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pmtkyrf w S w f rf; pmtkyt f rnf wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm; pDpOfol atmif'if apmifa& 500 wefz;kd pdwf0ifpm;vdkΠzwfcsifolrsm;xH arwWmjzifhay;wJh vufaqmif/ a&mif;&efr[kwf? xkwaf 0umv 2009 -o*wfpf rsufESmzHk; ESifh aemufausmzHk; yef;csD'DZdkif; oef;aX;armif twGif; yef;csDum;rsm; xdefvif; (www.hteinlin.com) rkwfokef armifEdk; bdkbdkxGef; xkwfa0/ jzef@csd tGefvdkif; rdk;rc rmvfwDrD'D,m pme,fZif;tzGJΠ(www.moemaka.com) PO Box 320-207 San Francisco CA USA 94132-0207

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usaemfeJŒ uAsma&;aom vlwa,mufta-umif; (odkŒr[kwf) a&$bkef;vl (odkŒr[kwf) wm&mrif;a0 2?

(1) ausmif;zGifhcsdef (2) ausmif;om; twˆKy`wWd (3) O'gef; (4) ar#mf

(1) acgif;avmif;oH pmwrf; (2) opPmw&m;twGuf rD;tdrfwvHk;ESifh (3) rD;awmuf &pforf

29 37 43 45

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tydkif; (3)

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(1) -u,faºuG owdkŒom; (rif;udkEdkif) (2) wm&mrif;a0odkŒ tvGrf; (atmif'if)

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(3) xm0& tdyfaysmfoGm;wJh-u,f (acvGef;) (4) vlrkdufrsm;ESifh cGJcGmjcif; (udkòzd;) (5) arSmfom;rD;v#H (rdk;v+difn) (6) vGrf;qGwf-u,f (ndrf;ndK) (7) wm&maºuGwJhn (yef'dk&m) (8) wm&mrif;a0 (pef;pef;wif) (9) xm0&vif;r,fh wm&modkŒ (aEGql;vuFm) (10) a&$bkef;vl (odkŒr[kwf) wm&mrif;a0eJŒ e,fpnf;rjcm; uAsmrsm; (xdkufolEdkif) (11) ta0;u yef;csDum; (armiftdk;) (12) vkvif-u,f (atmifa0;)

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100 101 103 104 105 106 107 109 110 113

tydkif; (6)

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(1) rdk;acgifwJhavmurSm tudkŒudk,fpm; usaemfwdkŒ (aebkef;vwf) (2) usaemfrodaom wm&mrif;a0 (xifrif;rif;vwf) (3) E+wfqufjcif; (cufrm) (4) a&$bkef;vludk owd&jcif; (bdk-unf) (5) i&Jcef;u jcaoFh (pdk;xufcdkif) (6) -u,faºuGwyGifh æ (ar_idrf;) (7) udka&$bkef;vl ESifh wavSwnf;pD; (rif;Zif) (8) wm&mrif;a0 (odkŒr[kwf) jrm;xufjrifhatmif ysHwJhiSuf (jrifhpdk;) (9) yef;acwfu vrif;odkŒ vGrf;csif; (yef;csD xdefvif;) (10) nDav;rGef tvnfvmwkef;u (rif;vGif) (11) wm&mrif;a0 eJŒ olŒarG;pm;tazta-umif; (armifpGrf;&nf) (12) 88 xJu wa,muf (armif&pf)

117 119 121 129 133 137 143 153 161 171 179 183

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“vrf;wlolrsm;csif;om '%f&mudk ðypk aoG;wdwaf tmif ukovd@k 'd@k aemufu vlawGvnf; owd&ae=uOD;awmhr,f æ ” atmifcsdrhf


8

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

a&$bek ;f vl (wm&mrif;a0) (1966 = 2007) twˆKy`wdW tusOf; trnf&if;rSm cspfnDnDjzpfonf? 1966 pufwifbm 13 &ufae@ &efukefòrdŒwGif zcif (OD;ausm&f edS )f rdcif a':vS=unf wd@k u arG;zGm;onf? armifErS rsm;tjzpf tudk cspu f u kd kd (atmif'if/ U.S. Campaign for Burma, USA) ESifh nDr cifpENmrdk; wdk@ jzpfonf? 1986-87 wGif txu (2) &efuif;òrdŒe,fu 10 wef;udk jrefrmpm*k%fxl;jzifh atmifjrif+yD; 1988 wGif &efukefwUodkvf v_dife,fajrwGif t*Fvdyfpmt"du ESifh ynmoif=um;cJhonf? 1988 vlxt k a&;awmfy}Hk u;D wGif ausmif;om;wOD;tjzpf wufºupG mG yg0ifvy_ &f mS ;cJ+h y;D 1988 'DZifbm - Auorsm;tzG@J csKyfwiG f A[kad umfrw D 0D ifwa,muftjzpf aqmif&u G cf o hJ nf? Edik if aH &; v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;a=umihf 1990 rS 1994 ckESpftxd tusOf;cscHchJ&+yD; 2005 ckESpf arvwGifvnf; rdom;pkESihftwl ,m,D txdef;odrf;cHchJ&onf? ta&;tcif;umvtwGi;f a&$bek ;f vl trnfjzif‘h ausmif;zGichf sed ’f uAsm&Snrf mS xif&mS ;onf? tvm;wl tjcm;xif&mS ;aom awmfveS af &;uAsmrsm;a&;om;ol ausmif;om;acgi;f aqmifwOD; tjzpf od&=dS uonf? axmifrS vGwaf jrmufvm+yD; ‘wm&mrif;a0’ uavmiftrnfuckd , H +l yD; pma&;q&m uAsm q&mwOD;tjzpf pmayavmuwGif pwif&yfwnfc&hJ m 1994 &ifcek o f rH *~Zif;wGif ‘avpD;a=umif; xJrS vlrsm;’onf ‚if;. yxrOD;qkH; pmrljzpfonf? 1995 ckESpf ‘pmay*sme,f’r*~Zif;wGifazmfjycJhaom ‘tmvl;pm;olrsm;’ 0wˆKwdkjzifh jzL; rdwaf qGrsm; pmayqk &&Scd o hJ nf? 0wˆKwd/k 0wˆK&Sn/f uAsmESifh aqmif;yg;rsm;pGma&;om;ch+J yD; ‚if;. tcsKdŒaom 0wˆKrsm;udk AD'D,dk±kyf&Sifrsm; ±dkuful;cJhonf? armifa,m ESifh pefwD,m*dk uavmifcGJ wdk@jzifh pmaya0zefa&;aqmif;yg;rsm; a&;om;cJhonf? ,if;wd@k teuf armifrsK;d rif;(&ifwiG ;f jzpf) ±du k u f ;l I a'G;/ eENmv_id w f @kd o±kyaf qmifxm;aom ‘aumif;uiftaºuG aumufwJhvuf’/ 'g±dkufwm vGifrif; ±dkuful;+yD; aewdk;/ td¹ENmausmfZif rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


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atmif'if pDpOfonf?

wdk@ o±kyfaqmifxm;onfh ‘wudk,fawmfa&;wJh u}uD;cacG;’wdk@ xif&Sm;onf? 'g±dkufwm armifo&l (Zm*em) ±du k u f ;l cJo h nfh ‘jrif;pD;xGuaf om tdyrf ufrsm;’ ±ky&f iS rf mS rl jrefrmjynfwiG ;f Y jyocGifh r&&SdcJhyg? 2007 =o*kwv f 5 &ufae@wiG f uG,v f eG o f nf? uG,v f eG cf sed w f iG f ZeD; (uGm&Si;f ) raemf[&D (pma&;q&mr) ESifh om; acwfae wdk@ usef&pfcJhonf? wm&mrif;a0 a&;om;xkwaf 0cJo h nfh vH;k csi;f pmtkyrf sm;udk vufvrS ;f rDor# azmfjyvdu k yf g onf? 1? yef;acwfu vrif; 2? ta&SŒòrd@±dk;rS rdk;a&pufrsm; 3? vli,fwa,muf&JŒausmufxGif;&mZ0if 4? jym 5? yef;vufz0g;rSm yg;tyfcGifhr&SdwJh aumifrav; 6? usaemfESifh {'ifuacsonf 7? usaemfESifh a=u;oGef;,Ofaus;r_ 8? usaemfESifh =u,fjrifvjrif avmu"H 9? ewfysKdrtwGuf yef; ('DZifbm 2000) 10? udk,fhvufeJ@ zrf;rdwJh e*g;aiG@wef; (atmufwdkbm 2002) 11? rdk;acgifvdk@ wD;wJhAHkoH (Zlvdkif 2004) 12? òydifjrif;wdk@&JŒ cGmoH (Zefe0g&D 2005) 'kwd,t}udrf 13? usaemfwl;azmfcJhonfh ajrpdkifajrcJrsm; ta=umif; (pufwifbm 2005) 14? a&$zdeyfrSm tpdrf;a&mif=uufajccwfeJ@aumifrav; (Zefe0g&D 2006) wwd,t}udrf 15? aumif;uiftaºuG aumufwJhvuf (Zefe0g&D 2006) 16? b,fbufvufxJrSm 0Sufxm;wJhyHkjyif (ZGef 2006) 17? tmvm'if rodvdkufwJh rD;cGuf (Zlvdkif 2006) 18? u|ef;awmfrS tjyef (=o*kwf 2006) 19? 0uFygudk zGifhwJhaomh (pufwifbm 2006) 20? jrif;pD;xGufaom tdyfrufrsm; (Edk0ifbm 2006) 21? reufjzefcgrSm xm;cJhwJhrsufESm (Edk0ifbm 2006) 22? igonfom yef;jzpfI aemufw}udrf jyefyiG chf iG &hf cJah omf ('DZifbm 2006) 'kw, d t}udrf 23? usaemfESifh aqmif;&moD'\e (Zefe0g&D 2007) 24? udk,fa&;udk,fwm yk&ydkuf (azazmf0g&D 2007) 25? tvHrxlcJhaom vufrsm; (ar 2007) 26? oifESifheHeufcif;udkom 0ifcGifhðyrnf (ZGef 200&) wwd,t}udrf 27? ol@tdk;ykwfuav;udk usaemf jyefray;yg (Zlvdkif 2007) rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


10

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


11

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

tydik ;f ( 1 ) usaemfe@J uAsma&;aom vlwa,mufta=umif; (od@k r[kw)f a&$bek ;f vl (od@k r[kw)f wm&mrif;a0

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


12

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

usaemfeŒJ uAsma&;aom vlwa,mufta=umif; (odŒk r[kw)f a&$bek ;f vl (odŒk r[kw)f wm&mrif;a0 atmif'if (1) usaemfhudkarG;+yD; 4 ESpfavmuft=umrSm araru usaemfhtwGuf nDi,fav;wa,muf xyfraH rG;zGm;ay;ygw,f? 1966 ckEpS /f pufwifbm v 13 &uf/ t*F gae@rmS yg? ol@ukd arG;zGm;awmh ivsifrv_yfygbl;/ av}uD;rdk;}uD; rusygbl;/ rdk;óud;awGvnf; rypfygbl;/ t&mcyfodrf;u yHkrSef twdkif;ygyJ? usaemfwdk@rdom;pkrSm vluav;wa,muf wdk;wmuvGJvdk@aygh? jrefrmEdkifiHuawmh AdkvfcsKyfae0if; OD;aqmifwJh ppftkyfpdk;r_atmufa&mufwm 4 ESpfausmfcJhyg+yD? usaemfrh b d rsm;u tr0rf;uGw J a,muf&ŒJ pum;udek m;a,mif+yD; usaemhu f kd ‘cspu f u kd ’kd vd@k trnfay;xm;wmrdk@ ol@udkvnf; vG,fvG,fululyJ ‘cspfnDnD’ vdk@ trnfay;vdkuf=uygw,f? araru usaemhu f kd ‘om;}uD;’vd@k ac:+yD; ol@uakd wmh ‘om;i,fav;’vd@k ac:ygw,f? 'Dvekd @J ol@&ŒJ tdrfemrnfu ti,fav; jzpfvmygw,f? oluvnf; pum;ajym&if ol@udk,fol“i,fi,f”vdk@ ok;H avh&ydS gw,f? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


13

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

aemuf 2 ESpft=um nDrti,fqkH;udkarG;awmh usaemfu 6 ESpfom;&Sd+yD; 0wˆKpmtkyf awG pzwfaeyg+yD? pma&;q&m rdk;a0 &JŒ pHkaxmuf0wˆKawGzwf+yD; tvGwfpHkaxmuf wifarmif aqGeJ@ ol@&JŒvufaxmuf rdk;pENmwdk@udk oabmusaecsdefrdk@ nDrav;udk ‘cifpENmrdk;’ vdk@ trnf ay;vdu k Ef ikd yf gw,f? usaemfrsm;vufO;D r_r&cJ&h ifjzifh nDrav;crsm ‘csprf r’ jzpfvmp&mta=umif; &Syd gw,f? om;orD; 3 a,muf&&dS if t}uD;qk;H eJ@ ti,fq;Hk u rdbarwœmyd&k +yD; tvwfu rdbarwœm csKdŒwJhw,fvdk@ajym=uwm =um;zl;/ awG@zl;ygw,f? usaemfwdk@rdom;pkrSmawmh tJ'Dvdk r[kwfyg? tvwfjzpfwJh ol[m rdbESpfyg;pvkH;&JŒ tcspfqkH; eJ@ tvdkvdkuf tcH&qkH;yg? t}uD;qkH; usaemfeJ@ ti,fqkH; nDrav;wdk@uawmh tqlcH&qkH;eJ@ rdom;pkwm0efawGudk trsm;qkH; r#a0,l&olawG jzpfcyhJ gw,f? (2) usaemfwdk@armifESr 3 a,mufpvkH; awmifOuUvmyòrdŒe,f 9 &yfuGufu trSwf (10) tajccHynm rlvwef;ausmif;rSm oli,fwef;uae av;wef;txd ynmoif=um;cJh&ygw,f? usaemfu ig;wef;wESpfudk awmifOuUvmyòrdŒe,f tajccHynm tv,fwef;ausmif; trSwf (3)rSmaecJ&h +yD; 6 wef;uae 10 wef;txd &efuif; txu (2) pde@f ru kd u f ,frmS wufcyhJ gw,f? 'ga=umifhvnf; usaemhf nDeJ@ nDryg &efuif; txu (2) ausmif;om;awG jzpfvmcJh=uygw,f? a&$bkef;vl[m i,fi,fwkef;uawmh pmawmfwJh ausmif;om;wa,mufyg? twef;xJrSm xdyfqkH;rSm&Sd+yD; yxr/ 'kwd,/ wwd, qkawG pmar;yGJwdkif;rSm &cJhwmyg? wwef;+yD; wwef; rSefrSefatmifcJhayr,fh 10 wef;rSm wpfaeygawmhw,f? 10 wef;pmar;yGJudk av;}udrf/ ig;}udrf avmufajz&+yD; ESpf}udrfajz&wJh nDrav;xuf wESpfaemufus+yD; 1986-87 pmoifESpfusrSyJ 10 wef;udk jrefrmpm*k%fxl;eJ@ atmifygw,f? 1988 rwfvta&;tcif;jzpfcsdefrSm usaemfu &efukefpufr_wuUodkvfrSm pufr_tif*sifeD,m aemufqkH;ESpf/ nDrav; u "mwkaA' t"du 'kwd,ESpfeJ@ a&$bkef; u t*Fvdyfpm t"dueJ@ yxrESpf/ &efukefwuUodkvf vd_ife,fajrrSm ausmif;wufae=uwmyg? tJ'Dvdk 10 wef;pmar;yGJ wzkef;zkef;us&wmeJ@ywfouf+yD; azaz u rSwfcsufcsygw,f? “uAsm a&;vdk@ æ” wJh/ 'gvnf; rSefEdkifygw,f? ol tv,fwef; ausmif;om;b0rSmuwnf;u uAsmawG a&;aeyg+yD? a&;awmhvnf; jrefrmpm uAsm!Gef@aygif;usrf;}uD;awGudk taotcsm zwf¶a_ vhvm +yD;a&;wmyg? a&S;uAsm a&;[efrsm;udt k wk,+l yD; av;csK;d awG/ a'G;csK;d awG/ tdik cf si;f awG/ &wkawG a&;Edik yf gw,f? tJ'aD cwfu vlóudurf sm;wJh ok;H a=umif; uAsmav;awG a&;ygw,f? tJ'Dacwfu ±kyf&Sifa=u;rHk wdk@/ *Dwya'om wdk@/ ,k0wD/ *Dw owif;pOfpwJh *sme,fawGrSm azmfjycH&ygw,f? pmrlc r&yg? pmapmifudk udk,fhydkufqHeJ@ udk,f 0,f&ygw,f? tJ'Dwkef;u ol@uavmifemrnfu ‘rD;cdk;jzL’ yg? 1982 rSm ol@&JŒ ‘rD;cdk;jzL’ emrnfeJ@ yxrqkH; r*~Zif;uAsm ‘ppfjyef’ r*~Zif;rSm yHkESdyfazmfjyygw,f? tJ'DuAsmuvnf; av;csKd;&Snf}uD;ygyJ? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


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wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

jrefrmpmudk Edik ef if;u|r;f usiv f eG ;f vd@k twef;xJrmS ol@a&;om;wJh pmpDpmuH;k awG[m trSwf trsm;qkH;&+yD; q&m/ q&mrrsm;&JŒ todtrSwfðyjcif;/ csD;usL;jcif;cH&ygw,f? òrdŒe,ftqifh/ wdik ;f tqifh pmpDpmuk;H òydiyf aJG wGrmS ausmif;udk ud, k pf m;ðyyg0if&+yD; qkawGvnf; &cJyh gw,f? ol@&ŒJ t"dutm;enf;csufuawmh odyH`qdkif&m ¶lyaA'/ "mwkaA'/ ocsFm wdk@udk pdwfr0ifpm;wmygyJ? 'ga=umifhvnf; 0dZ…m/ odyH` bmompkHajz&wJh 10 wef;udk awmf¶HkeJ@ratmifwmyg? aemufydkif; 10 wef;udk 0dZ…m owfowf/ odyH` owfowf/ cGJvdkufwJhtcgusrSyJ 0dZ…mwGJoufoufudk,l+yD; pdwfóudufjrefrmpm *k%fxl;eJ@ atmifygawmhw,f? t*FvdyfpmrSmvnf; *k%fxl;rSwfeD;yg;&vdk@ &efukefwuUodkvfudk t*Fvdyfpm t"dueJ@ wufa&mufcGifh&ygw,f? 'gayr,fh 1988 rwfv ta&;tcif;upcJhwJh vlxkta&;awmfykH}uD;u ol@&JŒynma&;vrf;a=umif;udk tqkH;owfay; vdkufygw,f? b0wuUodkvfu ausmif;+yD;cJhayr,fh &efukefwuUodkvfuawmh ausmif;r+yD;cJhyg? (3) 1988 vlxt k a&;awmfy}kH u;D [m jrefrmEdik if u H oef;aygi;f rsm;pGmaom jynfoal wG&ŒJ b0awG udk t}uD;tus,f ¶du k cf wfajymif;vJapcJyh gw,f? tJ'x D rJ mS usaemfw@kd ro d m;pkuav;vnf; ygchJ wmayg?h azazu Edik if aH &;orm;a[mif;/ owif;pmq&ma[mif;}uD;jzpf+yD; om;orD; 3 a,muf pvk;H u wuUov kd af usmif;om;awG jzpfaewJt h cg ausmif;om;v_y&f mS ;r_upcJw h hJ Edik if v H ;Hk qdik &f m v_yf&Sm;r_}uD;rSm usaemfwdk@rdom;pkwpkvkH; us&mae&muae wm0efxrf;aqmifcJh=uwmaygh? usaemfwdk@ nDtudkESpfa,mufpvkH; ausmif;om;acgif;aqmif armifarmifausmfeJ@wGJzuf+yD; ‘Armjynf jynfo@l vw G af jrmufa&; vli,fwyfO;D ’ (Burma Youth Liberation Front) udk &efuek f wuUodkvf ZGefta&;tcif; wywf=umqENjyr_awGt+yD;rSm ajratmuf tzGJ@tpnf;wcktjzpf zGJŒpnf;wnfaxmifcJh=u+yD; e,fpyfa'otajcpdkuf awmfvSefa&;tzGJŒrsm;eJ@pwif qufoG,fcJh =uygw,f? armifarmifausmu f awmh ZGev f ukerf mS xdik ;f -jrefrm e,fpyfukd v#KŒd 0Sux f u G cf mG oGm; ygw,f? tJ'D aemuf =o*wfpf 8 &uf vlxt k ºkH urG }_ u;D ay:ayguv f ma&;twGuf usaemfw@kd tm;vk;H jrefrmEdik if w H eHwvsm; c&D;awGxu G +f y;D jynfoal wG ausmif;om;awG=um;xJrmS v#KŒd 0Supf mG pnf;¶k;H a&; qif;=u&ygw,f? 1988 'DZifbm/ Auorsm;tzGJ@csKyfudk jyefvnfzGJŒpnf;=uwJhtcg usaemfu 'k-OuUÏ (2) jzpfvm+yD; a&$bkef;vl u A[dkaumfrDwD0if wa,mufjzpfvmcJhygw,f? 1989/ rwfv 23 &uf ae@rSm OuUÏ rif;udkEdkif tzrf;cH&/ {+yD 23 &ufae@rSm usaemf tzrf;cH&+yD;wJhaemufrSmawmh a&$bkef;vlwa,muf ol@&JŒ ‘ausmif;zGifhcsdef’ uAsmeJ@xif&Sm;vm+yD; Auorsm;tzGJ@csKyf&JŒ A[dktvkyftr_aqmif aumfrDwD0ifwa,mufvnf; jzpfvmygw,f? tJ'Daemuf ol tdEdN, e,fpyfbufudk xGufcGmoGm;+yD; vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&;vkyfzdk@ óud;pm;ygao;w,f? tqif rajyr_awGrsm;vGef;wmeJ@ jrefrmEdkifiHxJ jyefvnf0ifa&mufvm+yD; 1990 azazmf0g&DrSm tzrf;cH &ygw,f? ppfaxmufvrS ;f a&;&JŒ ppfa=uma&;pcef;rSm &uf&ufpufpuf n‡O;f yef;ESyd pf ufc&H +y;D aemuf ppfcHk¶kH;u ol@udk tvkyf=urf;eJ@ axmif 5 ESpf csvdkufygawmhw,f? ÐÐÐ rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


