm;+yD;/ (8) ESpf =umaomumvwGif ,m&lZJpuD;u jyefvnfzdwf=um;&aomtajctaeudk qdkufa&mufvmcJh&onf? bm0ifqmESifh tjcm; aomacgif;aqmifrsm;udk EdkifiHjyefvnfwnfaqmuf&eftwGuf zdwfac:vm&awmhonf? (1989) ckESpfwGif pm;yGJ0idk f;awG@qHkaqG; aEG;yGJY yg0ifcJh=uaomtwdkuftcHtiftm;pkrsm;tm;vHk;/ Tae&modk@a&muf&SdvmcJh=ujcif;rSm rlvyxru tm%mydkifrsm;ESifh yl;aygif;aqmif&Guf&ef jiif;qefcJh=uaoma=umifh jzpfonf? olwdk@udk,folwdk@ rkom;jzifhvdrfnmaexdkif&ef jiif;qefcJh=uonf? olwdk@. b0rsm;twGif;/ olwdk@.vkyfief;cGifrsm;twGif; trSefw&m;ESifhaexdkif&eftwGuf olwdk@. udk,fydkifae&mudkzefwD;cJh=u onf? Tonfuyif v_yf&Sm;r_.tajccHjzpfonf? Todk@jiif;y,fcJhonfhtvm;wl t=urf;zufaomenf;vrf;rsm;jzifh v_yf&Sm;aqmif&Guf&efvnf; olwdk@ujiif;qefcJh=uonf? [mA,fuajymonfrSm ppfrSefaomtwdkuftcHwOD;qdkonfrSm “t=urf;zufajymif;vJa&;enf;vrf;rsm; a&G;cs,f&efudk tajccH ususjiif;y,folrsm; jzpf&rnf” [kqdkcJhonf? bl*sufuvnf; “t=urf;zufvkyf&yfrsm;” udkjiif;qefcJh=uonf? aemufqHk; t=urf;zufr_udk &ifqdkifae=u&aomtcsdefwdkif jiif;y,fcJh=uonf? (1981) ckESpf *'ef@pfcftjzpftysufjzpfyGg;+yD;aemufydkif;/ tvkyf orm;wOD;u ol.ae@pOfrSwfwrf;wGif a&;om;cJhonf? “usaemfwdk@taejzifh ycHk;ay:wGifxrf;xm;aom vuf0g;uyfwdkifudk vSrf;,l&ef toifhjzpfae=u+yD? Tvuf0g;uyfwdkifrSm wifhum;rsm;. csdef;oGm;rsm;vrf;a=umif;ay:wGif&Sdaom vuf0g;uyfwdkif jzpfonf? Todk@qdkygu rdrdwdk@udk xdk;ppfqifwdkufcdkufvmOD;awmhrnf? ” ESpfq,f&mpktwGif; vufeufudkifvGwfajrmufa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;twGif;Y aoewfudkifaomajymufusm;acgif;aqmifrsm;u ol&J aumif;rsm;jzpfcJh=uonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh acsa*GAm;&m;qdkv#if wurBmvHk;twGuf ol&Jaumif;ozG,fjzpfcJhonf? Tolrsm;udk jy,k*frsm;ozG,f xm;cJh=uonf? odk@aomfvnf; Todk@aomv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;u atmifyGJrsm;udkxkwfvkyfay;Edkifjcif; r&SdcJhay? aoG; pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~. vrf;av#mufcsDwufyGJrsm;ESifh tcrf;tem;rsm;aqmif&GufaecJh=uaom tcsdefrsm;wav#mufvHk;wGif/ t"duudkifaqmif=uaom jy,k*f"gwfyHkrSm ykwf&[ef;rif;}uD; *|efayg."gwfyHkyif jzpfonf? olu ydkvefEdkifiHrsm;om;udk bmom w&m;rJholrsm;tjzpf oGwfoGif;vmcJhr_udk rcHr&yfEdkifjzpfae=uolrsm; jzpfonf? aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~. t"dutcrf;tem; jyifqifr_yHkpHrSmvnf;/ puf&HkwHcg;0rsm;ESifh txdfrf;trSwfausmufwdkifrsm;wGif jzpfcJhonf? acgif;aqmifrsm;upkqHk=u+yD; usqHk;ol rsm;odk@

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yef;pnf;rsm;/ yef;jcif;rsm;ay;cJh=uonf? wl wHpOfrsm;/ vufoD;qkyfxm;aomyHkrsm;/ aygufqdefyHkrsm; pojzifh awmfvSef a&;rsm;.oauFwrsm;rSmvnf; trsm;uvufeuftjzpftoHk;ðyEdkifaom ypPnf;rsm;oauFwrsm; jzpfae=uonf? TuJhodk@ r[kwf/ olwdk@uyef;rsm;udk oHk;cJh=uonf? tm%m&Sifrsm;udk ypfy,fjcif;rSmvG,fvSonf? odk@aomftm%m&Sifrsm;. pdwfóudufvufeufwckjzpfaom t=urf;zufr_udk ypfy,f&efrSm rvG,fulvSay? txl;ojzifh oifh.&yfwnfr_udk+cdrf;ajcmufvmaomtajctaewGif ydkIrvG,fulvSay? odk@aomf Todk@t=urf;zufr_udk jiif;y,fjcif;tm;jzifh jyefvnf&&Sdvmrnfh&vm'frSm cGeftm;tm%mjzpfonf? ydkvefEdkifiH&Sd vkyfom;rsm; taejzifh (1970) ckESpfESifh (1976) ckESpfu tm%mydkifrsm;.taqmuftOD;rsm;udk rD;&_d@zsufqD;jcif;jzifh wdk;wufr_tenf;i,fom &&SdcJh=uonf? tu,fI aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~ydkifqdkifaom vufeufodkavSmif&Hkrsm;udkom awG@cJhygu/ rvG,fay? b&ufZnufAfu uefeD,mxHodk@ Todk@zefwD;&avatmif wdkufwGef;cJhao;onf? tu,fI bl*sufu ol.tpkrsm;udkacgif; aqmifrsm;udk vkyf=uH&efapcdkif;cJhygu/ ygwDwGif;&Sd oabmxm;jyif;xefolrsm;u bl*sufudk&_H@cs=uaomtcsdefwGif/ (1989) ckESpf wGif aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;tjcm;acgif;aqmifrsm;udk EdkifiHa&;&mZ0wfaumifrsm;[k pGyfpGJ=uaomtcsdefY vufydkuf=unfhaevdkuf rnf jzpfonf? oifpdkufor#om oif&dyfodrf;&ayvdrhfrnf? TuJhodk@ *ENDu tENd,vlxkrsm;udk ajymcJhonf? Todk@t=urf;zufr_udk óudwifjiif;y,fjcif;twGuf jzpfay:vmrnfh&vm'fudk (1980) ckESpf=o*kwfvu óudwifIodjrifEdkifcJhrnf r[kwfay? odk@aomfvufiif;óuH&rnfh tEW&m,fursm;vGef;vSonf? vDeifoabFmusif;&Sd oydwfarSmufqENjyolrsm; oabm aygufxm;=uonfrSm tpdk;&/ EdkifiHawmfESifh EdkifiHwumtpdk;&toD;oD;u olwdk@rnfodk@qufvufaqmif&Guf=urnfudk apmifh =unfhae=ujcif;yif? tu,fI oabFmusif;tkyfcsKyfoludkom jiif;y,fcJhygu/ ol@udkom tvkyform;rsm;u &dkufESufI vrf;ay: armif;xkwfcJhygu/ tpdk;&zufrS awG@qaHk qG;aEG;&eftwGuf urf;vSrf;vmrnf[k xifygovm;? tu,fIaemufydkif;wGif or*~rS olrsm;u bpf*dk0pf&Sdtvkyform;rsm;vlxkrsm;udk aoG;xdk;v_H@aqmfcJhygu/ &Jrsm;udkwdkufcdkuf=u&ef v_H@aqmfcJhygu/ ydkIjrefjref ppf tkyfcsKyfa&;a&mufvmvdrfhrnf jzpfonf? Todk@ rif;rJhz&dkz&JtajctaetwGuf wkef@jyef&ef tpdk;&zufrSta=umif;jycsuf&oGm; cJhvdrfhrnf jzpfonf? rnfolrqdk t=urf;zufr_udkpwifcJhygu xdktwGufjzpfvm&aom emrnftqdk;&r_udk oluompwifcHpm; &rnf jzpfonf? tu,fI t=urf;rzufpnf;&Hk;v_yf&Sm;r_tpm;/ aoG;xGufoH,dkjzpfrnfh ckcHawmfvSefr_ompwifcJhygu tpdk;& tm%mydkifrsm;u aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;v_yf&Sm;r_udk TuJhodk@tav;w,lkðyqufqHvmrnfavm[kvnf; pOf;pm;p&m&Sdonf? ESpfumv=um&Snf “ppfyGJumvtajctaeqdkonfrsKd;”ESifh ydkrdk=um&SnfpGm óuH&vdrfhrnfjzpfonf? vufcsf bm0ifqmu (1983) ckESpfwGif Edkb,f+idrf;csrf;a&;qk&&SdcJhonf? EdkifiHwumu ydkvefjynfolrsm;. ta&;udkpmemaxmufcHvmcJhonf? Tv_yf&Sm;r_udk aemufjyefqGJaeolrsm;twGuf aemufxyft&Suf&p&m tcsufjzpfapcJhonf? pm;yGJ0dkif; awG@qkHaqG;aEG;yGJukvm;xdkifrsm;wGif xdkifae=uaomolrsm;tzdk@/ ydkvefEdkifiHtem*gwfonf olwdk@.ycHk;ay:wGif&Sdae a=umif; cHpm;rd=uonf? aemufydkif;wGif olwdk@onfvlxk.acgif;aqmifrsm; jzpfvm=uonf? tpdk;&wck. t&m&Sdrsm;rjzpf vm=uay? olwdk@. aemufausmrsm;wGif ordkif;.avvd_if;wGef;tm;&Sdaeonf? vGefcJhaom ESpf (20) twGif;wGif olwdk@. t&Sdeft[kefudk pkaqmif;EdkifcJh=uonf? qkwf,kwfoGm;onfvnf; &Sdonf? wzefjyefI jrifhwufvmcJh&onf? uGefjrLepf0g' udk vGifhxGufoGm;atmifwdkufcdkufrnfh avjyif;xefwdkufcdkufr_twGuf tiftm;onf t=urf;zufr_&moDOwk r[kwf? Tavvd_if; u vlxktajcðyvlr_tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;. &moDOwkrSay:aygufvmcJhjcif; jzpfonf? tm%m&Sifrsm;. rsufapha&S@atmufY qEN rygyJ }uD;xGm;vmcJhaom &moDOwkjzpfonf? Tv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;onf bk&m;ausmif;rsm;. wHpuf+rdwfrsm;/ jyLwif;aygufrsm;aemufrS twdkuftcHtiftm;pkrsm; awG@qHk&if;ay:aygufvm=ujcif; jzpfonf? tvkyform;rsm; odrf;ydkufaompuf&Hk0if;rsm;rS ay:ayguf vmcJhjcif; jzpfonf? ajratmuftzGJ@0ifrsm;udk vufcHaomtdrfrsm;/ rdom;pkrsm;. tcef;rsm;rSay:aygufvm=ujcif; jzpfonf? vGwfajrmufr_EG,fyifrsm;udk uGefjrLepfydkvefajrom;wGif pdkufysK;d &eftwGuf/ (1970) ckESpfrsm;ESifh (1980) ckESpfrsm;wGif jzpfcJhaom vlxkv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;u tm%m&Siftpdk;&udkpdefac:EdkifcJhonf? Ttpdk;&onf acwfrDtm%m&Siftpdk;&rsm;teuf a=umufp&m taumif;qHk;rdom;pk0ifrsm;teufrS wckjzpfonf? pwmvifed*Hk;csKyfcsdefrSpI ul;vyftxd/ uarBm'D;,m;&Sd ydkayghrsKd;ðzwfyGJrsm; txd/ vltrsm;pkonf uGefjrLepf0g'[laomtrnfatmufwGif olwdk@.b0rsm;udk pGef@v$wfcJh=u&onf? odk@aomfTpepf. pH wefzdk;xm;owfrSwfcsufrsm;u Todk@r[kwfay? ydkvefEdkifiH&Sd uGefjrLepftrsKd;rsm;onfvnf; Todk@qdk;qdk;&Gm;&Gm;rdp>mrsKd;awmh r[kwfay? odk@aomfvnf; twdkuftcHðyolrsm;udk óudqdkaecJhaomtusOf;axmifcef;rsm;uawmh twdkuftcHrsm;twGuf vdkvm; csuf rufvHk;wckawmh r[kwfcJhay? ,ckwdkif Todk@&JwdkufudkckcHwGef;vSefae&aom v_yf&Sm;r_taejzifh olwdk@.&Sif;vif;aom &nfrSef;csufrsm; csrSwfEdkifcJh=uonf? vlxktrsm;pk.axmufcHr_udk&atmif pnf;&Hk;EdkifcJh=uonf? bk&m;ausmif;rsm;ESifh EdkifiH&yf jcm;axmufyHhr_rsm;udk pkaqmif;EdkifcJh=uonf? tv#iftjrefacsr_ef;cH&aprnfh zdESdyfrsm;rjzpfapatmif a&Smifv$JEdkifcJh=uonf? oydwfwdkufyGJrsm;ESifh rdrdzmompnf;&Hk;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk tajccHIt=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_.ordkif;wGif tjrifhrm;qHk;aom zGH@òzd;r_udk &atmif wdkufyGJ0ifEdkifcJhonf? ppfwyfrSacsr_ef;&eftwGuf rjzpfEdkifapaom tajctaejzpfcJhonf? ydkvefEdkifiHwGif rnfuJhodk@tajctaerSerf sm;jzpfaeonfudk od&ef vspfvsL&_xm;cJhaom vD,dkepf b&ufZnufzftaejzifh aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;or*~udk ol.tifyg,m.tonf;ESvHk;udk axmufxm;aom'g;ajrmifwvuftjzpf jrifaeonfrSm/ rSefcJh onf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)149


xdkolrsm;u ygwD.OD;aqmifvrf;!$efr_udk jiif;y,fcJh=uonf? EdkifiHawmftpdk;&. trdef@tm%mrsm;udkzDqeftmcHcJh=u onf? xdkolrsm;u ydkvefvlxkrsm;.qENudk awmif;cHcJh=uonf? tpdk;&. oem;n‡mwmr_udk rawmif;qdkcJhay? b0ESifh vkyftm; .tajctaersm; wdk;wufap&efawmif;qdkcJh=uonf? pD;yGg;a&;uarmufur jzpf&rnfhtajctae/ EdkifiHa&;a&S@rwdk;om aemuf rqkwfomtajctae/ EdkifiHwumrsufESmysuf&r_rsm;rjzpfatmif +cdrf;ajcmufr_vufeufudkudkifI olwdk@.awmif;qdkcsufrsm; jynfh 0ap&ef aqmif&GufcJh&onf? Tonfrsm;tm;vHk;udk aqmif&Guf=u&if;/ ydkvefEdkifiHuGefjrLepfygwD. OD;acgif;wckudkomru/ uGefjrL epf0g'. ordkif;a=umif;udkvSnfhajymif;EdkifcJhonf? olwdk@OD;wnf&mtwdkif;/ olwdk@.tiftm; tm;udk;jzifh tm%m&,la&;udk rvkyfcJh=uay?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)150


tcef; (4)

&m;urfh (1923) usL;ausmfolrsm;udkwGef;vSefjcif; “*smrefawGudk tiftm;omjyvdkuf” yxrurBmppft+yD; ig;ESpft=um/ wckaomaqmif;&moD naecif;wGif jyifopfESifhb,fvf*sD,H ppfwyfrsm;onf *smr%DEkdifiH. òrd@}uD;wòrd@jzpfaom tufqef (Essen) òrd@}uD;twGif;odk@ ajymifajrmufaom wdusaooyfr_jzifh csDwuf0ifa&mufvmcJh=uonf? usLl;ausmfa&;wyfrsm;twGuf trdef@ay;pcef;rsm;tjzpf toHk; ðy&ef ausmif;rsm;ESifh[dkw,frsm;udk odrf;ydkufcJh=uonf? jrif;wyfESihf armfawmfqdkifu,fwyfzGJ@rsm;u w,fvDzHk;ESifh a=u;eef;&Hk;rsm;udk odrf;ydkufcJhonf? ta&;t}uD;qHk;jzpf&yfrSm ausmufrD;aoG;qif'DudwfESifh rD;&xm;Ïme !$ef=um;a&;rSL;&Hk;rsm;udk odrf;ydkufcJh=ujcif; jzpfonf? wòrd@vHk;udkodrf;ydkuf&onfrSm vG,fulvGef;vSonf? “*smrefawGudktiftm;omjyvdkuf/ wcgxJwef;OD;usKd;oGm;wmyJ” [kaemiftcgwGif jyifopf ppfom;wOD;u ajym=um;cJhygonf? xdk (1923) Zefe0g&Dv =umoyaw;ae@rwdkifcif tawmfapmpGmuwnf;uyif *smr%DEdkifiH. t"du pufr_a'o }uD;jzpfaom &m; (Ruhr) jynfe,f. tufqefòrd@uav;onf aemifwdkufcwfvmawmhrnfh rkefwdkif;. A[dkcsufrjzpfaecJhavonf? ppf&H_;EdkifiHtay:csKyfqdkxm;cJhaom pmcsKyfygpnf;urf;csufrsm;twdkif; xdkEdkifiHtwGif;odk@ 0ifa&mufI o,HZmwrsm;udk xkwf,l&ef jyifopfESihf b,fvf*sD,Hwdk@u qHk;jzwfxm;cJh=u+yD;jzpfonf? *smref vlrsKd;wdk@rSm Ttvm;tvmudk apmpD;pGmuyif jrifcJh=u+yD;jzpfonf? bmvif&Sdolwdk@tpdk;&u Tt=uyftwnf; udk rajz&Sif;EdkifcJhjcif;twGufvnf; tvGefa'goxGufaecJh=uonf? xdkae@reufcif;u tufqef òrd@olòrdom;wdk@ onf òrd@awmf.t"duaw;*Dw&Hk}uD;a&S@wGif pk&Hk;vm=u+yD; usL;ausmfr_udk wGef;vSef&eftwGuf wdkufwGef; ajym=um;ae=uavonf? vrf;rrsm;ay:odk@xu G fI “*smr%D *smr%D wdk@&Gmwdk@jynf” “Deutschland, Deutschland, über alles!” [laom oDcsif;rsm;udk oHòydifoDqdkaecJh=uonf? odk@aomftcsdef=umvmonfESifh tr# usL;ausmfa&; tEW&m,f}uD; eD;uyfvmaomtcg rsKd;cspfoDcsif;oHrsm;vnf; wjznf;jznf;avsmyh g; vmav awmhonf? ppfom;rsm; òrd@wGif;odk@w[kefxdk;0ifa&mufvm+yD; ae&m,lvdkufaomtcg pm;aomufqdkifESifh bD,mqdkif ydkif&Sifrsm;u qdkifwHcg;rsm;udkydwfvkduf=uawmhonf? A[dkblwm&Hkywfvnf&Sd &ifjyifESifhvrf;rsm;ay:wGif vltrsm; pk&Hk;a&muf&Sdvm=u+yD; olwdk@rSm xl;xl;jcm;jcm;+idrfoufaecJh=uavonf? qENjyyGJrsm;ay:aygufvmrnfh t&dyf ta,mifvnf; r&Sd? rGef;vGJydkif;tukefavmufwGif ppfom; (4000) ausmfESifh oHcsyfumum; w'gZifausmf 0ifa&mufvmonfudk òrd@olòrd@om;rsm; pdwfroufrom=unfhae=u&awmhonf? xdkwyfzGJ@rsm;rSm &m;a'o&Sd ausmufrD;aoG;wGif;rsm;rS ausmufrD;aoG;rsm;xkwf,lrnfh b,fvf*sD,H/ jyifopf/ tDwvD tif*sifeD,mrsm;udk tumtuG,fay;&ef oufoufr[kwfqdkonfudk olwdk@pwif oabmayguf pdk;&drfvm=uawmhonf? (1870) ckESpfu jyifopfudktEdkifwdkuf+yD;/ *smrefEdkifiHawmf}uD;udk xlaxmifpOfu yg0ifcJhaom y&yf&Sif; ppfom;tdk}uD;rSm òrd@awmf &efol@vufatmufusa&mufoGm;&onfudk=unfh&if; vufudkifyk0gtkyfI wtdtd idkaeavonf? tbdk;bmvdk@idkaeovJ[k ar;aomtcg olu “wae@rSmolwdk@igwdk@udk 'Dvdkvkyfvdrfhr,fvdk@ wcgrS rawG;cJhrdbl;” [kajz=um;cJhonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)151


“*smr%D. tonf;eSvHk;” r[mppfyGJ}uD;[kolwdk@ac:=uaom ppfyGJ}uD;wGif a=umufrufzG,f tustqHk;rsm; &SdcJhvifhupm; xdkppfyGJ }uD;rSm jyifopf.xkwfvkyfa&;a'o}uD; tawmfrsm;rsm;udk t}uD;tus,f zsufqD;ypfcJhavonf? ajrmufbuf tpGeftzsm;ae&mrsm;qdkv#if jym;jym;0yfoGm;cJh&avonf? olwdk@taejzifh usdef;aoaygufEdkifajc&Sdonf[k xifae csdefwGif *smrefAdkvfcsKyfrsm;u jyifopfjynfajrmufydkif;&Sd ausmufrD;aoG;rdkif;rsm;ESifh b,fvf*sD,H. owWKrdkif;rsm;udk t+yD;wkdifodrf;ydkuf&ef}uH&G,fcJh=uonf? olwdk@&H_;awmhrnfqdkwm aocsmoGm;v#ifawmh *smrefAdkvfcsKyf tD&pf vl'efa'ghzf (General Eric Ludendroff) u owWKwGif;rsm;udk azgufcGJzsufqD;vdkuf&efESifh vkd%facgif;rsm;xJodk@ a&oGif;+yD; zsufqD;ypfvdkuf&eftrdef@ay;cJhonf? &nf&G,fcsufrSmwckyJ&Sdonf? &efbufEdkifiH. pufr_vkyfief;rsm;udk vHk;0O\HkzsufqD;ypf&efjzpfonf? ppf&yfqdkif;a&;pmcsKyf csKyfqdkt+yD; ajcmufvt=um/ t}uD;tus,f zsufqD;cHxm;&aom a'o}uD;udk =unfh+yD; jyifopfqD;edwftrwf aygvf'dkrm (Paul Doumer) u “vloluif;rJh+yD; vkyf}uHr_/ aoqHk;r_eJ@ ysufokOf;r_ awGeJ@om jynfhESufaewJha'o}uD;” [kajym=um;cJhavonf? ppfrjzpfcifurl/ xdka'o}uD;rSm wEdkifiHvHk;wGif qefa&pyg; taygrsm;qHk;/ pufr_vkyfief; txGufrsm;qHk;a'o}uD;jzpfcJhavonf? xkdajrmufydkif;a'o}uD; jyefvnf &Sifoef+yD; toufjyef0ifrvmbl;qdkv#ifawmh jyifopfEdkifiHvnf; jyefvnfemvefxlvmp&m ta=umif;r&Sd qdkonfrSm ,cktcgaocsmvmawmhonf? ajrmufydkif;a'o}uD;. emusifbG,fjzpf&yfrsm;udk yk*~dKvfa&;t& xdxdcdkufcdkufcHpm;ae&olwOD;rSm a&rGef ydKG ifuJ (Raymond Poincaré) jzpfonf? olonfjyifopfESifh *smr%D ESpfEdkifiHpyf=um;&Sd avm&def; (Lorraine) e,frSvmoljzpfonf? xdk avm&def; e,fonfvnf; aygºuG,f0vSaom o,HZmwrsm;a=umifh usL;ausmfol wOD;+yD;wOD;ajymif;um &mpkESpfwckpmr# vk,ufodrf;ydkufjcif;ukdcHcJh&avonf? ydGKifuJ (Poincaré) onf ppftwGif;u jyifopf0ef}uD;csKyftjzpf xrf;&GufcJholjzpfonf? (1870) ckESpfu y&yf&Sm;wyfrsm; jyifopfudk 0ifa&mufodrf;ydkufpOf ydGKifuJrSm (10) ESpfom;t&G,fom &Sdao;onf? *smrefwyfrsm; ol@Zmwdajr. vrf;rrsm;ay:odk@csi;f eif;0if a&mufvmonfudk jrifcJhbl;onf? jyifopfu ppfavsmfa=u;rsm; ay;+yD;onftxd xdk jynfodrf;wyfrsm;wyfpGJ xm;cJh=uonf? 0ef}uD;csKyf ydGKifuJu xdktcsufudk ta=umif;ðy+yD; ol.*smr%DESifh ywfoufonfh &yfwnfcsufudk umuG,fajym=um;cJhonf? “*smrefawG[m (1873) ckESpftxd jyifopfEdkifiHxJrSm wyfpGJxm;cJh=uw,f/ jyifopfe,fajray:u xGufroGm;cif ppfavsmfa=u;aiGtjynfhay;cJh&w,f” [kajymqdkcJhonf? ydGKifuJ. oufwrf;rSm jyifopfwdk@ Amqdkif;pmcsKyf (Treaty of Versailles) udk twnfðy+yD;aemuf r=umrDyif ukefqHk;oGm;cJhonf? odk@aomf tjcm;aom ppftwGif;umv acgif;aqmiftrsm;tjym;uJhokd@ uG,faysmufoGm;cJhjcif;awmhr&Sday? olonf vlxku toJpGJ=unf!kdaom acgif;aqmifwOD;jzpfavonf? ppfajr jyifwGifusif;yaom ppftcrf;tem;rsm;odk@ oGm;wdkif; olonf pmcsKyfygpnf;urf;csufrsm;udk vdkufema&;ESifh pyfvsOf;+yD; *smrefwdk@. &nf&G,fcsufudk t+rJwrf;ar;cGef;xkwfavh&Sdonf? csDwufvmaom *smrefwyf}uD;tm; (1916) ckESpfwGif [ef@wm;xm;EdkifcJhonfh Am'Gef; (Verdun) wGif usif;yaom ppftcrf; tem;wckY pdwfv_yf&Sm; wufºuGbG,f rdef@cGef;wckudkajym=um;cJh&mwGif olu “*smrefawG olwdk@udk,fwdkif vufrSwfxdk; xm;wJhpmcsKyfudk rvdkufemrSmudk b,folu cGifhðyrSmwJhvJ” [kar;cGef;xkwfcJhzl;avonf? pmcsKyfygpnf;urf;csufrsm;t& *smrefppfwyfrsm;onf olwdk@odrf;ydkufxm;aom a'orsm;tm;vHk;rS qkwfcGgay;&rnfjzpfonf? xdk@jyifol@wyfrsm;tm;vHk;udk &dkif; (Rhine) jrpf.taemufbufodk@qkwfcGgay;+yD; r[mrdwfwyfrsm;u ta&S@bufurf;wGifae&m,l&rnfjzpfonf? *smrefppfwyfudk ppfonfOD;a& (100˜000) txdav#mhcs+yD; a&wyfudkppfonf (15˜000) om xm;&SdcGifhðycJhonf? tvm;wlyif ta0;ypftajrmuf}uD;rsm;/ wifhum;rsm;/ ppfav,mOfrsm; toHk;ðycGifhudk ydwfyifxm;rnfjzpfonf? &m;a'owGif ykvdyfwyfzGJ@rsm;udk ajymif;wkd aoewfrsm;om udkifcGifhðyonf? t,fvfpufESifh avm&def;e,frsm; udkjyifopfodk@ay;vdkuf&onf? ajrmufydkif;wGif &S,fpf0pfe,f (Schleswig) . wpdwfwydkif;udk 'def;rwfodk@ay;vdkuf&onf? ta&S@bufwGifrl e,ftrsm;pkrSm ydkvefbufodk@ ygoGm;onf? Todk@e,fajrtrsm;tjym; ay;tyfvdkuf&jcif;twGuf EdkifiHom; (6³ 5) oef;udk qHk;&H_;vdkuf&+yD; o,HZmw

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)152


tajrmuftjrm;ESifh pufr_vkyfief;trsm;tjym;vnf; odrf;ydkufcHcJh&avonf? TpmcsKyfonf ppfEdkifolwdk@u wzufowf csKyfqdkxm;aompmcsKyf/ r#wr_vnf;r&Sd[k *smrefwdk@u,lqonfrSm tHh=obG,fr&Sd? bmvifòrd@wGif ujyaom e,fvSnfhZmwftzGJ@rsm;Y Zmwfaqmifrsm;u xdkpmcsKyfrdwWLrsm;udk Zmwfpifay:wGif qkwf+zJypf=uonf? jyifopfwdk@u ppfavsmfa=u;rsm;udk tcsdefrSefay;&efawmif;qdkonfhtcg *smrefwdk@ua&Smifv$J&ef óud;pm;wdkif; olwdk@acgif;aqmifrsm; Tr#pdwf&Snfjcif;twGuf jyifopfjynfolwdk@u nnf;jiL=uonf? topfwuf vmaom 0ef}uD;csKyf t&pfpwdkuf b&dkif,ef (Aristide Briand) rSm 0g&ifhoHwrefwOD;jzpfonf? olonf *smrefwdk@ESifh aqG;aEG;nd‡Ed_if;vdkonf? odk@aomf+AdwdefEdkifiHu oufoufn‡mn‡mvkyfvdk+yD; jyifopfjynfolwdk@url cyf=urf;=urf; udkifwG,fta&;,lapvdkonf? xdkESpfck=um;wGif 0ef}uD;csKyfrSm =um;n‡yfae+yD; (1922 ck Zefe0g&D) wGif E_wfxGufvdkuf&awmhonf? ol@ae&mwGif ydGKifuJa&mufvmonf? ydGKifuJ onf jyifopfEdkifiHa&;&mZ0ifY 0ef}uD;csKyf ESpfcgjyefjzpfol jzpfonf? ol&mxl;jyef&+yD;onfhtcg ol@udk *smrefpufr_vkyfief;&Sifrsm;. 0g'jzef@csda&;vk_yf&Sm;r_wckta=umif; today;=uonf? olwdk@vk_yf&Sm;r_rSm olwdk@EdkifiHppfðycJhjcif;udk tjypfrSv$wfa&;jzpfonf? ,if;udk xif&Sm;I =oZm&Sdaom pufr_vkyfief;&Sif [l*dkpwif; (Hugo Stinnens) u acgif;aqmifonf? olu pmcsKyfyg pnf;urf;csufrsm;onf tmCmw}uD;vGef;+yD; jyifopfwdk@. tawmrowfaomawmif;qdkr_rsm;udk b,fawmhrS auseyfatmif vkyfEdkifvdrfhrnfr[kwf[lI vlxkudk vH_@aqmfavonf? tu,fIom rlvtcsdefZ,m; twdkif; pnf;urf;csuftwdkif; ppfavsmfa=u;rsm;udkay;aecJhrnfqdkv#if *smr%Donf (1970) pkESpfrsm; odk@r[kwf (1980) pkESpfrsm;txd qufay;ae&vdrfhrnf[k aemiftcgwGif ynm&SifwOD;u cef@rSef;wGufcsufjycJhonf? *smr%Dtay:wGif usa&mufvsuf&Sdaom 0efxkyf0efydk;rsm;rSm jyifopfEdkifiH. ppf0g'ESifh e,fcsJ@pdwf"gwfa=umifh ay:aygufvmcJh&jcif; jzpfonf[k pwif;. owif;pmu apm'uwufcJhavonf? *smr%DtwGuf ppfavsmfa=u; b¾ma&;0efxkyf0efydk;tjyif e,fajrtrsm;tjym;ESifh vlOD;a&trsm;tjym;udkvnf; tqHk;t&H_;cHcJh&onf? *smrefe,fajr trsm;tjym;udk ueOD;wGif r[mrdwfwyfrsm;u odrf;ydkufxm;cJh=uonf? olwdk@udk,fydkif pmydk@wdkufpepfESifh a&'D,dktoHk;ðycGifhudkyif ydwfyifwm;qD;cHcJh&onf? *k%foduQm tnd‡K;EGrf;qHk;udpPrSm &duQmydwfqdk@ cH&jcif;jzpfonf? ,if;rSm (1919) ckESpftxd=umjrifhcJhonf? wcgwGifrl wywfpm &m&SifrSm aygifrHk@av;aygifcGJ/ tom;ig;atmifp/ axmywf ESpfatmifp ESifh aumfzDESpfatmifpcGJtxd usqif;oGm;cJhavonf? *smreftdrfaxmifpkrsm;rSm TtcuftcJt=uyftwnf;udk +idrf+idrfoufoufyif cg;pnf;cHcJh=uonf? rdom;pk trsm;tjym;rSm &onfh&m&Sifjzifhyif òcd;+cHac|wmIaecJh=uonf? EdkifiHom;aumif;wdk@. 0wW&m;twdkif; arSmifcdktm;ray;yJ aecJh=uonf? (1922) ckESpfa&mufaomtcg jynfodrf;wyftrsm;pkrSm ‚if;wkd@.EdkifiH&if;odk@jyefoGm;cJh=u+yD;jzpfonf? wyf&if;ten;fi,fudkom &dkif;jrpfwav#mufcsxm;cJh=u+yD; jyifopfwyfzGJ@rsm;udkrl e,fpyfwav#muf&Sd *smrefòrd@}uD; rsm;wGif csxm;cJhonf? Tr[mppfyGJ}uD;udk pwifqifEGJcJhjcif;twGuf *smr%Dudk cGifhrv$wfEdkifbl; qdkv#ifyif ppf.tjcm;aom &efvdkr_rsm;vdkyif temusuf&ef tcsdefvdkonfqdkonfudk ,cktcgodvm=u+yD jzpfonf? xdk@a=umifhyif (1922) ckESpf *sLvdkifvv,fY r[mrdwfppfavsmfa=u;aumfr&Sifu aemufxyf ppfavsmfa=u;rsm; twGuf uwd0efwmrygyJ (2) ESpq f ikd f;iHah y;xm;&ef pOf;pm;cJ=h uonf? ,if;rSm EGm;od;k ydGKifuJudk ydwfpteDjyI &efpvdkufjcif;yifjzpfonf? =o*kwfvwGif vef'efòrd@Yusif;yaom r[mrdwfuGefz&ifhwckY olu jyifopftaejzihf oD;jcm;vGwfvyfaom ta&;,laqmif&Gufr_rsm; ðyvkyfrnfjzpfa=umif; +cdrf;ajcmufajym=um;cJhonf? “*smrefawG tay: r,Hk=unf&r_[m wae@wjcm;qdk;vmae+yD” [kowday;ajym=um;cJhonf? jyifopfudkay;&ef&Sdaom ausmufrD;aoG;rsm;ay;tyfa&;twGuf &m;a'o&Sd tpdk;&ydkif ausmufrD;aoG; wGif;rsm;udk taygif ypPnf;tjzpfxm;&ef jyifopfwdk@.arwWm&yfcHcsuu f dk =o*kwfv (16) &ufae@wGif *smr%Du y,fcscJhonf? jyifopfEdkifiH. pufr_vkyfief;rsm; jyefvnfvnfywfEdkifa&;twGuf tylwjyif; vdktyfvsuf&Sdaom ausmufrD;aoG;rsm; &&Sda&;twGuf wckwnf;aomenf;vrf;rSm ausmufrD;aoG;wGif;rsm;udk odrf;ydkuf+yD;xkwf,l a&;yif jzpfonf[k ydGKifuJ u,lqcJhonf? ppfrjzpfcifuqdkv#if xkwfvkyfEdkifpGrf;. (40μ) r# xkwfvkyfonfyif xdkausmufrD;aoG;wGif;rsm;rS wESpfudk ausmufrD;aoG; wefcsdef oef;axmifaygif; (90) xkwv f kyfEdkifcJhonf? xdkxGufE_ef;rSm yifq,fvfaA;eD;,m; jynfe,fausmufrD;aoG;wGif;rsm;+yD;v#if 'kwd,txGuftrsm;qHk;yif jzpf onf? “bmvifudkcsDwuf&r,f[kwfvm;/ 'g tvum;tcsdefðzef;wmbJ/ *smr%D&J@tonf;ESvHk;u &m;a'o/ jyifopfeJ@vJ ydkeD;w,f” [k tjcm;ppfol&Jaumif;wOD;jzpfol rm&S,f zm'Deefazmh (Marshal Ferdinnand Foch) u wcguajymcJhbl;avonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)153


ppfa&;tumtuG,frsm;r&Sdaom xdka'orSm jyifopftwGuf rufavmufp&myifjzpfonf? r=umcif ‚if;wdk@ðyvkyfawmhrnfh aqmif&Gufr_rsm;twGuf jyifopfwdk@wGif tjcm;ta&;}uD; aphaqmfr_rsm;vnf; &SdEdkifygao; onf? Edk0ifbmvwGifusif;ycJhaom tiftm;toHk;ðy aqmif&Gufcsufrsm;. tusKd;tjypfudk aqG;aEG;onfh ta&;}uD;aom uufbdeuftpnf;ta0;wckwGif ydGKifuJu *smr%Donf twdkufcH&v#if òyduGJIwppDjzpfoGm; vdrfhrnf[k cef@rSef;ajym=um;cJhonf? Todk@jzifh jyifopfu usL;ausmfwdkufcdkufr_. tptetydkif;tp av;rsm;tjzpf &dkif;vif; (Rhineland) a'oudk&&Sdvdrfhrnf/ ,if;rSm *smrefwdk@ pdk;&dryf lyefaeaom udpPwck jzpfonf? ‚if;wdk@. pdwfqENESifh aphaqmfr_rnfodk@&Sdonfjzpfap/ jyifopf v$wfawmfu (452) rJ (72) rJjzifh ppfwdkufa&;twGuftwnfðyay;cJhonf? &ufowWywftenf;i,f=umaomtcg w,fvDzHk;wdkifrsm;ESifh opfrsm;udk*smr%Du jyifopfodk@ay;oGif;&ef ysufuGufcJhonf[k ppfavsmfa=u;aumfr&Sifu a=ujimcJhonf? Zefe0g&Dv (9) &uf/ (1923) wGif ausmufrD;aoG;rsm;ay;oGif;&ef ysufuGufcJhonf[k a=unmcJhjyefonf? Todk@jzifh ESpf&uft=umwGif jyifopfESifh b,fvf*sD,Hppfwyfrsm; *smr%DEdkifiHwGif;odk@ 0ifa&mufvmcJh=uawmh onf?

“xdef;csKyfa&;rpf&Sif” jyifopfu *smrefawGtaejzifh avsmfa=u;ay;&ef/ jiif;qefaeonf[k jrifaomfvJ *smrefwdk@url Tjy\emudk b¾a&;t=uyfr&dkufapa&;twGuf aqmif&Gufcsuf[kjrifonf? ppft+yD;wGif*smrefwdk@u xdkppf avsmaf =u;rsm;udk tcsed rf eS f trSefwu,fay;qyf&ef&nf&G,fcJhonf? odk@aomf tpdk;&u vdktyfaomtcGef taumufrsm;udk raumufcHEdkifcJhI ppfavsmfa=u;rsm;udk tcsdefrSefray;qyfEdkifcJhay? EdkifiHjcm;rS acs;iSm;jcif;udkrl rvkyfcJh? ,if;rSm aiGa=u;azgif;yGr_udkydkrdkqdk;0g;apvdrfhrnf jzpfaoma=umifhyifjzpfonf? ppfavsmfa=u;ESifh aiGa=u;azgif;yGr_jy\emrsm;udk rajz&Sif;EdkifcJhjcif;a=umifh/ (1922) ckESpf/ atmufwkdbm v (22) &ufae@wGif t"dywdrSm &mxl;rS E_wx f GufcJh&onf? orw z&uf'&pf tD;Awf (Fredrich Ebert's) u t"dywdopftjzpf 0DvsH ulEdk (Wilhelm Cuno) udka&G;cs,fcJhjcif;twGuf vltrsm; tHhtm;oifhp&mjzpfcJh& onf? ‚if;rSm [rf;bm*f tar&duef oabmFvdkif; (Hamburg-America Shipping Line) . t}uD;tuJjzpfonf? EdkifiHa&;tawG@t}uHK enf;olvnf;jzpfonf? odk@aomf cef@jim;aom ulEdkrSm *smref pufr_vkyfief;. OD;pD;yJhudkifjzpf avonf? *smrefpD;yGg;a&;udk yJhudkifxdef;rwfay;&efqdkv#if pufr_vkyfief;&Sifrsm;. axmufcHtm;ay;r_rSm r&Sdrjzpf vdktyfonf qdkonfudk tD;Awf aumif;aumif;odxm;avonf? xdk@jyif t"dywdopfrSm t*Fvdyfpum; ajymEdkif+yD; +Adwdef/ tar&duefwdk@ESifhvnf; tquftqH&Sdoljzpfonf? ppfavsmfa=u;udpPrsm;udk jyefvnfjyifqif nd‡Ed_if;&ef qdkv#if xdkEdkifiHrsm;. jyifopfEdkifiHtay:&Sdaeaom =oZmt&Sdeft0grSm r&Sdrjzpfvdktyf onf[koljrifonf? Edk0ifbmv (24) &ufae@wGif &dkufpwufv$wfawmf (Reichstag) odk@ yxrqHk; rdef@cGef;ajym=um;&mwGif ulEkd u ol@ay:vpDudk “aygifrHk@u t&if/ ppfavsmfa=u;uaemuf” [k tusOf;csKyfI ajym=um;oGm;cJhavonf? &m;a'oESifh pyfvsOf;onfh jyifopf.ay:vpDudk ol@taejzifh tHh=owkefv_yfrda=umif;vnf; ajymcJhavonf? “u|efawmfwdk@e,fpyf&J@wbufrSm u|efawmfwdk@e,fajrudk usL;ausmfbdk@vkyfaewJh jzpfEdkifor# tvm;tvm [lor#udk rodusKd;u|HðyraeEdkifbl;?” tvm;wlyif &dkif;vif;a'ojynfolrsm;tm;/ r[mrdwfwyfrsm;. usL;ausmf odrf;ydkufxm;r_udk “tHhbG,fpdwf&Snfonf;cHEdkifr_” twGufvnf;csD;usL;ajym=um;cJhonf? xdktcsufa=umifhyif v#rf;v#rf;awmuf pum;ajymaumif;olwOD;r[kwfaomfvnf; ulEdkonf y&d\wf. wxifhxifh =obmay;r_ udkawmh &&SdcJhavonf? rdef@cGef;.tqHk;owfwGif olu “'Dtpdk;&[m *smr%DEdkifiH&J@ b,ftpdwftydkif;udkrS tnHhcH ay;tyfrSmr[kwfbl;” [kajym=um;vdkufaomtcg trwfrif;rsm;tm;vHk;u wcJeufrwfwyf&yfI oabmwl a=umif; atmf[pfajym=um;cJh=uonf? odk@aomf bmvifwGif&cJhaom/ axmufcH=uonf[kawmh ajymIr&ay?

xdk =obmvufckyfoHrsm;onf ol@twGuf acgif;cJp&may:vpDrsm;udk tpdk;&u aps;E_ef;rsm;ESifh vkyfcrsm;udk t}uD;tus,fwdk;jr‡ifhvdkonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)154


pufr_vkyfief;&Sifrsm;url xdkvkyf&yfudkróuduf=u/ wm;qD;vdk=uonf? ppfavsmfa=u;rsm;ay;bdk@qdkv#if tcGefrsm; wdk;aumuf+yD; tpdk;&0ifaiGwdk;atmifvkyf&rnf? pufr_vkyfief;&Sifrsm;ESifh tvkyform;rsm;uyg xdkodk@ tcGefwdk; aumufjcif;udk róuduf=u? r[mrdwf wyfrsm;. awmif;qdkr_rsm;udk t+rJwrf;auseyfatmif vkyfEdkifyghrvm;[k pufr_vkyfief;&Sifrsm;u oHo,jzpf=uonf? xdk@a=umifh jyifopfu &m;a'oudkodrf;ydkufrnf[k +cdrf;ajcmufaom tcg Tt&monfa&Smifv$JIr&Edkif[k olwdk@u,lq=uonf? Todk@jzifh ulEkdudk ulnDu,fwif&ef olwdk@twGuf vrf;p tenf;i,fom&Sdawmhonf? 'DZifbmv (11) &ufae@wGif/ t"dywdu ðyjyifxm;aom ppfavsmfa=u; tpDtpOfopfudk a=unmaomtcg ,if;udk jyifopfuomuef@uGufcJhonfr[kwf/ [l;*dk;pwif;. owif;pm Deutche Allgemeine Zeitung uvnf;tjyif;txef a0befwdkufckdufcJhonf? t"dywd}uD;. Zefe0g&Dv (2) &uf aemufqHk; urf;vSrf;csufwGif rwfa&$'*Fg; (20) bDvD,Hay;&ef uwdðyxm;onf? ,if;udk EdkifiHwum acs;aiGrsm;ESifh ay;tyf&efjzpfonf? tjyeftvSeftm;jzifhuGefjrLepf olykefrsm;udkESdrfeif;&ef[kqdkum (1921) ckESpfuwJu odrf;ydkufxm;cJhaom 'lqJvfa'ghzf (Düsseldorf) / 'GdKifpfbmh*f (Duisburg) ESifh &m;a&mh (Ruhrort) a'orsm; rS jyifopfwyfrsm; qkwfcGgay;&rnfjzpfonf? ,if;udk ydGKifuJ u pOf;yifrpOf;pm;cJhacs? r=umrDqifEGJawmhrnfh ppfqifa&;udk jyifopftpdk;&u “tif*sifeD,mrsm;om yg0ifonhf rpf&SiftzGJ@” [k Zefe0g&Dv (9) &ufae@wGif az:jycJhonf? ,if;rpf&iS fonf “ppfoabmobm0” ESifh “EdkifiHa&;vuQ%m aqmifaomusL;ausmfr_” rygaom ppfqifa&;jzpfonf[k ajym=um;cJhonf? xdkppfwyfrsm;udk apv$wfjcif;rSm “rpf&SiftzGJ@udkumuG,f&ef” twGuf oufoufomjzpfonf[k ravsmw h rf;ajym=um;cJhonf? tvm;wlyif “jynfolrsm;ae&majymif;a&$@&jcif; r&SdyJ ae+rJtwdkif;yifvHkvHkðcHðcH +idrf;+idrf; csrf;csrf; &Sdvdrfhrnf[kajym=um;cJhonf? *smrefvlrsKd;rsm;url Tw}udrfusL;ausmfr_onf odyf=umvdrfhrnfr[kwf[k rSwfxifum usL;ausmfr_udk umuG,f&ef jyifqifr_tenf;i,fom ðyvkyfcJhonf? ausmufrD;aoG;tenf;i,fESifh tjcm;ukef=urf; tenf;i,fr#udkom odkavSmifxm;cJhonf? tpdk;&ucsrSwfbG,f&Sdonfh rnfonfh r[mAsL[mudkr# taumif txnfaz:rnfh tzGJ@tpnf;r&Sd? aemufqHk;tcsdeftxdyif ol. ppfavsmfa=u;urf;vSrf;csufrsm;udk jyifopfu vufcHum ydGKifuJonf usL;ausmfa&;tpD tpOfudkaemufqkwfoGm;vdrfhrnf[k ulEdku ar#mfvifhaecJhao;onf? ppftiftm;jzifh jyefvnfckcH&efqdkonfrSmvnf; rjzpfEdik ?f pmcsKyft& *smrefppfwyfrsm;rSm &dki;f jrpf. (50) uDvdk rDwmtwGif;wGif wyfpGJxm;cGifhr&Sd? ulEdk ESifhol@ uufbdeuftzGJ@twGuf vkyfp&m vrf;ESpfoG,fom &Sdawmhonf? jyifopfwyfrsm; usL;ausmf0ifa&mufvmonfudk vrf;ab;rS at;at;aq;aq; vufydkuf=unfh aecsifae/ odk@r[kwfv#if [efjyjzpfjzpf eJeJyg;yg;ckcHwdkufcdkuf+yD; urBmhaxmufcHr_udk yef=um;toem;cH&efom&Sdawmhonf? *smrefwdk@. aoe*FAsL[mrSefor#rSm jyifopfwdk@u ausmufrD;aoG;rsm; xkwf,ljcif;udk wwfEdkifor# aESmifhaES;=uef@=umatmifvkyf+yD; jyifopfwdk@tavsmhay;+yD; ppfavsmfa=u;udpP jyefvnfaphpyfaqG;&ef oabmwl vmonftxd tcsdefqGJxm;a&;jzpfonf? TusL;ausmfro _ nf jyifopfwdk@twGuf aemufqHk; a&G;vrf;wckom jzpfonfqdkonfudk ulEdkESifh tD;Awf wdk@oabmwlonf? jyifopfwdk@twGuf vef'ef/ 0g&SifwefESifh urBmwv$m;wGif axmufcHrnfholxuf qef@usifrnfhol oGm;ykyfavvGifhajymrnfholu ydkrsm;onfqdkonfudk olwdk@odonf? t*FvdyfESifhtar&duef wdk@udkom olwdk@udkpmemr_&Sdvmatmif eJeJyg;yg;ckcHjyvdkufv#if t*Fvdkqufqef tiftm;pk rsm;u =um;0ifvm+yD; jyifopftay: usa&mufvmrnfh pD;yGg;a&;zdtm;a=umifh Tt=uyftwnf;onf ydkIjrefjrefyif tqHk;owfoGm;zG,f&Sdonf? xdk@aemuf ppfavsmfa=u;udk “EdkifiHa&;ESifh rywfouf&ef” (xdktcsdefuoHk;onfhpum;vHk;)? ,if;rSm *smrefwdk@. aoe*FAsL[myifjzpfonf? t"dywd ulEdku orw tD;Awftm; ausjimcsufwapmif xkwfjyefay;yg&ef Zefe0g&Dv (9) &ufae@wGif yef=um;onf? xdkausjimcsufwGif “vufeufðzwfxm;cH&+yD; tumtuG,f rJhaeaom EdkifiHwEdkifiHtm; jyifopfEdkifiH. rw&m;tiftm; toHk;ðyae” aomfvnf; &m;a'o jynfolwdk@u qlqlylyl rvkyf=uyg&efaz:jy+yD; a'oxkwfowif;pmrsm;odk@ ay;ydk@ay;&efjzpfonf? xdkae@ nOhfeufydkif;wGif ulEdkonf ol.0ef}uD;tzGJ@0ifrsm;/ tvkyform;or*~acgif;aqmifrsm; ESifh bmvifòrd@&Sd &kdufcsf uufbdeuf v$wfawmf (Reichskabinettspaleis) Y awG@qHkum rwljcm;em;aom *smreftusKd;pD;ygG;rsm;ESifh udkufnDEdkifrnfh vkyfief; tpDtpOf w&yfudk

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)155


aqG;aEG;az:xkwf=uonf? owWKwGif;vkyfief;&Sifrsm;url jyif;jyif;xefxef ckcHwdkufcdkufygu b¾ma&;t&qHk;&_H;r_ }uD;rm;+yD; owWKwGif;rsm;0ifa&muf odrf;ydkufcH&rnf/ odk@r[kwf xkwfvkyfr_rsm; &yfqdkif;oGm;rnfudk pdk;&drf=uonf? tD;Awf. EdkifiHa&;ygwDeSifh qufEG,faeaom qdk&S,fvpf or*~rsm;url ppfjzpfvmygu uGejf rLepfrsm; vusmf tpGe;f a&mufrsm;udk awmfvSefa&;qifE$J&ef wGef;tm;ay;ovdk jzpfvdrfhrnf? qdk&S,fvpfrsm; tm%m&aejcif;rS ðywfusapvdrfhrnf[k pdk;&drfae=uonf? orwurl tvkyf&Sifrsm;u TtpDtpOfudk oabmwlv#if or*~rsm;uvnf; yl;aygif;yg0ifvrd frh nf[k ,Hk=unfonf? odk@aomf ydkif&Sifrsm; oabmxm;ajymif;vJvdrfhrnf[krl ulEdk a&m tD;Awfyg r,Hk=unf=uacs? aemufydkif;wGif orw ESifh t"dywdwdk@ESpfOD;vHk;u rnfr#yif jynfwGif;axmufcHr_udk &&SdonfqdkapOD; *smr%DEdkifiHtaejzifh usL;ausmfodrf;ydkufolrsm;udk pD;yGg;a&;t& xdcdkufepfematmif vkyfrSjzpfawmhrnf qdkonfudk olwdk@oabmaygufvm=uonf? &m;a'oESifh a'oxGuf ausmufrD;aoG;onf Oa&mytwGuf r&Sdrjzpf vdktyfcsufjzpfonf? Ta'o. }uD;rm;vSaompufr_vkyfief;}uD; &yfqdkif;oGm;r_ rSefor#onf Oa&my. rnfonfh ae&mwGifrqdk ,if;wkd@.pD;yGg;a&;b0udk xdcdkufepfemapvdrfhrnf? T tcsdefa&mufv#if r[mrdwftiftm;pk rsm;u pD;yGg;a&;zdtm;udk rcHEdkifjzpfum yGdKifuJudk zdtm;ay;+yD; wyfrsm; &kyfodrf;apvdrfhrnf[k ulEdk ,Hk=unfaecJh onf? usL;ausmfodrf;ydkufr_onf jyifopftwGuf wefbdk;}uD;vGef;vSI wvxuf ydk+yD;cHrnf r[kwf[kvnf; ol,Hk=unfavonf? tpueOD;Yyif t=urf;zufr_tm; rESpfòrd@jcif;onf tpdk;&.ckcHa&;tawG;tac:Y pGJ+rJaeaomt&m jzpfonf? ta&S@buf&Sd olwdk@.aemifawmf abmvf&SDApf ygwDuJhodk@r[kwfyJ/ Tqdk&S,fvpfrsm; awmfvSefa&;ygwD r[kwfawmhonfrSm ESpfaygif; (40) =umjrifhcJh+yDjzpfonf? olwdk@twGuf t=urf;zufr_qdkonfrSm EdkifiHa&;ygwD wckESifhwck tompD;&&ef rawmfrw&m;}uHpnfonfh rESpfòrd@zG,f&mvkyf&yfjzpfonf? jyifopfwdk@udk taxGaxG oydwfqifEGJjcif;onfyif &efp&ma&mufonf? txl;ojzifh or*~rsm;tbdk@jzpfonf? Todk@vkyfv#if ‚if;wdk@ tvkyform;rsm;tay: xdef;csKyfxm;r_ vufvGwfoGm;rnfudk pdk;&drfonf? wckawmhaocsmonf? t=urf;zufr_udk oHk;v#if tar&duefESifh +Adwdefwdk@. tjrifwGif ckcHwGef;vSefr_. yHk&dyfudk xdcdkufysufpD;apvdrfhrnf? bmvif&Sd acgif;at;at;pOf;pm;wwf+yD; tqHk;tjzwfay;Edkifaom y&yf&Sif;rsm;u Todk@rvkyf&ef t}uHay;=uonf? Todk@jzifh ulEdk ESifh tD;Awfuvnf; tvkyform;or*~rsm;tm; olwdk@.or*~tzGJ@0iftvkyform;rsm;udk “tEkenf;awmfvSefa&;” (TtoHk;tE_H;udk *END}uD;u vGefcJhaom 17-ESpfu pwifoHk;pGJcJhonf) udkom usifhoHk;=u yg&ef wdkufwGef;ay;bdk@ajym=um;&awmhonf? t"dywdu uwdðyonfrSm &dkufpwufv$wfawmfrS cGifhðycsuf&v#if tvkyform;rsm;tm; pD;yGg;a&;taxmuftyHhrsm; ay;rnf[kqdkonf? or*~acgif;aqmifrsm;uvnf; Ttwdkif; qdkv#if or*~tzGJ@0iftm;vHk;uvnf; oabmwlvufcH=uvdrfhrnf[k ,Hk=unf=uonf? tvkyform;rsm; zufuvnf; bmvif&Sdtpdk;&. axmufcHr_qdkonfudk oHo,&Sdonf? tpdk;&u t+rJwrf; pufr_vkyfief;&Sifrsm; udkom yxrOD;pm;ay;avh&Sdaoma=umifhyif? vGefcJhaom (2) ESpfcef@uyif wEdkifiHvHk; taxGaxG oydwfwdkufyGJ}uD; udk ‚if;wdk@qifEGJcJh=uao;onf/ *smrefpD;yGg;a&;vkyfief;}uD;w&yfvHk; &yfwef@oGm;rwwf jzpfcJhonf? ppft&m&Sd a[mif;rsm;. tm%modrf;yGJudk wGef;vSefEdkifcJhonf? xdk@jyif tvkyform;rsm;onf *smref EdkifiHawmf}uD;tay: opPm&Sda=umif; =umjrifhpGmuyif jyocJholrsm;jzpfonf? ESpfaygif;w&mausmf jyifopf rkef;wD;a&;w&m;rsm; oif=um;ydk@csay;cJhonfh *smrefausmif;rsm;udk wufcJh=uolrsm;csnf;jzpfonf? bmyJjzpfjzpf olwdk@ckcHqef@usif =uvdrfhrnfomjzpfonf? bmvif&Sdtpdk;&url tvkyform;rsm;.wdkufyGJ0ifpdwf"gwf tvGeftu|Hjzpfrnfudkpdk;&drfaeavonf? tu,fIom yÉdyuQonf “t=urf;zufr_ESifh ydwfqdk@r_rsm;yg” ygvm+yDqdkv#if ulEkd@tajymt& “xdef;odrf; r&Edkifaom trsKd;om;a&;Edk;=um;r_” }uD; ay:aygufvmvdrfhrnf? xdk@a=umifhtpdk;&taejzifh “*smrefp=umwHqdyfudk axmufcH&mY trsKd;om;a&;pdwf"gwfESihf cHpm;csufudk roHk;rdap&ef owd}uD;pGmxm;&rnf” [k ulEdkuajymonf? tvkyform;trsm;tjym; tvkyfrStxkwfcH&v#if ‚if;wdk@. “jyifopfqef@usifa&;jr‡m;OD;onf tpdk;&odk@ vSnfhvm vdrfhrnf”? ckcHqef@usifa&; axmufcHr_&vmjcif;udk wm;qD;ydwfyif&ef bmvifwGif tjcm;enf; a&G;p&mvrf;r&Sd? tvkyform;rsm;udk vkyfcaxmufyHhjznfhpGufaiGrsm;ay;&ef/ tpm;tpmaxmufyHh&ef ESifh &m;a'owGif +idrf0yfydjym;r_&Sdap&ef aqmif&Gufjcif;rSwyg; tjcm;r&Sd[k ulEkd uxifjrifonf? “rnfodk@yif qdkapumrl” olwckawmh0efcHonf? “jzpfay:vmaom pD;yGg;a&;tcuftcJrsm;u wjznf;jznf;ESifh &dkufpwuf v$wfawmfudk zsufodrf;&onftxd OD;wnfoGm;apvdrfhrnf?”