15

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

(4) usaemfu tif;pdefaxmifxJrSm 1989 {+yDvuae 1990 arvtxd 13 v/ yk'fr 10 (u) eJ@ txdef;odrf;cHcJh&+yD; 1990 arv 23 &ufae@/ a&G;aumufyGJvkyfzdk@ 4 &uftvdkrSmrS tif;pdef axmifwGif; ppfcHk¶kH;wif+yD; jypf'%fcscH&wmyg? 13 vvkH;vkH; rdom;pkeJ@ tquftoG,f r&cJhyg? jypf'%f 4 ESpu f sc&H +yD;rS w&m;0if tusO;f om;jzpfvm+yDr@kd ESpyf wf wcg axmif0ifpm awG@ciG &hf yg w,f? yxrqkH; axmif0ifpmrSmyJ azazeJ@ araruajymvdk@ a&$bkef;vlwa,muf axmif ig;ESpf us+yD; 5 aqmifrSm a&mufaew,fqdkwm od&ygw,f? pawG@awG@csi;f araru usaemfu h kd “om;}uD;&,f æ/ rif;nDav;udk rif;tem; ac:xm;Edik zf @kd óud;pm;=unfyh gu, G ”f wJ?h tJ'D tcsed rf mS usaemfw@kd axmif0ifpmawG@&wJh tcsed /f ae@&ufuvnf; rwlvdk@ azazeJ@ararcrsm wywfudk ESpf}udrfvm&ygw,f? tJ'geJ@ axmifydkifwef;pDvSnfhwJhtcsdefrSm usaemfu usaemfhnDudk usaemfeJ@twlxm;ay; zdk@awmif;qdkawmh axmifydkifu cGifhðyygw,f? 'DvdkeJ@ a&$bkef;vlwa,muf usaemf&Sd&m 5 wdkuf (wdkuftrSwf 5) udk a&mufvmygawmhw,f? tJ'Dwkef;u usaemfu 5 wdkuf/ tcef;trSwf 19 rSmyg? tcef;azmfawGu udw k ifjrifh (OD;&JxeG ;f tr_w)JG / omauw NLD u jrifah omif; eJ@ vSoef; wdk@yg? a&$bkef;vl a&mufvmawmh 8 ay/ 12 ay tcef;usOf;uav;xJrSm usaemfwdk@ 5 a,muf twlae=u&ygw,f? ol a&mufrvmcifu usaemf pdwfylcJh&wm&Sdygw,f? oleJ@ usaemfu nDtudkt&if;awG jzpfayr,fh odyf+yD;wnfhvSwm r[kwfygbl;? olu 4 *%ef;orm;jzpf+yD; usaemfu 8 *%ef; orm;jzpfaevdk@vm;awmh rodygbl;? r=umc% jiif;ckef/ pdwfqdk;/ a'goxGuf/ &efjzpfaeusyg? 'D tcef;usOf;uav;xJrSm xyf+yD;tqifrajy=u&ifjzifh usaemfwdk@ESpfa,mufwifru usefwJh tcef;azmfawGyg t}uD;tus,f pdwfnpf=u&rSmyg? 'gayr,fh usaemf ar#mfvifhxm;oavmuf jy\em rsm;rsm;pm;pm; r&SdcJhyg? axmif0ifpm awG@zdk@vnf; twlxGufcGifh&cJhvdk@ azazeJ@ ararvnf; tweftoifh pdwfcsrf;omcJh=u&ygw,f? odyrf =umygb;l ? nDtudEk pS af ,muf wcef;xJtwl&adS ewmudrk óuduw f hJ axmifr;ª wa,mufu ol@udk usaemfhtcef;xJuae okH;cef;ausmf tcef;trSwf 22 udk a&$Œajymif;vdkufygw,f? 1990/ pufwifbm 26 &ufae@uawmh tif;pdefaxmifrSm ordkif;0ifwJh ae@wae@yg? a&G;aumufyt JG +yD; tm%mv$aJ jymif;ay;zd@k jiif;qefaewJh e0w ppftyk pf u k kd tif;pdeaf xmifxu J Edik if aH &;tusO;f om;awGu wnDw!Gww f nf; qENjycJ=h uwmyg? 2 wdu k ef @J trsK;d orD;aqmifawG upwifcJh+yD; usefwJhwdkuftm;vkH;u EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;tm;vkH; yg0ifqifE$J+yD; EdkifiHa&; tusO;f om;rsm;tm;vk;H vGwaf jrmufa&;eJ@ tm%mv$aJ jymif;a&; atmf[pf awmif;qdck =hJ uwmyg? wdu k cf ef;usO;f uav;&JŒ oHwcH g;udrk suEf mS tyf+yD; 'Dru kd a&pDaºuG;a=umfoaH wG toHuek af tmf[pf rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


16

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

cJ=h uwmyg? tm%mydik af wGbufuvnf; &uf&ufpufpuf t=urf;zuf wk@H jyefcw hJ myg? wdu k cf ef; awGxu J tusO;f om;wcsKŒd udq k x JG w k +f yD; jyif;jyif;xefxef eHygww f w k af wG/ cg;ywfawG/ vufo;D awG/ ppfzdeyf}uD;awGeJ@ ¶dkufESufcJhygw,f? tJ'DxJ a&$bkef;vlvnf;ygoGm;cJh+yD; jyif;jyif;xefxef ¶dkufESufcH&ygw,f? tJ'DaemufrSmawmh a&$bkef;vludk axmiftm%mydkifawGu wdkufuae taqmif 5 udk ajymif;a&$Œvdkufygawmhw,f? wdkuftm;vkH;u EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;tm;vkH;udk vnf; axmif0ifpm 2 v ydwv f u kd yf gw,f? vlowfra_ wGe@J axmifuswhJ ESp}f uD; &mZ0wftusO;f om;awGudk wdkufwef;pD;awGcef@+yD; EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;awGudk =urf;=urf;wrf;wrf; tkyfcsKyfyg awmhw,f? (5) 'DvdkeJ@ a&$bkef;vleJ@usaemf axmifxJrSm uGJuGmoGm;+yD;wJhaemuf aemufw}udrf jyefqkH=u &jyefygw,f? 'Dwcgawmh tif;pdefaxmifrSm r[kwfawmhygbl;? &efukefuae rdkif 200 ausmf uGma0;wJh rauG;wdkif;twGif;u o&ufaxmifrSmyg? axmifxrJ mS Edik if aH &;tusO;f om;wa,muf[m wae&mwnf;rSm =um=umae&avh r&Syd g bl;? tm%mydkifawGu ta=umif;trsKd;rsKd;jy+yD; wae&mu wae&m ajymif;a&$Œaewmyg? usaemfvnf; 1990 tukefavmufrSm 5 wdkufuae 4 aqmifudk a&$Œajymif;cH&ygw,f? tJ'D taqmifrSmvnf; 6 vavmufyJaevdkuf&w,f xifygw,f? aqmif;wGif;}uD; at;pufpuf wnrSm tif;pdefaxmifu EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om; 99 a,mufudk o&ufaxmifudk ¶kwfw&uf a&$Œajymif;vdkufygw,f? reuf 2 em&DavmufrSm vufeuftjynfhtpkHeJ@ tusOf;axmif0efxrf; awGu taqmifawGu0kd ikd ;f +y;D tusO;f om;tm;vk;H udk tdy&f muEd;_ +y;D yHpk x H ikd cf ikd ;f ygw,f? +y;D awmhrS axmift&m&Sad wGu axmifajymif;pm&if;rSmygoal wGukd emrnfac:+yD; &Sw d yhJ pPn;f ,l+yD; xGuv f m cdik ;f ygw,f? wu,fawmh bmypPn;f rS ,lcsed rf &yg? ud, k t hf yd &f mvdyaf wmif jynfph aHk tmif rvdyEf ikd f cJhyg? tom;vGwf}uD; }udrf;armif;aewJh 0efxrf;awGu usaemfwdk@udk EGm;tkyf}uD;armif;ovdk armif;+yD; axmifA;l 0udk ac:oGm;=uygw,f? axmifA;l 0rSmawmh taqmifaygi;f pkeH @J wdu k af ygi;f pku H a&G;cs,fac:xkwfvmwJh EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om; 99 a,mufeJ@ usaemfwdk@udkxdef;zdk@&nf&G,f+yD; usaemfw@kd e@J twl axmifajymif;vdu k &f r,fh ESp}f uD; 0g&if&h mZ0wftusO;f om; pd;k jrwfw@kd qH=k u&yg w,f? 'D axmifajymif;tkyfpkxJ usaemfu 4 aqmifuygvm+yD; a&$bkef;vl u 5 aqmifuae ygvmygw,f? axmifAl;0rSm usaemfwdk@ tm;vkH;udk yHkpHqHyif n‡yf/ ajcusif; ¶dkuf/ +yD;wJhaemuf tif;pdeb f w l mudk um;}uD; ESppf ;D eJ@ ac:aqmifomG ;ygawmhw,f? tif;pdeu f ae jynfukd avmfu,f &xm; tcsKyfweJG @J ac:oGm;+yD; jynf axmifrmS wntdy&f ygw,f? aemufw&ufrmS jynfqyd u f rf; uae oabFmeJ@ o&ufudkac:aqmifoGm;+yD; tifrwefrSemrnfqdk;eJ@ ausmf=um;vSwJh o&uf axmif}uD;xJudk usaemfwdk@ &efukefu EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;awGudk ypfxnfhvdkufygawmhw,f? o&ufaxmif&ŒJ i&Jcef;rsm;ta=umif;awmh wae@usrS a&;ygO;D r,f? b,fvykd jJ zpfjzpf usaemfw@kd nDtudkESpfa,muf o&ufaxmif/ taqmif 2 rSm jyefqkHpnf; =u&jyefyg+yD? o&ufaxmifrmS usaemfw@kd ra&mufcifuwnf;u Edik if aH &;tusO;f om;wcsK@d &Sad eygw,f? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


17

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

a&SŒae OD;aZmfrsKd;0if; wdk@/ ruo OuUÏ rif;aZ,s wdk@yg? 1990 pufwifbm 26 axmifwGif; qENjyr_}uD;udk axmiftm%mydkifawGu t=urf;zufòzdcGJt+yD;rSm &uf&ufpufpuf ¶dkufESuf+yD; olwdk@udk axmifajymif;vdkufwmyg? olwdk@tm;vkH; wdkufxJrSmae&ygw,f? a&mufa&mufcsif; usaemfwdk@tkyfpkxJu 10 a,mufudk wdkufxJydk@vdkuf+yD; usefwJhvlawGudk taqmif 2 aqmifrSm &mZ0wftusO;f om;awGe@J twlxm;ygw,f? o&ufòrdŒ[m c¶dik òf rdŒjzpf+yD; &efuek u f ae rdik f 250 ausmf uGma0;ygw,f? &efukefuaevmzdk@qdk&if yxr jynftxd um;eJ@jzpfap/ &xm;eJ@jzpfap vm&ygw,f? tJ'aD emuf jynfuae atmifvH udk um;xyfp;D / atmifvH qdyu f rf;uae oabFm (od@k r[kw)f ul;wd@k orŠmefp;D +yD; {&m0wDjrpf}uD;udjk zwfu;l +yD;rS o&ufukd a&mufygw,f? {&m0wD jrpf}uD; vd_if;}uD;csdefrSm jrpfudkjzwfzdk@rjzpfEdkifvdk@ a&+idrfwJhtcsdefxd apmifh=u&wwfygw,f? usaemfwdkŒtrsm;pku &efukefom;awGjzpf=u+yD; rE Wav;eJ@ yJcl;wdkif;rsm;u vlwcsKdŒvnf; ygygw,f? {&m0wDwikd ;f eJ@ u&ifjynfe,fu zxD;}uD;awGvnf; ygygw,f? tif;pdeaf xmifrmS wke;f uawmh rdom;pkawGu 2 ywfwcg axmif0ifpmvmEdik =f uayr,fh o&ufaxmif ajymif;vdu k w f hJ tcgrmS awmh yHrk eS f rvmEdik af wmhygb;l ? c&D;ua0;wJt h jyif ukeu f sp&dwu f rsm;vGe;f awmh rdom;pk awG tawmf'u k aQ &muf=u&ygw,f? wcsKŒd u 3 vrS wcgavmuf/ wcsKŒd u 6 vrS wcgavmufyJ vmEdik yf gawmhw,f? tJ'aD wmh rdom;pkuaxmif0ifpmvmawG@&if; axmufyw hH t hJ pm;taomuf eJ@ aq;0g;awGuo kd m tm;ud;k tm;xm;ðyae&wJh usaemfw@kd twGuv f nf; tqifrajyr_awG yd+k yD; rsm;vmwmygyJ? (6) usaemfw@kd a&mufwt hJ csed rf mS o&ufaxmifyikd u f Adv k }f u;D aomif;!Ge@f yg? a&SŒwef;ppfrsuEf mS rSm ausmif;om;wyfawGe@J wu kd cf zhJ ;l +yD; ta&;edrchf +hJ yD;wJah emuf ol@q&m jynfxaJ &;0ef}uD; Adv k cf sKyf bkef;jrifh&JŒ apmifr=unfh¶_r_eJ@ axmifydkifjzpfvmwmyg? 'gha=umifh olu ausmif;om;awG/ u&if awmfvSefa&;orm;awG/ EdkifiHa&;orm;awGudk rkef;ygw,f? +yD;awmhvnf; usaemfwdk@udk tif;pdef axmifu qdk;vGef;vdk@ axmifajymif;vdkufwmvdk@vnf; em;vnfxm;ygw,f? 'gha=umifh olu usaemfw@kd tm;vk;H udk oHr%dpnf;urf;awGe@J wif;wif;usyu f syf tkycf sKyfygw,f? olup+yD; &efvkd aerSawmh ol@vufatmufu t&m&SdawG 0efxrf;awGuvnf; usaemfwdk@tay: tEdkifusifh qufq=H ur,fqw kd m txl;&Si;f jyzd@k vrkd ,frxifyg? usaemfw@kd e@J twlae&wJh &mZ0wftusO;f om; awGuv kd nf; av#m&h ufawG qkcsr,fv@kd jr‡LqG,+f yD; usaemfw@kd tay: tEdik u f sichf ikd ;f / tjypf&mS cdik ;f / axmufvrS ;f cdik ;f =uygw,f? a&qG/J qeftyd x f rf;/ awmif,m pwJh tvky=f urf;awGuv kd nf; aeyl usJusJrSm vkyf=u&ygw,f? 'Dvekd @J yJ usaemfwŒkd tm;vk;H [m r=umc% axmifwiG ;f rSmyJ ¶k;H wifc&H / tjypfay;cH&/ t¶du k f tESucf aH e=u&wmyg? tJ'v D kd zdEydS af e&wmudrk t S m;r&ao;vd@k aemufwrsK;d xyfxiG jf yefygao; w,f? 'Dvdkyg æ? ÐÐÐ rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


18

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

w&ufrmS axmifyikd u f trde@f wck xkwjf yefygw,f? tJ'guawmh tJ't D csed u f p+yD; tusO;f om;awGtm;vkH;[m axmif0ifpmawG@csdefrSm tcsdefaph&if wm0efus0efxrf;u yHkpHvdk@atmfrSm jzpf+yD; tusO;f om;u rdom;pke@J pum;ajymaewm csucf si;f &yf+yD; rdom;pka&SŒrSmwif =urf;ay:rSm yHkpHxdkif&rSmyg? tusOf;om;u yHkpHxdkifaewJhtcsdefrSm rdom;pku axmif0ifpmcef;xJu xGufcGm oGm;=u&rSmyg? usaemfwdk@ axmifxJrSm yHkpHxdkif&ygw,f? yHkpH (1) (2) (3) (4)/ yHkpH}uD; qdk+yD; &Sdygw,f? yHkpH (1) u xdkifyHkpHyg? axmifzGifhcsdef/ axmifydwfcsdef/ vla&wGufwJhtcsdefawGrSm xdkif&ygw,f? wifyv†ifacGrSm vufESpfzufudka&SŒqef@+yD; vufoD;qkyf+yD; 'l;ay:wifxm;&ygw,f? rsufESmudk vnf; ik@H xm;&ygw,f? yHpk H (2)u &yf yHpk yH g? axmift&m&Sed @J awGŒ&wJt h csed /f taqmifrmS axmifyikd f wef;pDvSnfhwJhtcsdefawGrSm &yf&ygw,f? rwfwyf&yf/ vufz0g;ESpfzufudkcsdwfquf+yD; vkHcsnf cg;yHpk a&SŒrSmcsxm;&ygw,f? rsuEf mS udv k nf; iH@k xm;&ygw,f? yHpk H (3)u ta&;ay:yHpk v H @kd ac:yg w,f? tvkyfvkyfaewkef; axmift&m&Sd tem;a&mufvmwJhtcsdefrSm ta&;ay: xdkif&wmyg? aqmifah =umifx h ikd &f if; vufEpS zf ufukd a&SŒxkw/f vufo;D qky+f yD; 'l;ay:wifxm;&ygw,f? rsuEf mS uawmh xk;H pHtwdik ;f iH@k xm;&ygw,f? tckaxmif0ifpmawG@csed rf mS tJ'D yHpk (H 3) xdik &f r,fv@kd trde@f xGufvmwmyg? yHkpH (4)uawmh tjypfay;yHkpHrdk@ a&SŒuyHkpHokH;ckxuf trsm;}uD; ydkqdk;ygw,f? yHkpH}uD;qdkwmuvnf; axmifwGif;rSm ta&;ay:tajctaewckjzpfcsdefrSmxdkif&wmrdk@ tvGef@ tvGeu f kd qd;k w,fv@kd yJ ajymyg&ap? aocsmwmu tJ'yD pkH aH wGtm;vk;H rSm rsuEf mS udik @kH xm;&wmyg? cGiðhf ycsurf &bJ rsuEf mS armh=unf&h if tjypf&ydS gw,f? yHpk x H ikd w f mrrSe&f if tjypf&ydS gw,f? wdu k yf w d f cH&ygw,f? t¶dkuftESufcH&ygw,f? vlwa,mufudk pdwf"mwfa&;&m csKd;ESdrfzdk@/ tEdkifhtxuf ðyusifhzdk@/ vlwa,muftay: tjcm;wa,mufu vlyg;0 apmfum;Edkifzdk@/ pHepfwus wDxGifxm; wmyg? 'D trde@f xu G v f mawmh o&ufaxmifxu J tusO;f om;tm;vk;H rausreyf jzpf=uygw,f? EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;awGwif ruygbl;? &mZ0wftusOf;om;awGyg olwdk@&JŒrdom;pk0ifawGa&SŒ rSm udk,f&JŒedrfhus&r_udk rjycsif=uygbl;? b,faxmifrSmrS 'Dvdkpnf;urf;rsKd;r&SdwJhtwGuf 'g axmifyikd u f oufouf tm%mtvGo J ;Hk +yD; rw&m;vkyw f ,fqw kd mudk oabmayguf em;vnf =uygw,f? 'gayr,fh trde@f urkd vdu k ef m&ifvnf; tjypf&w dS ,fq+kd yD; axmif0ifpm tydwcf &H r,f/ wdu k yf w d cf &H r,f/ t¶du k t f ESucf &H r,f? 'Dawmh 'Drw&m;r_}uD;udk olw@kd tzd@k rmS awmh vufoifch H vdu k ef m¶Hu k vGv J Œkd wjcm;enf;vrf; r&S=d uygb;l ? 'Dvekd @J tJ't D rde@f u touf0ifvmcJ+h y;D qd;k ygw,f rdu k yf gw,fqw kd hJ &mZ0wftusO;f om;wcsKŒd axmif0ifpmrSm/ olw@kd &ŒJ rdom;pkawGa&SŒrSm ususee yHpk x H ikd +f yD; jyefvmcJ=h uyg+yD? olw@kd tm;vk;H u usaemfw@kd Edik if aH &;tusO;f om;awG b,fvkd wk@H jyef =urvJqdkwm apmifh=unfhae=uav&JŒ? usaemfw@kd Edik if aH &;tusO;f om;awGrmS vnf; axmif0ifpmvmEdik w f rhJ o d m;pku enf;wJt h jyif a0;vHvGef;vdk@ 3§4 v avmufrS wacgufvmEdkif=uwmyg? 'Dawmh wywfrSm EdkifiHa&; tusO;f om; 2 a,muf 3 a,mufavmufyJ axmif0ifpmvmwm &Syd gw,f? tJ'D trde@f xu G w f hJ rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


19

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

tywfrSm axmif0ifpmvmzdk@ usaemfwdk@taqmifu tvSnfhuswmu usaemfwdk@ nDtudk ESpfa,mufyg? &JabmfawGtm;vkH;u usaemfwdk@nDtudk udk bmzdtm;rS ray;ygbl;? vGwfvGwf vyfvyfq;Hk jzwf+yD; ,H=k unfovdk &ifqikd zf @kd yJ ajym=uygw,f? [kwyf gw,f/ 'g[mjzifh wa,muf csif;&ifqdkif&r,fh wdkufyGJyg? usaemfwdk@ nDtudk ESpfa,muf acgif;csif;qdkif=uygw,f? a&$bkef; u ajymygw,f? “udkudk qk;H jzwfyg/ i,fi,f aemufuvdu k yf grh ,f” wJ?h 'ge@J usaemft h pDtpOfukd ol@ukd &Si;f jyw,f? olu csufcsif;yJ oabmwlygw,f? axmif0ifpmvmwJah e@ukd a&mufyg+yD? reuf rd;k vif;uwnf;u bk&m;&Scd ;kd +yD;/ bk&m;pmawG &Gwfzwf+yD; udk,fhudkudk,f pdwf&Sif;vif;atmif vkyf=uygw,f? b,foleJ@rSvnf; pum;rajym jzpfyg? 'DvdkeJ@ reuf 10 em&Davmuf axmif0ifpm¶kH;u 0efxrf;wa,mufeJ@ taqmifaxmifrª; a&mufvm+yD; usaemfw@kd ESpaf ,mufukd axmif0ifpmawGŒzd@k vmac:ygw,f? nDtudEk pS af ,muf pvkH; wòydifwnf;rawGŒ&yg? wa,muf+yD;rS wa,muf awGŒ&rSmyg? 'geJ@ wdkifyifxm;wJhtwdkif; usaemf t&ifvu kd o f mG ;cJyh gw,f? taqmif¶;Hk cef;rSmyJ usaemfu taqmifaxmifr;ª udk owif;yd@k p&m&Sda=umif; ajymygw,f? axmifrª;ucGifhðywJhtcgusrS usaemfu usaemf 'Dae@ axmif0ifpm awG@&r,ft h cGit hf a&;udk pGe@f vw $ af =umif;/ axmif0ifpmawG@rmS r[kww f t hJ a=umif; wifjyvdu k f ygw,f? ol rar#mv f ifw h m=um;vdu k &f wJt h wGuf axmifr;ª vnf; tvef@w=um; jzpfomG ;ygw,f? “bmjzpfvdk@vJ” vdk@ tarmwaum ar;ygw,f? “axmif0ifpmawG@csdefrSm q&mwdk@u yHkpH vdk@ atmfvdkuf&if usaemfwdk@u rdom;pkeJ@pum; ajymaewm csucf si;f &yf+yD; ta&;ay: yHpk x H ikd &f r,fv@kd trde@f xw k x f m;w,fv@kd usaemfw@kd od&yg w,f? tJ'v D v kd yk zf @kd twGuf usaemhrf mS jy\em&Syd gw,f? usaemhaf zazu touf 70 ausmyf g+yD/ araruvnf; touf 60 ausmyf g+yD? olw@kd rmS vnf; ESv;Hk a&m*g/ aoG;wd;k a&m*gawGe@J yg? +yD;awmh [dk;ta0;}uD;uae usaemfwdk@udkawG@zdk@ um;wwef/ &xm;wwefeJ@ {&m0wDjrpf}uD;udkjzwf+yD; vdi_ ;f awG/ avawG=um;u pGe@f +y;D vm=u&wmyg? usaemfw@kd ukd c%wðzwfawGŒ&csed rf mS yJ usaemfw@kd olwdk@a&SŒrSm yHkpHxdkif&wmudkom awG@vdkuf&&if olwdk@ &ifusKd;=urSmyg? usaemhfa=umifh olwdk@ pdwx f cd u kd &f / a=uuG&J wmrjzpfapcsiyf gb;l ? 'gah =umifh usaemh&f ŒJ axmif0ifpmawG@&r,ft h cGit hf a&; udk usaemf pGef@v$wfygw,f/ usaemf rawG@Edkifyg” axmifrª;vnf; bmjyefajym&rSef;rodjzpfoGm;+yD;wJhaemuf usaemhfudk taqmifrª; ¶kH;cef; rSmyJ 0efxrf;wa,mufe@J xm;cJ+h yD; axmifyikd x f o H wif;yd@k z@kd xGucf mG oGm;ygw,f? 15 rdepfavmuf t=umrSmawmh axmif0efxrf;awGwtkyf}uD;eJ@ jyefa&mufvm+yD; usaemhfudk axmifydkif¶kH;cef;qD tjypf&Sdolwa,mufvdk twif;qGJac:oGm;=uygawmhw,f? axmifyikd f ¶k;H cef;xJrmS awmh a'gotrsuf acsmif;acsmif;xGuaf ewJh axmifyikd u f usaemhu f kd }udrf;armif;ygawmhw,f? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


20

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

“a[haumif æ rif; bm vlyg;0wmvJ/ 'g axmifuG/ igu axmifydkifuG/ igxkwfjyefwJh pnf;urf;udk rif; vdkufem&r,f” usaemfuvnf; jyefajymygw,f? “Adv k }f uD;/ axmif0ifpmawG@w,fqw kd m usaemh&f ŒJ tcGit hf a&;yg? tck usaemh&f ŒJ tcGit hf a&; udk usaemfhbmom pGef@v$wfwmyg” axmifydkifrSm ajymp&mpum; r&Sdawmhygbl;? axmifrª;udk “'Daumifhudk jypf'%fwdkufudk ydk@ vdkuf”vdk@ !$ef=um;ygw,f? 'DvdkeJ@ usaemhfudk jypf'%fwdkufxJ ydk@vdkufygawmhw,f? jypf'%fwu kd rf mS tcef; 12 cef;&S+d yD; wjcm;wdu k yf w d cf &H olawG tJ't D csed rf mS r&Sv d @kd wwdu k f vkH;rSm usaemfwa,mufwnf; &Sdygw,f? odyfr=umygbl;/ usaemhfab;u tcef;wcef; wHcg; zGio hf /H jyefyw d o f H =um;&ygw,f? 0efxrf;awG xGucf mG oGm;wJt h oH=um;&+yD; c%t=umrSmawmh “udu k /kd b,ftcef;rSmvJ” vd@k atmfar;vdu k w f hJ a&$bek ;f vl&ŒJ toHukd =um;vdu k &f ygw,f? ole@J usaemfe@J t=um; tcef;wcef; jcm;ygw,f? usaemfw@kd óudwifwikd yf ifxm;wJt h wdik ;f yJ oluvnf; ol@tvSnrhf mS axmif0ifpmawG@z@kd ukd pGe@f vw $ af =umif; a=ujimvdu k w f t hJ wGuaf =umifh usaemhv f ykd J axmifydkifu ac:awG@ }udrf;armif;+yD; wdkufxJydk@vdkufwmyg? aemufem&D0ufavmuf=umawmh aemufwa,muf xyfa&mufvmjyefygw,f? oluawmh (1) aqmifu pnfolxGwf yg? pufr_wuUodkvf ausmif;om;wa,mufjzpf+yD; trsKd;om; 'Dru kd a&pDtzG@J csKyf&ŒJ A[dak umfrw D 0D if/ v$waf wmfu, kd pf m;vS,f OD;wifxw G &f ŒJ om;yg? ol@tar uvnf; 'Dae@rSmyJ axmif0ifpmvmawG@+yD; oluvnf; usaemfwdk@vdkyJ yHkpH rxdkifcsifvdk@ axmif 0ifpm rawG@csifa=umif;jiif;qefvdk@ axmifydkifu wdkufxJydk@vdkufwmyg? ola&mufvmwJhtcsdef [m ae@v,f wem&Dausmaf eyg+y?D usaemfw@kd ukd b,fou l rS ae@v,fpmxrif; rau|;yg? wdu k cf ef; usOf;uav;xJrSmvnf; xdkifp&m 0g;zsmawmif r&Sdyg? ae@vnf 3 em&DavmufrSmawmh usaemfwdk@ nDtudkESpfa,mufudk axmif0efxrf;awGu vmac:ygw,f? axmifyikd ¶f ;Hk cef;rSmawmh axmifyikd /f 'k axmifyikd /f axmifr;ª }uD; eJ@ tjcm; axmif t&m&Sad wGtjyif usaemfw@kd &ŒJ rdbawGyg &Sad e=uygw,f? usaemfw@kd tcef;xJuakd &muf a&mufjcif; yJ axmifydkifu usaemfwdk@rdbawGudk “uJ æ/ cifAsm; om;awGudk cifAsm;udk,fwdkif ar;=unfh/ usKyfwdk@u ¶dkufovm;/ r¶dkufovm; qdkwm” azazu “om;wd@k æ azazhukd rSerf eS af jymprf;/ rif;wd@k ukd axmift&m&Sad wGu ¶du k Ef u S x f m; ovm;? n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufovm;” usaemfwdk@ ESpfa,mufpvkH;u t¶dkufrcH&ao;a=umif; ajymygw,f? tJ'Dwkef;u a&$bkef; &JŒb,fbuf rsufvkH;rSm aoG;ajcOaeygw,f? ntdyfwkef;u rsufvkH;em;udk ydk;aumif jzwfoGm; rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


21

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

vdk@/ ,m;vdk@ vufeJ@yGwfoyf&if;u jzpfwmyg? 'gudkjrifawmh araru ol@om; t¶dkufcHxm;& w,fvdk@xif+yD; “[,f =unfhprf; æ/ ighom;av; rsufvkH;rSm aoG;ajcOaeygvm;/ om;av;/ om;av;udk olwdk@¶dkufxm;ovm;”qdk+yD; pdk;&drfw}uD; ar;ygw,f? 'geJ@yJ a&$bkef;u ol nu tdy&f if; rsuv f ;Hk udk vufe@J yw G rf v d @kd jzpfwmygv@kd tjrefjyefajz&ygw,f? azazu axmifyikd b f uf vSn+hf yD; “tckxd t¶du k rf cH&ao;bl;qdak wmh igw@kd jyefomG ;&if rif;u igo h m;awGukd ¶du k rf mS vm;” touf 70 ausmf azazu axmifydkifudk “rif;”eJ@ “ig”eJ@ajymwmudk touf 40 ausmf axmifydkif tawmfcH&cufaeyHkygyJ? a'gow}uD;eJ@ wkH@jyefygw,f? “usKyf cifAsm;om;awGudk vufzsm;eJ@awmif rxdb;l ” azazu ol@urkd =unfah wmhbJ usaemfw@kd ukd “bma=umifh axmif0if pmrawG@Edkif&wmvJ”vdk@ ar;ygw,f? usaemfu axmifydkif aemufqkH;xkwfjyefwJh axmif0ifpm awG@csdef rdom;pka&SŒrSm yHkpHxdkif&r,fhtrdef@udk&Sif;jy+yD; usaemfwdk@taeeJ@ tJ'Dvdk azazeJ@arar a&SŒrSm yHkpH rxdkifcsifvdk@ tckvdk axmif0ifpmawG@cGifh pGef@v$wf&wJhta=umif; &Sif;jyygw,f? tJ'geJ@ azaz u axmifydkifudk ar;ygw,f? “'Dvdk pnf;urf;rsKd; b,faxmifrSmrS r&Sdbl;/ rif;u bmvd@k 'Dtrde@f ukd xkw&f wmvJ/ tusO;f om;awG[mvnf; vlawGy/J olw@kd ukd vlawGvykd J qufqHoifhw,f/ 'Dtrdef@uawmh tawmhfudk vlrqefwJhtrdef@yJ” axmifydkif a'goaygufuGJygawmhw,f? “'g usKyf axmif/ usKyf óudufovdk tkyfcsKyfr,f/ usKyfóuduo f vdk trde@f xw k rf ,f/ cifAsm; bmrS ajymp&mrvdb k ;l ? cifAsm;om;awG 'DaxmifxrJ mS &Sdaeoa&GŒ usKyftrdef@udk emcH&rSmyJ” araru 0ifajymygw,f? “at;uG,f/ rif;u 'Daxmifudk tkyfcsKyfaeovdk/ rif;u wdk@om; awGudk tkyfcsKyfaeovdk/ rif;udkvnf; tkyfcsKyfaewJhvl&SdwmygyJ/ rif;eJ@aqG;aEG;vdk@r&&if rif;udk tkyfcsKyfwJhvlawGeJ@wdk@ pum;ajym&rSmaygh” axmifyikd f quf+yD; onf;rcHEikd af wmhygb;l ? “awmf+yD/ awmf+yD/ cifAsm;wd@k rauseyf&if óuduf wJhae&m wdkif/ usKyf *¶krpdkufbl;/ a[haumifawG æ 'Daumif ESpfaumifudk jyefac:oGm;awmh/ cifAsm;wdk@vnf; oGm;=uawmh æ” usaemfwdk@ESpfa,mufvnf; uref;uwef; 'l;axmuf+yD; azazeJ@ararudk uefawmh=u& ygw,f? tJ'Daemuf 0efxrf;awGu usaemfwdk@ESpfa,mufudk wdkufxJjyefxnfhvdkuf=uygw,f/ pnfolxGwfudkvnf; ol@rdcifeJ@ axmifydkif¶kH;cef;rSm tvm;wl ay;awG@ygw,f? aemufrS usaemfw@kd o&d wmu azazeJ@ararudk axmift&m&Sad wGu usaemfw@kd EpS af ,muf u axmif0ifpmrawG@Eikd b f ;l vd@k jiif;qefa=umif;ajymwmudk azazeJ@araru vufrcHygb;l ? “'g rif;wd@k igo h m;awGukd ¶du k Ef u S x f m;vd@k / olw@kd u, kd rf mS '%f&m'%fcsuaf wG&adS evdŒk / igo h m;awGu igwdk@udk rawG@apcsifwmyJ jzpf&r,f”vdk@ azazu pGyfpGJygowJh? +yD;awmh axmifydkifeJ@ awGŒcGifh rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


22

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

awmif;awmh axmifydkifu awG@zdk@jiif;qefygowJh? tJ'DrSmwif 'DudpPudkwdkifr,fqdk+yD; o&ufòrdŒ v,facgifu c¶dkif (c0w) OuU϶kH;udk csDwufoGm;ygowJh? (c0w) OuUÏu tawG@rcHayr,fh wm0ef&o dS w l a,mufu axmifyikd x f zH ek ;f quf+yD; 'Dupd u P kd wd;k wd;k wdww f w d af jz&Si;f zd@k wdu k w f eG ;f ygowJ?h tJ't D csed rf mS &efuek u f vmwJh tbd;k }u;D / tbGm;}u;D ESpaf ,muf olw@kd om; ausmif;om; tusO;f om;awGukd axmif0ifpmawG@ciG rhf &vd@k a'goayguu f aJG e=uw,fqw kd o hJ wif;u o&ufòrŒd usO;f usO;f uav;rSm ysŒH ES@H ausm=f um;aeyg+yD? tJ'D tbd;k }uD;/ tbGm;}uD; ESpaf ,mufukd =unfjh rif csifvdk@ o&ufaxmifa&SŒudk pka0;a&mufvm=uolrsm;vnf; &Sd=uygw,f? azazu c¶dkif (c0w) OuU϶kH;udkoGm;r,fqdk+yD; jrif;vSnf;iSm;awmh vdkufydk@ay;csifwJh jrif;vSnf;orm; 5 a,muf 6 a,mufavmuf &SdygowJh? vdkufydk@ay;wJh jrif;vSnf;q&m}uD;uvnf; c¶dkif (c0w) OuU϶kH;rSm apmifah y;/ +yD;awmh axmifujkd yefy@kd ay;wJt h jyif ydu k q f aH y;awmhvnf; r,lb;l wJ/h 'ga=umifv h nf; aemufq;Hk rSm axmifyikd u f ol¶u kd Ef u S x f m;wmr[kww f t hJ a=umif; oufaojyzd@k twGuf azazeJ@ ararudk ol@¶kH;cef;udkac:+yD; usaemfwdk@ESpfa,mufeJ@ ay;awG@wmyg? wdu k u f jkd yefa&muf+yD; odyrf =umcifrmS usaemfw@kd &ŒJ axmif0ifpmypPn;f awGukd 0efxrf;awGu vmyd@k ygw,f? azazeJ@ arar o,faqmifvm=uwJh tpm;taomufawG/ aq;0g;awGyg? txkyf awGtm;vk;H uawmh aoaocsmcsm&Smxm;vd@k z±dzk &Jjzpfaeygw,f/ naeapmif;rSmawmh 0efxrf; awGu usaemfwdk@taqmifrSmusefcJhwJh tdyf&mvdyfawG vmydk@jyefygw,f? wdkufrSm usaemfwdk@ =umr,fqw kd o hJ abmygy?J wdu k rf mS ae&wJu h mvawG[m usaemfw@kd nt D udEk pS af ,muf&ŒJ teD;pyfq;Hk / tnD!w G q f ;Hk / wa,mufeJ@wa,muf em;vnfr_t&SdqkH; ae@&ufawGyg? usaemfwdk@ pum;awGtrsm;}uD;ajym jzpf=uw,f? twdwf/ ypPKy`ef/ tem*wf usaemfwdk@b0awG&JŒ umvokH;yg;ta=umif;awG aqG; aEG;jzpf=uw,f? uAsmawG trsm;}uD; pdwful;eJ@a&;+yD; wa,mufa&;wJhuAsm wa,mufudk &Gwfzwfjy+yD; a0zeft=uHðy=uw,f? nwnrSmawmh olu usaemhfudk ar;ygw,f? “udkudk axmifuvGwf&if bmvkyfr,f pdwful;xm;ovJ” usaemfu “t&ifqkH; tvkyfwckck &Sm&rSmayghuGm/ azaz a&m/ arar a&m/ nDrav; a&m/ olwdk@tm;vkH; yifyef;vS+yD/ tdrfrSmvnf; taºuG;awGwifaewm rsm;vS+yD/ 'DtaºuG;awG tjref qkH;qyfEdkifatmif óud;pm;&rSmaygh” olu “i,fi,fawmh axmifuvGw&f if pmayavmuxJ ajcpkyH pf0ifawmhr,f/ pma&;q&m wa,muftjzpf &yfwnfawmhr,f” usaemfu “aumif;ygw,fuGm” vdk@ axmufcHvdkufwJhtcg olu “i,fi,f udkudk@qDu wck awmif;csifw,f” vdk@ ajymygw,f? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


23

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

“bmrsm;vJuGm” vdk@ usaemfuar;vdkufawmh olu æ “‘wm&mrif;a0’ qdkwJhemrnfudk i,fi,fh uavmifemrnftjzpf okH;csifw,f? udkudk tJ'Demrnf i,fi,fhudk ay;Edkifrvm;´” ‘wm&mrif;a0’qdw k m usaemh&f ŒJ uavmif trnfcw JG ckyg/ ‘'wˆ’ qdw k hJ uavmiftrnfe@J uAsmawGa&;aewJhtcsdefrSmyJ pum;ajya&;&if okH;zdk@ ‘wm&mrif;a0’ qdkwJh uavmiftrnfudk arG;xm;cJw h myg? 1986 avmufuxkwaf 0wJh awmifOuUvmyòrdŒe,f ESpv f nfr*~Zif;wtkyrf mS usaemhf&JŒ ‘acwf &JŒ [mo’qdkwJh uAsmwyk'f ‘wm&mrif;a0’uavmifeJ@ azmfjycJh+yD;yg+yD? tck usaemhn f u D 'Demrnfukd usaemhx f u H awmif;cHaeygw,f? usaemf =unf=unfE;l El;yJ “,lygumG ” vdk@ ay;vdkufygw,f? (7) wdkufrSm ESpfywfavmufae+yD;wJhtcg usaemfwdk@udk taqmifjyefydk@ygw,f? axmifydwfcsdef wef;pDae=uwJhtcsdefrSm 0efxrf;awGa&mufvm+yD;awmh wdkufcef;wHcg;awGzGifh+yD; usaemfwdk@udk ypPn;f awGord ;f +y;D xGucf =hJ uzd@k ajymygw,f? tJ'aD emuf taqmifukd jyefac:oGm;ygw,f? taqmif udjk yef0ifwt hJ csed rf mS axmifyw d cf sed f vla&wGuzf @kd +ird o f ufpmG wef;pDae=uwJh tusO;f om;tky}f u;D udk jzwfoef;oGm;&ygw,f? olw@kd tm;vk;H u usaemfw@kd ukd 0rf;omwJ/h aus;Zl;wifwhJ rsuv f ;Hk rsm;eJ@ =unfhae=uygw,f? tJ'DtcsdefrSm axmifydkifu axmif0ifpmawG@csdefrSm yHkpHxdkif&r,fhtrdef@udk jyef¶yk o f rd ;f vdu k yf g+yD? axmifyw d +f yD; wef;ðzwf+yD;wJt h csed rf mS awmh Edik if aH &;tusO;f om;awGa&m/ &mZ0wftusO;f om;awGa&m/ usaemfw@kd nt D udEk pS af ,muftem; 0dik ;f tHak &muf&v dS m=u+yD; usaemfw@kd ukd aus;Zl; wifpum; ajym=uygw,f? trde@f ¶yk o f rd ;f oGm;vd@k tm;vk;H 0rf;omaysm&f i$ af e=uayr,fh usaemfw@kd udk taqmifujkd yefy@kd vu kd +f yDjzpfayr,fh usaemfuawmh pdwx f ifah eqJygy?J axmifyikd u f usaemfw@kd tay: wenf;enf;eJ@ taumuf=uv H rd Ohf ;D r,fv@kd xifaeqJjzpfygw,f? usaemfxifwm rSeaf =umif; odyfr=umcifrSmyJ odvdkuf&ygw,f? aemufwywfavmuft=um ae@v,fbuf xrif;pm;+yD; taqmifc%ydwcf sed rf mS axmifr;ª wa,mufeJ@ 0efxrf;awGa&mufvm+yD; a&$bkef;vludk ypPnf;awGodrf;+yD;vdkufcJhzdk@ ac:xkwfoGm; ygw,f? a&$bkef;vnf; ol@ypPnf;av;awG uref;uwef;odrf;+yD; vdkufoGm;&ygw,f? taqmif udk jyefa&mufrvmawmhyg? naeapmif;avmufrmS usaemfw@kd =um;&wmu a&$bek ;f vlukd o&uf axmifuae om,m0wDaxmifukd ajymif;vdu k +f yD wJ?h axmifyikd u f tusO;f OD;pD;Xme !$ecf sKyfqD pmwifygowJ?h ‘atmif'if’ eJ@ ‘a&$bek ;f vl’ nDtudk ESpaf ,mufukd waxmifxrJ mS twlxm;&if tkyfcsKyf&cufwmrdk@ wa,mufa,mufudk ol@&JŒo&ufaxmifuae tjcm; axmifwaxmifudk ajymif;a&$Œay;zd@k awmif;qdyk gowJ?h 'Dvekd @J usaemfw@kd nt D udEk pS af ,muf o&ufaxmifrmS twlae &wJhumv tqkH;owfcJh&ygawmhw,f? ÐÐÐ rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


24

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

(8) usaemfu 1993 *sLvdik v f rSm o&ufaxmifu vGwyf gw,f? a&$bek ;f vlu 1994 azazmf0g&D rSm om,m0wDaxmifu vGwyf gw,f? ol rvGwcf ifrmS usaemf om,m0wDaxmif udk ok;H }udrf oGm;+yD; a&$bek ;f vlukd axmif0ifpmawG@cyhJ gw,f? om,m0wDaxmif&ŒJ =urf;ñuwf &ufpufra_ wG udk ol =uH=h uHch &H ifqikd cf o hJ vdk ol@tifo@l tm;eJ@ Edik o f avmufvnf; wk@H jyefawmfveS cf yhJ gao;w,f? olvGwf+yD;wJhaemuf 1995 azazmf0g&DvrSm usaemf puFmylEdkifiHudk tvkyf&Smzdk@xGufcGm oGm;cJyh gw,f? tJ'aD emuf 1996 rwfvrSm ESpyf wf=um/ 1998 Zefe0g&v D rSm ok;H ywf=um/ ESp}f urd f jyefcchJ sed af wGrmS ole@J jyefawG@cyhJ gao;w,f? tJ't D csed rf mS ol[m ‘wm&mrif;a0’ qdw k hJ atmifjrif ausm=f um;wJh pma&;q&mwa,mufjzpfaeyg+y?D ol@&ŒJ atmifjrifrt _ wGuf usaemf 0rf;om *k%, f l &ygw,f? 1998 Zefe0g&v D rSm ol@uu kd saemf aemufq;Hk awG@c&hJ wmyg/ tJ'aD emuf usaemf jrefrm EdkifiHudk jyefra&mufjzpfawmhygbl;? ol@&ŒJ aemufq;Hk tajctaeudk usaemhq f t D a=umif;=um;wmu udZk m*emyg? 2007 =o*wfpf 4 &ufae@ ae@v,fydkif; (&efukefrSmawmh 4 &ufae@n) rSm udkZm*emeJ@usaemfeJ@ tGefvdkif; csufwif;vkyfaecsdefrSmyJ udkZm*em u ajymygw,f? “cifAsm;nD tajctae raumif;bl;” wJh? olu tJ'Dvdkajymayr,fh usaemfu odyf+yD;qdk;w,frxifcJhrdyg? tJ'Dn reuf 3 em&Davmuf rSmawmh rav;&Sm;rSm tvkyfvkyfaewJh nDrti,fqkH; zkef;qufvmygw,f? nDru zkef;xJrSm id&k if;eJ@ “udu k akd & æ ti,fav; ckeuwif qk;H +y”D vd@k ajymygw,f? tdy&f mu ua,mifacsmufcsm; x&if; ol@udk usaemfjyefrawG@Edkifawmhbl;qdkwmudk vufcHem;vnfvdkuf&ygawmhw,f? tJ'D&ufawGtwGif; usaemfholi,fcsif;awGudk qufoG,fygw,f? rif;udkEdkif udk/ udkudk}uD; udk/ jrat; udk? usaemf olwdk@awGudk awmif;qdkygw,f? “ighnDuGm æ Auo acgif;aqmifwa,mufvnf; jzpfcJhygw,f? EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om; wa,mufvnf; jzpfcJhygw,f? aowJhtxdvnf; tm%m&Sifudk 'l;raxmufcJhygbl;? 'Dawmh ol@&JŒtokbrSm ¶kyftavmif;udk ausmif;om;or*~&JŒ cGyfa'gif;tvHv$rf;ðcH+yD; Auo OuUÏ rif;udkEdkif u trdef@jyefwrf; zwfapcsifygw,f” usaemhfoli,fcsif;awGtm;vkH; tvkyfrsm;ukefygw,f? usaemhfudkvnf; olwdk@tvdkvdkuf csif=uygw,f? a&$bkef;vludkvnf; olwdk@cspf=uygw,f? wu,fawmh olwdk@tm;vkH;u wcsdef csed rf mS a&$bek ;f vlwa,muf olw@kd e@J jyefvnfvufw+JG yD; ‘88 rsK;d qufausmif;om;rsm;’tkypf rk mS yg0ifvmvdrfhr,fvdk@ ar#mfvifhaecJh=uwmyg? wzufrSmvnf; olwdk@rSm tuef@towfawG&Sdae jyefygw,f? a&$bkef;vluvnf; wdkuf&if;cdkuf&if; usqkH;oGm;wm r[kwfjyefygbl;? aemufqkH; awmh or*~tvHvr$ ;f zd@k e@J trde@f jyefwrf;zwfz@kd qw kd m rjzpfEikd w f t hJ a=umif;/ 'gayr,fv h nf; olw@kd tm;vk;H tokbudo k mG ;+yD; olw@kd oil ,fcsi;f udk taumif;qk;H E_wq f uf=ur,fv@kd ta=umif;jyef ygw,f? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


25

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

'DvdkeJ@ 1988 vlxkta&;awmfyHk}uD; 19 ESpf ESpfywfvnfrwdkifrD w&uftvdk/ 2007 ckESpf =o*wfpf 7 &ufae@rSm a&$bkef;vl (odk@r[kwf) wm&mrif;a0 udk a&a0; ok\efrSm tm;vkH; E_wfqufcJh=u&ygw,f? rif;udkEdkif/ udkudk}uD;eJ@ 88 rsKd;qufausmif;om;rsm;u a&$bkef;vlodk@ aemufq;Hk E_wq f ufjcif; qdik ;f bkwu f ikd af qmifwufa&mufc=hJ u+yD; rif;udEk ikd u f tm;vk;H &JŒud, k pf m; ‘=u,faºuG owdk@om;’uAsmudk &Gwfqdk*k%fðycJhygw,f? (9) ‘uAsma&;aom vlwa,mufta=umif;’qdw k m a&$bek ;f vlrjzpfcif wm&mrif;a0 rjzpfcif u ‘rD;cdk;jzL’trnfeJ@a&;cJhwJh okH;a=umif; uAsmuav;yg? 'Dpmpkudka&;awmh usaemfeJ@ oleJ@ ywfoufcJhor# twljzwfoef;cJhor#awGxJu trSwfw&jzpf&wmawGudk pkpnf;wifjywmrdk@ ‘usaemfeJ@ uAsma&;aom vlwa,mufta=umif;’ vdk@ acgif;pOfay;vdkufygw,f? tudk}uD; udkatmifcsdrfh &JŒ uAsmwydk'fudk owd&rdygw,f? ‘vrf;wlolrsm;csif;om '%f&mudðk ypk aoG;wdwfatmif ukovdk@ 'dk@aemufuvlawGvnf; owd&ae=uOD;awmhr,f’ æ wJh? trSeyf gy?J vrf;wlo/l bmompum;wlo/l cHpm;csuw f o l rl sm;/ &ifcek o f w H o l rl sm; tcsi;f csi;f om wa,muf&ŒJ a0'emudk wa,mufuodem;vnf+yD; tm;ay;Edik =f uwmyg? az;rðypkz@kd ròidjiif =uwmyg? aoG;pufawGudk rsuf&nfrsm;eJ@ wdwfap=urSmyg? tJ'DvlawGudkvnf; bmompum; wlwJh/ ESvkH;om;wlwJh/ vrf;wlwJh/ &ifckefoHwlol aemufvlawGu trSwf&ae=urSmyg? tck a&$bkef;vl udk wm&mrif;a0 udk usaemfwdk@ trSwf&ae=uovdkaygh? ? av;pm;pGm atmif'if 17 *sLvdkif 2009