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)156


tp ueOD;aqG;aEG;yGJrsm;Y a&S@wGifapmifhóudaeaom TtEW&m,frsm;udkausmfI aoe*FAsL[m jy\emrsm;yif xGufay:vmao;onf? &m;a'o&Sd òrd@awmfESihf c&dkiftpdk;&rsm; twGuf vkyfief;tpDtpOfESifh ywfouf+yD; ulEdk ESifh tD;Awf u tenf;i,fom vkyfaqmifay;EdkifcJhonf? &ufuvif;a[mpif (Recklinghausen) wGifusif;yaom a'oEW&t&m&Sdrsm;ESifh tpnf;ta0;wGif olwdk@wGif “TckcHqef@usifa&; wdkufyGJtwGuf rnfodk@pnf;&Hk;aqmif&Guf&rnfenf; qdkonfhenf;vrf;ESifh ywfoufI rnfonfhtpDtpOfr#r&Sd” qdkonfudk orwu oabmwlvufcHonf? oydwfwdkufyGJ ESifh qENjyyGJrsm;u bmeJ@wlaervJ´ b,folawGygrvJ´ tvkyform;awG/ or*~awG/ owWKwGif;ydkif&SifawGu bmviftpdk;&qDu !$ef=um;csufawGudk b,fvdk,lrvJ´ &m;a'orSmbmawGjzpfaew,fqdkwm ae@pOfeJ@tr# bmvifu odaeatmifb,fvdkvkyfrvJ´ b,folrSrod/ rajzEdkifcJh=uay? usL;ausmfr_jzpf+yD; ESpf&uft=um Zefe0g&Dv (13) &ufae@Y naeapmif;rSusif;y&aom &dkufpwufv$wfawmf. wif;rmIaygufuGJvkrwwfjzpfaeaom ta&;ay: tpnf;ta0;wGif ol.tpDtpOfrsm;udk wifjy&ef ulEdk ay:xGufvmonf? v$wfawmfacgifrdk;ay: wGif *smreftvHawmfu wdkifw0ufv$ifhxlvsuf? ol@tpDtpOfrSm Todk@jzpfonf? usL;ausmfr_udkjypfwif&H_@csvdkuf+yD; usL;ausmfolrsm;udk pdefac:vdkufonf? “vGefcJhwJhESpf&ufu *smreforwEdkifiH&J@ vGwfvyfwJhe,fajray:udk jyifopfeJ@ b,fvf*sD,HwyfawGusL;ausmf 0ifa&mufvmcJhyg+yD? jrif;wyfzGJ@awGu "g;vGwfawGudk ukdifpGJ +yD; ppfa=umif;awG&J@wyfOD;uae 0ifa&mufvmcJhwmyg? vHk;0vufeufzsufodrf;jcif;cHxm;&wJh EdkifiHwEdkifiHtay: ckvdk ppfyGJwyGJqifE$Jaeovdk ðyrlaqmif&GufcJhwmyg? usaemf wurBmvHk;udk ar;cGef;av;wckavmufar;csifygw,f? b,foleJ@rS rEd_if;omwJh cufcJyifyef;r_ pGef@v$wf tepfemcHcJh&r_awGeJ@ &ifqdkifae&+yD; tm;tifukefcef;csnfheJ@aeayr,fh *smrefjynfolawGavmufZGJ&Sd+yD; óud;pm;wJh vlrsKd;eJ@ EdkifiHudk cifAsm;wdk@awG@bl;ygovm;?” uGefjrLepfrsm;rSty v$wfawmftrwfrsm; tm;vHk;wcJeuf rwfwyf&yf+yD; “b,fwHk;urSr&Sdbl;/ r&Sdbl;” [katmf=uonf? xdk@aemuf t"dywd}uD;u a&G;p&mvrf; woG,fudkcsjyonf? “*smreftpdk;&taeeJh tiftm;oHk;+yD;ckcHbdk@qdkwmrjzpfEdkifygbl;? 'gayrJhtckvdk +idrf;csrf;a&;udk csKd;azgufwJh vlawGeJ@awmh yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufvdkpdwfr&Sdygbl;?” Todk@jzifh tpdk;&tm; ckcHqef@usifa&;wdkufyGJudk axmufcHr_ ay;Edkif&ef &dkufpwufv$wfawmfu axmufcHrJ (283) rJ/ uef@uGufrJ (12) rJjzifhtwnfðyay;cJhonf?

“vSHpGyfzsm;wGifxdkifae&jcif;” tpdk;&uta&;,laqmif&Gufr_wpHkw&mrvkyfEdkifcifuyif &m;a'o&Sdjynfolwdk@onf jyifopfwyfrsm;tm; tcuftcJrsKd;pHkawG@&ef ydGKifuJ ar#mfvifhxm;onfxufyif ydkIaqmif&GufEdkifcJh=u+yD;jzpfonf? usL;ausmfa&;wyfzGJ@ rsm;ra&mufcif ZEM0g&Dv (10) &ufae@uyif pdwfqdk;a'goxGufaeaom vltkyf}uD; (5˜000) ausmfonf tufqifòrd@&Sd (Kaiserhof) [kdw,f a&S@wGifpk&Hk;rdae=uonf? xdktaqmuftODwGif jyifopf udkifZma[mhzf tif*sifeD,maumfr&Sifwckvnf; a&muf&Sdwnf;cdkaeonf[laom aumv[va=umifh &m;a'orS xGufcGgoGm;a&; ta&;qdk&ef a&muf&SdaecJh=ujcif;jzpfonf? wem&DtwGif;wGifyif tayguf0&Sd ykvdyftapmifhta&Smufrsm;udk ausmfvGef+yD; txufxyf&Sd jyifopfwyfzGJ@rsm;tm; *kwfqGJI armif;xkwf&efyif toifhjzpfaecJh=uonf? òrd@awmf0ef udk,fwdkif pm;yGJay:wuf&yf+yD; tdrfjyef=uyg&ef awmif;yef&onf? aemufwae@wGif a&mufvmawmhrnfh jyifopf wyfzGJ@rsm;ESifh &ifqdkif&ef tm;arG;xm;=uyg&ef arwWm&yfcH&onf? rsKd;cspfoDcsif;rsm; oDqdk+yD; vltkyfrSm vlpkuGJoGm; onf? xdknYyif &dkif;epf-0ufpfzmvD,ef (Rhenish-Westphalian) ausmufrD;aoG; qif'DudwfrS t&m&Sdrsm;onf ta&;}uD;onfh zdkifwGJrsm;udk [rf;bmcfòrd@odk@ xGufcGgrnfh x&yfum;rsm;ay:odk@ wifxm;=uonf? [rf;bmhcfonf tufqifòrd@.ajrmufbuf uDvdkrDwm (320)/ rkdiftm;jzifh (199 rdkif) tuGmwGif&Sdavonf? usefzdkifwGJrsm;udk =urf;jyifatmufwGif zGufxm;cJh=uavonf? Tqif'Dudwfonf &m;a'o ausmufrD;aoG; csKdifh0Srf;}uD; wckvHk;. xdef;csKyfa&; A[dkXmejzpfonf? TrSwfwrf;rsm;r&Sdv#if jynfodrf;wyfrsm;onf xkwfvkyfr_ aumif;aom owWKrdkif;rsm;udkom a&G;cs,fjcif;rðyEdkifawmhyJ/ owWKwGif;tm;vHk;udk odrf;ydkufvkyfudkif&vdrfhrnf? xifrSwfxm;onfxuf wyfzGJ@0iftiftm; ydkrdktoHk;ðy&vdrfhrnf? qif'Dudwfudkae&majymif;a&$@&eft}uHrSm [l;*dk;pwif;. t}uHjzpfonf? olonf owWKwGif;rsm;omru owif;pmrsm;vnf; ydkifqdkifoljzpf+yD; uGefqm aA;wpf t,ltq &Sdoljzpfonf? aemufydkif;wGifolu

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)157


zdkifwGJrsm;udka&$@ajymif;rxm;EdkifcJhv#if “jynfyusL;ausmf oludkqef@usifonfhwdkufyGJ” onf aESmifhaES;=uef@=ump&m&Sdonf[k *k%f,l0ifhºuGm;pGmajymqdkcJhavonf? jyifopfodk@ ay;&rnfh ppfavsmfa=u;udk qdkif;iHhxm;rnfh rnfonfhudpP&yfYrqdk pwif;Y udk,fusKd;pD;yGg;&Sdonf? ppfavsmfa=u;tjzpf taemufbufodk@wifydk@&aom ausmufrD;aoG;rsm;udk aps;uGufaygufaps;xuf av#mha&mif;ae&onf? ,cktcg owif;pmrsm;uvnf; ckcHa&;wkdufyGJudk umuG,folrsm; jzpfvmonf? jyifopfonf &m;a'oudk *smr%DrS zJhxkwfoGm;vkd=uonf[k olwdk@ua&;om;=uonf? &m;a'otvkyform;rsm;twGif; jzef@csdonfh qkd&S,fvpf owif;pmwapmifu t,f'DwmhtmabmfwGif Todk@a&;onf? TusL;ausmf odrf;ydkufr_onf “ordkif;0ifjzpf&yfwckjzpfonf”? “tiftm;jzifh t=urf;zufjcif;udk tiftm;jzifh wHk@jyef&efrSm rjzpfEdkifaoma=umifh av;av;eufeufpOf;pm;wwfaom rnfonfh EdkifiHa&;orm;urS vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&; qifEGJ&ef wdkufwGef;vdrfhrnfr[kwf”? ,if;twGuf ol@tajzrSm “^m%fynm}uD;rm;onfh jyifopfvlrsKd;wOD;u Todk@ajymcJhbl;onf? bufeufay: wufxdkifwmuvGJvdk@ bufeufomyg&if bmrqdk vkyfvdk@&w,fwJh? tck u|efawmfwdk@u olwdk@udk bufeufeJ@owˆKwl;vdk@r&bl;/ owˆKo,fvdk@ r&bl;qdkwm vufawG@jy&r,f” [kjzpfonf? ydkrkdI uGefqmaA;wpfusaom owif;pmrsm;url *smrefvlrsKd;wdk@. El;nHhaom ESvHk;om;udk qGJiif odrf;oGif;Edkif&ef *E<00fyHkjyifrsm;udk udk;um;Iyifa&;om;wifjy=uonf? “twGif;udkeufeuf&d_if; &d_if;0ifvmav/ jyefxGuf&rnfhvrf;u &SnfavavyJ? 'ga=umifh tmrD;eD;,yfpf (Arminius) u a&mrwyfawGudk usLwdkbm*g (Teutoburger) opfawmxJ twGif;ydkif;xda&mufatmif r#m;ac:cJhwmr[kwfvm;? 'Dae&ma&muf&if olwdk@twGuf vGwfvrf; r&Sdawmhbl;?” Tr#o}uFeftajr‡mufrsm; ypfaeonfh=um;uyif wjznf;jznf;&kyfvHk;ay:vm+yDjzpfonfh jyZmwfwGifyg0if toHk;awmfcH&rnfh Zmwfaqmifrsm;rSm cyfqdkif;qdkif;cyfav;av;yif jzpfae=uao;onf? &dkufEdkifiHawmf. o,f,lydk@aqmifa&;0ef}uD;u ckcHa&;tpDtpOfudk vufcHtwnfðy&ef Zefe0g&Dv (10) &ufae@wGif usif;yonfh tpnf;ta0;wGif jiif;qefvdkufonf? ol@tjrifrSm Todk@vkyfjcif;jzifhtusKd;r&Sd? jyifopfwdk@onf *smref&xm; tvkyform;rsm;udk t"rRcdkif;apjcif;aomfvnf;aumif;/ &xm;o,f,lydk@aqmifa&;pHepf}uD;w&yfvHk;udk odrf;ydkuf um wyfzGJ@rsm;o,f,lydk@aqmifjcif;/ ausmufrD;aoG;rsm; o,f,lydk@aqmifjcif;udk aomfvnfaumif; vkyfEdkifonf omjzpfonf[kjzpfonf? Todk@omjzpfvmv#if &m;a'owckvHk;&Sdjynfolrsm;.b0rSm onf;rcHEdkifavmufatmif qdk;0g;vmvdrfhrnf[k acsywifjy=uonf? tpuwnf;u tifwifwifjzpfaeaom owWKwGif;ydkif&Sifrsm;uvnf; tvkyform;rsm;om TwdkufyGJtwGif;Y ryg[kqdkv#if olwdk@bufrSvnf; ygp&mta=umif;r&Sd[k qdk=uonf? Tt=uyftwnf;udk a&Smifv$JEdkif&ef aemufqHk;wGif rD;&xm;Xmetm; jyifopfESifhb,fvf*sD,HwyfzGJ@rsm;. trdef@rsm;udk vkdufemaqmif&Gufjcif;rðy=u&ef !$ef=um;csufxkwfcJh&onf? ueOD;&ufrsm;wGif vufawG@ckcHqef@usif=uonfudk tenf;tyg;om jrifawG@cJh=u&onf? r+idrfroufr_ tenf;i,frSvGJv#if tufqifòrd@Yvnf; rnfonfh qENjyyGJr#r&Sd? tvkyform;rsm;rSm bmvkyf&rnfrod/ Za0Z0gjzpfae=uonf? tpwGif &m;a'otwGuf olwdk@udk ckcHwGef;vSef=u&ef vH_@aqmfxm;cJhonf? odk@aomf bmvkyf&rnfqdkonfudkrl ajymqdkxm;jcif;r&Sd? wckwnf;aomv_y&f Sm;r_rSm uDvdkrDwm&maygif;rsm;pGma0;aom jrL;epfòrd@Y jzpfcJhonf? ta'ghvfzf [pfwvm (Adolf Hitler) trnf& i,f&G,fao;onfh trsKd;om;a&;0g'D acgif;aqmifwOD;u *smrefEdkifiHawmf}uD;. 'kuQrsm;udk idk,dkjrnfwrf;um vlaygif; (10˜000) r#ta&twGuf&Sdaom vltkyf}uD;udkvH_@aqmfay;EdkifcJhonf? “*k%foduQmrJhatmif/ vufeufrJhatmif u|efawmfwdk@ udk,fhbmomudk,f vkyfcJh=uwmyJ? tckawmh&efoleJ@wuG wurBmvHk;twGuf &,fp&m/ rcef@av;pm;p&mjzpfae+yD” [k =op}wD;,ef; Zmwdom; ta'gh[pfwvmu ajymcJhonf? tvkyf=urf;orm;rsm;ESifh 0efxrf;rsm;tm; waygif;wpnf;wnf;ðyvkyf&efrSm tvGef}uD;rm;aom pdefac:r_w&yfjzpfcJhavonf? pufr_vkyfief;ykdif&Sifrsm;onf tvkyform;rsm;tay:wGif &_H@cs txifao;onhf tjrifrsKd;jzifh jrif=u+yD;/ tvkyform;rsm;tay: tenf;i,fyif a=umuf&GH@ae=uao;onf? tb,fa=umifhqkdaomf txl;ojzifh &m;jynfe,fwGif tvkyform;rsm;onf uGefjrLepf0g'tay: óudufESpfoufae=uaoma=umifhjzpf avonf? tvkyform;rsm;onf ‚if;wkd@.tvkyf&Sifrsm;tay:wGif apwemxm;onfhtjrifrsKd;jzifh rjrif=uacs? “tcsKd@aom u|efawmfwkd@. tvkyform;rsm;onf jyifopfrsm;yJjzpfjzpf/ *smrefrsm;yJjzpfjzpf rnfoluyif vk,ufygap ‚if;wkd@twGuf bmr# xl;jcm;rnfr[kwf[kyif ajymaecJh=uavonf?” [k tufqefòrd@om; wa,mufu a&;om;cJhygonf/ qufvufI

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)158


‚if;u “'gayr,fh/ tJ'D oabmxm; cH,lcsufrsm;tjyif/ tJ'DrSm vnf; uGJjym;jcm; em;r_wck&Sdygw,f/ u|efawmfwkd@[m &m; uGefjrLepf0g'ukd qef@usif+yD;awmh u|efawmfwkd@&J@ atmifyGJukd qkyfukdifxm;=uw,f/ bmjzpfvkd@vnf;qkdawmh *smreftpkd;&[m csdeJ@tm;enf;aeonfhtjyif/ u|efawmfwkd@&J@ vkyfief;&SifawGrSmvnf;/ u|efawmfwkd@ukd qef@usifESdrfESif;zkd@ ppfwyfr&Sdygbl;?” tu,fI xkd tpOftvmjzpfaeonfh rvkdrkef;xm;r_rsm;udk qufoG,faygif;ul;zkd@ vrf;pawGukd &SmrawG@EkdifcJhbl;qkdv#if/ ckcHawmfvSefr_ukd qufvufxdef;rxm;Edkifawmhay? vmrnfh ESpftenf;i,ftwGif;wGif/ urBm}uD;. tqkd;&Gm;qkH;aom ppfyGJ}uD;onf jzpfvmawmhayrnf? xkdppfyGJ}uD;. yËdyuQ A[kdcsufrrSm &m;jynfe,frS uDvkdrDwm tenf;i,fom uGmvSrf;ayonf? xkd tjzpftysuf rsm;onf urBm}uD;tm;/ bmvkyfI bmukdif&rSef;rodatmif =uufaoaooGm;apavonf? tcsKd@olrsm;onf ppfyGJopfwck jzpfvmrnfukd a=umuf&GH@aecJh=uavonf? tjcm;aomolrsm;onf jyifopfonf *smr%Dtm; ‚if;. taºuG;rsm; ay;acs&ef wGef;tm;ay;&mwGif rSefuef w&m;r#wr_&Sdonf[k ,lqae=uonf? okd@&mwGif t*Fvdyf ESifh tar&duefwkd@onf/ bmvifrS pdwf"mwfysKd;axmif&ef óud;yrf;onfh wkef@jyefr_wckESifhywfoufI *smrefwkd@ tay:wGif u&k%mwdrf;!Gwfae[ef &Sdavonf? tar&duefjynfaxmifpkonf ppfyGJ. t"du atmifyGJcHoltjzpf owfrSwfcHxm;&olkjzpfonf/ okd@aomf ,cktcg tar&duefwkd@onf Amqkdif;pmcsKyf (Versailles Treaty) . tpdwftykdif;rsm;udk uGef*&ufrS y,fcsxm;pOfuwnf;u/ tajccHtm;jzifh =um;ae aeavonf? tu,fI awmfvSefa&;onf ‚if;wkd@.ESvkH;om;ukd atmifjrifoGm;ygu/ tar&duefwkd@omv#if *smrefwkd@tm; avmifòrdufaeonfh ppfavsmfa=u;tm; aqG;aEG;ajz&Sif;&eftwGuf vkHavmufaom =oZm/ t&Sdeft0g&Sdol jzpfonf[k ,kH=unfaecJhavonf? wcsKd@tar&duefrsm;onfvnf; xkdar#mfvifhcsufukd tm;jznfhay;=uavonf? tawG;tjrif *sme,fwapmifjzpfonfh ae;&Sif; (The Nation) *sme,fonf/ vwfwavmumvrsm;twGif;Y urBm}uD;. w0ufausmfausmfokd@wkdif a&muf&Sdjyef@ESH@aeonfh *END}uD;. tawG;tac:rsm;/ enf;vrf;rsm;ukd oabmuspGm axmufcHa&;om; az:jyay;aeavonf? “,cktcsdefrSm *smr%D[m bmukd vkdtyfaeovJqkd&ifawmh/ &efvkdwJh vufoD;r[kwfyJ/ pdwf0d^m%fcGeftm;ukd xkwfazmfjyornfh *ENDwa,mufvkdtyfaew,f?” [k xkwfazmfajymqkd avonf? qufvufI “rdrdukd,fukd rdrd wGe;f vSefatmifjrifcJhaom wrefawmfwyg;jzpfonf? ,ae@EkdifiHrsm;u ykdrdk}uD;rm;wJhvufeuftiftm;ykdifqkdifolrsm;ukdqef@usifzkd@twGuf/ xkdwckom EkdifiHrsm; &&SdtokH;csEkdifonfh enf;vrf;jzpfonf? tu,fI ryl;aygif; raqmif&Gufa&; vrf;pOf;ukd usifhokH;jcif;onf +yD;ajrmufatmifjrifr_ &SdoGm;aomtcg/ jyifopfwkd@. usL;ausmfr_onf tusKd;&Sd xda&mufr_&Sdygonf[kajzqkd&efrvdkawmhay? tu,fI ausmufrD;aoG;wGif;vkyfom;rsm;ESifh &m;jynfe,f. enf;ynm&Sifrsm;onf &JpGrf;owWd&Sd=u+yD;/ vkHavmufpGm pnf;vkH;nD!Gwfr_&SdcJh=uv#if/ jyifopfwkd@twGuf tvkyfvkyfay;&ef &kd;&Sif;pGmyif jiif;qefvkduf&kHomjzpfonf? xkdtcg jyifopfwkd@. tiftm;okH;I atmifjrif&ef óud;yrf;r_onf pD;ygG;a&;t& rjzpfEkdif/ atmifjrifr_r&Sd[lI olwkd@onf jyifopfwkd@tm;/ xda&mufaom csufjcif;wkef@jyefr_ukd ay;cJh+yD; jzpfayvdrfhrnf? usL;ausmf0ifa&muf+yD;aemuf/ tDrkdif;vf ukd@pf (Emile Coste) OD;aqmifonfh/ jyifopf tif*sifeD,m tzGJ@ESifh jyifopfwyfrSL; AkdvfcsKyf *sKd;Zuf 'Da*g (General Joseph Degoutte) wkd@onf/ *smref ausmufrD;aoG;wGif; ykdif&Sifrsm;tm;/ ‚if;wkd@. ausmufrD;aoG;rsm;ukd wifykd@ay;ygu/ aiGay;acs&ef tmrcHcsuf ay;+yD; pnf;&kH;&efóud;pm;avonf? jyifopfrsm;onf *smrefrsm;tm; aps;uGuaf ygufaps;atmufay;I 0,f,l+yD;/ tjcm;aom EkdifiHrsm;okd@ tjrwftpGef;,lI a&mif;csEkdifavonf? Tenf;tmjzifh jyifopfrsm;onf ‚if;wkd@. z&ef@aiG wpf bDvD,H cef@&Sdaom ysufpD;qkH;yg;oGm;onfh ppfp&dwfukefusr_rsm;ukd jyefvnfaxrdrnfjzpfonf? wcsdefwnf;Yyif/ olwkd@onf *smreftpkd;&. (40) &mckdifE_H; ausmufrD;aoG;tcGefaumufcHr_ukd umuG,fwm;qD;Edkif cJhvdrhfrnfjzpfonf? thHtm;oifhp&mrSm/ xkd 40 &mckdifE_H;aom ausmufrD;aoG;tcGefrsm;ukd vGefcJhonf (3) v uwnf;uyif aumufcHcJhjcif; r&Sdacs? bmvif. wkef@jyefr_rSm v#ifjrefvSayonf? tu,fI ausmufrD;aoG;wGif; ykdif&Sifrsm;onf oabmwlnDoGm;cJhygu/ awmfvSefa&;onf òyduGJoGm;cJhvdrfhrnfjzpfonf? ulEkd onf usL;ausmfol rsm;tm;ausmufrD;aoG;rsm; wifykd@a&mif;csjcif;rðy&[k wGif;ykdif&Sifrsm;tm; wm;jrpfxm;vkdufavonf? okd@aomf ukd@pfonf 'lqJvfa'ghzf (Düsseldorf) wGif wGif;ykdif&Sifrsm;ESifhawG@qkH+yD;/ ausmufrD;aoG;rsm; pwifwifykd@&efESifh ysufuGufygu csufjcif; tjypfay;zrf;qD;cH&rnf[lI trdef@xkwfjyefvkdufavonf? wGif;ykdif&Sifrsm;rSvnf; ukd@pf. trdef@ukd jiif;qefvkduf+yD;/ tz*smr%DEkdifiHawmftm; opPm&Sd&ef uwdðyvkduf=uavonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)159


wkdifqef pufr_vkyfief;}uD;ukd tarGqufcHxm;ol i,f&G,fonfh z&uf'&pf wkdifqef (Friedrich Thyssen) onf/ ausmufrD;aoG;wGif;vkyfief;&Sifrsm;. ajyma&;qkdcGifh&Sdol ukd,fpm;vS,ftjzpf vkyfaqmifaeol jzpfonf? 'lqJvfa'ghzf tpnf;ta0;+yD;aemuf/ owif;pm/ r*~Zif;/ *sme,frsm;ESifh jynfolwkd@onf ‚if;tm; ol&Jaumif;tjzpf ac:a0: orkwf=uavawmhonf? “wGif;ykdif&Sifaomfvnf;aumif;/ tvkyform; aomfvnf;aumif;/ &l;&kdwfom; (native Ruhrite) rsm;onf acgif;rmI/ r,drf;r,kdif pdwf"gwfckdifrmaom olrsm;jzpf=uonf” [k ‚if; ausnmcJhavonf? okd@aomf wkdifqefonf ododomomyif ukd,fhtwwfESifhukd,f pl;ygavawmhonf? ukd@pfonf wkdifqefESifh tjcm;aom =oZmtm%m&SdonfhausmufrD;aoG;vkyfief;&Sif}uD; (5) OD;udk/ ZEM0g&Dv (20) &ufae@wGif/ ausmufrDaoG;wifykd@&ef jiif;qefr_jzifh/ zrf;qD;cJhavonf? ‚if;wkd@tm;/ rifhZf (Mainz) òrd@&Sd/ jyifopfppfzufqkdif&m w&m;&kH;wckwGif ppfaq;=um;em&ef ac:aqmifoGm;avonf? rifhZfwGif ‚if;wkd@onf EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;tjzpf qufqHcHcJh&avonf? zrf;qD;r_onf }uD;rm;aom rSm;,Gif;wGufcsufr_wckjzpfcJhavonf? ZEM0g&Dv (22) &ufae@wGif/ wkdifqef ausmufrD;aoG;wGif; (9) wGif;rS a,mufsm;/ rdef;r (75˜000) ESifh &m;jynfe,ftwGif;&Sd oHr%dpuf&kHrsm;onf oydwfarSmuf=uavawmhonf? tkdbma[mqef (Oberhausen) wGif/ rD;&xm;vrf; tvkyform;rsm;onf ‚if;wkd@. vkyfief;cGifrsm;ukd pGef@ypfum/ tcsufjy v#pfppfrD;rsm;tm;vkH;ukd jzwfawmufypfvkduf=uavonf? &ufuvif;a[mqef (Recklinghausen) wGifvnf;/ owˆKwGif;tvkyform;rsm;onf ‚if;wkd@. vkyfief;cGifrsm;ukd pGef@cGgcJh=uavonf? tkdpwmzJvf'f (Osterfeld) wGif/ owˆKwGif;tvkyform;rsm;onf/ jyifopf ppfwyfrsm; r&kyfodrf;ygu/ ‚if;wkd@. vkyfief;cGifrsm;ukd qif;&ef jiif;qefcJh=uavonf? wkdifqeftm; tr_ppf &kH;xkwf&efae@onf eD;uyfvmaomtcg/ rifhZfòrd@&Sd vlxkonf zrf;qD;r_tm; uef@uGuf qENjy=uavawmhonf? jyifopfwkd@onf/ qENjyr_}uD;rsm;onf t=urf;zuf t"du&k%f;}uD;rsm;tjzpf toGifajymif;oGm;rnfukd a=umuf&GH@ =uaoma=umifh/ +idrf0yfydjym;r_rsm; xdef;odrf;&eftwGuf rifhZfòrd@okd@ ppfwyfrsm; ykdrkdapv$wf&avawmhonf? xkd@tjyif/ tu,fI jyifopfppfom;rsm;onf vufeufrJh t&yfom;jynfolrsm;tm; tiftm;okH;òzdcGif;cJhygu/ +Adwdo#ESifh tar&duefwkd@onf jyifopfwkd@. odrf;ykdufxm;r_rsm;tay: qef@usifvm=uawmhrnfjzpfavonf? tr_ppfaq;onfhae@wGif/ axmifaygif;rsm;pGmwkd@onf w&m;&kH;awmf. tjyifwGif pka0;ae=uavonf? &kH;awmftwGif;Yvnf; pdwfyg0ifpm;pGm vma&muf=unfh&_aeolrsm;ESifh jynfhusyfaeavonf? OD;aqmifppfaq;ol t&m&Sd/ 'k-AkdvfrSL;}uD; 'Dblae; (Lieutenant Colonel Debugny) onf tr_ppfaq;aer_tm; [ef@wm; aESmifh,Sufol wOD;OD;onf ppfckH&kH;wifcH&rnf[k owday;xm;avonf? jyifopf tpkd;&a&S@aerS wkdifqeftm;/ ausmufrD;aoG;rsm; ykd@aqmifay;&ef trdef@ukd jiif;qefcJhygovm;[k ajymifusus wkH;wdwdar;jref;vkdufaomtcg/ wkdifqefrS jyefajzonfrSm “u|efawmfh wkdif;jynf&J@ Oya'ukd vdkufemapmifhxdef;&rSm[m u|efawmf&J@ wm0efyJ jzpfw,f? u|efawmfhtpkd;&&J@ tvdkt&rl/ jyifopfppfwyfrsm; &m;a'oukd 0ifa&mufusL;odrf;ykdufjcif;onf w&m;r#wr_r&Sdbl;jzpfw,f?” wkdifqefrS 0efcHonfrSm/ tu,fI *smreftpkd;&onf uef@uGufjiif;qefr_ rðycJhygu/ tpyxrY ykdif&Sifrsm;onf ausmufrD;aoG;rsm; jznfhqnf; yHhykd;ay;&ef oabmwlnDxm;cJhavonf? okd@aomf bmvifonf rnfonfh ausmufrD;aoG;rsm;r# rykd@aqmif&[k trdef@xkwfjyefvkdufaomtcgwGif/ ol ESifh ol. a&mif;&if;rsm;onf/ tqkdyg oabmwlnDxm;r_ukd rnfokd@r# rvkdufavsmEkdifawmhacs? ol. a&S@aerS wkdifqeftm; tr_rSv$wfay;&ef awmif;qkdcJhavonf/ tb,fa=umifhqkdaomf/ olonf !ïef=um;vmonfh trdef@rsm;twkdif; vkyfaqmifjcif;omjzpfonf? 'Dblae;onf tpkd;&rS xkwfjyefxm;cJhonfh trdef@onf tjypf'%fukd av#mhaygh oufomap&ef tajctaewGif&Sdaeavonf/ w&m;cHtm; tjypfrSv$wfay;&rnf/ okd@aomf z&ef@ '*Fg; (30˜7000) ukd '%ftjzpfay;av#maf p&rnf[lI qkH;jzwfcsufcs+yD;aemuf v#ifjrefpGm jyefxGufoGm;avonf? tjyifbufwGif qENjyaeaomolrsm;onf/ aysmf&$ifjrL;wl;pGmjzifh “&kdif;ajrukd apmifh=uyfumuG,f=u” “(Die Wacht am Rhein)” ESif “*smr%D *smr%D igwkd@&J@ jynf” “(Deutschland, Deutschland, über alles)” [laom oDcsif;rsm;udkoDqkdI uckefae=uavonf? wkdifqefonf rD;&xm; blwm&kHokd@ tuGmta0; wkdawmif;aomfvnf; atmifyGJqifEGJI xGufcGmoGm;cJhavonf? “obm0w&m;&J@ jyif;xefvGef;aom tiftm; [m xkdvlrsm;ukd odrf;,loGm;cJhwJhtwkdif;ygbJ”[k tufqifòrd@ukd jyefckwfarmif; vmonfh &xm;ay:rSaeI ‚if;. a&S@aerSa&;om;cJhygonf? “ckqkd&if odrf;ykdufxm;cH&onfh e,fajrwck. pdwf"gwfceG ftm;ukd odem;vnfoGm; =u+yDjzpfygw,f? ae&mwkdif;rSm tvHawGukd a0S@,rf;ae=uw,f? &xm;blwm&kHwkdif;rSmvnf; trsKd;om; aw;oDcsif;ukd oDqkdwJhtoHawGeJ@ zkH;v$rf;aecJhygw,f? 'gawGtm;vkH;[m jyifopfppfom;rsm; tajrmuftjrm; &Sdaeonfh a&S@arSmufrSmyif

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)160


jzpfay:aecJhwmjzpfygw,f/ jyifopfppfom;awG[m ,ckvkd jzpfay:vmwJh rsKd;cspf pdwf"gwfukd qef@usifESdrfESif;zkd@twGuf vkH;vkH;vsm;vsm; tm%mr&SdjzpfoGm;=uyg+yD?” w&m;pGJr_onf &ufowWywf wywfcGJ=umaom tkwfatmfaomif;wif;/ 0&kef;okef;um;jzpfr_wck tav;teuf jzpfyGg;oGm;cJhavonf? tb,fa=umifhqkdaomf/ ausmufrD;aoG;wGif;ykdif&Sifrsm;onf ausmufrD;aoG; rsm;v$Jajymif;&ef jiif;qefcJh=uaoma=umifhjzpfonf/ yGdKifuJonf owˆKwGif;rsm; tjyif/ &xm;vrf;rsm;ESifh wl;ajrmif;vrf;qkHrsm;ukd ykdrkdI ,laqmifxm;vkdufjcif;tm;jzifh/ awmfvSefr_rsm;tm; atmifjrifausmfv$m;Ekdif vdrfhrnf[kar#mfvifhaecJhavonf? okd@aomf jyifopfwkd@onf qef@usifuef@uGufr_rsm;ESifhom ykdrkdI &ifqkdifcJh& avonf? “t"du&k%;f jzpfymG ;r_ tpD&ifcHpmrsm;rSm/ &m; jynfe,ftESH@tjym;rSaeI a&muf&SdvmcJhavonf?” [k tar&duef owif;axmufwOD;rS a&;om;cJhavonf? “tufqefòrd@wGif/ jynfol (20˜000)onf/ vrf;rsm;ay:wGif &SdaecJh=uavonf? jyifopfwkd@onf [kdw,fw0kdufwGif vSHpGyfukdifwyfrsm;jzifh 0kdif;ywfxm;vkduf=uonf? ppfom;rsm;onf pufaoewfwvufukd xkwf,lvm=uonf? vltyk fonf a&S@okd@qufvufwkd;oGm;avonf? a'gow}uD;jzifh atmf[pfvkdufaom }uD;rm;aomtoHwck xGufay:vmavonf? tu,fI aoewf rz,f&Sm;ygu/ ‚if;wkd@. axmifaygif;rsm;pGmaom tiftm;}uD;ESifh vufcsnf;Avm 0ifa&mufwkdufckdufrnf[k +cdrf;ajcmuf=uavonf? jyifopfwkd@taejzifh xkd }uD;rm;aom vltkyf}uD;tm; atmifEkdif&efenf;vrf;wckrSm/ aemufa=umif;jyef qkwfcGg&efom&Sdavonf?”

“vlwa,muf&J@ tiftm;ukd b,fawmhrS ra=umufeJ@” usL;ausmfodrf;ykduf&onfhpDrHudef;. t"dtcsufrSm *smr%DrS ausmufrD;aoG;rsm;xkwf,l+yD; jyifopfokd@ &xm;jzifh o,f,lvm&efjzpfonf? xkd@a=umifh jyifopfwkd@ pwif 0ifa&mufusL;ausmfaomtcg/ olwkd@onf yxrOD;qkH; wl;+yD;om;ausmufrD;aoG;rsm;ukd/ tqifoifh o,f,l&ef wGif;E_wfcrf;rsm;tay:Y pkykHxm;onfh ausmufrD;aoG;wGif;rsm;&Sd&mokd@ OD;pGm oGm;a&mufcJh=uonf? tcsKd@ae&mrsm;rSm ausmufrD;aoG;rsm; xkwf,l&&Sd&ef twGuf ESpfv (okd@r[kwf) okH;v =umatmif &if;ESD;jr‡yfESH&rnfjzpfonf? xkd@a=umifh rnfonfh awmfvSefonfh r[mAsL[mrqkd ppfaq;prf;oyf&efrSm/ jyifopfwkd@. &xm;jzifh ausmufrD;aoG;rsm; ykd@aqmifr_ukd aESmifhaES; =uef@=umatmif ðyvkyfonhfprf;oyfr_yifjzpfonf? xkd@a=umifh tpkd;&onf ausmufrD;aoG;wifxm;onfh &xm;wGJrsm;ukd &m;jynfe,f. jyifyokd@ tv#iftjrefqGJ,lavawmhonf? jyifopfwkd@onf ‚if;wkd@. ukd,fykdiftwGJ rsm;jzifho,faqmifaepOftwGif;/ ajrjyifay:Yvkyfaqmif&ef &xm;tvkyform;rsm; vkdtyfaeao;qJyifjzpfonf? rnfonfhae&mwGifrqkd *smref &xm;tvkyform;rsm; oydwfarSmuf=uonfhtcgwkdif;/ jyifopfwkd@rSm ‚if;wkd@. ukd,fykdif tif*sifeD,mrsm;ukd tokH;ðyae=u&avonf? okd@aomf &m;wjynfe,fvkH;twGufrl vkHavmufpGm r&Sdonfhtjyif/ xkdtxJrS tenf;i,fom *smrefbmompum;ukd ajymEkdif=uavonf? xkd@tjyif Oa&mywGif &xm;ykd@aqmifa&; pHepfrsm;rSm wae&m ESifh wae&m rwlnD=uay? xkd@a=umifh tokH;ðyonfh ypPnf;ud&d,mrsm;ukd avhvm&ef tcsdef,l=u&jyefonf? a'ghwfrGef; (Dortmund) &Sdtvkyform;rsm; oydwfarSmuf=uaomtcgwGif/ jyifopfppfom;rsm; o,faqmifvmonfh &xm;wpif;onf/ jyifopf tif*sifeD,mrsm;rS rD;&xm; pufacgif;wGJudk rxdef;csKyfEkdifrDtxd/ em&Daygif;rsm;pGm &xm;vrf;ay:wGif rv_yfr&Sm;EkdifyJ &SdaecJh=u&avonf? xkd@aemuf tufqeftxd armif;ESifvmcJh=uonf? tufqefwGif *smreftvkyform;rsm;onf c&D;onfwifwGJrsm;ukd &xm;vrf;ay:okd@ o,faqmifvm+yD;/ &xm;a&S@qufroGm;Ekdifatmif ydwfqkd@xm;vkduf=uonf? bkdc|rf (Bochum) ESifh &ufuvif;a[mqef (Recklinghausen) wGif oydwfarSmufr_onf tvkdtavsmuf wòydifeufwnf; jzpfay:cJhavonf? jyifopfokd@oGm;&ef ausmufrD;aoG;rsm; ESifh ukwfrD;aoG;rsm; tjynfhwifaqmifxm;aom &xm;rsm;onf/ pufacgif;wGJrsm;ESifh tjcm;aom twGJrsm;. aemufwGifydwfrdaeavonf? a'owckvkH;wGif *smref &xm;tvkyform;rsm;onf tokH;rðyawmhonfh&xm;wGJa[mif;rsm;/ ausmufwkH;}uD;rsm;/ y&dabm* ta[mif;tjrif;rsm;ESifh ausmufrD;aoG;rsm;ukd &xm;vrf;rsm;ay:okd@ o,faqmifvm+yD;/ jyifopfwkd@ xdef;csKyfonfh &xm;rsm;ukd roGm;Ekdifatmif ydwfqkd@xm;=uavonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)161


tjcm;aom ta&;}uD;onfh &xm;tcsufjyrD;rsm;ukd vnf; vrf;a=umif;vGJacsmfr_rsm; tajrmuftjrm; jzpfay:cJhavonf?

tvkyform;rsm;onf

z,f&Sm;xm;=uojzifh/

òrd@wòrd@wGif jyifopfwkd@onf t"dublwm&kHrSaeI wae@v#if &xm;wpD;om apv$wfEkdifavonf? jyifopfwyfrSL;i,fwa,mufonf *smreftvkyform;rsm; vkyfief;cGifokd@jyefqif;&eftwGuf aphpyfnd‡E_dif;&ef t}uHðycJhavao;onf? okd@aomfor*~. tajctaeatmufwGif rnfonfh jyifopfppfom;r# tcsufjy blwm&kH rsm;tm; rodrf;ykdufEkdifcJh=uacs? ppfom;rsm;onf ‚if;wkd@vHSpGyfrsm;tm; blwm&kHrsm;teD;wGif wyfqifrxm; EkdifcJhay? ausmufrD;aoG; &xm;wGJrsm;ukdvnf; jyifopfppfwyfrsm;rSaeI vkdufyg rapmifh=uyfay;EkdifcJh=uay? t&m&Sdonf xkdtajctaersm;tm;vkH;ukd jiif;y,fvkduf+yD;/ jyifopftif*sifeD,mrsm;rS ppfom;rsm;tm; pufacgif;wGJrsm;ukd rnfokd@xdef;csKyfukdifwG,f&rnfukd oifay;&ef óud;yrf;avawmhonf? ppfom;rsm;onf acgif;wGJ twGif;Y &xm;armif;olwOD;. ab;wGifxkdif&+yD;/ armif;wHrsm;/ tcsufjyrD;rsm;/ cvkyfrsm;ESifh tylcsdeftqifhrsm; ukd avhvmoif,l=u&avawmhonf? okd@rSom oydwfrsm;jyefESH@vmcJhygu/ &xm;vrf;rsm;ukd xdef;csKyf ukdifaqmif xm;Ekdifrnfjzpfonf? jyifopfrsm;onf ZGJaumif;aumif;jzifh xyfwvJvJom rvkyfaqmifygu bmrS vkyfaqmifEkdifrnfr[kwf acs? &xm;rsm;tm; a&G@vsm;ap&eftwGuf/ olwkd@onf tzsuftarSmifhvkyfief;rsm;ukd umuG,fwm;qD;&eftwGuf v#yfppfpD;qif;r_ jywfawmufoGm;aoma=umifh/ tcsufjyowday; rD;rsm;rvif;awmhonfukd *&krpkdufyJ/ cvkyfrsm;ukd oHr_djzifh pGJESufxm;vkduf=uavonf? xkd@aemuf awmfvSefqef@usifv_yf&Sm;olrsm;rS rD;&xm;oHvrf; rsm;,laqmifoGm;rnfukd pkd;&drfonfhtwGufa=umifh/ vrf;a=umif;wav#mufwGif tapmifhrsm;ukd csxm;vkduf=u avonf? jyifopfrsm;onf ‚if;wkd@. trdef@ukd remcHaom rnfonfh rD;&xm;t&m&Sdrqkd &m;jynfe,ftwGif;rS ESifxkwfvkduf=ujcif;jzifh/ oydwfarSmufr_rsm;tm; wefjyef&eftwGufóud;yrf;cJh=uavonf? Tokd@vkyfaqmifjcif; tm;jzifh/ rD;&xm;0ef}uD;Ïme ESifh or*~rsm;t=um;wGif qlyltkHºuGr_rsm; jzpfvmvdrhfrnf[k ar#mfvifhaecJh=uonf? okd@aomf ar#mfvifhonfhtwkdif; jzpfvm&eftwGuf tcsdef ,lcJh&onf? xkdpOftwGif;Y ausmufrD;aoG;ukd iwfrGwfawmifhwaeaom jyifopfwkd@onf t*FvefrS wefcsdef (1) oef;ukd 0,f,lcJhavonf? xkd@tjyif usyfwnf;aeaom jyifopfpD;yGg;a&;ESifh jyifopfjynfolrsm;ESifh twkduftcH EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;rS. &m;jynfe,f pGef@pm;r_vkyfief;tm; tqkH;owf&eftwGuf zdtm;rsm;wkd;yGg;aecJhavonf? a'otwGif;&Sd owˆKwGif;tvkyform;rsm;rSmvnf; jyifopfwkd@. trdef@rsm;ukd vkdufem&ef jiif;qefae =uavonf? tufqefòrd@. ajrmufzufykdif;av;wGif&Sdaom/ owˆKwGif;tvkyform;rsm;. uHaumif;jcif;[k t"dy`g,f&onfh/ bmh*fref;pfvuf (Bergmannsglück Mine) owˆKwGif;rS/ rkdif;tvkyform;rsm;onf/ ZEM0g&Dv (19) &ufae@wGif/ yxrOD;qkH;t}udrftjzpf jyifopfwkd@. wzswfzswfvufaeaom vHSpGyfrsm;ukd pwifawG@zl;vkduf =uavonf? eHeuf (8) em&D (30) rdepftcsdefwGif/ ar,m (Mayer) trnf&Sdonfh jyifopf AkdvfrSL;}uD; wa,mufESifh ‚if;. vufatmuft&m&Sd wtkyfpk/ tif*sifeD,mrsm;ESifh ppfom; (100) cef@onf/ owˆKwGif;&Sd &kH;rsm;a&S@Y ‚if;wkd@. um;wef;ukd &yfwef@vkduf=uavonf? ppfom; (15) a,muf&Sdonfh tkyfpkwpkonf +idrfoufpGmyif 0ifaygufwHcg;r}uD;qDokd@ csDwufoGm;=uavonf? xkd@aemuf !$ef=um;a&;rSL;&kH;cef;okd@ qufvuf csDwufoGm;=uavonf? olwkd@onf ‚if;wkd@. aoewfrsm;wGif vHSpGyfrsm;wyfqifI tcef;twGif;okd@ w[kefxkd; 0ifa&muf oGm;=u+yD;/ AkdvfrSL;}uD; ar,m ESifh tif*sifeD,mrsm; tcef;wGif;okd@ 0ifrvmrD/ tcef;ywfywfvnfwGif ae&m,l vkduf=uavonf? xkd@aemuf AkdvfrSL;}uD;onf zkdrsm;twGif;&Sd ukwfrD;aoG;rsm;tm;vkH;ukd &xm;jzifh o,faqmif&ef twGuf wGJrsm;ay:okd@ wifxm;&rnf[k awmif;qkdvkdufavonf? okd@aomf owˆKwGif;. !$ef=um;a&;rSL;csKyf tkdbmbm*&uf at&ef (Oberbergrat Ahrens) onf awmif;qkdcsufukd aqmif&Guf&ef jiif;qkdvkdufaomtcg/ ‚if;tm; zrf;qD;vkduf+yD;aemuf teD;tem;&Sd pmoifausmif;uav;wckqDokd@ ac:aqmifoGm;avonf? xkdausmif;uav;wGif ol@tm; ar;cGef;rsm;ar;+yD;aemuf/ txkyftykd;rsm;jyifI &m;jynfe,frS xGufcGgoGm;&ef trdef@ ay;vkdufavonf? ar,m/ ppfom;rsm;ESifh tif*sifeD,mrsm;onf ukefpnfo,f,lykd@aqmifa&; 0efxrf;pma&;rsm;ESifh tjcm;aom t&mxrf;/ 0efxrf;rsm;tm;vkH;ukd ar;cGef;rsm; ar;avonf? tm;vkH;aom 0efxrf;rsm;onf tultnDay;&ef jiif;qef=uavonf? ar,monf 0efxrf;rsm;tm;vkH;avmufeD;yg;tm; zrf;qD;vkduf+yD;aemuf/ jynfe,frS xGufcGgoGm;&ef armif;xkwfvkdufavonf? qufvufI ar,mrS ol. awmif;qkdcsufrsm;ukd rvkdufavsmrjcif;/ rnfonhfukwfrD;aoG;ukdr#/ jyifopfEkdifiHrSvGJI rnfonfhae&mukdr# ykd@aqmifjcif;rðyvkyf&efESifh zkdrsm;twGif;&Sd rnfonfhukwfrD;aoG;ukdr# pkykHjcif; rðyvkyf&[k trdef@xkwfjyefvkdufavonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)162


xkdtjzpftysufonf eHeufcif; cyfapmapmykdif;wGif jzpfyGg;oGm;aoma=umifh/ yxrtqkdif; rkdif;tvkyf orm;rsm;rSm ajratmufrkdif;wGif;Yyif &Sdae=uavao;onf? okd@aomf tcsKd@aom 0g&ifh tvkyform;}uD;rsm;onf ajray:&Sd ukwfrD;aoG;zdkrsm;ukd wm0ef,l }uD;=uyfvkyfaqmifaeonfh tzGJ@ukdqufoG,fvkdufavonf? xkd@aemuf olwkd@onf csufjcif;yif aumufumiifum pka0;vkduf=u+yD;/ awmif;qkdcsuf pm&if;wckudk tv#iftjrefa&;om; xkwfjyef vkduf=uavonf? zrf;qD;xm;cH&onfh t&m&Sdrsm; ESifh tvkyform;rsm;tm; v$wfay;&efESifh rkdif;wGif;rS aeI jyifopfppfom;rsm;tm;vkH;ukd jyefvnf&kyfodrf;&efwkd@ukd awmif;qkdvkdufavonf? tu,fI tqkdyg awmif;qkdcsufrsm;ukd rvdkufavsmygu rkdif;wGif;tvkyform;rsm;tm;vkH; vkyfief;cGiftwGif;rS xGufcGgoGm;=u+yD;/ tjynfht0 oydwfarSmuf&ef pwifrnfjzpfonf? AdkvfrSL;}uD;onf acgif;+idrfhvkdufavsmvkduf+yD; zrf;qD;xm;onfh 0efxrf;pma&; trsm;pkukd v$wfay;vkdufavonf? okd@aomf rkdif;wGif;&Sd txufwef;t&m&Sdrsm; wa,mufr# ryg0ifay? olonf usif;E_wfcrf;rsm;&Sd wyfzGJ@trsm;pkukdvnf; z,f&Sm;ay;vkdufavonf? ukwfrD;aoG;zkdrsm;tm; apmifh=uyf&eftwGuf ppfom; (4) a,mufom csefxm;cJhavonf? okd@aomf rkdif;tvkyform;rsm;rSm zkdrsm;tm;pkykH&efESifh ‚if;wkd@.ukwfrD;aoGrsm;ukd jyifopfokd@ wifykd@&ef qufvufjiif;qefae=ujcif;jzifh/ taiG@jyefvG,fonfh xGufaygufr&Sdaomtajctaeukd zefwD;ae=uavonf? tu,fI ukwfrD;aoG;zkdrsm;ukd &uftenf;i,ftwGif; &Sif;vif;jcif; rðyvkyfygu/ ukwfrD;aoG;rsm;onf aygufuGJ xGufoGm;rnfjzpf+yD;/ zkdrsm; ysufpD;oGm;rnfjzpfonf? tvkyform;rsm;onf xkdtcsufukd !$efjy=uavonf? okd@aomf ar,mrS cg;cg;oD;oD; jiif;y,fvkdufavonf? xkd@aemuf olonf oHjywfESifh rmqwfqwf ajymvkdufonfrSm- “rif;wkd@taeeJ@ igwkd@&J@ trdef@awGukd rvdkufembl;qkdv#if” “ukwfrD;aoG;rsm;onf zkdrsm; twGif;Yyif &Sdae&rnfjzpfonf? tu,fI rkdif;ukd zsufqD;vkdufrnfqkdv#if pDrHcef@cGJolrSm wm0ef&Sdw,f”? okd@aomf rkdif;vkyfom;rsm;onf AkdvfrSL;}uD;ESifh tòydif zkdrsm;tm; tEW&m,f&Sdaom tylcsdeftwGif;Y qufvufI upm;=uav&m/ AkdvfrSL;}uD;rS tav#mah y;&kyfodrf;vkduf&avonf? aemufqkH;wGif ukwfrD;aoG;rsm;ukd &xm;wpD; ay:wGif pkykHvkduf=u+yD; jyifopfokd@r[kwfyJ/ *smr%Dajrmufykdif;okd@ o,faqmifoGm;avawmhonf? tvm;wl vdyfcJwnf;vnf;tajctaeonf &m; wjynfe,fvkH;&Sd owˆKwGif;rsm;wGif jzpfygG;cJhavonf? jyifopfppfom;rsm;onf rkdif;wGif; 'g&kdufwmrsm;tm; ausmufrD;aoG;rsm; ykd@aqmif&ef jiif;qefr_twGuf xdef;odrf;&ef ac:aqmifoGm;aomtcg/ tvkyform;rsm;onf ‚if;wkd@. ud&d,mwefqmyvmrsm;ukd ypfcsvkduf =u+yD;/ rkdif;wGif;rsm;twGif;rS xGufvm=uum/ ‚if;wkd@. t&m&Sdrsm;tm; jyefvnfv$wfray;rjcif;aomf vnf;aumif;/ ppfom;rsm; wGif;rsm;rS xGufcGgoGm;ray;rjcif;aomfvnfaumif; tvkyfjyefr0if[k awmif;qkd qENjy=uavonf? tcsKd@aomae&mrsm;wGif rkdif;tvkyform;rsm;onf/ wGJay:wifxm;aom ausmufrD;aoG; rsm;ukd oJrsm;ESifh a&rsm; a&mI jzef;yufvkduf=uavonf? Tokd@jzifh ausmufrD;aoG;rsm;onf jyifopf&Sd oH&nfusKd rD;jyif;zkdrsm;okd@ a&mufonftxd vufawG@tm;jzifh tokH;r0ifawmhacs? tm;vkH;rS ajymjyonfrSm - jyifopfrsm;onf ausmufrD;aoG;tenf;i,fukd odrf;ykduf&&Sdrd=u+yD;/ jyifopfokd@ a&mufaomtcg xkdxufyif ykdenf;yg;oGm;avonf? yxr&ufowWywftenf;i,ftwGif;Y/ ‚if;wkd@taeESifh tenf;i,fomvkyfaqmifEkdif =uonf? ppfom;rsm;twGufrl rkdif;wGif;tvkyform;rsm;tjzpf vkyf&onfu/ &xm;pufacgif; tif*sifeD,mtjzpf vkyf&onfxuf u|rf;usifr_r&Ekdif=uacs? uzsuf,zsuf taESmifht,Sufrsm;tjyif/ jyifopfrsm;onf &m; wjynfe,fvkH;wGif&Sdaom/ owˆKwGif; tr_xrf;/ t&mxrf;rsm;tm;/ aESmifh,Sufr_rsm; pwifðyvkyfavawmhonf? wae&mwGifrl/ jyifopfonf &m; c&kdif b¾ma&;rSL;ESifh awG@qkH+yD;/ a'owGif;&Sd owˆKwGif;vkyfief;&Sifrsm;tay:/ tcGefaumufcHr_qkdif&m owif;tcsuf tvufrsm;ukday;&ef awmif;cHavonf? “usaemf[m *smrefvlrsKd;wa,mufjzpfw,f/ jyifopfxHrSvmaom trdef@rsm;ukd usaemfvufrcHygbl;”[k ‚if;rS jyefajymvkdufavonf? jyifopf b¾ma&;t&m&Sdonf wc%r# tHtm;oifh =uufaoaooGm;+yD;aemuf “rSwfwrf;awGukd ay;tyfzkd@ rif;rSm (10) rdepfyJtcsdef&Sdw,f” [k jyefvnf wkH@jyefvkdufavonf? c&kdifb¾ma&;rSL;onf rwfwyf&yfvkduf+yD;/ xGufcGgoGm;&ef jyifqifI/ jyifopft&m&Sd a&S@Y acwW&yfvkduf+yD; - “tJ'D wefzkd;&SdwJh 10- rdepftcsdefukd ròzH;wD;ygeJ@/ usaemf&J@ tajzuawmh t&iftwkdif;ygbJ” [k jyefajymvkdufavonf? xkd@aemuf zrf;qD;ac:aqmifoGm;jcif; cH&avawmhonf? ckcHawmfvSefr_rsm;rSm &xm;ykd@aqmifqufoG,fa&;vkyfief;rsm;ESifh owˆKwGif;a'orsm;wGifyif &yfwef@raecJhay? òrd@}uD;tawmfrsm;rsm;wGif/ txl;ojzifh tufqef (Essen) / a'grh eG ;f (Dortmund) / ESifh bkdc|rf; (Bochum)/ wkd@onf

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)163


jyifopf-b,fvf*sD,Hrpf&SiftwGuf trdef@ay;Ïmersm;jzpfvmcJhavonf? tqkdygòrd@}uD; rsm;wGif *smrefwkd@onf EkdifiHjcm;om; tif*sifeD,mrsm;ESifh t&m&Sdrsm; wnf;ckdaexkdif=uaom [kdw,frsm;wGif/ [kdw,fokd@ qufoG,fxm;onfh/ w,fvDzkH;auA,fóud;rsm;ESifh v#yfppfóuD;rsm;tm; jzwfawmufjcif;rsm;ukd ðyvkyf=uavonf? t&yfom;jynfolrsm;. ckcHawmfvSefr_tay: jyifopfwkd@. jyefvnf wkef@jyefr_rSm r=uc% qkdovkd tcsKd;tpm;tm;jzifh nDr#r_r&Sday? ,if;wkd@onf ykdrkdI qef@usifykefuefr_rsm;ukdom wGef;tm;ay;cJh avonf? tufqefòrd@wGif “&kdif;ajrukd apmifh=unhfumuG,f=u” “(Die Wacht am Rhein)” ESif “*smr%D *smr%D igwkd@&J@ jynf” “(Deutschland, Deutschland, über alles)” ponfh trsKd;om;aw;oDcsif;rsm;ukd oDqkdygu *smref rwfaiG 2 odef; (okd@r[kwf) axmif'%f (6) vuscH&rnfjzpfonf? rnfonfhtvHtrsKd;tpm;ukd rqkd xkwfazmfjyojcif; (okd@r[kwf) txdrf;trSwft0wftpm;rsm;ukd 0wfqifjcif;wGifvnf; tvm;wl jypf'%frsKd;yif uscHap&rnfjzpfavonf? *sJvfqefuD&fcsef; (Gelsenkirchen) òrd@wGif/ *smref &Jom;wa,mufonf jyifopfwa,muf armfawmf um;armif;vmpOf rD;xGef;rxm;onfhtwGuf um;ukd&yfcdkif;cJhavonf? um;ay:wGif pD;eif;vmaom jyifopf ppfom;rsm;onf xkdykvdyftm; aoewfjzifhypfvkdufav&m/ vnfyif;wGif aoEkdifavmufaom '%f&m&&SdoGm; avonf? &kwf&kwfoJoJjzpfyGg;aejcif;ukd apmifh=unhfavhvmae=u+yD;/ tcif;jzpfyGm;&mokd@ *smreft&yfom;tcsKd@ tajy;tv$m;a&mufvm=uavonf? ppfom;rsm;. tvGeftu|Hvkyfaqmifr_rsm;a=umifh ‚if;wkd@tm; 0kdif;I &kdufESufvkduf=uavonf? vufwkH@jyefonfhtaejzifh/ jyifopfwkd@onf oHcsyfumwifhum;rsm;ESihf pufaoewf rsm;ukd òrd@wGif;okd@ apv$wfvkdufavonf? ‚if;wkd@ ppfom;rsm;. xdckdufepfemr_twGuf avsmfa=u;aiG *smref rwfaiG (1) oef;ukd òrd@rS ay;qyf&rnf[k awmif;qkdvkdufavonf? òrd@rsufESmzkH; acgif;aqmifrsm;rS jiif;qefvkduf aomtcg/ jyifopfwkd@onf ppfwyfrsm;ukd ykdrdkI apv$wfvkduf+yD;/ òrd@awmfcrf;r ESifh rD;&xm;blwm&kHrsm;ukd 0kdif;&H xm;vkduf=u+yD;/ òrd@. *smref rwfaiGpuULaxmufyHhr_tm;vkH;ukd odrf;,lvkduf=uavonf? xkdxdyfwkduf&ifqkdifawG@r_rsm;tm;vkH;twGuf ppfwyfrsm; ykdrkdvkdtyfavonf? jyifopfrsm;rSm t&efwyfzGJ@ 0ifrsm;ukdac:,l&eftwGuf twif;jzpfnp‡ fI vkyfae&avonf? ,if;wkd@onf jyifopfjynfolrsm;. t=um;wGif rauseyfr_rsm; jzpfay:aeaponf? &m;jynfe,fxJwGif/ tcsKd@ jyifopfppfom;rsm;onf ‚if;wkd@. odrf;ykdufxm; &onfh &nf&G,fcsufta=umif;t&if;rsm;ukd pwifar;cGef;xkwfae=uav+yD? tqufrjywfvkyfaqmifaeaom ckcHqef@usifa&;orm;rsm;onf ausmufrD;aoG;rsm;ukd jyifopfokd@ ykd@aqmifvdrfhrnfr[kwfqkdonfukd em;vnf oabmaygufae=uavonf? tdENd,wGif +Adwdo#rsm; tkyfpkd;cJhpOfuuJhokd@r[kwfyJ/ jyifopfrsm;onf &m;jynfe,fwGif aexkdif&ef qENr&SdcJh=uacs? olwkd@&&ef&Sdonfrsm;ukdonf vkdcsif=uolrsm;jzpf+yD;/ &+yD;aemuf jyefvnfxGufcGgvkdcsif=uolrsm;jzpfonf? vlxktm; zdESdyfjcif;onf ‚if;wkd@. OD;wnfcsufr[kwfay? okd@&mwGif/ ckcHqef@usifaejcif;rsm;. OD;wnfcsufrsm;onf/ jyifopfrsm;tm; ‚if;wkd@. tvkyfrsm;ukd &m;jynfe,fwGifvkyfaqmifaejcif;rS umuG,fwm;qD;&efjzpfonf? ,if;onf tusyf&kdufr_wckukdzefwD;ap+yD;/ *smrefwkd@rS xkdtusyf&kdufr_udk rjrif=uacs? ckcHqef@usifr_rsm; ykdI atmifjrifavav/ jyifopfrsm; jyefvnfxGufcGg oGm;&ef jiif;qefr_ &Snf=umavav/ yGJ+yD;&ef ykdI =umjrifhavavyifjzpfonf? xkd@tjyif *smrefrsm;twGuf t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_. ukefusr_wefbkd;}uD;rm;rvmrDtxd/ t=urf;rzuf v_yf&Sm;r_ukd =umjrifhpGm qGJqef@xdef;xm;&efrSm b,fawmhrS rvG,fulacs? xkduJhokd@aom qef@usifr_ðyonfh trsKd;tpm;twGuf oabmwlem;vnfxm;r_wck&Sdavonf? xdwfvef@a=umufrufzG,f&m ppfyGJwckESifh &ifqkdif jzwfoef;cJh&onfhtwGuf/ *smreftrsm;pkwGif aemufxyf t=urf;zufr_ðyvkyf&eftwGuf cGeftm; r&Sdawmhacs? ckcHqef@usifa&;orm;wOD;jzpfonfh/ oDtkd a*g'pf (Theo Gaudig) rS jyefajymif;atmufarhonfrSm “t=urf;rzufqef@usiftHwkr_onf tcsdefumv. tajctaeESifh cHpm;r_. aemufokd@ vkdufoGm;&kHomjzpfonf?” ,if;onfvnf; a'oEW& tvkyform;aumifpD0ifrsm;rSaeI axmufcHtm;ay;xm;jcif;jzpfonf? tu,fI jyifopfrsm;tm; wkdufckdufr_rsm; jzpfawmhrnfhqJqJtajctaersKd;wGifqkdv#if/ ‚if;wkd@rSaeI r=umc% tajctae +idrfoufavsmhusoGm;atmif ðyvkyf=ujcif;jzpfonf? t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_jzpf&rnf[laom vkdtifqENonf tpyxrY ckcHqef@usifvkdonfh }uD;rm;onfh tmoDoESifh wGJzufqufpyfaeavonf? ,if;onf ‚if;wkd@. vkyfaqmifaer_rsm;onf rSefuefonfqkdaom