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


26

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


27

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

tydik ;f ( 2 )

a&$bek ;f vl&ŒJ 1988 ta&;awmfyu kH mvrSm a&;cJw h hJ awmfveS af &;uAsm 4 yk'f ausmif;zGifhcsdef ausmif;om; tˆK`Wd O'gef; ar#mf

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28

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


29

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

ausmif;zGichf sed f a7GSbkef;vl (1) igwdk@ausmif;awmf}uD;&JŒ armfueG ;f xde;f odr;f a&;tcef;rSm [pfwvm±kyx f u k kd vlwpk xkqpfae=uw,f? olwdk@[m ²²² ±kyfwk&JŒa&SŒrSm usdefpmawG &Gwfzwf ysm;&nfpufawGudk rD;±d_Œ ylaZmf qdkif&mEkdufjzLavsmfavsmfawG oGef;=uJyufcs [pfwvmyg;pyfxu J usnfqefwawmifh xGuftHusvmw,f? olwdk@[m ²²² ausmufoifykef;ay:rSm tJ'DusnfqHeJ@ ‘ausmif;zGifh+yD’ qdkwJh pmudka&; aoG;pGef;vufawGeJ@ ysLiSmpGm zdwaf c:=uyg+yD? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


30

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

(2) igwdk@ausmif;awmf}uD;&JŒ a[mif;EGrf;aewJh tcef;vGwfwck[m wjznf;jznf; ESpfig;q,favmuf jyefi,f&G,foGm;w,f? t&ifu rjrif&wJh [kdwkef;u t&dyfawG eH&HawG/ cHkwef;vsm;awGqDu vGef@vl;x tJ'g ²²² ‘atmifqef;’wkd@/ ‘ausmf+idrf;’wdk@/ ‘odef;az’wdk@/ ‘ndKjr’wdk@&JŒ 0d^mOfawGyJ ²²² ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;udk olwdk@jrwfEkd; ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;twGuf olwkd@±kef;uef tm%m&Sifudk zDqefcJh=uw,f? ck ²²² olwdk@&JŒ 0d^mOfawG[m “urBmra=ubl; ²²² ²²² ²²² igwdk@aoG;eJ@a&;cJh=uwJh armfuGef;aw; ²²²” oDcsif;av; em;qif&if; &mZ0if&JŒ wausmhjyefpdrfac:yJGukd rsuf&nfw0J0JeJ@ apmifh=unhfaeygw,f? (3) igwdk@ausmif;awmf}uD;&JŒ 'Dbufacwf 1987 - 88 ESpfrsm;xJrSmyg wuUov kd pf m=unfw h u dk x f rJ mS jzL0g;0g;t&dyfwcsKdŒ pmxdik zf wfae=uw,f? wcsKdŒzwfwm æ uAsmpmtkyf wcsKdŒzwfwm æ ordkif;pmtkyf wcsKdŒzwfwm æ EkdifiHa&;pmtkyf ±kww f &uf tjzL&dyfwck[m xkdif&mux “Armjynfudk u,fwif&awmhr,f” aemufxyf tjzL&dyfwck pmtkyfydwf “Armjynfudk u,fwif&awmhr,f Armjynfudk xdwfwHk;cwfay;&r,f” olwdk@[m wdwfqdwfpGm tcef;jyifudk xGufoGm;=uygawmhw,f? pm=unfhwkduf&JŒ pmtkyfydwfoHrsm; vG,t f w d v f , G o f rH sm; rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


31

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

zdeyfpD;oHrsm; tqHk;rSm aemufxyf tjzL&dyfwck xyfxGuf ²²² ²²² ²²² aemufxyf ²²² ²²² ²²² ²²² aemufxyf ²²² ²²² (4) igwdk@ausmif;awmf}uD;&JŒ pmroifjzpfwJh pmoifcef;wckrSm t±dk;pkwtkyf tpnf;ta0;vkyfaew,f? t±dk;pkwcku ²²² xkdif&mrS jznf;n‡if;pGmx “usaemfwkdŒ awmfvSefa&; tm%m&SifawG aemufqHk;ae@txd” ponfjzifh ajym=um; tm;vH;k +idro f ufem;axmifae=uw,f? tcef;xJrmS tusOf;axmifu ajy;xGufvmwJh AdkvfcsKyf&JŒ rdef@cGef;awG owdWAHk;udk aESmifxHk;cwf ywf=um;tufaewJh &efol@rsufESmawG tJ'DrSm ²²² t±dk;pkwcku vufoD;qkyf ol@ E_wfu wdk;wdk;av;ajym “awmu tazeJ@ tarawmh usaemfhudk ar#mfae=uawmhr,fAsm æ” a=uuGJpGm ol@rsufvHk;aygufxJu rsu&f nfjzLwpuf pD;oufusvmw,f? (5) igwdk@ausmif;awmf}uD;&JŒ y&0%f t0iftxGufvrf;awGrSm tcsKyfum;jymjym}uD;awG '&=urf; ESifae=uw,f? tJ'u D m;}uD;awGxrJ mS “urBmra=u/ Armajy æ 'g wk@d ajy 'g wdk@ajr æ wkd@ydkifwJh ajr” qkdwJh aw;oHom,m nDnmpGm yJhwifay:xGuf rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


32

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

ausmif;om;vufawG aoG;pdrfh,kdpD;cJh+yD tcsKyfum;jymjym}uD;&JŒ OD;xdyfrSm olwdk@&JŒwHqdyf ²²² wkd@&JŒtvH OD;acgif;cHGrSm t±dk;ESpfacsmif; uef@vef@jzwfxm;wJh o¾efomjzpfw,f? ausmif;acgif;avmif;tdk}uD;[m xGufcGmoGm;wJh tcsKyfum;aemuf ajy;vdkufcvkyfwkduf+yD; vJòydus csKdvGif&SwwJh acgif;avmif;oHxGuf&r,fhtpm; “om;a& æ tar vdkuf&Smaew,fav æ om;a&” qdkwJh idk±d_ufnnf;wGm;oHtjzpfeJ@om &mZ0ifwkefcgatmif jrnf[nf;vmcJh+yD? (6) igwdk@ausmif;awmf}uD;&JŒ eDarmif;aomvrf;}uD;/ vrf;i,frsm;rSm a'gif;tvHwvlvl v$ifhxlvdk@ ausmif;om;awG csDvmyg+yD &ifwtHkvHk;yGifhxGufaewJh ausmif;om;u a&SŒqHk;u tvHudkif+yD; aoG;yGufyGuftefxGufaewJh ausmif;om;awGu aemufu csDwufvdkufygvmw,f? “'Drdkua&pD&&Sda&; ²²² wkd@ta&;” “tm%m&SifpepfusqHk;a&; ²²² wkd@ta&;” wJh? udk,fhudkudk,f wcgwnf; tokbcs&if; wdkufyJG0ifcJh=u&wJh igwdk@&JŒawmfvSefa&; b,fawmhrS ²²² t±_H;ray;bl; a[h ²²² aoewfow H csuaf zmuf&if &mZyv†if rD;[kef;[kef;awmufoGm;r,f ²²² aemufqHk;ae@txd ²²² (7) idkufjrnf;aewJh tif;vsm;a&jyif[m ±kwfw&uf &J&JeDapG;oGm;w,f? csufjcif;yJ a&aiGŒysHwuf aumif;uifxufrSm wdrftjzpf rkd;pufcdk ausmif;awmf}uD;ukd rdk;aoG;awG jyef&Gmcs v#yfawGjyuf/ rdk;awG+cdrf; ²²² ²²² ²²² rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


33

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

'def;'Hk; qlnHoGm;w,f ²²² tJ'Dtcg ²²² ausmif;awmfrSm ²²² yef;awG zswfueJ yGifh=u iSufqdk;awG a0gueJ xysH=u opf&u G af wG wvufvuf awmufy=u cHkwef;vsm;awG tkwf*ltjzpf ajymif;vJ=u ajr}uD;awG wkefcgawmfvJ=u wkd@ta&; æ wdk@ta&; æ wkd@ta&; æ wdk@ta&; aºuG;a=umfoaH wGe@J Armjynf}uD; w0kef;0kef;±kef;uef Edk;x+yD; aemufqHk;+idrfoufoGm;wJhtcg igwdk@ausmif;awmf}uD;[m ²²² ²²² wvJhvJh w0if;0if; aoG;eDa&mif awmufycg ²²² tmZmenf ol&Jaumif;wdk@&JŒ *lAdrmef}uD;yrmom wnf&Sdaeygawmhw,f ²²²? (8) ausmif;om;awGeJ@ ausmif;awmf}uD;=um; ck ²²² aoG;yifv,f}uD; jcm;aeyg+yD ²²² “ausmif;zGifh+yD” qdkwJh tm%m&SifawG[m aoG;yifv,f}uD;udk ausmfeif; xHk;wHwm;}uD;udk ausmcif;ay;w,f? wcsKdŒawGu ausmif;wufvm=uvdrfhr,f ²²² tJ'DxJu wcsKdŒ[m ²²² “ta=umif;a=umif;a=umifhyg”vdk@ pdwfraumif;pGmajym&if; ²²² xHk;wHwm;udk av#mufeif; ²²² ausmif;cef;twGif; 0wW&m;t&xdkif igwdk@ ²²² em;vnfcGifhv$wfEkdifygw,f ²²² wcsKdŒuawmh ²²² ‘*k%fwk *k%fòydif’ aumif;a=umif;ajym&if; xHk;eH@oif;wJh yef;cif;udkjzwf ²²² &nf;pm;xm;zdk@ ausmif;jyefwufvdrfhr,f? tJ'Dvkd ²²² vlpm;awGudkawmh ²²² igwdk@u cGifhv$wfonfhwdkifatmif &mZ0ifu cGifhrv$wfoa&GŒ rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


34

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

olwdk@[m ²²² ordkif;rSm ²²² ‘opPmazmuf’rsm;om jzpfw,f? (9) ausmif;om; eJ@ ausmif; wae@awmh aygif;&rSmyJ igwdk@awG aoG;yifv,fudk jzwful;+yD; ausmif;}uD;qD ta&mufoGm;=ur,f? aoG;yifv,f}uD;[m waiG@aiG@yljcpf qlyGuf xufaumif;uif rkefwdkif;wdk@ tpysKd; aoG;vd_if;wHydk; w0kef;0kef;jyif;xef igwdk@awG igwdk@awG vSnfhrjyefbl;/ igwdk@xJu wcsKdŒ[m æ udk,fht±dk;udk,fcsKd; avStjzpf xGif;xk igwkd@txJu wcsKdŒ[m æ udk,fhtom;udk,fvSD; avSeH&Htjzpf cif;±kduf igwdk@txJu wcsKdŒ[m æ ukd,hfvufz0g; udk,f±kdufjzwf avS&Guftjzpf pyfcsKyf rkefwdkif;udk cJG0if aoG;yifv,fujkd zwf+yD; ausmif;awmf}uD;qDoGm;zkd@ vkyaf ew,f æ? (10) aemufqHk;rSm æ a'gif;tvHudk ²²² ajzmif;qefatmif v$ifhxl&if; trSew f &m;wckxH igwdk@ opPmt"dÏmefðy tdk æ ol&Jaumif;wdk@ tkd æ usqHk;cJhavaom 'Drdkua&pD wkdufyJG0if oli,fcsif;a[mif; æ ol&aJ umif;wd@k xm0pOf rysufjy,fEkdifavmufatmif rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


35

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

jrifhjrwfpGm usqHk;cJhaom æ oifwdk@. 0dnmOfwefcdk;awmfrsm;onf igwdk@. a&SŒaemuf0J,m æ xufatmuf0ef;usiYf ysŒH ES@H wnf&=dS uukeaf wmh.? xdak om ²²² oifwdk@. 0dnmOfwefcdk;awmfrsm;onf igwdk@. cE<mudk,fae&mtESH@tjym;odk@ xk;d azmuf,pkd rd phf ;D 0ifum &J&ifhjcif;rSm igwdk@tm;jzpfwnfapawmh.? tkd ²²² ol&Jaumif;wdk@ tdk ²²² usqHk;avaom 'Dru kd a&pDwu dk yf 0GJ if oli,fcsif;a[mif; ol&Jaumif;wdk@ Armjynfudk &Sdcdk;um TaoG;yifv,ftm; igwdk@ jzwfultHh rkd;vHk;jynfh aumif;csD;=obmay;oHrsm;=um;rSm igwdk@.ta&;awmfyHk atmifjrifygapownf;? ?

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


36

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


37

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

ausmif;om; tˆK`Wd a7GSbkef;vl (1) rif;&JŒ¶kyt f avmif;[m jcaoFh*lxJrSm &Sdvdrfhr,f tarSmifpek ;f pke;f rSm t&mtm;vHk; arhazsmufypf aemufwacwf rif; atmifjrifapuG,f tufuaJG eaomvufrsm;eJ@ bk&m;ocifxH igwdk@qkawmif; rif; æ aumif;&mok*wdvm;ygap æ vdk@ igwdk@&JŒ aoG;wpufudk xuf0ufcGJ rif; cHwGif;xJ wJwaJ v;av#mcs=unf&h if E_wcf rf;aorsm;u zGzGwdk;wdk;av; v_yf&Sm;atmfjrnf 'D æ rdk æ u æ a& æ pD æ 'Drdkua&pDvdk@ æ qdkvdrfhr,f rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


38

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

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39

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

(3) a&$bek ;f a&mifvuf0if;wJh ESif;jymjym reufOD;rsm;rSm 'd@k urBmudk jyefvmOD;rSmvm; æ [if æ “trsKd; bmom omoemtwGuf om; æ E_wfqufcJhygw,f” wJh rif;xm;cJhwJh pmwdkuav; rif;wdk@tdrfudk ay;vdkuf+yD ,dkifeJ@usOf;ajrmif;aewJh rif;wdk@&JŒ tdrfuav;xJrSm rif;&JŒ azaz[m vufoD;udk uspfuspfygatmif qkyfxm;w,f æ rif;&JŒarar[m tcef;axmifhrSm +idro f ufpmG xdik +f yD; rsuf&nfpD;a=umif;wckudk tazmfðy (&ifxJrSmawmh) om; jyef‘vk’ae&Smawmhr,f? “aumif;rGepf mG oò*õ[f +yD;pD;yga=umif;” æ wJh tavmif;udrk S rjrif& rawGŒ& b,fae&mrSm usqHk;cJhovJ nDav;&,f æ a'gi;f ¶kyu f av;vdyk J rif;&JŒ twˆKy`wWd[m tawmifyyH gw,f wdu k yf 0JG ifw,f EG,fvdkywfcsnf cdkifusnfepfpl; a&mufav&mb0tqufqufrmS rif; æ armfzl;&jcif;rsm;pGmeJ@ uif;a0;ygvdrfhr,f æ? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


40

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

(4) tdrx f &HrmS wcgcg rif;rsuf&nfokwfwJh pkwfcsmcsm vG,ftdwfuav; acwfab; acwf'%foifhae&Smw,f æ “acwf vGwv f yfrS ausmif;om; vGwfvyfr,f” t&G,ef @J rvdu k af tmifawG; ‘ausmif;om;ta&;’qdkwm rif;rSm r&SdcJhygbl; “bk&m;acwfrmS qd&k if &[E WmjzpfwJhtxd vdrRmr,f” 'gayr,fh æ “tarSmifacwfrmS awmh tm%m&Sifudk zDqefw,f” nDav;&,f rif;odyfrSefw,f æ cH,cl suu f kd tajrmufqHvdk ypfazmuf ta0;qHk; tjrifhqHk; b0wqHk; rif;a&mufcJhw,f æ ppfarmif;oH=um;&if cGmw&Sy&f yS jf zpfcsiw f hJ acwf&JŒ ppfjrif;uav;vdk rif;[m &mZ0ifudk xdk;cGJ wdkufyGJudk 'kef;azmuf rD;awmufq;l jcpf acwfopfyal Zmf awmfvSefwJh nDav;a& cGyaf 'gi;f taygi;f &JŒ aumif;csD;=obmoHap rif;a&muf&mt&yfu =um;ygap æ (5) nDav;a& &mZ0ifa&;&m pmtkyyf w d f rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


41

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

awmfvSefa&;rSm ‘tdyf’awmhaemf pdwcf somG ;yg t&mtm;vHk;udk arhazsmuf aoG;eJ@wnfaqmufwJh tkwf*lwvHk; wavmuvHk; vif;apom;uG,f æ wdrfom;¶dk;&D 'Drdkua&pD awmifwufvrf;u cyf=urf;=urf;ausmufav;awGtjzpf pGJepfusefwifvdk@ æ atmifjrifrSmyg ArmjynftwGuf vdt k yfwhJ ‘vl@tcGifhta&;eJ@ 'Drdkua&pD’ ta&SŒzuft&yfrmS jcaoFhawG csDvm+yD ppfjrif;awG òydifvm+yD cGyfa'gif;awG ysHvmae+yDav²² nDav;&,f +idr;f csr;f pGm at;jrpGm &Sif;oef@pGm aemufb0rSm jrifa,mif=unfhprf;uG,f bmyJjzpfjzpf ,rf;aiG@wvlvl=um;xJrSm rif;cspfwJh Armjynf}uD;[m a'gif;tvHudk yef;vdk yefvdk@ vSvdk@ æ a=omf æ a'gif;tvHudk yef;vdk yefvdk@ vSvdk@ygyJ æ nDav;&,f æ ? ?

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


42

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


43

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

O'gef; a7GSbkef;vl jym0if;0dk;0g;wJh aqmif;ESif;rsm;uom ordik ;f &JŒbmompum;jzpfr,fq&kd if wvdrfhvdrfh c,Gif;wJh aoG;ESi;f pufawG wdk@ajrrSm rd_if;r_dif;a0a&mhr,f? aool&JŒ t±dk;awGu &Sifoludk bmvkyf&r,fvdk@ tHhcsD;zGzG &nf!$ef;=uwm ordkif;vdk@ qdk&r,f? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


44

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

&mZ0ifq;dk &JŒ t±d;k wGeo f H b,fol@xHyg; o,faqmifoGm;rvJ ESif;wdk@&,f? 'Dbuf urBmacwf&JŒ &J&ifhwJh ordkif;a=umif;[m wkd@jynfu ausmif;om;tavmif;awGqDrSm &Sdw,f? om;aysmuf&SmaewJh tarudk ol@atmufu ajru “arar” vkd@ wkd;wdk;av; ac:aew,f arar&,f arar&,f arar&,f? Zmbk&if&JŒ pepfqkd;a=umifh jynfw h efqmjzpf&wJh ±k&mS ;rav;[m tdyf&mxJrSm idkaew,f/ ae0if;&JŒpepfa=umifh olykefjzpf&wJh ausmif;om;awG vrf;ray:rSm wkdufyGJ0ifaew,f? 'Dae@y[ JG m ±H_;±_H; EkdifEdkif ,SOfòydifjcif;om t"du qkdwhJ yGJr[kwfbl; olaoud, k af o tòydiEf J$ 0dnmOfcsif; ±dkufcGJwJhyGJ jzpfw,f? “a[h æ óud;pif” ig &ifaumh+yD; vmcJhr,f? ?

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


45

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

jrefrmjynf +idrf;csrf;ygap aoG;pawG pdkvl; tvHOD;rSm udk,fhtrnfcsdwfvdk@ óud;pif&yd 0f ,f usaemfwdk@ wdkufyGJ0ifaeygw,f? ydwrf xm;&ao;wJh om;}uD;wdk@&JŒ ausmif;pmtkyfrSm a'gif;±kyfav;awG om;i,fqGJawmh arar rsuf&nf0Ja&mhr,f?

ar#mf a7GSbkef;vl

&Spq f ,f&h pS cf Ek pS &f ŒJ vufeufeJ@ vG,ftdwfwdkufyGJrsm; r_e0f g;jyma0 urBmra=ubl; bDvl;wacwf/ a'gif;wacwf? wae@ae@av raoao;&if jyefvmcsifw,f &ifcGifrSm axG;vdk@óudyg arar&,f? jrefrmjynf +idrf;csrf;ygap aoG;pawG pdkvl; tvHOD;rSm udk,fhtrnfcsdwfvdk@ óud;pif&yd 0f ,f usaemfwdk@ wdkufyGJ0ifaeygw,f? ?