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,kH=unfcsufrsm;rS vmjcif;jzpfonf? *smrefrsm;rSm ‚if;wkd@. trdajrukd ‚if;wkd@umuG,faejcif;jzpfonf? z&uf'&pf &SDvm (Friedrich Schiller) . Wilhelm Tell jyZmwfwckukd tufqefwGif ujyaepOfwGif/ yGJ=unfhy&d\wfonf ‚if;wkd@. xkdifckHrsm;rSxI/ ‚if;wkd@&if;ESD;u|rf;0ifaeonfh pma=umif;wcsKd@ukd òydifwleD;yg;yif xyfcgxyfcg &Gwfqkd=uavonf? “igwkd@. bkd;bGm;rsm;uJhokd@ igwkd@vnf; vGwfvyfvkd=uonf/ ol@u|efb0wGif &Sifae&mwmxuf/ ao&wmu ykdaumif;. ² ² ² vlwa,muf&J@ tiftm;ukd b,fawmhrS ra=umufeJ@”? xkd jyZmwf+yD;aemuf/ jyifopfwkd@onf &m;wjynfe,fvkH;wGif Wilhelm Tell Zmwf ujyjcif;rsm;ukd ydwfyif wm;jrpfcJh avonf? bkdc|rfòrd@wGif jyZmwf ujy&eftpDtpOfukd zsufodrf;jcif;ESifh bkdc|rf jyZmwf&kH tm;ydwfvkdufjcif;onf vl (5000) &Sdonfh csDwufqENjyr_wckudk jzpfyGg;apcJhavonf? trsKd;om;a&;pdwf"gwf'Da&onf *smr%DwjynfvkH;wGif jrifhwufaeavonf? “aps;}uD;aom qkdifrsm;ESifh aumfzDqkdifrsm;wGif/ jyifopfqef@usifa&;pum;rsm;ukd us,favmifpGmajymqkdae=uavonf? trSefwu,fyif vltm;vkH;onf tzsuftarSmifh vkyfief;rsm;wGif ‚if;wkd@ukd,fwkdif tenf;i,fpDawmh yg0ifvkyfaqmifae=u avonf? uav;i,frsm;onf vdyfpm pkHprf;ar;jref;vmonfh ppfom;rsm;/ olpdrf;rsm;tm; vrf;a=umif; trSm;rsm;ukdom !$efjy=uavonf?” [k tar&duef pma&;q&mwOD;rS ae&Sif;owif;pm}uD;tm; owif;ay;ykd@cJh avonf? pm;aomufqkdifrsm;onf jyifopf0kdift&ufrsm;ESifh aygifrkef@rsm;ukd tpm;taomufpm&if;u'fjym; xJrSaeI z,fxkwfxm;=uavonf? tu,fI *smrefrdef;cav;rsm;onf jyifopfppfom;rsm;ESifh cspfóuduf aeonfukd awG@&Sdygu/ ‚if;wkd@. qHyifrsm; ukdufjzwfypfjcif;ukd cH=u&avonf? *smref&kyf&Sifrif;om;rsm;tzGJ@csKyf onf jynfolvlxktm; jyifopfxkwfukefypPnf;rsm;tm;vkH;ukd oydwfarSmuf=u&ef wkdufwGef;aqmf=oavonf? “*smr%DEkdifiHonf jyifopfjynfrSwifoGif;vmonfh npfnrf;aom&kyf&Sifum;rsm; ESifh tEkynmwefzkd; uif;rJhonfh ypPnf;rsm;jzifh &kd;&Sif;pGmyif v$rf;rkd;aeavonf?” jyifopfrsm;onf *smrefrsm;. qef@usifawmfvSefr_ jynfol@toHrsm;ukd wdwfqdwfoGm;atmif a'o owif;pmrsm;wGif wnf;jzwf/ jzwfawmufjcif;ESifh ydwfypfjcif;rsm; ðyvkyfjcif;jzifh/ óud;yrf;avonf? tapmykdif;Y/ ckcHqef@usifr_rsm;ukd tm;ay;a&;om;aom t,f'Dwmhtmabmfrsm;/ okd@r[kwf trsKd;om;a&;0g'Drsm;. arwWm &yfcHv$mrsm;/ okd@r[kwf tvkyform; tkyfpkrsm;ta=umif; ykHESdyfa&;om;xkwfa0ygu xkdowif;pmtm; '%f&kdufjcif; ESifh xkwfa0cGifh ,m,Dydwfyifypfjcif;wkd@ukd ðyvkyf=uavonf? xkdtcg owif;pmrsm;onf ‚if;wkd@. &kH;cef;rsm; twGif;okd@ a&$@ajymif;oGm;+yD; qufvufxkwfa0=uavonf? jyifopfwkd@. wif;=uyfr_rsm;ukd raxrJhjrifðyaom owif;pmrsm;onf ykdIykdIrsm;jym;vmaomtcg/ ppfom;rsm;onf xkd&kH;cef;rsm;twGif;okd@ 0ifa&mufI tdwfoGef zmarSmuf&SmazG=u+yD;/ xkdolwkd@. vufESdyfpufrsm;/ pmykHESdyfpufrsm; ESifh puULrsm;tm;vkH;ukd odrf;,ljcif;/ zsufqD;ypfjcif;rsm;ukd ðyvkyf=uavonf? t,f'Dwmrsm;ESifh owif;pmrsm;tm;vnf; '%faiG&kdufjcif;/ ESifh axmifoGif;tusOf;csjcif;/ e,fESif'%fay;jcif;rsm;ukd ðyvkyf=uavonf? *smr%DEkdifiH&Sd jynfwGif; ESifh jynfyrSaeI/ ESpfzufpvkH;onf jynfolwkd@. rsufESmomay;r_ &&Sdatmif óud;yrf;=uavonf? *smrefpufr_vkyfief;&Sifrsm; ESifh aemufqkH;ydwftaotaus wkdufyGJwcktjzpf/ yËdyuQukd ykHazmfxm;=uonfh jyifopf vufurf;pmapmifrsm;/ pm&Gufi,frsm;ESifh ykdpwmrsm;ukd uGrf;,mqkdifrsm;/ tkwfeH&H/rsm; wGifuyfxm;=uavonf? *smrefpufr_vkyfief;&Sifrsm;tm; tvkyform;rsm;. vkyftm;crsm;ukd tqkH;&_H;tepfemcHv#uf &if;ESD;jr‡yfESHr_rsm; ðyvkyfjcif;jzifh/ ppf+yD;aemufykdif; aiGa=u;azmif;yGr_ukd tjrwfxkwfae onf[k pGyfpGJxm;avonf? *&m[rf *&if; (Graham Greene) [kac:onfh touf (18) ESpft&G,f&Sd t*Fvdfyf vli,fwa,mufonf/ vef'ef&Sd *smrefoH&kH;okd@ pma&;om;cJhavonf? pmxJwGif ‚if;. 0g'jzef@csda&;orm; wa,muftjzpf xkdvkyfief;ukd vkyfaqmifay;&ef urf;vSrf;xm;avonf? qufoG,f&rnfh pm&if;wckESifh axmufyHha=u;aiG&&Sd+yD;aemuf/ &m;jynfe,ftwGif;okd@ at;at;vlvlvrf;av#muf0ifoGm;avonf? “vlwkdif;. rkef;wD;aer_rsm;ESifh aysmf&$ifESpfvkdzG,f&m tm&kHcHpm;r_wck &SdaecJhavonf?” [k ol@rdcifxH pma&;om;cJhavonf? jyifopft&m&Sdrsm;twGuf EkdifiHjcm;om;rsm;rSm rSm;,Gif;p&mjzpfaecJhavonf[k &Sif;jyavonf? “naecif; qkdv#if u|efawmfwkd@onf npmpm;yGJ&kHwckokd@ oGm;a&mufcJh=uonf? t0wfAvm ESifh zufwD;rwa,mufonf csdef;óud;rsm;jzifh *smr%Dwkd@. oauFwtxdrf;trSwftuukd ujytokH;awmfcHavonf? olr. oHa,mZOf csnfaESmifxm;r_rsm;tm; jzwfawmuf+yD;/ u|efawmfwkd@. vm&if;&nf&G,fcsufukd tqkH;owfcJh=uavonf?”

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)165


wv=umodrf;ykdufr_onf jyifopftpkd;&tm; w&ufv#if tar&duefa':vm (60˜000) ukefusapcJh avonf? ,if;onf tpkd;&. b¾maiGavsmhenf;r_tm; jrifhwufvmapcJh+yD;/ EkdifiHjcm;aiGa=u; vJvS,fr_wGif jyifopfz&ef@aiGudk tm;enf;apcJhonf? yGdKifuJonf jyifopfv$wfawmfaumfrwDwGif azaz:0g&Dwav#muf ‚if;wkd@. wkd;csJ@r_twGuf jyifopfz&ef@aiG (45) oef;ukd xkwfay;&ef awmif;cH&avawmhonf? tif*sifeD,mrsm;onf owˆKwGif;rsm; ESifh ‚if;wkd@. acgif;aqmifukd tjynfht0 xdef;csKyfr_ r&Ekdifao;acs? (Emil Coste) onf tufqef&Sd ‚if;. &kH;csKyfudk pGef@cGm+yD;/ jyifopfokd@ jyefvmcJhavonf? jyifopfwGif 0ef}uD;rsm;aumifpDtpnf;ta0; Y olajymcJhonfrSm/ olwkd@Y a&G;cs,fp&mwckom&Sdonf &m;jynfe,frS ausmufrD;aoG;rsm; xkwfvkyfr_ukd pGef@v$wf vufav#mhvkduf&efESifh/ okd@r[kwfygu a'owckvkH;ukd ppftkyfcsKyfa&;atmufwGif qGJ,lxm;&Sdvkduf&efwkd@ jzpfonf? yGdKifuJonf txl;ojzifh *smreftvkyform;rsm;. wkef@jyefr_rsm;jzifh acgif;&_yfaecJhavonf? ol@taejzifh tvkyf&Sifrsm;xuf/ olwkd@. tvkyform;rsm;tm; ulnD&ef &nf&G,fI/ temtusifcH/ 'kuQcHum rpf&Sifwckukd ykHazmfcJhaomfvnf;/ tvkyform;rsm;onf *smreftcsKyftjcmtm%mukd ckcHumuG,f&eftwGuf wpnf;wvkH; wnf; &SdaecJh=uavonf? &m;jynfe,fom;rsm;twGufrl yËdyuQonf ppfyGJ}uD;+yD;aemuf *smr%Dtay:wGifzdpD; vmaom 0efxkyf0efykd;ukd av#mhcsoufomap&eftwGuf óud;pm;&kef;uefr_wckomjzpfcJhavonf? xkd@twGuf a=umifh/ avmavmq,ftwGufrl aiGa=u;OpPmxuf aoG;csif;eD;zkd@u ta&;}uD;cJh=u&avonf? ausmufrD;aoG; wGif;tvkyform;rsm;/ oHr%dvkyfief; tvkyform;rsm;/ ESifh ukefypPnf;trmxnfrsm; xkwfvkyfaom tvkyform;rsm;twGufrl cufcJyifyef;aomtvkyfrSm/ tcuftcJ 'kuQ t=uyftwnf;rsm;ESifh ‚if;wkd@ aeom;us oGm;&efom jzpfonf? xkd@a=umifh aiGa=u;azmif;yGr_ jrifhwufaecsdef/ ‚if;wkd@twGuf pm;0wfaea&;rsm; cufcJae csdefwGif/ olwdk@onf txl;ojzifh jyifopfrsm;tm;/ &kwfw&uf csufjcif;}uD; tav#mhay;tnHhcHvkdufrnf r[kwfacs? olwkd@wGif qkH;&_H;p&m[lI bmr# r&Sday/ xkd@a=umifh rnfonfhtwGuf awmfvSefqef@usifr_rsm;ukd rðyvkyf&rnfenf;?

“pnf;vkH;nD!Gwfr_rS om,mrdef;armr_okd@” awmfvSefqef@usifolrsm;twGuf axmufyHhr_rsm;ESifh jyifopfwkd@. omvGefr_rsm;ta=umif;ukd urBmtm; ajymjy&eftwGuf tcsKd@aom atmifjrifr_rsm;&SdcJhaomfjim;/ bmvifonf a&S@wef;wGif&Sdaomolrsm;tm; axmufyHhaiGa=u;xkwfacs;&eftwGufaomfvnf;aumif;/ &m;jynfe,f&Sd tzGJ@tpnf;qkdif&m uGef,ufukd A[kdrS aeI OD;pD;csKyfukdifr_ zGH@òzd;vmatmif vkyfaqmif&ef aES;auG;aecJhavonf? xkdtpm; tpykdif; ueOD;tqifhrsm;rSm a'oor*~rsm;/ tvkyform; aumifpDrsm;/ &JÏmersm;/ ESifh òrd@}uD;rsm; ESifh jrLeDpy,f tkyfcsKyfa&;rsm;rS aqmif&GufcJh=ujcif;jzpfavonf? yxrtywftwGif;Y odrf;ykdufa&;wyfzGJ@rsm;. tiftm;t&G,ftpm;rsm;/ owˆKwGif;rsm;&Sd&m a'orsm;/ rD;&xm;blwm&kHrsm; ESifh wl;ajrmif;rsm;tjyif/ òrd@wckpD. t&G,ftpm; yrm%rsm;wGif qef@usifawmfvSefonfh t&Sdeft[kef jr‡ifhwif&eftwGuf/ v_yf&Sm;r_pDrHudef;rsm;ESifh jzpfEkdifacs &Sdonfhenf;vrf;rsm;a&G;cs,f&ef òrd@wkdif;eD;yg; avmufwGif tpnf;ta0;rsm; ðyvkyfcJh=uavonf? Oyrm - *vwfbuf (Glacbeck) wGif/ ckcHumuG,fa&; tkyfpkwckonf awmfvSefr_rsm;wGif ylaygif;aqmif&Guf&eftwGuf wywfv#if (2) }udrf awG@qkHcJh=uavonf? tvm;wltkyfpkrsm;ukd tufqef (Essen)/ bltm (Buer) ESifh &ufuvifa[mhqef (Recklinghausen) òrd@rsm;wGifvnf; wnfaxmifcJh=uavonf? ZEM0g&Dv (17) &ufae@wGif/ rGefpwm (Münster)òrd@Y a'oqkdif&m uGefz&ifhwckukd usif;ycJhavonf? &kdif;jynfe,f. 0ef}uD;vnf;jzpfaom/ &m;jynfe,fwGif bmvif. t"du =um;0ifaqmif&Gufay;olvnf;jzpfaom tm;eufpf rJvpf (Ernst Mehlich) wufa&mufcJhavonf? rJvpfonf us,fjyef@pGm tvkdtavsmufjzpfaom a'owGif;óud;yrf;tm;xkwfr_rsm;ay:wGif pdwf0ifpm;r_&SdaecJhavonf? okd@aomf/ tu,fI qef@usifawmfvSefr_ rsm;onf atmifjrifcJhv#if/ bmvifonf ykdrkdI wkduf&kduf vkyfaqmif&vdrfhrnfqkdonfukd pOf;pm;cJhavonf? ulEkd (Cuno) ESifh tJbmhwf (Ebert) wkd@onf ‚if;wkd@. a'otwGif;&Sd/ ‚if;wkdk@.vlrsm;xHrS ajymufwdajymufusm; owif;tcsuftvufrsm;ukdom &&Sdae=uolrsm;jzpfonf? olwkd@ESpfOD;onf oabmwlnDcJh=u+yD; &kdif;-&m; Zefx&,f (Rhein-Ruhr Zentral) ukdwnfaxmifcJh=uavonf? Rhein-Ruhr Zentral onf owif;pm *sme,frsm;/ pnfyifom,ma&;tzJG@rsm;/ pufr_vkyfief;&Sifrsm;ESifh or*~rsm;tm; bmvif. !$ef=um;rsm;

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pD;qif;&mvrf;a=umif;wckjzpfcJhavonf? rJvpfonfvnf; vkyfom;pDrHcef@cGJr_ ckcHumuG,fa&;aumfrwDukd zGJ@pnf; cJhavonf? xkdaumfrwDonf v_yf&Sm;r_vkyfief;rsm;ESifh axmufyHhaiGa=u;jzifh vkyftm;crsm; xkwfay;&ef pDrHcsuf rsm; a&;qGJcJhavonf? okd@aomf xkd us,fus,fjyef@jyef@tao;pdwfpDrHjyifqifxm;onfh yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_onf tenf;i,f rajyrjypf cyfaxmifhaxmifhjzpfaeavonf? umv=um&SnfpGm wnf&SdaecJhonfh tvkyform;rsm;ESifh tvkyf&Sif rsm;t=um;&Sd oHo,rsm;onf ,cktcg rsufESmjyifay:okd@ yvkHpDI qlyGufwufvmaeavonf? ulEkd. xkwfjyef a=unmcsufwGif/ tpkd;&onf owˆKwGif;ykdif&Sifrsm;tm; ‚if;wkd@. qkH;&_H;r_rsm;twGuf avsmfa=u;aiGrsm; ay;rnf [laomtcsufonf qkd&S,fvpfrsm;tm; tvGeftrif;pdwfqkd;a'goxGufapavonf? ‚if;wkd@rS awG;xifonfrSm rkdif;wGif;ykdif&Sifrsm;. rwfaiG bDvD,H (40) jyefay;&eftwGuf/ tcGeftwkwfrsm;ukd OD;pGmaumufcH&vdrhfrnf jzpfonf? yk*~vdu jyefvnfxlaxmifa&; &HyHkaiGtzGJ@wckudk/ tvkyf&Sifrsm;. xnfh0ifaiGrsm;ESifh tvkyform;rsm;. vkyftm;cxJrS &mckdifE_ef; tcsKd;tpm;jzifhaumufcH,lI wnfaxmif&ef bmvifrS óud;pm;aom tcg/ or*~rsm;rS jiif;y,fcJhavonf? ‚if;wkd@. tvkyform;rsm;tm; ykdrkdI tusKd;&Sdxda&mufpGmjzifh ‚if;wkd@onf ta&;ay: &HykHaiGrsm;ukd xkwfa0ay;oifhonf[k ‚if;wkd@rS,lq=uaoma=umifhjzpfonf? xkd@a=umifh pufr_vkyfief;&Sifrsm;rSm ‚if;wkd@. &S,f,mxnfh0if&rnfhaiGrsm;ukd jyefvnf&kyfodrf;oGm;=uavonf? aemufqkH;wGif tpkd;&. jyefvnf xlaxmifa&; tzGJ@tpnf;onf/ rwfaiG bDvD,Haygif;rsm;pGmukd qENjyoydwform;rsm;twGuf v#Kd@0Sufb%f pm&if;wckrSaeI aiGukduJhI xkwf,loGm;avawmhonf? bmvifonf &uf&ufa&ma&m &SdaecJhaomfvnf;/ ulEkdonf pD;yGg;a&;tusKd;tjrwfwck. ckdif;zwf/ vufukdifwkwfjzpfonfqkdonfukd or*~rsm;rS ,kH=unf xm;=uavonf? trsKd;om;a&;udk a&S@wef;wifI qifaoukd qdwfa&jzifhzkH;tkyf&efóud;pm;r_rSm cufcJvSonf? ZEM0g&Dv (22) &ufae@wGif/ b¾ma&;0ef}uD;Ïmeonf/ rwfaiG oef; (30) ukd &kdufb%f (Reichsbank) rSwqifh jyefvnfxlaxmifa&; tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;ESifh tvkyform; pDrHcef@cGJa&; ckcHumuG,fr_ aumfrwDrsm;xHokd@ óudwif acs;aiGrsm;xkwfay;avonf? xkdxkwfacs;aiGrsm;ukd a'owGif; 0g'jzef@csDa&;tzGJ@rsm;/ tvkyfvufrJh tusKd;cHpm;cGifh twGuf ay;aiGrsm;/ yifpifpm;rsm;twGuf ulnDaxmufyHhr_rsm;/ ESifh tvkyform;rsm; ESifh ‚if;wkd@. rdom;pkrsm; twGuf tpm;tpmrsm;0,f,la&;rsm; ponfwkd@twGuf tokH;ðycJh=uavonf? cGifhðyonfh xkwfacs;aiG yrm%onf vkHavmufr_r&Sday/ tb,fa=umifhqkdaomf tajccHvkdtyfcsufrsm;twGuf ukefaps;E_H;rsm; v#ifjrefpGm jrifhwufaeaoma=umifhjzpfonf[k ulEkdxHokd@ rJvpfrS tpD&ifcHcJhavonf? xdk@a=umifh azaz:0g&Dv (1) &ufae@wGif/ *smrefv$wfawmf &kdufpwuf (Reichstag) onf/ todrf;ykdufcHxm;&onfh e,fajrrsm;twGif;/ cGJa0jzef@jzL;&eftwGuf aemufxyf rwfaiG bDvD,H (500) wefbkd;&Sdonfh xkwfacs;aiG vrf;a=umif;wckukd zGifhvSpf&ef vkyfykdifcGifhtm%m Oya'rl=urf;wcku b¾ma&;0ef}uD;tm; cGifhðyvkdufavonf? tpkd;&onf b¾ma&;EGHtkdiftwGif;okd@ ajccsrv d kdufavonf? ,if;onf &m;tvkyform; (12) oef;ukd jyefvnfay;qyf&ef tcsdefumv tuef@towfwckrygyJ axmufyHha=u;aiGrsm; xkwfacs;&ef cGifhðyvkdufjcif; jzpfonf? xkd@tjyif xkduJhodk@vkyfaqmifvkdufonfhtwGuf &kdufb%f (Reichsbank) wGif/ wjcm;a&G;cs,fp&m vrf;r&SdyJ/ rwfaiGtopfrsm;ukd &kdufESdyf&avawmhonf? xkd@twGufa=umifh/ tvkyform;rsm;. vufwGif;okd@ xkwfacs;aiGrsm; a&muf&SdoGm;aomtcsdefwGifrl/ rwfaiG wefbkd;onf wpkHw&modompGm usqif;oGm;av+yD jzpfonf? b¾ma&;upm;r_. aemufxyf&nf&G,fcsufwckrSm *smr%D. pdwfqif;&JzG,f&m b¾ma&;tajc taeukd [ef@wm;ydwfyifvkdufjcif;yifjzpfonf? vrsm;pGmrwkdifrDu/ qkd&S,fvpfygwDonf tvGeftrif; aiGa=u; azmif;yGr_udk av#mhcs&eftwGuf tpdwftykdif;wcktjzpf/ pufr_vkyfief;&Sifrsm;tm; tcGefaiGaumufcHr_ukd wkd;jr‡ifh&ef awmif;qkdcJhavonf? rnfokd@yifqkdapumrl/ pD;yGg;a&;vkyfief;acgif;aqmifrsm;u ‚if;wkd@. pD;ygG;a&;vkyfief; vkyfaqmifr_rsm;onf/ *smr%Dtm; urBmhtiftm;}uD; EkdifiHwcktjzpfokd@ ykd@aqmifay;cJhonfhtjyif/ ,ckwcg xyfrHI *smr%D. qkH;&_H;oGm;onfh pD;ygG;a&;tiftm;udk jyefvnf&&Sdatmif vkyfaqmif&mY tajccHvkdtyfcsuf jzpfonfqkdonfudk EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;tm; owday;cJhavonf? xkd@a=umifh EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm;onf tcGefpnf;rsOf; topftm; ydwfqkd@wm;jrpf&eftwGuf pufr_vkyfief;&Sifrsm;ESifh r[mrdwf ðyvkyfcJh=uavonf? awmfvSef qef@usifr_ta&;twGuf/ pGef@v$wftepfemcHr_rsm; ðyvkyf&efESifhywfoufI/ ukefxkwfvkyfr_rsm; av#mhcsjcif;rSaeI &&Sdwkd;yGg;vmonfh qkH;&_H;r_rsm;onf tqkdygpGef@v$wftepfemcHr_rsm;twGuf vkHavmuf+yDjzpfonf[k pufr_ vkyfief;&Sifrsm;rSaeI jyefvnfacsyjiif;qefcJhavonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)167


òrd@}uD;rsm;wGif pdwf"gwfusqif;ysufjym;r_vuQ%mrsm;ukd awG@ae&avonf? òrd@jyvlOD;a&. trsm;pk tpdwftykdif;onf npOfvkdvkd t&ufaopmxJwGif epfarsmae=uavonf[k tar&duefowif;axmufwOD;rS owdðyrdcJhavonf? “usaemfwkd@ wjcm;ukd bmvkyfEkdifvkd@vJ´” qkdonfrSm xkdolrsm; tm;vkH;rSay;aeaom qifajcwckjzpfaeavonf? “usaemfwkd@[m t&kduftESufcHae&w,f/ tusyfukdifcHae&w,f/ vufeufvnf; r&Sdbl;/ 'gayr,fh usaemfwkd@ t&ufrl;aewJhtcgrSm 'Da0'emawG[m oufomoGm;ovkd cHpm;ae&w,f”? (*ENDwkdufwGef;cJhonfh ol. urBmw0ufausmfwkdif jyef@ESH@cJhaom ryl;aygif; raqmif&Gufa&;v_yf&Sm;r_wGif/ rdrdukd,fukd rdrdxdef;ausmif;tkyfcsKyfa&; “self-rule”rSm/ ‚if;ukd rvkyfaqmifyJ a&SmifusOfaeonfh *smrefrsm;twGuf r[kwfay?) tar&duef ae;&Sif;owif;pm}uD;rS a&;om;cJhonfrSm - “aumfzDqkdifrsm;ESifh yGJvrf;obifazsmfajz&m ae&mrsm;onf jynfhESuf pnfum;aeqJyif jzpfonfqkdonfrSm trSefyifjzpfavonf?” “okd@&mwGif naecif; bD,mwcGuf.wefzkd; (okd@r[kwf) &kyf&Sif&kHrsm;&Sd ukvm;xkdifwckpm. tzkd;tc (2) qifhonf tdrfwGif naecif; twGuf rD;vif;zkdavmifpmukefusrnfhp&dwfxuf/ xkdae&mrsm;wGif oGm;a&muftcsdefðzef;ae&onfu ykdI ukefusp&dwfoufomaeavonf?” [k qufvufa&;om;cJhavonf? jynfolrsm; tat;'%fukd ckcHumuG,f&ef twGuf ulnD&ef rkdif;tvkyform;rsm;onf vufwGef;vSnf;rsm;/ tdwfrsm;jzifh ‚if;wkd@. rdom;pkrsm;ESifh tdrfeD;em;csif;rsm;twGuf o,faqmifoGm;Ekdif=uavonf? tcsKd@aom ausmufrD;aoG;usif;E_wfcrf;xdyfrsm;wGif rkdif;vkyfom;rsm;onf a'otwGif;tokH;ðy&eftwGuf ausmufrD;aoG;rsm;udk pkykHxm;cJh=uavonf? tcsKd@onf ‚if;wkd@. ukd,fykdif ,m,D r&SdokH; wGif;rsm;wl;=u&m wGif;òydusr_ tEW&m,frsm;ESifh óuHawG@=u&avonf? pD;yGg;a&;tusyftwnf;rsm;ESifh vlr_a&;pdwfaomuzdpD;r_rsm; &Sdaeaomfjim;vnf;/ qef@usiftHwk awmfvSefr_rsm;rSm ZEM0g&D wvvkH;ESifh azaz:0g&DvxJtxd ae&mwumysH@ESH@vsuf&Sd+yD;/ tvGefyif wufºuGae=u avonf? xdk@tjyif/ yGdKifuJonf jyifopfwkd@. ppfqifa&;ukd wkd;csJ@rnfukd a=umuf&GH@aecJhavonf? tb,fa=umifh qkdaomf ‚if;onf +Adwdef/ tar&duefjynfaxmifpkwkd@ESifh qufqHa&;rsm;wGif taESmifht,Suf/ ab;tEW&m,frsm; jzpfvmaprnfhtjyif/ jynfwGif;Yvnf; tv,ftvwf Oya'ðytrwfrsm;. axmufcHr_rsm;udk ysufjym;oGm;apEkdif aoma=umifhjzpfavonf? tHhbG,fyif/ olukd,fwkdifonfvnf; *smrefrsm;ESifh ruif;uGmapa&;ukd ywfouf vkdvm;olwOD;jzpfonf? tb,fa=umifhqkdaomf Oa&my. aemufqkH;wnf+idrfat;csrf;r_onf jyifopf-*smref r[mrdwfðy qufqHa&;tay:wGif tajccHrDSwnfaeonf[k ,kH=unfxm;aoma=umifhjzpfonf? okd@&mwGif xkd tjrift,ltqonf/ xkdtcsdefumv. [kd;t&ifwcsdefwGif &SdaecJhjcif;jzpfavonf? ppfzufol&Jaumif;wOD;tae ESifhaomfvnf;aumif;/ jyifopfjynfvkHòcHa&;twGuf ckcHumuG,fol wOD;tjzpfESifhaomfvnf;aumif;/ yGdKifuJ. tjyifyef;ay:vGifaeonfho&kyfouefonf xkd EkdifiHtcsif;csif;t=um; em;vnfr_ qufqHa&; oabmxm;rsm;ukd v$rf;rkd;oGm;cJhavonf? wcsdefwnf;Yyif/ ulEkdESifh tD;bmhwf wkd@onf aphpyfajy+idrf;a&;twGuf ao;i,faom qGJaqmifr_ukd awG@cJh=uonf? *smr%D. zGH@òzd;p'Drkdua&pDonf òydvJusumeD;vkeD;yg; ,kdifwD;,kdifwkdif av#mufvSrf; ae&avonf? xkd@a=umihf olwkd@onf vufsm0g'D qkd&S,fvpfrsm;ESifhaomfvnf;aumif;/ vuf0J0g'D uGefjrLepfrsm; ESifhaomfvnf;aumif; uif;uGmtqufjzwfae&ef rpGef@pm;&JcJh=uacs? olwkd@ awG;xifxm;onfrSm jyifopfrsm;tm; qef@usifawmfvSef&eftwGuf 0g'rwlnDaom twkduftcHtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;tm;vkH; twlwuG wnDw!Gwfwnf; yl;aygif;vkduf=ujcif;jzifh twkduftcHqef@usifaer_rsm;tm; ajz&Sif;+yD;jzpfoGm;vdrfhrnf[k ,lqaecJh=uavonf? yxrykdif;&ufowWywfrsm;twGif;Y bmvif&Sd xkdvl}uD;rsm;. t,ltqrsm;onf rSefuefae[ef&SdcJhavonf? okd@&mwGif olwkd@onf rD;cJjymzkH;jzpfaeaom rwnfr+idrfjzpfr_rsm;ESifh wkef@jyefr_ oufoufjzpfaejcif;ukd vpfvsL&_cJh=uavonf? qef@usifawmfvSefr_onf r[mAsL[mvrf;a=umif;rsm; r&SdcJhacs? qef@usifawmfvSefr_onf touf0ifaecJhaomfvnf; yJhudkifxdef;ausmif;r_ r&Sdacs? ‚if;ukd tm;jznfh xdef;xm;&efrSm tpkd;&onf EkdifiH. t"dupD;yGg;a&;vkyfief;udk ydwfypf&rnfjzpfonf? qkH;&_H;oGm;aom 0ifaiGrsm;ukd umrdap&eftwGuf aiGpuULrsm;ukd &kdufESdyf xkwfa0&rnfjzpfonf? ‚if;onf tcsdefukd 0,f,ljcif;yifjzpfonf/ odrf;ykdufxm;olrsm;. qkH;jzwfcsufrsm;ukd oufqkd;&Snaf p&ef ar#mfvifhae&avonf? tar&duef ESifh +Adwdo#wkd@ =um;0ifajz&Sif;r_rsm;ukd ar#mfvifhae&avonf? jyifopfwkd@. ukefus p&dwfonf ‚if;wkd@. ukefusp&dwfxuf omvGefaevdrfhrnf[k ar#mfvifhae&avonf?

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“rnfolrqkd zrf;qD;xdef;odrf;jcif;ukd cH&rnf” azaz:0g&Dv (4) &ufae@wGif/ 0ef}uD;csKyf ulEkdonf &m;jynfe,fokd@ (2) &ufc&D; wckukd v#Kd@0SufI oGm;a&mufcJhavonf? xkd@aemuf olonf bmvifokd@jyefvmcJhavonf? &m;jynfolwkd@. awmfvSefqef@usif vkdonfh pdwfqENonf vGefcJhaom (3) ywftwGif;u jyifopfwkd@ tufqefòrd@twGif;okd@ yxrOD;qkH; p0ifvmpOf uwnf;u&Sdaeonfh ckdifrmaompdwfqENrsm;twdkif; qufvuf&Sdaeao;onfudk owdðyrdcJhavonf? aemifwGif ‚if;rS a&;om;onfrSm“usL;ausmfodrf;ykdufxm;onfh e,fajrrsm;twGif;&Sd ae&mwkdif;okd@ u|efawmf oGm;a&muf vnfywfcJhavonf? pufr_vkyfief;&Sifrsm;/ ESifh tv$mtoD;oD;rS t&yfom;jynfolrsm;ESifh tvkyform;rsm; wkd@ESifh yGifhyGifhvif;vif; aqG;aEG;ajymqkdcJhavonf? ae&mwkdif;[m jyifopfwkd@. usL;ausmfxm;r_ukd/ ydkrkdI t=urf;rzuf qef@usifawmfvSefr_enf;eJ@ wpkdufrwfrwfqufvufI qef@usifoGm;rnfjzpfonfhta=umif;/ olwkd@&J@ r,kdifrvJwJh oHEMdÏmefukd tmrcHcJh=uavonf?” ,if;ukd EkdifiHom;rsm;tm; ‚if;wkd@. “vl@tcGifhta&;rsm;twGuf” “tjynfh t0 todw&m;&Sdr_” ESifh “&efvkdaeaom vSHpGyfrsm;. a&S@arSmufrSm OD;r!Gwf” vkdonfh pdwfqEN&Sdaom EkdifiHom;rsm;[k ‚if;rS xnfhoGif;rSwf,lcJhavonf? 0ef}uD;csKyf. vnfywfr_onf yGdKifuJtm; ‚if;. csOf;uyfr_rsm;onf tvkyfrjzpfqkdonfukd trSeftwkdif; odem;vnf;oGm;atmif vSef@E_d;&mwGif tultnDay;cJhavonf? ulEkd. c&D;pOfonf “txl;ojzifh pufr_vkyfief; &Sifrsm;/ t&mxrf; 0efxrf;rsm;/ ESifh tpkd;& ÏmecGJrsm; t=um;wGif tEW&m,f&Sdaom pdwfv_yf&Sm;r_” udk xkwfvkyf ay;cJhonf[k jyifopfacgif;aqmif}uD;rS ,kH=unfaecJhavonf? xkd@a=umifh olonf *smreftpkd;&tzGJ@0ifrsm;. aemufxyfvnfywfr_rsm;ukd wm;jrpfydwfyifcJhavonf? (2) ywfr#=um+yD;aemuf/ *smreftvkyform; (22˜000) wkd@onf oydwfarSmuf=uavawmhonf? jyifopf owif;pmrsm;ESifh v$wfawmfrS zdtm;rsm;jrifhwufaer_ atmufwGif/ ,if;onf usL;ausmfr_xJrSaeI v#ifjrefaom &v'frsm;ukd &&Sdvmvdrhfrnf[k ar#mfvifhcJh&onf? jyifopftif*sifeD,mtzGJ@onf xdwfvef@wkefv_yfajcmufjcm;aecJh=u+yD;/ wyfzGJ@rsm;tm; u,fq,fa&;rsm; ðyvkyf&ef t}uHay;cJh=uavonf? okd@aomf r=umrDwGif a&G;aumufyGJwcktm; &ifqkdif&awmhrnfjzpfonfh yGdKifuJonf wyfzGJ@ rsm;tm; qGJxkwf&kyfodrf;vkdufygu tnHhcH/ t&_H;ay;vkdufonfh oabmoufa&mufoGm;awmhrnf qkdonfukd odem;vnfaecJhonf? 0ef}uD;csKyf. tckdiftrmajymqkdcJhr_rsm;rSm pl;&SxufjrufcJhavonf? wkdif;jynfonf ppfyGJrwkdifrDu &&SdcJhaom ausmufrD;aoG;ESifh ukwfrD;aoG;rsm;rSm (30) &mE_ef;om&SdcJhavonf? *smr%DrS xkwfvkyfvmatmif rnfuJhokd@ ðyvkyfrnfenf;´ “tdrfwtdrf.eH&Hukd xkduJhokd@aom=urf;wrf;r_rsKd;jzifh oifhtaejzifh taygufwayguf jzpfatmif xkd;azmufEkdifrnf? tJ'DeH&Honf ('grSr[kwf taqmufttkHwckvkH;vnf; jzpfaumif; jzpfayvdrfhrnf) òydusoGm;vdrfhrnfjzpfonf[k/ tufqef&Sd *smreftif*sifeD,mwOD;rS &Sif;jycJhavonf? ‚if;rS qufvufI “oifh taejzifh tdrfwckudk jzwfI taygufwaygufukd *&kwpkduf owd}uD;pGmjzifh taygufwckudk azmufEkdifonf/ Tenf;tm;jzifh eH&Ha&m/ taqmuftOD;yg +rJ+rHpGm qufvufwnf&Sdaernfjzpfonf?” usL;ausmfolrsm;onf t=urf;zufr_rsm; rðyvkyfcifu/ olwkd@onf wckr# aumif;pGm tm&kH rpl;pkdufcJh=uay? ausmufrD;aoG;rsm; xkwv f kyfay;&efESifh o,f,lykd@aqmifay;&ef tpG,fjy rmefzD [def;a[muf +cdrf;ajcmufaeaom oydwfarSmuf olrsm;tm; &ifqkdif&mwGif tiftm;okH;cJh=uavonf? olwkd@onf &m;jynfe,ftm; qufvuf vnfywfaeatmif vkyfaqmif&rnfhtpm; qef@usifawmfvSefolrsm;ESifh vufa0S@xkd;avhusihfaecJh=uonf? ausmufrD;aoG;wGif;rsm;ESihf &xm;vrf;a=umif;rsm;tm; tjynfht0xdef;csKyfr_ r&&Sdv#if usL;ausmfodrf;ykdufr_onf t"dy`g,f&Sdrnf r[kwfacs? ZEM0g&Dvukefykdif;wGif/ yGdKifuJonf ‚if;wkd@. tajctaersm;ukd =unfh&_&efESifh awmfvSefqef@usifaer_rsm; avsmhyg;ap&eftwGuf enf;vrf;rsm; &SmazGEkdif&ef/ AkdvfcsKyf rufZkdif;rf a0*ef; (General Maxime Weygand) ESifh jyifopfjynfol@tvkyform;a&;&m0ef}uD;wkd@ESpfOD;tm;/ apv$wf&ef qkH;jzwfcJhavonf? okH;&ufr#=um+yD;aemuf/ ‚if;wkd@onf jyefvmcJh=u+yD;/ jyifopfwkd@onf &xm;vrf;rsm;/ pmwdkufESifh a=u;eef;qufoG,fa&;vkyfief;rsm;tm; odrf;ykdufxm;&ef/ ausmufrD;aoG;wGif; ykdif&Sifrsm;tm; oydwfarSmufr_rsm; &yfwef@&efESifh avsmfa=u;ay;&rnfh ausmufrD;aoG;rsm;tm; jyifopfokd@wifykd@&eftwGuf +cdrf;ajcmuf&ef/ xkd a'otm; wif;=uyfaom tcGefpnf;=uyfZkHe,fajrrsm;jzifh tjcm;aom *smr%Djynfe,frsm;ESihf tquftoG,f jzwfawmufxm;&ef ponfwkd@ukd vkyfaqmif&ef vkdtyfonf[k ajym=um;cJhavonf? xkdtpD&ifcHpmonf 0ef}uD;csKyftm; wif;rmcufxefoGm;apavonf? *smrefwkd@onf ppfavsmfa=u;ay;&ef a&$'*Fg; oef; (500) ukd ay;qyfrnfr[kwfa=umif; aocsmoGm;aomtcg/ ausmufrD;aoG; (okd@r[kwf)

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)169


ukwfrD;aoG; &xm;wpD;/ wwGJ/ wwef/ (okd@) waygifukdr#yif *smr%D&Sd jyifopfwkd@ odrf;ykdufrxm;aome,fajrrsm;qDokd@ xGufoGm;cGifhrðy&ef wif;=uyfaom trdef@ukd xkwfjyefvkdufavonf? e,fjcm;a'orsm;tm; apmifh=uyf&efESifh ausmufrD;aoG;rsm; wl;ajrmif;rsm;ESifh &xm;vrf;rsm;rSaeI arSmifckdxkwfr_rsm;tm; wm;qD;&eftwGuf ppfom;rsm;ukd ykdrkdIapv$wf vkdufavonf? awmfvSefqef@usifr_rsm; pwifvkyfaqmifpOfuwnf;uyif/ jyifopfwkd@onf a'otwGif;&Sd *smref pufr_vkyfief; ESifh òrd@jytkyfcsKyfa&;qkdif&m t&m&Sdrsm;tm; pwifI armif;xkwfaecJhavonf? ,cktcg ‚if;wkd@onf jyifopfwkd@. trdef@rsm;ukd remcHaomol/ rkdif;vkyfom;rsm;tygt0if/ yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_ ray;aom &xm;tvkyform;rsm;ygrusef/ rnfolrqkdtm; tpkvkduftòyHvkdufxkwfypfjcif;rsm;ukd pwifðyvkyfae+yDjzpfonf? azaz:0g&Dv. tapmykdif; &ufowWywfrsm;wGif/ &m;jynfe,frS w&ufv#if vl (40) avmufonf ae@pOf xGufcGmaecJh=u&+yD;/ wpkHvkH;twkdif;twmtm;jzifh/ pkpkaygif; vl wodef;av;aomif;ausmfcJhavonf? òrdjy tkyfcsKyfa&;tpkd;&rsm;pGmESifh pufr_vkyfief;qkdif&m tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;pGmwkd@rSm rnfonfh vkyfief;tawG@tóuHr# r&Sdonhfolrsm;jzifhom csefxm;&pfcJh=u&avonf? trmcHawmfvSefqef@usifa&;orm;rsm;rSm txdem=u avonf? tvkyform;rsm;ESihf EkdifiHom;rsm;tm; rdrdwdk@zmom rdrdwkd@tm;ukd;&ef csefxm;&pfcJh=uavonf? vufwkef@jyefr_taejzifh/ oydwfarSmufr_rsm; ESifh qENjyr_rsm;. t&Sdeft[kefrSm ykdI t&Sdefjr‡ifhvmavonf? okd@&mwGif ykdrkdeJyg;aom pnf&kH;a&;rSL;rsm;ESifhtwl/ olwkd@onf enf;y&d,m,fxda&mufr_ESifh xdef;csKyfr_rsm; qkH;&_H;=u avonf? oydwfarSmufr_rsm;onf t=urf;zufr_rsm;tjzpf toGifajymif;oGm;+yD;/ ,cktcg odrf;ykdufxm;olrsm; tay:wGifomr[kwfawmhyJ/ t}udrfrsm;pGm vkyfief;cGifrsm;Yyg &nf&G,fvmcJhavonf? jyifopfrsm;onfvnf; rkdif;wGif;rsm;qDokd@ pwifOD;wnfvmavawmhonf? tvkyftukdifr&Sdaom jyifopf rkdif;vkyfom;rsm;rSm oydwfarSmufxm;aom *smrefrsm;. ae&mwGif tpm;xkd;0if,lukef=uavonf? ykdvefESifh csuf tvkyform;rsm;rSmvnf; jyifopfrsm;ESifhtwl aysmf&$ifpGmjzifh 0ifa&mufyl;aygif;=uavawmhonf? olwkd@onf *smreftvkyf&Sifrsm;. ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm vlwef;pm;cGJjcm;zdESdyfr_rsm;ukd cHpm;ae=u&olrsm;jzpfonf? okd@&mwGif *smref&xm;tvkyform;rsm;. qef@usifawmfvSefr_rsm;rSm tusKd;oufa&mufr_ &SdaeqJyifjzpfonf? Oyrm tJvfbmzJvf'f rD;&xm;pufacgif;tvkyf&kHrsm; (Elberfeld Locomotive Works) wGif jyifopfwkd@onf &ufowWywfaygif;rsm;pGm tokH;rðyyJ ypfxm;onfh/ rD;&xm;pufacgif; (11) ckukd acsmqGJavawmhonf? jyifopf tif*sifeD,mrsm;onf jyifopfwyfzGJ@wcktm; +cH&Hvsuf &xm;tif*sifrsm;tm; óud;pm;jyifqifI armif;xGufoGm;&ef jyifqifaeaomtcg/ *smreftvkyform;rsm;onf rD;&xm;oHvrf;rsm;ukd pwif z,f&Sm;av awmhonf? vufwkef@jyefonfhtaejzifh jyifopfwkd@onf &xm;pufypPnf;yHhykd;r_qkdif&mÏmersm;rS !ïef=um;a&;rSL; (3) OD;udk zrf;qD;vkduf+yD;/ w&ufv#if rwfaiG (1) oef;ukd/ ae@pOfae@wkdif;ay;aqmifoGm;&rnf[k '%fwyfvkduf+yD; tif*sifrsm;ukdrl odrf;ykdufvkdufavonf? +Adwdo#avhvma&;orm;wOD;rS a&;om;cJhonfrSm - “tufqef c&kdif&Sd rD;&xm;blwm&kHaygif; (170) wGif/ blwm&kH (66) ckrSm ydwfxm;+yD;/ (44) blwm&kHrSm jyifopfwkd@rS odrf;ykdufxm;avonf? jyifopfrsm; rodrf;ykdufrDu tufqefrS ae@pOf (112) pD;xGufcGmavonf? ,ae@tcgwGifrl t&m&mwkdif;onf vufawG@ tm;jzifh vkH;0O\kH &yfqkdif;oGm;avawmhonf? jyifopfvkdif;rsm;twGif;rS wckonf &xm;tpif;a& (50) ajy;qGJ &rnfhtpm; (6) pif;om ajy;qGJEkdifawmhavonf?” xkd@a=umifh AkdvfcsKyf a0*ef; ESifh ol. taz: 0ef}uD;wkd@ axmufcHajymqkdcJhonfrSm “a Commission de reseau de chemins de fer des pays occupes.” ‚if;wkd@ac:onfhtwkdif;/ &,f*D(Regie) ukd t"duusaom &xm;vrf;rsm;tm;vkH;odrf;ykdufxm;&efESifh qENjyyGJrsm;ukd tqkH;owfap&eftwGuf rnfonfhtiftm;rsKd;ukdrqkd tokH;ðycGifhay;tyfvkdufonf? tb,fa=umifhqkdaomf/ jyifopf ESifh b,fvf*sD,Hwkd@onf rD;&xm;pufacgif;wGJrsm;ukd vkHavmufpGm rwifykd@ay;Ekdifaoma=umifhjzpfonf? &,f*D (Regie) onf *smrefrsm;tay: atmifEkdif&efóud;pm;avawmhonf? xkdvlonf olwkd@twGuftvkyfvkyfay;&ef vkHavmufpGm xif&mpkdif;I =urf;=urf;wrf;wrf; vkyfay;rnfhykH&Sd avonf? ylaEG;aom tpm;tpmrsm; ESifh jyifopfz&ef@aiGjzifh tmrcHxm;onfh vkyt f m;crsm; urf;vSrf;xm;onfh a=umfjimrsm;rSm ae&mwkdif;wGifuyfxm;avonf? opPm&Sdr_rS xGufay:vmjcif;r[kwfyJ/ a=umuf&GH@r_rS xGufay: vmaoma=umifh/ ae&mtrsm;pkwGif *smrefrsm;rSm razmufrjyef ckdifckdif+rJ+rJ &Sdae=uavao;onf? a'ockcH umuG,fa&; tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;rSm/ jyifopfwkd@twGuf tvkyfvkyfay;aom rnfolrqkd opPmazmuf wa,muftjzpf owfrSwfcH&rnfjzpf+yD;/ e,fESif'%f (okd@r[kwf) tqkd;qkH;ukd óuHawG@&rnfjzpfonf[laom ‚if;wkd@. ukd,fykdif owday;a=umfjimrsm;jzifh wefjyef=uavonf? Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)170


ulEkdonf ‚if;. tapmykdif;u xkwfjyef xm;onfh trdef@jzpfonfh/ rD;&xm;tvkyf orm;rsm;tm;vkH;onf/ rnfokd@yif +cdrf;ajcmufonfjzpfap/ jyifopf ESifh b,fvf*sD,Hwkd@. trdef@rsm;ukd/ jiif;qef&ef Oya't& wm0ef&Sdonfqkdonfukd xyfavmif;I ajymqkdvkduf avonf? Tokd@jzifh/ azaz:0g&Dv wjznf;jznf;ukefvGefoGm;aomtcg/ EkdifiHjcm;om;tvkyform;rsm; wifoGif; vmr_ a&pD;a=umif;onf/ jynfhv#H v$rf;rkd;r_wckjzpfvmavonf? xkdolrsm;tm; avhusifhoifwef;ay;&ef twGuf/ tcsdefESifh 0d&d,xkwftm;pkdufr_ ,l&onfhtwGufa=umifh/ ESifh xkduJhokd@aomtvkyfrsm;ukd vkyfaqmif&ef u|rf;usifonhf jyifopftif*sifeD,mrsm; vkHavmufpGmr&Sdr_wkd@a=umifh/ AkdvfcsKyf 'Da*gonf (,cktcg jyifopf rpf&Sif. t}uD;tuJ)/ rwfv (20) &ufae@wGif *smref rD;&xm;tvkyform;rsm;tm;vkH;tm;/ vkyfief;cGifrsm; twGif;okd@ jyefvnf0ifa&muf&ef ESifh Tokd@r[kwfygu/ e,fESif'%fay;cH&rnfjzpfa=umif; qifhqkdvkdufavonf? qifhqkdonfhtwkdif; vkyfief;cGifokd@ 0ifa&mufrvmaomtcg/ jyifopfwkd@onf tpkvkduftòyHvkduf e,fESif'%frsm;/ ESifh tvkyform;rsm; ESifh ‚if;wkd@. rdom;pkrsm;tm; zrf;qD;axmifcsjcif;rsm;ukd pwifðyvkyfavawmhonf? trnfrsm; ESifh ae&yfvdyfpmrsm;twGuf tvkyform; vpmay;onfh pm&if;pm&Gufrsm;tm;tokH;ðyI/ ppfom; 2 a,muf (okd@) 3 a,mufonf/ tvkyform;wa,muf. tdrfokd@ oGm;a&mufI zrf;qD;um/ a'owGif;&Sd tusOf;axmifokd@ ykd@aqmifvkdufavonf? ZGefv (2) &ufae@okd@a&mufaomtcgwGif/ rD;&xm;tvkyform; (17˜837) a,mufonf jynfESif'%faomfvnf;aumif;/ axmifoGif;tusOf;csjcif;aomfvnf;aumif; cHcJh=u&+yD;/ *smref &xm;0efxrf; t&m&Sdrsm;tm;/ pdwfESvkH;n‡Kd;i,fpGmjzifh csefxm;&pfcJh=u+yD;/ xGufcGmoGm;cJh=uavonf? tvkyform;trsm;pkrSm axmifcscH&jcif;xuf/ e,fESif'%fay;jcif;ukd ykdrkdóudufESpfouf=uavonf? jyifopfwkd@ tkyfcsKyfaeonhf qif;&JpkwfysufI rowDp&maumif;aomtusOf;axmifrsm;ta=umif;rSm v#Kd@0Suf xm;r_r&SdonfhtwGuf/ tjyifrSaeI =um;aecJh=u&aoma=umifhjzpfavonf? “oef@&Sif;a&;tajctaersm;rSm tvGeftrif; qkd;&Gm;aeavonf/”[k *smrma&S;rf (Germersheim) tusOf;axmif. tajctaeudk oGm;a&muf avhvmcJhaom *smref =uufajceDtoif;rS tpD&ifcHcJhygonf? qufvufI tpD&ifcHpmxJwGif - “tusOf;om;rsm; tvGeftrif; jynfhusyfaer_rsm;a=umifh ² ² ² a&csKd;uefY tusOf;om;wa,mufonf/ w}udrf ESifh w}udrf=um;wGif &ufowWywfaygif;rsm;pGmjcm;+yD;rS a&csKd;Ekdifavonf ² ² ² tusOf;om;rsm;onf ‚if;wkd@. tnpfta=u;pGef@jcif; tvkyfukd/ ‚if;wkd@. tusOf;wkduftwGif;Yyif/ avsmhwdavsm&h J tumjzifh/ vufpGJbmvDykH;xJokd@ pGef@ypfjcif;ukd vkyfaqmif& avonf ² ² ²?” &xm;tvkyform;rsm;om tusOf;cscH&onfomr[kwfay? “rnfolrqkd rdepfwkdif;Y tzrf;qD;cH&Ekdifavonf”/ tar&duef owif;axmufwa,mufrS a&;om;cJhavonf? “oGm;yGwfwH wacsmif;rSvGJI/ ‚if;wkd@ESifhtwl bmr#,laqmifcGifhray;yJ/ &maygif;rsm;pGmaom jynfolrsm;onf/ ‚if;wkd@tdrfrsm;rS ae@pOfqGJxkwfcHae=u&avonf?” [wfwD*sef (Hattingen) wGif/ zrf;qD;&eftwGuf usL;vGefr_trsm;qkH; tr_rsm;rSm/ pmykd@ckdwaumif vuf0,f&Sdxm;r_/ ppfom;wa,muftm; E_wfrqufr_/ vufurf;a=umfjimpmrsm; jzef@a0r_/ jyifopfykdpwmrsm;tm; pkwf+zJr_/ ESifh cGifhðycsuf vkdifpifr&SdyJ aygifrkef@a&mif;csr_/ ponfwkd@jzpfonf? ,cktcg/ ausmufrD;aoG;rsm; ESifh ukwfrD;aoG;rsm;ukd taemufbufokd@OD;wnfI ae@pOfvkdvkd ykdrkdI ykd@aqmifaeonfukd awG@jrif&avonf? owˆKwGif;rsm;rSm aemufqkH;wGif r[mrdwfrsm; vma&muf&onfh &nf&G,fcsuftwGuf xkwfvkyfay;ae&avonf? {+yDvtv,fokd@a&mufaomtcg/ jyifopfwkd@rS tcGefpnf;=uyf xm;onfh/ ausmufrD;aoG;ukefwif/ ukefcs ESifh taumuftcGefZkHe,fajrrsm;rSm &m;jynfe,ftm;/ *smr%DEkdifiH. tjcm;aoma'orsm;ESifh vkH;0tqufjzwfxm;vkdufavonf? *smrefrsm;onf e,fpyfwav#muf&Sdawmifwef;rsm; ESifh opfawmrsm;tm;jzwfI v#Kd@0Sufvrf;a=umif;rsm;ukdazmufvyk f+yD;/ tcsKd@aom ausmufrD;aoG;rsm; ESifh/ a&eHESifh uwW&mrS&aom AifZif;"gwfaq;&nfwkd@ukd ckd;xkwf,l+yD;/ tpm;tpmESifh tjcm;aom tajccHvkdtyfukefrsm;ukd ckd;a=umifckd;0SufwifoGif;ae&avonf? ,cktcg vkH;vkH;vsm;vsm;yif/ awmfvSefqef@usifr_rSm xGufajy;wdrf;a&Smif ae&avonf? awmfvSefqef@usifr_rSm aES;vnf; aES;auG;vmonf? rwfv/ {+yDv/ ESifh arvwkd@wGif/ 0ifa&muf vmonfh ppfvufeufypPnf;tawmfrsm;rsm;wkd@rSm/ armfawmfum;rsm;/ ukefwifum;rsm;tokH;ðyjcif;ukd/ txl; cGifhðycsufygrpf &Sdolrsm;omtokH;ðyEkdif&ef uef@owfvkdufjcif;jzifh/ t&yfom; jynfolrsm;. v_yf&Sm;oGm;vmr_rSm qkd;qkd;0g;0g; jzwfawmufcHvkduf&avonf? ZGefv (10) &ufae@aemufykdif;wGif/ armfawmfum;rsm;rSm jyifopfrS xkwfay;onfh ,mOfarmif;vkdifpif&Sdolrsm;om armif;ESifcGifh&Sdavawmhonf? ,if;wGifvnf; ,Ofarmif;ol. aexkdif&mòrd@.

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)171


tjyifokd@oGm;vkdygu/ rxGufcGmrD jyifopftm%mykdifrsm;xHrS axmufcHcsuf&,l+yD;rSom òrd@tjyif okd@xGufcGifh&Sdrnfjzpfonf? bwfpfum;rsm; ESifh "gwf&xm;rsm; tygt0if/ tjcm;aomo,f,lykd@aqmifa&; armfawmf,mOfrsm;tm;vkH;onf òrd@}uD;rsm;twGif;Y tpm;tpmrsm;ESifh tjcm;tajccHvkdtyfonfh ukefypPnf;rsm; ukd o,faqmifae&onfhtwGuf/ xkdpnf;rsOf;wif;=uyfr_rsm;tm;vkH;onf *smrefrsm;tm; Regie-operated &xm;rsm;tm; tokH;ðy&mwGif rjzpfrae 0ifa&muftultnDay;&rnfh tajctaeokd@ a&muf&Sd&eftwGuf &nf&G,favonf? aES;auG;aomfjim;vnf;/ taotcsmyif/ odrf;ykdufxm;olrsm;. pnf;rsOf;wif;=uyfr_topfrsm;onf tcsdef=umvmaomtcg *smrefwkd@. wkdufcsifckdufcsifpdwf &JpGrf;owWdrsm;ukd yGef;yJhvmcJhonf? tvkyform; rsm;pGmwkd@rSm tqufrjywf/ qufwkdufvkdvkdjzpfay:aeonfh t=uyftwnf;}uD;xJwGif yifyef;EGrf;e,fvm=uav awmhonf? olwkd@onf pOf;pm;I r&Ekdifavmufatmifyif vkyfaqmifcJh=u+yD;jzpfavonf? xkd@a=umifh tvkyfcGifokd@ jyefvnf0ifa&mufoGm;cJh=uavonf? jyifopfwkd@. &mZoHxGufvm+yD;aemuf/ arv (6) &ufae@wGif rifhZfc&kdif&Sd &xm;tvkyform; (1000) ausmfwkd@onf vkyfief;cGifokd@ jyefvnf0ifa&mufcJh=uavonf? “jyifopf tm%mykdifrsm;onf/ tvkyform;rsm;tm; nae (5) em&Drxkd;rDtxd vkyfief;cGiftwGif;Y &Sdae&rnf[k rae@naeu &mZoHay;cJhavonf? ysufuGufygu tvkyfrS xkwfypfrnfjzpf+yD;/ e,fESif'%fay;cH&rnfjzpfonf?” [k onfe,l;a,mufwdkif;rf The New York Times owif;pm}uD;rS owif;ay;ykd@cJhavonf? “tu,fI ‚if;wkd@taejzifh vkyfief;cGifxJokd@ jyefvnf0ifa&mufygu tcGifhta&;rsm;tm;vkH;/ yifpifrsm;tm;vkH;ESifh ,cifu&&SdcHpm;ae&onfh tcGifhtm%mrsm;ukdvnf; jyefvnf&&SdcHpm;ap&rnfjzpfa=umif; tmrcHcJhavonf ² ² ² oydwfarSmuftvkyform; rsm;. rsufESmpkHnDtpnf;ta0;wckY/ tusKd;tjrwfrsm;/ tav;omr_rsm;/ tajctaeaumif;rsm; tm;vkH;onf vkyfief;cGifjyefvnfpwifjcif;tay:wGif &Sdaeonfqkdonfukd aemufqkH;wGif tm;vkH; oabmwlqkH;jzwfvkduf=u avonf?” arv (20) &ufae@okd@ a&mufaomtcg/ usL;ausmfodrf;ykdufr_onf aemufqkH;wGif ukefusr_rsm;twGuf jyefvnfpwif&&Sdvm+yDjzpfonf? xkdae@wGif/ jyifopftpkd;&onf usL;ausmfodrf;ykdufr_ESihfywfoufonfh udef;*%ef; pm&if;tif;rsm;ukd ausnmcJhavonf? pm&if;xJwGif/ odrf;ykdufr_twGuf ukefusp&dwfrSm jyifopfz&ef@ aiG (145) oef;&Sd+yD;/ ausmufrD;aoG;ESifh ukwfrD;aoG;rsm; a&mif;I&onfh pkpkaygif;aiGrSm z&ef@ (102) oef;&SdcJhav+yD? xkd@tjyif a&mif;&aiGrsm;rSm/ &if;ESD;aiGrsm;xuf ykdrdkv#ifjrefpGmyif pkykHwkd;yGg;aeavonf? yGdKifuJonf ar#mfvifhcsuf a&mifjcnfukd rD;a&mifukd jrifae&av+yD?

“t&l;trl;jzpfaeolrsm;. a&S@wef;wkdufyGJwck” jyifopf0ef}uD;csKyfawG@cJh&aom tvif;a&mifae&mwGif/ &m;jynfe,ftvkyform;rsm;rSm teDa&mifukd awG@cJh&avonf? olwkd@onf odrf;ykdufr_tm; “Die Bajonette” “vSHpGyfrsm; usqkH;ygap” [lI atmf[pfaºuG;a=umfcJh=uavonf? rsm;pGmwkd@rSm jyefvnfvufwkH@jyef&ef toifhjyifxm;cJh=uavonf? tufqef&Sd u&yf (Krupp) puf&kHwGif/ olwkd@onf xkdtwkdif;yifvkyfaqmifcJh=u+yD;/ wEkdifiHvkH;tm; wkefv_yfapcJhavonf? u&yf tvkyform;rsm;onf oydwfarSmufr_rsm;ukd rðyvkyfcJhpOfwGif/ olwkd@onf jyifopfppfom;rsm;ESifh yxrOD;qkH;awG@óuHrnf wkdufyGJokd@ xGufcGm&ef toifhjzpfaecJh=uavonf? puf&kHtwGif;&Sd qkdifwkdif;wGif ta&;ay:tcsufay;óud;rsm;ukd csdwfqGJxm;=uavonf? tu,fI jyifopfppfom;rsm; puf&kHtwGif;okd@ 0ifa&muf vmygu xkdtcsufay;óud;ukd qGJ&efjzpfonf? tDpwmyGJawmfrprD/ rwfv (31) &ufae@. eHeufcif;wGif/ jyifopf Akdvfuav; 'l&ufpf (Lieutenant Durieux) ESifh ppfom; (11) a,mufwkd@onf/ puf&kH. um;*kda'giftwGif;&Sd/ armfawmfum;rsm;ESifh ukefwifum;rsm;. tao;pdwfpm&if;tm; ppfaq;&eftwGuf/ a&;qGJxm;onfh tpDtpOf twkdif; xGufcGgvmcJh=uavonf? *kda'gifwHcg;zGifh&ef olwkd@ apmifhaepOfwGif/ tcsufay;O=oqGJoHrsm; xGufay:vm avonf? 'l&ufpfonf tHtm;oifh =uufaoaooGm;+yD;/ tvkyf=uyftm; xkdO=oqGJoH. t"dy`g,fukd ar;jref;av onf? “vufeufud&d,mrsm;udk csxm;vkduf=u” [k tvkyf=uyf rS jyefajzavonf? ppfom;rsm;onf tjyifokd@ vSrf;=unfhvkdufaomtcg/ &maygif;rsm;pGmaom tvkyform;rsm;onf ‚if;wkd@tm; pkduf=unhfaeonfukd awG@vkduf &+yD;/ wjznf;jznf;csif; ykdrkdeD;uyfvmum/ ‚if;wkd@tm; *kda'giftwGif;okd@ acsmifydwfwGef;ykd@aeonfukd awG@vkduf& avonf? xkdpOftwGif;Y/ acgifrdk;ay:rS tvkyform; (2) a,mufonf/ a&aEG;aiG@tylay;onfh tqkd@ukd zGifhvkduf &m/ tcef;onf xlxyfaom

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a&aEG;aiG@rsm;jzifh jynfhESufoGm;avawmhonf? xkdtcg 'l&ufpfonf ol@vlrsm;tm;/ owday;ypfcwfr_rsm; trdef@ay;vkdufavonf? okd@aomf tvkyform;rsm;rSm ykdIeD;uyfvmavonf? vkH;0rjrif&awmhonfhtajcjzpfoGm;+yD jzpfavonf/ xkd@a=umifh 'l&ufpfonf ol@&Jabmfrsm;tm; vlrsm;ukd trdef@ay;vkdufavonf? yGJ+yD;oGm;aomtcgwGif/ tvkyform; (13) a,mufaoqkH;+yD;/ (52) a,mufrSm &SdoGm;cJh=uavonf?

ðyvkyf&ef ,cktcg ypfcwf&ef '%f&m&

jyifopfppfom;rsm;onf rdrdwkd@ukd,fukd rdrdwkd@ ckcHumuG,f&eftwGuf ypf&ygonf[k tcsKd@aom *smref rsm;onf cHpm;rdaecsdefwGif/ xkd “&m;ajray:u aoG;pGef;aom tDpwm”onf *smreftrsm;pkudk a'goaygufuGJapcJh avonf? aoqkH;oGm;aomolrsm;. tokbrSm cHhnm;wnf+idrfI/ rsKd;cspfpdwf"gwfa&;&m ta&;ygaom tcrf; tem;wck jzpfcJh+yD;/ *k%foduQm&SdpGm usqkH;r_twGuf *k%fðyrSwfwrf;wifcJhavonf? òrd@awmfacgif;aqmifrsm;xHrS pdwftm;xufoefaom rdef@cGef;rsm;.aemufwGif/ tufqefvrf;rsm;wav#muf pDwef;vSnfhvnf qENjyr_wckonf uyfv#ufvkdufygvmcJhavonf? òrd@awmfacgif;aqmifrsm;onf &m;jynfe,f. jynfolvlxt k m;/ xkdol&Jabm a=umifaomtðytrltwGuf/ ‚if;wkd@. qef@usifawmfvSefaer_rsm;tm; t&Sdeft[kef ykdrkd jr‡ifhwifjcif;tm;jzifh/ wkH@jyef&kHwifr[kwfyJ/ t=urf;zufenf;jzifh vufwkH@jyefjcif;udkvnf; a&SmifusOf&ef wkdufwGef;E_d;aqmfvkduf avonf? xkdtrSmpum;rSm tajccHtm;jzifh ZEM0g&DvwGif xkwfjyefcJhaom trSmpum;rsm;ESifh twlwlyifjzpf onf? okd@aomf aemufqufwGJ tjzpftysufrsm;rSm ododomom}uD;ukd ajymif;vJaeavonf? jyifopfrsm;onf rD;ukef,rf;ukef ykdrkdjyif;xefpGm zdESdyfavawmhonf? rsm;pGmwkd@rSm jyefvnf rwkH@jyefEkdifcJh=uacs? a=umuf&GH@=u onfukd od&Sdaoma=umifh/ tufqef&Sd jyifopfwyfrSL;onf wifhum;rsm; ESifh pufaoeufrsm;ukdifaqmifxm;onfh wyfpdwfwpdwfukd ac:,lvkdufavonf? okd@&mwGif ppfaoG;ºuG trsKd;om;a&;0g'Drsm;rSm/ u&yfowfjzwfr_twGuf vufpm;acs vufwkH@jyef&ef qkH;jzwfcJh=uavonf? xkd@a=umifh xkdae@ rGef;vGJykdif;wGifyif/ b,fvf*sD,rfppfom; wa,muf/ jyifopf&Jom;wa,muf/ ESifh jyifopftif*sifeD,m ESpfa,mufwkd@tm; wkdufckduf/ &kdufESufcJh=uav onf? aemufykdif;wGif 'lqJvfa'hgzf (Düsseldorf) &Sd jyifopfppfom;rsm;tm; vufypfAkH;rsm;jzifh ypfoGif;cJh=u avonf? tufqef&Sd t"durD;&xm;blwm&kHwckwGif tapmifhwa,mufrSm *smrefaoewform;wa,muf. vufcsufjzifh towfcHcJh&avonf? av0ifavxGufaygufwcktwGif;rSaeI v#Kd@0SufpGm acsmif;ajrmif;I ypfcwf oGm;jcif;jzpfonf? u&yfjy\emonf trsKd;om;a&; t=urf;zuf0g'Drsm; ESihf uGefjrLepf t=urf;zuf0g'D/ ESpfzufpvkH;ukdyg t&Sdeft[kefwkd;jr‡ifhapcJhavonf? ‚if;wkd@onf a&yef;pm;aeonfh t=urf;rzuftHwkv_yf&Sm;r_tay:wGif pdwfysuf aeaomfvnf;/ zdESdyfr_rsm;ukd t=urf;zufr_rygyJ rnfuJhokd@ wkH@jyefrnfqkdonfh/ wzufoufzdESdyfaer_rsm;ukd wzufapmif;eif;rjzpfatmif tav;wif;ay;onfh rnfonfhtjrifrsKd;rSvnf; r&Sdacs? rwfv (1) &ufae@wGif/ ukdifZm 0DvsH (2) (Kaiser Wilhelm II) ./ yk*~dKvfa&;qkdif&m oli,fcsif;wOD;jzpfol AkdvfcsKyf AGef z&efpGm (General von François) onf ajymufusm; ppfyGJ qifEGJ&ef v_H@aqmfóud;yrf;cJhavonf? “vlOD;a& (60˜000˜000) &Sdonfh EkdifiHwckonf/ &m;jynfe,f&Sd ‚if;wkd@. nDtukdrsm;tm;/ jyifopfvljzLESifh vlrnf;rsm;rS vnfyif;n‡pfaeonfhtjzpfukd rnfokd@r# vufwkH@rjyefyJ rxkHwufaw;jzifh qufvuf=unfhaernfvm;´” [lI ‚if;rS ar;jref;cJhavonf? “u|Ekfyfwkd@. ajray:wGif aumif;pGmzGJ@pnf;avhusifhxm;aom ajymufusm;ppfyGJwckonf &efolwkd@.ysufpD;qkH;&_H;r_rsm;ESihftwl r=umciftwGi;f rSmyif tqkH;owfoGm;vdrfhrnfqkdonfukd u|efawmhfhtaejzifh oHo,r&Sday?” [k qufvufajymcJhavonf? AkdvfcsKyfonf omref*smrefwOD;r[kwfay? jyifopfrsm;onf &m;okd@vm&mwGif ‚if;wkd@. wyfzGJ@rsm;twGif;Y tmz&duefwyfzGJ@rsm;ukdvnf; yg0ifxnfhoGif;xm;cJhonfukd owdðyrdcJhavonf? xkd@twGufa=umifh/ olonf *smreftrsKd;orD;rsm;tm;/ vlrnf;ppfom;rsm;. +cdrf;ajcmuf aeonfh t"rRrk'def;usihf r_rsm;rS umuG,&f eftwGuf toif;tzGJ@rsm;ukd zGJ@pnf;xm;cJhavonf? &m;wjynfe,fvkH;&Sd vli,frsm;/ ausmif;om;rsm;/ tvkyfvufrJhjzpfaeonfh vkHòcHa&; ykvdyfrsm;/ ESifh ppfjyefppfr_xrf;a[mif;rsm;ukd/ t&m&Sda[mif;}uD;rsm;. tultnDjzifh apwemh0efxrf;wyfzGJ@rsm; (Free Corps) ukd zGJ@pnf;cJhavonf? wcsed fwnf;wGifyif/ Reichswehr High Command onf ppfwyftm; wkd;csJ@&eftwGuf v#Kd@0SufpGm qkH;jzwfcJhavonf? Black Reichswehr tjzpfvlodrsm;onfh tqkdyg topfzGJ@pnf;r_rsm;wGif ppfom;rsm;vnf; yg0ifavonf? xkdppfom;rsm;rSm &m;jynfe,fwGif &xm;vrf;rsm;/ &xm;wGJrsm; azmufcGJzsufqD;&efESifh jyifopf ESifh b,fvf*sD,Hppfom;rsm;tm; vkyf}uHowfjzwf&eftwGuf apv$wfjcif;cH&ol rsm;jzpf=uonf? aemifwGif

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*smref0ef}uD;csKyfjzpfvmrnfholwOD;onf ppfwyftwGuf tvkyfvkyfcJhavonf? xkdolrSm [def;&pf b&leif; (Heinrich qkdoljzpf+yD;/ tzsuftarSmifhvkyfief;rsm;vkyfaqmifrnfh olrsm;tm;/ axmufyHhulnD&eftwGuf/ Bruning) aiGpuULtjynfhxnfhxm;onfh vufqGJaowWmrsm;jzifh &m;jynfe,ftwGif; okd@0ifa&mufcJhavonf? xkd “t=urf;zufqef@usiaf wmfvSefr_” (active resistance)tm; wkdufckduf&eftwGuf/ jyifopfrsm; onf t=urf;zufr_rsm; jzpfyGg;aom òrd@}uD;rsm;wGif/ rnfonfhw&m;cHr# &SmazGrawG@&Sdygu/ xkdòrd@ukd '%f&kduf avonf? uwf0*f (Kettwig) òrd@wGif jyifopfppfom; (2) a,mufrSm acsmif;ajrmif;ypfcwf owfjzwfjcif; cHvkduf&aomtcg/ rwfaiG woef;ay;aqmif&ef '%f&kdufvkdufavonf? òrd@tkyfcsKyfa&; t&m&Sdrsm;onf '%faiG ay;aqmif&ef jiif;qefaomtcg/ ppfom;rsm;onf wtdrfwkdif;pD. xnfh0if&rnfhaiGukd wtdrfwuf/ wtdrfqif; vkdufvHaumufcHavawmhonf? rwfv (11) &ufae@wGif/ bltm (Buer) òrd@teD;&Sd/ aus;vuf um;vrf;rwck tay:wGif/ jyifopf uif;vSnfhwyfzGJ@wckonf/ aemufausmrSaeI ypfcHxm;&onfh jyifopfppfom;ESpfa,muf. tavmif;ukd awG@&SdcJhavonf? vufpm;acs vufwkH@jyefonfhtaejzifh/ jyifopfppfom;rsm;onf òrd@wGi;f &Sd/ *smref (8) a,mufukd/ 0&kef;okef;um; owfyGJwckY/ ypfowfcJhavonf? t=urf;zufr_rsm;onf ppfom;rsm;odrf;ykdufxm;onfh ae&mrsm;wGifomruawmhyJ/ jyifopfwkd@ xdef;csKyfxm;onfh &xm;vrf;rsm; ESifh wl;ajrmif;rsm;wGifvnf; jzpfyGg;cJhavonf? azaz:0g&Dvv,fwGif *smref azmufcGJzsufqD;a&;toif;rsm;onf/ tcsuftjcmusaom &kdif;-[ef; wl;ajrmif; (Rhine-Herne Canal) . toufaoG;a=umae&mrsm;ukd ydwfqkd@&eftwGuf ausmufrD;aoG;wif a&,mOfwGJrsm;ukd ESpfjr‡KyfcJhavonf? xkdwl;ajrmif;rSwqifh ausmufrD;aoG;wif a&,mOfwGJtrsm;pkonf vma&mufqkH=u+yD; jyifopfokd@ jzwfoef;oGm; vmjcif;jzpfonf? wl;ajrmif;&Sd jyifopfppfom;rsm;onf jrifuGif;xJokd@ a&muf&Sdvmonfh rnfolrqkdtm; ypfcwf&ef trdef@&&Sdxm;=uavonf? okd@&mwGif *smrefrsm;onf a&S@okd@ óudwifa&mufESifhae=u+yD;/ t"duusonfh wl;ajrmif;cGJwckukd azmufcGJzsufqD;ypfvkdufjcif;jzifh/ usef&Sdaeaom a&,mOfrsm;ukd cef;ajcmufaeaom a&atmuf=urf;jyifay:wGif aomifwifaeapavonf? 'GdKifpfbmh*f (Duisburg) wGif/ òrd@wGif;okd@0ifonfh t"du rD;&xm;wHwm;wckudkvnf; azmufcGJzsufqD;ypfvkduf+yD;/ b,fvf*sD,Hppfom; (9) a,mufvnf; towfcHcJh=u &avonf? vufwkH@jyef uvJhpm;acsr_rsm;onf '%faiG&kdufjcif;ESifh nrxGuf& umzsL;trdef@rsm; xkwfjyef vkdufjcif;jzpfonf? *smrefrsm;vnf; rD;&xm;. tv,fwGJrsm;wGif vkdufygpD;eif;&ef vkdtyfvmavawmhonf? tb,fa=umifhqkdaomf xkdtv,fwGJrsm;rSm trsm;qkH;wkdufckduf cH&Ekdifonfh twGJrsm;jzpfaoma=umifh jzpfonf? txufyg tzsuftarSmifhvkyfief;rsm;. aemufuG,fwGif&Sdaeaomolwa,mufrSm tJvfbwf &Svf*Dwm (Albert jzpfavonf? xkdvlonf y&yf&Sef; t&m&Sda[mif;wOD;jzpf+yD;/ arvwGif tzrf;cHcJh&I/ Schlageter) ao'%fpD&ifcsufcscHcJh&+yD;/ towfcHcJh&avonf? jyifopfwkd@onf xkdvltm; ‚if;wkd@. ppfom;rsm;ukd vkyf}uHowfjzwfcJhaom trsKd;om;a&;0g'D*kd%f;rsm;. acgif;aqmifwOD;jzpfonf[k ,kH=unfaecJh=uavonf? aemufykdif; &ufowWywfrsm;twGif;Y trsKd;om;a&;0g'Drsm;onf tJvfbwf &S,fvf*Dwm (Albert Schlageter) tm;/ *smref aeoef a[;vf (Nathan Hale) tjzpf bdodufoGef;ajr‡mufcJh=uavonf? ‚if;tm; ao'%fay;owfjzwfjcif;onf t=urf;zufv_yf&Sm;r_awmfvSefa&;. rD;awmufrsm;ukd tm;jznfh ,yfcwfay;jcif;jzpfonf[k ar#mfvifhae cJh=uavonf? “tu,fI Schlageter . owfjzwfcH&r_onf/ b,fwkef;ur# *smrefvlrsKd;wkd@. p&kdufobm0 r[kwfcJhonfh/ rwkefrv_yfjzifh wkH%Sdbma0qdwfqdwfaeum acgif;ikH@cHaejcif;/ a0'emukd }udwfrSdwfcHpm;jcif;ESifh atmufusKd@toem;cH t&_H;ay;&jcif;wkd@xufykdonfh rnfokd@ aom wkH@jyefv_H@aqmfcHpm;r_rsKd;rS jzpfay:rvmcJhbl; qkdv#if/ *smrefEkdifiHawmf}uD;onf 'kuQvSvSawG@awmh rnfjzpfavonf” [k owif;pmwapmifrS atmf[pfjrnf wrf;cJhavonf? &S,fvf*Dwm. aoqkH;jcif;onf usEkyfwkd@tm;/ +idrf;csrf;a&; w&m;Oya'pkd;rkd;r_ atmufwGif aexkdifae&jcif;r[kwfyJ/ *smr%D. aojcif;w&m;ESifh &ifqkdif&kef;uef wkdufckdufae&r_t=um;wGif aexkdifae =u&onfqkdonfukd owday;xm;jcif;jzpfonf?” ta'ghzf [pfwvmrS atmufarhzG,ftcrf;tem;wckY jynfol (25˜000) tm;ajymcJhonfrSm “usaemfwkd@ vkdtyfaewmu tm;enf;csdeJ@aeolawG&J@ pkpnf;nD!Gwfr_wck r[kwfbl;/ t&l;trl;eJ@ a&S@wef;xGufwkdufrnfh xkd;ppfwckyJjzpfw,f?”

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“vufav#mht&_H;ay;vkdufjcif; ² ² ²” 0ef}uD;csKyf ulEkdonf t=urf;rzuftHwkv_yf&Sm;r_udk vufav#mht&_Hay;&eftwGuf jyifqifxm;r_ r&SdcJhao;ay? um;vfp&l; (Kalsruhe) Y ol@taejzifh jiif;csufxkwfcJhonfrSm “t=urf;rzuf/ }uhH}uHhcH tHwk ckcHr_qkdonfrSm/ pwifvkyfaqmifrdonfESifh qufvufI awmufav#mufvkyfaqmif&onfh v_yf&Sm;r_rsKd;jzpfay onf?” okd@aomf ulEkd. arwWm&yfcHcsufukd rnfolr# em;raxmifcJh=uay? tzsuftarSmifhvkyfief;rsm;rSm ,cktcg ‚if;wkd@a&G;cs,fvkdufonfh qef@usifawmfvSefr_ enf;vrf;jzpfoGm;avonf? t=urf;zufenf;vrf;jzifh qef@usif awmfvSeftHwkr_onf tvkyform;rsm;tay:wGif =urf;wrf;jyif;xefaom vufpm;acs/ vufwkHjyefr_rsm; a&muf&Sdvmwwfonfukd em;vnfxm;=uaom/ tvkyform;rsm; acgif;aqmifrsm;onfyifv#if/ ulEkdtm; xdk t=urf;zufqef@usif awmfvSefr_tm; vpfvsL&_aeonfrsm;ukd &yfwef@ygawmh&ef ,cktcg toem;cHae=uawmh avonf? okd@aomf xkd t=urf;rzufv_tHwkv_yf&Sm;r_jzpfay:vmatmif &yfwef@vkdufaom vkyfaqmifr_onf wefbkd;}uD;}uD;wckukdyg ,laqmifvmavonf? wif;=uyfaom nrxGuf&trdef@rsm;ukd xkwfjyefvkduf+yD;/ &m;wjynfe,fvkH;wGif *smref rsm;onf vl@tcGifhta&;csKd;azmufapmfum;cH&r_rsm; ykdrkdIjzpfay:p&m jzpfae avonf? EkdifiHom;rsm;rSm ajray:wGif wGef;vSJcH=u&+yD;/ ‚if;wkd@. pufbD;rsm;ukd uefausmufjcif;rsm; ðyvkyfcH=u&avonf? jyifopfwyfzGJ@ rsm;. "m;jywkdufjcif;ukdyif cHae=u&avonf? &m;. pnf;urf;&Sdaom òrd@}uD;om;yDor_rSaeI/ vlr_a&;qkdif&m r+idrfroufz&kdz&Jjzpfr_rsm;qDokd@ euf&_dif;pGm xkd;pkdufusqif;oGm;jcif;onf rwfaiGòydvJusqif;r_ukd jzpfapcJhavonf? {+yDv (18) &ufae@wGif/ *smrefrwfaiGonf tar&duef (1) a':vmv#if (23˜000) rS (33˜000) txd usqif;oGm;avonf? &kdufcsfb%f (Reichsbank) onf ‚if;.t&Ha&$rsm;jzifh EkdifiHjcm;aiGa=u;vJvS,f&m aps;uGurf sm;Y *smrefrwfaiGrsm;ukd 0,f,lI aiGa=u;wnf+idrfap&ef óud;yrf;cJhavao;onf? okd@&mwGif xkd aiGa=u;wefbkd; xkd;pkdufusqif;oGm;jcif;ukd ppfaq;&efrSm A[kdb%ftwGuf ta&;}uD;ayonf? ,if;onf ulEkdtpkd;&twGuf wkefv_yfajcmufjcm;r_wcktjzpf jzpfvmcJhavonf? ppfavsmfa=u;ay;qyfr_ukd jyefvnfpwif&efrSm a&Smifv$JIr&Ekdifqkdonfukd qkd&S,fvpfrsm;onf oabmaygufcJh=uavonf? olwkd@onf tpkd;&tm; ‚if;. a&$ESifh EkdifiHjcm;aiG ukdifaqmifxm;r_rsm;ukd/ rwfaiG wefbkd;xdef;odrf;xm;&eftwGuf ar#mfvifhcsufr&Sdaom óud;yrf;r_ rsm;wGif tcsnf;ESD; ðzef;wD;r_rsm;ukd rðyvkyfyJ/ xdef;odrf;apmifha&Smufxm;&ef tvkd&Sd=uavonf? trsKd;om;a&; 0g'Drsm;onf qef@usifawmfvSefaer_rsm;tm; qufvufaxmufyhHulnDaejcif;tm;jzifh/ rwfaiGonf a':vmtm; E_ef;xm;w&yfwGif uef@owfxm;Ekdifvdrfhrnf[k ,kH=unfaecJh=uavonf? “TwkdufyGJwGif/ &kdufcsfb%f. a&$rsm;onf u|Ekfyfwkd@. aoewfusnfqH,rf;r_ef@rsm; yifjzpfonf? 'gawGeJ@ usaemfwkd@ ypfcwf&rnf?” [k ‚if;wkd@. ajyma&;qkdcGifh&SdolrS *smrefv$wfawmf (Reichstag) twGif;Y a=unmcJhavonf? b¾ma&; t"du&k%f;onf vufawG@t=urf;zuf t"du&k%f;. ulazmf avmifzuftdrfazmfyifjzpf&rnf? aiGa=u;azmif;yGr_ta=umif;aqG;aEG;ajymqkdaejcif;rsm;onf/ ppf}uD;pwif+yD;qkH;onf tapmykdif;ae@rsm; uwnf;uyifjzpfonfhtwGuf ae@pOfvkyfukdifae&onfh a0,sm0pPozG,f +iD;aiG@zG,f&mjzpfaecJhavonf? okd@aomf ‚if;onf ,cktcg wkefv_yfajcmufjcm;zG,f&m 'kuQwckjzpfvmav+yD? “&kwfw&ufqkdovkdyif/ b%frsm;wGif jynfolwkd@ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm pkaqmif;vmcJhaom aiGpkvufrSwfrsm;onf bmr#wefbkd;r&SdawmhovkdjzpfoGm;av awmhonf?” [k oDtkd a*g'pf (Theo Gaudig) rS jyefajymif;atmufarhonf? puf&kHrS vkyftm;crsm;ukd tvkyform;rsm;tm; ay;+yD;aomtcg ‚if;wkd@. tdrf&Sifrrsm;onf/ tvkyform;rsm;xHrS vpmaiGudk vufcH,l+yD;/ vdktyfonfrsm;ukd tv#iftjrefcsufjcif;0,f&eftwGuf puf&kH*dwfwHcg;rsm;qDokd@ csufjcif;a&mufvm=uavonf? okd@r[kwfygu aemufwae@wGif aiGa=u;wefzkd; xyfrHusqif;oGm;Ekdifaoma=umifhjzpfavonf? “v,form; rsm;tm; ‚if;wkd@. xkwfukefrsm;ukd aps;uGufxJrSma&mif;cszkd@ rwkdufwGef; rpnf;&kH;oifhygbl;/ rufaiGwefzkd;[m tqufrjywfusqif;aeygw,f/ olwkd@ukd twif;t=uyfwkdufwGef;+yD;a&mif;csvkd h&wJh rufaiG[m olwkd@ tdrfukd jyefra&mufcifrSmyJ wefbkd;xyfrHusqif;oGm;rSmrkd@ v,form;rsm;ukd 'kuQ ray;oifhygbl;” [k +Adwdo# owif;pm q&mwOD;rS a&;om;cJhavonf? rwfvwGif/ a'owckvkH;Y &m&Sifpepfukd pwifusifhokH;cJhavonf? tu,fI bmviftpkd;&onf &m;jynfe,fwGif;okd@ tpm;tpmrsm; wifoGif;r_ukd &yfwef@vkdufygu tcuftcJjzpfrnf pkd;aoma=umifh/ jyifopf wkd@onf (2) ywfpm &duQmrsm;ukd tefwGmhyf (Antwerp) ESifh a&mhwm'rf (Rotterdam) wkd@wGif 0Sufxm;vkduf=uavonf?

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urBmhtjrifrsm;wGif *smrefwkd@. iwfrGwfacgif;yg;r_rsm;onf rdrdwkd@wGif wm0ef&Sdonf[laom tjrifrsKd; jrifvmrnfukd a=umuf&GH@=uaoma=umifhjzpfavonf? olwkd@onf 0g'jzef@csdr_ taejzifh tcrJhpm;aomufEdkifonfh pwk'Dompcef;rsm;ukdvnf; zGifhvSpfay;cJhavonf? *smrefrsm;onf tpkvkduf/ tòyHvkdufaejcif;rsm;ukd a&Smif&Sm;=uavonf? vufpm;acs vufwkH@jyefr_udk a=umuf&GH=uaoma=umifhESifh pufr_ vkyfief;&Sifrsm;onf ‚if;wkd@. ukd,fykdif pm;zkdaqmifrsm;ukd zGifhvSpfvkduf=uaoma=umifhjzpfavonf? jzpfcsifawmh tvGeftrif;qkd;0g;aeaom *smrefrsm;onf xkdpufr_vkyfief;&Sif}uD;rsm;. pwk'Domukd vufcH,lcJh=uavonf? xkdpufr_vkyfief;&Sif}uD;rsm;onf tpkd;&. aiGa=u;azmif;yGr_ukd &yfwef@atmif óud;pm;&m wGif rjzpfpavmuftenf;i,fom yg0ifulnDvkyfaqmif=uolrsm;jzpfonf? vufawG@trSefwu,fwGifrl/ xkdpufr_ vkyfief;&Sifrsm;onf xkdokd@ vkyfaqmif=ujcif;jzifh tjrwftpGef;rsm;yif &&Sd=uao;onf? olwkd@onf &kdufcsfb%frS &&Sdonfh tcsKd@aomacs;aiGrsm;jzifh vkyfief;twGuf vkdtyfonhf taqmufttkHopfrsm;ukd wnfaqmuf=u+yD;/ aemifwGif acs;aiG;rsm;ukd jyefqyfaomtcg usqif;aeaomaiGwefbkd;jzifh jyefqyf&aoma=umifhjzpfonf? [l*kd pwif; (Hugo Stinnes) onf bkdc|rf ESifh tufqefòrd@ (2) òrd@t=um;wGif }uD;rm;aom puf&kHopf}uD;wckudk pwif wnfaqmufcJh+yD;/ wkdifqefpuf&kHonf ukwfrD;aoG;zkdtopfrsm;ukd aps;E_H;csKdompGmjzifh 0,f,lEkdifcJhavonf? tvkyfvufrJhrsm;/ vlr_a&; r+idrfroufjzpfr_rsm;/ ESifh tvkyform;rsm;. ‚if;wkd@. vkyfief;&Sifrsm;tay: rauseyfcsuftopfrsm; ponfwkd@ jrifhwufvmaoma=umifh/ jyifopfqef@usifawmfvSefa&; a&S@wef;rsm;wGif vkyfukdifae=uaomolrsm;onf/ ,cktcg uGefjrLepfrsm;ESifh qufoG,faygif;zuf=uavawmhonf? {+yDv (18) &ufae@wGif rlvf[drf; (Mülheim) òrd@Y/ xkdolrsm;. qENjyr_rsm;/ oydwfrsm;onf a&S@wef;okd@wufvmavawmhonf? *smref rufaiGwefbkd;rsm; usqif;+yD;aemufwae@wGif/ (2000) cef@&Sdonfh/ *smref tvkyfvufrJh vltkyf}uD;wtkyfonf/ rlvf[drf;òrd@awmfcrf;rukd ydwfqkd@vkduf+yD;/ 0efxrf;t&m&Sd (300) cef@ukd "m;pmcHtjzpf jyefay;qGJxm;vkduf avonf? òrd@v,facgifukd tjcm;aom ae&mrsm;ESifh tqufjzwfxm;vkduf+yD;/ qkdifrsm;tm;vkH; ESifh &kH;rsm;ukd ydwfypfvkdufavonf? xkdae@wGifyif/ tufqefòrd@Y vl (1800) wkd@onf tufqifòrd@awmfcrf;rokd@ csDwufvm =u+yD;/ jyifopfwkd@tm; qef@usifaeonfhumvtwGif;Y ‚if;wkd@ qkH;&_H;cJh&onfh vkyfief;cGif epfemr_avsmfa=u;aiG rsm;ukd csufjcif;vufiif; aiGom;jzifh ay;aqmif&ef awmif;qkd=uavonf? xkdv_yf&Sm;r_ (2) ckpvkH;onf bkdc|rfòrd@ tpnf;ta0;wckY qkdAD,ufoHukd,fpm;vS,f (2) a,mufrS rdef@cGef;rajymrD 2 n qufwkdufvkyfaqmif&ef pDpOfxm;jcif;jzpfonf? arv (22) &ufae@wGif/ *smref rufaiGonf tar&duef 1 a':vmv#if (57˜000) txd xkd;pkdufusqif; oGm;avawmhonf? uGefjrLepfrsm;. aoG;xkd;v_H@aqmfr_rsm;onf tv#iftjref jyef@ESH@vmavawmhonf? arv (24) &ufae@wGif/ *Jvfqefumcsef (Gelsenkirchen) òrd@Y uGefjrLepftvkyform;rsm;ESifh EkdifiHom;rsm;. umuG,fa&;wyfzGJ@rsm; t=um; t"du&k%f;wckjzpfyGm;cJhavawmhonf? (8) a,mufaoqkH;cJh=u+yD;/ vl (70) ESifh (80) t=um; xdckduf'%f&m &&SdcJh=uavonf? xkd@aemuf uGefjrLepfrsm;onf ykvdyf&kH;csKyftm; odrf;ykdufvkduf =u+yD; rD;wif&_d@vkduf=uavonf? tvm;wl t"du&k%f;rsm;onf &m;wjynfe,fvkH;wGif jzpfyGg;cJhavonf? tufqefESif a'ghrGef; (Dortmund) ESpfòrd@pvkH;wGif pwkd;qkdifrsm; ESifh t0wftxnfqkdifrsm;rSm vk,ufzsufqD; jcif;rsm;cH=u&+yD;/ rD;&_d@cHcJh=u&avonf? arvukefykdif;okd@ a&mufaomtcg tcsKd@aom owˆKwGif; tvkyform; (800˜000) wkd@onf oydwf arSmufr_rsm;ukd ðyvkyfcJh=uonf? okd@aomf tpkd;&rS taxmuftyHhay;onfh t=urf;rzuftHwkv_yf&Sm;olrsm;ESifh ‚if;wkd@. tvkyfrsm;twGuf wkdufyGJ0ifae=uolrsm;t=um;wGif jzpfygG ;onfqadk om pma=umif;ukrd l r_efr_e0f g;0g;om azmfjyxm;avonf? tcsKd@aom òrd@}uD;rsm;wGif ESpfzufpvkH;onf twlwuG tvkyfvkyf&ef óud;pm;cJh=uaomfvnf;/ òrd@i,faygif;rsm;pGmwGif t=urf;rzuf tHwkv_yf&Sm;olrsm;ESifh uGefjrLepfrsm;t=um;wGif 0g'jzef@csdjcif;rsm;jzifhvnf;aumif;/ oydwfwkdufyGJrsm;jzifhvnf;/ wefjyefoydwfwkdufyGJrsm;jzifhvnf;aumif; tjyef tvSef wkdufckdufaecJh=uavonf? ,if;wkd@onf òrd@wkdif;wGif ‚if;wkd@zmom ‚if;wkd@ jzpfyGm;ae=ujcif;jzpf+yD;/ tvkyform;wkdif;onf ‚if;wkd@. vkHòcHa&;twGuf ‚if;wkd@. ukd,fykdifpdwful;jzifh ‚if;wkd@ vkyfaqmif=ujcif;jzpfonf? jyifopfwkd@tm; qef@usifawmfvSef&eftwGuf ‚if;wkd@. cGeftm;rsm;ukd tajrmuftjrm;tokH;ðycJh=u aomor*~rsm;onf/ jyifopfwkd@tm; odrf;ykdufxm;r_onf ppfavsmfa=u;pmcsKyfukd topfjyefvnfcsKyfqkdjcif;xuf rsm;pGmukefusaiGwefbkd; }uD;rm;onfqkdonfukd jyifopfwkd@tm; jzm;a,mif;pnf;&kH;&mY wpkHw&m wkd;wufr_r&Sd ygyJ/

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‚if;wkd@. &if;ESD;jr‡yfEHScJhonfh cGeftm;rsm; jrifhwufvmonfukd *smrefrsm;t=um;&Sd t"du&k%f;rD;ckd;rsm; twGif;Y pwifawG@&Sd&avawmhonf? rwfv (20) &ufae@xuf apmvsifpGm/ rkdif;wGif;vkyfom;rsm;or*~onf tpkd;&tm; “&m;wkdufyGJtqkH;owf&eftwGuf jzpfEkdifacs&Sdonfh rokH;pGJ&ao;onfh cGeftm;rsm;ukd tokH;rðyyJxm; vkduf&efESifh ppfavsmfa=u; jy\emukd aphpyfaqG;aEG;jcif;rsm;jzifh tajz&Sm&ef” wkdufwGef; awmif;qkdvkdufav onf? okd@&mwGif trsKd;om;a&;0g'Drsm;rSm aysmhajymif;r_r&Sd=uacs? ulEkdonf ‚if;. trSefwu,f &yfwnfcsufoabmxm;rsm;onf xkdolrsm;ESifh ykdrkdeD;uyfvmavonf? (aemufykdif;wGif/ &mxl;rS E_wfxGuf+yD; aemuf/ olonf ukdifZm. tvHukd [rf;bmh*f&Sd oltvkyf vkyfaeaom taqmuftOD;. tay:Y v$ifhxlxm; vkdufavonf? (1933) ckESpf ol raoqkH;rDtxd ta'ghvfzf [pfwvmtm; jywfjywfom;om; axmufcHcJh avonf?) aemufqkH;jzpfEkdifajc&Sdonfh tcsdefrwkdifrDtxd jyif;jyxufoefaom tHwkckcHr_onf tEW&m,frsm;aom pGef@pm;onfh AsL[mwckjzpfcJhavonf? wkdif;jynfrSukefqkH;oGm;onf pD;yGg;a&;qkdif&m qkH;&_H;r_ukefuswefbkd;rsm;ESifh/ &m;jynfe,ftwGuf qkH;&_H;vkduf&aom vl@toufrsm;. wefbkd;wkd@twGuf rnfonfh oufom&moufom a=umif;r# r&Sd[k uwday;cJhavonf? ulEkd ESifh tD;bwf wkd@onf awmfvSefqef@usifr_. a&csdef tjrifhqkH;trSwfokd@ a&muf&Sdaeonfhtcsdefukd od&SdcJhygv#if/ (jyifopfwkd@ ausmufrD;aoG;rsm;ukd r&&SdrDtcsdef/ *smrefwkd@. pnf;vkH; nD!Gwfr_onf jyif;xefaecsdef/ xkd@tjyif &m;urfh[k udef;*%ef;wefzkd;rsm;onf }uD;rm;rvmao;rDtcsdefwkd@ jzpfonf?) yGdKifuJtm; t=urf;zuf ESdrfESif;òzdcGif;r_rsKd;r[kwyf J/ ‚if;. taoa&ukdq,fEkdifaom wjcm;aomenf;vrf;ukd zGifhay;cJhygv#if/ olwkd@onf jyifopfwkd@ESifh t"dy`g,fjynfh0aom/ wefbkd;&Sdaom aphpyfaqG;aEG;r_wckudk ðyvkyfEkdifcJhvdrfhrnfjzpfonf? upm;yGJ.tqkH;Y olwkd@ trSefwu,f&ifqkdifcJh&onfrSm/ awmfvSefqef@usifr_onfh tpGef;ESpfzufpvkH;&Sd t,ltqrwlol EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;. jyefay;qGJjcif;ukdcHvkduf&jcif;omjzpfonf? vufsm0g'Drsm;bufwGif/ yxrurBmppf}uD;wGif &_H;edrfh&r_ESifh t&Sufr&Sdaom wzufapmif;eif; Amqkdif;pmcsKyftay: vufwkH@jyefcsifolrsm;. óud;yrf;&kef;uefr_onf ppfyGJwckjzpfvmcJhavonf? vuf0J0g'Drsm;bufwGif/ aiGa=u;azmif;yGr_.'%fudkr&_rvS cHvkduf&aom tvkyform;rsm;onf tvGeftrif;pdwfysufvmcJh=u+yD;/ tcsKd@onf vkH;vkH;vsm;vsm; uGefjrLepf0g' zufokd@ OD;vSnfhoGm;cJhavawmhonf? &ufowWywfrsm;pGm=um+yD;aemuf/ ulEkd ESifh ol. 0ef}uD; tzGJ@onf tqkd;0g;qkH;aom aiGa=u;azmif;yGr_rsm;/ wkd;jrifhvmonfh t=urf;zufr_rsm;/ ESifh or*~rsm;ESifh ckcHumuG,fa&; aumfrwDrsm;twGif;Y wkdufcsifckdufcsifpdwfrsm; w[kefxkd;usqif;oGm;jcif;wkd@ESifh &ifqkdif&avawmhonf? aemufqkH;wGif *smrefv$wfawmf (Reichstag) twGif; t,kHt=unfr&Sd tqkdwckESifh &ifqkdif&avawmhonf? olwkd@wGif a&G;cs,fp&mvrf;r&Sdawmhay? olwkd@onf ajy+idrf;&efom&Sdawmhavonf? 0ef}uD;csKyfESifh ol. vlrsm;onf awmif;qkdcsuftopfrsm;yg0ifonfh oHwrefa&;&may;pmwapmifukd rl=urf;a&;qGJcJh=u+yD;/ ‚if;udk arv (2) &ufae@wGif jyifopfESifh b,fvf*sD,rftpkd;&rsm;okd@ ay;ykd@cJh=uavonf? ,if;onf ppfavsmfa=u;jy\emukd oyGwftlvkdufaeI ajz&Sif;I r&aoma=umifh t=urf;enf;jzifhajz&Sif;&ef rxl;Zmwfcif;vkdufonfh urf;vSrf;r_wckyifjzpf+yD;/ usL;ausmfodrf;ykduf&jcif;. &nf&G,fcsufukd odrfzsif;ap avonf? (4) ESpfwm w&m;0ifqkdif;iHhxm;r_tay: ra&r&mjzpfaer_ESifh EkdifiHjcm;acs;aiG tajrmuftrsm;ukd pkpkaygif; ay;qyf&rnfh ppfavsmfa=u;aiGrS/ rwfaiG bDvD,H (30) ukd aiGom;jzifh ay;acs&ef urf;vSrf;jcif; jzpfonf? okd@&mwGif rausreyf atmifhoufoufjzpf&r_wckonf ol. &nf&G,fcsufukd ysupf D;qkH;yg;oGm;ap&ef taxmuftxm;jzpfcJhavonf? usL;ausmfodrf;ykdufxm;onfh a'orsm;tm; ru,fwifEkdifao;rDtcsdeftxd/ t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_ukd qufvufvkyfaqmifaernfjzpfonf[k ulEkd rS ajymcJhavonf? “usL;ausmfodrf;ykduf r_onf xkda'o&Sd jynfolvlxktm; t=urf;rzufqef@usifawmfvSefr_ vkyfaqmif&ef wGef;tm;ay;vkdufjcif; yifjzpfonf? *smreftpkd;&onf rnfokd@yifqkdapumrl ‚if;. w&m;0if&yfwefaeaom t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_ukd pGef@v$wfvkduf&ef (okd@r[kwf) &yfwef;u &yfvkduf&ef ðyvkyfrnfr[kwfygyJ/ ae@pOfjrifhwufvmaeaom wif;rmr_rsm;ukd av#mhcs&efESifh/ wrifoufouf ta=umif;rJhzsufqD;aeaom pD;yGg;a&;wefbkd;rsm; &yfwef@oGm; ap&ef qENrsm;ukd r#a0cHpm;r_ðyvkyfaernfjzpfygonf?” jynfolvlxkonf awmfvSefqef@usifr_tm; aqmf=opnf;&kH;r_rsm; ðyvkyfae&rnfjzpfonf/ okd@&mwGif tpkd;&onf &yfwef@vkduf&ef ajymcJhvdrfhrnf[k ulEkdrS ajymqkdcJhavonf? yGdKifuJonf ,kHvG,fvGef;ol wa,muf r[kwfay? “awmfvSefqef@usifr_ukd ðyvkyf&ef qEN&Sd+yD;/ pnf;&kH;v_H@aqmfaeonfrSm jynfolvlxkr[kwfyJ/ *smref tpkd;&omjzpfonf” [k ‚if;rS jyefajymcJhavonf? “aphpyfajy+idrf;+yD;rSom qef@usifawmfvSefaer_rsm;onf &yfwef@oGm;vdrfhrnf[k ,cktcg

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*smreftpkd;&onf tºuGif;rJh todtrSwfðy vufcHxm;+yD; jzpfavonf? tu,fI awmfvSefqef@usifaer_rsm;onf tvkdtavsmufjzpfvmcJhonfqkdygu/ *smreftpkd;&onf rnfuJhokd@ &yfwef@Ekdifrnfenf;/ (okd@r[kwf) rnfr# =umanmif;apEkdifrnfenf;´ b,fvf*sD,HESifh jyifopftpkd;&rsm;onf qef@usifawmfvSefaer_rsm; &Sdaeao;oa&G@/ *smrefwkd@. rnfonfh urf;vSrf;t}uHðycsufukdr# vufcHpOf;pm;Ekdifrnf r[kwfay?” *smrefrsm; t&_H;ray;oa&G@ jyifopfrsm;onf ajy+idrf;cJhvdrhfrnfr[kwfacs? ‚if;. urf;vSrf;r_topfukd +Adwdo#ESifh tar&duefwkd@onf pdwf0ifpm;r_tenf;i,fukd jyovm=uaom tcg/ ulEkdonf ol. EkdifiHjcm;a&;0ef}uD;rSaeI ol@tm; E_wfxGuf&ef zdtm;ay;avawmhonf? olonf jiif;qkdvkduf+yD;/ xkdtpm; 'kwd,ajrmuf oHwrefpmrl=urf;ukd a&;om;cJhavonf? xkdpmonf +Adwdeftm; jyifopf ESifh a0;&mokd@uavmfxkwf&ef óud;pm;aompmjzpfavonf? ,ckt}udrfwGifvnf; yxrt}udrfwkef;u pum;vkH; rsm;ukdom okH;xm;avonf? okd@aomf t=urf;rzuf tHwkv_yf&Sm;r_ta=umif;ukdrl razmfjyawmhacs? jyifopfrS vnf; ,ciftwkdif;yif xyfrHI jiif;qefvkdufavonf? ZGefvtukefokd@a&mufaomtcg/ EkdifiHawmftm; a'0gvDcH&rnfh tajctaeokd@ wGef;ykd@aeonfhtwGuf awmfvSefqef@usifr_ukd qufvufwnfwHhatmifxdef;rxm;Ekdifawmhbl;qkdonfrSm/ *smreftpkd;&twGif;&Sd vlrsm; tm;vkH;tm; &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; odoGm;apavawmhonf? t"du&k%f;rsm;tm; pkaygif;I/ uGefjrLepfrsm;onf &m;jynfe,ftwGif;Yomr[kwfawmhbJ/ *smrefwEkdifiHvkH;wGif oydwfwdkufyGJrsm;ukd aoG;xdk;v_H@aqmfavawmh onf? [rf;bmh*f (Hamburg)/ b&Dref (Bremen) ESifh trf'ef (Emden) &Sd yifv,ful;oabFmom;rsm;rSm/ qufZkdeD (Saxony)/ b&ef'efbmh*f (Brandenburg)ESifh rufuvefbmh*f (Mecklenburg) &Sd oH ESifh oHr%d tvkyform;rsm;uJhokd@oydwfarSmuf=uavawmhonf? bmvifuJhokd@ ta&S@zsm;usonfh a0;uGmonfhae&mwGifyif oHESifh oHr%d tvkyform; (100˜000) wkd@onf vkyfief;cGifokd@ r0if=uawmhacs? wpkHw&m pdk;&drf&onfh tEW&m,f&Sdaom tpmiwfcHqENjyyGJuJhokd@ vlxkvkyf&_m;r_wck ESifh rxl;Zmwfcif; xif&mpGyfvkyfawmhrnfh tajctaersm;onf pka0;vmavonf? ulEkdtm; axmufcHyHhykd;cJhonfh ygwDrsm;onf ,cktcg +cdrf;ajcmufcHae =uonfhtwGuf/ zufajymif;um ulEkdtm; qef@usifvmcJh=uavonf? =o*kwfv (8) &ufae@wGif *smrefv$wfawmf (Reichstag)onf ta&;ay:nDvmcJhukd ac:,lusif;yav awmhonf? ulEkdonf =urf;jyifay:okd@ ajccsrdonfESifhwòydifeuf uGefjrLepfrsm;onf ‚if;tm;qJqkdatmf[pf=uav awmhonf? “Executive of Stiners' Republic/ vdrfvnfvSnfhjzm;ol/ uvdefuusp/f vlnpf vlqkd;/ &mZ0wfaumif/ vlvdrf/ opPmazmuf” ponfh atmfoHrsm;ukd us,favmifpGm =um;&avawmhonf? okd@&mwGif ulEkdY xkdolrsm;tm; topfurf;vSrf;&ef bmr# r&Sday? “t=urf;rzuftHwkv_yf&Sm;r_ukd *smr%D[m qufvuf vkyfaqmif&rnf/ qufvufvkyfaqmifvdrfhrnf”[k olu qufvufwkdufwGef;oGm;avonf? pdwfysufaeaom qkd&S,fvpfygwDonf ulEkdtpkd;&tm; t,kHt=unfr&SdtqkdukdwifoGif;&m rJ&&SdcJh+yD;/ =o*kwfv (11) &ufae@wGif E_wfxGufoGm;&avonf? ‚if;. ae&mwGif/ (Deutsche Volks Partei) ygwDrS trsKd;om;a&;0g'D acgif;aqmif/ a'gufwm *lpwyf px&ufpfref (Gustav Stresemann)/ qufcHvkdufavonf? tpyxrY *smr%DEkdifiH. b¾ma&;ukd jznfhqnf;&eftwGuf tvGef=urf;wrf;jyif;xefaom trdef@rsm;jzifh qufwkdufxkwfjyef vkyfaqmif aepOfwGif/ wzufYvnf; ol@taejzifh awmfvSefqef@usifr_rsm;ukdvnf; qufvufvkyfaqmifcsifaeao;onf? pufr_vkyfief; &Sifrsm;xHrS tar&duef a':vm (100˜000) vSL'gef;&ef wGef;tm;ay;jcif;/ *smrefpuf&kHrsm;tm; EkdifiHjcm;okd@ ykdrkdwifykd@&ef wGef;tm;ay;jcif;/ jynfwGif;okd@ wifoGif;onfh pm;aomufukefrsm; ESifh ukef=urf;ypPnf;rsm;ukd uef@owfjcif;/ ponfwkd@udk twif;t=uyfvkyfaqmifavonf? okd@aomf EkdifiH. pD;yGg;a&;onf wkef@jyefrvmaomtcg qkd&S,fvpfrsm;onf px&ufpfref (Stresemann) tm;/ awmfvSefqef@usifaer_rsm;tm; &yfwef@&ef/ (okd@r[kwf) t,kHt=unfr&Sd qENrJukd ukd,hfzmomukd,f vufcH&ifqkdif&ef ajymavawmhonf? trsKd;om;a&;0g'Drsm;twGufrl/ awmfvSefqef@usifr_rsm;wGif wefzkd;}uD;rm;aom &if;ESD;ay;qyfr_aygif;rsm;pGmukd ay;qyfcJh+yD;jzpfonf/ xkdt&mrsm;ukd OyauQmðyvkyfjcif;onf opPmazmufr_wckyifjzpfonf? okd@&mwGif yGdKifuJonf ‚if;wkd@tm; awmfvSefqef@usifaer_rsm; usqkH;roGm;ao;oa&G@ rnfonhfaphpyfaqG;aEG;r_r# ðyvkyfrnfr[kwf qkdonfukd ckdifrmpGm qkyfukdifxm;avonf?

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orw tDbmwf. axmufcHr_ ESifh usef&Sdaeao;aom a&G;cs,fp&m tenf;i,fESifhtwl/ px&ufpfref (Stresemann) onf &m;jynfe,ftwGif;Y awmfvSefqef@usifaer_rsm; +yD;qkH;oGm;+yDa=umif;/ pufwifbmv (26) &ufae@wGif ausnmvkdufavonf? “t=urf;rzuftHwkv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk vufav#mht&_H;ay;vkdufjcif;onf/ ‚if;ukd tokH;ðyI wkdufyGJ0ifaejcif;xuf ykdrkdI rsKd;cspfpdwf"gwf&Sdwm jzpfaumif;jzpfayvdrfhrnf?” [k ‚if;ae@pOf rSwfwrf;wGifa&;om;cJhavonf? “ig[m ighygwDtwGif;rSm&SdwJh igh&J@EkdifiHa&;tqifhtwef;ukd tEW&m,fjzpfvm atmif igukd,fwkdif vkyfvkdufjcif;jzpfw,fqkdwmukd/ igvkyfaqmifvkduf+yD;wJhtcsdefusrSyJ igodvkduf&awmhw,f/ [kwfw,f/ 'g[m igh&J@ toufukdawmif tEW&m,fjzpfvmapEkdifw,f? 'gayr,fh/ ig wkd@*smrefvlrsKd;awG&J@ csKd@wJhaer_[m bmvJ/ igwkd@ csKd@wJhaewmuawmh wm0ef,l&JwJhowWdbJjzpfw,f?” [k qdkcJhonf? §

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(1923) ckESpf/ atmufwkdbmvokd@a&mufvmaomtcg/ &m;jynfolvlxk}uD;rsm;rSm &kyfykdif;qkdif&m cGeftm;rsm;vnf; okH;pGJI ukefqkH;oGm;cJh+yDjzpf+yD;/ pdwf"gwfykdif;qkdif&m tm;jzifhvnf; okH;pGJcJh+yD;jzpfavonf? ‚if;wkd@twGuf atmifyGJ[lonfrSm/ tajz (2) ckukdomv#if qkdvkdjcif;jzpfaumif;jzpfayvdrhfrnf? jyifopfrsm;tm; ‚if;wkd@.ausmif;rsm;/ [kdw,frsm;ESifh vkyfief;cGifrsm;rS armif;xkwfjcif;/ ESifh ausmufrD;aoG;rsm; ESifh ukwfrDaoG;rsm; ,laqmifjcif;rS jiif;qefjcif;yifjzpfonf? tu,fI olwkd@onf &efoltwGuf tvkyfvkyfay;&ef jiif;qefygu/ usL;ausmfodrf;ykdufxm;r_rsm;onf usqkH;oGm;+yD;/ &efolppfwyfrsm;vnf; ‚if;wkd@. tdrfokd@jyefacgufoGm;=u vdrfhrnf[k olwkd@tm;ajymjycJh=uonf? okd@&mwGif bmvif&Sdtpkd;&Y aemufxyf &nf&G,fcsufyef;wkdif rsm;&Sdaeavonf? ppfavsmfa=u;rsm;ESifh ywfoufonfrsm;ukd jyefvnfokH;oyf&ef ESifh/ ppfyGJ+yD;aemuf jyifopfwkd@. twif;t=uyfawmif;qkdaer_rsm;tay:wGif/ *smrefwkd@. jyifopfvufatmufcHjzpfae&r_tay: tqkH;owfoGm; ap&efjzpfavonf? awmfvSefqef@usifaeolrsm;onf xkdta&;}uD;aom t"dutcsufrsm;ukd wcgr#zrf;qkyf em;vnfEkdifjcif;r&SdcJh=uacs? tb,fa=umifhqkdaomf tpkd;&onf olwkd@tm; wcgr# jynfhpkHpGm &Sif;vif;ajymjyjcif; r&SdcJhacs? (20) &mpkESpftwGif;YjzpfygG;cJhaom/ tjcm;aom yËdyuQtrsm;pktwGif;&Sd/ ppfwyfrsm;tm; qef@usifaom awmfvSefa&;rsm;xJwGif yg0ifcJhonfh/ t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_ rif;om;rsm;uJhokd@r[kwfyJ/ *smrefrsm;wGif ‚if;wkd@. ukd,fykdiftpkd;&w&yfvkH;/ ‚if;wkd@bufwGi&f Sdaeavonf? okd@&mwGif 0ef}uD;csKyfonf ulEkd ESifh ‚if;. 0ef}uD;tzGJ@onf usL;ausmfodrf;ykdufxm;olrsm;tm; qef@usifa&;twGuf/ pepfwus&Sdaom v_yf&Sm;r_ ta&;awmfykHjzpfvmatmif pnf;&kH;zGJ@pnf;&eftwGuf tenf;i,fomvkyfaqmifcJhavonf? xkd@tjyif qef@usifawmfvSefr_. tajccHtaqmuf ttkHonf/ &m;jynfe,ftwGif;Yomv#if t"dutm;jzifh ‚if;zmom zGH@òzd;cJh&avonf? tb,fa=umifhqkdaomf odrf;ykdufxm;r_twGif;Y ta&;}uD;aom ae&mrsm;ukd cGJjcrf;pdwfjzm&eftwGuf/ ppfe,f0ef;ukd tuef@vkduf tuef@vkduf vkyfaqmifxm;onfh tpDtrHrsm;r&Sday? (okd@r[kwf) qef@usifawmfvSef aeolrsm;tm; axmufyHh ulnDaer_rsm; ESifh ‚if;wkd@tm; wae&mrS wae&mokd@ a&$@ajymif;jcif;rsm;r&SdyJ/ awmfvSef v_yf&Sm;r_rSm a'otwGif; Yyif &yfwef@oGm;vkduf/ jyefvnftouf0ifvmvkdufjzpfaeavonf? (20) &mpkESpftwGif;&Sd tjcm;aom yËdyuQrsm;rS usL;ausmfolrsm;/ zdESdyfolrsm;uJhokd@r[kwfyJ/ jyifopf wkd@onf ‚if;wkd@. &nf&G,fyef;wkdifukd t+rJwrf; tuef@towfjzifhom xm;&SdcJhavonf? &m;jynfe,f. tzkd;wef ausmufrD;aoG;rsm;ukdxkwf,l+yD;ygu/ jyefvnfxGufcGmoGm;&efjzpfonf? tuef@towfrJh odrf;ykduftkyfcsKyfoGm;&ef txdr&nf&G,fay? ,if;onf *smrefrsm;tm;/ usL;ausmfodrf;ykdufxm;olrsm; ESifh tjyeftvSeftusKd;&Sda&;ukd vkyfaqmif&eftwGuf/ ykdrkdusOf;ajrmif;aomtjrifwckukd ay;vkdufjcif;jzpfonf? qkdvkdonfrSm jyifopfwkd@tm; tpuwnf;u tpGrf;ukefqef@usifawmfvSef&efa&G;cs,fvkdufjcif;onf/ usL;ausmfolrsm;tm; ‚if;wkd@. tqDtESpf xkwf,lr_vkyfief;ukd/ a'ocHtultnDrygyJESifh atmifjriffatmifðyvkyf&ef tm;ay;vkdufjcif;yifjzpf+yD;/ *smrefrsm; tm; yËdyuQukd xdef;csKyfEkdifap&eftwGuf tcGifhtvrf;rsm;ukd usKH@oGm;apcJhavonf? tu,fI *smrefrsm;onf olwkd@. jyifopfwkd@xHrS yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_ &kyfodrf;onf ajcvSrf;ukd xdef;n‡dEkdifcJhrnfqkdv#if/ odrf;ykdufxm; olrsm;onf *smrefwkd@. tultnDay:wGif qufvufI ykdrkdrDSckdae&rnfjzpfonf? xkdtcg *smrefwkd@. pD;ygG;a&;tay:wGif ay;aeaom zdtm;rsm;ukd ykdrkdav#mhcsay;vmrnfjzpfonf?