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


46

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


47

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

tydik ;f ( 3 )

wm&mrif;a0 &JΠuAsm&Snf 3 yk'f acgi;f avmif;oH pmwrf; oPmw&m;twGuf rD;tdrw f vH;k ESihf rD;awmuf &pforf

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


48

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


49

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

acgi;f avmif;oH pmwrf; wm7mrif;a0

(1) =u,fwm&mawG pl;pl;0g;0g;iHk@=unfhaewJh ua0n ararh æ udk usaemfowd&vdkufwm æ nOfhiSufawGu urBmtay:,HrSm vl;vmysHoef; va&mifudkawmifyHeJ@ wzsef;zsef;¶kduf=uw,f æ? avmutwkrSm æ vlom;twkwa,muf udk,fhaygufc|ef;udk,fxrf;+yD; vrf;av#mufaew,f arar æ usaemfhtwGufawmh ararh&ifcGif[m aomuuif;a0;wJh +idrf;csrf;a&; ‘e,f’ yg tck æ b,frSmvJ b,frSmvJ æ? jrLr_efrdk;ESif;awGu a&$a&mifw0if;0if;awmuf ararhtkwf*ludk apmifha&Smuf=uvdrfhr,f aumif;&mbHkodk@oGm; tm;vHk;udkarhxm;cJhygawmh arar æ? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


50

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

(2) usaemfrSwfrdor# æ ararhrsufvHk;[m aqmif;&moD qefvGef;w,f jrLawGzHk;/ ESif;pufawGzHk; aea&mifawGvnf; cg;ukef;atmif ¶kef;cJh&aygh opfudkif;ajcmuf}uD;u rD;awmufuav;udk arG;zGm; jymteE Wwdkifatmif axG;ydkufysKd;axmifoGm;ovdk arar[m æ ol@udk,foljzef@cif;+yD; usaemfhudk av#mufeif;cdkif;cJhw,f æ? rkom;wv$m rm,mwxyf/ 0wf&nfwpufeJ@ tdk æ cwWma& æ ykcufv$JaomvufawGeJ@ usaemfhudkpdkufysKd;cJh¶Hkomru olr æ udk,fwdkifu æ usaemfhtwGufqdk&if ykcufjzpfjycJhw,f æ? ‘tar’tjzpf pkefa&opfpD;a=umif;/ awmifusacsmif;uav; at;vdk@ar$;vdk@ wnfcJhjyefw,f? (3) ajcaxmufawGu avSum;xpftwdkif;wufoGm;+yD; æ vlu æ avSum;ajc&if;rSm usefcJh&w,f b,forl qdk udk,fht&dyfxJrSm udk,fjyefcdkcsifvdk@r&bl; usaemfhudk ‘arar’ jyefay;=uyg æ? jyuQ'defxJrSm =u,fyGifhjya&;p&mrvdkwJh omreftnw& rGef;vGJtdkwcku ‘ararh’udk vkoGm;w,f æ? aeylt&yf&ŒJ aumif;uifeuQwjf zLrsm;[m vif;tm;jyif;xef/ vli,fwa,muf&JŒESvHk;om;twGif;udk w¶SL;xdk; qif;csw,f æ? vufzrdk;eJ@ zsufzsuf vufz0g;eJ@ zsufzsuf yg;ay:pD;wJhrsuf&nfpufav;uawmh ysufoGm;rSmyg 'gayr,fh arar&,f æ? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


51

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

(4) ararhrmS emusifcJh&wJh *E W0ifouU&mZfrsm; qufxHk;&Snfvsm;vsm;eJ@ &SdcJhw,f æ? i,fi,fwnf;u ‘0’vHk; b,frSmpzwf&rSef;rodwJhusaemf[m ararhta=umif;udkvnf; ckxd pmvHk;raygif;EdkifcJhbl; æ? ararhrmS bmomaA'rwl/ zwfwJhpmcsif;rwl/ cl;wJhyef;csif;rwl rdwfaqGeJ@rwlwJh rdwfaqGawG&Sdw,f æ? arar[m tuQ&meJ@azmfðyvdk@rpGrf;wJh/ ,Ofaus;r_tcef;cef;udk v$rf;¶Hkzefqif;xm;oljzpfw,f æ? usaemfah rar[m olrsm;ararawGxuf æ Edk@&nf ydkrxGufygbl; æ 'gayr,hf rsuf&nfawmh ydkxGuf&ifxGufr,f æ usaemfuvnf; qdk;cJhw,fav æ? (5) zkefr_ef@ysHŒpif æ usaemfh&JŒ pdwful;w,Of,Of wGif;a[mif; tck æ vif;Edk@awG atmif;ae+yDarar æ? vGefcJhwJhtESpf 20 ausmf usaemf jrif;¶kyfpD;+yD;/ opfom;cGm}uD;eJ@ c&D;awGESif ararhvufckyfoH wvGifvGifaygh æ? pdwfrvdk&if aumif;bdGKifOD;xkyfudk qGJjzJ *spfum;awG wufeif;/ &xm;wpif;vHk; aqmifhuef usaemhfxrif;yef;uef txltyg; arar cGH@au|;rSpm;cJhw,f²²? araru OHKzGvdk@ ref;r_wf&if 'kuQtaygif;[m wdwfqdwf+idrfouf usaemfha&SŒarSmufrSm a=umuf&GHŒpGm vufydkuf&yf=uw,f æ? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


52

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

“vluav;&JŒtdyfcsdef wef/ AsKdif;a&SŒu ysH”wJh rdk;tHk@aewJhrsufvHk;eJ@ ararhykcHk;rSm rSDwG,fidkufrsOf; usaemfuvnf; tdyfykyf}uD;w,f æ usaemftdyfwdkif; ararhAsKdif;uvnf; a&SŒrSmysHw,f æ? usaemft h yd rf uf ararhvnfwdkifudk zufvdk@aygh æ? (6) [if;vif;yGifhaewJh usaemfh&ifbwfudk zHk;zdk@ tusôrSm =u,foD;wvHk;vdkae+yD æ arar æ? i,fi,fuwnf;u æ araru cHwyfvkyf/ usaemfu ol&Jaumif;vkyf &efolawGeJ@ a0a0qmqm "m;csif;ckwfzl;w,f æ? usaemfhb0 awmufav#muf arar[m cHwyfqefolwa,mufygyJ æ usaemfhbufrSm &yfwnf/ umuG,f/ wdkufcdkuf olrudkawmh jrm;tpif;pif;pdkufcJhw,f æ? usaemfhudk tvdkvdkuf æ usaemfhudk r¶dkuf usaemfhudk¶kdufvnf; usaemf ridk æ araryJ idk æ? ararajymwJh aus;vufeDwd “rwwfbJref;&if wap>rkef;vdrfhr,f” aq;rsufvHk;eJ@ =unfh æ wJh? (7) avudkaveJ@r_wfwmurS vGJOD;r,f æ usaemfhudk araru æ ynmvSvSwwfapcsifwm æ taotcsmaygh æ? aumif;uifay:u ‘v’ eJ@ Asnf;pmvHk;xJu ‘v’ bma=umifhrwlwmvJ æ usaemfeJ@ tazmfrsm; ausmif;awmfrSm oabmuGJjym;=u æ? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


53

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

usaemfu vlysif; æ opfyifajc&if;rSm &yfvdkuf/ opfyifzsm;udk wufvdkuf pmar;yGJawGrSm æ tqifhawGu 1 rS 100 ra&&m æ? wpwp æ vli,foDcsif;/ ESif;qD"m;oGm;/ &if=um;pdkufepf usaemf[m awavukef;rSm uAsmq&mjzpfvmw,f²²? vli,fwa,muf&JŒ&ifacgif;rSm æ tdyfrufawG tajr‡mif;ajr‡mif;x æ *rBD&vrif;uvnf; 0dkuftkyfjzmqif;usaeawmhw,f²²? (8) w&ufrmS jrLjymrd_if;r_ef/ tdyfrufudk apmifvdkðcHqJ æ =u,fawGtukeaf ºuGwhJ n usaemfhtay: óud;jywfusw,f æ/ usaemf æ raysmfavvGifh/ &ifteifhqHk; aqmif; ESif;awG ajymif;jyefpD;arsmvm æ? arar[m æ usaemfjyefvmr,fh oef;acgif,Hudk jcH&Hapmifh=uyf tvif;&JŒewforD;vdk æ rD;tdrfudkif+yD; apmifhaew,f²²? em=unf;yifhouf/ t&ufaomufvmwJh om; tarhtm; pum;rqdk tarum; æ om;udk,fpm; rsuf&nfrJhpGm idk æ? om; æ b0qdkwm a&pD;xJuaA'g æ ra&&mbl;uGJ@ 'gayr,fh æ ar#mfvifhcsuf&JŒ t¶kyfrsm;/ ta&mifrsm;/ t&dyfrsm; v$ifhrypfeJ@ odrf;xm; æ 0dnmOf¶kef;uef wae@rSm olwdk@jyef&Sifoefvdrfhr,f²²? ararhpum;u usaemfh&JŒrdk;cg;a&rsm;udk wpufcsif; æ wpufcsif; æ wpufcsif; æ csKdapcJh æ? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


54

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

(9) 0gqdkyef;cl;/ pHy,fOD;wdk@ ar$;oufa0a0 rkwo f ek af v&JŒrSww f rf; rD;udkvnf; usaemf erf;cJh æ a&udkvnf; usaemf erf;cJh æ? arar[m æ jcHaxmifhrSm a'vD,mawGysKd;&if; rdk;pdkaewJhqHEG,fcufudk vufeJ@oyfwif olrvnf; &ifhusuf=unfvifaew,f²²? ararcsKyfwhJ Zmr%D¶kyfeJ@ tusôcsnfr#if=urf;=urf; usaemf æ vrf;rSm0wf&ef æ? EGm;u oliHk@pm;wJhjrufawGudk 0HykavGwaumif&JŒatmfoH=um;w,fvdk@ ajymqdkaeqJ oGm;=updk@av æ rkqdk;ajcaxmufrsm;eJ@ usaemfoGm;&m usaemfvdkuf avqefawG ypfpvufcwfwdkufwJh cifwef; y'dkif;yef;awGvnf; aAmif;vefatmif cg&rf; yGifha0 æ? (10) om; æ “1? wdrfawGysHwm rdk;ay:rSm bmeJ@rSr+idbl; 2? wawmvHk;udkvnf; =unfh wyifcsif;vnf; =unfh” wJh ararhqkawmif; bk&m;ausmif;rS 0wfðyoH avmu"HtopfopfawGeJ@ jrifh¶dkif; rdk;ukwfpuf0dkif;wjcrf;udk xdk;azmuf usaemf qufav#mufaew,f æ (zdeyfvnf; tcgcgaygufcJh) naygif; 1400 0uFygawmif=um;rSm æ uHewfbk&m;eJ@ pD;csif;xdk; usaemfóud;pm;/ trSm;rsm;vnf; csif;csif;eD æ? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


55

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

{&m0wD arar/ ydawmufyif[m arar za,mif;wdkifjzLjzL[m arar/ eHeufcif;a=u;¶kyf[m arar æ? ck æ ararqHk;+yDqdkwJh owif;rSm usaemf[m t&m&m0if;&Sif;aygufuGJ æ eDvJh æ vlwqHk; æ 0dnmOfwqHk;/ tºuGif;rJh Akef;Akef;vJus “arar æ” (11) arar[m æ em&DoHeJ@ tdyf/ em&DoHeJ@ Edk; æ b,fawmhrS xrif;tdk;a0ruswwfwJh rdef;rrsKd; jzpfw,f²²? rD;avmifaewJh i&JyifysKdrSm/ yGifhtdkav;yrm/ 0g0gEGJŒEGJŒ owWdopfawGeJ@ a0&JcJhw,f æ? om;i,f&JŒrsufESmudk tvuFmvdkvnf; zwf/ ykp>mvdkvnf; zwf qdkvdk&if;udk csufcsif;&SmazGawG@wwfw,f²²? vifr&Sad wmhayr,fh om;i,ftwGuf &ifcGifwck&SdwJhrdef;r vluE Wm&wdk@&JŒ ausmufwdkif/ ajrcdk;ajraiGŒudk ydkifw,f æ? (tvif;jymrSwfausmuftwGuf rifwaygufjzpfw,f æ) (12) tarr&Sw d o hJ m;rSmom apwef&JŒv$oGm;udk cg;oD;uGJ&S t¶kd;ðryfatmif udkufòrdcJh&+yD æ? rsufESmudk vuf0g;eJ@tkyf¶kHuvGJvdk@ bmrSvnf;vkyfray;EdkifwJhae&m æ ta0;rSm æ usaemfu æ [dk; æ ta0;}uD;rSm æ? usefwmawGuawmh bmrSrajymif;vJygbl; rD;cd;k aiG@awGuvnf; ¶dk;&mtajctaetwdkif;/ vd_if;xaumhvef '&GwfwdkufysHwufqJ æ? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


56

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

tarh&JŒ ajcvdk/ vufvdk aecJhwJhaumif tarr&Sdcsdefrdk@ vrf;ay:rSm jyef@vdk@ usJvdk@ æ? trSm;vuQ%m/ trSefvuQ%m/ bmeJ@rSvmrwdkif;wmeJ@ ‘tar’qdkwm xm0& tuef@towfrJhw,f cspfaomarar æ aumif;&mbHkodk@ a&mufygap æ? (aumif;&mbHkwdk@.wHcg;onf rdcifrsm;twGuf yGifhapownf; æ) (13) aemif æ ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm=um&if ararhtkwf*ludk/ 0wf¶HkjzLeJ@ vlwa,mufvmr,f teufa&mifuwfjym; ryg/ vGrf;ol@yef;acG ryg avxefvrf;rSm qHr#ifawG vGifh0J æ tJ'Dvl[m æ om;yJaygh arar æ b,foHo&mrSmjyef&Sm&if ararhudkawG@EdkifrvJ æ usaemfha&SŒarSmuf va&mifawG auG@aumufvGef;vScsnfh æ? tarhudk,fpm; æ tarhudk,fyGm; æ =u,fpifrsm;udk vufz0g;eJ@yef/ jrif;cGmoHrSm tyfESHvdrfhqif; t0ga&mifr;D ¶SL;rD;yef;vdk ‘vif;’+yD;rS aysmufr,f æ? usaemf æ arar æ rm,mawmifajcrS '&rfwD;olrsm;/ rsufvSnfhwD;vHk;rsm; oDcsif;tuGJtp æ wyk'f+yD;qHk;oGm;yg+yD æ? arar æ aumif;&mok*wdvm;ygap æ acgif;avmif;xdk;oH wdk;wdwfvGifha0 æ acgif;avmif;xdk;oH wdk;wdwfvGifha0 æ acgif;avmif;xdk;oH wdk;wdwfvGifha0 æ æææ æææ æææ?? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


57

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

(pDpOfol&JŒrSwfcsuf æ 'DuAsmudk pdwful;cHpm;r_eJ@ a&;zGJ@cJhw,fxifygw,f? ol@pdwfxJrSm usaemfwdk@&JŒ usef;rma&;raumif;vSwJhrdcif}uD; ol@t&ifuG,fvGefvdrfhr,fvdk@ xifxm;cJhyHk&+yD; 'D ararhvGrf;csif; uAsmudk óua&;cJhwmjzpfygvdrfhr,f/ olcspfwJhararu 'Dpmtkyfuav;xkwfa0csdefrSm ouf&Sdxif&Sm;&SdaeqJyg? oluom ararhudk t&ifcGJcGmoGm;ESifhwmyg? atmif'if) (raemf[&D &JŒ http://www.manorhary.blogspot.com/ rS ul;,lonf) rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


58

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


59

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

oPmw&m;twGuf rD;tdrw f vk;H ESihf wm7mrif;a0 1? t&Sif æ oif.ac:&m xyfcsyf æ ig æ vdkufygrnf? =u,fwyGiu hf q kd , JG l ighudk æ xlyg? [dk;rSm æ aotHrh ;l rl;vlu ajrjyifay:u ol@t&dyfudk uysmu,m tdwfxJ,laumuf vufonf;awGawmif acGacgufae+yD? 'DrSm æ OD;acgif;cGHxuf qHjzLawG 0yfwGm;wufaewJh tbdk;tdk awmifa0S;usKd;udk &Da0=unfhai; ol æ bmawG awG;+yDenf;? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


60

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

prf;a&udik @kH aomufrS udk,fhrsufESmudk,f jyefjrif&aomvlrsm; tjcm; bmudkawG@pGrf;rvJuG,f? twœqikd ;f bkwu f dk vnfrsKdrSm oHikwfeJ@¶dkuf vrf;rSm;vdkufaom c&D;onfrsm; oHo&m&xm;udk apmifhaeonf? 0g;wyif&yd rf mS jcaoFhwdk@yif tdyf0Hhygovm;? 0g;wyif&yd Yf olawmfpifwdk@ aysmfydkufcJh=u+yD? tarSmifu euf. =u,fu vufrnf Tc&D;a0;ovm; ig æ a&mufatmifoGm;ygrnfav æ? 2? aEG æ aEG rdk; rdk; wGif;xJrSm ESif;cJawG ykyfodk;aea&mhovm;? aqmif;udyk ef+yD; ajrmufjyefava&mufvmrS jyma0r_id ;f tkyf a[m æ ESif;awG wqkyf+yD; wqkyf? oJuEœm&u oJawGe@J z@JG pnf;jyovdk rm,mavmu rm,mawGeJ@ r_H&DtHkcsaew,f? ausmufqpf¶yk u f acgi;f ndwjf y¶Hrk [kwf vufckyfwD;+yD; vuftkyfcsDjywm ig awG@cJhzl;+yD? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


61

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

aoG;pufawGaemufrmS vufonf;eDpuf&&J aJ wmufjywm ig awGŒzl;+yD? u|JcsKdr_wf+yD; u|Jtkyfudk azsmfajzwm aysmfp&mrS r[kwfyJuG,f? 12 óud;uaom avmu. ua0vufacsmif;rsm; ightm; æ qGJac: ig æ rarG@aysmfawmhyg+yD t&Sif? 3? igonf æ wcgu za,mif;wdkifuJhodk@jzpf. xd@k a=umifh rD;awmufudk cspfavonf? rdk;.tjrifhudkrod æ [k udk,fhudk,fudk txif&Sd.? trSefum; æ ajr.teufrSmyif a00g;qJ? pD;arsm&mwGif aA'gudk ukyfzuf teufa&mif v_dif;acgif;rsm;=um;rSm a'gotrsufacsmif;acsmif;yGm;vsuf? xkdaom æ rae@uigonf 0gusifa[mif;EGrf; aevHk;udkxrf;I awmifpG,fwef;rSm 0ifa&mufaysmufuG,fcJh+yD? T,ae@ æ ig æ onf rD;cdk;uJhodk@ rdk;ay:xdk;wuf E_wq f ufxu G cf mG tm;vHk;udk v$wfcscJhcsifyg+yD? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


62

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

igonf ig. bk&ifjzpfI igonf ig. jynfoljzpf.? ighudk igu tkyfcsKyfI ightvkyfudk ig vkyf&ayawmhrnf? 4? Oykofonf oDvusKd;awmh bk&m;&Sdcdk;&if; &Sufavonf? igwdk@onf æ vlom;rsm;jzpf. vufz0g;rSm trSm;vuQ%m ygavonf? [dkcsKd; æ onfauGŒ c|wf,Gif;aom armif;wHjzifh a&$Œvsm; vrf;av#mufaeaom ocFsKdif;rSwfwdkifrsm;jzpf.? tyfcsnEf iS jhf yefcsKyfxm;aom puf¶yk . f tpdwt f ydik ;f rsm;yrm wcgwcg rSDwG,f&mvnf; rJhwwfonf? tdk æ vlom;tm;vHk; csrf;ajrhygapom; ´´ tm;vHk;xJrSm igonfvnf; yg0ifcsrf;ajrhygapom;? olwyg;udkvnf; cGifhv$wf ud, k u hf , kd u f v kd nf; cGiv hf w $ f tem&Gwrf eS o f r# qGcJ |wzf ,f&mS ;=uyg? eif;vmaom ajcaxmufudk ajrr_e@f oaJ usmufw@kd u cGifhv$wf=uovdkrsKd; ¶d;k om;jynf0h wa,mufuw kd a,muf cGiv hf w $ =f uyg? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


63

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

5? xrif;0dik ;f rSm v#mESifhcyfIpm;=uolrsm; oGm;=um;xdk;wH pl;=uavonf? pyg;aph (100) ESifh oifvakH vmufygu pyg;aph (101) aemufvltwGuf jzpfygapuG,f? qifjzLawmfr+DS yD;awmhvnf; =uHrpky=f uygEiS /hf =uHau|;+yD;awmhvnf; qifudkESmarmif; rðzwf=uygESifh? anmif&u G af wGe@J r;kd wJh a&td;k pifav;yrm om,majrhcsrf; aeylvrf;rSm wGJac:=uyg? trSepf ifppf acgif;iHk@ay;vdkufjcif;[m acgif;armhxm;&jcif;avmuf anmif;nmvdrfhrnf r[kwfyg? 0ifoufEiS , hf cl o hJ r# xGufoufESifh jyefay;&rnf? 'g æ urBmtp&JŒ yxroDt&kd yD jJ zpfonf? iguawmh (&rnfqdkygv#if) aovGe+f yD;cgrS tiftm;wp jyef,loHk; ightacgif;udk igyJ zHk;oGm;csifawmh.? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


64

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

6? +idr;f csr;f a&;twGuaf wmh vif;yGijhf rifjh rwf&OD;rnf? xd@k twGuf ud, k u hf , kd u f kd wHjrufpnf;vS+J yD; wzGm;zGm; a¹cGcsypf&rnf? vufoD;qkyfjcif; æ qdkwm wkefcgjzLazsmh axmhvefauG;vkyf vufacsmif;awGtcsif;csif; jyefzrf;csKyf=ujcif;jzpf.? udk,fhudk,fudk 'dkif;eJ@umxm;+yD;rS olwyg;udk "m;jzifh&G,f&Jv#if ol&Jaumif;[k rac:csif wcgu Tvufwdk@ tvHvkcJh=u.? xkd æ qkwHqdyf ,ck b,fqDcsdwfrnfenf;? ig&h yd ðf rHukd ¶kyyf pkH mwrf; bmrSruyfwrf; vrf;ab;rSm jrufjzifhaqmufrnf? rmeudak jzavsmh a&pifat;jzifh ig uefawmhygthH? ajcz0g;rS OD;uif; arwœmjzLjzifh vif;vdkvSygawmhonf ight&Sif æ? 7? (avmu}uD;onf tHhzG,ftwd+yD;.? e*dkrlv wdrfonf[kxif&aom wGif;rsm;yifv#if qif;=unfhcgrS euf&Sv_dufpm; ydkI æ edrfh0ifoGm;wwf.) rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


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atmif'if pDpOfonf?

=uufajccwf æ . qHk&yfrSmae &Da0axGjym;aomnrsm; rdk;cg;&eH@ oif;ysHŒaewwf.? igha&SŒrSvlrsm; ighudkydwfIumxm;. ighaemufrSvlrsm; ighudkwGef;I ausmfoGm;.? xdk@aemuf æ acsmufurBm;a&mufrS a=umuftm;jzifh vSnfhjyef igESifhwzef æ vlcsi;f vJ=ujyef.? atmifjrif=uygapuG,f aea&mifva&mif jzef@cif; tvif;wa0a0eJ@ ae@awG nawG +idrf;csrf;onfxuf +idrf;csrf;ygap? olzkef;pm;vnf; ajrom;yef;uefrmS aumufEyHS ifw@kd a0òzd; toa& wdk;onfxuf wdk;ygap? olºuG,}f uD;vnf; i&Jjynfu "m;udk a&Smif&Sm;ydkif;csifh ESdrfhcstyfaom OD;acgif;jzifh jrifhonfxuf jrifhygap? 8? idak ºuG;zd@k twGuf touf0ifvmaomvlrsm; opPmw&m;udk [m;wku d &f ,farmae=uonf? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


66

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

&Siaf orif;u tpG,fw0if;0if;ESifh apmifhpm; oufwrf;u|o H nfEiS hf wrvGerf mS tcGHcGmI pm;vdrfhrnf? [dkpOfcgu igonfvnf; pdk;a=umuf ausmufawmifudk yef;ESifhjyefayguf&if; ajcajr‡muf vufajr‡muf ajcmufjcm;zl;onf? wkwfaumufr&Sdol æ ESifh csKdif;axmuf r&Sdol æ vrf;av#muf&efrmS yif 'kuQcsif; rwl=u? wa*smufa*smufESifh &$HŒ¶kyfom;aumif rkq;kd vdjk yefavSmifonfh arSm¶f akH xmifacsmuf rsufvSnfhq&mawG aºuGtHacgufaeonf? rsupf u d rkd w dS +f yD; udk,fxJudk wdwfwdwfuav;jyef=unfhaomtcg n‡Kd Œjym,Suo f ef; wavmuvHk; teufa&mifv$rf;awmh.? xdo k @kd jzifh ESi;f &nfpakd om r_yd iG u fh av;.yifajc&if;rSm rmeudt k yd af rG@cs xm0& ig æ xm;cJhcsifyg+yDav? 9? avmu"Hw&m;u e*g;&Spaf umifyrm rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


67

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

ajrudkxdk;cJG avudkqGJjzJ vlawGxrJ mS ysHoef;oGm;vmaeonf? ,Ofaus;r_t& wae&mwGif zdeyfpD;&aomigwdk@onf ,Ofaus;r_t&yif wae&mwGif zdeyfc|wf&OD;awmhrnf? bk&m;ajymwmudrk S ig æ r,Hk&bl;qdkv#if rm&fewfajymwmudk ig æ ,Hk&awmhrnfavm? tpd;k r&aom avmu.em&Dpufou H kd vufwHwdk@u armif;ESifzefwD; eD; æ eD; æ eD;I vmcJh+yD? rD;udk ausmfjzwf a&udk ausmfjzwf oHcsyu f m0wf¶kH ðcHvdk@ rvHkygbl;uG,f? w&m;&dyrf mS pdwfudkxkwf+yD; zkefcg +yD;awmh æ udk,fxJrSm jyefvnfaomhydwf oknuav;vdk +idro f ufww d q f w d af e&rnf? apwDtakd [mif;rS acgif;avmif;oH wkd;zGwdk;n‡if; tdk æ t&Sif æ ajrrSxaom ighudkjrifyg? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