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*smrefwkd@. ajray:wGif ckcHqef@usifr_rsm;onf &ufowWywfaygif;rsm;pGm tusKd;oufa&mufr_&SdaecJh avonf? a'owckvkH;&Sd tvkyform;rsm;. &JpGrf;owWdESifh pGef@v$wftepfemcHr_rsm;ukd us,fjyef@}uD;rm;pGm aus;Zl;wif&rnf jzpfayonf? urBmay:&Sd tiftm;t}uD;qkH;aom wyfrawmfukd olwkd@ vaygif;rsm;pGm ckcHwGef;vSefcJhavonf? okd@&mwGif ckcHawmfvSefolrsm;. a'otwGif; pwifOD;aqmifr_ESifh jyif;jyxufoefaom pkaygif;pdwf"gwfrsm;onf tpkd;&tm; awmfvSefa&;onf aemuffqkH;wGif &kyfykdif;qkdif&matmifyGJwckukd tEdkif&&SdcJh vdrhfrnf[k ,kH=unf&ef qGJaqmifapcJhavonf? xkd@twGufa=umifh/ jyifopfrsm; aphpyfajyat;&awmhrnfh tcsdeftcgukd vufv$wfqkH;&_H;cJh=uavonf? xdef;csKyfxm;r_. wefbkd;onf xkwf,l&&Sdonhf ausmufrD;aoG;. tjrwftpGef;xuf ykdrkd}uD;jrifhaeaomtcg/ odrf;ykdufxm;olrsm;onf ‚if;wkd@. qkH;&_H;r_rsm;ukd jzwfawmuf&ef qGJaqmifcHcJh=u&avonf? xkdtqifhukd a&muf&SdvmcJhonf/ okd@&mwGif *smrefwkd@onf xkdtqifhukd jrifatmif r=unfhEkdifcJh=uacs? xkdokd@jzpfvm&rnfhtpm;/ jyifopfwkd@onf ykdrkdjyif;xefpGm zdESdyfòzdcGif;avawmhonf? zdESdyfòzdcGif;r_rsm;ukd jyefvnfwkH@jyef&eftwGuf AsL[mrsm;r&SdcJhbJ/ t=urf;zufvufwkH@jyefr_twGuf pdwf'dG[ jzpfaecJhavonf? xkdtcg awmfvSefqef@usifr_onf wpnf;wvkH;wnf;jzpfr_ qkH;&_H;oGm;avawmhonf? qef@usifawmfvSefr_ tvHawmfukd v$ifhxlcJhonfqkdaomfvnf;/ qufvufwnfwHhatmif xdef;odrf;xm; &eftwGuf tvGeftrif; wefbkd;}uD;rm;vm+yDjzpfavonf? awmfvSefr_ukd axmufulyHhykd;ay;&onfh 0efxkyf 0efykd;onf/ awmfvSefa&;tm; tus,favmifqkH;atmf[pfaeolrsm;t=um;wGif nDwn l Dr# yHhykd;ykd;jcif;rsKd;r&SdcJhacs? pufr_vkyfief;&Sifrsm; ESifh trsKd;om;a&;0g'Drsm;onf/ bmviftm; rsufjcnfrysuf apmifh=unhfppfaq;aecJh avonf? okd@aomf oydwfarSmuftvkyform;rsm;twGuf trawmfa=u;xkwfay;r_rsm;. ukefusr_wefbkd;rsm; onfvnf; bmr# r[kwfay/ *smrefaiGpuULrsm;ukd ykdrkd&kdufESdyfcJhjcif;omv#ifjzpfonf? xkdtwGuf wkdif;jynf. pD;ygG;a&;onf c|wfòcHusqif;oGm;avawmhonf? {+yDvwGif/ *smref rwfaiG òydvJysufpD;oGm;aomtcg/ t"du&k%f;rsm; jzpfyGg;&eftwGuf tdrfwHcg;rsm;onf jzef;ueJ yGifhxGufvmcJhavawmhonf? wefbkd;r&Sdaom aiGpuULrsm;jzifh tvkyform;rsm;. vpmay;acsr_rsm;onf/ jyifopfwkd@tm; tpGef;a&mufenf;vrf;rsm;jzifh wkdufckduf&ef/ &efvkdaeaomolrsm;tm; tvG,fwul *k%fðyvkdufjcif;omjzpfcJhavonf? ‚if;onf awmfvSef qef@usifaer_tm; ykdI atmufajcrSv_dufpm;oGm;apcJhavonf? &mpkESpftwGif;&Sd t=urf;rzuftHwkv_yf&Sm;r_ tm;vkH;. wefzkd;jzpfaom t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_. pnf;rsOf;pnf;urf;rsm;onf/ b¾ma&;wnf+idrfvmr_rsm;ESifh twl òyduGJysufpD;oGm;cJh=u&avonf? xdktcsdefu/ usL;ausmfolrsm;udk ckcHawmfvSefvkdaom *smrefwkd@. &JpGrf;owWdrsm;onf/ *END}uD;. +Adwdo#tpkd;&ESifh ryl;aygif;raqmif&Gufa&; pdwf"gwfcGeftm; ESifh us,fjyef@pGmqufoG,faecJhavonf? vufeufrJh qef@usifawmfvSefr_onf atmifyGJ&&SdumeD;+yD[lI/ *smrefrsm;onf pdwf"gwfa&;&m omvGefr_tjzpf toHaumif; [pfatmf aysmfjrL;ae=uavonf? okd@aomf/ *ENDuJhokd@r[kwfyJ/ olwkd@onf t=urf;rzufoydwfarSmufr_rsm;. u|rf;usifwwfajrmufxm;&rnfh u|rf;usifr_tpkpkudk wkd;wufvmatmif rvkyfaqmifcJh=uacs? ,if;onf ‚if;wkd@ òydifbuf&efol. AsL[mcif;usif;r_twkdif;twmukd usOf;ajrmif;apcJh+yD;/ t=urf;zuf zdESdyfr_rsm;twGuf wefbkd;rsm;ukd ukefusapcJhonf? xkdtpm;/ abmvf&SDApf aoG;xkd;v_H@aqmfolrsm;rSonf vufsmtpGef;a&muf rsufuef;rsKd;cspfrsm;txd/ *smrefwkd@. t=urf;zufr_ukd ukd,fykdif axmufcHtm;ay;r_jzifh &m;e,ftm; z&kdz&J/ 0&kef;okef;um;jzpfoGm;txd upm;cJh=uvonf? jyifopfqef@usifr_awmfvSefa&;wkdufyGJukd o,faqmifvmaom tvkyform;rsm;ESifh EkdifiHom;rsm;rSm pGef@ypfjcif;ukd cHcJh=u&avonf? aemufxyf (16) ESpfyifr=umjrifhaom tcsdef umvokd@ a&mufvmaomtcg/ t=urf;rzuftHwkv_yf&Sm;r_tawG;tac:ukd rkef;wD;onfh ta'ghvfzf [pfwvm (Adolf Hitler) OD;aqmifonfhwjcm;aom *smreftpkd;& wufvmcJh+yD;/ ppfyGJukdpwifI jyifopfwkd@tm; odrf;ykdufcJhavonf? ppfavsmfa=u;onf yËdyuQudk zefwD;cJhonfh jy\emjzpfonfhtwGuf/ tusKd;&vm'fonf txifESifh tjrif wjcm;pDjzpfoGm;cJhavonf? &ufowWywftenf;i,ftwGif;wGif/ +Adwdo#ESifh tar&duefwkd@onf u,fq,fr_rsm;ðyvkyf&ef a&mufvmcJh=uavonf? *smrefwkd@. pD;yGg;a&;onf wppDuGJxGufoGm;+yDqdkonfukd todtrSwfðyvufcHvkduf+yD;onhfaemuf/ tar&duefESifh +Adwdo#wkd@onf ppfavsmfa=u;ukd tjynfjynfqkdif&m jy\emwcktjzpf ðyvkyf+yD;/ aphpyfaqG;aEG;r_twGuf taqmufttkHopfwckukd t}uHðy wifjyvmcJh=uavonf? tar&duefrS csm;vf 'g0ufpf (Charles Dawes) OD;pD;onfh aumfrwDwckonf/ ig;ESpfpDrHudef;wckukd t}uHðyvmcJh =uavonf? xkd ig;ESpfpDrHudef; t}uHðycsufwGif *smreftm; tjynfjynfqkdif&m acs;aiGwckESifh ‚if;. aºuG;+rDrsm;udk av#mhcsjcif;jzifh axmufulyHhykd;&efjzpfonf? twdtusyif xkdtajz&Smr_onf ulEkd awG;xifxm;cJhonfhtwkdif; jzpfEkdifacs &SdvmcJhavonf? (1924) ckESpf/ {+yDvokd@a&mufaomtcg/ *smr%Donf touf&SLacsmifvmcJhavawmh onf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)180


&m;jynfe,ftm; usL;ausmfodrf;ykdufr_onf atmifjrifcJh&vdrfhrnf[k a&rGef yGdKifuJonf t+rJwrf; xdef;odrf;xm;cJhavonf? tb,fa=umifhqkdaomf/ odrf;ykdufr_onf *smrefrsm;tm; t=urf;rzuftHwkv_yf&Sm;r_udk vufav#mh t&_H;ay;vkduf&ef wGef;tm;ay;cJhaoma=umifhjzpfonf? okd@aomf/ ,if;onf ‚if;. &nf&G,fcsuf yef;wkdif r[kwfcJhay? jyifopfwkd@onf Amqkdif;pmcsKyfrS uwdu0wfðyxm;r_rsm;ukd tjynfht0 taumiftxnf azmfaqmif&ef tvkdqEN&Sdaer_ESifhtwl/ taemufOa&myukd v$rf;rkd;csKyfukdifxm;vkdr_jzpfonf? xkdtpm; a*s yD armf*ef ukr`%D (J. P. Morgan & Company) onf/ tu,fI jyifopfwkd@ &m;jynfe,ftwGif;Y qufvuf&Sd aecJhv#if/ *smrefwkd@. ay;qyf&ef&Sdonfh aºuG;+rDrsm;tm; jyefvnf b¾ma&;axmufyHhr_ ðyvkyf&eftwGuf/ tar&duef &if;ESD;jr‡yfESHolrsm;ukd aiGacs;pmcsKyfrsm;tm; a&mif;csEkdifrnf r[kwf[k jyifopfwkd@tm; ajymcJhavonf? jyifopfwkd@onf tdrfrsm;okd@jyefoGm;cJh=u&avonf? olwkd@vkdtyfaom ausmufrD;aoG;rsm;udkvnf; b,fawmhrS r&&SdcJh=uay? ‚if;wkd@. ysufpD;qkH;yg;oGm;aom ajrmufykdif;jynfe,frsm;ukd/ ‚if;wkd@. ukd,fykdif &if;jrpfrsm;jzifhyif jyefvnfwnfaqmufcJh=u&avonf? Oa&mywkduftwGif;Y jyifopfwkd@. tqkH;tjzwfay;r_ tm%mpGJukdifxm;r_ onfvnf; b,fawmhrS xyfrHjzpfrvmcJhawmhacs? &m;urfhonf qkH;&_H;cJhygonf? &m;urfhonf atmifjrifcJhygonf? wcgw&HwGif orkdif;onf vrf;a=umif; ESpfckpvkH;ukd &&SdoGm;wwfavonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)181


tcef; ig; 'def;rwf/ e,fomvef/ (&dkqefw&mhpf) *sL;ZeD;*smreftrsKd;orD;wdk@rS emZDrsm;udk qef@usifawmfvSefjcif; 'def;rwf? tjcm;enf;vrf;jzifh ppfyGJqifE$Jjcif; “'def;rwfudk olwdk@odrf;vdkuf+yD” (1940) ck/ {+yDv (9) &uf t±k%fwufvmcsdefwGif 'def;rwfEdkifiH. wl;ajrmif;rsm;ESifhòrd@&Gmrsm;ay:tvif;a&mifzsmusvmcsdefY/ 'def;rwf vlrsKd;wdk@onf rdrdwdk@wdkif;jynfudk rdrdwdk@ rydkifqdkifawmhay? vGefcJhonfhntwGif;uyif *smrefppfwyfrsm;onf udkyifa[*if/ ,Gwfvef; ESifh zifu|ef;rsm;ay:odk@ v#yfwysuf0ifa&mufpD;eif;+yD; 'def;rwfwyfzGJ@rsm;udk vsifjrefpGmatmifEdkifcJhonf? òrd@awmfudkvnf; tvG,fwul yif odrf;ydkufEdkifcJhonf? ppfom;wifoabFm ‘[ef;pufpwuf'f 'ef;Zpf’ onf òrd@awmf. A[dkcsufrwGif qdkufuyfxm;cJhonf? reuf (5) em&DwGifrl *smrefppfom;rsm;onf qdyfurf;udk pD;rdk;aeonfh a&S;a[mif;cHwyf}uD;xJwGif tjynfhae&m,lxm;=uawmhonf? aoewfwcsufrazmufyJ 'def;rwfppfom; ckepfq,fudk zrf;rdcJhonf? Todk@jzpfysufaecsdefwGif *smrefAHk;=uJav,mOfrsm;u òrd@awmfay:rS uyfysH=u&m òrd@olòrd@om;rsm;rSm *smrefavwyfwHqdyfudkyif &Sif;&Sif; vif;vif;jrifEdkifavmufatmif edrfhvSonf? xdkav,mOfrsm;u pm&Gufrsm;=uJcs&mY “+Adwdo#usL;ausmfr_udk óudwif[ef@wm;&ef twGuf” *smrefrsm;vma&mufjcif; jzpfonf[ka&;xm;aomfvnf; ‚if;wdk@.t"du&nf&G,fcsufrSm jynfolvlxkudk a=umufvef@ ajcmufjcm;ap+yD; +idrf+idrfqdyfqdyf 'l;axmufap&efom jzpfavonf? udkyifa[*ifòrd@rS qdkifta&mif;pma&;wOD;jzpfol ,pfwfb&Gef; u jyefajymif;ajymjyonfrSm “*smrefav,mOfawG ysHvmw,f? æ æ usaemfwdk@ tdyf&mux+yD; jywif;aygufu xGuf=unfhawmh olwdk@ a&mufae=u+yD? tJ'DtcgrSyJ 'g[m qdk;qdk;0g;0g;wckckawmh jzpfoGm;+yD/ olwdk@ 'def;rwfudk odrf;vdkuf+yDqdkwm usaemfwdk@csufjcif; oabm aygufoGm;=uw,f?” [pfwvm. ppf,EW&m;}uD;u (1939) pufwifbmwGif ydkvefEdkifiHudk v#yfwjyuf odrf;,lvdkufum 'kwd,urBmppfudk rD;ar$;vdkuf+yD; aemufydkif;vrsm;wGif/ rnfonfhppfAsL[myg&*l odk@r[kwf urBmhacgif;aqmifurS 'def;rwfEdkifiHonf *smrefxdk;ppfudk ckcHEdkifvdrfhrnf[k vHk;0udk rawG;xifxm;cJhay? (1940) azaz:0g&DvwGif 0ifpwefcsmcsDu “'def;rwfjynfu emZDudktnHhcHvdkuf&if usaemfhtaeeJ@ tjypf rwifEdkifygbl;” [krSwfcsufcscJhzl;onf? “wjcm;puif'Dae;AD;,m;EdkifiHawGjzpfwJh aemfa0;eJ@qGD'ifwdk@u usm;udktpmau|;wJhae&mrSm usHK;uav;jcm;aeao;w,f? 'gayr,fh 'def;rwfuawmh *smr%DeJ@ wtm;udkuyfaevdk@ tultnDac:zdk@udk rjzpfEdkifbl;?”[k qdkcJhonf? 'def;rwfbk&if '\rajrmufc&pf&SefESifh tpdk;&tzGJ@onf wdkif;jynf.tEW&m,fudk odjrifcJh=u+yD; *smr%DESifh (1939) arvY rusL;ausmf a&;pmcsKyfcsKyfqdkum/ ‚if;tay:om ar#mfvifhcsufrsm; yHkatmxm;cJh=uonf? [pfwvmudk,fwdkifu ,if;odk@aom *smrefpdwfaumif; ESvHk;aumif;&Sd[ef xifap&ef yHhydk;ay;cJhonf? atmufwdkbm (6) &ufwGif v$wfawmfa&S@arSmuf rdef@cGef;ajym&mY [pfwvmu 'def;rwf vlrsKd;rsm;ESifh “opPmuwdwnfI cifrif&if;ESD;aom aygif;azmfr_” udk wnfaqmufxm;onf[k ajymcJhonf? odk@&mwGif emZDwdk@onf rdrdwdk@. taygif;tazmfrsm;udk ta¹cGt&H/ y%mqufEdkifiHrsm;tjzpf ydkvdkvm;onfudk urBmuawG@vmavonf? (1939) ckwGifrl 'def;rwfjynfom;tenf;i,fuom xdkodk@odjrifcJhonf? ppfyGJ}uD; pwifjzpfyGm;onfhtcg 'def;rwfEdkifiHonf rdrd vufeufudkifwyfrsm;udk tiftm;av#mhcsypfonfh wckwnf;aom Oa&mywdkif;jynfjzpfonf? usL;ausmfr_ðyonfhae@wGif 'def;rwfwyf tiftm;rSm (15000) yifrjynfhy/J ,cifu&SdcJhzl;onfh tiftm;w0ufausmf±Hkom&Sd.? odk@&mwGif *smref r[mAsL[mqGJolrsm;onf ppftiftm;omvGefaeapumrl wdkufppfudk aocsmusepGm jyifqifpDpOfcJhonf? ta=umif;rl 'def;rwfwdk@. wnDw!Gwfwnf;aom qef@usifckcHr_onf *smrefxdk;ppftcsdefZ,m;udk uarmufur jzpfoGm;apEdkif+yD; aemfa0;EdkifiHudk wòydifeufwnf; usL;ausmfa&;udkyg ysufjym;oGm;apEdkifaoma=umifhjzpfonf? odk@jzpfI {&mrxdk;ESufcsufudk rvGJraoG vdktyfavonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)182


vGefchJonfhig;&ufu udkyifa[*ifòrd@odrf;wm0efusaom *smrefwyf&if;rSL;onf udk,fwdkifudk,fusaxmufvSrf;&ef òrd@awmfodk@a&muf vmcJhonf? ‚if;onf omrefpD;yGm;a&;orm;[efaqmifvsuf qdyfurf;udk avhvm=unfh±_um yifr ppfonfwifoabFm qdkufuyf&ef oifhawmfaomqdyfudk a&G;cs,fcJhonf? xdk@aemuf olonf 'def;rwf=unf;wyfppfOD;pD;XmecsKyf pcef;csvsuf&Sdaom cHwyfa[mif;}uD;odk@ oGm;a&mufcJhonf? uif;apmifhwm0efusppfom;rsm;u pyfpyfpkpkEdkifaom ukefonfudk vd_ufvSJpGmóudqdk+yD; rdrdwdk@. wyf=uyf}uD;ESifh rdwfqufay;cJh&m ‚if;wyf=uyf}uD;u {nfhonfawmfudk ppfOD;pD;XmecsKyf/ qufoG,fa&;XmeESifh cHwyf. yifr*dwfaygufESpfaygufwdk@udk vdkufvHjyocJhonf? *smrefwyf&if;rSL;onf rdrdwdk@usL;ausmfr_. atmifjrifr_tvm;tvmtwGuf tyltyifuif;pGm jyefvmcJhonf? *smrefwyfrsm; rpD;eif;rDnwGif usL;ausmfa&;wyfzGJ@ppfOD;pD;rSL; AdkvfcsKyf}uD;umhwf[kdif;rm;u 'def;rwfEdkifiHqdkif&m *smrefoHtrwf}uD; pDpif;vfAGef&ifax;zifhufxH oGm;a&mufI 'def;rwftpdk;&tm; aemufem&Dtenf;i,ft=umY ay;tyf&ef pmwkdwapmif ay;cJhonf? 'def;rwfwkd@ESifh &if;ESD;vSaom *k%foa&&SdoHwrefwOD;jzpfonfh AGef&ifax;zifhufrSm wkefv_yfoGm;cJh&onf? ,if;pmrSm &mZoHwapmif jzpf+yD; 'def;rwfwdk@udk 'l;axmuftnHhcH&ef awmif;qdkxm;onf? pmxJY puif'Dae;AD;,m;udk ppfwvif;jzpfapzdk@ r[mrdwfwkd@. t=uH tpnfqdkonfht&mrS tumtuG,fay;&ef *smrefwdk@ a&muf&Sdvmjcif;jzpfa=umif;/ *smr%DEdkifiHwGif &efvdkonfht=uHtpnfrsm;r&Sd aomfvnf; qef@usifckcHr_rSefor#udk acsr_ef;ypfrnfjzpfa=umif; qdkxm;onf? xdk@tjyif aemufxyftmrcHr_wckvnf; ay;xm;onf? ,if;rSm *smrefwdk@onf “'def;rwfEdkifiH. e,fajrwnfwHhjynfhpHkr_udk‚if;/ EdkifiHa&;vGwfvyfr_udk‚if;” 0ifa&mufpGufzufrnfr[kwf[lI jzpfonf? tr,fvD,ifabmh*feef;awmftjyifY aoewfoHrsm; jrnf[D;aecsdefwGif bk&ifc&pf&Sefu 0ef}uD;csKyf aomfAm;vf'fpawmif;eif;/ EdkifiH jcm;a&;0ef}uD; tuf'Gyfref@csftygt0if rdrd0ef}uD;rsm;ESifh bmvkyf&rnfudk aqG;aEG;qHk;jzwfcJhonf? 0ef}uD;csKyfESifh EdkifiHjcm;a&;0ef}uD; wdk@u tnHhcHa&;zufrS aqG;aEG;cJh=uonf? reuf (6) em&Drxdk;rD rdepftenf;i,ftvdkwGif bk&if}uD;u tnHhcHzdk@oabmwlvdkufonf? xdk@aemufodyfr=umrD bk&ifESifhawG@qHkcJhaom AdkvfcsKyf}uD;[dkif;rm;u bk&if}uD;onf “tjyifyef;tm;jzifh &mZÁa¹ENudk tjynfht0” xdef;xm;aomfvnf; “twGif;o±kyftm;jzifh wkefv_yfòydvJ” oGm;yHk&onf[k qdkcJhonf? bk&if}uD;u rdrdESifh rdrdtpdk;&onf “*smref wyfrsm;ESifh rdrdwdkif;jynft=um; rnfonfhyËdyuQudkrqdk ajzazsmufypf&ef æ æ tpGrf;ukefaqmif&GufoGm;rnf? rdrdwdkif;jynfudk aemuf xyf'kuQokuQrcHpm;apvdk” [k qdkcJhonf? xdkae@wm=umanmif;vmonfESifhtr# 'def;rwfwdk@rSm r,HkEdkifatmifjzpf=u&onf? pawmif;eif;u 'def;rwfEdkifiHom;wdk@tm; Oya' vdkufem+yD; *smrefwyfrsm;udk “rSefrSefuefuef” qufqH=u&ef wdkufwGef;cJhonf? “'def;rwftpdk;&[m odrf;ydkufr_eJ@ywfouf+yD; qef@ usifuef@uGufwJhtaeeJ@ wdkif;jynf&J@tajctaet&yf&yfudk pDpOfaqmif&Gufzdk@ qHk;jzwfvdkufw,f” [k oluajymjyonf? “tpdk;&[m wdkif;jynfukd 'Dhxufydkqdk;wJh =urRmuae u,fwifEdkifcJhw,fvdk@ ±dk;om;pGm,Hk=unfcH,l+yD; aqmif&GufcJhw,f æ æusaemfwdk@[m jynfol vlxk&J@yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_tay: rSDcdktm;xm;rSmjzpfygw,f?”[k xkwfjyefa=ujimcJhonf? TonfrSm vufeufcst±H_;ay;jcif;r[kwfyJ vdkufavsmay;jcif;omjzpfonf? Tay:vpDonf wdkif;jynf odrf;ydkufcHxm;&aomfvnf; ±H_;edrfhoGm;jcif;r[kwfrlbJ tcsKyftjcmtm%mydkifEdkifiH/ jzpfjrJjzpfaeonf[lonfh tusdK;&Sdaompdwful;Zmwfvrf;ESifh wGJqufaeonfh ay:vpDjzpfonf? Tyl;aygif;aqmif&Gufa&;ay:vpD (samarbejdspolitik) onf udk,fykdifjyÏmef;cGifh&Sdaom trsKd;om;b0twGuf wwfEdkifor# v_yfomvSnfhom&Sd&ef óud;yrf;onfh r[mAsL[mvnf; jzpfonf? “usrwdk@[m {+yD (9) &ufwHk;uom ckcHcJh&if/ ol&J aumif;yDowJh udk,fhudk,fudk,faoa=umif;=uHr_rsKd; jzpfoGm;Edkifw,f” [k'def;rwfordkif;ynm&Sif yJav;avm&if;u aemufykdif;wGif ajymonf? “&Sifoef&yfwnfa&;[m t"duyef;wdkifjzpfvmw,f?” Tt,ltqudk 'def;rwfjynfom;tm;vHk;u oabmwl=uonf awmhr[kwfyg? tar&duefEdkifiHqdkif&m 'def;rwfoHtrwf}uD;u rdrdudk,frdrd “vGwfvyfaom” 'def;rwfoHtrwf}uD;tjzpf a=unmcJh onf? Tonfudk 'def;rwfwdk@. yxrqHk;aomqef@usifawmfvSefa&;vkyf&yftjzpf trsm;ujrif=uonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)183


TppfyGJonf EdkifiHaygif;rsm;pGmESifh vloef;aygif;rsm;pGmudk tusKH;0ifaprnfh urBmhyËdyuQ}uD;wcktjzpfodk@ t&SdefjrifhoGm;rnfqdkonfudkrl xdkpOfu rnfolr# rod=u? ppfyGJonf c%om=um+yD; Oa&mywdkufwckvHk; [pfwvmhvufatmufwGif waygif;wpnf;wnf;jzpfoGm; um oD;jcm;EdkifiHrsm; aysmufuG,foGm;zdk@rsm;onf[k 'def;rwfacgif;aqmifrsm;u ,lqcJh=uonf? Ttwdkif;jzpfvmygu 'def;rwftcsKyf tjcmtm%mydkifr_udk *smr%Du todtrSwfðyxm;r_u 'def;rwfjynftay: xD;rdk;umuG,fay;&ma&mufEdkif+yD; *smreftifyg,mtwGif; odk@ 0g;òrdrcH&bJ aeEdkifrnf? yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufjcif;rSm tqdk;}uD;xJrS tqdk;av;jzpfonf? *smrefwdk@bufrS=unfhv#if 'def;rwfEdkifiHonf usdK;usdK;EGHEGH&SdrS ‚if;. vkyftm;/ pdkufysdK;a&;ESifh obm0o,HZmwrsm;udk toHk;csEkid frnfjzpfonf? 'def;rwftxnftvdyfrsm;/ ppfoHk; ypPnf;rsm;ESifh pm;eyf&duQmrsm; tzEdkifiHawmf ¡*smr%D¢ odk@ rSefrSefpD;0ifap&efrSm wdkif;jynfudk twif;t"rRodrf;oGif;jcif;xuf udkyif a[*iftpdk;&ESifh ajyvnfatmifvkyfjcif;u ydkIvdrfrmyg;eyf&ma&muf.[k ,lqonf? *smrefwdk@onf 'def;rwfjynfwGif at;at;csrf;csrf;&Sdap&eftvdk@iSm todrf;ydkufcHwkdif;jynftrsm;pkudk udkifwG,fqufqHyHkESifh odompGm uGJuGJjym;jym;udkifwG,fzdk@ toifhjyifxm;cJhonf? *smrefppfXmecsKyft&m&Sd}uD;rsm;u *smrefppfom;rsm; 'def;rwfwdk@. cGJwrf;usukef ypPnf;rsm;udk rawmif;0,f&efwm;jrpf+yD;/ *smrefppfwyfowif;pmwapmif jzef@csDr_udkvnf; &yfqdkif;ypfcJhonf? wyfwGif; jzef@a0aom !¸ef=um;pmwckwGif *smrefppfom;rsm;udk 'def;rwftrsKd;orD;rsm;ESifh rdef;cav;rsm;tm; av;av;pm;pm;qufqH&ef/ EdkifiHa&; jiif;cHk aqG;aEG;r_rsm; rvkyf&ef/ xdkr#omru 'def;rwfjynfom;rsm;onf &efolr[kwfa=umif;/ emZDvrl sKd;a&;owfrSwfcsufZ,m;wGif txl; tcGifhta&;& taetxm;Y&Sda=umif; owday;xm;onf? *smrefwdk@. ,Ofaus;txufwef;usr_udk oufaojyonfhtaejzifh bmvifu 'def;rwfudk urBmha&S@arSmufwGif “pHjytapmifhta&SmufcHEdkifiH” jzpfapvdkonf? xdk@jyif 'def;rwfvlrsKd;rsm; +idrf0yfusKd;EGHr_ &Sdyg u tjcm;wzufwGifvnf;/ csKyfudkifa&;twGuf *smrefppfom; odyfvdkrnfr[kwfawmhacs? 'def;rwftrsm;tjym;u usL;ausmfr_a=umifh wpHkw&mpdwfoufom&m &oGm;cJhonf? ta=umif;rSm Tokd@jzifh ppfyGJ. tedÏm±Hktjynfh tpHk a&mufrvmatmif xdef;xm;Edkifrnfhoabm&aoma=umifhjzpfonf? at;at;aq;aq;ae=uzdk@ bk&ifht=uHay;csufrSm oifhavsmf yHk&aeonf? 'def;rwfEdkifiHwGif zufqpfygwDrsm;/ trsKd;om;a&;ygwDrsm; &Sdaeaomfvnf; EdkifiH. EdkifiHa&;tcif;tusif;u tpGef;a&muf rsm;udk ab;a&mufaeaponf? emZDrsm;odrf;ydkufcJhonfh Oa&mywdkufae&mwdkif;wGif jzpfaeonfh jyif;xefaom/ t=urf;zufonftxd r=umc%jzpfwwfaom 0g'a&;yËdyuQrsKd; 'def;rwfjynfvrf;rrsm;ay: rjzpfatmif xdef;EdkifcJhonf? 'def;rwftaqmufttHktzGJ@tpnf; rsm;rSm tedrhfqHk;tm;jzifh 'def;rwftm%mydkifr_ oauFwrsm;tjzpf e*dktwdkif; qufvufwnf&Sdaeojzifh qef@usifawmfvSefzdk@wGef; tm; ta&;w}uD; jzpfyHkr&cJh? twdtvif;qef@usifawmfvSefjcif;onf tm%mydkifudk zDqefonfhoabm jzpfoGm;vdrhfrnf? odk@aomfvnf; rdrdwdk@wdkif;jynfrS vHk;0jyefrwdkufcJhjcif;udk 'def;rwfjynfom;tawmfrsm;rsm;u &Suf=uonf? rdrdwdk@acgif;aqmifrsm; tnHhcHvdkufonfrSm jrefvGef;tm;}uD;onf[k trsm;tjym;u ,lq=uonf? 'def;rwfESifh *smrefwdk@onf &SvJpf0pf*fe,fajr (awmif zuftpGefqHk;'def;rwfjynfe,f odk@r[kwf ajrmufzuftusqHk;*smrefjynfe,f) ESifhywfouf+yD; &mpkESpfaygif;rsm;pGm tcsif;rsm;cJh&m (1864) ck 'def;rwf-y&yf&Sm;ppfyGJwGif txGwftxdyfa&mufcJh+yD; 'def;rwfwdk@ ±H_;edrhfcJhonf? xdk@aemufydkif;q,fpkESpfrsm;wGif ,if;e,fajr&Sd 'def;rwfrsm;udk *smrefwdk@ rw&m;ðyrlqufqHr_u 'def;rwfwdk@. &efvdkpdwfudk wdk;jrifhapcJhonf? xdk@a=umifh wdkif;jynf.tjyifyef; +idrf oufr_ESifh w&m;0iftm;jzihf vdkufavsmajyvnfr_atmuf wGif rausreyfa'gopdwf &SdaecJhonf? “udk,fxdvufa&mufqef@usifwm enf;enf;av;yJ&SdcJhw,f” [kxdkpOfu toufq,fhoHk;ESpft&G,fausmif;om; [m;bwfyef'pfu jyefajymif;ajymjyonf? “'gayr,fh æ æ 'def;rwfawG[m *smrefawGudk rvdkvm;bl;qdkwmudkawmh cHpm;aerd=u+yD?” oluajymcJhonf? “'def;rwfvlaumif;qdkwm bmvJ” *smrefrsm;usL;ausmfcsdefwGif tm;efq,f,mrSm taemufydkif;ZDvefjynfe,f&Sd qvmh*sJvfpDòrd@uav;wGif rdbrsm;ESifh twlaeaeaom q,fhckepfESpft&G,f ausmif;om;wOD;jzpfonf? {+yD 9 &ufae@reuf ausmif;toGm;wGif avmavmvwfvwfa&mufvmonfh ppfom; rsm;udk jynfolvlxkrsm;u w&if;wESD;cifcifrifrif&Sd=uyHk/ *smrefppfwD;0dkif;wzGJ@u 'def;rwf*Dwjzifh av[mjyifazsmfajzyGJvkyfay;onfudk vlxku vufckyfwD;=obmay;yHkwdk@udk thH=owkefv_yfoGm;cJhrdonf? olonf a'oxkwfowif;pmwapmifudk aumuf=unfh&m jynfol jynfom;rsm;udk

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'def;rwfvlaumif;olaumif;rsm;ozG,f ðyrlusifh=uH=uzdk@ bk&if.rSm=um;csuf yg&SdonfudkawG@&onf? “'def;rwfvl aumif;qdkwm bmvJ” [kol@udk,folar;rdonf? “tckvdktajctaersKd;/ udk,fhwdkif;jynfudk &efoluodrf;ydkufxm;wJhtcsdefrSm 'def;rwf vlaumif;olaumif;wa,mufu b,fvdkðyrlusifh=uH&rvJ?” olu ol@udk,foljyefar;cGef;xkwfonf? q,f,m tdrfjyefvm+yD;aemuf ol@tajzrsm;udk 'def;rwfwdk@twGuf ynwfawmfq,fyg; trnfjzifh csa&;cJhonf? olonf rdwWL (25) apmif vufESdyfpufjzifh¶dkufcJhonf? Todk@a&;xm;onf? 1? oifonf *smr%DEdkifiHESifh aemfa0;EdkifiHrsm;odk@ oGm;a&muftvkyfrvkyf&? 2? oifonf *smrefrsm;twGuf tvkyfudk qdk;qdk;0g;0g;vkyfay;&rnf? 3? oifonf *smrefrsm;twGuf tvkyfudk jznf;av;pGmvkyfay;&rnf? 4? oifonf ta&;ygaom puf,EW&m;rsm;/ u&d,mrsm;udk zsufqD;ypf&rnf? 5? oifonf *smrefrsm;twGuf tusdK;&SdEdkifrnfh t&mrSefor#udk zsufqD;ypf&rnf? 6? oifonf o,f,lydk@aqmifa&;tm;vHk;udk aESmifhaES;atmifvkyf&rnf? 7? oifonf *smrefESifh tDwvD¶kyf&Sifrsm;/ pmapmifrsm;udk oydwfarSmuf&rnf? 8? oifonf emZDpwdk;qdkifrsm;wGif aps;r0,f&? 9? oifonf opPmazmufrsm;udk xdkufwefonfhtwdkif; qufqH&rnf? 10? oifonf *smrefrsm; tvdkufcH&ol rnfol@udkrqdk umuG,fay;&rnf? 'def;rwfjynfvGwfvyfa&;twGuf wdkufyGJ0if=u? xdk@aemuf q,f,monf qvmh*sJvfpDòrd@rS òrd@awmf0ef/ b%fvkyfief;&Sifrsm;/ q&m0efrsm;/ pme,fZif;orm;rsm; tygt0if =oZm wduUrt&SdqHk; òrd@olòrd@om;rsm;pm&if;wck a&;qGJcJhonf? aemufwnwGif olonf pufbD;jzifh olwdk@aetdrfrsm;odk@oGm;+yD; ynwf awmfq,fyg;udk pmxnfhyHk;rsm;xJ xnfhcJhonf? rdrdEdkifiHom;'def;rwfwdk@u *smrefrsm;udk ay:ay:xifxif vd_ufvSJysLiSmaejcif;u tawmf}uD;rm;vSonfh qef@usifawmfvSefa&;pdwf"mwftm; zHk;uG,fxm;onfudk r=umrD q,f,mawG@vmonf? q,f,monf qef@usifawmfvSefa&;enf;emopfrsm;udkvnf; awG@&SdazmfxkwfEdkifcJhonf? olESifhol@rdwfaqGrsm;u *smrefum;rsm;/ ppfoHk;,mOfrsm;. "mwfqDwdkifuDxJ o=um;avmif;xnfh=uonf? *smrefqef@usifa&; vufurf;pmapmifrsm;udk ul;,l+yD; EdkifiHtESH@tjym;&Sd txufwef; ausmif;om;rsm;xHodk@ pmwdkufrSaeI ydk@=uonf? odwfr=umcif ynwfawmfq,fyg;onf wa,mufvufrSwa,mufjyef@oGm;um tqHk;wGif 'def;rwfjynfom;wdk@ trsKd;om;awmfvSefa&; qifE$J&mY trGeftjrwfxm;p&mjzpfvmavonf? arvwGif udkyifa[*ifòrd@Y vli,ftzGJ@wcsdK@ awG@qHkpnf;a0;=u+yD; bmoma&;qdkif&mygarmuQ [,fvfaumuf. vrf;!¸efr_atmuf wGif 'def;rwfvli,ftoif;}uD;udk wnfaxmifvdkufonf? ,if;toif;rSm 'def;rwfo¶kyfvuQ%mESifh 'Drdkua&pDwefzdk;pHrsm; xdef;odrf; a&;twGuf &nf&G,fzGJ@pnf;xm;jcif;jzpfonf? aumufonf *smrefqef@usifa&;/ 'def;rwfemZDqef@usifa&;twGuf trsKd;om;aoG;pnf; nD!Gwfa&; vdktyfr_udk tav;ay;onfh 'def;rwfordkif;qdkif&m a[majymyGJrsm; ðyvkyfjcif;tm;jzifh y&dowfrsm;pGmudk qGJaqmifEdkifovdk owif;pmwGifvnf; owif;rsm;ygapEdkifcJhonf? olu 'def;rwfEdkifiHudk odrf;ydkufjcif;onf EdkifiH.tiftm;ESifh w&m;Oya'a=umif;nDr_ udk racszsufEdkif[k aqG;aEG;jycJhonf? jrifhrm;vmaeaom trsKd;om;a&;pdwf"mwfav[kefonf &yf&Gmaw;csif;yGJawmfrsm;Y tjyef@ESH@qHk;wdkufcwfcJhonf? ,if;yGJawmfrsm; onf trsm;tm;jzifh }uD;rm;vSaom a'oqdkif&myGJvrf;rsm; jzpfavh&Sdonf? Zlvdkif (4) &ufY t,fvfabmh*fòrd@teD;wGif vl (1500) cef@pka0;um (1864) ck *smr%DESifhppfyGJta=umif;/ ppfom;rsm;.&JpGrf;owWdta=umif;ESifh ‚if;wdk@csefxm;&pfcJhaom rdef;cav;rsm; ta=umif; aw;csif;rsm;udk oDqdkcJh=uonf? =o*kwfvESifh pufwifbmv wav#mufvHk;wGif vl ckepfodef;cGJonf tvm;wlyGJawmfrsm; Y oDcsif;rsm;qdkcJh=uonf? pufwifbm (26) &uf bk&ifhoufawmf ckepfq,fjynfharG;ae@wGif udkyifa[*ifòrd@awmfvrf;rsm;ay:Y axmif ESifhcsDaomvlxkrsm;onf EdkifiH. toa&udkaqmifxm;aom yk*~dKvf}uD;twGuf arG;ae@oDcsif;rsm; oDqdkcJh=uonf? “'DavmufvlawG trsm;}uD; udkyifa[*ifw0dkufu yef;jcHawGxJpka0;+yD; oDcsif;qdk¶HkyJqdkaewm[m *smrefawGtwGuf rcHcsifp&mjzpfaew,f” [k *sD ,ufb&Gef;u jyefajymif;ajymjyonf?

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odrf;ydkufr_tm; xdyfwdkufpdefac:jcif;onf tpdk;&. yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufa&;ay:vpDudk azmufzsuf&musvdrfhrnf? odk@&mwGif 'def;rwf. *k%fyk'fESifh vuQ%mtm; ,Ofaus;r_t&&yfcHjcif;udkrl tay:,Htm;jzifh EdkifiHa&;rqHapyJ t&Sdudk t&Sdtwdkif; azmfjyEdkifonf? odk@aomf jim;vnf; trsm;jynfol@cHpm;csufrsm;udk tjcm;enf;vrf;jzifhjyygu csKd;ESdrfcH&Edkifonfh tcsdefwGif xdkokd@aom ,Ofaus;r_enf;vrf;onf *smref=oZmcHa&;t,ltqudk oG,f0dkufpdefac:aecJhonf? qef@usifawmfvSefa&;v_yf&Sm;r_onf (1941) rwdkifrDtxd aumif;aumif;yHk ray:ao;aomfvnf; aw;csif;yGJawmfrsm;ESifh tjcm;aom ae@pOfESifhtr# vkyfaeonfh oauFwoabmqef@usifuef@uGufr_rsm;onf pdwf"mwfa&;yEMufudk csay;cJhonf? TonfrSm aemufESpfoHk;q,ft=umY uGefjrLepfvufatmufydkvefjynfwGif ppfaoG;ºuGtvkyf orm;rsm;/ twdkuftcH ynmwwfrsm;wdk@. vkyf&yfu v_yf&Sm;r_toGifraqmifao;aom twdkuftcHtwGuf vlr_a&;cGifudk zefwD; ay;vdkufyHkESifh qifwlaeonf? 'def;rwfpme,fZif;orm;wdk@uvnf; qef@usifawmfvSefa&;udk rD;ar$;ay;&mY ueOD;tp tcef;u¾u yg0ifcJhonf? usL;ausmf+yD;p tcsdefwGif *smrefjyef=um;a&;oHrª;onf 'def;rwfEdkifiHjcm;a&;0ef}uD;Xmeodk@ udk,fwkdifvma&mufI yHkESdyfxkwfa0r_rsm;twGuf tajccH pnf;urf;csufrsm; csay;cJhonf? ,if;pnf;urf;rsm;rSm EdkifiHjcm;owif;ESifh acgif;}uD;ykdif;tm;vHk; óudwifcGifhðycsuf,l&rnf? odrf;ydkufa&; wyfzGJ@rsm;tm; a0zefcGifhrðy/ óudwifcGifhðycsufr&yJ rnfonfhppfowif;udkrS yHkESdyfcGifhrðy ponfwdk@jzpf.? odk@aomf vHk;0O\HkvGwfvyfr_ udk tom;usxm;aom 'def;rwfrD'D,mu [efaqmifyefaqmifodwfr&Sdaom &GH&Smrkef;wD;r_jzifh wkef@jyefcJhonf? ae@vnfxkwf tpfuf px&mbvm'uf owif;pmu owif;rsm;/ aqmif;yg;rsm;udk pma=umif;vGwfwa=umif; wa=umif;jcm;+yD; yHkESdyfcJhonf? owif;pm zwfolrsm;udk pma=umif;rsm;udk ausmf=unfhzdk@ t&dyft¹rGufjyjcif;jzpfonf? uvGefabmh*fa&'D,dkESifh udkyifa[*ifa&'D,dktoHv$ifh orm;rsm;u qifqmjzwfxm;onfh ppfowif;rsm;udk zwf=um;&mwGif “,cktcsdefrSpI aemufqHk;0ifa&mufvmwJh *smrefowif; xkwfjyefcsufukd zwf=um;ygawmhr,f” [laom xHk;pHtzGifhpum;ESifh “aemufqHk;0ifa&mufvmwJh *smrefowif;xkwfjyefcsufudk zwf =um;vdk@+yD;yg+yD” [laom xHk;pHtydwfpum;wdk@udk zwf&mY r=umc%qdkovdk oa&mfawmfawmfaighawmhawmhavoH ododomomESifh zwfavh&Sdonf? 'def;rwfjynfwGif usL;ausmfodrf;ydkufa&;orm;rsm;udk xdyfwkdufrawG@&onfhtajcY 'def;rwfo¶kyfvuQ%mudk azmfusL;tr$ef;wifvdk onfh qENtm;jzifhvH_@aqmfr_udk rcH&onfhae&m r&Sdoavmufjzpfonf? EdkifiHu rdrd.pdwf"mwfa&;&mtwGuf rdrdzmomwm0ef,lae csdefwGif tpdk;&u &ufowWywfwywf+yD;wywf ukefqHk;vmonfESifhtr# ydkIydkI wdkufwdkif;atmifyHkaygufvmonfh usL;ausmfolrsm; ESifh yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufa&;vkyfief;&yfrsm;twkdif; vkyfaqmifaeonf? 'def;rwftm;odrf;ydkuf+yD; ajcmufywfr=umcif *smrefwdk@onf e,fomvef/ b,fvf*sD,HESifh jyifopfEdkifiHrsm;udk odrf;&cJhonf? emZDppf,EW&m;}uD;udk &ifqdkifaeonfh t"duOa&mycHuwkwfrSm +AdwdefEdkifiHom usef&Sdawmhonf? “opPmazmufawG tvdkr&Sd” *smrefwdk@. ppfajrjyifatmifyGJrsm;a=umifh pdwrf mefºuGvm+yD; *smrefemZDrsm;u t}uD;tus,f aiGa=u;axmufyHhay;xm;cH&aom/ 'def;rwfemZDygwDonf (1940) ZGefvwGif udkyifa[*ifòrd@Y tm%modrf;zdk@ óud;yrf;cJhonf? ,if;vkyf&yfonf ratmifjrifcJhaomfvnf; tpdk;&udk emZDZmwfoGif;a&; aemufxyfóud;yrf;csufrsm;rS umuG,fEdkif&ef 'def;rwfacgif;aqmifrsm;u vkyfaqmifcJh=uonf? Zlvdkif (2) &ufwGif ygwDig;cku udk;OD;aumfrwD[kac:aom ygvDreftpkwckudk zGJ@pnf;cJh=uonf? ,if;tpkonf xdktcsdefrSpI tpdk;&tzGJ@twGif; wu,fhqHk;jzwfcsufrsm;udk csrnfjzpfonf? 0ef}uD;rsm;udk ðzwfypfcJh&m yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufa&;ay:vpDtwGuf t"duwm0ef&Sdaom EdkifiH jcm;a&;0ef}uD; ref@csfvnf;ygoGm;onf? ref@csfudk xkwfypfcJhaomfvnf; ‚if;.ay:vpDrSmrl ðywfroGm;ay? EdkifiHjcm;a&;0ef}uD;opfrSm tJ&pfpau AD;eD;,yfjzpfonf? olonf ,cifuvnf; T&mxl;Y xrf;aqmifcJhzl;+yD; 'def;rwfEdkifiH =um;ae EdkifcJhonfh yxrurBmppftwGif;u *smr%Dqdkif&m 'def;rwfoHtrwf}uD;vnf; jzpfcJhzl;onf? pauAD;eD;,yfonf rmeaxmifv$m;um vlóudufenf;vSaomfvnf; bmvifrS om;&Jaumif}uD;ESifh qufqH&mwGifrl oifhavsmo f nfh vufawG@usol[k ,lqcH&onf? olonf yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufa&;ay:vpDudk taumiftxnfazmf&mY uHudkydktm;udk;onfhoabmxm;rsKd;jzifh vkyfaqmifcJhonf? olonf *smref vdkvm;olr[kwfaomfvnf; *smr%DppfEdkifrnf[k

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aocsmayguf,Hk=unfaeonf? xdk@a=umifh olonf wdkif;jynftm; emZDzdESdyfr_rS u,fwifa&;udk &nfrSef;csuftjzpf xm;cJhonf? pauAD;eD;,yfonf 'def;rwfEdkifiH. t&Sifocifopfrsm;bufodk@ ododomom ,drf;,dkifcJhonf? olu 'def;rwfEdkifiHonf “rnfonfh tajctaersKd;wGifrqdk rdrd. awmifbufrS r[mtdrfeD;csif;EdkifiH}uD;ESifh yËdyuQrjzpfoifh” [kajymcJhonf? olu *smrefppfajrjyif atmifyGJrsm;udk csD;ajr‡muf*k%fðyum “Oa&mywdkufwGif acwfopfw&yf” pwifcJh+yD[kqdkonf? 'def;rwfjynfom;rsm;udk *smr%DESifh “wufºuGaom tjyeftvSefyl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_” ðy=uzdk@ wdkufwGef;v_H@aqmfcJhonf? TazmfvHzm;csOf;uyfcsufonf 'def;rwfemZDrsm; twGuf tm;wufp&mjzpfoGm;+yD; ‚if;wdk@u bk&ifhtm; pauAD;eD;,yfrSvGJI 0ef}uD;tm;vHk;udkxkwfypfum emZDrsm; odk@r[kwf “acwf opfudk em;vnforl sm;” ESihf tpm;xd;k &ef awmif;qdk=uonf? bk&ifu jiif;y,faomfvnf; tpdk;&url *smreftvdkus vdkufavsmay; aeqJjzpfonf? (1941) ck tapmykdif;wGif 'def;rwf.EdkifiHjcm;qufqHa&;udk xdcdkufapaom trsm;odajym=um;xkwfjyefcsufrsm;udk &mZ0wfr_tjzpf owfrSwfvdkufonf? ESpfa,mufcsif;pum;ajymr_uyifv#if axmif'%fusEdkifonf? Oya'opfrsm;u “odrf;ydkufa&; EdkifiH. &efolrsm;” udk woufwu|ef;jypf'%fcszdk@ tm%may;xm;onf? (1941) ck ZGef (22) &ufwGif *smrefwyfrsm;u qdkAD,ufjynfaxmifpkudk wdkufcdkufcJhonf? *smrefwdk@u 'def;rwfEdkifiHudk qdkAD,ufrsm; ESifh oHtquftoG,f jzwfypf&efESifh 'def;rwfuGefjrLepfygwD acgif;aqmifrsm;udk zrf;qD;xdef;odrf;&ef awmif;qdkcJhonf? Tonfu 'def;rwfacgif;aqmifydkif;udk tusOf;t=uyfqdkufapcJhonf? Tawmif;qdkcsufrsm;udk vdkufavsm tav#mhay;vdkufygu 'def;rwfEdkifiH om;wdk@. tajccHOya'yg tcGifhta&;rsm;udk xyfrHcsKd;azmuf&musvdrfhrnf? rvdkufavsmjyefuvnf; *smrefrsm;u uGefjrLepfrsm;udk vdkufzrf;apzdk@ Ed_;qGay;&ma&mufEdkifonf? a&S;¶dk;pGJjynfol@ygwD0ifrsm;u ,if;awmif;qdkr_onf “xHk;wrf;pOfvm 'def;rwfw&m;r#wr_ t,ltqESifh yËdyuQjzpfaeonf” [k0efcHcJhaomfvnf; wzufwGif “uGefjrLepfrsm;onf “t=urf;zufr_ESifh tzsufvkyfief;” udk usL; vGefolrsm;jzpfonf[k pGyfpGJcJhonf? =o*kwfvwGif 'def;rwfygvDrefu 'def;rwfuGefjrLepfygwDudk rw&m;oif;a=unmum trwf (3) OD; tygt0if ygwD0if (300) udk &Ju zrf;qD;cJhonf? Todk@jzifh 'def;rwf. vGwfvyfr_cGifrSm csKyfcs,fuef@owfcHvm&onf? ta&S@zufppfrsufESmwGif wdkufyGJqufvufjzpfaeonfhtcg [pfwvmu rdrd. abmf&SDApf0g'qef@usifa&;wdkufyGJwGif Oa&mywwdkuf vHk; yg0if&rnf[k qHk;jzwf+yD; 'def;rwfEdkifiHudk ppfyGJ0ifEdkifiHtjzpfyg0if&ef (1941) ck Edk0ifbmvY “zdwfac:” vdkufonf? 'def;rwf0ef}uD; rsm;onf ta&;ay:tpnf;ta0;ac:+yD; a0hvnfa=umifywfvkyf=uonf? Edk0ifbm (23) &ufwGif AGef&ifax;zifhufu bmvif. zdwf ac:csufudk ,ckvdkxyfavmif;ajymcJhonf? “'def;rwfEdkifiHonf pmcsKyfudk csufcsif;vufrSwfxdk;&rnf? tu,fI rxdk;ygu æ 'def;rwf EdkifiHtm; &efolEdkifiHtjzpf oabmxm;&vdrfhrnfjzpf+yD; rv$Jra&Smifomaom tusKd;qufrsm;udk &ifqdkif&rnf?” pauAD;eD;,yfonf bmvifokd@oGm;a&mufcg vufrSwfxdk;vdkufawmhonf? aemufwae@wGif udkyifa[*ifausmif;om;rsm;onf tr,fvsifabmh*f&ifjyifwGif pk¶Hk;um 'def;rwfemZDowif;pmwdkufodk@ csDwuf=u onf? xdkrSwzef &pf*fpf'uf*fv$wfawmfodk@ csDwuf=uonf? vef'efwdkif;rf owif;pmu “ausmif;om;rsm;onf ykvdyfwdk@udk wGef;z,f ypf+yD; òrd@ae&mtESH@tjym;wGif qENjy=uonf? ‘pauAD;eD;,yf tvdkr&Sd’ ‘opPmazmufawG tvkdr&Sd’ pojzifh aºuG;a=umf=uonf” [kowif;ydk@cJhonf? “ykvdyfwkd@u rD;armif;rsm;xdk;um eHywf'kwfrsm;jzifh +zKdcGJonf? usnfqHbvdkif;awmifhrsm;jzifhvnf; ypfum/ *smref ppfXmecsKyfwnf&Sd&modk@ æ oGm;onfh vrf;udk atmifjrifpGmydwfqdk@EdkifcJhonf?” pauAD;eD;,yf bmvifrS jyefvmonfhtcg twif;=uyf qHk;vHkðcHa&;jzifh jyefvm&onf? odk@r[kwfygu aemufxyfqENjyyGJrsm; jzpfoGm;Edkifonf? Tjzpf&yftm;vHk;u *smrefrsm;udkvnf;aumif;/ 'def;rwftpdk;&udkvnf;aumif; tHhtm;oifhoGm;apcJhonf? yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufa&;rl tm; vlxkaxmufcHr_ wu,f&Sdonf[laom xifa,mifrSm;r_udk 'def;rwftpdk;&taejzifh ,cktcg pGef@v$wfvdkuf&awmhonf? r=um rD&ufydkif;wGif tpdk;&u qENjyorm;rsm;tm; jyif;jyif;xefxef¶_wfcscJhaomfvnf; tu,fI 'def;rwfwyfrsm;ESifh ppfvufeufypPnf;rsm; udk ta&S@zufppfrsufESmwGif toHk;ðy&ef twif;t=uyfawmif;qdk vmyguvnf;aumif;/ odk@r[kwf *sL;qef@usifa&;Oya'csrSwf&ef awmif;qdkvmyguvnf;aumif; jiif;y,frnf[k tpdk;&tzGJ@u wdk;wdk;wdwfwdwfqHk;jzwfxm;onf? odk@aomfvnf; &SdpkrJhpkydkif;jzwf csufrSm &ufowWywftenf;i,ftwGif; aysmufuG,foGm;cJhonf? ta=umif;rSm tpdk;&onf *smrefa&wyfodk@ awmfyD'dkoabFmopf (6) pD;ay;tyf&ef

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)187


t=uyfudkifcH&aoma=umifh jzpfonf? xdkr#omru 'def;rwfppfom;rsm;udk *smrefwyfxJoGif;jcif;udkvnf; rnfodk@r# [ef@wm;r_rðycJh? r=umciftawmtwGif; ppfr_xrf;Edkifonfh t&G,fa&muf+yD; 'def;rwfa,mufsm;tm;vHk; 'def;rwf¶kyfao;wyfwGif;odk@ oGif;cH&awmhonf? usL;ausmfodrf;ydkufa&;orm;rsm;tm; wkef@jyefyHkwkef@jyefenf;ESifhywfoufI ,cifvdk oDcsif;qdkyGJrsm;/ odk@r[kwf vrf;ay:pDwef;vrf;av#mufjcif;rsm;udkom a&G;p&m&Sdonfr[kwfawmh? ,cktcgYrl &efoludkwdkufrvm;/ odk@r[kwf &efolESifhvufwGJI wdkufrvm;[lI a&G;p&mjzpfvmav+yD? “'dk@tm;vHk; v_yf&Sm;zdk@vdkw,f” (1942) ckESpfOD;wGif 'def;rwfrsm;onf *smrefwdk@udk udk,fxdvufa&muf pwifpdefac:vm=uonf? tzsufvkyfief;yif vkyfvm=uonf? tzGJ@wzGJ@rSm t,fvfabmh*fòrd@rS ausmif;om;av;rsm;jzifh zGJ@pnf;xm;+yD; ‚if;wkd@udk,f ‚if;wdk@ csmcsDuvyf [kemrnfay;xm;onf? ‚if;wdk@.aºuG;a=umfoHrSm “tu,fI vl}uD;rsm; wckckrvkyf&if igwdk@vkyfr,f” [l.? “usaemfwdk@rSm emZDqef@usifa&; oauFwwck vkyfxm;w,f? tJ'gu p=umwHqdyf&J@ vufwHawGxdyfrSm r#m;acgif;yHkawG vkyfxm;wm? 'gudk usaemfwdk@ tkwfeH&HawGay:rSm/ avScg; twuftqif;ab;awGrSm/ qGJvdk@&wJhae&mrSm qGJw,f” [k‚if;wdk@. acgif;aqmifwa,mufu jyefajymif;ajymjyonf? “usaemfwdk@ taumif;qHk;vkyfEdkifcJhwmu ppfypPnf;awG tjynfhwifxm;wJh ukef&xm;wpD;udk rD;¶d_@ypfEdkifcJhwmyJ” [kqdkonf? tv_yf&Sm;qHk;tzsufvkyfief;tzGJ@udk uGefjrLepfrsm;uacgif;aqmifonf? ‚if;wdk@onf qdkAD,ufjynfaxmifpkudk *smr%Du 0ifwdkuf+yD; aemuf ajratmufv#Kd;oGm;cJh=ujcif;jzpfonf? uGefjrLepfbufawmfom;tzGJ@ KOPA [kzGJ@pnf;um ppfypPnf;u&d,mxkwfvkyfonfh puf¶Hkuav;rsm;udk pD;eif;wdkufcdkufr_rsm; ðyvkyf=uonf? vtenf;i,ft=umwGif uGefjrLepfr[kwfolrsm;udkvnf; xdktzGJ@rsm;Y yg0if cGifhðyvdkufum tzGJ@trnfudk vlvwfwef;pm;bufawmfom;tzGJ@ BOPA [k ajymif;cJhonf? Tppfqifa&;rsm;a=umifh xdcdkufysufpD; r_rSm tenf;tusOf;omjzpfonf? odk@&mwGif Twdkufcdkufr_rsm;onf yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufa&;ay:vpDudk uarmufurjzpfapcJhonf? tu,fI tpdk;&u tzsuform;rsm;udk ESdrfeif;ygu ,ckyifv#if avsmhenf;ae+yDjzpfaom trsm;jynfol@axmufcHr_udk ydkIqHk;¶_H;oGm; apvdrfhrnf? tu,fI bmrSrvkyfbJ aejyefv#ifvnf; rdrd. *smreft&Sifocifrsm;ESifh &efyGm;vdrfhrnf? pifppftm;jzifh *smrefwdk@. vdkufavsmcsuftay:rlwnfI tpdk;&wnf&Sdaejcif;jzpfonf? wcsdefwnf;wGif topfay:xGef;a0pnfvmaom ajratmufyHkESdyfvkyfief;u odrf;ykdufa&;wyfrsm;tm; qef@usifv_yf&Sm;a&;udk tm;ay; vH_@aqmfvmonf? 1941 aqmif;OD;&moDwGif ‘'Dz¶dkiftD'def;puD;’ owif;pmxGufvmonf? xdkaemufydkif;wGif *smrefqef@usifa&;EdkifiH a&;orm;rsm;u pDpOfaom =oZmwduUr&Sdonfh ‘z&pf'def;rwf’ owif;pmxGufvmonf? tjcm;owif;pmrsm;vnf; xGufvmonf? yg0ifywfouf=uolrsm;rSm pme,fZif;vkyfief; tawG@t=uHK tenf;tyg;om&Sdonfh vli,frsm;jzpf+yD; vufESdyfpuftenf;tusOf;ESifh pmul;pufa[mif;enf;enf;yg;yg;om &Sd=uonf? aiG&if;aiGESD;/ puUL/ rSifESifh pdwfcstm;udk;avmufonfh vufaxmufrsm;rSmvnf; &Sm& cufovdk &efolrS azmfxkwfawG@&SdroGm;bJ vkyfief;vnfywfEdkifrnfh ae&mrsm;rSmvnf; &Sm;yg;onf? rnfodk@yifjzpfap ajratmuf owif;pmvkyfief;onf vsifvsifjrefjref &ifhusuf}uD;xGm;vmum wcgrSvHk;vHk;vsm;vsm; aysmufuG,foGm;onftxd ESdyfuGyfr&EdkifcJh? (1942) ckaESmif;ydkif;wGif w&m;r0ifowif;Xmewckjzpfaom ‘jyef=um;a&;’ owif;Xmeu bDbDpD/ qGD'if/ 'def;rwf0ef}uD;Xmersm;ESifh qifqmjzwfrcH&aom owif;&if;jrpfrsm;rS owif;rsm;udk pkaqmif;xkwfjyefay;r_udk pwifvkyfaqmifcJhonf? (1943) wGif w&m;r0if yHkESdyfxkwfa0r_ pkpkaygif;rSm apmifa& (2 '\r 6) oef;txd &SdcJhonf? xdk@jyif w&m;r0ifowif;vkyfief;nd‡Ed_if;a&;aumfrwDw&yfESifh yl;wGJowif;crf;rwckudkvnf; xlaxmifcJhonf? qvm*sJvfpDrS xGufcGmvmI udkyifa[*ifwuUodkvfwGif ausmif;wufaeaom tm;efq,f,mESifholi,fcsif; wodkufvnf; yHkESdyf xkwfa0a&;ppfrsufESmodk@ 0ifa&muf=uonf? pmul;pufta[mif;wckudk &Sm=uH&,l+yD;aemuf ‘ausmif;om;jyef=um;a&;Xme’ udk wnfaxmifvdkufonf? r=umrDwGif olwdk@onf w&m;r0ifpmtkyfrsm;udk yHkESdyfxkwfa0ae=uawmhonf? xdkpmtkyfrsm;udk u'fpuUL rsm;jzifhzHk;tkyf+yD; rdrdwdk@aetdrfrsm;/ wdkufcef;rsm;rSaeI jzef@csD=uonf? *|efpwdef;bwf. v0ifae+yD 0wˆKrSm bufq,fvmjzpfum 'def;rwfxkwf pmtkyfjzL rSmvnf;a&mif;aumif;vSonf? pmtkyjf zL rSm *smrefusL;ausmfcsdefumv tpnf;ta0;rsm;ESifhywfoufonfh tpdk;&ESifh ppfwyfpm&Gufpmwrf;rsm;udk jyefvnfyHkESdyfxm;jcif;jzpfonf? pmtkyfxJwGif azmfxkwfxm;onfh tpdk;&.tav#mhay;vdkuf avsma&;vkyf&yfrsm;u 'def;rwftrsm;tjym;udk xdwfvef@wkefv_yfapcJhonf? Tpmtkyfudk tkyfa& (20000)

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)188


ausmfa&mif;cJh&onf? aemufpmtkyfwtkyfrSm [pfwvm.rdef@cGef;rsm;udk pkpnf;xm;jcif;jzpf+yD; rsufESmzHk;wGif jrif;jzLwaumifpD;um tv,facwfol&J aumif;oHcsyftusô0wfvsuf p=umwHqdyfwHcGefwckudk udkifxm;aom [pfwvmhyHkudk [moqHqHa&;qGJxm;onf? ,if;pmtkyfudk *smrefppfwyfpmwdkufvdyfpmrsm;odk@ tkyfa& (2000) ydk@ay;cJhonf? ,if;o¶kyfazmfyHkrSm acgif;aqmif}uD;udk rav;rpm;ðy&musonf[k emZDrsm;,lq+yD; t}uD;tus,f a'goxGufcJh=uonf? yHkESdyfpmrsufESmrsm;ay:wGifjzpfap/ trsm;jynfol=um;wGifjzpfap yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufa&;r[kwfbJ ckcHqef@usifa&;uom usL;ausmfodrf; ydkufr_tay: 'def;rwfwdk@. wke@f jyefa&;acgif;pD;jzpfvmonf? (1942) ckarvwGif 0ef}uD;csKyfpawmif;eif;twGuf EdkifiHawmfpsmyeY jynfoltenf;qHk; (120000) onf udkyifa[*ifòrd@awmf. t}uD;qHk;pnf;a0;crf;raqmifodk@ vma&mufI *g&0ðycJh=uonf? c&pf&Sef bk&if}uD;onf psmyetcrf;tem;wufa&mufzdk@&SdI crf;raqmifaemufzufrSm v_yfv_yf&G&Gjzpfonfhtcg tm;vHk;u bk&ifvm+yDxif+yD; rdrdwdk@cspfjrwfEdk;vSaom acgif;aqmif}uD;udk jrifEdkif&ef rwfwyf&yf=uonf? odk@aomf bk&iftpm; *smrefoHtrwf}uD; AGef&ifax;zifhuf 0ifvmonf? “vlawG b,favmufjrefjref xdkifcsvdkuf=uw,fqdkwmudk o¶kyfazmfzdk@awmifcufw,f? crf;raqmif}uD;uvnf; }uD; awmh tJ'Dhv_yf&Sm;r_u vd_if;vHk;av;wvHk;vdk jyef@xGufoGm;vdkufwm wu,fhudkxl;jcm;vSwJh toHwdwfqENjyyGJwck jzpfoGm;w,f” [k avhvmolwOD;u owif;ydk@onf? bk&if}uD; wu,fa&mufvmonfhtcgwGifrl olwdk@u vd_ufvSJpGmóudqdk=uonf? c&pf&Sefrif;}uD;onf 'def;rwfwdk@.a&S;tarGudk qufcHudk,fpm;ðyr_tjzpf aomhcsuu f saom vlr_a&;ESifh pdwf"mwfa&;jy,k*f jzpfvm onf? ppf}uD;rjzpfrDu olonf udkyifa[*ifòrd@awmfvrf;rsm;ay: ae@pOfjrif;pD;xGufavh&SdcJhonf? ,ckusL;ausmfodrf;ydkufcHumvwGif vnf; Tjrif;pD;vSnfhyGJudk qufvkyfcJhonf? tapmifhta&SmufrygbJ jrif;pD;oGm;pOf vlxky&dowfrsm;u vrf;ab;wav#mufpDwef; um vufckyfwD;=obmay; odk@r[kwf bk&ifhxHyg;vmI vufqGJE_wfqufwwf=uonf? *smrefppfom;rsm;uvnf; owdqGJay;=u onf? odk@aomf bk&if}uD;u olwdk@udk b,fawmhrS vSnfhr=unfh? udkyifa[*if*dk%f;tkyfbkef;awmf}uD;u “bk&if}uD;[m usaemfwdk@udk tm;wuf&Sifoefapw,f/ pkpnf;nD!Gwfapw,f/ vrf;!¸efay;aew,f” [krSwfcsufcscJhonf? vlxkudk pkpnf;tm;wufaponfh aemufxyftrSwftom;wckrSm *|efc&pPrwfrdk0,fvm jzpfonf? olonf yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufa&; rvkyfaom v$wfawmftrwfjzpfum (1941) ckwGif ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&;0ef}uD;tjzpfrS E_wfxGufzdk@ *smrefwdk@u zdtm;ay;jcif;udk cHcJh&onf? olu ajratmufowif;pmrsm;ESifh vlxktpnf;ta0;rsm;wGif *smrefay:vpDudk qufvufa0zef¶_wfcscJh+yD;aemuf ol@udk ygvDreftrwftjzpfrS xkwfy,fypf&efESifh *smrefqef@usifa&;rdef@cGef;rsm; ajymjcif;tm; wm;jrpfay;&ef AGef&ifax;zihfufu awmif;qdkcJh onf? 'def;rwfwdk@u jiif;qefaomtcg *smrefrsm;u ol@udkzrf;zdk@ qHk;jzwfvkdufonf? odk@&mwGif rdk0,fvmonf vef'efodk@ xGufajy; vGwfajrmufoGm;+yD; awmfvSefa&;umvwav#mufvHk; a&'D,dkrS wufºuGp&maumif;aom toHv$ifhyef=um;csufrsm;tm;jzifh tHwk zDqefr_.wHydk;c&moHtjzpf tusKd;ðycJhonf? (1942) ck =o*kwfvwGif *smrefrsm;u wdk;jrifhvmaeonfhawmfvSefa&;udk wefjyefEdkif&ef owif;pmqifqmvkyfief; wdk;csJŒa&;ESifh awmfvSefa&;orm;rsm;udk ao'%fay;a&; awmif;qdkcJhonf? tpdk;&u Tawmif;qdkcsufrsm;udk y,fcscJhaomfvnf; awmfvSefa&;udk vnf; jypfwif¶_wfcscJhonf? &uftenf;i,ft=umwGifrl rdk0,fvmu bDbDpDrSwqifh rdrdwdkif;oljynfom;rsm;udk ,if;ESifhuGJjym;onfh yef=um;csufw&yf ðyvkyfcJhonf? Tyef=um;csufrSm trdEdkifiH.pdwf"mwfudk ydkIxif[yfaeonf? “usaemfwdk@tm;vHk; v_yf&Sm;=uzdk@vdk w,f? usaemfwdk@rSm ta=umif;udpPwckwnf;udkyJ jrifxm;zdk@ wm0ef&Sdw,f? tJ'guawmh *smr%Dudk txdtemqHk;jzpfapr,fhupd PyJ? æ æ udk,fhwm0efudk udk,fxrf;=uyg? udk,fhtvkyfudk udk,fvkyf=uyg?” [k yef=um;xkwfjyefcJhonf? apmfum;r_rsm;/ wHqdyrf sm;ESifh oydwfrsm; 'def;rwf.tHwkr_ t&SdefjrifhvmonfESifhtr# wkdif;jynfonf olykefxvkeD;tajc a&mufae+yD[k [pfwvmu ,Hk=unf,lqvmonf? xdktcsdefwGif +Adwdo#ESifh tar&duefwdk@onf ajrmuftmz&duudk 0ifa&mufwdkufcdkufzdk@ tpDtpOfrsm; t+yD;owf a&;qGJjyifqifae =u +yD; r[macgif;aqmif}uD; ¡[pfwvm¢ rSm r[mrdwfwdk@udk [ef@wm;zdk@

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)189


tav;xm;óud;yrf;aeonf? 'def;rwfjynfvdk tm¶Hkv$JEdkifp&m rSefor#udk vufOD;r_,lESdrfeif;ypf&rnfjzpfonf? xdk@a=umifh *smrefacgif;aqmif}uD;u *smref-'def;rwfqufqHa&; tajymif;tvJvkyf&ef vdktyfonf[k qHk;jzwfvdkufonf? odk@aomf ‚if;.tajymif;tvJvkyf&yfrsm; vkyfoifhvkyfxdkufa=umif; jyEdkif&ef &efpr_ xdk;qGr_wck vkd tyfaeonf? tqdkygtcGifhta&;rSm (1942) pufwifbm (26) &uf c&pf&Sefbk&ifh ckepfq,fhESpfESpfajrmufarG;ae@wGif ay:vmonf? [pfwvmu bk&ifhxHodk@ 0rf;ajrmuf*k%fðya=umif;ESifh qkrGefaumif;awmif;a=u;eef;wapmif ydk@vdkufonf? bk&ifu at;pufpufwdkawmif;awmif; jyef=um;vdkufonf? “trsm;}uD;aus;Zl;wif/ c&pf&Sef &ufcfpf” [lIjzpf.? Tonfudk [pfwvmu yk*~dKvfa&;t&apmfum;r_wck/ 'def;rwfjynf. yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_rJhjcif; vuQ%mwcktjzpf rSwf,lcJhonf? xdk@a=umifh wkef@jyefonfhtaejzifh [pfwvmonf AGef&if ax;zifhufudk jyefvnfac:,lvdkufum 'def;rwfEdkifiHtaejzifh *smrefwyfrawmftwGuf vli,fvl&G,f (30000) oGif;ay;&efESifh 'def;rwf tpdk;& E_wfxGufay;&ef awmif;qdkvdkufonf? vef'efxkwf a';vD;w,fvD*&yf owif;pmu “[pfwvmu 'def;rwfudk vHk;0odrf;ydkuf zdk@ toifhjzpf/ *ufpwmydktkyfcsKyfa&;u c&pf&Sefbk&ifudk +cdrf;acsmuf” [kowif;acgif;pOfwyfcJhonf? *smrefwdk@u 'def;rwfwdk@tay: csKyfudkifv$rf;rdk;&ef vuf&if;vl,HkawmfESpfOD; apv$wfvdkufonf? AdkvfcsKyf}uD; [mrefAGef[ifeDuifudk wyfrawmfOD;pD;uGyfuJr_wm0ef,l&ef apv$wfcJhonf? 0g&ifhemZDAsL¶dku&ufwOD;jzpfol tufpftufpfAdkvfcsKyf}uD; a'gufwm0gembufpf u 'def;rwfEdkifiHqdkif&m *smrefoHtrwf}uD; jzpfvmonf? ‚if;udk [pfwvmu oD;oef@awG@qHk+yD; “oHr%dvufoD;jzifh tkyfcsKyf&ef” !¸ef=um;cJhonf? bmvif.aemufqHk;trdef@rSm emZDwdk@.umv&Snf tcspfawmfEdkifiHjcm;a&;0ef}uD; pauAD;eD;,yfudk 0ef}uD;csKyftjzpf cef@tyf&efjzpfonf? pauAD;eD;,yfu tpdk;&tzGJ@udk *smrefvdkvm;aom vkyfazmfudkifzufrsm;jzifh jznfhwif;cJhonf? ‚if;tm; e*dkurS twdtvif;&GHrkef;ae=uaom 'def;rwfvlxku ae&mtESH@wGif uef@uGufyGJrsm;/ qENjyyGJrsm; tkwfatmfaomif;wif; ðyvkyfcJh=uonf? 0gembufpfonf 'def;rwfEdkifiH. ‘axmufyHhvdkpdwf’ udk rxdcdkufapzdk@ oH"dÏmefcsxm;onfjzpf&um; yxrOD;pm;ay;rSm ppfEdkifa&;jzpf+yD; zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fa&;vkyf&yfrsm;onf ckcHawmfvSefa&;udkom ydkrdk}uD;xGm;apvdrfhrnf[k ,lqxm;onf? Tt,ltqu ol@tm; [ifeD uifESifh xdyfwdkufyËdyuQjzpfapcJhonf? odk@aomfvnf; bufpfrSm bmvifrS tjcm;!¸ef=um;csuf rvmygu aemufqHk;tm%mwnfol jzpfonf? olonf 'def;rwfv$wfawmftrwfrsm;ESifh &if;ESD;aEG;axG;aom qufqHa&;rsm; xlaxmifonf? oltvkyfp0ifonfh a&S@ydkif; vrsm;ESifhywfoufonfh tpD&ifcHpmydk@&mwGif olu 'def;rwfEdkifiHom;rsm;onf ppfyGJudk “pdwfysuf+iD;aiG@” aeonfhta=umif;/ *smr%D EdkifiHodk@ 'def;rwfydk@ukefrsm; wdk;wufaea=umif;ESifh pufr_ESifhpdkufysKd;a&;xkwfvkyfr_ wdk;jrifhvma=umif; rSwfcsufcsxm;onf? bmvifu a=ueyftm;&aeonf? odk@&mwGif pifppftm;jzifh bufpfu tajctaeudk xHk;okwfjyxm;jcif;omjzpfonf? tay:,HrsufESmjyifatmuf wGif usL;ausmfodrf;ydkufolrsm;udk qef@usifonfh a&pD;a=umif;rsm; tm;aumif;aeavonf? (1943) rwfv (23) &ufwGif bufpf.t}uD;qHk;trSm;wcktjzpf 'def;rwfEdkifiHudk ygvDrefa&G;aumufyGJrsm; usif;ycGifhðycJhonf? todrf; ydkufcHEdkifiHrsm;. udk,fydkifvGwfvyfr_udk *smr%Duwefzdk;xm;onf[k jycsifonf? qef@usifuef@uGufonfhtaejzifh rJray;=uzdk@ 'def;rwfueG fjrLepfrsm;u rJqEN&Sifrsm;udk wdkufwGef;cJhaomfvnf; tjcm;ygwDrsm;url rJEdkifa&;udk óud;yrf;=uonf? awmfvSefa&;tzGJ@ trsm;pku 'Drdkua&pDygwDrsm;. !Gef@aygif;tzGJ@udk axmufcHtm;ay;cJh=uonf? 'def;rwfvli,fyl;aygif;aqmif&Gufa&;v_yf&Sm;r_tzGJ@u trsKd;om;tvHESifh “rJay;+yD;” pmwrf;yg &ifxdk;wHqdyfwoef;ausmfukd jzef@a0cJhonf? TwHqdyfwyfjcif;onf oauFwoabm aqmif¶Hkomru rJray;vdkolrsm;udkyg t&Suf&aprnfjzpfonf? odk@ESifh aemufqHk;wGif rJay;Edkifol (89 '\r 5) &mcdkifE_ef; rJay;cJh=u onf? EdkifiHordkif;wGif trsm;qHk;jzpfonf? !Gef@aygif;tzGJ@0ifygwDrsm;u rJqEN (94) &mcdkifE_ef;&um &pf*p'uf*fv$wfawmfwGif trwf ae&m (149) ae&mteuf (141) ae&m tEdkif&cJhonf? 'def;rwfemZDrsm;rSm 3 ae&mudk yGwfcgoDcgom&cJhonf? emZDwdk@ta&;edrfhr_ ta=umif;&if;rSm 'def;rwfemZDygwDacgif;aqmif z&pfZfuavmhpif t&nftcsif;nHhzsif;r_a=umifh jzpfonf[k bufpf u tjypfyHkcscJhonf? a&G;aumufyGJonf jynfolwdk@u EdkifiHjcm;tkyfpdk;r_xuf wdkif;&if;'Drdkua&pDudk ydkvdkvm;a=umif; &Sif;vif;jywfom; pGm twnfðyvdkufjcif;tm;jzifh *smr%DtwGuf t"du¶H_;edrfhr_}uD; jzpfoGm;onfudk bufpf rjrifEdkifcJh? ESpfq,f&mpkESpf. tm%m&Sif tpdk;&rsm;onf a&G;aumufyGJwck usif;yay;jcif;tm;jzifh vlxkv_yf&Sm;r_udk tm;jzpfoGm;apEdkifonfh pdwf"mwfpGrf;tm;/ twdkuftcHudk tm;aumif;oGm;apEdkifonfh tvm;tvmwdk@udk oabmaygufEdkifcJvSonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)190


,cktcg awmfvSefa&;vkyf&yfrsm; rSefuefoifhawmfa=umif;udk ppfyGJ}uD;twGif; 'def;rwfEdkifiHu tajymif;tvJvkyfEdkifonfh tcGifh tvrf;ESifh ydkIydkI qufpyfwGJzufvmonf? bDbDpDu 0g'jzef@ppfqifa&;udk t&Sdefjr‡ifhum *smr%DESifhvrf;cGJzdk@ 'def;rwfwdk@udk wdkuf wGef;onf/ vlqdk;pm&if;rsm;a&;qGJ+yD; *smrefvdkvm;aomvkyf&yfrsm;wGif yg0ifywfoufaeonfh 'def;rwfwdk@.trnfrsm;udk a&'D,dkrS toHv$ifhonf? +Adwdo#ocif}uD;ESifhaygif;onfh ukvm;rsm;udk oduQmcst&SufcGJcJhyHkudk jyefvnfowd&p&mjzpfonf? r[mrdwfwdk@ .atmifyGJrsm;/ txl;ojzifh pwmvif*&ufrS t&Sdeft[kef}uD;rm;vSonfh *smrefppf¶H_;yGJudk aoaocsmcsmtjynfhtpHk toHv$ifhay; onf? 'def;rwfrsm;uvnf; awmfvSefykefuefzdk@ tm;wufvmap&ef ar#mfvifhcsufESifh v$ifhjcif;jzpfonf? Tt&mtm;vHk;u tzsufvkyfief;rsm;udk ydkrdktm;ay;vdkufonf? ZlvdkifvxJwGif tzsufvkyf&yf (93) ck jzpfcJh+yD; =o*kwfvwGif t}udrf (220) jzpfcJhonf? rdrdwdkif;jynftEW&m,fuswdkif; tdyfaysmf&mrSEdk;vmonfh '¾m&Dvm 'def;rwfol&Jaumif;trnfudk ,lxm; aom a[mfvf*g'def;puD;tzGJ@onf t"du tzsufvkyfief;aqmif&Gufoljzpfonf? “*smrefawG vrf;awGay: jynfhaewmudk =unfh&wm usaemf pdwyf suf+iD;aiG@vmw,f” [k *sif;pfvDvlvGef; u xdktzGJ@udk olpwifwnfaxmif&onfh ta=umif; ajymjyonf? “usaemf [m&Jvfp*dwf wav#muf pufbD;pD;aewkef;ayghaemf/ æ æ tJ'DrSm ppfom;awG wyfcGJwcGJ ab;ujzwfoGm;awmh usaemf aygufuGJ oGm;rdw,f? usaemf 'DaumifawGudk wHaxG;eJ@axG;w,f? 'Dawmh &JESpfa,mufu usaemfhzrf;csKyf+yD; *wfwJac:oGm;w,f? aemufwcg tzrf;cH&&ifawmh *smrefawGudkematmif wckckvkyf+yD;rSyJ tzrf;cHr,fvdk@ tJ'DrSm usaemfqHk;jzwfvdkufw,f” odk@&mwGif usL;ausmfol rsm;udk ydktxdemaponfu tzsufvkyfief;r[kwfyJ tjcm;vkyfief;wckjzpfavonf? udk,fxdvufa&muf ckcHawmfvSefa&;vuQ%mrsm;. v_H@aqmfr_a=umifh tvkyform;rsm;onf oydwfarSmufr_rsm; pvkyfvmonf? 'def;rwfjynfom;wdk@onf Tuef@uGufqENjyr_yHkpHESifh rpdrf;yg? (1920) wGif tajccHOya'tajymif;tvJrsm;udk awmif;qdkum tvkyf orm;acgif;aqmifrsm;u EdkifiHvHk;u|wftaxGaxGoydwf}uD; ac:cJhzl;onf? (,if;oydwfa=umifhtpdk;& tzGJ@ESifh v$wfawmfodk@ qHk;jzwf EdkifcGifhtm%m ydkIcGJay;cJh&onf?) ,cktcgYrl ypfrSwfrSm jyify&efoljzpfaeonf? jyifqifrGrf;rHr_rsm; vkyfaeaom *smrefu¶lZm ppf oabFmwpD;udk azmufcGJzsufqD;r_wck jzpfoGm;+yD;aemuf tdk'ifpDòrd@awmf. *smrefwyfrª;u oabFmusif;twGif;odk@ wyfrsm;apv$wf vdkufonfhtcg oabFmusif;tvkyform;rsm;u tvkyfcGifrSxGufcGmI oydwfarSmufvdkuf=uonf? &m;a'orS *smreftvkyform; rsm;enf;wl 'def;rwfrsm;rSmvnf; EdkifiHjcm;om;rsm;twGuf t"rRvkyftm;ay;&onfudk emusnf;cg;oD;=uonf? oydwfowif; òrd@ awmf&Sdtjcm;puf¶Hkrsm;odk@ ysHŒoGm;aomtcg tvkyform;rsm;onf aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfr_udk jyonfhtaejzifh oydwfarSmuf=uawmh onf? tdk'ifpDòrd@rSaeI oydwfrsm;onf ,Gwfvif;taemufbufurf;rS qdyfurf;òrd@wòrd@jzpfaom tufpfb,mh*fodk@ ysHŒoGm;onf? xdkòrd@wGif (5) *dka'gifwckrS oydwfrSm òrd@vHk;u|wf “vlxkoydwf” jzpfoGm;onf? a&vkyfom;/ ykvdyf/ rD;owform;/ ¶Hk;0efxrf;/ tpdk;&tr_xrf;/ tm;vHk; tvkyf&yfypfvdkufum tvkyfcGifwHcg;rsm;ydwfypfvdkuf+yD; òrd@v,fodk@ vma&mufpka0;=uonf? *smrefrsm;u a'gow}uD;ESifh nrxGuf&trdef@xkwfvdkufaomfvnf; vlxku *¶krpdkuf? jynfolrsm;u vrf;rsm;ay: pka0;ae=u+yD; nrxGuf&trdef@ r¶kyfrcsif; tvkyfjyefvkyfzdk@udk jiif;qef=uonf? ig;&uft=umwGif *smrefwdk@ av#mhay;vdkufonf? ESpf&uft=umwGif tdk'ifpDY aemufxyfoydwf wck jzpfjyefonf? awmfvSefa&;onf tm;vfabmh*fESifh tm;[yfpftygt0if òrd@}uD;}uD;rsm;odk@ ysHŒoGm;onf? tdk'ifpDwGif 0ef}uD;Xme t&m&Sdrsm;ESifh òrd@awmf0efwdk@u tvkyform;rsm;udk vkyfief;cGifjyef0if&ef yef=um;wdk;v#Kd;=uonf? tvkyform;or*~ acgif;aqmifrsm; uyif oydwfvSefzdk@ yef=um;=uonf? odk@aomfvnf; oydwfa=umifh *smrefppfom;rsm;ESifh tkyfcsKyfolrsm; rnfr#a,muf,ufcwfoGm; onfudk tvkyform;rsm; awG@jrifcJhav+yD? *smr%DEdkifiHtwGuf 'def;rwfpD;yGm;a&; aumif;rGefpGmvnfywfaezdk@ vdktyfaeoa&G@/ tvkyf orm;rsm;taejzifh ,if;pD;yGm;a&;udk csdeJ@&yfwef@oGm;atmif wwfEdkifor#vkyf=uawmhrnfjzpf.? tdk'ifpDòrd@rSoydwfrsm;rSm t=urf;zufr_rsm;jzpfvmonf? wcgY a'goxGufaeaom vltkyf}uD;. pdefac:&efpr_a=umifh *smrefppfom; wa,mufu aoewfxkwf+yD; vltyk ftwGif;odk@ tcsuftawmfrsm;rsm;ypfxnfhvdkuf&m aumifav;wa,muf tygt0if vl (4) a,muf '%f&m&oGm;onf? xkdtcg vltkyf}uD;rSm a'goaygufuGJ+yD; tqdkygppfom;udk twif;0ifvHk;um tao¶dkufowfypfvdkuf onf? Towif;udk [pfwvm=um;onfhtcg òrd@udk

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)191


u¶dkemaiG woef;'%f¶dkufonf? aiGudk *smrefwyfrawmfodk@ ay;oGif;&rnfjzpf onf? nrxGuf&trdef@vnf;xkwfvdkufum Zmwf¶Hkrsm;/ ¶kyf&Sif¶Hkrsm;udk ydwfypfvdkufonf? “*smreft&m&Sdwa,mufudk rawmfwa&mf ðyusifh&mY tjypf&Sd” olrsm;udk rv$Jtyfygu zrf;qD;r_rsm; vkyfrnf[k+cdrf;ajcmufonf? oydwfrsm;rSm 0gembufpftwGuf t}uD;tus,ftae&cufaponf? olu t&m&mudk jyefvnfxdef;csKyfEdkifa&;twGuf 'def;rwf ygvDrefudk ra&rwGufEdkifatmif yef=um;csufrsm;ðyonf? odk@&mwGif tvkyform;rsm;u awmfvSefa&;acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh wom; wnf;&yf=uojzifh 'def;rwftpdk;&tzGJ@ESifh ygvDref. “at;csrf;+idrf0yf” =uzdk@yef=um;r_rSm vspfvsL¶_cH&onf? bmawGjzpfaeonfudk xkacs&eftwGuf bufpfrSm bmvifokd@ qifhac:cH&onf? ‚if;u xdef;xdef;odrf;odrf;qufvkyf&ef t=uHay;+yD; oydwfrsm;rSm aumuf¶dk; rD;omjzpfa=umif; &Sif;vif;jyonf? odk@aomf ,ckw}udrfwGifrl ol@tay: AdkvfcsKyf}uD;AGef[ifeDuifu tompD;&oGm;onf? [ifeDuif um; ppfa&;t&ajz&Sif;a&;udk umv=umjrifhpGmuwnf;u &yfcHvmoljzpfonf? oydwfarSmufr_rsm;ESifh tzsufvkyfief;rsm; xdef;rEdkif odrf;r& ysHŒESH@ae+yD; ppfyGJ}uD;uvnf; tajctaeraumif;onfhbuf a&mufvmonfhtcg [pfwvmu aemufqHk;wGif AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ESifh oabmxm;wlnDoGm;onf? 'def;rwfrsm;taejzifh cyf=urf;=urf;tcsuftvufrsm;udk oabmwlnDr_rðyygu ppfa&;t& ta&;ay: tajctaea=unm+yD; AGef[ifeDuifu wdkif;jynfudktkyfcsKyfrnfjzpfonf? “'g[m tvSnfhtajymif;yJ” (1943) ck/ =o*kwf (28) &ufwGif *smrefrsm;u 'def;rwftpdk;&udk &mZoHay;vkdufonf? ta&;ay:tajctaea=unmyg/ txl;pDrH csuf (8) ckudk aqmif&Gufyg [lIjzpfonf? txl;pDrHcsuf&SpfckrSm oydwfarSmufr_rsm;/ vlig;a,mufxufydkaom vlxktpnf;ta0;rsm;/ wHcg;ydwf odk@r[kwf tdrfjyifY rnfonfhoD;oef@tpnf;ta0;udkrqdk ydwfyifa&;/ nrxGuf&trdef@ xkwfjyefa&;/ vufeuftm;vHk;odrf; qnf;a&;/ qifqmvkyfief;udk *smrefrsm;tm; v$Jtyfa&;/ Tpnf;rsOf;pnf;urf;rsm;tm; azmufzsufr_rSefor#udk udkifwG,f&eftwGuf tusOf;w&m;¶Hk;rsm;wnfaxmifa&;/ tzsufvkyfief;vkyfaqmifr_ odk@r[kwf *smrefppfzufudk zDqeftHwkr_ odk@r[kwf vufeufydkifqdkif udkifwG,fr_wdk@twGuf ao'%fay;a&; wdk@jzpf.? wdkwdkajym&v#if 'def;rwfEdkifiHudk qGH@t um ðrHoGm;apzdk@ jzpfonf? &mZoHudk vHk;0y,fcsvdkufavonf? “*smrefawmif;qdkcsufrsm;udk taumiftxnfazmfygu tpdk;&onf jynfoljynfom;rsm;udk at;aq;wnf+idrfatmif xdef;xm;Edkifrnfhtvm;tvmrsm; ysufokOf;oGm;vdrfhrnf” [ktpdk;&u jyef=um;cJhonf? yl;aygif;aqmif&Guf a&;ay:vpD edÏw d HoGm;av+yD? pauAD;eD;,yfESifh ol@tpdk;&tzGJ@ E_wfxGufvdkufonf? aemufwae@wGif *smrefwyfrsm;u rD;&xm;blwm ¶Hkrsm;/ "mwftm;ay;pufrsm;/ puf¶Hkrsm;ESifh tjcm;aomhcsuftaqmufttHkrsm;udk odrf;ydkufvdkufonf? ppfom;rsm;onf vlae&yf uGufrsm;odk@ 0ifa&mufum =oZm&Sd wuUodkvfygarmuQrsm;/ owif;pmt,f'Dwmrsm;/ v$wfawmftrwfrsm;ESifh pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief; &Sifrsm;udk zrf;qD;=uonf? t"duusaom taqmufttHkwdkif;/ ae&mXmewdkif;wGif *smreftapmifhppfom;rsm; csxm;vdkufonf? 'def;rwfwdk@onf a&'D,dkzGifh+yD; owif;em;axmif=uonf? a&'D,kdrS AGe[ f ifeDuif. a=unmcsufu olwdk@tm;E_wfqufvdkufonf? “tpdk;&tr_xrf;rsm;onf tvkyfudkqufvkyf=u&rnf/ *smreftm%mydkifrsm;. !¸ef=um;csufrsm;udk vdkufem&rnf? æ oydwfarSmuf r_tm;vHk;udk wm;jrpfonf/ usL;vGefygu aopm;aoaptjypf'%fcH&rnf?” aemufwck&Sdao;onf? w,fvDzHk;tm;vHk; qufr&awmh/ pmydk@vkyfief;udkvnf; &yfwef@ypfvdkufonf? ppfwyfu tm%mudkxdef;csKyfvdkufjcif;onf 0gembufpfudk ajrmif;xJa&mufoGm;aponf? olonf t&musr_twGuf wa,mu fa,muftay: tjypfyHkcscsifaeonf? ESpfq,f&mpkrS tjcm;aom rdrdudk,fom*¶kpdkufwwfol EdkifiHa&;t¶_H;orm;rsm;twdkif; olonf owif;pmrsm;udk tjypfwifonf/ *smrefrsm;udk pdwfqdk;atmifrvkyfzdk@ ol@owday;csufrsm;udk vspfvsL¶_onfhtwGuf tjypfqdkonf? “'Dayga=umifa=umifwkdif;jynfuav;rSm owif;pmawGu *smr%D[m tm;r&Sdbl;qdkwJh tjrifudk zefwD;ay;xm;w,f” [k olu xif&Sm;onfhowif;pmq&mrsm;ESifh awG@qHkaqG;aEG;yGJwckwGif ajymonf? “'Dawmh rae@nu cifAsm;wdk@eJ@ xdkufwefwmudk cifAsm; wdk@&oGm;wmyJ?” 'def;rwfawmfvSefa&;twGufrl wu,fyJ xdktwdkif;jzpfoGm;.? zdESdyfr_onf awmfvSefa&;.wm0efudk &Sif;jywfoGm; aponf? ajratmufowif;pm z&pf'def;rwf u “'g[m trSefyJ tvSnfhtajymif;jzpfw,f” [kqdkonf? “'gayr,fh wu,fhvufawG@ rSmawmh 'g[m wjznf;jznf; jzpfay:xGef;um;vmcJhwJh tajctaew&yfudk vlod&Sif=um; twnfðyay;vdkufwJh oabmyJjzpfw,f?” =o*kwfoydwfrsm;u 'def;rwfjynfom;wdk@onf *smrefwdk@tm; xdyfwdkuf&ifqdkifrnfh ta=umif;

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)192


azmfjyaeonf? ,cktcg 'def;rwfonf ydkrdk}uD;rm;aom ppfyGJ}uD;. tpdwftydkif;wckjzpfa=umif;udk vrf;rrsm;ay: rS ppfom;rsm;u owd&aponf? odk@&mwGif 'def;rwfjynfolvlxkw&yfvHk;twGufrl yk*~dKvfa&;tEW&m,frSm trsm;jynfol@awmfvSefa&;. wGJbufjzpfvmonf? vGefcJh onfhoHk;ESpftwGif;Y ‚if;wdk@.tpdk;&onf vlwum&GHrkef;vSaom yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufa&;ay:vpDudk usifhoHk;aeapumrl tnw& 'def;rwfjynfom;rsm;ESifh *smrefrsm;t=um; =um;cHtjzpf toHk;awmfcHcJhonf? tpkd;&tzGJ@E_wfxGufoGm;+yD;aemuf trsm;jynfol qdkif&mESifh vlr_a&;0efaqmifr_rsm; vnfywfaeEdkif&ef 0ef}uD;Xmersm; qufvuf tvkyfvkyfae=uaomfvnf; txufyg 'dkif;umrSm ,cktcg r&SdoavmufjzpfoGm;um AdkvfcsKyf}uD;AGef[ifeDuif bmvkyfrnfudk rnfodk@r#odEdkifp&menf;vrf;vnf;r&Sd jzpfaeonf? 'def;rwfEdkifiHrS *sL;vlrsKd; (8000) twGufqdkv#if rjrifEdkifaomtEW&m,fudk pdk;&drfa=umufvef@r_rSm ydkIyif}uD;rm;aeonf? usL;ausmf odrf;ydkufr_puwnf;u 'def;rwftpdk;&onf ‚if;wdk@tm; wef;wltcGifhta&;rsm; tmrcHcJhonf? *smrefrsm;uvnf; qlylr_rsm;rjzpfa&; twGuf ar#mfvifh+yD; 'def;rwf*sL;udpPudk arS;xm;cJhonf? rlvueOD;usL;ausmf+yD;p ajcmuf&ufajrmufuwnf;u AGef&ifax;zifhufu “wu,fvdk@ 'DudpPeJ@ywfouf+yD; vdktyfwmxuf enf;enf;avmufydkvkyfvdkufrd&ifudk EdkifiHa&;eJ@pD;yGm;a&;b0rSm oGufcsmyg' vdkuf oGm;vdrhfr,f/ 'grSr[kwfvnf; tifrwefqdk;qdk;0g;0g; z¶dkz&Jjzpfukefvdrfhr,f? 'Djy\em&J@ta&;}uD;r_udk av#mhrwGufoifhbl;” [k bmvifudkowday;cJhonf? 0gembufpf tm%m&SdpOfu TrpGufzufa&;enf;vrf;udk awmufav#mufusifhoHk;cJhonf? ta'ghvfzftkdufcref;ESifh [def;e&pfcsf[if;rvm;wdk@u zdtm;ay;aomfvnf; bufpf.txufvl}uD;jzpfol EdkifiHjcm;a&;0ef}uD; *sKdcif;AGef&pfbifxa&mhu ay:vpDajymif;&ef wcgrSzdtm;ray;cJh? odk@aomf 1943 ck =o*kwfvY oydwfarSmufr_rsm;ESifh tzsufvkyfief;rsm; tusyftwnf;tqifhodk@ a&mufvmaomtcg EdkifiHa&;&moDOwk tajymif;tvJudk tjrJwrf;}uKdwifwGufqEdkifolbufpfonf vrf;pOfajymif;vdkufonf? olu pufwifbm 8 &ufwGif bmvifodk@ a=u;eef;&Snfwapmif a&;ydk@vdkuf&m 'def;rwf&Sd*sL;tm;vHk;udk zrf;qD;a&;tm; axmufcHawmif;qdkxm;onf? TudpPonf tdkufcref;/ [if;rvm;ESifh txl;ojzifh [pfwvmudk oabmawG@aprnf[k oloabmayguf+yD;jzpf.? zrf;qD;r_rsm;aqmif&Guf&ef ykvdyftzGJ@rsm;udkvnf; olawmif;cHcJhonf? pufwifbm (15) &ufwGif tufpftufpfwyf&if;rsm;ESifh vHkðcHa&;t&m&Sdrsm; udkyifa[*ifodk@ pwifa&muf&Sdvm=uonf? ESpf&uf t=umwGifrl bufpfonf [pfwvm. w&m;0ifrD;pdrf;jyr_udk vufcH&&SdcJhonf? odk@aomf ,cktcgY *sL;rsm;udk tpkvdkuftðyHvdkuf zrf;jcif;onf r+idrfroufr_udk t}uD;tus,fqdk;0g;oGm;aprnf[k bufpfu pdk;&drfrdjyefonf? olu rdrd.pdk;&drfr_rsm;udk udkyifa[*ifrS t&if;ESD;t,Hk=unf&qHk;rdwfaqGwOD;jzpfol a*smh'yfuGpfZfudk ajymjyonf? 'yfuGpfZfrSm +rD;aumifayguft&G,fuwnf;u emZDygwD ESifhqufpyfcJhol *smrefoabFmvkyfief;qdkif&moHrª;jzpfonf? oluvnf; tpkvdkuftðyHvdkufzrf;qD;jcif;onf *smref-'def;rwfqufqH a&;udk xdckdufepfemaprnfjzpfI ,if;vkyf&yfudk qef@usifonf? [pfwvmu bufpfxHjyef=um;pmudk olzwf&onfhnY “igbmvkyf& rvJqdkwm igod+yD” [k ol@'dkif,m&DpmtkyfxJ a&;cJhonf? rnfodk@yifjzpfap bufpfonf trdef@udkvdkufem+yD; pDrHudef;udktaumiftxnfazmf&rnfudk em;vnfonf? pufwifbm (30) &uf =umoyaw;ae@wGif *sL;ESpfopful;yGJpwifonfhtcg *sL;rdom;pkrsm;onf xdkae@ESifh atmufwdkbm (1) &uf aom=umae@wdk@wGif rdrd wdk@aetdrfrsm;Yom &Sdae=urnfjzpfonf? xdk@a=umifh zrf;qD;r_rsm;udk aom=umae@ n 10 em&DwGif pwifum paeae@reuftxd qufvkyfzdk@ bufpfu !¸ef=um;vdkufonf? tpDtpOftwdkif;om tm;vHk;tqifajyygu *sL;rsm;rSm tidkufrd+yD; ¶kwf¶kwfoJoJ odyf rjzpfbJ aetdrYf yifzrf;rdrnfjzpfonf? odk@aomf a*smh'yfuGpfZf bmvkyfrnfudk rnfonfh*smrefwOD;wa,mufrS ar#mfvifhrxm;/ 0gembufpfyifv#if ar#mfvifhrxm;? pufwifbm (28) &uf t*Fgae@Y bufpfESifhawG@qHk+yD;aemuf 'yfuGpfZfu 'def;rwfvlrsK;d EdkifiHa&;ESifh yk*~dKvfa&;rdwfaqG [ef;pf[uf'f awmhzfudk zHk;quf+yD; olESifhwuG ol.qdk&S,f'Drdku&ufwpfygwDvkyfazmfudkifzufrsm;ESifh awG@qHkzdk@ yef=um;cJhonf? xdkae@vnfY qHk pnf;=uaomtcg 'yfuGpfZfu *smrefpDrHcsufudk t&if;twdkif;azmufonfcsonf? *sL;wdk@udk owday;r_pvkyf&ef wdkufwGef;onf? csufjcif;yif olwdk@onf *sL;todkif;t0dkif;rSm ta&;tygqHk;yk*~dKvfrsm;udk qufoG,f=uonf? xdktxJwGif *sL;*dk%f;csKyfbkef;awmf}uD; rm;uyfpfr,fvfcDa,mfESifh *sL;vD;,yfrm*dkvifpuD;wdk@ yg0ifonf? rm*dkvifpuD;u *sL;rsm;ykef;a&Smifzdk@ ta=umif;=um;onfh qufom; pepfwckudk pDpOfonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)193


owif;u v#yfjyufovdk jyef@oGm;onf? TonfrSm wpdwfwydkif;tm;jzifh *sL;r[kwfonfh'def;rwfvlrsKd;rsm;a=umifhvnf;jzpfonf? ta&;ay:vlemwifum;armif;ol a,mf*ifemh'fqifu a'oEW&zHk;pmtkyfrsm;xJwGif “*sL;[kxif&aom emrnfrsm;” &Sdonfh rdom;pk wdk@.vdyfpmrsm;udk vdkuf&Smonf? xdk@aemuf ol. ta&;ay:aq;¶Hkum;udk armif;um owdoGm;ay;onf? owday;cH&olrSm ykef;cdk p&mae&m r&Sdygu aq;¶Hkodk@jzpfap/ awmfvSefa&;xJwGif wufºuGpGmyg0ifaeonfh q&m0efrsm;.aetdrfodk@jzpfap ac:oGm;onf? tjcm;*sL;rsm;rSmvnf; vrf;oGm;&if;ESifh vHk;0rjrifzl;rawG@zl;onfh vlpdrf;rsm;u csOf;uyfum ‚if;wdk@.wdkufcef;aomh odk@r[kwf tdrfaomhrsm; tay;cH&onf? “'g[m tkdufcref;eJ@ ol@vlawG rawG@zl; r}uKHzl;wJh[myJ” [k [dkifzgwuUodkvf acwfopf*sL;ordkif; ygarmuQ aveD,m[Dvfuqdkonf? 'def;rwfEdkifiH.*sL;rsm;onf “wntwGif; 'def;rwfvlrsKd;rsm; wnfaqmufvdkufaom ouf&Sd wHwdkif;aemufuG,fodk@” tomav;a&Smifwdrf;oGm;cJh=uonf? “usaemfwdk@ tifrwef}uD;rm;wJhtawG@tóuH&vkdufw,f? bmvdk@ vJqdkawmh t&ifwHk;u *smref@tiftm;udk txif}uD;a=umufvef@/ ‘igwdk@u bmrsm;wwfEdkifrSmvJ’ vdk@udk,hf[mudk,f +iD;aewJh vlxku ¶kwfw&uf wnDwnf;xwnfh+yD; *smrefawGudk qef@usifwJhtaeeJ@ tjypfr&SdwJh EdkifiHom;csif;nDaemifawGudk wufwuf ºuGºuGulnDwm awG@vdkuf&vdk@yJ” [k 'def;rwfwa,mufua&;onf? *sL;rsm;udku,fwifr_u wdkif;jynfudk v_yf&Sm;wufºuGoGm;aponf? 'def;rwftrsm;tjym;udk awmfvSefa&; tm;&Sdyg;&Sdvkyfzdk@ wGef;tm; ay;vdkufonf? “wu,fvdk@ usaemfhwdk@[m *sL;vlrsKd; wEdkifiHwnf;om;csif;awGudk ulnDvdk@ jyif;xefwJhtjypf'%feJ@ *smr%Dudk ac: oGm;cH&r,fh tvm;tvm &Sd&if&Sdaeyap” 'def;rwfawG[m *smref+cdrf;acsmufr_awGudk OD;r!Gwf 'l;raxmufEdkif[k z&pf'de;f rwf owif;pmua=unmonf? “usaemfwdk@[m olwdk@udk tpGrf;ukefqufvufulnD&r,f? +yD;cJhwJhESpfn tjzpftysufawG[m usaemfwdk@ twGuf 'def;rwfuH=urRm&J@ tpdwftydkif; jzpfoGm;cJhw,f? tu,fI usaemfwdk@[m *sL;awGudk olwdk@'kuQa&mufaecsdefrSm pGef@ypfvdkuf &if usaemfwdk@[m udk,fhZmwdEdkifiHudkvnf; pGef@ypfwmjzpfoGm;r,f?” 'def;rwfvl@tzGJ@tpnf;. a'gifhwdkif; ae&mwdkif;vdkvdkudk udk,fpm;ðyaom tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;u *smrefvkyf&yfudk ¶_wfcs=uonf? udkyif a[*ifESifh tm;&f[yfpfwuUodkvfrsm;u uef@uGufonfhtaeESifh wywfausmif;ydwfvdkufonf? 'def;rwf omoema&;0ef}uD;Xmeu 0gembufpfxH uef@uu G fpmwapmifydk@vdkuf+yD; ,if;pmudk bk&m;0wfðyyGJrsm;wGif toHk;ðyEdkif&ef omoemq&mrsm;odk@ jzef@a0vdkuf onf? (TtcsdefrSpI bk&m;ausmif;rsm;u ajratmufueG f,ufrsm; ulnDwnfaxmif =u+yD; bk&m;ausmif;wufolrsm;vnf; &Sdaeaom awmfvSefa&;tzGJ@rsm;xJ tHkvdkufusif;vdkuf0ifa&muf=uawmhonf?) aemufqHk;tm;jzifh awmfvSefa&;tzGJ@trsKd;rsKd;udk udk,fpm;ðy+yD; r=umrDav;urS xlaxmifvdkufaom vlckepfOD;yg vGwfvyfa&;aumifpDu “*smrefrsm; toufoGif;vdkufaom *sL; ESdrfeif;yGJrsm;” udk ¶_wfcsonfh a=unmcsufxkwfvkdufonf? odk@&mwGif *sL;rsm;rSm tEW&m,fruif;ao;? atmufwdkbm 2 &ufae@xkwf *smreftrdef@wcku *sL;rsm;udk tm%mydkifwdk@xH tyfESHzdk@ *sL;r[kwfoltm;vHk;udk !¸ef=um;onf? xdk@a=umifh *sL;wdk@rSm EdkifiHwGif;Y vHkðcHpdwfcspGm qufvuf ykef;atmif;aezdk@ rjzpfEdkifawmh? olwdk@rSm =um;aeEdkifiHjzpfaom qGD'ifEdkifiHodk@ xGufcGmzdk@enf;vrf; &Sm=uH&rnfjzpfonf? *sL;rsm;udk twGif;ydkif;ykef;cdk&mrsm;rS urf;¶dk; wef;odk@ o,f,lydk@aqmifay;onfhtzGJ@rsm; 'gZifESifhcsDI ay:aygufvmonf? urf;¶dk;wef;a&mufv#if ig;zrf;avSrsm;/ pufavSi,f rsm;ESifhvnf;aumif;/ vufavSmfavSrsm;ESifhyifvnf;aumif; wifIydk@Edkifonf? a[mfvf*g'def;puD; tzsuftzGJ@rSm ,cktcg *sL;rsm;tm; u,fq,fa&;udk tm¶Hkpl;pdkufaeonf? ‚if;wdk@tm; udkyifa[*ifqdyfurf;e,fajrrStdrfrsm;wGif zkef;uG,fay;xm;+yD;aemuf ae0ifcsdefY tzGJ@. ig;zrf;avS q,fhESpfpD;jzifh qGD'ifEdkifiH odk@ ydk@aqmifay;onf? ausmif;om;jyef=um;a&;XmerS tm;ef;q,f,mESifhtazmfrsm;onf *sL;ajy;vrf;wav#mufrS *smrefppfwyfv_yf&Sm;r_rsm; owif;udk pkaqmif;ay;=uonf? Tvkyf&yfrSm wefzdk;rjzwfEdkifaom tusKd;ðycsufw&yfjzpf+yD; }uD;rm;vSaomay;qyfr_ ðycJh&onf? axmufvSrf; a&;c&D;pOfwcktwGif; ausmif;om;ig;a,muf towfcHvkduf&onfh ay;qyfr_yifwnf;? ae&Sife,fwD'if; owif;axmufrsm;onf awmfvSefa&;tzGJ@rsm;/ ajratmufu,fq,fa&;tzGJ@av;rsm;ESifh tquftoG,fvkyfum ajy;vrf;a=umif;rsm;ESifh *smrefwyftiftm; rsm;owif;udk ay;onf?*sL;'kuQonfrsm;udk “tmvl;” [kpum;0Sufjzifhac:onf? “,ae@ tmvl;q,fh&Spftdwfudk rpPpftd*Dtm; a&mif;vdkufonf? æ æ tmvl;tdwfESpfq,fudk

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)194


vif*fbD&Sd=um;yGJpm;rSwqifh a&mif;vdkufonf? æ tmvl;rsm;udk aemufwae&m odk@a&$@xm;v#if aumif;ygvdrfhrnf” [laom owif;ydk@csufwckudk owif;pmq&mwOD;u owdw&jyefajymjyonf? qGD'ifjynfodk@ *sL;'kuQonf avSwpD;wdkuf xGufxGufoGm;wdkif; 'def;rwfawmfvSefa&;twGuf atmifyGJwyGJcHvdkuf&jcif; jzpf+yD; atmifyGJ wck&vdkufv#if oH"dÏmef ydkcdkifrmvmum rdrdtiftm;rsm;vnf; wdk;yGm;vmonf? *smrefppfom;rsm;u 'def;rwf*sL;rsm;udk aemufxyf vwcsKd@=umatmif qufvuf&SmazGaeaomfvnf; trsm;tm;jzifh tcsnf;ESD;om jzpfcJhonf? ta=umif;rl *sL;vlrsKd; (7220) rSm qGD'if EdkifiHodk@ atmifjrifpGmxGufajy; vGwfajrmufoGm;cJhaoma=umifhjzpfonf? atmufwdkbm (1) &ufae@ESifh (2) &ufae@ pD;eif;&SmazGr_rsm; twGif; (472) a,mufudkom zrf;rdcJhonf? u,fwifjcif;ppfqifa&;udk atmifjrifxajrmufapcJhaom trsKd;om;aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfr_u 'def;rwfudk *smrefwdk@ESifh ydkwif;rmaom twdkuftcHjzpfr_qD a&mufoGm;apcJhonf? xdk@jyif vufqkyfvufudkifjyEdkif+yD; vufawG@us aom &nfrSef;csuf rsm;xm;&Sdonfh aocsmusepGmpnf;¶Hk;pDpOfxm;aom awmfvSefa&;óud;yrf;r_w&yfonf wwd,r[mEdkifiHawmf}uD; . pGrf;tm;udk+zKdzsufypfEkdifa=umif; r[mrdwfrsm;ESifh tqdk;jrif'def;rwfvlrsKd;rsm;tm; oufaojycJhonf? “'def;rwfjynfolwdk@. t}uD;us,fqHk;atmifyGJ” txufygatmifjrifr_vd_if;udkpD;aepOfrSmyif wdkif;jynf.tav;pm;cH&qHk; uAsmq&m jyZmwfa&;q&mwOD;jzpfol uyf*sfref@uf towf cH&r_u 'def;rwfawmfvSefa&;udk xyfrHrD;xdk;ay;vdkufonf? omoemq&mtvkyfvkyfaom ref@ufonf ESpfopful;tóudae@ 0wfðyyGJ w&m;a[m&mY *smrefodrf;ydkufr_udk xnfhoGif;¶_wfcs+yD; w&m;emy&dowfudk tzsufvkyfief; vkyfzdk@ wdkufwGef;cJhonf? r=umciftwGif; ol@udk *smreft=urf;zufwyfzGJ@u aetdrfrSqGJac:oGm;+yD; ypfowfvdkufonf? xdknrSmyif udkyifa[*ifòrd@ awmf0ifZmwf¶HkY yGJrprD o¶kyfaqmif u,JvfatbJvf u “,ae@uG,fvGefoGm;aom 'def;rwfEdkifiH.t}uD;us,fqHk;jyZmwfq&mtwGuf wc%+idrfouf” ay;=uzdk@ y&dowfudk arwWm&yfcJhonf? Zmwf¶HkwckvHk; wdwfqdwfoGm;+yD;aemuf atbJvfonf rdrdukwftusôudkaumufum xGuf oGm;awmhonf? *smrefwdk@u ydwfyifwm;jrpfaomfvnf; aemuf&uftenf;i,ftwGif; owd&qkawmif;yGJ trsm;tjym;vkyfcJh=u onf? pmtkyfqdkifrsm;u vnf; rdrdwdk@.jywif;aygufrsm;udk puULtrnf;jzifh qifcJhonf? Todk@aom jyif;xefonfhcHpm;r_udk toHk;csum ajratmuf vGwfvyfa&;aumifpDonf bk&ifu tpdk;&opfw&yfukd vGwfvyfpGm rzGJ@ pnf;EdkifrD umvtawmtwGif; rdrdwdk@aumifpDtm; EdkifiH. wu,fhvufawG@tpdk;&tjzpf 'def;rwfwyfrawmfu todtrSwfðyatmif oabmwlnDcsuf&,lEdkifcJhonf? awmfvSefa&;. yxr&nfrSef;csufonf *smrefwyfrsm;udk wufºuGxufoefpGmqef@usifa&; jzpf&rnf [k aumifpDu oabm&+yD; awmfvSefa&;vkyf&yftm;vHk;udk qufpyfxdef;nd‡&ef OD;pD;aumfrwDwck xlaxmifvdkufonf? ae&ma'o w&mcef@wGif aygufzGm;vm+yD; aygif;jrufxovdk }uD;xGm;oefpGrf;vmcJhaom 'def;rwfawmfvSefa&;onf ,cktcg A[dkOD;pD;uGyfuJr_ESifh wrdef@-woHudk &&Sdvdkufav+yD? (1944) ck ESpfOD;ydkif;wGif 'def;rwfEdkifiHudk awmfvSefa&;e,fajr ajcmufckcGJxm;onf? e,fajrwckpDonf vGwfvyftrSDcdkuif;aomfvnf; tm;vHk;rSm OD;pD;aumfrwD. trdef@atmufrSm&Sdonf? e,fajrwdkif;wGif ajratmufjynfol@ppfrsm; wnfaxmifzGJ@pnf;um +AdwdefESifh qGD'ifEdkifiHwdk@rS cdk;oGif;vmaom vufeufrsm;ESifh avhusifh=uonf? wvtwGif;rSmyif TtzGJ@av;rsm;onf tjcm;tzsufvkyfief; tzGJ@rsm;ESifhtwl yl;wGJI *smrefwdk@twGuf vufeufi,frsm;/ wifhum;/ av,mOf/ tajrmufrsm; xkwfvkyfaom 'def;rwfvkyfief;Xme rsm;udk wdkufckdufxdk;ESuf=uonf? ZGefvtwGif;Y tzsuform;rsm;onf rD;&xm;vrf;rsm;udk q,fhudk;}udrfwdkufcdkufcJh&m ukefvGefcJh aomig;vrS ysrf;r#=udwfE_ef;xuf oHk;qydkrsm;onf? ,cktcg vGwfvyfa&;aumifpDonf awmfvSefa&;. tapmydkif;vkyfief;wm0efjzpfaom 'def;rwfudk,fykdifvGwfvyfcGifh &yfcHa&;twGuf tuGuftuGif;zefwD;a&;vkyfief;rSausmfvGefI 'def;rwfEdkifiHtm; *smrefwdk@toHk;csaoG;pkwfaejcif;udk }uD;}uD;rm;rm;xdcdkufaprnfh wufºuGaomv_yf&Sm;r_qDodk@ awmfvSefa&;udk wGef;wifvdkufonf? odk@aomfvnf; tzGJ@udkpwif wnfaxmifolwOD;url aumifpDonf tjcm;&nfrSef;csufwckudk a&S;OD;pGm&&Sdatmif vkyf&rnf[k,lqonf? z¶dk'D,muGyfAfqifu vef'efòrd@rS *|efc&pPrwfrdk0,fvmxHokd@ Todk@ pma&;vdkufonf? “usaemfwdk@jynfolvlxk&J@ ESvHk;om;udk &,lzdk@wdkufyGJ[m ta&;t}uD;qHk;vdk@ usaemfxifw,f? æ usaemhf tjrifrSm jy\emu ‘*smrefawGudk b,fvdktxdtemqHk;jzpfatmif vkyfEkdifrvJ’ qdkwmxuf ‘{&mrjynfolvlxk}uD;udk wkdufyGJxJ b,fvdkqGJac:rvJ’