68

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

10? tcsKdŒaomvlrsm; v,fxeG o f mG ;&if; EGm;ay: tdyfae=uygovm;? tcsKdŒaomvlrsm; v,fxeG o f mG ;&if; pyg;jzpfatmif pdkuf=uygovm;? vlom;wa,muftaeESihf rkd;aumif;uifatmufrSm cdkifrmuspfvspf wm0efausaom aywqpfr#awmh jzpfoifo h nf? t&yf&yfrSvmaom avwdk@Y ajrpdu k af usmufwidk w f @kd rwkev f y_ =f uouJo h @kd igwdk@ aeoGm;&rnf? t&Si, f al qmifonfh =u,fwaxmifjrifhacgif 0if;yonfhnum; v$va$ zG;qGwf vSHoGm;wdk@udkyif acG!$wfapawmh.? "rRaw;ukd aoG;tpufpufwkdifatmif jzef;qGwf E_wq f ufawmf&w G q f o kd rH sm; wdk;um us,fum ig æ =um;ae&.? avjynfnif;wGif a&$tqif;jzifh oGm;ESifh=uolrsm; OayuQmudk bmrSrajymbJ xm;oGm;.? xdo k w l @kd aemuf ig waumufaumufvdkufygawmhtHh? xko d w l @kd aemuf rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


69

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

ig awmufav#mufvdkufygawmhtHh? =u,fa&mifauG@aumuf xdkaom aumif;uifrsOf;a=umif;rsm;atmufrSyif ightm; vrf;jyappm;awmfrlygavmh ²²² jrwfaom igh ²²²t&Sif? ? (Ak< æ odk@) (wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& http://www.taryarminwaimemorial.blogspot.com/ rS ul;,lonf)

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


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wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


71

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

(1) tckvkd æ vSyat;pufaewJn h rSmyJ ig æ ysKd;xm;wJh jrESif;qD[m æ =u,fw&m jcH&H+yD; aºuGusoGm;cJhw,f? wdrv f m$ rsO;f aumufawGuvnf; cspfolwpa,muf&JŒ rD;tdyfrufrSm a&$rsuf&nfawG pkdvufvm+yDvkd@ r_dif;ndKŒaewJh aumif;uif}uD;ukd wD;wkd;ajym=um;vkdufw,f?

rD;awmuf &pforf wm7mrif;a0

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72

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

vli,fwa,mufuðdk ypm;zk@d b,fewfb&k m;xHrmS eifhvufawG jzef@um;awmif;cHcJhovJ æ igh&mZ0if cyfusJusJukd i&JrD;xJ wGef;csvkdufcsifw,f? oHa,mZOf æ qkdwm ta&m0ifvkd@raumif;wJh acG;uav;ygyJ æ? avmu"H OD;wkef;u æ tvGeft=uL;aomufcJhwJh t&ufwcGuf ckrS æ pHy,f&Gufay:rl;vJ æ tonf;uGJw,f æ qkdwm oDcsif;av;awG wkd;wkd;nnf;&if;u æ xd&ScJhwJh æ aoG;rJh'%f&m wcsufyg æ okd;ausmif;om;&JŒ cHEkdif&nfeJ@ ewfbDvl;awG&JŒ owd&jcif;rsKd;u ighukd æ pD;rkd;xm;w,f æ? puf±kyfukd 'l;axmufusapwJh eifh&JŒ æ rsuf0ef;pdrf;vJhrSm æ ig æ b,fvkdrS arhr&wJh r[mvuFm wpykdif;wp æ &Sdaeav&JŒ? tJ'v D edk @J yJ ig jyefvnf csnfaESmifcJhygr,f æ cspfaom æ zJóud;0guav;&,f æ (vufeufrygbJ æ ppf0uFygrSm ig æ rwkduf&Jbl; æ) nHhw,fvkd@yJ æ vufnd‡K;xkd;+yD; ajymvkdufygawmh æ? v#yfppfr#ifwef;vkd æ ylvif;jyif;xefveG ;f wJh ol±l;wa,muf&JŒ ayG@zufr_awGxJ æ ck æ &xm;wkd@ O=oqGJvkduf=u+yD æ “ æ +yD;qkH;oGm;yg+yD æ æ tm;vkH; +yD;qkH;oGm;yg+yD æ”wJh? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


73

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

(2) ta&SŒavawGwu dk w f ek ;f u cg;ukef;aewJh igwkd@&JŒ jr&myiftkd}uD;[m wkef,ifcsnfheJ@pGm ,drf;xkd;aeawmhw,f æ? ausmif;awmf&JŒ pnf;tjyif aESmif;&dyfawG opfvGifvGifeJ@ xifa,mifxifrSm; vrf;ay:rSm igpOf;pm;wm æ eifhta=umif; acgif;pOfrsm;pGmygyJ? xdyfxm;&,f æ tD*spjf yuQ'ed x f u J rkd;wdrfawG &Gmr,fhae@ eifeJ@ig jyefvnfqkHawG@=u&if 'Dta=umif;awG ajymjycsifygao;w,f æ? igu qyfjymylazmif;ukd ckdpD;+yD; jrifrh &dk af wmif}uD;eJ@wu dk rf rd mS pkd;&drf&Smol r[kwfcJh æ/ 'gayr,fh avayGvrf;a=umif;rsm;rS wkef0g;azsmhat; ‘opPm’ukd yJhwifoHeJ@yJ jyefay;EkdifcJhol æ? ighukdowf æ igh&ifbwfukd xkd;cGJazmufvSef=unfh ighvufoD;xJrSm uspfuspfygatmif qkyfxm;wJh oknwvkH;yJ &Sdvdrhfr,f æ? 0kid , f móud;awG ‘axmif;’ceJ rD;yGifhjywfawmuf+yD; ±kwfcsnf; arSmiftwdusoGm;wJh ‘tE<’wkd@&JŒ tdrftkdrSm æ awavyDopGm æ igaew,f? wdwfqdwf æ jymvJhaewJhn æ a&wGif;xJ acgif;ikH@+yD; æ ‘æ’ukd cspfw,f æ vkd@ rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


74

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

b,fqDb,f0,f æ [pfatmf wrf;w&wm æ bma=umifhygvJ æ? ‘tkH@ykH;cspf’oDcsif;ukd rqkdcsifbJ qkd&wm a&$&nfpdrfxm;wJh vufypfAkH;ukd ukdufrsKd&ovkdygyJ æ vkd@ tufuGJaewJh r,f'vif}uD;u æ ighukd ajymjyw,f? tJ'DvkdeJ@ æ rkd;ukd qef@ajr‡mufxm;wJh rrDEkdifaom urf;vufawG[m [kd; æ wkef;uvkdyJ ighqDrSm æ ajrr_efawG pGef;xifv#ufygyJav æ? (3) “vlqkdwm æ vif;a0pdrf;jrwJh yef;nrsm;pGmxuf o&Jajcmuf&m nwnukd æ ykdowd&wwfw,f” igaooGm;cJhvkd@&Sd&if igh&JŒocFsKdif;*lrSm æ =uufajccwfwckuo dk m rSwfwkdiftjzpf pkdufay;xm;yg? wu,fawmh æ tJ'g[m igodor# avmu"rRukd tºuGif;rJh azmfjyoGm;jcif;yJ jzpfvdrhfr,f? [kd;i,fi,f æ ausmif;rajy;wwfcifwkef;u ca&yGifhjyxm;wJh ocsFmwyk'f ightay: ckeftkyf+yD; rifeDawG &JceJ okwfoGm;zl;w,f? ig æ owWdaumif;uifrSm æ eDvGifxpfcsKef; wpf æ ESpf æ okH; rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


75

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

teuf±_dif;qkH; xkd;usypfvkdufw,f? xl;vSw,fawmhvnf; r[kwfygbl;av æ a=umufrufzG,f&m vlawG&JŒ r[mbkwf aA'ifxJrSmrS iguvnf; ‘t"dywdbGm;’ jzpfcsifcJhwmukd;? tdrftjyef nrsm;pGmrSm æ b,folrS rajymcsifwJhpum;awG ayG@ykduf ukd,fhukdukd,f ‘vlrkduf’vkd@ jyefac:cJh&w,f? 1993 æ 1994 æ ighuAsmav;awG aqG;ajrŒa=uuGJ vrf;ab;tkwfckHay: vJusaew,f æ? ESif;jrm;wvuf&JŒ tqdyfeJ@ edrw d rf aumif;wJyh jHk yif rjrifbl;aom ae@rsm; æ nrsm; ydawmufykdif;zsm;rSm æ 0yfwGm;pk±kH; ighukd æ csnfxkH;cJhwm æ (ck æ tcsdefwkdifatmif æ) tvif;pdrf;wef;awG &pfzGmvkd@uG,f? (4) òrdŒjyifvrf;auG@u awG@cJhzl;wJh *spfypDawGvkd jzpfco hJ r#udk &,fumarmum jyefajymEkdifwJh tusifhav; aoG;at;at;eJ@ óud;pm;arG;EkdifcJh+yD? bmyJjzpfjzpf ausmufacwf/ a=u;acwf EsLuvD;,m; uifqm/ tem*wfacwf tm;vkH;twGuf aocsmwJh igh æ a=unmcsufuawmh eifhukd xm0& cspfaer,fqkdwmygyJ æ? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


76

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

xdyfxm;&,f æ jzpfEkdifr,fqkd&if æ *Eˆ0if yef;yk&yk'frSm æ eef;okH;tuQ&meJ@ jc,fr_ef; eifhemrnfav; pmokH;vkH;ukd pD&D oDukH;ay;csifw,f æ? eifhtay:xm;wJh igh&JŒcspfjcif;arwWm[m rkd;ay:ukd OD;armh+yD; 0if;ypGm vif;jrwkefcgaewJh a&$0ga&mif rD;awmufrD;v#HvkdygyJ æ? ausmif;a&SŒu pHy,f±kHrSm AD;eyfpf&JŒ euQwfwkd@ wvufvuf jyma0r_efoif; ausmif;cef;wGif;rSm æ vrif;uav; omcJhzl;w,f æ cspfaom ausmif;oGm;azmf&JŒ yef;±kyfv$mukd ar#mfawG;&if; aqG;vsnd‡K;acG ajzrajyolav; twˆKy`wWd jr&myif}uD; odygw,f? urBmOD;vlwkd@vnf; (*leH&HrSm) i,fu|r;f rsuEf mS a00g; ynm&Sif}uD;rsm;&,f æ ygVdpmvkH;awGeJ@ ightay: rqkH;jzwfygeJ@OD; æ? “cspo f u l adk wmif cspfw,fvkd@ rajym&JwJhaumif æ &mpkwaxmifae&pfcJh æ xkdokd@jzifh pum;rJhapownf;” jr&myif}uD;&JŒ nnf;wGm;oJhoJh oef;acgif,H iSuq f ;dk tkyef @J twl ±kwfw&uf vef@ysHoGm;w,f æ? csKdŒwJhaom ausmif;om;b0 rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


77

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

qEN&JŒ rajyvnfr_ teDa&mifrSwfwrf;wckeJ@ cspfoltwGuf yefopPm a=omf æ ighukdav æ em;vnfyg æ em;vnfyg æ em;vnfprf;yg æ? (5) tJ'h aD e@&ufawGrmS rm&fewf&JŒ b,fbufvufu teufa&mif usrf;csyfwykd'f[m ighukd pD;eif;wkdufckdufzkd@ jrif;uóud;wkd@ukd jyifvkd@ ‘o’vkd@aecJhaygh? bmyJajymajym a&$e@J puf0,fv@dk r&wJh aemufqkH;uvl&JŒ tawG@tñuHrSm æ oHr_efawG uyfygae&JŒ ig æ bmukdrS ra=umufcJhbl;? a[m'Davmu awmufav#muf “ausmufoifykef;ay:u okneJ@pm&if Avmpmtkyfay:u oknu jrwfw,f”wJh tJ'DatmfoHukd ig&,faecJhw,f? “rif;uaum æ bmvJ”vkd@ teE WawGu 0dkif;ar;awmh 1æ2æ3æ4æ5æ ig æ tukefpOf;pm;w,f 6 æ 7 æ 8æ 9 æ 0 æ wckrrS [kwb f ;l ightwGuf *%ef;r&Sdbl; æ? aoG;eJ@,ufwJh uwWDygpvkd eDv&G iS ;f awmuf a=umufcref;vdvd vSywJh ESvkH;om;u *DwoHpOf ESif;q0d^mOfrSm wifwJhurŠnf; rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


78

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

vuG,fna&mufwkdif; æ ig *pfwmwD;aer,f æ? usqkH;awmhr,fh ppfol&Jtkdu i,fb0u "m;eJ@cspfolukd jyif;&SpGm owd&vkdufovkdrsKd; eifhukd igowd&aew,f? xdyfxm;a& æ xdyfxm;a& æ xdyfxm;a& æ opfckwform;awGr&SdwJh wkdif;jynfrSm ig æ v,form; jzpfcsifw,f æ eif æ bk&ifr æ vmrvkyf&bl;aemf? awmfawmf=um æ wHpOfwvuf&JŒ usifh0wfrSm oefvsuftwGuf yef;cl;ay;cGifhrygvkd@ æ &GmZeyk'feJ@ rkd;a&xJ ig æ wa,mufwnf; rsuf&nf0Jae&ygOD;r,f æ? iguvnf; cufw,f æ uAsmwyk'ef @J aer0if tifyg,m b,f[m,lrvJvkd@ ar;vm&if 'kwd,t&mukd ig æjiif;w,f æ? tJ'v D edk @J yJ arSmufxm;wJh igh&JŒ uHaumf&Guf zJcsyfuav;awG avmu}uD;ukd tr#a0&if; umvrsm;pGm æ =um+yDaumav æ? (6) awmifndKrSm ysKd;wJhrkd;awG eifhrsufESmvkH;ukd wkd;oufwJhtcg rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


79

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

awmifyifv,fu aA'gawG[m aqmufwnf&mr& jzpfukef=uw,f? a[; æ igajymr,f æ æ æ tufqpfwdrfckd; æ wkd@ rkwfokefukd E_d;yg 'Dvq l ;dk twGuv f nf; rkd;=urf;wkd@ wpufpuf&Gmyg æ? “rxku d w f efoq l w dk m vGifharsm&rSmygyJ æ” cGJcGmjcif;[m æ c&rf;jymusnzf ;l ukd tqdyfcsKdawG vdrf;okwf ESvkH;om; wnfhwnfhqD csdef&G,f armif;ðzwfvkdufw,f æ? oufjyif;a0a0 ca&wkd@ ESif;pufzm;vsm; rsu&f nfupdk m;wJh acsmufcsm;zG,f pum;rJhn ig[m æ xufykdif;csKd;cH&wJh wjcrf;yJh ‘v’yJ jzpfw,f? tdyfrufxJu urBmppfvkd t±kd;òydif;òydif;naetkdu æ ajrukd&Sdckd; æ jrLckd;wkd@ aysmif;td!GwfwGJ vli,fb0&JŒ n&dyfwkd@ r_efa00rf;enf;cJh&w,f? tcifqkH; rjzpfcJhayr,fh tcifqkH;awGta=umiff; ajymwkdif; owd&rdaeus oli,fcsif;wa,mufqD ig æ ra&mufa&mufatmif oGm;r,f æ? +yD;awmh æ rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


80

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

c±dk;c±dkif æ vufzuf&nfqkdifav;rSm uAsmta=umif; pmta=umif;awGajym&if; ukd,fhukdukd,f jyefvnfzefqif;ypfr,f æ uG,f? t&uform;u olwyg;ukd vGrf;qGwfwm &,fp&m r[kwfygbl; w&Hwcg&ŒJ jyefrvmwJo h w l @dk od=uzkd@aumif;w,f æ? avnif;uav;a& æ ig cspfjrwf&wJh urBm&JŒxdyfxm;ukd ol@qEH , G cf ufav;awG zGm;ceJ vGifh0JoGm;±kH wcsufavmuf tkH@onf; wkdufcwfay;yg æ? avpD;xJrmS zGm=uJvyS ae&Smr,fh ol@&ŒJ auomqHjrukd ta0;uae æ ±_dufar$; vGrf;qGwfyg&apOD;aemf æ? (7) txD;usefawmifukd tkyfpkd;zkd@ ewfjynfu &GmcswJh ightwGuf æ tnw&rdk; æ a& aeygapawmh æ? tJ'n D [m wjcrf;yJh ‘v’u toufay;+yD; umuG,fcJh&wJh tvHrvSJrD ‘n’ æ jzpfw,f? jruf±kdif;u æ rkd;ukyfpuf0kdif;ukd erf;r&ovkdrsKd; aeeJ@vu æ wa,mufukdwa,muf rykdifqkdifEkdif=uovkdrsKd; rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


81

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

±kd;om;pGm æ wkd@a0;vkduf=uygpkd@? cspfolukd jrwfEkd;±kHeJ@ t&m&mukd vufjzef@rdk; apmifha&SmufcsifwJhvli,f ck æ c|if;csufeJ@ vufeufcsvkdufygw,f æ? awavb0&JŒ yxrqk& trSm;awGukd vG,ftdwfndKxJ xnfh+yD; rD;tdrfvufqGJ æ &mZ0ifxJrSm c&D;quf&OD;r,f? xdyfxm;a& æ uacsonfwkd@&JŒ aw;awGeJ@ +idrfat;aysmf&$if xm0pOf csrf;ajrŒapom; æ aumif;aom rkd;aomufcsdefYvnf; +idrfoufwnf=unfap æ ig æ qkawmif;ay;aer,f æ? yef;cl;&if; oli,fcsif;awGeJ@ae&if; æ pum;ajym&if; æ oDcsif;av;awGqkd&if æ rif; æ ighukd arhoGm;rSmyg æ? ckawmh æ oGm;awmhaemf ig cspfjrwf&wJh aea&mifjcnfawGeJ@ rdef;rysKdukd ‘b0’ qkdwJh rm,mEkdifiHtkdu æ apmifhóudvkd@ aea&mhr,f æ omrn vrf;cGJrSm æ 0rf;renf;ovkd igwkd@E_wfquf reufjzefcgrSm æ atmifjrifygap reufjzefcgrSm æ atmifjrifygap reufjzefcgwkdif;rSm æ atmifjrifygap æ xdyx f m;a&? ? (wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& http://www.taryarminwaimemorial.blogspot.com/ rS ul;,lonf) rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


82

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

tydik ;f ( 4 )

psmye rSww f rf;"mwfyrkH sm; (=o*wfpf 7/ 2007 ck/ &efuek f a&a0; ok\ef)

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


83

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

a&$bek ;f vl (wm&mrif;a0) (1966 =2007) rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


84

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

psmye vufurf; a=umfjim rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


85

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


86

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

rdom;pk&JŒ trSwfw& vGrf;olŒyef;jcif;av;awGaygh æ rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


87

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

olŒtwGuf 0rf;enf;jcif;rSwfwrf; pmtkyfav;

om,m0wDaxmifrS oli,fcsif;rsm;&JŒ vGrf;olŒyef;jcif;

&Spfq,fh&Spf rsKd;qufausmif;om;rsm; &JŒ aemufqkH; E_wfqufpum; æ? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


88

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

psmye udk vdkufygydk@aqmifay;r,fholrsm; 33 vrf;/ avxefukef;rSm pka0;ae=uwmyg?

psmye um;u dk udk, fwdkif v dkufar mif;ydk@ ay;r, fh udkau smfol rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


89

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

psmyeum; udk jyifqifaewJh udkausmfol

udkausmfol eJ@ udkZm*em

raemf[&D eJ@ roef;jrifah tmif

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


90

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

±kyfuvyfudk jyifqifae=uwJh udkausmfol eJ@ roef;jrifhatmif

rSefacgif;xJu wm&mrif;a0

±kyftavmif; udk o,faqmif=upOf rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


91

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

yef;awG=um;u wm&mrif;a0

acwfaeav; ESifh raemf[&D

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


92

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

om;&JΠpsmyeudkoGm;r,fh azaz OD;ausmf&Sdef

olŒudk cspfcif=uwJh pmaye,frS yk~dKvfwcsKdŒ

88 rsKd;qufausmif;om;rsm;udk,fpm; rif;udkEdkif udk,fwdkif a&;zGJŒ&GwfqdkwJh =u,faºuowd@k om; rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


93

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

33 vrf;rSm um;r&vdk@ qテシjyae=uolrsm;

udkudk}uD; ESifh rif;udkEdkif

("mwfyHktcsKdナ置dk tifwmeufu ,lygw,f? cGifhテーycsuf rawmif;cHEdkifcJhjcif;twGuf av;pm;pGm awmif;yeftyfygw,f) rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


94

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


95

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

tydik ;f ( 5 )

wm&mrif;a0 trSww f & uAsmrsm; =u,faºu owd@k om; (rif;udEk ikd )f wm&mrif;a0od@k tvGr;f (atmif'if) xm0& tdyaf ysmo f mG ;wJh =u,f (acvGe;f ) vlru kd rf sm;ESihf cGcJ mG jcif; (udòk z;) arSmo f m;rD;v#H (rd;k v_id n f ) vGr;f qGw=f u,f (ndr;f ndK) wm&maºuwJh n (yef'&kd m) wm&mrif;a0 (pef;pef;wif) xm0&vif;r,fh wm&mod@k (aEGq;l vuFm) a&$bek ;f vl (od@k r[kw)f wm&mrif;a0eJ@ e,fpnf;rjcm; uAsmrsm; (xdu k o f El ikd )f ta0;u yef;csu D m; (armift;kd ) vkvif=u,f (atmifa0;)

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


96

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


97

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

=u,faºu owdo @k m; rif;udkedkif

oli,fcsif; rif;[m ,Hk=unf&mudk &ifaoG;vdv k nf; arG;cJw h ,f? oli,fcsif; rif;[m '%f&mawGudk qDrD;vdkvnf; xGef;cJhw,f? oli,fcsif; rif;[m udk,fhtem udk,fhv#meJ@ jyefoyf &Siw f wfc+hJ yD;+yDy?J oli,fcsif; rif;[m udk,fhta&jym; udk,fv$m udk,fht±dk;udk tyfvdkaoG; udk,fh0wfpHk udk,fcsKyfvdk@ ususee vScJh+yD;+yDyJ? oli,fcsif; oGm;ESifh oli,fcsif; =u,ftpif;pif; aºuwJh a[m'DuBmajr&JŒ temw&awGudk pGrf;or# ukpm;zdk@ igwdk@ ae&pfcJhOD;r,f?

oGm;ESifh oli,fcsif; aetpif;pif;ylwhJ uBmajr&JŒ '%f&mawGudk vufz0g;awGeJ@ umuG,fzdk@ igwdk@ ae&pfcJhOD;r,f? oGm;ESifh oli,fcsif; uBmajr&JŒ a=uuGJjcif;"mwfjym;xJ rif;&JŒ uAsmawG rmwdumpDz@kd igwdk@ ae&pfcJhOD;r,f? oGm;ESifh oli,fcsif; ausmif;eH&w H 0du k f a'gif;tvH jyefpdkufwJhwae@ igwdk@ æ æ æ ? ? (2007 -o*kwfv 7 &ufaeŒu wm&mrif;a0&JŒ psmyerSm 88 rsKd;qufausmif;om;rsm;udk,fpm; rif;udkEdkif a&;zGJŒ&GwfqdkwJh uAsm)

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


98

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

wm&mrif;a0ok@d tvGr;f atmif'if

nDav; =o*wfpf&JŒ rkd;a&pufawGxJ rif;uawmh cGJcGmoGm;cJh+yD r_efr_dif;at;pufwJh aumif;uifrSm òyifjrif;waumif&JŒ cGmoHawGom yJhwifxyf usef&pfcJh æ? nDav; rif;cspfwJh b0ukd rif;trsm;}uD; jyefay;qyfcJh rif;cspfwJh vl@avmuukd rif;taEG;axG;qkH; ±d_uferf;cJh '%f&mawGtjynfheJ@/ rif;&JŒESvkH;om;u aoG;pufpufus/ ikdnnf;aewmawmif æ rS? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


99

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

tEkynmeJ@ EkdifiHa&; b0ESpfckpm arG;zGm; b0ESpfckrSm }uD;jyif; b0ESpfckpvkH;ukd yckH;ay:rSmxrf; wwfpGrf;or#/ rif;wm0ef,lcJhwm tif;pdefaxmif}uD; odygw,f æ o&ufaxmif}uD; odygw,f æ om,m0wDaxmif}uD; odygw,f æ ‘tmvl;pm;olrsm;’ æ odygw,f æ uG,f æ uH=uRmukd r,kH&JcJhayr,fh wkd;wkd;av; qkawmif;cJhzl;yg&JŒ “wae@awmh jyefqkHawG@=ur,f æ” vkd@ ckawmhvnf; 'Du=H uRmuyJ igwkd@ukd &uf&ufpufpuf æ cGJ æ oGm;ESifhuG,f b0qkdwm wkdwkdav; æ vkd@ rif; oufaojycJ+h yD tJh'D æ b0wdkwkdav;ukdyJ teuf±d_if;qkH; cspfruf=uzkd@ tjrifhrm;qkH; ay;qyf=uzkd@ tawmufyqkH; wG,fzuf&J=uzkd@ t±kd;om;qkH; a=uuGJwwf=uzkd@ rif; æ igwkd@ukd oifjycJh+yDyJ æ? ? -o*kwfv 10/ 2007 rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


100

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

xm0& tdyaf ysmfomG ;wJh =u,f acvGef;

=u,fwyGihf vGix hf u G af ºucdu k f yifhoufawG ±d_uf&jyefw,f æ? ‘ryGifhbJ zl;cJh&wJhaumifrdk@ arSmifw,f’ wJh tckawmh cifAsm; tvif;awG=um; xGufoGm;cJh+yD? ‘w,fvDzkef;ac:oHawG =um;wmawmif jyefrxl;jzpfwJhaumif’ wJh tckawmh cifAsm; jyefxl;p&mrvdkatmif xGufoGm;cJh+yD? ‘ighrSmwa,mufwnf; jzpfae&wJhtxJ a0gueJ aysmufqHk;vdkuf&’ wJh tckawmh cifAsm; taiG@awG=um; aysmufuG,foGm;cJh+yD?