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)195


qdkwmjzpf&r,f? vkyfief;wckrSm vl 1000 yg0ifywfoufwmeJ@ (10) a,mufyJ ygwmu &v'ftwlwjl zpfae&if vl (1000) ygwmydkaumif;w,f qdkwJh trSefw&m;bufu usaemfaer,f?” xdk&nfrSef;csuftay:rSaeI ,muGyfAfqifonf ajratmufppfwyfxal xmif&ef 'de;f rwfwyfrawmf.qENukd uef@uGufcJhonf? tb,fh a=umifhqdkaomf olu awmfvSefa&;udk ajray:Y trsm;pkae=u&aom EdkifiHom;tm;vHk;u vkyfEdkifap&rnf[k cH,lxm;aoma=umifh jzpfonf? olu vl@tzGJ@tpnf;wckvHk;u *smrefrsm;udk qef@usifapcsifonf/ vufeufudkifvlwpkwzGJ@uom qef@usifaejcif; rjzpf apcsif? jynfyrSodrf;ydkufa&;orm;udk xdxda&mufa&muf qef@usifzdk@qdkv#if vlwef;pm;tv$maygif;pHkjynfolrsm;tm;vHk; yg0ifqifE$J& rnf[k *E<Doabmaygufem;vnf cJhouJhodk@jzpfonf? jynfolvlxktrsm;pk}uD;u jynfytiftm;pkudk qef@usifaqmif&Guf vdkuf=u v#if (0g) rdrdwdk@. vdkufavsmemcHaer_udk ¶kyfodrf;vdkuf=uv#if ,if;tiftm;pkrSm pdk;rdk;tkyfcsKyfEdkif&efvdktyfonfh yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_ aomfvnf;aumif;/ [efjytm;jzifh Oya'a=umif;nDr_ aomfvnf;aumif; &Sdawmhrnfr[kwf? aumifpDonf 'def;rwftm;vHk;udk &nf!¸ef;vsuf t=urf;rzufawmfvSefa&;udk OD;pm;ay;cJhonf? “usaemfwdk@tm;vHk;[m &nf&G,fcsuf &Sd&SdeJ@ rarmEdkifryef;EdkifyJ æ æ ¡&efol@¢ vrf;a=umif;rSm t[ef@twm;awG vkyf&r,f? æ æ jiif;qef&r,f/ aESmifhaES;ap&r,f/ xdcdkuf avsmhyg;ap&r,f?” t=urf;zufawmfvSefa&;udk “vkyfvnf;vkyf&J/ vkyfEdkifwJhenf;vrf;vnf; &SdwJh” olawGuom aqmif&Guf&r,f/ “odrf;ydkufa&;tiftm;}uD;twGuf tcsuftjcmuswJh ae&mawGudk” ypfrSwfxm;&r,f? odk@aomf tzsufvkyfief; wdk;jrifhvmonfESifh tr# *smrefwdk@. vufwkef@jyefr_rsm;rSmvnf; wdk;jrifhvmonf? vufwkef@jyefr_rsm;udk yHkrSeftm;jzifh 'def;rwf&SJvfbmh*fwyfu aqmif&Guf onf? ‚if;wdk@rSm emZDvdkvm;aom 'def;rwfz&D;aumwyfrS vla[mif;rsm;jzpfonf? ,if;wyfu &SJvfbmawh*sf[k vlodrsm;vmaom wefjyeftzsufvkyfief;udk usifhoHk;onf? 'def;rwfvlrsKd;wdk@ tjrwfwEdk;wefzdk;xm;aom trsKd;om;oauFwrsm;/ ae&mxdkifcif; taqmuftODrsm;udk wdkufcdkufjcif;jzpfonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh *smrefwdk@twGuf ¶dkifz,faoewfxkwfvkyfonfh puf¶Hkw¶HkY tzsuf vkyfief;jzpfyGm;+yD; aemuf &SJvfbmh*fwyfu awmf0if'def;rwfaºuGpuf¶Hkudk rD;wif¶d_@um udkyifa[*if. xif&Sm;ausmf=um;vSaom wDAdkvDyef;jcHtwGif; AHk;rsm;axmifcJhonf? ZGefvv,fwGif [def;e&pfcsf[if;rvm;u bufpftm; tzsuform;rsm;udk ESdrfeif;&ef trdef@ay;vdkufonf? (25) &ufae@wGif bufpfu wdkif;jynfwGif;Y aemufxyfta&;ay:tajctae a=unmcsufwck xkwfjyef+yD; n 8;00 em&DrS reuf 5;00 em&Dtxd nrxGuf& trdef@xkwfvdkufonf? Tonfudk wkef@jyefonfhtaeESifh aemufwae@wGif udkyifa[*ifòrd@ bmrdwfpwmESifh0def; oabFmusif;rS tvkyf orm; (1200) onf rGef;vGJ 1;00 em&DwGif tvkyfrSxGufcGm=uonf? ‚if;wkd@u rdrdwdk@onf oydwfarSmufjcif;r[kwfa=umif;/ n rxGuf&trdef@a=umifh rdrdwdk@yef;O,smOfjcHrsm;pdkufysKd;ðypkzdk@ tcsdefvHkvHkavmufavmuf&&ef tvkyfrS apmapmjyefjcif;omjzpfa=umif; tvkyf&Sifrsm;udk tmrcH=uonf? TvSnhfuGufta=umif; tjcm;puf¶Hkrsm;odk@ tvsiftjrefjyef@oGm;um tvkyf&yfzdk@ ta=umif;jy csufjzpfoGm;awmhonf? 'def;rwfrsm;onf rdrdwdk@yef;yifrsm;udk a&jyefravmif;bJ udkyifa[*ifòrd@. vrf;rrsm;ay: pk¶Hk;pnf;a0;um *smrefqef@usifa&; qENjy=u onf? “udkyifa[*ifòrd@om;rsm;onf vrf;a'gifhrsm;wGif vlOD;a&&m*%ef;&Sdaom tpkvdkuftpkvdkuf &yfae=uonf? vrf;a'gifhwGif&yf jcif;rSm *smrefywWa&mifrsm; ay:vmygu ab;vrf;xJ xGufajy;Edkifatmifjzpfonf? olwdk@u 'def;rwfykvdyfudk ‘'DudpPrSm0ifrygeJ@’ [k ajym&m ykvdyfuvnf; 0ifrygyJaeonf? æ æ jynfolwdk@u vrf;rsm;udk vrf;cif;ausmufwHk;rsm;/ Aifum;rsm;/ pufbD;rsm;ESifh ydwfqdk@ umqD;um *smrefrsm;udk &&mypPnf;ESifh ypfayguf=uonf? xdktcg *smrefrsm;u aoewfrsm;udk a'gow}uD;ESifh t&rf;uma&m ypf cwf=uonf” [k ajratmufowif;Xme ‘jyef=um;a&;’ uowif;ydk@onf? xdkae@ukefqHk;csdefY 'def;rwfajcmufa,mufao+yD;oGm;um 'gZifESifhcsDI '%f&m&cJh=uonf? aemufae@reufwGif wòrd@vHk;rSpuf¶Hktvkyform;rsm;u oydwfwGif;odk@yg0ifvmonf? “tdrfapmapmjyef” v_yf&Sm;r_rSm jyef@ESH@oGm;+yD;/ òrd@awmf.tpdwftydkif;wcsKd@onf ,cktcg ajAmiftwdtvif; ykefuefxºuGae+yDjzpfonf? tqdk;qHk;tajctae odk@a&mufoGm;rnfudk pdk;&drfaom 0gembufpfu nrxGuf&trdef@udk n 11;00 em&Dtxdaemufqkwfay;aomfvnf; ta=umif;rxl;? "mwf&xm;rsm;/ bwfpfum;rsm; wGef;vSJarSmufvSefcH&onf/ vrf;ydwftwm;tqD;rsm; xyfvkyf=uonf/ rD;yHkrsm;u naumif;uif,Hudk vif;xdefae aponf? z¶dkz&J0¶kef;okef;um;r_a=umifh tvGeftrif;a'goxGufaeaombufpfu 'def;rwftkyfcsKyfa&;orm;rsm;/ tvkyform;or*~ acgif;aqmifrsm;tm; ta&;ay:tpnf;ta0;ac:,lvdkuo f nf? oydwfrsm;onf ,cktcsdefY Oa&mywcGifwGif

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)196


t}uD;tus,fta&;edrfh aeaom *smrefwyfrawmftwGuf vufeufcJ,rf;rsm;ESifh ,Of&xm;rsm; xkwfvkyfo,fydk@ay;jcif;udk &yfwef@apcJhonf? tu,fI oydwfrsm; qufarSmufygu jyif;jyif;xefxeftjypfay;rnf[k bufpf u+cdrf;ajcmuf+yD; 'def;rwft&m&Sdrsm;taejzifh udk,fwdkifudk,fus wm0ef,l&vdrfhrnf [kowday;cJhonf? 'def;rwftkyfcsKyfolrsm;onf taotcsmpOf;pm;+yD;aemuf trsm;jynfoltm; arwWm&yfcH=uonf? “ukpm;r&Edkif avmufatmif qdk;0g;aomtusKd;qufrsm;&Sdrnfh aqmif&Gufcsufwdk@.tEW&m,fonf r=umrwifusa&muf vmawmhrnf? æ æ odk@jzpfI vlwdkif; vlwdkif; rdrdwdk@.ae@w"l0tvkyfrsm;udk jyefvkyf=u&ef tav;teufyef=um;tyfygonf?” odk@&mwGif tkyfcsKyfolrsm;onf *smref wdk@.zdESdyfr_udk xnfhrajymygu 'def;rwfjynfom;wdk@u yef=um;csuftm; *¶kpdkuf=urnfr[kwfonfudk odxm;onfhtm;avsmfpGm “aqmif&GufcsuftrsKd;rsKd;udk 0rf;enf;zG,f&maumif;atmif vkyfaqmifcJhjcif;twGuf” *smrefrsm; tm; tjypfwifonfhpma=umif; wa=umif;udkvnf; yef=um;csufxJwGif xnfhoGif;xm;onf? Ttcsufu bufpftm; a'goxGufaponf? ‚if;u òrd@awmfodk@ "mwfaiG@/ v#yfppfESifha&ay;a0r_ jzwfawmufypf&ef *smrefwyfrsm;udk trdef@ay;vdkufonf? bufpf u “*smref*k%foduQm[m ajrmif; ykyfxJ qGJcscHvdkuf&+yD? 'DhtwGuf ay;qyf&vdrfhr,f? æ æ udkyifa[*if*avuacsaumifawGawmh =umyGwft&omudk +rD;=unfh& vdrfhr,f” [k'def;rwft&m&Sdrsm;ESifh aemufqHk;tpnf; ta0;wGif ajymcJhonf? ZGef (30) &ufnOD;wGif vGwfvyfa&;aumifpDu ta&;ay:tpnf;ta0;usif;ycJh&m oydwfrsm;onf ,cktcg t}uD;rm;qHk; *smref awmfvSefa&;v_yf&Sm;r_ jzpfvm+yDjzpfojzifh aumifpDu axmufcHtm;ay;&rnf[k qHk;jzwfcsufcsvdkufonf? “Tonfum; 'def;rwf EdkifiHordkif;wGif t}uD;us,fqHk;trsKd;om;qENjyyGJjzpfonf” [kaumifpDu aemufae@reufwGif a=unmonf? “&SJvfbmh*fwyfu touftdk;tdrfwdk@udk xyfwvJvJwdkufcdkufr_rsm;ESifh *smrefjynfodrf;wyfrsm;u w&m;Oya'ESifh jynfol@tcGifhta&;rsm;udk pepfwus zsuq f D;ypfaejcif;u jynfolwdk@. onf;cHEdkifpGrf;udk ukefcrf;oGm;apcJhonf? &SJvfbmh*fwyfrsm;udk z,f&Sm;um ta&;ay:tajctae uef@owfcsKyfcs,fr_rsm; r¶kyfodrf;rcsif; oydwfqufarSmufa&;udk vGwfvyfa&;aumifpDu axmufcHtm;ay;onf?” awmfvSefa&; bufrS t=urf;zufr_onf *smrefrsm;udk }uD;}uD;rm;rm;xdckdufapjcif; r&SdcJhaomfvnf; jynfolvlxktay: t=urf;zufr_url wrsKd; om;vHk;udk xºuGvmapum {&mrt=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_vkyfvmaponf? xdktcgwGif awmfvSefa&;u vlxkudk tjreftrSDvdkuf& awmhonf? aemufwqifhwGif *smrefrsm;u udkyifa[*ifudk jyifyurBmESifh tqufjzwfypfzdk@ óud;yrf;cJhonf? odk@aomfvnf; *smrefwyfrsm;rSm 'def;rwfrS qGJxkwfcH&um a&S@wef;ppfrsufESmodk@ ta&$@cHae&ojzifh udkyifa[*ifòrd@awmfydwfqdk@a&;twGuf tiftm;rvHkavmufyJ òrd@olòrd@om;axmifaygif;rsm;pGm tvG,fwul azmufxGuf azmuf0if=uonf? òrd@awmftwGif;Y oydwfrsm;rSmvnf; t&Sdefjrifhvm onf? uwkwfusif;rsm;wl;=uonf/ tvkyform;rsm;u ausmufcif;vrf;rsm;udk wl;zJhum *smrefppfom;rsm;udk ausmufcJrsm;ESifh ayguf+yD; aoewfESifhjyefypfap&ef v_H@aqmf&efp=uonf? Zlvdkif (2) &uf paeae@n a&mufonfhtcsdefwGif 'def;rwf (23) a,muf towfcHcJh&+yD; tenf;qHk; 203 a,muf'%f&m&cJh+yDjzpfonf? oydwfarSmufr_rsm;ESifh qENjyyGJrsm;rSm ZDvefESifh,Gwfvif;a'orsm;rS òrd@}uD;rsm;odk@ysHŒoGm;onf? *smrefrsm;uvnf; vufwHk@jyefonf? udkyifa[*ifòrd@vnfaps;ykdif;odk@ wifhum;rsm;0ifvmonf? òrd@awmfudk OD;usKd;+idrf0yfoGm;atmif AHk;csypfrnf [k aumv[vrsm; ysH@vGifhvmonf? tajccHa&rD; tjzwfcHxm;&ojzifh vlwdk@rSm teD;tem; a&uefrsm;rS a&cyfum xif;aumuf+yD; vrf;ray:wGif xrif;[if;csuf=u tzkwftuifvkyf=u&onf? ajratmuftzGJ@rsm;u Edk@/ =uufO/ 'defcJrsm; v#Kd@0Sufjzef@a0r_udk xdef;uGyfqufpyfay;onf? pwdk;qdkif&Sifrsm;uvnf; ukefrsm;udk aps;av#mha&mif;ay;onf? Todk@ zDqeftHwkae=uaomfvnf; jynfolwdk@rSm Ttajctaersm;udk b,favmuf=um=um awmifhcHEdkifrnfrSm ra&&m? xdk@jyif *smrefavwyfrS AHk;=uJrnfh+cdrf;acsmufr_rSmvnf; wu,fhudk tEW&m,f}uD;pGmESifh jzpfvmrnfhyHk&Sdonf? xdk@a=umifh a'oEW&tm%m ydkifrsm;/ or*~vl}uD;rsm;ESifh ta&;ygaom trwfrsm;u *smrefwdk@ESifh vGwfvyfa&;aumifpD t=um; aphpyfnd‡Ed_if;ay;+yD; 'def;rwfwdk@u &efpvdkuf/ *smrefrsm;u vufwHk@jyefvdkufjzpfaeaom oHo&mudk jzwfawmufypfzdk@ óud;pm;=uonf? bufpfu vlrkef;rsm;vSaom &SJvfbmh*fwyfudk òrd@awmfrS ¶kyfodrf;ay;&ef/ nrxGuf&trdef@ y,fzsufay;&efESifh *smrefwyfrsm;u 'def;rwft&yfom;rsm;udk ypfcwfjcif; rðyap&efwdk@udk oabmwlcJhonf? xdk@tjyif oydwfarSmufr_ tqHk;owfoGm;ygu ta&;ay:tajctaeudk ¶kyfodrf;+yD; "mwfaiG@/ a&ESifh v#yfppfrD; jyefay;zdk@vnf; uwday;cJhonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)197


“jynfol@oydwf}uD;” onf *smrefwdk@tzdk@ pdk;&drfwkefv_yfp&m trSefw&m;udk vSpf[jyvdkufonf? ryl;aygif;raqmif&Gufa&;ay:vpD vufudkifðyxm;aom vGwfvyfa&;aumifpDonf ,cktcg 'def;rwfEdkifiHtay: =oZmanmif;ae+yDjzpf+yD; *smref@csKyfudkifcsuftay: ,cifuxm;cJhor# ,Hk=unftm;udk;r_udk oydwf}uD;u +zKdzsufypfvdkufonf? Tta&;edrfhr_rsm;. tusKd;oufa&mufr_udk Oa&my wv$m;rS ppfajrjyif¶H_;yGJrsm;u tm;jznfhay;vdkufI jynfodrf;wyfrsm; pdwf"mwfusqif;+yD; 'def;rwfjynfom;rsm; tm;wufvm=u onf? Zlvdkif (4) &uf wevFmae@naewGif aumifpDu “atmifowif;v$m” xkwfa0um *smrefwdk@.tav#mhay;csufrsm;udk wef;pD azmfjy+yD; 'def;rwfEdkifiHom;rsm;u *smref@vufwHk@jyefr_rsm;udk &ifqdkif&mY cHEdkif&nf&Sdjcif;udk csD;usL;xm;onf? “a&Smifwcif qlyrl _rsm; xuf vHk;0O\HkoydwfarSmufr_u trsm;}uD;ydkrdkxda&mufonfh vufeufjzpfonf? jynfol@oydwf}uD;u tqHk;tjzwfay; jcif;jzpf+yD; vrf;ydwfcHwyfrsm;aomfvnf;aumif;/ vrf;ay:qlylr_rsm; uaomfvnf;aumif; tqHk;tjzwfay;onfr[kwf? æ æ udkyifa[*if jynfol@oydwf}uD;onf todrf;ydkufumvtwGif; ,cktcsdefxd 'def;rwfjynfolwdk@. t}uD;tus,fqHk;atmifyGJjzpfonf?” [k azmfjycJh onf? xdktcsdefrSpI vGwfvyfa&;aumifpDonf tzsufvkyfief;ESifh ppfa&;enf;vrf;rsm;udk tav;xm;csufav#mh+yD;/ t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm;r_ bufodk@ ydktav;ay;vmcJhonf? 1944 =o*kwfvwGif aumifpDu ajratmufjynfol@ppfrsm; pnf;¶Hk;zGJ@pnf;r_udk &yfpJypfvdkuf+yD; ,if; tpm; oydwfarSmufvkyfief;rsm; qufpyfcsdefnd‡a&;bufodk@ OD;vSnfhvmcJhonf? “usaemfwdk@[m oHk;-av;em&DtwGif; taxGaxG oydwfwck ay:vmatmifvkyfEdkifw,f? tpdk;&¶Hk;awG/ Xmeqdkif&mawGu tp cyfat;at;refae*smawGtxd vkyfEdkifw,f? usaemf wdk@qEN&SdwJhtcsdefrSm wEdkifiHvHk; tvkyfawG&yfoGm;vdrfhr,f? 'gwifruao;bl;/ jynfolvlxkxJu vdktyfwJhtydkif;awGrSm tvkyfcGif oydwfarSmuf=u+yD; usefwJhtydkif;awG yHkrSeftwdkif; tvkyfvkyfaeapzdk@vnf; usaemfwdk@ trdef@ay;Edkifw,f” [k aumifpD0ifwOD;u a&; onf? tuef@towf&Sd&Sd/ xdef;csKyfr_&Sd&SdESifh owfrSwfa&G;cs,fr_&Sd&Sd t=urf;rzufoydwfwkdufyGJrsm;udk ,cktcg w&m;0ifpdwfwdkif;us tm%may;vdkufav+yD? Zlvdkif (12) &uf rGef;wnfhcsdefwGif wEdkifiHvHk; ESpfrdepf+idrfouf+yD; jynfol@oydwf}uD;twGif; usqHk;cJh=uolrsm;udk tav;ðycJhonf? ,if; *k%fðyOD;!Gwfr_udk =o*kwfv 29 &ufwGif wcgxyfvkyfonf? usef&Sdaomtodrf;ykdufcHumv wav#mufvHk; TuJhodk@ txdrf;trSwfðy qENjyyGJrsm; r=umc%vkyf=uonf? tzsufvkyfief;rsm;wGif yg0ifr_a=umifh 'def;rwfq,fausmfouf q,fhwa,mufudk uGyfrsufjcif; tm; wkef@jyefonfhtaejzifh (1944) =o*kwf (14) wGif bmrdwfpfwmESifh 0def;oabFmusif;tvkyform;rsm; oydwfarSmuf=uonf? xdk udpPxJ vGwfvyfa&;aumifpDu yg0ifvmum aemufwae@wGif ESpfq,fhav;em&DoydwfarSmufzdk@ aqmf=ovdkufonf? xdkr#omru tvkyform;rsm;taejzihf qENjyr_rsm;udk a&Smif&Sm;&ef/ at;aq;wnf+idrfr_&Sd&efESifh oduQm&Sd&Sad e&efvnf; aumifpDuwdkufwGef;onf? oydwfonf wjynfvHk;odk@ vsifjrefpGm jyef@oGm;+yD; q,f&uftwGif; òrd@aygif; (54) òrd@u oydwfxJygcJhonf? xdkjzpf&yft+yD; wvomukefvGefao;onfh pufwifbm (14) &ufwGif 'def;rwftusOf;om;rsm;udk [rf;bmh*fòrd@odk@a&$@r_tm; uef@uGuf onfh oydwfrsm;t}uD;tus,faygufuGJay:aygufvmonf? 0gembufpfESifh ,cif'def;rwftpdk;&wdk@ oabmwlnDcsuftpdwftydkif;wck tjzpf 'def;rwftusOf;om;rsm; 'def;rwfajray:wGifom &SdaeEdkif&ef twGuf z¶dk;pvufAfwGif pcef;wckwnfaxmifxm;cJhonf? ,ck tcgYrl bufpfu uwdzsuf+yD; tusOf;om; (200) udk *smr%D odk@ydk@vdkufonf? Tonfudkwkef@jyefonfhtaejzifh *smrefe,fpyf wav#mufrS 'def;rwfrD;&xm;tvkyform;rsm; oydwfarSmuf=uonf? oydwfrsm;onf r=umrDtwGif; ,Gwfvif;a'owckvHk; jyef@ oGm;um a'o. &xm;vrf;uGef,ufudk &yfwef@oGm;aponf? *smrefrsm;rSm a&S@wef;odk@ wyfrsm;ydk@aqmif&eftwGuf rD;&xm;vrf;udk }uD;rm;pGmtm;xm;ae&ojzifh &m;a'owGif jyifopfwdk@vkyfcJhovdk aomhcsufusaom blwm¶Hkrsm;udk odrf;ydkufjcif;jzifh wkef@jyefcJhonf? oydwfarSmuform;rsm;udk uGyfrsufrnf[k +cdrf;ajcmuf+yD; aemufxyftusOf;om; (500) udk ydk@zdk@pDpOfcJhonf? *smrefrsm;u +cdrf;acsmuf onfhtwdkif; wu,fvkyfrnfudkpdk;&drf+yD; tpdk;&rD;&xm;!¸ef=um;a&;rª;ESifh or*~acgif;aqmifrsm;u tvkyform;rsm;udk vkyfief;cGifjyef 0ifzdk@ em;cs=uaomfvnf;r&? ,Gwfvif;wGif taxGaxGoydwf}uD;ay:vmonf? vGwfvyfa&;aumifpDu oydwfrsm;udktm;ay;+yD; wevFmae@rGef;wnfhcsdeftxd jynfvHk;u|wfoydwfarSmufzdk@ v_H@aqmfvdkuf onf? wevFmae@reufwGif òrd@}uD;rsm;wGif v_yf&Sm;vnfywf aer_ &yfqdkif;oGm;um *smrefwyfrawmftwGuf axmufyHha&;ypPnf;rsm;xkwfvkyfr_udk aemufw}udrf &yfwef@oGm;apvdkufonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)198


todrf;ydkufcHumvtwGif; aemufqHk;ESifh t}uD;rm;qHk;oydwfarSmufr_rSm odwfr=umcif jzpfvmonf? pufwifbm (19) &ufwGif x&yfum;rsm;pD;vmaom *smrefppfom;rsm;u udkyifa[*if/ tm;&f[yfpf/ tm;vfabmh*fESifh tdk'ifpDòrd@rsm;Y [efaqmif ava=umif; &eftcsufay;O=oqGJoHudk tumtuG,f,lvsuf ykvdyfXmecsKyfESifh vufatmuf&Jpcef;rsm;udk pD;eif;I 'def;rwfykvdyft&m&Sdrsm;udk pwifzrf;qD;awmhonf? 'def;rwfykvdyfrsm;onf tzsufvkyfief;ESifh qlylr_rsm;udk rsufESmv$Jaejcif;tm;jzifh *smrefwdk@twGuf pdwfrcs& tm;rudk;&jzpfvmcJhonf? xdkae@wGif &J 10000 eD;yg; tzrf;cHcJh&+yD; vufeufðzwfcHcJh&onf? tr,fvD,ifabmh*f&JwdkufrS bk&ifh&J tapmifhta&Smufrsm; tzrf;cH&onf? *smreft&m&Sdwa,mufu rdrdwGif p=umwHqdyftvHudk &Jwdkufay:Y v$ifhxl&ef trdef@&xm; a=umif; bk&ifhtm; ta=umif;=um;onfhtcg bk&ifu jiif;qH+yD; “tJovdkjzpf&ifawmh 'def;rwfppfom;wa,mufu oGm;ðzwfcsvdrfh r,f” [k}uKH;0g;vdkufonf? “tJ'D'def;rwfppfom;udk ypfowfr,f” [k*smrefAdkvfu jyefajymonf? “tJ'D'def;rwfppfom;u igjzpfvdrfh r,f” [kbk&ifu wHk@jyef.? p=umtvHrSm &JwdkufxufwGif wcgrS rvGifhysHEdkifcJh? &Jrsm;udkzrf;qD;jcif;tm; wkef@jyefonfhtaejzifh vGwfvyfa&;aumifpDu xdk&ufowWywfaESmif;ydkif;txd jynfvHk;u|wf taxGaxG oydwfaemufwck xyfarSmufzdk@ v_H@aqmfvdkufonf? jynfoljynfom;rsm;udk at;aq;+idrfoufpGmae+yD; vrf;ay:rxGufyJ “tcgtcGifh aumif;” udkapmifhzdk@ wdkufwGef;vdkufonf? ,ckw}udrfwGifvnf; òrd@aygif; ig;q,fh&Spfòrd@ESifh ,Gwfvif;we,fvHk; qifE$J=uonf? t=urf; zufxdyfwdkufyËdyuQrsm; odwfrjzpfcJh? odk@aomfvnf; vrf;rsm;ay:Y ykvdyfr&Sdonfhtcg òrd@}uD;rsm;wGif &mZ0wfr_ ododomomwdk;rsm; vmonf? pufwifbm (22) wGif vGwfvyfa&;aumifpDu pnf;urf;&Sd=uzdk@ aqmf=o+yD; &mZ0wfr_trsKd;rsKd;twGuf tjrifhqHk;jypf'%f rsm;udk wdk;jr‡ifhcJhonf? ajratmufjynfol@ppfrsm;u jrLeDpDy,ftapmifhwyfrsm;tjzpf pwifaqmif&Gufvm=uonf? aqmif;OD;&moDwGif +idrf0yfydjym;r_udk tenf;ESifhtrsm; jyef&vmonf? xdktcsdefwGif todrf;ydkufcHOa&myrS trsm;pkuJhodk@ 'def;rwfvlrsKd; rsm;rSmvnf; ppfyGJ}uD; &ufowWywftcsK@d twGif; +yD;qHk;oGm;zdk@ ar#mfvifhae=uonf? ppfyGJu qufvuf&Snf=umoGm;+yD; aemuf waqmif;0ifvmcsdefY 'def;rwfEdkifiHwGif ausmufrD;aoG;/ "mwfaiG@/ a&/ v#yfppfESifh tpm;taomuf jywfvyfr_rsm;jzpfvmonf? &JtzGJ@ rsm; ajymifwvif;jzpfaer_ESifh aygif;rdoGm;aomtcg &mZ0wfr_rsm; ydkIjzpfapcJhonf? wcsdefwnf;wGif *ufpwmydkaxmufvSrf;a&;u vnf; tzGJ@rsm;twGif;pdrfh0ifjcif;/ ESdyfpufn‡Of;yef;jcif;ESifh owfjzwfjcif;wdk@tm;jzifh awmfvSefa&;tzGJ@rsm;udk ypfrw S fxm;cJhonf? &SJvf bmh*fwyfrsm; udkyifa[*ifodk@ jyefa&mufvmum tzsuform;[k rouFmolrsm; ykef;cdk&mwdk@udk rD;¶d_@ypfonf? xdk@aemufwGif awmf vSefa&;tzGJ@rsm;rSm tzGJ@vdkuf tzGJ@vdkuf tzrf;cH&onf? xif&Sm;aom vGwfvyfa&;aumifpD0ifrsm;vnf; tzrf;cH&onf? vufwkH@jyef uef@uGufqENjyyGJrsm; [kef;ueJ[kef;ueJ xcJhaomfvnf; &moDOwkqdk;a=umifh tusKd;oufa&mufr_ odyfr&SdcJh? ydkIxda&mufr_&SdonfrSm ,Gwfvif;&Sd *smrefpuf¶Hkrsm;twGuf tvkyform;rsm; &Smydk@ay;&ef 'def;rwftkyfcsKyfa&;ydkif;u qufvufjiif;qefaejcif;jzpfonf? ajratmufawmfvSefa&;tzGJ@rsm;odk@ 0ifa&mufr_rsm; xdk;wufvm&m ppf}uD;+yD;csdefY tzGJ@0if (45000) ausmf&Sdae+yDjzpfonf? rnfodk@&Sdap todrf;ydkufcH'def;rwfjynfrSm tEW&m,fusa&mufaeqJjzpfonf? tu,fIom *smrefwdk@u vGwfvyfa&;aumifpDudk &Sif; ypfEdkifygu usef&pfol 'def;rwftkyfcsKyfa&;ydkif;u T+cdrf;acsmufr_topfrsm;udk rnfokd@&ifqdkifrnfudk rodEdkif? 'def;rwftkyfcsKyfa&;ydkif; onf rdrdukd,frdrd awmfvSefa&;.Zmpfjrpfwcktjzpfxuf 'def;rwfvlrsKd;wdk@twGuf 'dkif;v$m;wcktjzpfom rSw, f laeqJjzpfonf? a,bk,sajym&v#if jynfoljynfom;wdk@u tkyfcsKyfa&;ydkif;udk pauAD;eD;,yf. tavsmhay;a&;ay:vpDrsm;ESifh xyfwljrifaeqJjzpfI vGwfvyfa&;aumifpDudkom ,Hk=unftm;udk;=uonf? *smrefwdk@.taetxm; ,dkifeJ@vmonfESifhtr# ‚if;wdk@ av#mufywf&rf;rnfudk umuG,f[ef@wm; Edkif&ef/ awmfvSefa&;tzGJ@rsm;. arwWm&yfcHr_t& +Adwdo#avwyfu tm;&f[yfpf/ tdk'ifpDESifh udkyifa[*if&Sd ta&; tygqHk; *ufpwmydkXmecsKyfoHk;ckudk AHk;}uJcJhonf? Twdkufcdkufr_u awmfvSefa&;wdkufyGJ0iform; axmifaygif;rsm;pGm.toufudk csrf;om&m&apEdkifcJhonf? aemufqHk; aqmif;OD;&moDa&mufaomtcg/ Oa&mytzdk@+idrf;csrf;a&;t&omcHpm;Edkif=uawmhonf? (1945) ck arv (1) &ufae@wGif bDbDpDowif;XmerS [pfwvmudk,fhudk,fudk aoa=umif;=uHpnfoGm;onfhowif;udk xkwfv$ifhcJhonf? aemuf (3) &uf=umaomtcg Oa&myae&mwdkif;wGif *smrefrsm;vufeufcs=uonfhowif;udk =um;vm&awmhonf? 'def;rwfvlrsKd;rsm;tzdk@ aysmf&$ifvdkufonfhjzpf jcif;? vlrsm;tm;vHk; òrd@rsm;.vrf;rsm;ay:xGufum uckefatmf[pfae=uonf? “csufjcif;qdkovdkyJ tdrfjyLwif;aygufawGrSm za,mif;wdkifawGxGef;=uw,f? ” eDem trf',fvfu jyefajymjyonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)199


xdkitcsdefwGif olu udkaya[*ifwGifausmif;wufaeaom ausmif;om;wOD; jzpfonf? “vlawG tm;vHk; vrf;rawGay:qif;vm+yD;awmh òrd@v,f trmvD,efabmh*f&Jwdkuf}uD;rSm vmqHk=u w,f? tJ'DtcsdefrSm um;awGeJ@ajratmufawmfvSefa&;&JabmfawGvnf; a&mufvm=uw,f? olwdk@udk vlawGu atmf[pfaumif; csD;ay;=uw,f? vlawGu tJonftcsdefrSmaysmf&$if+yD;/ wu,fhvGwfvyfwJht&omudk cHpm;=u&w,f? ” olu jyefajymjyonf? ckcHawmfvSefa&;tiftm;pkrsm;u w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;a&;ESifh &yf&Gmat;csrf;a&;wm0efudk xrf;aqmif=uonf? ajratmufvufeufudkif &Jabmfrsm;u emZDESifhyl;aygif;aqmif&GufcJholrsm;udk 'def;rwfvlrsKd;rsm;udk zrf;qD;cJh=uonf? vGwfvyfa&;aumifpDu tjcm;aomckcH a&;acgif;aqmifrsm;/ r=umao;rDurS jyefvmaom *|ef c&pPrwf rdkvmwdk@ESifh yl;aygif;I =um;jzwf!Gef@aygif;tpdk;&wckudkzGJ@pnf;onf? ppf+yD;I rsm;r=umrDrSmyif 0gembufpfESifh AdkvfcsKyf}uD;AGef [defeuifwdk@udk awmfvSefa&;zsufqD;r_/ *sL;rsm;udke,fESifr_wdk@ESifh tjypf&Sd a=umif; ck&Hk;wifppfaq;qHk;jzwfcJhonf? bufpfrSmtjypf&Sda=umif; qHk;jzwfum/ ao'%ftjypfay;cH&onf? AGef [defeuifrSm (8) ESpf axmif'%ftjypfay;cH&onf? xdkolESpfOD;vHk;u 'def;rwf&Sda'oqdkif&mw&m;&Hk;odk@ awmif;yefv$mwifoGif;cJh=uonf? bufpfudk tjypf axmif'%f (5) ESpftxdavsmhcsum/ AdkvfcsKyf}uD; AGef [defeuifudk vHk;0v$wfay;cJhonf? ckcHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_taejzifh 'def;vlrsKd;rsm;tzdk@ oabmxm;}uD;a=umif; jyo&efvnf; rysufuGufcJhay? 'def;rwfEdkifiH. ckcHawmfvSefa&;udkaygufzGm;apcJhaom vlr_tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;/ vlxkrsm;. aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfr_pdwf"gwfudk aus;Zl;wif&ay vdrfhrnf? 'def;rwfEdkifiHonf ppfumvtwGif;rSmyif tajctaeaumif;jzifhusefcJhonf? 'def;rwfvlrsKd;rsm;rSm rdrdzmomvGwfvyfa&;udk aqmif&GufcJh=u+yD;jzpfa=umif;omru/ tjcm;aomOa&myEdkfifiHrsm;odk@wifydk@&ef pm;a&&duQmrsm;tzltvHk&Sdaea=umif; r[mrdwfwyf rsm;u awG@cJh&onf? 'def;rwfvlrsKd;rsm;rSm *smrefusL;ausmftkyfcsKyfr_twGif;=uHh=uHhcH&yfwnfEdkif&Hkomru/ tjcm;aomOa&myEdkifiHrsm; óuHawG@cJh&ovdk emZDtkyfcsKyfa&;. cg;oD;aomzdESdyfr_'%frsm;udk rsm;rsm;pm;pm; rcHpm;cJh=u&yg? t=urf;rzufyJ tmcHcJh=uaom/ vlr_ tzGJ@tpnf;udktòydtuGJrcHcJh=uaom v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;.tusKd;aus;Zl;&vm'fyif jzpfonf? tcsKdf@aom'def;rwfvlrsKd;rsm;u olwfdk@EdkifiH onf tjcm;aomaemfa0;/ *&d/ qmhAfrsm;uJhodk@ vufeufpGJudkifI ukefavSmif&Hkwdkif;/ av,mOfuGif;wdkif;/ oabmFqdyfurf;wdkif;wGif wdkufyGJrqifcJh&aoma=umifh tm;rvdt k m;r&jzpf=uonf? pdw"f gwu f sonf? odk@aomfjrpfacsmif;rsm;aom/ ajrjyef@rsm;aom'def;rwfEdkifiH onf vufeufudkifckcHr_vkyf&efaumif;aom ajrtaetxm;r&Sdyg? xdktcsdefwGif *smrefrsm;uvnf; Oa&mytESH@tjym;udkzGifhIxdk;ppf qifaecsdef jzpfygonf? 'def;rwfvlrsKd;rsm;rSm tjcm;aomwenf;jzifhckcHppfudk qifcJh=u+yD;/ emZDwyfzGJ@rsm;uay;vmrnfh tEW&m,frsm;udk vnf;/ wefzdk;}uD;}uD;ay;&rnfhtajctaersm;udkvnf; a&Smif&Sm;EdkifcJh=uygonf? 'def;rwfEdkifiHom;rsm;u oufaojyEdkifcJh=uonfrSm zufòydif&ifqdkif&aom&efolonf rnfr#yif}uD;rm;apumrl/ t=urf;rzufaomenf; udkoHk;I ckcH&ifEdkifjcif;udk jyoEdkifcJhonf? tu,fIckcHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_onf pdwf&SnfZGJ&Sdr_ESifh wDxGifzefwD;r_wdk@&Sdygu vlxkrsm;.v_yf&Sm;r_ rsm;udk acsr_ef;&ef ppfa&;tiftm;jzifh rpGrf;EdkifonfudkjyocJhygonf? t=urf;zufvufpm;acswkef@jyefr_onf twdkuftcHrsm;udkydkI tiftm;aumif;vmapvdrfhrnf jzpfonf? *smrmefwdk@u 'def;rwfwGifyHkrSeftajctaetwdkif;&Sdae&ef vdkvm;onfudkodxm;aom 'def; rwfvlrskKd;rsm;u/ Ttcsufudk jiif;y,fcJh=uonf? olwdk@.ckcHr_rsm;udk t=urf;wrf;qHk;acsr_ef;rnfh a&csdefrSwftxdra&mufapatmif/ xdef;xdef;odrf;odrf;aqmif&GufcJh=uonf? vltrsm;toufraoap&efvnf; csifhcsdefwGufqcJh=uonf? T&mpkESpftwGif; t&ufpuf t=urf;=uKwfqHk;vlowfaumifrsm;jzpfonfh emZDrsm;udk 'def;rwfausmif;om;av;rsm;/ taysmfwrf;zsufqD;a&;orm;rsm;/ bmom a&;acgif;aqmifrsm;u [efcsufysuf,Gif;atmifvkyfEdkifcJh=uonfqdkv#if/ tjcm;aomtm%m&Siftpdk;&rsm;tzdk@ t=urf;rzufv_yf&Sm; r_EiS fhawG@ygu rnfodk@r#cHEdkifp&mta=umif; r&Sdygacs?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)200


&dkwm'rfrSonf &dkqefw&mpftxd *smref‘onf&dkuf’tifydkif,mudk tHwk=ujcif; “usaemfwdk@&J@vGwfvyfr_udk jyefvnfodrf;ydkuf=u&r,f? ” (1940) ckESpf/ {+yDvwGif 'def;rwf&Sdvlxkrsm;.ydkifqdkifr_rsm;udk *smrefusL;ausmfwyfrsm;u odrf;ydkufcJh=u+yD;/ wv ESifhw&uft=umwGif/ *smrefavwyfrsm;u 'wfcsfEdkifiHav,mOfuGif;rsm;udk AHk;rdk;&GmaecsdefY/ 0grufcsf (Wehrmat --ch) *smrefwyfrsm;u e,fomvefEdkifiHwGif;odk@/ e,fpyfjzwfausmf 0ifa&mufvmcJh=uonf? wcsdefwnf;rSmyif onf[d*fòrd@awmf&Sfd *smrefoHtrwf}uD;uvnf;/ *smrefwyfrsm;taejzifh 'wfcsfEdkifiH.=um;aea&;&yfwnfcsufudk umuG,fay;Edkif&eftwGuf/ EdkifiHwGif;odk@0ifa&mufvm+yDjzpfa=umif;/ xdktwGufa=umifh 'wfcsftpdk;&taejzifh ‘onf&dkuf’ EdkifiHawmf. umuG,fay;r_udkvufcHyg&ef pmc|efv$mydk@vmcJhonf? bk&ifr 0Dvf[,fvfrDemESifh ol. 0ef}uD;tzGJ@u rqdkif;rwGyif/ Turf;vSrf;csufudk jiif;y,fcJhonf? *smrefavwyfrsm;u &dkwm'rf (e,fomvefEdkifiH. taemufawmifzufwGifwnf&Sdaomòrd@jzpfonf?) ESifh tjcm; aom'wfcsfEdkifiH&Sd òrd@rsm;udk AHk;rdk;&GmaepOfrSmyif/ bk&ifhrdom;pkrsm;u t*FvefEdkifiHodk@vGwfajrmuf&m cdkv_HEdkifcJh=u onf? bk&ifru tpdk;&tzGJ@twGif;ae&m,l+yD;/ ol.w&m;0ifwnf&Sdaer_udk qufvufxdef;odrf;xm;a=umif;jyo cJhonf? “rdrdtaejzifh Tae&mrSaeI ,Ofaus;aomEdkifiHESpfckqufqHa&; xHk;wrf;pOfvmrsm;udk azmufzsufr_ tay:/ usLausmfapmfum;vmr_tay: jyif;jyif;xefxefuef@uGuv f dkufonf? ”[k bk&ifru a=ujimcsufxkwfjyefcJh onf? odk@aomfvnf; aemuf (5) &uf=umaomtcg 'wfcsfwyfzGJ@rsm;. ppfOD;pD;csKyf AdkvfcsKyf}uD; tdyfcsf-*sD- 0if u,fvfrifu vufeufcsa=umif; vufrSwfa&;xdk;cJh&onf? arv (29) &ufae@wGif e,fomvefEdkifiHtwGuf *smreftifydkif,m. bk&ifcH a'gufwmtmom qD;pf tif;uGwfu ol.tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGifhrdef@cGef;ajymcJhonf? olu 'wfcsfvlrsKd;rsm;tm;vHk;onf *smrefrsm;ESifh nDtpfudkawmfjzpfa=umif;/ xdktwGufa=umifh 'wfcsfvlrsKd;ppfoHk@yef;rsm; tm;vHk;udk ZGefvv,fwGifv$wfay;rnf[k a=ujimcJhonf? odk@aomfvnf; e,fomvefEdkifiHtwGuf emZD*smrmef rsm;u =uHpnfxm;r_rSm ydkIqdk;&Gm;vSonf? a[mfvef (e,fomvef) EdkifiHudk trsKd;om;qdk&S,fvpfEdkifiHawmftjzpf ajymif;vJ&ef =uHpnfxm;+yD;/ *smrefppftiftm;twGuf e,fomvefEdkifiH. pD;yGg;a&;tiftm;udktoHk;cs&efjyifqif xm;=uonf? 'wfcsfEdkifiH&Sd*sL;vlrsKd;rsm;ESifh *spfypDrsm; (1) odef;cef@eD;yg;udk e,fESifypf&efESifh okwfoifypf&efvnf; yg0ifao;onf? tu,fI ckcHr_&Sdvmygu tm;vHk;udkacsr_ef;ypfrnf jzpfonf? 'wfcsfEdkifiHtaejzifh ordkif;wGiftpOfojzifh=um;aecJhaomtpOftvm&Sd+yD;/ rnfonfhtcgrS usL;ausmfr_rsm;udk vuf wkef@jyefckcHr_ r&SdcJhay? 'def;rwfEdkifiHuJhodk@yif ajyjyef@vGifjyifus,fjyef@aoma=umifh ppfa&;t&ckcHrnfqdkyguvnf; jy\em&Sdonf? odk@aomf usL;ausmfodrf;ydkuf+yD;w&uft=umrSmyif/ ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh tvkyform;rsm;u pk aygif;um tmcHEdkifrnfhenf;vrf;rsm; tqdkðycJh=uao;onf? *lZifv_yf&Sm;r_aumfrwD (Geuzen Action Comm--ittee) [kac:aom trfpwm'rfrStzGJ@wcku olwdk@taejzifhwdk;wufpnf;&Hk;I vGwfajrmufa&;udkwdkufyGJ0ifoGm; rnfjzpfa=umif; a=ujimcsufrsm;xkwfI a0iScJhonf? “wae@wGif rdrdwdk@. vGwfvyfr_udk jyefvnfodrf;ydkuf=u& rnf/ rdrdwdk@EdkifiHonf *smrefEdkifiH. tpdwftydkif;wcktjzpf b,fawmhrStjzpfcHrnf r[kwf? ” [k azmfjycJh=u onf? ZGefv (29) &uf/ rif;om;bef;[wf'f (Prince Bernhard) .arG;ae@wGif/ 'wfcsfvlxrk sm;upk&Hk;I *smrefrsm;udk ajymifususqef@usifcJh=uonf? rif;om;taejzifh tm;vyf&uf (&Hk;ydwf&ufrsm;) ESifh vlxktcrf;tem;rsm;wGif tjzLa&mifyef;udk qifxm;avh&SdonfrSm "avhwckvdkjzpfaeonfrSm =um+yD? ,ckarG;ae@wGifvnf; yef;tdk;rsm;tm; vHk;wGif tjzLa&mifyef;rsm;udkqifxm;onfrSm tjcm;aomtaqmuftOD;rsm;uyif jrifEdkifonf? ae@vnfavmuf wGif vlrsm;u bk&ifr0Dvf[,fvfrDemudk *k%fðyxm;aomausmuf&kyftem;odk@ pk&Hk;a&muf&Sdvm=u+yD;/ vlwdkif;u yef;rsm;udk udkifvmum/ ausmuf&kyfajcY xm;cJh=uonf? ae@ukefI nydkif;a&mufaomtcgausmuf&kyfwckvHk; yef; yifv,fjzifhzkef;ae+yD jzpfonf? wkef@jyefr_taejzifh *smrefrsm;u TqENjyyGJpDpOfol (2) OD;udkzrf;qD;cJhonf? xdk@t jyifrnfodk@rS roufqdkifolAdkvfcsKyf}uD; 0ifu,fvfrifudkyif zrf;qD;cJhonf? aqmif;OD;&moDa&mufaomtcg emZD*smrefrsm;u 'wf*sL;rsm;udk vlzrf;yGJ}uD;pwifawmhonf? yxrydkif;wGif *sL; vlrsKd;ygarmuQrsm;ESifh tpdk;&0efxrf;rsm;tm;vHk;udk wm0efrS&yfypfonf? av'ifwuUodkvfwGif Todk@xkwfypf onfhtay:ta=umif;ðyI qENjyyGJjzpfyGg;onf? TqENjyyGJudkta=umif;ðyI aemufydkif;wGif EdkifiHawmfoDcsif;udk qdk

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)201


vm=uonf? 'ufzfwf (Delft Technical University) &Sd pufr_wuUodkvfwGifvnf; ausmif;om;rsm;qENjy=u aoma=umifh ausmif;rsm;ydwfxm;&onf? av'ifwuUodkvfuvnf; vdkufvmonf? e,fomvefEdkifiHwGif *smref rsm;u wa,mufa,muftay:tjypfyHkcsp&m &Sm&awmhrnf? aemufqHk;*sL;rsm;uyif usL;ausmfvmolrsm;udkrkef; ae=uonf? (1941) ckESpf/ azaz:0g&Dv (22) &uf/ 'wfcsfvlrsKd;emZDrsm;ESifh vufeufudkif*sL;vlrsKd;rsm; tdrfpwm'rfòrd@awmfwGif (3) &uf=um yÉdyuQtjyif;txefjzpfyGg;+yD;aemufwGif/ tiftm; (600) cef@&Sdaom *smreftufpftufpfwyfzGJ@rsm; a&mufvm=uonf? *sL;vlrsKd;rsm;aexkdif&m&yfuGufrsm;udk ydwfqdk@+yD;/ *sL;vli,fvl}uD; (400) cef@udkzrf;qD;oGm;cJh onf? xdkolrsm;udk &dkufESufESdyfpuf+yD;/ blcsifa0gtusOf;pcef; (Buchenwald concentration camp) odk@ ydk@ vdkufonf? xdkowif;u csufcsif;jyef@ESH@oGm;onf? uGefjrLepfvkyfom;rsm;u wnwGifawG@qHk=u+yD;aemuf/ t}uD; tus,fvlxkqENjyyGJ}uD;wckaqmif&Guf&ef pDpOf=uonf? olwdk@uajratmuf&Sd v#Kd@0SufyHkESdyfpufrsm;udkoHk;I/ pm&Gufpmwrf;rsm; &dkufESdyfjzef@a0um/ tvkyform;rsm;tm;vHk; yg0ifvmatmifv_H@aqmf=uonf? (2) &uf=um aomtcg qdyfurf;tvkyform;rsm;ESifh vrf;rrsm;ay:um;ajy;aomvkyfom;rsm;u tvkyfr0ifyJpwifoydwf arSmuf=uawmhonf? rsm;r=umrDyif/ puf&Hktvkyform;rsm;uvnf; yg0ifyl;aygif;vm=uonf? pD;yGg;a&;vkyfief; rsm;/ &Hk;rsm;/ tvkyf&Hkrsm;/ pwdk;qdkifrsm;uvnf; tvkyfydwfI qENjy=uonf? tvkyform;rsm;u òrd@v,fwGifpk&Hk; Iatmf[pfaºuG;a=umf=uonf? uef@uGufqENjyonfhtaejzifh oDcsif;rsm;qdk=uonf? vlOD;a& (8) odef;teuf (3) odef;aomvlxkrsm;u TqENjyyGJwGifyg0ifcJh=uonf? yxrydkif;wGif *smrefrsm;u tHhtm;oifhae=uonf? csufcsif;acsr_ef;&ef jyif=uawmhonf? *smref&Jrsm;ESifh tufpf tufpfppfom;rsm;u 0ifa&mufvm=u+yD;/ jy\em&Smoltm;vHk;udk óudwifowday;r_rvdkyJ ypfcwfacsr_ef;&ef trdef@ay;vdkufonf? ae0ifrD;+idrf;trdef@xkwfjyefonf? trdef@udk tmcHoltm;vHk;udkzrf;rnf jzpfonf? Todk@ trfpwm'rfòrd@awmf0ef. vufwkef@jyefonfhtrdef@onf jyif;xefvGef;vSonf? olu òrd@&Sd0efxrf;rsm;tm;vHk; vkyfief;cGifjyef0if=u&ef/ r[kwfygu tvkyfrSxkwfy,frnfjzpfa=umif; a=ujimonf? 'def;rdwfESifhrwlaomtajc taerSm e,fomvefEdkifiHuusL;ausmfodrf;ydkufxm;jcif;cH&aomEdkifiHjzpf+yD;/ EdkifiHt}uD;tuJrsm;rSmvnf; jynfy wGifcdkv_Hae=u&+yD jzpfonf? 'wfcsftkyfcsKyfa&;0efxrf;rsm;u udk,fhzmomaqmif&Gufae=u&olrsm;jzpfonf? tp ydkif;wGif olwdk@u *smrefrsm;ay;vmaomtrdef@rsm;udk taumiftxnfazmf&ef wGef@qkwfae=uonf? Todk@ ueOD;yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_aemufydkif;/ ,ckoydwfarSmuf=uolrsm;u olwdk@zmomqHk;jzwfoydwfarSmuf=ujcif; jzpf onf? Todk@jzifh azaz:0g&Dvoydwfudk a&&Snfrxdef;xm;EdkifcJhay? odk@aomf'wfcsfvlxkatmufajcxkt=um;wGif awmfvSefa&;pdwf"gwfrSm tjrpfwG,fcJh+yDjzpfonf? olwdk@u Tv_yf &Sm;r_udk rsKd;cspfv_yf&Sm;r_wcktjzpf cH,l=uonf? vlxktrsm;pku yg0ifaqmif&Guf=uonf? ausmif;q&mrsm;u olwdk@. trnfrsm;udk *smreft&m&Sdrsm;u twnfðyay;Edkif&eftwGuf trnfpm&if;wifoGif;&ef jiif;qef=uonf? tEkynm&Sifrsm;u *smrefzGJ@pnf;ay;onfh emZD,Ofaus;r_toif; (Nazi kulturkammer) odk@0if&ef jiif;=u onf? Todk@jiif;y,fjcif;a=umifh olwdk@azsmfajzcGifhrsm;/ 0ifaiGrsm;qHk;&_H;=u&onfhwdkif aqmif&Guf=uonf? wodef; ajcmufaomif;aomv,form;rsm;u emZDrsm;xHa&mufrnfpdk;ojzifh jyefqyf&ef&Sdaom taºuG;rsm;ray;yJae=u onf? vli,faxmifaygif;rsm;pGmu ajr,mrsm;udktydkifowfrSwfay;rnfhtzGJ@ (Arbeitsdienst) odk@ pm&if;ay; oGif;&ef jiif;=uonf? ajratmufyHkESdyfxkwfa0r_u owif;pmtapmif (60) cef@txd &SdvmcJhonf? xdkowif;pmrsm;u v_yf&Sm;&Sifoef ae=uonf? vlóudufrsm;aomowif;pmwapmifrSm ‘[ufyg&dk;’ (Het Parool) trnf&aom owif;pmjzpf onf? ,ckwdkif emrnf}uD;owif;pmtjzpf&yfwnfaeao;onf? ppftwGif;umvwGif vlrsm;tcsif;csif;ae@pOf E_wfquf=uonfhtoHk;tE_H;onfyif/ rdrdudk,fudk *k%f,lonfhtoGifudk aqmifxm;=uonf? t*FvdyfpmvHk; ‘AGD’ trSwfudk vufqGJE_wfquf=uonfhtpm;/ jy=uonf? òrd@}uD;wdkif;&Sd eH&Hrsm;/ qdkifrsm;wGifa&;qGJ=uonf? ‘[,fvdk’ tpm; toHwlonfh ‘opPmazmfawGtm;vHk; óud;ay;ypf’ (Hang alle landverraders op.) [laom t"dy`g,f& onfh pum;jzifh E_wfquf=uonf? bk&ifr 0Dvf[,fvfrDemyHyk gaom '*Fg;jym;udk 0wfqif=uonf? qD;pf tif;uGwfu 'wfcsfvlrsKd;rsm;taejzifh emcHonfh trsKd;om;qdk&S,fvpf0g'D (emZD) rsm;rjzpfvmEdkifonfudk oabmaygufvmonf? xdktwGufa=umifh *smrefrsm;u wdk;IzdESyd fvm=uonf? (1942) ckESpfukefwGif awmfvSef

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)202


a&;wdkufyGJ0ifaygif; (800) cef@tzrf;cHcJh&+yD;/ *smreD&Sd xdef;odrf;a&;pcef;rsm;odk@ ydk@cHcJh=u&onf? EdkifiH&Sdt}uD;qHk; aom y&dkwufpwifhEdkifiHa&;ygwDrSm zsufodrf;cH&onf? xdkygwD0ifrsm;udk emZDrsm;uxdef;csKyfxm;aom tvkyf orm;or*~rsm;odk@ twif;t=uyf0ifcdkif;onf? 'wfcsf uufovpfbk&m;ausmif; csyfrsm;u *sL;rsm;e,fESifonfh udpPudk *smreftm%mydkifrsm;xHodk@ a=u;eef;rsm;/ pmrsm;ydk@I uef@uGufonf? *sL;EG,fol upfovpfbmom0if (700) cef@rSm zrf;qD;I atmhZf0pftusOf;pcef;odk@ ydk@cHcJh&onf? (3) ESpfr#r=umaom umvrSmyif 'wfcsfvlrsKd; (3) odef;cef@rSm *smreDEdkifiH&Sd &m;a'o (Ruhr) odk@tvkyfvkyfudkif &eftwGuf ajymif;a&$@apjcif; cH=u&onf? olwdk@rdom;pkrsm;. &yfwnfaexdkifa&;udkxdcdkufvmapaoma=umifh olwdk@awmfvSefa&;vkyfvdkpdwfrsm;udk xdef;csKyfEdkifap&ef &nf&G,fcJhjcif;jzpfonf? xdkolrsm;teufrS vlwodef;cef@rSm a[mfvefEdkifiHjyefa&mufatmif xGufajy;EdkifcJh=u+yD;/ 'wfcsfv,form;rsm;/ vlxkrsm;t=um;wGif ykef;atmif;ae xdkifEdkifcJh=uonf? Tv_yf&Sm;r_wGifta&;ygaomtzGJ@rsm;rSm (Landelijke Organisatie) [kac:aom trsKd;om; toif; (vltiftm; waomif;cGJcef@tzGJ@0if&Sdonf?) ESifh trsKd;om;axmufyHha&;&HyHkaiGtzGJ@wdk@ jzpfonf? xdktzGJ@rSm t*Fvefodk@xGufajy;vGwfajrmufoGm;=uaom b%fvkyfief;&Sifrsm;u yg0ifxlaxmifxm;onfhtzGJ@ jzpfonf? xdk tzGJ@rsm;u 'wfcsfEdkifiHtwGif;&SdrD;&xm;vrf;rsm;udk zsuq f D;=uonfh azmufcGJzsufqD;a&;tzGJ@rsm;udkvnf; axmuf yHh ay;=uonf? xdktzGJ@rsm;u vufeufrsm;odkavSmifpkaqmif;jcif;ESifh *smrefaxmufyHha&;,mOfwef;rsm;udkwdkuf cdkufavh&Sd=uonf? taumif;qHk; nD!Gwfa&;v_yf&Sm;r_udkjycJhonfrSm 'wfcsfq&m0efrsm;jzpfonf? xdkq&m0efrsm;udk *smrefrsm;u q&m0eftoif; (Artztekammer) odk@0ifcdkif;onf? *smrefaq;ukxHk;rsm;twdkif;vdkufemcdkif;onf? vlemrsm;udk vlrsKd;a&;t& cGJjcm;ppfaq;jcif;ESifh rsKd;&dk;ADZcsKd@,Gif;r_rsm;udk ppfaq;&ef xdktoif;u!$ef=um;csufxkwfonf? EdkifiH wGif;&Sdq&m0efrsm;. (3 yHkwyHk) rSm xdktzGJ@udk 0if&efjiif;qefonfhtjyif/ xdkodk@r0ifonfhtwGufa=umifh aq;uko cGifhvdkifpifpGef@v$wf&jcif;/ rdrd.aq;cef;/ aetdrfrsm;rS emrnfqdkif;bkwfjym;rsm; z,f&Sm;jcif;ponfwdk@txd temcH aqmif&GufcJh=uonf? q&m0eftcsKd@u aq;zufqdkif&mqufoG,fa&; tzGJ@ (Medisch contact) udkzGJ@pnf;=u onf? xdktzGJ@ua'oqdkif&m&Sdq&m0efrsm;ESifhtwl a'o (11) ckwGif&Sdaeaomudk,fpm;vS,frsm;rSwqifh yl;aygif; aqmif&Guf=uonf? xdktzGJ@u *smrefrsm;wdkufcdkufvmrnfhab;tEW&m,frSa&Smifwdrf;=u&rnfh orm;awmfrsm;/ q&m0efrsm;udk 0Sufay;=uonf? olwdk@.!$ef=um;csufrsm;udk A[dkcsKyfudkifr_,lxm;jcif;tm;jzifh/ olwdk@.touf arG;0rf;a=umif;aq;ukor_ynm&yftay: *smrefemZDrsm;u csKyfudkifvmrnfudk wm;qD;EdkifcJh=uonf? (1943) ckESpf/ {+yDv (29) &ufae@wGif ,cif'wfcsfwyfrawmftwGif;&Sdppfom;rsm;tm;vHk; (1940 ckESpfwGiftzrf; qD;cH&+yD;/ jyefv$wfay;cJhaom ppfom;rsm;tygt0if) udk jyefvnfzrf;qD;I *smreD&Sdtvkyf=urf;pcef;rsm;odk@ ydk@ aqmifrnf[k a=ujimcsufxkwfjyefcJhonf? Ttrdef@t&qdkv#if vl (3) odef;ausmf xdcdkufepfem&zG,f&Sdonf? csuf csif;qdkovdkyif [if*Jvdka'o&Sd vkyfom;rsm;u Ttrdef@xGufvm+yD;/ olwdk@vkyfief;cGifodk@r0ifyJaeum qef@usif=u awmhonf? xdkoydwfonf csufcsif;yif tdkAm&pfq,fa'o (Overijssel) wckvHk;ESifh tif;[dkAif (Eindhoven) a'o&Sdòrd@}uD;tm;vHk;udk awmrD;yrm jyef@ESH@oGm;onf? Ta'owGif;&Sdaeaom zdvpfukyR%D.puf&Hkrsm;tm;vHk; &yfqdkif;oavmufeD;yg; jzpfoGm;awmhonf? vif;Amufc&dkif (Limburg) wGifvnf;/ rdkif;vkyfom;waomif;ausmf rSm rdkif;wGif;xJrqif;yJ oydwfESifhyl;aygif;vm=uonf? aemufwae@eHeufwGif oydwfarSmufolta&twGufrSm (4) aomif;ausmf wdk;wufvmonf? xdk@aemuf*smrefykvdyfrsm;ESifh ppfom;rsm;u 0ifa&mufvm=u+yD;/ rJrJjrif&mypf cwfacsr_ef;=uawmhonf? zrf;qD;cH&olrsm;udkvnf; tusOf;&Hk;ppfaq;um/ ao'%ftjypfrsm;csrSwfonfvnf;&Sd onf? Todk@acsr_ef;+yD;aemufydkif;wGif vif;Amufa'orSvGJI usefonfhae&mrsm;wGif oydwfarSmuf=uonfht&Sdef avsmhusoGm;cJhonf? *smrefykvdyfrsm;udk xdkae&modk@apv$wfvdkuf+yD;/ t=urf;tiftm;oHk;I òzdcGJcdkif;onf? Todk@ jzifh t=urf;zuf&kef;&if;qefcwfr_rsm;jzpfyGg;vmcJhawmhonf? arv (5) &ufae@wGif vif;Amuf&Sdvkyfom;rsm;u vufavsmhum vkyfief;cGifodk@jyef0if=uonf? Toydwf}uD;wGif vlaygif; (180) ausmfaoqHk;um (400) ausmf '%f&m&&SdcJhonf? vl (900) ausmfrSm ppfoHk@yef;rsm;tjzpfzrf;qD;um *smreftvkyf=urf;pcef;rsm;odk@ ydk@cH&onf? aemufvmonfhvrsm;wGif/ ckcHr_rsm;ydkIrsm;vmcJhonf? odk@aomfvnf;Todk@tmcHr_rsm;rSm ZGJaumif;aumif;jzifh aqmif&Gufaeaomq&m0efrsm;/ puf&Hkvkyfom;rsm;uJhodk@aom tzGJ@rsm;rSjzpfonf? xdkolrsm;. b0rsm;rSm emZD wdk@.rl0g'rsm;a=umifh wdkuf&dkufxdcdkufepfem&olrsm;jzpfonf? odk@aomfvnf; ckcHawmfvSefr_}uD;wckvHk;wGif pepf

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)203


wusxdef;ausmif;vrf;!$efr_ tm;enf;aecJhonf? 'def;rwfEkid fiHwGifrSm ckcHa&;tiftm;pkrsm;rSm a'otvdkufay: xGufvm=uonfrSefaomfvnf;/ aemufydkif;wGif qufoG,fa&;pepfuwajz;ajz; zGH@òzd;vmonf? aemufydkif;wGif e,fomvefY tvkyform;or*~acgif;aqmifrsm;/ ckcHa&;acgif;aqmifrsm;/ ajratmufowif;pmt,f'Dwmrsm;u wrsKd;om;vHk; v_yf&Sm;r_tjzpfqufpyfEdkif&ef/ trmcHtiftm;pk (De Kern) udk zGJ@pnf;cJh=uonf? Todk@rzGJ@pnf; ciftxd/ wausmif;w*gxmom&SdaecJhonf? xdkacgif;aqmifrsm;u trfpwm'rfwGiftywfpOfawG@qHkaqG;aEG;=u onf? odk@aomfvnf; 'def;rwfEdkifiHwGif vGwfvyfa&;aumifpDzGJ@pnf;yHkvkyfEdkifonftxd taetxm;rsKd;ra&muf EdkifcJhay? Todk@rpkpnf;Edkifr_a=umifh 'wfcsfEdkifiHtwGif;&Sd tvkyform;rsm;/ ckcHa&;tiftm;pkrsm;udk ukd,fpm;ðyI ajymqdk&ef taetxm;rjzpfEdkifcJhay? odk@jzpfaoma=umifh 'wfcsfEdkifiHwGiftrsKd;om;a&;&nfrSef;csufcsrSwfaqmif &Guf&ef rjzpfEdkifouJhodk@/ *smreftkyfcsKyfa&;udk aoe*FAsL[musustmcHwdkufzsuf&ef taetxm;rsKd; rjzpfomcJh ay? ckcHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_. aemufqHk;t}uD;us,fqHk;v_yf&Sm;r_rSm (1944) ckESpf/ pufwifbmvwGifjzpfvmcJhonf? 'wfcsf rD;&xm;vrf;vkyfom;rsm;u oydwfarSmuf=uawmhonf? olwdk@u *sL;rsm;udkta&S@zuf&Sdac|;wyfpcef;rsm;odk@ydk@ aqmifaeonfudk ydwfyifwm;qD;&efóud;yrf;=uouJhodk@/ *smrefwyfrsm;v_yf&Sm;r_udkvnf; wwfEdkifor#[ef@wm; Edkif&ef aqmif&GufcJh=uonf? xdktcsdefwGif tzEdkifiHawmfudk r[mrdwfwyfrsm;uxdk;ppfqifvmr_udk umuG,fEdkif &eftwGuf *smrefwyfrsm;aemufwef;jyef umuG,fae&+yDjzpfonf? vGefcJhaomESpf (20) cef@u jyifopfrsm;u &m; a'owGifaqmif&GufcJhonfhenf;wl/ 'def;rwfjynfolrsm;u aqmif&Guf=uonfhenf;wlaqmif&Gufvmaoma=umifh *smrefrsm;u olwdk@udk,fydkifrD;&xm;vrf;vkyfom;rsm;udk ac:oGif;I &xm;rsm;tcsdefrDoGm;Edkifap&ef aqmif&Guf=u &awmhonf? vufwkef@jyefonfhtaejzifh *smrefrsm;u &dkwm'rfrS 'wfcsfvlrsKd; (5) aomif;ausmfudk *smrefodk@t"rR ydk@um *smrefòrd@}uD;rsm;wGif ckcHppftwGufjyifqif&mYoHk;onf? &xm;vrf;oydwfarSmufr_. tjcm;qdk;&Gm;apaom tusKd;qufrSm &dkwm'rfESifh tjcm;'wfcsfòrd@}uD;rsm;odk@ wifoGif;vmrnfh ausmufrD;aoG;/ avmifpmqDrsm;/ tpm; taomufrsm; ra&mufEdkifjzpfcJh&jcif; jzpfonf? xdkESpfu aqmif;&moDrSm qdk;&Gm;vGef;vS&m/ vltrsm;tawmfxd cdkufcHpm;=u&onf? aemufydkif;r[mrdwfwyfzGJ@rsm;u aEGOD;&moDwGifppfEdkifvmaoma=umifh vGwfajrmufcJh=u& onf? odk@aomf'wfcsfvlrsKd;rsm;rSm 'def;rwfvklrsKd;rsm;xufpmv#if ydkIcg;oD;aomppf'%fudk cHcJh=u&onf? 'def;rwfEdkifiHwGifjzpfysufcJhaomtajctaeESifh Ed_if;,SOfygu/ emZDrsm;u 0if0ifvmcsifyif/ 'wfcsfrsm;. tkyfcsKyfa&; acgif;aqmifydkif;udk zsufqD;acsr_ef;cJh=uonf? ppfcif;ouJhodk@aqmif&Gufvm=uonf? vloef;0ufcef@&Sdaom 'wfcsf vkyfom;rsm;udk *smrefppf,EW,m;vnfywfarmif;ESifEdkifa&;twGuf t"rRcdkif;ap oHk;cJh=uonf? rlvuwnf;u OD; usKd;cJhaoma=umifh *smrefwyfrsm;u 'def;rwfEdkifiHxufpmv#if ydkIqdk;qdk;&Gm;&Gm;zdESdyfxm;&ef jyifqifxm;cJh=u onf? 'def;rwfEdkifiHwGifrl tcsKdowfr_a&m/ '%fay;r_yga&maESmusifhoHk;cJh=uao;onf? (1923 ckwGif jyifopfu vnf; ueOD;*smrefrsm;ESifh&ifqdkif&&mY Tenf;emudkoHk;cJhao;onf?) xdktwGufa=umifh jzpfay:vmaom&vm'f rsm;uvnf; uGmjcm;onf? xdktjyif*smrefrsm;. zdtm;ay;enf;emrsm;uvnf; ckcHa&;v_yf&Sm;olrsm;rv_yfom atmifusOf;=uyfvGef;ouJhodk@/ ckcHa&;tiftm;pkxJodk@yg0ifEdkifol atmifajctiftm;pktm;vHk;udk t"rRacsr_ef;cJh onf? ckcHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;u uGufusm;jzpfaeaoma=umifh/ emZD*smrefrsm;u 'wfcsfvkyfom;rsm;.vkyftm;udk acgif;yHkjzwfEdkifcJhonfhtjyif/ 'wfcsfEdkifiH&Sd *sL;vlrsKd; (10) OD;teuf (8) OD;rSm EdkifiHjyifyodk@ESifcH&um/ tpktòyHvdkuf vlowfyGJ [dkvdkaumhpfwGif okwfoifcHcJh=u&onf? tu,fI e,fomvefEdkifiHwGif ckcHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_udkom TxufydkIpepfwuspDpOfEdkifcJhygu toufaoa=uysufpD; &r_ydkenf;EdkifouJhodk@/ ydkIvnf; *k%f,lEdkifaprnf jzpfonf? odk@aomfvnf; tpydkif;wGif'wfcsftm%mydkifrsm;u yl; aygif;aqmif&Gufr_ r&Sd=ujcif;/ trSefwu,fnD!Gwfr_ r&=ujcif;rsm;a=umifh tm;aysmhcJh=u&onf? rnfodk@yifqdkap umrl ,ckuJhodk@vltrsm;qef@usif=uaoma=umifhom e,fomvefEdkifiHudk *smreDEdkifiH. rlv&nf&G,fcsufjzpfaom vufatmufcHEdkifiHi,fwcktjzpfodrf;oGif;rnfhtEW&m,frS wm;qD;umuG,fay;EdkifcJh=uonf? vlrsm;e,fESifhonfh udpPudkvnf; wwfEdkifor#tcsdefqGJxm;Edkifum/ *smrefrsm;ppftiftm;twGuf jzpfaprnfh tcsdefrsm;/ tiftm;pk rsm;udk tjcm;udpPrsm;twGufoHk;&I aESmifhaES;apcJhonf? 'wfcsfESifh 'def;rwfEdkifiHrsm; (2) ckvHk;udk ppfa&;usL;ausmf ppfjzifh emZDrsm;0ifa&mufvmcJh=uaomfvnf;/ xdkEdkifiHrsm;u t=urf;rzufaomenf;jzifh tmcHcJh=uonf? xdkodk@ t=urf;rzufr_jzifhtmcHr_a=umifh csufcsif;TEdkifiHrsm;udk odr;f ydkufEdkifa&;rSm cufcJapcJhonf? 'def;rwfEdkifiHudkodrf; ydkufI&onfhwefzdk;rSm *srefrsm;tzdk@ rSef;csufESifhESrf;xGufrudkufcJhyg? e,fomvefEdkifiHwGifrl tenf;i,fawmh&cJh ao;onf[k qdkEdkifonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)204


“igwdk@a,mufsm;awGudk jyefv$wfay;?” (1943) ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv (27) &ufae@wGif/ *smrefppfom;rsm;ESifh a'oqdkif&m*ufpfwmydkwyfzGJ@rsm;u bmvifòrd@ &Sd*sL;rsm;udk pwifzrf;qD;ae=u+yD jzpfonf? olwdk@u Todk@zrf;qD;jcif;udkppfqifa&;wckozG,faqmif&Gufaejcif;jzpf +yD; ‘aemufqHk;0dkif;ywfzrf;qD;r_ppfqifa&;’tjzpf trnfay;xm;onf? *sL;rsm;udk x&yfum;rsm;ay:odk@wifum òrd@ vnf&Sd *sL;vlrsKfd;&yfuGufrsm;qdkif&mtkyfcsKyfa&;&Hk;&Sdonfh &dkqefx&mhpfa'o&Sd taqmuftOD;trSwf (2-4) odk@ac: oGm;=uonf? olwdk@.&nf&G,fcsufrSm òrd@awmfudk*sL;rsm;r&Sd/ oef@pifapa&; jzpfonf? *smrefbmomtm;jzifh (judenfrei) [k ac:onf? xdkrl0g't& *smreftrsKd;orD;rsm;ESifhvufxyfxm;aom*sL;rsm;vnf; tygt0ifzrf;qD; &efjzpfI/ olwdk@rSaygufzGm;vmaom uav;rsm;udkvnf; zrf;qD;&efjzpfonf? xdkodk@*smrefvlrsKd;rsm;ESifh vufxyf xm;aom*sLvlrsKd;rsm;rSm (2) ESpfwmumvr# vGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifh&ae=uonf? ta=umif;rSm ppfyGJudkaxmufcH &eftwGuf trsKd;orD;rsm;.tiftm;/ axmufcHr_ta&;}uD;aeao;aoma=umifh jzpfonf? xdktwGufa=umifh olwdk@ tzdk@ [dkvdkaumhpftpG,f}uD;}udwf0g;cH&rnfh'%frS ab;vGwfuif;aeEdkifcJhonf? emZDtpdk;&u tdrfwGif;ppf rsufESmwGif qlqlylyljzpfae&rnfhta&;udk rvdkvm;cJh? odk@aomf,ckvtapmydkif;wGif ar#mfvifhrxm;aom pwm vif*&uft&H_;yGJudk *smrefwdk@óuHcJh&onf? Ttajctaea=umifh aoG;&l;aoG;wrf;jzpfvmum/ [pfwvmu tvHk; pHkppfyGJ[k aºuG;a=umfvmawmhonf? ol.&efolrsm;wGifr[mrdwfwyfrsm;tm;vHk;ESifh *smreDEdkifiHtwGif;&Sd*sL;rsm; tm;vHk; yg0ifvmawmhonf? bmvifòrd@wGif Todk@t"rRvlqGJaeonfhowif;onf csufcsif;qdkovdkyif awmrD;yrmjyef@ESH@oGm;cJhonf? xdkrwdkifrD *sL;vlrsKd;r[kwfaom *smreftrsKd;orD;tkyfpkrsm;rSm olwdk@.cifyGef;rsm;twGuf pm;a&&duQmESifhtjcm;vdktyfaom toHk;taqmifrsm;ay;Edkif&ef &dkqefx&mhpfwGif pk&Hk;apmifhqdkif;aecJhonf? olwdk@u xdktaqmuftODxJwGifolwdk@. cifyGef;rsm;udk zrf;qD;xdef;odrf;xm;onf[k ,Hk=unfae=uonf? &Sm;avmhtpPa&;[k trnf&aomtrsKd;orD;i,f wOD;u ola&mufvmcsdefwGif trsKd;orD; (150) cef@ taqmuftODjyifywGifpkpnf;rdae+yDjzpfa=umif; awG@&onf? olru tapmifhxHoGm;I olrcifyGef;xH&Sdaeaom tmvl;&m&SifcGJwrf;u'fudk ,l&ef/ awG@cGifhawmif;onf? olr cifyGef;u u'f.aemufausmwGif olaeaumif;onf[k pmwdkav;a&;ay;vdkufonf? tjcm;trsK;d orD;rsm;uvnf; olwdk@cifyGef;rsm; taqmuftOD;twGif;&Sd-r&Sdaocsmap&ef/ yk*~dKvfa&;udpPwckckta=umif;jyum awG@cGifhawmif; awmhonf? rsm;r=umrDyif xdktajctaerS xdkolrsm;vGwfajrmufa&;twGufudk awmif;qdkvm=uawmhonf? trsKd;orD;wOD;. tpfudkjzpfol/ ppfom;wm0efrScGifhjzifhjyefvmolu tufpftufpftapmifhwyfom;xHoGm;I/ tu,fIol.a,mufzudk rv$wfay;ygu/ ol@taejzifha&S@wef;odk@ rjyefEdkifa=umif;ajymonf? aqmif;&moDOwk at;cJaeonfh=um;xJrSyif vltkyf}uD;u ydkIydkI}uD;vmonf? xdk@aemuftrsKd;orD;rsm;u taqmuftOD;jyify wGifae@a&m/ nygapmifhqdkif;ae=uawmhonf? tcsif;csif;vufcsif;qkyfudkifxm;um/ oDcsif;rsm;qd=k uonf? rdrdwdk@ a,mufsm;rsm;udk v$wfay;&ef atmf[pfawmif;qdk=uonf? qENjyyGJaemufw&uful;aomtcg &dkqefx&mhpfwGif trsKd;orD; (600) ausmfpk&Hk;rdum txdrf;trSwfqENjy=uawmhonf? Todk@trsKd;orD;rsm;u ra=ueyfa=umif;/ tmcHa=umif; jy=uonfrSm ,ckt}udrfonf yxrOD;qHk;t}udrfr[kwf ay? q,fpkESpfwckausmf=um olwdk@rdom;pkrsm;ESifh xdktrsKd;orD;rsm;u emZDrsm;.vlrsKd;a&;cGJjcm;onfhrl0g'rsm;udk qef@usifcJh=uonf? pmrsm;a&;om;ay;ydk@=uonf? qENjyyGJi,frsm; pnf;&Hk;aqmif&Guf=uonf? emZD*smrefrsm;u vnf; *sL;cifyGef;/ ZeD;rsm;udkESdyfuGyfjcif;jzifh olwdk@*smrefvlrsKd;rsm;rxdcdkuf&avatmif tom=unfhae=u&onf? [pfwvmESifh ol.todkif;t0dkif;u Todk@r+idrfroufjzpfr_udk tenf;qHk;tjzpfxdef;xm;Edkif&avatmif tjrJóud; yrf;cJh=uonf? *smrefvufsm0g'Drsm;u olwdk@.aemufausm'g;xdk;cH&onf[kjrifaom tdrfwGif;qlylr+idrfroufr_ rsm; r&Sd&avatmif twwfEdkifqHk;xdef;cJh=uonf? Todk@aemufausmrat;aoma=umifh yxrurBmppfwkef;u olwdk@ t&_H;óuH&onf[k olwdk@ujrif=uonf? Todk@tajctaera&muf&avatmif emZD*smrefrsm;u *sL;rsm;udk tpktðyHvdkufowfjzwfaer_udk v#Kd@0Sufwdwfwqdwfaqmif&GufaecJh=uonf? emZDwdk@.rl0g'rsm;udk ra=umufr&GH@ a0zefajymqdkolrsm;ESifh xdyfwdkufóuH=u&aomtcg/ Todk@v#Kd@0Sufxm;r_onfvnf; tcsnf;ESD;jzpfcJh&awmhonf? trsKd;orD;rsm;.qENjyyGJudk xyfrHtm;jznfhay;onfhudpPrSm/ Todk@jzpfyGg;aomae&monf bmvifòrd@v,faumifjzpf aejcif;yif? Tòrd@olòrd@om;rsm;taejzifh b,faomtcgurSemZD0g'tay: pdwfvdkvuf&axmufcHjcif; r&SdcJhay? òrd@

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)205


}uD;bmvifom;rsm;tzdk@ TemZDtawG;tac:rSm bmab;&D;,ef;vl&dkif;rsm;. tawG;tac:[kom jrif=uonf? xdk@tjyif bmvifòrd@awmfwGif EdkifiH&yfjcm;owif;Xmeaygif;pHktajcpdkufxm;+yD;/ ppfumvtwGif;jzpfonfhwdkif quf vufowif;a&;om;ay;ydk@ae=uqJ jzpfonf? tu,fI rvdkvm;aomowif;Xmersm;uom TqENjyr_udkyHk}uD;csJ@ a&;om;ygu/ tjcm;tEW&m,frsm;rxdwdk@Edkif/ waoG;wnf;woHwnf;[k trsm;,Hk=unfxm;=uaomemZDEdkifiH awmf}uD;tzdk@ t&SufawmfrvSjzpf&ayvdrfhrnf? odk@aomfvnf; vef'ef&Sda&'D,dkuTqENjyyGJowif;udk v$ifhay;cJh onf? wwd,&ufa&mufaomtcg tufpftufpfwyfzGJ@rsm;udk xdkqENjyaeaomvltkyfxHodk@ aoewfjzifhcsdef&G,fòzdcGJ&ef/ trdef@ay;cJhaomfvnf;/ rdk;ay:axmifypfIajcmuf&efom !$ef=um;cJhonf? xdkolrsm;u Tod@k t}udrrf sm;pGm+cdr;f ajcmufvlpkcGJ=uonf? xdktcgwdkif; trsKd;orD;rsm;u vrf;=um;xJa&Smifajy;=uonf? xdk@aemufjyefvmonf? olwdk@taejzifh *smrefvlrsKd;/ *smrefaoG;jzpfaoma=umifh ppfom;rsm;uolwdk@xdcdkufemusif&avatmifypfrnf r[kwfa=umif; olwdk@uodxm;=uonf? trsKd;orD;rsm;udkzrf;qD;rnf/ axmifcsrnfqdkyguvnf; olwdk@tajymESifh tvkyfvGJavawmhrnf? olwdk@ºuGm;vHk;xkwfxm;or# tcsnf;ESD;jzpf&awmhrnf? emZDwdk@.t,ltqrsm;t& trsKd; orD;rsm;qdkonfrSm EdkifiHa&;t&aqmif&Guf&efrjzpfEdkifqHk;[k olwdk@owfrSwfxm;=uonf? xdktwGufa=umifhtrsKd; orD;rsm;.tmcHr_qdkonfrSm emZDrsm;twGuf r=um;csifqHk;aomt&m jzpfonf? xdktrsKd;orD;rsm;udkol&Jaumif; tjzpfa&mufatmifðyay;rnfqdkygu/ emZDwdk@ olwdk@udk,folwdk@wifxm;aom *k%foduQmvHk;vHk;usqif;&ayawmh rnf? emZDwdk@u rdcifrsm;udkumuG,fay;ol[k olwdk@udkf,folwdk@tr$ef;wifxm;=uonf r[kwfygvm;? Tv_yf&Sm;r_onf aemufqHk;vlrsKd;jcm;ESifh vufxyfxm;olr[kwfaom/ trsKd;om; trsKd;orD;rsm;yg0ifvmonf txd}uD;rm;us,fjyef@vmonf? qENjyol ta&twGufaxmifausmf&Sdvmonf? xdkolrsm;u tufpftufpfppf om;rsm;udk tmcH&if;/ tusOf;om;rsm;udk jyefv$wfay;&efawmif;qdk=uonf? *sKd;Zuf *dkbJvfu TqENjyr_udk r}uD;xGm;&avatmif/ xdkae&modk@vmvrf;rsm;teD;&Sd blwm&Hk/ um;*dwfrsm;tm;vHk;udk ydwfypfonf? odk@aomf trsKd;orD;rsm;u c&D;ydka0;aomae&mu/ &dkqefx&mhpf taqmuftOD; trSwf (2-4) odk@ vrf;av#mufI ta&mufa&mufatmif vm=uonf? &ufowWygwfukefqHk;aomtcg *dkbJvftaejzifh tjcm;enf;vrf;&SmrawG@ awmh? tusOf;om;rsm;udk jyefv$wfay;&Hkom&Sdawmhonf? xdktxJrS tusOf;om; trsKd;om; (34) OD;udk atmhZf 0pftusOf;pcef;odk@ ydk@cJh+yD; jzpfaeonf? xdkolrsm;udk olwdk@.ypPnf;rsm;jyefvnfxkyfydk;&efESifh bmvifodk@jyefydk@ay; &ef !$ef=um;&awmhonf? olwdk@.aqmif&GufaeaomudpPrsm;. xda&mufyHkudk tjynfht0em;rvnfaomfvnf;/ trsKd;orD;rsm;onf emZD rsm;udk vrf;wckcka&G;&avatmif zdtm;ay;EdkifcJhonf? olwdk@taejzifh tuef@towfjzifhawmif;qdkxm;aom awmif;qdkcsufudk vdkufavsmEdkifonf? wdwdususwefzdk;wckudkawmh ay;Edkifonf? Tawmif;qdkcsufu tusOf; om; (1700) udk v$wfay;&efjzpfonf? aemufqHk;*smrefrsm;ESifhvufxyfxm;aom *sL;cifyGef;rsm;udkv$wfay;vdkuf &awmhonf? Todk@r[kwfygu òrd@v,faumifwGif qENjyyGJ}uD; }uD;vmvdrfhrnf? xdkqENjyyGJrS xyfIrqHk;Edkifaom tjzpftysufrsm;vnf; jzpfvmEdkifao;onf? *smreftrsKd;orD;rsm;udk t=urf;zufrnfqdkyguvnf; olwdk@twGuf wefzdk;}uD;}uD;ay;&vdrfhrnf? *smrefemZDrsm;twGufrSmrl aemufqHk;usefrnfh*sL;vufuseftenf;i,fudk "gwfaiG@cef; xJxnfhI taoowfa&;xuf/ wdkif;jynftwGif; +idrf;csrf;wnfa&;u ydkIta&;}uD;aeonf? Oa&mywckvHk;udk +cdrf;ajcmufEdkifcJhaom *smrefemZDrsm;tzdk@/ rdrdtdrfwHcg;0wGifjzpfaeaom +cdrf;ajcmufr_udkawmh t=urf;zufacsr_ef; &ef rjzpfEdkifjzpfae&onf? emZDrsm;onf &ufpuf=urf;óuwfaomfvnf;/ olwdk@onf evAdef;wkef;rsm;awmh r[kwf =uay? Ttjzpftysuf jzpfaecsdefwGifzrf;xm;cJhaom *sL;vlrsKd;cifyGef; (35) a,mufxufru/ ydkI vG$wfay;cJh&onf? T qENjyyGJu emZDtm%mydkifrsm;udk rajz&Sif;&ao;aomar;cGef;wckudk twif;t=uyfpOf;pm;apcJhonf? tjcm;*smref rsm;ESifh vufxyfxm;=uaom*sL;vlrsKd;rsm;udkvnf; rnfuJhodk@qufvufaqmif&Gufrnfenf;? Ttar;udkajzvm &onf? *dkbJvfu xdkolrsm;tm;vHk;udk bmvifrSESifxkwfcsifonf? olu [pfwvmudk bmvifòrd@onf*sL;rsm; oef@pifaomòrd@awmfjzpfa=umif; wifjycsifvSonf? [if;rvm;u Todk@ESifxkwfa&;udpPudk uef@uGufonf? odk@ aomf *dkbJvfu aemufqHk;[pfwvmudkvdrfvnfI *sL;rsm;uif;pif;+yDjzpfoa,mif wifjycJhonf? bmvifwGifae xdkifaom*sL;rsm;udk *sL;trSwftom;tjzpf a';Apf=u,ft"rR0wfqifcdkif;onfhudpPudkvnf; &yfqdkif;apcJhonf? aemufwv=umaomtcg yJ&pfwGifwm0efusaeol ta'ghzf tdkufcref;.vufaxmufjzpfolu jyifopfwGifaoG; aESmvufxyfxm;onfh*sL;rsm;udk rnfodk@aqmif&Guf&rnfudk ar;jref;!$ef=um;csufawmif;cHvmcJhonf? arv (21) &ufae@wGif [ifrvm;.vufaxmufu xdkolrsm;tm;vHk;udkv$wfay;cJhonf? ae&mwdkif;&Sd pcef;rsm;tm;vHk; u v$wfay;cJhonf? TtjzpfrwdkifrD (5) ESpfu *ENDudk

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)206


[pfwvmta=umif;ar;cJhbl;onf? *ENDu “vufeufryg wJh trsKd;om;/ trsKd;orD;/ uav;awGu t=urf;rzufwJhenf;eJ@ qef@usif=uvdrfhr,f”[k ajymcJhonf? “'DudpPu olwdk@&J@ wu,fhjrifhjrwfwJh wdkufyGJyJ” olu óudwifedrdwfzwfcJhonf? &kof *a&mhpfrSm (1943) ckESpfu touf (10) ESpfr#om&Sdaom uav;rav;wOD;jzpfonf? olu &dkqefx&mhpf vrf;ay:qif;vm&if; olr.zcif&kyfoGifudkjrif&yHkudk rSwfrdaeao;onf? xdktcsdefu olrtazutvkyf=urf;pcef; rsm;odk@ rydk@rD xdkae&mwGifcsKyfaESmifxm;csdefjzpfonf? w&ufwiG f olru ol@tazudkv#yfwjyufjrifvdkuf&+yD;/ olu vufa0S@&rf;E_wfqufcJhonf? “'D &dkqefx&mhpftjzpftysufu” olru aemufydkif;wGif jyefajymjyonf? “usrwdk@ =um;xJrSm pnf;aESmifr_&Sdaewmudk jyaew,f? usreJ@ usrtaz&J@=um;xJrSm&SdwJh pnf;aESmifr_rsKd;yJ?” ol.aemuf qHk;tcsdefaq;&HkwGif &SdaepOf/ olroGm;awG@pOftcsdefwdkif;wGifrl olutjrJwaprwfwyf&yfum/ vufa0S@&rf;jy E_wf qufavh&Sdonf[k qdkonf? “usr,Hk=unfwmuawmh/ olvnf; tJ'D&dkqefx&mhpftjzpftysufjrifuGif;udk tjrJ jyefowd&aeao;w,fxifw,f? tJ'DrSmvnf; olurwfwyf&yf+yD;/ vufa0S@&rf;E_wfqufjycJhw,f?” olwdk@ toufaoa&;&Sifa&;tcsdefwGif/ cspfjcif;arwWmu vma&mufu,fwifcJhaomtjzpfonf/ rnfolwOD;ur#arhEdkif vdrfhrnf r[kwfay? æææ EdkifiHwckudk usL;ausmfodrf;ydkufjcif;onf/ odrf;ydkufoltwGufa&m/ odrf;ydkufcH&oljynfolrsm;twGufyg tcsif;csif; oHo,rsm;jzifh upm;&aom upm;yGJwcktwGif;odk@usa&mufaponf? odrf;ydkufoluvnf; tdrfydkif&Siftopf ozG,fðyrlcsifonf? usefjynfolrsm;udk tdrfiSm;aeolozG,f pnf;urf;ao0yfpGmaeapcsifonf? tdrfiSm;cudktcsdefrD ay;apcsifonf? odrf;ydkufusL;ausmfcH&olrsm;rSm olwdk@udkusL;ausmfapmfum;ovdk cHpm;=u&onf? olwdk@taejzifh TEdkifiHonf arG;&mygtcGifhta&;t& olwdk@EdkifiH[kodxm;=uonf? olwdk@taejzifhusL;ausmfodrf;ydkufvmoludk rwGef;vSefxkwfEdkifaomfvnf;/ xdkolucsrSwfvmrnfh pnf;urf;rsm;tm;vHk;udk tmcHqef@usif&eftwGufjyifqif xm;=uonf? tu,fI usL;ausmfodrf;ydkufvmolu Tupm;yGJonfol@twGuftusKd;rjzpfEdkif[k jrifvmaom tcg xGufoGm;ayvdrfhrnf? odk@r[kwfygu pnf;urf;rvdkufemaom/ ryl;aygif;raqmif&GufaomtdrfiSm;rsm;udk owfjzwfjcif; vkyfaumif;vkyfvmrnf? odk@aomfusL;ausmfodrf;ydkufcH&olrsm;tzdk@ tm;omcsufwck&Sdaeonf? olwdk@u rnfonfhudpPrsKd;udkom yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufrnfudk owfrSwfqHk;jzwfEdkifjcif;jzpfonf? usL;ausmfodrf;ydkuf vmoltzdk@rSmrl olwdk@rw&m;&xm;aomtusKd;pD;yGg;rsm;udk umuG,fa&;uddpPom &Sdonf? 'def;rwfESifh e,fomvefEdkifiH (2) ckvHk;wGifrl ckcHa&;tiftm;pkrsm;u usL;ausmfodrf;ydkufvmolrsm;udk xdk;ppftoGif aqmifaomv_yf&Sm;r_rsm; vkyfcJh=uonf? jy,k*faqmifaomqENjyyGJrsm;/ ,Ofaus;r_qdkif&m qENjyyGJrsm;jzifh olwdk@. b0udk oklwdk@udk,fwdkifpDrHcef@cGJydkifcGifh&Sdonfudk jyocJh=uonf? Tenf;tm;jzifh vlxkw&yfvHk;. pdwf"gwfudkjr‡ifhwif ay;EdkifcJhonf? Todk@pdwf"gwfwufºuGvm=uaoma=umifh ydkItm;aumif;aomv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk azmfEdkifvm=u onf? oydwfarSmufyGJrsm;/ vkyfief;cGifrsm;Y tmcHr_rsm;/ &kyf0wˆKypPnf;rsm;udk udk,fxdvufa&mufzsufqD;jcif;rsm;/ ponfhenf;rsm;jzifh t=urf;rzufaomckcHolrsm;u usL;ausmfvmolrsm;. pD;yGg;a&;tusKd;pD;yGg;ysufpD;&mysufpD; a=umif; aqmif&GufcJh=uonf? 'def;rwfEdkifiHwGifrl ajratmufowif;pmrsm;/ yHkESdyfxkwfa0r_rsm;jzifh tm%mydkifrsm; .tvdrftnm0g'jzef@r_rsm;udk qef@usif&if;/ tjcm;aomqufoG,fa&;uGef,ufwckudk xlaxmifEdkifcJh=uonf? oydwfrsm;/ qENjyyGJrsm;wGif vlxktrsm;tjym;yg0ifyl;aygif;vmapjcif;jzifh *smreftm%mydkifrsm;zufu t=urf; zufvufwkef@jyefvmrnfhtEW&m,fudk umuG,fEdkifcJh=uonf? aemufqHk;ae0ifrD;+idrf;trdef@udk jyef&kyfodrf;cJh=u& onf? olwdk@u emZDrsm;. t"du&nfrSef;xm;csufrsm;udk vkyfay;&efjiif;y,fcJh=uonf? ta=umif;rSm xdk&nfrSef; csufatmifjrif&ef 'def;rwfvlrsKd;rsm;u ulnDrS&rnfjzpfaoma=umifh jzpfonf? Todk@jzifhusL;ausmfodrf;ydkufr_u tcsD;ESD;jzpfcJh&onf? t"dy`g,fzGifhcsufrsm;t&qdkv#if/ ppfa&;t&usL;ausmfr_u usL;ausmfodrf;ydkufvmolrsm;udk avxkpdk;rdk;a&;ESifh ajrjyifpdk;rdk;a&;udpPrsm;wGif tompD;&aponf? &kyf0wˆKt& t=urf;zufr_rsm;udkvnf; enf;ukefvrf;ukefoHk;Edkifap onf? odk@aomfusL;ausmfolrsm; tpGrf;ukef/ rwwfEdkifaomudpPrSm xdkolrsm;rnfonfhpmrsm;zwf&rnf/ rnfodk@,Hk =unfvufcH&rnf? rnfonfhtcsdefwGif rnfonfhtvkyfudkvkyf=u&rnf/ olwdk@.aiGa=u;udk rnfodk@oHk;pGJ&rnf paom udpPrsm;tm;vHk;udk csKyfudkifzefwD; trde@f ay;&efrjzpfEikd fyg? odk@aomfvnf;usL;ausmfoltkyfcsKyfaeolrsm; tzdk@

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)207


olwdk@tm%mudkifxm;a=umif; odap&eftwGuf tjrJckcHae&aomtaetxm;wGif a&mufaponf? tjzpftysufrsm;udk pDrHcef@cGJEdkifr_tm%monf/ olwdk@.t=urf;zufEdkifaompGrf;tm;jzifh rjzpfEdkifawmhay?

olwdk@

odk@aomfckcHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_zufu t=urf;zufenf;oHk;vmaomtcg/ xdkyÉdyuQudk xdef;csKyfvSnfhajymif;armif;ESifEdkif onfhpGrf;tm;onf usqif;oGm;cJh&onf? (1923) ckESpf&m;a'o tjzpftysufwGif *smrefppfaoG;ºuGrsm;.t=urf; zuf/ zsufqD;r_rsm;vmaomtcg jyifopfwdk@vufwkef@jyefr_ESifh óuH=u&onf? aemufydkif;wGif *smrefEdkifiHpD;yGg;a&;us qif;onfESifhóuH&aomtcg/ &m;urfhzfa'otzdk@ evHrxlEdkifatmif jzpfcJh&onf? odk@aomfvnf; 'def;rwfwGifOD; aqmifaeonfhvGwfvyfa&;aumifpDu t=urf;zufzsufqD;r_rsm;rjzpf&avatmif/ wm;qD;a&Smifv$JEdkifapcJhonf? *smrefusL;ausmfolrsm;zufuvnf;/ wwdkif;jynfvHk;rxºuGvmapa&;twGuf zdESdyfr_ufdkxdef;odrf;&awmhonf? ESpf zufpvHk;u t=urf;zufjcif;tm;jzifh wefzdk;}uD;}uD;rm;rm;ay;=u&rnfjzpfa=umif; oabmayguf=uonf? (1943) ckESpf &dkqefx&mhpftjzpftysufwGif &mpkESpftwGif; t}uD;rm;qHk;aomavrkefwdkif;ar$onfhES,f/ vl tao ta=utrsm;qHk;jzpfae&aomumvY *smreftrsKd;orD;qENjyolrsm;ESifh (2000) r#aom *smrefrsm;ESifhvufxyf xm;onfh*sL;rsm;twGuf aumif;aumif;t=urf;zufcH&Edkifaomtajctae&SdcJhonf? odk@aomfvnf; tdrfaxmif&Sif r tenf;i,fu tdrfodk@jyef&efjiif;qefjcif;jzifh tmcHr_udkpwifEdkifcJhonf? emZDwdk@.&ufpuft=urf;zuf&efvdkaom qENrSm emrnfqdk;jzifhausmf=um;vSonf? odk@aomfvnf; olwdk@.ppftiftm;}uD;rm;r_onf tm;enf;csKd@,Gif;csuf r&Sd r[kwfcJhyg? olwdk@.tm%mA[dkcsufrY jzpfay:aeaomqENjyyGJuav;udk wkefv_yfaecJh=u&onf? t=urf;zuf enf;jzifhacsr_ef;jcif;tm;jzifh &vmrnfhtusKd;&vm'fudk olwdk@od=uonf? tcsdef=umvmonfESifh tr#/ aoG;xGufoH ,dkr_rsm;vmonfESifhtr# olwdk@zufuay;qyf&rnfh wefzdk;ursm;vmrnf jzpfonf? olwdk@.udk,fwGif;Yudef; atmif;aeaom rdp>mraumif;qdk;&Gm;onf/ tenf;qHk; xdkwc%Y +idrfIðrHaecJh&onf? ppfyGJjzwfoef;oGm;av&m EdkifiHrsm;. ordkif;onf auG;aumufrajzmifhjzL;r_rsm; óuH&avh&Sdonf? odk@aomfvnf; TppfyGJrsm;twGif;rSmyif xdkEdkifiHom;rsm;. }uD;jrwfr_/ awmufajymifaomt&nftcsif;rsm;udkvnf;/ awG@=u& onf? 'def;rwfvlrsKd;rsm;/ 'wfcsfvlrsKd;rsm;ESifh aemufqHk;tmcH=uaom *smrefvlxkrsm;onfyif acwfopfordkif;Y t=urf;óuwfqHk;[k ,lqEdkifaom vlowftm%m&Siftpdk;&udk pdefac:EdkifcJh=uonf? xdkolrsm;onf wifhum;rsm;/ vufeufudkifwyfzGJ@rsm;rygyJ/ xdkifoydfwfrsm;/ vufurf;pmapmifa0iSjcif;rsm;/ yef;jcHrsm;/ vltrsm;pka0;=u&m &if jyifrsm;wGif pka0;=ujcif;tm;jzifh tmcHcJh=ujcif;jzpfonf? emZDtm%mydkifrsm;udktmcH=uaom olwdk@.tiftm; rsm;jzpfay:vm&monf xdkae&mrsm;rSom r[kwfay? xdkodk@aqmif&Guf=urnf[laom vlaygif;axmifaomif;. qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;rS xGufay:vm=ujcif;jzpfonf? olwdk@udktrdef@ay;aeaom tm%mydkifrsm;. urf;vSrf;!$ef=um; csufrsm;udk jiif;y,f=urnfholwdk@.qENrsm;rS vmjcif;jzpfonf? olwdk@.v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;/ olwdk@toHk;csaom r[m AsL[mrsm;rS xGufay:vmaom tiftm;rsm;jzpfonf? Todk@vltrsm;.qHk;jzwf ydkif;jzwfcsufrsm;udk tm%mydkif olwdk@.&efolrsm;a&S@wGifvSpf[jyjcif;jzifh olwdk@&efol.wkefjyefEdkifpGrf;udk xdef;csKyfEdkifvdkuf=uawmhonf? 'def;rwfvlrsKd;rsm;u *smrefwdk@udk 'def;rwfEdkifiHudkodrf;ydkuf+yD;/ Zdrf&Sd&Sdae&rnfh taetxm;rS qGJcsEdkifcJhonf? 'wfcsf rsm;taejzifh *smrefrsm;udk tjynfht0 tvdkustwdkif; rjzpfap&efvkyfaqmifEdkifcJhygonf? &dkqefx&mhpf&Sdtdrf axmif&Sifrrsm;u olwdk@cifyGef;rsm;jyefv$wfay;onftxd qufqufwpdkufrwfrwf xdkae&modk@vmaecJh=uyg onf? xdkodk@jiif;y,fvdkufaomenf;vrf;/ umvwc%onf tcsdefra&G;jzpfay:Edkifygonf? rjzpfEdkifaomt&m r[kwfyg? 'def;rwfEdkifiH.bk&ifc&pf&Sefu TtcsufudkodcJhygonf? tvm;wl (10) ESpft&G,f rdef;uav;i,fav; &kof*a&mhpfuvnf; xdkwc%udk odcJhygonf?

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)208


tcef; (6) t,fvf qmvfAm'dk/ 1944 ckESpf AdkvfcsKyfudkz,f&Sm;jcif; tdrfodk@yifhzdwfjcif; (1944) ckESpfY qef qmvfAm'dkòrd@ (San Salvador)wGif tmwl&dk &dkrD&dk (Arturo Romero)trnf&Sd touf (33) ESpft&G,f q&m0efwOD;onf tm*ufpwif; tmvfzm&dk rdk&ef (Agustin Alfaro Moran)tm; tdrfodk@ pwifyifhzdwfcJhonf? a'gufwm &kdrD&dk aq;ukoay;aom vltrsm;pkonf qif;&Jom;rsm;jzpf=u+yD;/ wcgw&HwGif tca=u;aiGr,lbJ ukoay;wwfonf? òrd@rsufESmzHk;rdom;pkwckwGif yg0ifaom t,fzm&dkonf aumfzDvkyfief;jzifh jynfyodk@aumfzDwifydk@aeaom csrf;omºuG,f0aeolwOD;jzpfonf? odk@aomf q&m0efESifh vlem qufqHa&;rsKd; r[kwfyJ/ ,refESpfwGif tawG;tjrif&Sdaom aq;q&mwa,mufESifh =oZmt&Sdeft0g&Sdaom aumfzDvkyfief;&Sif }uD;wdk@onf t,fvfqmvfAm'dkòrd@&Sd tm%m&Sif AdkvfcsKyf rufpDrDvD,mEdk [meef'wf rmwDeuf (Maximiliano Hernandez Martinez) tm; ðzwfcs&ef }uHpnfcJhonf? ‚if;wdk@ESpfOD;awG@aomtcg &dkrD&dku rdom;pk0ifrsm; oHo,r0ifap&ef a&Smifv$Jonfhtaejzifh t,fvfzm&dktm; Adkufwmriftm;aq;rsm; xdk;ay;avh&SdcJhonf? odk@aomf olwdk@. trSefwu,f&nf&G,fcsufonf awmfvSefykefuef&ef =uHpnfjcif;om jzpfonf? AdkvfcsKyf rmwDeufESifhywfoufI olwdk@.pufqkyf&GH&SmyHkrsm; rwl=uay? t,fzm&dkonf rmwDeuftpdk;&wGif t&m&SdwOD;jzpfaomfvnf; (1940) ckESpfwGif AdkvfcsKyfonf ol.'kwd,t}udrfoufwrf;ukefoGm;aomfvnf; qufvuftkyfcsKyfaeonfhtwGuf &mxl;rS a'gow}uD;E_wfxGufcJhol jzpfonf? t,fvfzm&dk. orwtay: rESpfòrd@r_onf aumfzDvkyfief;&Sifrsm;=um;xJwGif &dkufcwfaponf? xif&Sm;onfrSm tvkyform;ESifh v,form; tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;udk AdkvfcsKyf. zdESdyfr_rsm; cHpm;ae&pOf aus;vuf qif;&Jom;rsm;. ajyma&;qdkcGifh&Sd olwa,muf [k &dkrD&dku ol@udk,fol jrifxm;onf? tm%m&Siftm; &GHrkef;aeaom ykefuefol olwdk@ESpfOD;wnfom r[kwfay? *k%foduQm&Sd EdkifiHom;trsm; tjym;vnf; wu,fhtzsuftarSmifh Oya'rsm;a=umifh axmifxJwGif EGrf;yg;'kuQa&mufESifh+yD; jzpfonf? aemuf (6) vavmufwGif xif&Sm;aomv_yf&Sm;tHkºuGr_topfwck ay:aygufvm+yD; AdkvfcsKyftm; wdkif;jynfrS armif;xkwf EdkifcJhvdrfhrnf? tdrfodk@yifhzdwfjcif; wdkifyifr_rsm;pwifcJhpOfu tmvfzm&dkESifh &dkrD&dkwdk@onf aemufqHk;wGif 'Drdkua&pDa&;twGuf tcGifhtvrf;wckudk &cJhvdrfhrnf[k óudwifrjrifxm;cJh=uay? aumfzD orwEdkifiH t,fvf qmvfAm'dkòrd@tm; csrf;omºuG,f0aom rdom;pk todkif;t0ef;uav;u v$rf;rdk;cJhjcif;onfrSm q,fpkESpf csD =umcJh+yDjzpfonf? pydefvlrsKd; ppfatmifEdkifolrsm;ESifh Oa&myrS ajymif;a&$@vmolrsm;. rsKd;qufrsm;jzpfom xdkolwdk@onf wdkif;jynfY rsufrsufpm;&onfh pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;jzpfaom (aumfzDpdkufysKd;jcif;/ tqifhqifh ðyjyifxkwfvkyfjcif; ESifh jynfyudkwifydk@jcif;)rsm;wGif xdef;csKyfcJh=uonf? xdk@jyif olwdk@onf tpdk;&tay:wGifvnf; =oZmv$rf;rdk;r_&Sdonf? (1898) ckESpfrS (1931) ckxd qmvfAm'dk&efvlrsKd;wdk@. orwtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfonf aumfzDxkwfvkyfolcsif; wOD;xHrS wOD; vufqifhurf;ajymif;cJh=uonf? wdk;wufjrifhrm;a&; twGuf vGwfvyfr_ onf r&Sdrjzpf vdktyfcsufjzpfonf[k aumfzDvkyfief;&Sifrsm;u ,lq=uonf? olwdk@onf vrf;a=umif;wGif t&Htwm;jzpfaprnfh rnfodk@aomtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;/ xHk;pH"avhrsm;jzpfaom (tvkyform;toif;tzGJ@rsm;/ bHkydkif qdkifcGifhrsm;/ pma&;pmcsD tcGifhtvrf;rsm;)udk rESpfòrd@=uacs? vGwfvyfr_tm; ESpfoufjcif;onf aumfzD&mZmrsm;udk aumfzDwifydk@r_wGif vdktyfaom um;vrf;/ rD;&xm;vrf;/ qdyfurf;rsm;udk vltrsm;oHk;vmjcif;rSwqifh tusKd;tjrwf&,l&ef pdwftm;xufoefr_&SdcJhaomfvnf; tvkyf orm;pkpnf;r_ESifh vlr_a&;rauseyfcsufrsm;tm; zdESdyfr_wdk@udk rwm;qD;EdkifcJhacs? trdef@=oZm v$rf;rdk;cH&aom tpdk;&onf t,ltquGJjym;olrsm;udk ypfy,fxm;cJh+yD;/ zGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'wGif tcGifhta&;ESifh 'Drdkua&pD twGuf uwdu0wfrsm;&SdcJhaomfvnf; tkyfcsKyfr_tm%mudk t"rRv, k ljcif;/ wenf;tm;jzifh aESmifóud; ruif; aom

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)209


a&G;aumufyGJrsm;rSwqifh tm%mudk wrdom;pkrS wrdom;pkxH v$Jajymif;,lcJh=uonf? xdkodk@ xdef;csKyf xm;r_rsm;onf txl;ojzifh tif'D;,ef; ESifh rufwDZdk (Metizo) awmifolv,form;rsm;jzpfaom qif;&Jom; rsm;tm; tpdk;&tkyfcsKyfr_wGif toHwoHav;rS rxGufqdkEdkifavmufatmif ,Ofaus;r_ aemufusjcif;ESifh vlrsKd;pk qdkif&medrfhusr_rsm;udk jzpfaponf? odk@aomf xdkrdom;pkrsm;. pD;yGm;a&;atmifjrifhr_onf wdkif;jynftkyfcsKyfa&;udk tm;enf;vmapaom wGef;tm;rsm; jzpfapcJhonf? pD;yGm;a&;zGH@òzd;r_onf tv,ftvwfwef;pm;jzpfaom qdkifykdif&Sifrsm;/ òrd@jytvkyform;rsm;/ ausmif;q&mrsm; ESifh twwfynmjzifhtoufarG;0rf;a=umif;olrsm;udk jzpfay:aponf? ppfwyfonf tar&du tv,fydkif;wGif xifay:r_twdkif;twm wckjzpfaeouJhodk@/ tr_xrf;&mxl;ESifhtwl tv,ftvwfwef;pm; vli,frsm;udk t"dutm;jzifh yg0ifvmatmif pGJaqmifEdkifaom taumif;qHk; taetxm;rsKd; jzpfonf[k qdkEdkifonf? pdwfaysmf&$ifr_enf;yg;avmufatmif ajr,mydkifqdkifcGifh uef@owfr_rsm;onf tif'D;,ef;vlrsKd;rsm;ESifh qif;&Jom;rsm;tm; bdk;bGm;ydkifajrrsm;udk vufvGwfqHk;&Hk;aponfhtjyif/ aumfzDyifpdkufysKd;a&;wGif vkyfcpm;jzifh rSDcdkae&olrsm; jzpfay:aponf? vltawmfrsm;rsm;onf csnfxnfpuf&Hkrsm;/ bD,mESifh t&ufcsufpuf&Hkrsm;/ &ufxm;vrf;rsm;/ v#yfppfrD;Xmersm;ESifh "mwf&xm;puf&Hkrsm; ponfh pufr_ vkyfief;}uD;xGm;&m a'oi,frsm;wGif tvkyf&Sm&ef aus;vufa'oudk pGef@cGm=u&onf? xdkodk@ajymif;vJr_rsm;xJwGif EdkifiHa&;t& &dkufcwfr_rsm;vnf;&Sdonf? q,fpkESpfaygifrsm;pGm oabmuGJvGJol rsm;onf (1886) zGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'wGif xnfhoGif;cJhaom Oya'ESifhywfoufI vGwfvyfaoma&G;aumufyGJ ESifh olwdk@. &nfrSef;csufyef;wdkifrsm;=um;wGif orwoufwrf; tuef@towfxm;&Sd&ef pk&Hk;v_yf&Sm;cJh=uonf? }uD;xGm;vmaom ynmwwf vlwef;pmwckonf xdkt}uHtpnfrsm;twGuf rJqENe,fwckjzpfvmcJhonf? (1890) ckESpfrSm t,fvf qmvfAm'dk wuUodkvfwGif yxrqHk;ausmif;om;oydwf ay:aygufcJh+yD;/ aemif ESpf (20) wGif ausmifom;v_yf&Sm;r_ (4) ckxufreJ ay:aygufcJhonf? ppfrSefaom ulnDapmifha&Smufa&; vlr_tzGJ@ tpnf;rsm; onf zdeyfcsKyftvkyform;rsm;/ yef;&Hq&mrsm;/ vuform;rsm;/ pmyHkESdyftvkyform;rsm; ESifh qHyifn‡yform; rsm;.udk,fpm; &yfwnfay:xGufvm=uonf? (1922) ckESpfwGif aiGa=uwefzdk; jyefvnf owfrSwfjcif;twGuf aps;tvkyforrsm;. qENjyyGJrsm;onf tpdk;&b¾ma&;0ef}uD;tm; wGef;tm;ay;EdkifcJhovdk/ (1920) ESpfwGif yxrqHk;pufr_vkyfief;or*~ay:aygufcJh&onf? t,fvf qmvfAm'dkòrd@onf EdkifiHa&;t0ef;t0dkif;acwfwckjzpfcJhonf? ajr,mrJh awmifolv,form;rsm;onf òrd@rsm;odk@ pD;qif;ajymif;a&$@oGm;+yD; tpdk;&vdkaiG t}uD;tus,fjycJhovdk acwfESifhtrSDvkyfaqmifjcif;. jy\em rsm;onf acwfa[mif;pD;qif;r_. a0zefr_udk qGay;aponf? rmhpf0g'Drsm;. t,ltqonf ausmif;om;wcsKd@ xHwGif awmif;qdkr_rsm;tjzpf xGufay:vm+yD;/ tvkyform;rsm;tay: }uD;rm;aom tusKd;oufa&mufr_ &SdcJhonf? trsm;qHk;=oZmv$rf;rdk;cJhjcif;onf qmvfAm'dk&efvlrsKd; pma&;q&m t,fvfbmwdk rmhpfzm&m (Alberto Masferrer) . t,ltq jzpfonf? vlr_a&; ðyjyifajymif;vJa&;orm;wa,mufjzpf+yD; owif;pmt,f'Dwm wa,mufvnf;jzpfaom olonf vltm;vHk;twGuf ol@tqdkt& y"meusaom tedrfhqHk;vdktyfcsuf (Vital Minimum) jzpfaom wnf+idrfaomtvkyfESifh tajccHvdktyfcsufrsm; tmrHcHcsu&f Sd&rnf[k tav;teuf ajymcJhonf? tpdk;&xJwGif vlenf;pku tm%mudk t}uD;tus,fcsKyfudkifxm;r_udk csK;d zsufypf&eftxd axmufjy ajymqdkcJhonf? òrd@jywnfaxmifjcif;/ ausmif;om;ENjyr_rsm;/ tvkyform;pk&Hk;r_rsm;/ rmhpf0g' ESifh rmhpfzm&moabmw&m; ponfrsm;a=umifh qmvfAm&m'dk tausmftarmfrsm;onf (1920)ckESpfwGif a&;qGJcJhovdk ol@wdk@. trsKd;om;a&; vlr_b0 xdef;odrf;xm;Edkifr_udk +cdrf;ajcmufvmrrnfh t&mrsm;udk &SmazGEdkifcJhonf? aemuf (2) ESpf. twuf tusrsm;wGif tajctaeudk umuG,fxdef;odrf;xm;Edkif&ef uarmufurjzpfcJhaom taetxm;rsm;udk E_dif;,SOf vmEdkifrnfjzpfonf? xdkjrifuGif;uGif;tay:wGif tar&duefowif;axmufwOD;. pum;t& t,fvf qmvAm'dk ajrydkif,mydkifvlwef;pm;rsm;onf tvG,fwul a=umufvef@wwfovdk/ tiftm;}uD;aomu,fwifcGifhudk ar#mfvifhaom tajctaevnf; &ifhrSnfhvmcJhonf? vlwa,mufxuf yk&Gufqdwfwaumifowfjcif;onf ydktr_}uD;onf rufpDrDvD,mEdk [meef'uf rmwDeuf (Maximiliano Hernandez Martinez) onf aumfzDvkyfief;orm; tausmftarmfwa,mufr[kwfacs? olonf (1881) ckESpfrSm ESdrfch saom tif'D;,ef;trsKd;tEG,frS aygufzGm; vmoljzpf+yD;

Democratic Development Committee (NCGUB)210


*GgwDrmvm ppftu,f'rDausmif;wGif ynmoif=um;cJhonf? yk*~Kdvfa&;t& &dk;om;+yD; taomuf tpm;enf;aom olonf todynm ESHpyfolwa,mufvnf;jzpfonf? olpdwf0ifpm;onf rsm;udk zGifhcs rjyEdkifaomfvnf; olonf ta&S@ydkif;bmoma&;rsm;udk avhvmr_&Sd+yD;/ oufowfvGwfpm;ol wOD;jzpfovdk t,ltqaysmhajymif;ol wOD;vnf; jzpfonf? ppft&m&Sdi,fwa,muftjzpfESifh rdcifbufursKd;&dk;trnfudk trnfemraemufwGif xnfhoHk;wwfaom rmwDeufonf yk*~vduqdkif&m aqmifyk'fwckudk udkifaqmifcJhonf? “vlwa,mufxuf yk&Gufqdwfwaumifowfjcif;onf ydktr_}uD;onf/ yk&Gufqdwfonf ao+yDqdkv#ifao+yD/ vlrsm;wGifom aocgeD;tajctaerS vdyfjymjyefvnfvmjcif;&Sdonf?” pmayESH@pyfr_&SdIom xdkodk@ azmfjyEdkifjcif; jzpfygonf? rmwDeuf. *k%foduQmonf pnf;urf;&Sdjcif;/ vkyfEdkifudkifEdkifpGrf;&Sdaom ol@t&nftcsif;ESifhtwl ol.&mxl;tqifh twef;onfvnf; wjznf;jznf; jrifhwufvmygonf? olonf Circulo Militar officers' club ppfr_ xrf;rsm;toif;. yxrOD;qHk;OuUX jzpfcJh+yD; ppftr_xrf;wa,muftjzpf ESpftawmf=um=um tcsdefðzef;&ef uHZmwmygcJhyHk&Sdonf? xdk@aemuf rar#mfvifhxm;aomwck jzpfcJhonf? qmvfAm'dk&rf orwrsm;onf ol@wdk@ ae&mqufcH&rnfholrsm;udk acgif;acgufa&G;xm;onf? odk@aomf (1930) wGif orw yDtdk &kdrD&dk abmhpuD; (Pio Romero Bosque) onf ol@tarGqufcHrnffh tavmif;tvsmxJwGif b,folrS ol@udk r_avmufaom&dkusKd;r_ rjycJh[kqdkum pdwfaumuf+yD; orwa&G;aumufyGJudk jyifyvlrsm;zGifhay;+yD; vGwfvGwfvyfvyfusif;y&ef qHk;jzwfcJh onf? vGwfvyfaom tawG;tac:&Sdol rmwDeufonf aiGa=u;csrf;omºuG,f0aom ajr&Sif (5) OD;ESifhtwl orwa&G;aumufyGJ 0ifcJhonf? (1931) ckESpf Zefe0g&Dv a&G;aumufyGJ usif;cgeD; vrsm;wGif =urf;wrf;cufxefr_rsm;ESifh }uKHawG@cJh&onf? aumfzDwifydk@Edkifr_onf (1920) ckESpfrsm;wGif jrifhrm;cJhaomfvnf; }uD;rm;aom xkwfvkyfol}uD;rsm;qDrSm ajr,mrsm; ydkqHk;&_H;cJhaom urfyJqDEdk (Campesinos)vlrsKd;rsm;twGuf aumif;rGefaom vlaer_b0udk rjzpfapcJhay? “tJ'Dwkef;u awmifapmif;awG[m ewforD;yHkjyifxJuvdk ESif;awGzkef;v$rf;aeovdkrsKd; aumfzDyGifhawGeJ@ zl;yGifhaecJh+yD; wdkif;jynftajctaeuawmh vlr_a&;b0rwnf+idrfr_awGeJ@ jynfhESufaew,f”[k owif;pm q&m 0Dv, D H u&Jr;f (Willian Krehm) u a&;om;azmfjycJhzl;onf? aumfzDaps;vnf; urBmESifhtESH@pdwfraumif;p&mjzpfavmufatmif xkd;usoGm;cJhonf? ajrydkif&Sifrsm;uvnf; aumfzDoD;rsm;udk tcif;rsm;wGif ykyfodk;ysufpD;atmifypfxm;cJhovdk/ aumfzDcl;olrsm;udkvnf; tvkyfrJh vkyfcrJhjzpfapcJhonf? vlOD;a& (8) aomif;cef@&Sdaom qENjyolrsm;udk or*~wckrS OD;aqmifcJh+yD; tmrcHcsuf&Sdaom uefx&dkufcsKyfqdkr_ESifh tedrfhqHk;vpm owfrSwf&ef vrf;ay:xGuf awmif;qdkqENjycJhygonf? orwa&G;cs,fyGJyg0if,SOfòydifol tmwl&dk tma&mif;*sKd; (Arturo Araujo)onf edrfhusaom vlwef;pm;rsm; twGuf &yfwnfyHk zrf;xm;onf? oludk,fwdkif aumfzDt}uD;tus,f pdkufysKd;xkwfvkyfol jzpfaomfvnf; tzdESdyfcHrsm;bufu &yfwnfvdkaom ol@cHpm;csufonf ol@tm; ol@vdka&ay:qDrsm;ESifh uif;uGmapcJhonf? olu ol@tvkyform;rsm;udk vuf&Sdvkyfc. ESpfqwdk;ay;cJh+yD; qmvfAm'dkyHkpH +A