‘avmurm,mqdkwm twD;cH&wJhAHkawG&JŒ *DwygyJ’ wJh tckawmh cifAsm; AHkoHawGr=um;wJht&yfqD xGufoGm;cJh+yD? ‘,H=k unfxm;prf; a&cd;k a&aiG@awGuvnf; yifv,fudk ypfaygufpdkufysKd;Edkif&r,fqdkwm’ wJh tckawmh cifAsm; yifv,fudk pdkufysKd;jy+yD; xGufoGm;cJh+yD? ‘arara& æ rdk;wdrfawGxJ ajcypfvufypf om; 0iftdyfypfvdkufcsif&JŒ’ wJh tckawmh cifAsm; ajcypfvufypftyd af eyHrk sm; usaemfwdk@ac:wmawmif r=um;awmhbl;? ? (bavmh*g nDnD (oHvGif) &JŒ bavmh*fwGif -o*kwfv 6 &uf 2007 &ufpGJjzifh azmfjycJhaom uAsm)

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


101

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

vlru kd rf sm;ESihf cGcJ mG jcif; udkjzdK;

vlawGaygh æ enf;enf;awmh ±l;ae=uw,f 'g[m vlwa,mufaowm r[kwfbl; tEkynmwckaooGm;wm bmeJ@ tpm;xdk;jy=urSmvJ a=uuGJzl;yg&JŒvdk@ ajymjyae±HkeJ@aum &ifckefoHawG jyef&EdkifrSmvm; pum;tvGefrsm;wJh vlawG tck aoae=u+yDvm; cifAsm;[m ayghpwm; r[kwfwm enf;enf;awmh emw,fAsm romawG vdu k yf @kd =u bk&m;awG wnfvdkuf=u 0rf;enf;jyvdu k =f u owif;awG a&mif;pm;vdkuf=u rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


102

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

&ifxJu atmifh+yD;emvmw,f cifAsm; apmapmxGufoGm;wmvnf; cyfaumif;aumif;ygyJAsm vlawG[m tEkynmudk em;rSrvnf=uwm cifAsm;&JŒ ESvHk;om;}uD;udk csxm;wmawmif b,faumifrS vmrpm;=ubl; usaemfwdk@rSmu wrf;wrdef;armae& vJao=u vJao=u “igb h 0wckv;kH eJ@ vJaovdu k =f u” tWrmeawGudk c0gcs+yD; c%jzpfjzpfaygh tEkynmjrpfxJ ckecf svu kd w f ,f usaemf bmrSjyefr&awmhbl; tEkynmudk ±kyfawGeJ@ wefzdk;jzwfae=uw,f vlawG b0ajymif;ukef=u+yD Aef;*dk;&JŒyef;csDwcsyf[m oef;csDwefcJhcsdefrSm rm&DvifrGef±dk;&JŒ"mwfyHkwcsyf b,favmufwefygovJ usaemfh&ifxJrSm cHjyif;pdwfawGcsnf;yJ cyf±dkif;±dkif;yJ ajymvdkufawmhr,f aomufoHk;udkruswJh aorif;uGm tEkynmudkrS ac:oGm;w,f bmrS vm&Sif;jyrae=ueJ@awmh b,favmuf ±dkif;=uvJqdkwm bk&m;yg odoGm;+yD ‘vlrdkufawGaum vlaumif;awGudkaum cifAsm;xm;cJh+yD’ &ifxJrSm twm;tqD;r&SdolawG vGrf;=u æ? ? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


103

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

arSmo f m; rD;v#H rdk;vSKdifn

vli,fwa,muf&JŒausmufxGif;&mZ0if tyDjyifq;Hk jzpfapr,fh a[m'Dpum;vkH;rsm;&JŒvrf;r[m cHpm;csufawGukd ukd,fpm;ðyzufwG,fcJh 90 vGefvli,fawG[m ol@,Ofaus;r_rSm xGef;um;cJhzl;w,f? z,fay;vku d =f uprf;yg rmefewf&@J twGi;f om;ukd v_dufv_dufvSJvSJ pm;aomufzkd@twGuf arSmfom;rD;v#H c&D;xGufoGm;jyef+yD? ar#mfvifhcsufeJ@ aoqkH;aeolawG&JŒ vrif;uifqmukd ukpm;zkd@ arSm0f ifaewJph um;vk;H awGe@J ol@ukd,fol tavmifu|rf;cHcJhwJh arSmo f m;rD;v#H umveJ@ tmumoukdyg ul;pufavmifu|rf;apcJh+yD æ? ? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


104

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

vGr;f qGw=f u,f ndrf;ndK

‘aqmif;wckrmS yg0ifcJhzl;wJh ESif;wpufvdk pm&if;vnf; r&Sd/ eHygwfvnf; rod b,ftxdrSvnf; r}uD;us,fygbl;uG,f’ wJh? ol@ud, k o f l EdrS chf s ajr}uD;&JŒ oauFweJ@ tEkynmudk yef;vdkar$;jrapcJhw,f vli,fwa,mufua&;wJh ausmufxGif;&mZ0ifawG usaemfwdk@&iftHkudk wnfhwnfhypfaygufvdk@ cspfoludk ESvHk;om;topfeJ@ cspf=unfhzdk@ b0udk ±_axmifhtopfeJ@csOf;uyfzdk@ avmuudk jrwfEdk;jcif;oufoufeJ@ apmifha&Smufzdk@ ol@&JŒtEkynm aygif;acsmifav;xJrSm avmuygvw&m;udk pDuHk;a&;zGJ@ avnif;av;vdk woG@J oG@J wdu k cf wfcw hJ ,f tJ'D æ =u,fuav;wvHk;aygh tHk@ysarSmif&D avmu"HxpfcsKef;rSm usaemfwdk@ESvHk;om;awG vif;yGifhysKdjrpfzdk@ ol&JŒtEkynmykckH;tm;eJ@ xrf;wifay;aeqJ c&D;wckudk xGufcGmoGm;cJh&+yD ESvHk;om;&Sdvdk@ usaemfwdk@ vGrf;qGwf& ESvHk;om;&Sdvdk@ usaemfwdk@ a=uuGJ& ESvHk;om;&Sdvdk@ usaemfwdk@ ESarsmwrf;w& tudka& æ vGrf;qGwf=u,fuav;u ay;wJhtvif;&mifrSm atmufarhowd&jcif;awG xyfaygif;vdk@ tudk aumif;&mok*wda&mufygapAsm æ? ? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


105

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

wm&maºuwJh n yef'dk7m

tJ'n D u =u,fawGtm;vH;k a&qif;aomuf=uw,f æ yifv,f&JŒ iefysys*k%foWdrSm tm;vHk; pdkpdkpGwfpGwfeJ@ æ vrif;u r=unf&h v J Œkd rsufESmv$JoGm;w,f æ æ æ "m;oGm;awG òy;òy;jyufjyuf vufvufxwJh n raumif;qdk;0g;awG jrL;x &ifckefoHwðyHwreJ@ AHkwD;u uAsmawG zdwfpifxGufus yef; yGifh awG a¹c cs yÌvuf rdk;awG &Gm us arm [kduf EGrf; vs æ æ [dk; axmifhwae&mrSmawmh 0wfpjkH zLwvGiv hf iG ehf @J *sLEd&k ,f aemufxyf=u,fwyGi&hf ,f tarSmifxu J pkd u kd v f @kd ai;=unfah evdu k w f m t=um æ æ }uD; æ? ?

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


106

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

wm&mrif;a0 prf;prf;wif

avmuudk cHkrif avmuudk cspfcif avmuudk tvSqif cHkrifqJ cspfcifqJ tvSqifqJ avmuu qH;k ±_;H oGm; wm&mrif;a0 =u,fwyGihf aºuvifah pmayr,fh pmaumif;uif tcif;tusi;f rSm wm&mrif;a0 vif;vufv@kd ae uBmrysufavoa&G@ æ? ?

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


107

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

qdkif;oH AHkoHrygbJeJ@ cifAsm;xGufoGm;wJhae@u rdk;awG ndKŒaevdkufwm æ? wm0efauscyhJ gw,fqw kd mxuf yd+k yD;wefz;kd &Sad tmif cifAsm; aexdkifcJhwmyg? vl@tcGifhta&;eJ@ vGwfvyfcGifhawG rd;k vdak cgiaf ewJah cwfrmS cifAsm;wD;jycJhwJh AHkoHawGu tm;rmeftppf jzpfapcJhw,f? tvHrxlcw hJ hJ vufawGe@J b,fvufxJrSm 0Sufxm;wJhyHkjyifawGudk rajymEdik af wmhayr,fh reufjzefrmS xm;cJw h hJ cifAsm;&JŒrsufESmudk tqH;k r&St d em*wfrsm;pGmwkid f vleHygwf 13 tjzpfeJ@ jrifa,mifae=uOD;rSmyg æ?

xm0&vif;r,fh wm&modŒk aeGql;vuFm

cifAsm;a&;cJw h hJ oHo&maw;oGm;xJuvdk ,rrif;qDrSm eDudk&JeJ@awG@&JŒvm;´ 'gayr,fh aocsmygw,f cifAsm;u b,fol@&JŒxdkifcHkudkrS twif;t"R rvkcJhbl;qdkawmh aumif;&mrGef&mudkyJ a&muf&rSmaygh æ? cifAsm;xm;cJhwJh usaemfw@kd aewJEh ikd if u H cifAsm; rjrifvdkuf&wJh a&$0ga&mifawmfveS af &;ta=umif; cifAsm;udk ajymjycsifvdkufwm? tm%m±l; zufqpfvufopfawG&JŒ &ufpufr_awG æ ±dkif;ysr_awG æ tkd æ tudk a&$bkef;vl ñuHwJhtcg cifAsm;&JŒtdyfrufawGeJ@ jrif;pD;xGuf+yD; =unfhvSnfhygOD;? ? (q&m wm&mrif;a0 odkŒ trSwfw&)

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


108

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

a&$bek ;f vl (odŒk r[kw)f wm&mrif;a0eJŒ e,fpnf;rjcm; uAsmrsm; xdkufoledkif

ydwrf oGm;&ao;wJh om;}uD;wdk@&JŒ ausmif;pmtkyfrSm a'gif;±kyfuav;awG om;i,fqGJawmh arar æ rsuf&nf0Ja&mhr,f? a&$bkef;vl (ar#mf uAsmrS) pufbD;awG pD;vmwJh tjzLtpdrf;0wf ausmif;om;wpk vrf;ab;rSm&yf+yD; a'gif;tvHudk ±kwfw&uf jzef@vdkuf=uw,f? zrf;qD;ausmif;om; jyefv$wfa&;/ ausmif;om;or~ zGJ@pnf;a&; awmif;qkdwJh aºu;a=umfoHawG 84 vrf;ay:rSm nHoGm;w,f? c%=umawmh ppfum;awG vkHxdef;awG a&mufvmw,f? vlpkrcGJcif oli,fcsif;u a&$bkef;vl&JŒ uAsmpm&Gufav; rarhcifay;vkdufzdk@ ajymw,f? 1990 ckESpf Zlvkdifv/ rœav; òrŒjy/ vlxkwdkufyGJeJ@ vrf;ray:u ol&Jaumif;awG/ usaemf tJ'D tjzpftysufav;udk trSwfw& &Sad ewwfygw,f? jym0if;0d;k 0g;wJh aqmif;ESif;rsm;uom ordkif;&JŒ bmompum;jzpfr,fqkd&if wvdrv hf rd chf ,Ge;f wJh aoG;pGef;ESif;pufawG æ wdk@jynfrSm rd_if;rd_if;a0a&mhr,f? a&$bkef;vl (O'gef; uAsmrS) rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


109

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

avwcsufwcsuf wdkufvdkufwkdif; va&mifatmufu 0g;&GufawG usaemhfvufay:rSm t&dyfvmvm xdk;aew,f? 0g;qpfudk jzwfxm;wJh a&aEG;=urf;cGufawGudk pDodrf;+yD; ppfykcufay:wuftdyfzdk@ usaemf jyifqifrdw,f? nOfheufae+yDav? cifAsm; cke &GwfjywJh a&$bkef;vl&JŒuAsmav; csa&;xm;&if aumif;r,f? =um&if arhoGm;vdrfhr,f wJh? v&dyfðcHwJh ±dk;r/ aomif&if;&JŒ ppfcsDoDcsif;awG/ aoG;eJ@a&;wJh rSwfwdkifawG wcgwcg usaemf owd&rdwwfw,f? q,fhig;ESpf q,fajcmufESpfawmh =umcJhyg+yD? uAsmeJ@uspfwJhóu;awG ±dk;rudk wcgu &pfywfcJhzl;w,f? oGm;ESifh oli,fcsif; aetpif;pif;ylwhJ uBmajr&JŒ '%f&mudk vufz0g;awGeJ@ umzdk@ igwkd@ ae&pfcJhtkH;r,f? rif;udkEkdif (2007 ckESpf =o*wfpfv/ wm&mrif;a0&JŒpsmyerSm &Spfq,hf&Spf rsKd;qufausmif;om;awG&JŒudk,fpm; &GwfqdkwJh =u,faºuowdk@om; uAsmrS) 'Dbuf uBmacwf&JŒ &J&ifhwJh orkdif;a=umif;[m wdk@jynfu ausmif;om;tavmif;awGqDrSm &Sdw,fwJh? udak tmif'ifa& uBmajr&JŒ a=uuGJjcif;ykH&dyfawGudk aq;a=umoef@pifz@dk ol@uAsmawGukd usaemfwdk@ &GwfzwfcJhzl;w,f? tdrrf ufr&Sw d hJ nawGxJ aysmufqkH;aewJh nDtudkawGudk&Smzdk@ ol@ uAsmawGukd usaemf rD;xGef;cJh&zl;w,f? tESpf 20 Asm æ &ifbwfay:rSmom tQ&m rwifcJh&if avwkdufpm;vdk@ vGifh+yDaygh? ? (udka&$bkef;vl uG,fvGefjcif; 2 ESpfjynfh) rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


110

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

ta0;u yef;csDum; armiftdk;

usaemf=unfhavh&SdwJh yef;csDum;awG &Sdw,f? wcsKdŒu teD;uyf yef;csDum;awG? wcsKdŒu ta0;u yef;csDum;awG? udka&$bkef;vl[m usaemf=unfhavh&SdwJh usaemf&JŒ ta0;u yef;csDum;wcsyfaygh? ol@udk ol@tud}k uD;avmuf ol@rdbawGavmuf usaemf r&if;ESD;cJh? usaemhf&JŒ ta0;u yef;csDum;? ol@udk uAsmq&mav; 88 rsKd;quf ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifav;tjzpf odcJh usaemhf&JŒ ta0;u yef;csDum;? 88 ta&;awmfyHk}uD; rjzpfcifuwnf;u olwdk@nDtudk&J@ uAsmawG vufa&;rlawGeJ@ zwfcJh&? ta&;awmfyakH oG;awGukd xHk;awGeJ@ okwfwJhumvawGrSm ol@uAsmawGu ydkvdk@awmufycJh? rd>mawG ausmif;zGifhcsdef *k%fwk*k%fòyifjyZmwf oGm;=unfh=ur,fh azmufjyefolwcsKdŒudk oa&mfxm;wJh ol@&JŒausmif;zGihfcsdef uAsm ausmif;om;awG=um; ausmf=um;cJh a&$bek ;f vlqw kd m awmfvSefwJh armf'efuAsmq&m jzpfcJh+yD usaemhf&JŒ ta0;u yef;csDum;? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


111

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

89 rwfvxJ ol@tudk}uD; tzrf;cH&+yD;aemufydkif; omrefausmif;om; r[kwfwJhol &ef ig pnf;jywfwJhol Auo/ &uo tpnf;a0;awGrSm ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifav;tjzpf wm0efauscJh usaemhf&JŒ ta0;u yef;csDum;? awmfvSefwJh armf'efuAsmq&m &Spfav;vHk; rsKd;qufausmif;om; acgif;aqmifav; a&$bkef;vlqdkwm atmif'if&JŒnDaygh? ol@tazu EdkifiHa&;orm;a[mif;}uD; om;awGvnf; rajymif;vJwJhpdwfxm;eJ@ 88 rsKd;qufausmif;om;awGtjzpf ppftm%m&Sifudk awmfvSefcJh usaemhf&JŒ ta0;u yef;csDum;? tJ'yD ef;csu D m;u a&=unftikd rf o S nf tif;pdef/ o&uf/ om,m0wDaxmifawGtxd ausmf=um;cJhaygh? usaemhf&JŒ ta0;u yef;csDum;udk 91 ckESpfrSm tif;pdefaxmifrSm axmif0g'gawGudkpdefac:vdk@ qüjyvd@k qd+k yD; axmiftm%myg;uGuo f m;awGu om,m0wDaxmif oD;oef@wdkufxJudk ajymif;a&$ŒcJh? q&mpHyef;csDum;csyf}uD;&SdwJh om,m0wDaxmif aps;wdkuf wkdufcef;eJ@uyfvsufrSm usaemfh&JŒ ta0;u yef;csDum; a&mufaewmodayr,fh usaemfoGm;=unfhcGifh r&SdcJh? 'Dvekd @J 92 rSm usaemf axmifuvGwfcsdeftxd usaemhfta0;u yefcsDum;eJ@ rqHkjzpfvdkuf=u tJ'Daemuf usaemfhyef;csDum;udk o&ufaxmif xyfajymif;a&$Œvdkufw,fvdk@ =um;odc&hJ ? a'gi;f tvHuikd pf JG axmifx0J ifomG ;wJh rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


112

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

usaemfh ta0;u yef;csDum; 94 ckESpfrSm uavmifwH udkifpGJ+yD; jyefxGufcJh? r=umcif wm&mrif;a0 qdkwJh armf'efpma&;q&mav;tjzpf ausmf=um;vmcJh usaemfh&JŒ ta0;u yef;csDum;? ol@uavmifvufeufe@J ppftm%m±l;awGudk edrdwfyHkðy wdkufcdkufcJh? ol@&JŒatmifjrifjcif;awGe@J twl raemf[&D qdkwJh uAsmq&mrav;wa,mufeJ@vufxyfcJh ol@&JŒb0rSm taysmfqHk;umvrsm;aygh? 2002 ckESpf usaemf jynfya&mufcsdef usaemhf ta0;u yef;csDum;udk owd&rdc?hJ 'gayr,fh trdajrudk rypf ol@aumif;owif;awG jynfyajrudk rcspfwJh ol@twGuf ta0;uae =um;ae&ovdk ol@atmifjrifra_ wGu ol@qd;k owif;awGvnf; oleJ@ eD;uyfpGm&SdaecJh =um;vmcJh&? usaemhf&JŒ ta0;u yef;csDum;? ol@om;av;wa,muf&+yD;cgrS awmfvSefwJh armf'efuAsmq&mav; tdraf xmifa&;òyuGJ ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifav; om;uG J r,m;uGJ t&ufpGJ armf'ef0ˆKa&;q&mav; usaemhf ta0;u yefcsDum;av; ±ky&f iS Zf mwf!e$ ;f a&;q&mav; ta&mifawG azsmhawmha=uuGJ ol@atmifjrifr_ rSwfwdkifawG 'Dvekd @J wdkifaygif;rsm;pGm pdkufxlEkdifcJh? jyefjyifa&;csed rf &vdu k &f mS wJh usaemfh&JŒ ta0;u yef;csDum; ol@uif;bwfpaf y:rSm a&;vdu k w f hJ yvHk qdkwJh aemufqHk;uAsmav;[m 2007 =o*wfpf 5 rSm vl@avmuxJu aemufqHk;xGufcGmzdk@ edrdwfyHkjy a&;vdkufava&mhovm; usaemhf&JŒ ta0;u yef;csDum;a&? ? (2009/ ZGef 15) rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


113

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

vkvif=u,f atmifa0;

wm 0efauscJhwJh 88 cGyfa'gif; &m oufyef t=urf;rzuf awmfvSefa&;orm; rif; qdk;rif;npfudk ykefuefjcm;em;ol a0 zl;vmr,fh yef;opfawG rsKd;aphcscJhavw,f? ? (Zlvdkif 18/ 2009)

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


114

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


115

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

tydik ;f ( 6 )

wm&mrif;a0 trSww f & pmpkrsm; rd;k acgiw f ahJ vmurSm tud@k ud, k pf m; usaemfw@kd (aebke;f vwf) usaemf rodaom wm&mrif;a0 (xifrif;rif;vwf) E_wq f ufjcif; (cufrm) a&$bek ;f vlukd owd&jcif; (bd=k unf) i&Jcef;u jcaoFh (pd;k xufcikd )f =u,faยบuwyGihf รฆ (ar+idr;f ) udak &$bek ;f vl ESihf wavSwnf;pD; (rif;Zif) wm&mrif;a0 (od@k r[kw)f jrm;xufjrifah tmif ysw H ihJ u S f (jrifph ;kd ) yef;acwfu vrif;od@k vGr;f csi;f (yef;csD xdev f if;) nDav;rGef tvnfvmwke;f u (rif;vGi)f wm&mrif;a0 eJ@ ol@arG;pm;tazta=umif; (armifprG ;f &nf) 88 xJu wa,muf (armif&pf)

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


116

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


117

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

rd;k acgifaewJah vmurSm tudu @k , kd pf m; usaemfw@kd æ æ aebkef;vwf yef;acwfu vrif; æ yef;csDq&mav;wa,muf/ aemuf olcspfwJhtEkynm/ olcspfwJhaumifrav; æ/ ol@&JŒ tEkynmtay: ±l;oGyrf _ æ aemufq;kH tEkynm&JŒ tqH;k rJw h phJ rG ;f yum; æ? xyfcg xyfcg zwfjzpf ovdk zwfrdwJhtcgwdkif; usaemf rsuf&nf0J&w,f æ? oifESifh eHeufcif;udkom 0ifcGifhðyrnf æ? tJ'Dhpmtkyfav;udk zwft+yD;rSm usaemf&JŒpdwfxJ udk zdk;=u,f&JŒ0d^mOfu uyfygvmw,f? ta&SŒòrdŒ±dk;ay:u rdk;a&pufrsm; æ? *sLEdkqdkwJh uacsonfrav; usaemf&JŒtm±HkxJrSm ajyjypfvyS pGm uaew,f æ? tEkynm&Sirf av;*sLEd&k ŒJ ESv;kH ckeo f aH wGu usaemfEh v S ;kH ckeo f aH wG eJ@ xyfwlusoGm;w,f? odk;aqmif;*pfwmwvuf&JŒ rSwfwrf; æ? tEkynmarSmf0ifaewJh rD;awmuf&pforfqdkwJh uAsm&Snfwyk'f æ usaemhf&JŒESvHk;om;udk nifnifomomav; zrf;qkwf,liifoGm;w,f? 0wˆKav;&JŒtqHk; æ tEkynmorm;wa,muf&JŒpdwfudk &Sif;&Sif;}uD;jrifodoGm;csdefrSm usaemf =uufo;D ar$;n‡i;f xrdw,f? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


118

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

"m;oGm;ay:rSmuwJh qyfuyf æ yifv,fw0uf awmifwef;w0ufjzpfaewJh aumifav; æ {'if uacsonf æ vli,fwa,muf&JŒ ausmufxGif;&mZ0if æ òydifjrif;wdk&JŒ cGmoH æ vGrf;w,f æ vGrf;w,f æ? vSyajyjypfwJh pum;vHk;twGJtqufawG&JŒ t&Sifocif æ vli,fawG&JŒpdwfxJudk xGif;azmuf0if=unhf pdwf0d^mOfwckvHk;rSm tEkynmtwd+yD;wJh usaemfav;pm;tm;uscJh&wJh pma&;q&m æ tudak & æ tudkwl;azmfcJhwJh ajrpdkifajrcJawGudk zufwG,f&if; æ tudka&;vdk@r+yD;cJhwJh ausmufxGif;&mZ0ifudk usaemfwdk@ qufxGif;r,f æ rdk;acgifaewJhavmurSm tudk@udk,fpm; usaemfwdk@ AHkawG qufwD;r,fAsm æ?

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/

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119

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

usaemf rodaom wm&mrif;a0 xifrif;rif;vwf ol@udk wm&mrif;a0tjzpfeJ@ rñuHbl;/ rawG@bl;vdkuf&yg/ ol@pmawGudkom zwfcGifh&if;ESD; cGifh&cJhygw,f? ol@udk odcJh &if;EêD;cJhwkef;u nDnD/ aemuf a&$bkef;vltjzpfeJ@om? oleJ@usaemfwdk@wawG pwifwGJcJhwmu vGefcJhwJhESpfaygif;20 ausmf/ 88 ta&;tcif;}uD; jzpfcgp/ usaemfwdk@ausmif;om;awG wdk;wdk;wdwfwdwfeJ@ ajratmufv_yf&Sm;r_awG vkyfaecsdef/ oli,fcsif;vnf; jzpf/ nDrwydkif;vnf;jzpfwJh olwdk@(udkatmif'if/ a&$bkef;vl) nDru usaemfhudk awmifOuUvmybufu tdrf}uD;wtdrfudk ac:oGm;w,f? tJh'Dtdrfa&mufawmh tdrftay:xyf rSm udkatmif'ifudk vSJ+yD;tem;,laewm awGŒ&w,f? yifyef;+yD; aumif;aumif; rtdyf&ao;wJh yHyk gy?J udak tmif'ife@J a&S;a[mif;aESmif;jzpfawG tenf;i,fajym+yD; udak tmif'ifu tckov l yk af e wJt h a=umif;awG/ a&SŒvkyif ef;pOfawG &Si;f vif;ajymjycJw h ,f? aemuf udak tmif'ife@J pum;ajym+yD; jyefr,ftvkyfrSm a&$bkef; a&mufvmw,f? 'geJŒ a&$bkef;eJ@yg pum;qufajymjzpfcJhw,f? tJh'D aemufydkif;up+yD; oleJ@ tvkyftwlwl vkyfjzpfcJhwmygyJ? ta=umif;trsKd;rsKd;a=umifh ol usaemfwdk@tdrfrSm vmaew,f/ ol&,f usaemf&,f tjcm; taygif;toif;awG aygif;+yD; jynfol@udk,f&HawmfwyfOD; ukd zJG@w,f? olu OuUÏ? yOPrEdkifiHawmf pmapmifukd xkwfa0cJhw,f? tJh'Duwnf;u ol[m tEkynmorm;ppfppfrSef; odomxif&Sm; cJw h ,f? vufa&;vufom;utp pma&;jcif;twwfynm/ tdik 'f , D myg xl;xl;jcm;jcm; &Scd w hJ ,f? ol usaemfw@kd trd rf mS aecJw h w hJ av#mufv;Hk ol@ukd pmzwfaewm&,f/ pma&;aewm&,fyJ tawG@ & rsm;w,f? usaemfwdk@oli,fcsif;nDtwGuf oDcsif;wyk'fvnf; a&;ay;cJhzl;w,f? wcgwav usaemfw@kd wcGuw f zvm; aomuf=uw,f? tJ'w D ek ;f u ol aumif;aumif; raomufwwfao;? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


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wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

odyfóudufyHkvnf;r&? rSwfrSwf&& 1988 &JŒc&pfprwf tóudn æ udkatmif'if&,f ol&,f usaemf&,f enf;enf;yg;yg;aomuf&if; pum;ajymjzpf=uw,f? aomuf&if;eJ@aygufuGJvm+yD; udkatmif'ifudk a0zefajymqdkaewJh ol@&JŒyHkudk jrifa,mifrSwfrdaeygao;w,f? Auoudk jyefvnfzGJ@pnf;wJhtcsdefrSm ola&m usaemfyg yg0ifcJhw,f? ol[m EdkifiHa&;udk vnf; wpdu k rf wfrwfvyk cf w hJ ,f? ol@acgi;f xJrêmwcsed v f ;kH tJ'h u D pd yP &J adS ecJyh gvrd rhf ,f? aemufyidk ;f rSm tm;vHk;vkdvkd tzrf;cH&w,f/ olvnf; ygoGm;cJhw,f? trSeftwkdif;ajym&&if axmif0ifpm awmh a=umufvk@d oGm;rawG@jzpfcJhyg? axmifxJu ol@owif;awGawmh =um;aecJh&w,f? 1991 rSm usaemfvnf; jrefrmjynfu xGufcJhw,f? ol o&ufaxmifa&mufoGm;wm/ axmifxJrSm yHpk rH xdik Ef idk b f ;l jiif;wmawG =um;ae&w,f? 1995 avmufjzpfr,fxifw,f? udak tmif'ifqu D ol wm&mrif;a0 emrnfeJ@ pmtkyfxkwfr,fhta=umif; =um;&w,f? aemuf ol@pmtkyfawG aecsif;ncsif;yJ ausmf=um;vmw,f? usaemfvnf; vufvSrf;rDoavmuf &SmzwfcJhygw,f? ol@pmtkyfawGxJrSm ol@&JŒ e*kdyifudkyHkpHudk jrif&w,f? ol t&ufaomufaewm =um;&w,f/ aemuf oltrd af xmifðywJt h a=umif;/ acwfaeav; arG;wJt h a=umif; od&w,f? zke;f awGbmawG awmh rac: jzpfawmh/ olom aooGm;a&m ol@ukd wm&mrif;a0tjzpfe@J usaemfpum;rajymjzpfc?hJ tquftoG,f rvkyfjzpfcJhyg? usaemfodwJh ausmif;om;acgif;aqmif cspfnDnD/ awmfvSefa&;orm; a&$bkef;vl/ ol[m wm&mrif;a0 rjzpfcifuwnf;u tEkynmorm;ppfppf jzpfcJhwmawmh usaemf &J&J}uD;ajym&J ygw,f? (ole@J ywfouf+yD; tao;pdwaf &;csiw f m ajymcsiw f mav;awG&adS o;ayr,fh pmody&f n S f rSmpd;k wJt h wGuf ra&;jzpfawmhyg)? awmfveS af &;orm; a&$bek ;f vl ukd vGr;f w,f? tEkynmorm; wm&mrif;a0 ukd ESarsmaerdygw,f? ?

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


121

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

E_wfqufjcif; cufrm wu,fawmh olESifhusru pmwapmifaywzGJ@ a&;&avmufatmif r&if;ESD;cJhyg? 'gayr,fh olESifhywfoufaom trSwf&p&mav;awG usrrSm &SdaecJhonf? ÐÐÐ olESifhywfouf+yD; yxrqkH;rSwfrdaewmu ol. ‘tmvl;pm;olrsm;’ 0wˆKwdkuav; jzpf onf? 0wˆKudkzwf+yD;+yD;csif; tJh'Dvdka&;wwfcsifvdkufwm[k pOf;pm;cJhzl;wm owd&onf? aemufawmh tJh'D0wˆKwdkav;u jzL;rdwfaqGrsm; pm=unfhtoif;rSay;aom 0wˆKwdkqk &onf? xdkqkay;yGJwGif usr &SdaecJh.? qk&0wˆKwdka&;oltaeESifh aus;Zl;wifpum;ajym&ef ol pifay: wufvmcJo h nf? ¶d;k pif;aom 0wfpm;qif,ify/kH wnf+idraf omrsuEf mS ESihf “usaemf a&$bek ;f vlyg” qdkaompum;jzifh pwif rdwfqufonf? ajzmifhajzmifhpif;pif; qHyifawGu ol@ezl;ay: 0Jusae onf? olu r&,frðyH;aomfvnf; rwnfwif;aomrsuEf mS jzif@ pum;udk wnfwnf+idr+f idrf ajym oGm;onf? bma=umifrh eS ;f odayr,fh =unf=unfvifvif rsuEf mS ay;jzifh “usaemf a&$zek ;f vlyg” [k E_wfqufpum;udk pwifvdkufwm usr awmfawmf oabmusoGm;onf? ESpfvdkzG,faumif; aom vli,fuav;tjzpf cifrifrdoGm;onf? tJ'h yD rJG mS udZk m*emu olEiS u hf srudk rdwq f ufay;cJo h nf? od@k aomf oluvnf; cyfat;at; aewwfol usruvnf; vlr_a&;nHhzsif;olqdkawmh ðyH;jyE_wfquf todtrSwfðycJh=u±Hktjyif pum;a0qm rajymjzpfcJh=uyg? (tcktcsdefrSmawmh usr. vlr_a&;nHhzsif;r_udk twwfEdkifqHk; óud;pm;jyifaeygonf?) rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


122

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

o&zlr*~Zif;udk OD;+idr;f at;tdrv f yk af wmh o&zlr*~Zif;wdu k o f @kd oGm;wdik ;f vdv k kd ol@ukd awGŒ& onf? r*~Zif;wdkufrSm [dk[dkonfonf pum;awG ajymjzpf=uonf? xdkumvrsm;wGif olu wmxGufaumif;aom vli,fpma&;q&muav;tjzpf 0wˆKwdk/ 0wˆK&Snf/ pmayaqmif;yg;awG udk tm;aumif;armif;oef a&;aeonf? ol@pmawG qufwdkufvdkvdkawG@&awmh usr 0rf;om onf? tm;usonf? 0D&d,pdkufI avhvmtm;xkwfEdkifol vli,fwOD;tjzpf todtrSwfðy csD;usL;rdonf? 'gayr,fh usr&JŒtm;enf;csufuawmh olESifhqHkawGŒcsdefawGrSm olESifhywfouf aom usr.cHpm;csufawGudk ajymrjyjzpfcJhjcif;yif jzpfonf? tJh'Dvdk pum;wkH@qdkif;wwfjcif;. rESpfòrdŒzG,ftusKd;udk r=umcifrSmyJ usr odcJh&onf? ol@ oli,fcsi;f awGu usr oli,fcsi;f awGyq J akd wmh ol@pmawGzwfae&csed Ef iS hf wòydiw f nf;vdv k kd rSmyif ol@ta=umif;awGvnf; =um;ae&onf? tJ'h o D il ,fcsi;f rsm;xJrS wa,mufjyefajymjyaom usrESiyhf wfoufonfh ol@cpH m;csuu f =kd um;&awmh usr awmfawmfpw d rf aumif;jzpf&ovdk E_wpf v#mp enf;jcif; tm;enf;csufudk jyifzdk@vdk+yDqdkwmvnf; rSwfrSwfrSwf&& owdrlrdcJhonf? “cufrmu usaemfhudk v_dufvd_ufvSJvSJ

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tJonfvdk ol ajymcJhowJh? usr wu,fyJ pdwfraumif;yg? olESifhusr vlcsif;reD;pyf=u ayr,fh olESifhywfoufaom usr &ifxJu trSwfxifxif&Sdr_/ wefzkd;wckowfrSwfI tav; teufxm;r_udk usrudk,fwdkif todqkH; r[kwfvm;? olpma&;ovdk usr ra&;Ekdifwm/ ol avhvmtm;xkwfovdk usr ravhvm tm;rxkwfEkdifwm usrudk,f usrodonfav? ol@pum;a=umifh pdwfraumif;jzpfrdaom usru w&ufrSm OD;+idrf;at;tdrfESifh pum;0dkif; zGJ@rdpOf ol@ta=umif; pum;pyfrd=uonf? ol@óud;pm;tm;xkwfr_awGta=umif;ajym&if; usru ±kwfw&uf rSwfcsufay;rdonf? “udka&$bkef;u Sensitive jzpfw,faemf” ol@uckd spaf om OD;+idr;f at;u b,fvkd t"dym` ,faumuf,o l nf rod? “tdk æ tJ'v D kd r[kwf ygbl;” [k csufjcif;jiif;onf? “Sensitive jzpfw,fqdkwm ol xdcdkufcHpm;vG,fwmudk ajymcsifwmyg” usru tJ'Dvdkxyf&Sif;jyawmhrS OD;+idrf;at;u “at; æ 'gqdk [kwfw,f”[k oabmwl awmhonf? wu,fawmh olrSr[kwfyg? usrwdk@vdk tEkynmESifh wenf;wzHk ywfoufaerdol rsm;tm;vkH;u cHEdkif&nf&Sdonfhae&mwGif tHhrcef; cHEdkif&nf&Sd=uoavmuf pdwfxdcdkufvG,f=u jyefawmhvnf; omrefvlawG ðyH;csifp&maumif;avmufatmif El;nHhae=ujyefa&mav? ÐÐÐ rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


123

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

aemufydkif;rSmawmh usrtay:&SdcJhaom ol@xifjrifcsufawG ajymif;oGm;yHk&onf? o&zl r*~Zif;wdkuf&Sd&m 32 vrf;xdyfu vufzuf&nfqdkifrSm/ bm;vrf;xJu udkxGef;&D vufzuf&nf qdkifrSm usrwdk@xdkifjzpfv#if olu &,f&,farmarm yl;aygif;yg0ifvmonf? rsm;aomtm;jzifh ola&m usryg em;axmiform;oufoufyrmyif? 1996 ckESpf Edk0ifbmvqef;xJu w&ufrSm usr vufxyfawmh r*FvmqGrf;au|;yGJudk ol uokwu f &uf a&mufvmonf? r*FvmqGr;f au|;yJrG mS au|;aom 'efaygux f rif;udyk if rpm;bJ oGm;awmhrnf jyif.? uokwfu&ufEdkifvGef;aom ol@[efa=umifh usr pdwfraumif;wmukdjrif awmh usr ycHk;udk cyfzGzGykwfum usr oabmusaom =unf=unfvifviftðyH;jzifh ol ajymcJh onf? “usaemf vmcsifvGef;vdk@ a&mufatmifvmwm æ? usaemfhtudk puFmylu jyefvmrSmrdk@ av,mOfuGif; oGm;óud&r,f? awmf=um av,mOfqdkufESifhae&if tudk apmifhae&vdrfhr,f? 'ga=umifhyg? aemufawmh at;at;aq;aq; pm;wmaygh æ” tJ'Dae@u ol usrwdk@udk 0uf0H±kyf}uD;w±kyf r*FvmvufzGJ@cJhonf? usrwdk@r*Fvmaqmif rSm olwa,mufwnf; t±kyfvufzGJ@cJhwmrdk@ rSwfrSwf&& &SdcJh=uonf? wdu k w f u kd q f ikd q f ikd f usr trsK;d om;.tru olEiS t hf wl q,fwef;rSm usL&Sit f wlwufzuf tvGe&f if;ES;D aom oli,fcsi;f awG jzpfc=hJ uowJ?h usr a,mif;ru pum;pyfrw d ikd ;f ol t*Fvyd pf m rSm awmfa=umif;/ oli,fcsif;awGudk az;rulnDwwfonfhta=umif; &$ef;&$ef;a0atmif ajymjy wwfonf? azazmf0g&DvxJu w&ufrSm olwdk@oli,fcsif;awGpk+yD; usKdufuUpHuGif;xJu jynfaxmifpyk u JG kd oGm;=uowJ?h narSmifcge;D rSm tdrjf yefvm=u+y;D tdraf &mufcge;D rS usr a,mif;r u jycef;awGxJrSm xD; usefcJhwm owd&cJhonf? 0efxrf;om;orD;rdk@ ac|wm pnf;urf;&Sd&ol a,mif;ru xD;rygbJtdrfjyefv#if rdcifqlrSmpdk;+yD; vrf;cJG+yD;prSmyJ ol@tdrfudk vdkufoGm;cJhowJh? olESifhawG@um tusKd;ta=umif;ajymjyawmh tdrfa&mufcgp xdkifyifrxdkif&ao;aomolu usr a,mif;raemuf apG@ueJvu kd o f mG ;+yD; usKu d u f q U u H iG ;f qD aemufwacguf xyfomG ;cJ=h uonf wJ?h n}uD;rif;}uD; usKu d u f q U u H iG ;f xJu jycef;aygi;f rsm;pGmrSm wcef;0if wcef;xGuf xD;aysmuf t&Sm xGucf =hJ uowJ?h tJ'DZmwfvrf;udk a,mif;rxHrS usr q,fcgxufrenf; =um;cJhzl;onf? Zmwfvrf;qHk; wdik ;f a,mif;rjzpfou l pnfpnfviG v f iG &f ,farmum “tJ'aD umifav; odycf ifz@kd aumif;w,f” [k ajymzdk@udkvnf; b,fawmhrS rarhcJhyg? olu usrudk wcgar;cJhzl;onf? “rjrifhjrifhoef;u cufrmtrsKd;om;&JŒ trqdk” rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


124

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

“[kww f ,fav” “avmu}uD;u usOf;vdkufwmAsm? usaemfwdk@u odyfcif=uwm” “trav; æ odygw,f? n}uD;rif;}uD; xD; t&SmxGuf=uwJh Zmwfvrf;awGav” olu xH;k pHtwdik ;f =unf=unfvifvif &,favonf? ol tJ'v D &kd ,farmawmh bma=umifh rSe;f rod “usaemf æ a&$bek ;f vl yg” [k ol@u, kd o f l pwifrw d q f ufco hJ nfh qkay;yGrJ mS ol@upkd wif jrifawG@cJh+yD; ESpfvdkpGm cifrifcJhrdwmudk jyeftrSwf&oGm;onf? ÐÐÐ 2007 ckESpf =o*kwfvtwGif;rS w&ufwGif usrudk vlawmfawmfrsm;rsm; zkef;ac:=uonf? usrtdrfwGif zkef;r&Sdwma=umifh zkef;ac:ay;&ol tdrfeD;csif;tr}uD;uyif 'Dae@ zkef;awGvmvS csnfvm;[k ar;&Smonf? xdkzkef;tm;vHk;u ol aoqHk;a=umif; vSrf;umtoday;=uaom jynfwGif;jynfyrS zkef;rsm;jzpfonf? jynfyrSrdwfaqG oli,fcsif;rsm;u “ol@tdrfrSm ol@tazeJ@ tar ESpfa,mufyJ&Sdw,f oGm;=unfhvdkufygtHk;” [k wdkufwGef;=uovdk jynfwGif;rSrdwfaqG oli,fcsif;rsm;u “ol@tdrfudk oGm;=u&atmif” [k csdef;qdk=uonf? ol@tdrfrSm avmu"Hudk wnfwnf+idrf+idrf &ifqdkifaeaom ol@ rdb ESpfyg;udk awG@&onf? tdrfeH&Hrsm;ESifhtjynfh pmtkyfawGukd awG@&onf? ol@udkcspfcif=uaom ol@rdwfaqG oli,fcsif; awGESifh olpmayudk tav;xm;=uaom r*~Zif;*sme,frsm;rS owif;axmufawGtjyif ol@ESifh a&m ol@rdom;pkESifhyg rdwfaqGoli,fcsif; r[kwfaom/ ar;cGef;csnf;oufoufar;zdk@ a&mufvm =uolrsm;udkvnf; awG@&onf? olpma&;aeus pm;yGJay:wGifwifxm;onfh ol@qJvfzkef;av; uvnf; r=umc% w*Grf*Grf jrnf&Smonf? &yfeD;&yfa0;rS ol@rdwfaqGoli,fcsif;rsm;. zkef;jzifh ar;oH/ ol@aemufqHk;c&D;twGuf wm0efcGJa0,lae=uaom ol@rdwfaqG oli,fcsif;rsm;xHrS qufo, G o f rH sm;jzpfonf? “yef;zvufudpP +yD;oGm;+yD tar” “,yfawmifeJ@ a&oef@bl;pDpOfwJhbufu tqifajy+yDvm;” “'Hayguf b,frSm rSmrvJ” “avxefukef;rSm um;b,fESpD;xm;rvJ tar” “tar vdkwm&Sd&if usaemfwdk@udk vSrf;ajymaemf” rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


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atmif'if pDpOfonf?

“tar bmrS pdwfryleJ@aemf? tm;vHk;udk usaemfwdk@tqifajyatmif pDpOfr,f” ol@aemufq;kH c&D;twGuf jyifqifae=ucsed w f iG f ol tygt0if ol@rcd if. om;orD;t&if;rsm; xdt k rd w f iG &f rdS aeayr,fh xdt k rd yf wf0ef;usiw f iG f tar ac:oHrsm; v$r;f aecJo h nf? ol@taronf ol.rdwaf qGoil ,fcsi;f rsm; ol@tudk ol@nrD tm;vH;k wd@k . rdwaf qGoil ,fcsi;f rsm;twGuf tar ozG,fjzpfaecJhonf? {nfhcef;eH&HwGif uyfaxmifxm;aom "mwfyHkxJrSoluawm@ ysm;yef;cyf ovdk pDpOfv_yf&Sm;ae=uaom {nfhcef;twGif;rSvlrsm;udk rðyH;wkH@wkH@jzifh =unfhaecJhavonf? ÐÐÐ ol@uo kd ò*õ[rf nfah e@wiG f &efuek òf rdŒwGi;f &Spd &k yf avxefuek ;f od@k usrwd@k cyfapmapma&muf aecJhonf? avxefukef; vufzuf&nfqdkifuav;twGif;&Sd cHkykuav;rsm;wGif ol@udk cifrif av;pm;aom Edik if aH &;ESihf pmaytodik ;f t0dik ;f rSvrl sm;ESihf jynfEh u S af eojzifh 33 vrf;udjk zwfum Adv k cf sKyfvrf;ray:wGif &yfapmifah e=uaom [D;Ed;k um;rsm;ay:wGif usrwd@k ae&m,lxm;=u onf? um;awGay:rSmvnf; vlawmfawmfrsm;rsm; a&mufae+yD? um;ay:wGif eD;pyf&m tkyfpkvdkuf pum;0dik ;f zG@J ae=uwm ol@ta=umif;awGjzpfonf? usrwd@k pum;0dik ;f rSmawmh rESi;f a0+idr;f u olr ESifh wm&mrif;a0 ywfoufeD;pyfcJhyHkawGudk xHk;pHtwdkif; ajc[efvuf[efESifh rmefygyg ajymae avonf? usruvnf; xH;k pHtwdik ;f ai;armem;axmif+yD; &,fp&m&Sd &,fvu kd /f 0rf;enf;p&m&Sd rsu&f nf0v J u kd &f adS ecJo h nf? tm;vHk;u pum;0dkif;rSm tm±HkepfðryfaepOf usrwdk@ae&m,lxm;aomum;. '±dkifbm jzpfyHk&olwOD; um;ay:wufvm+yD; cyfus,fus,f ajymonf? “wjcm;um; ajymif;pD;=uyg? 'Dum; xGufvdk@r&awmhbl; æ” um;ay:rSvlrsm; ±kwf±kwfoJoJ jzpfukefonf? bmjzpfvdk@vJ bma=umifhvJ ar;cGef;oHawG qlnHvmovdk wcsKdŒu wjcm;um;rSm wae&m&a&; ajy;OD;zdk@ óud;pm;.? odk@aomf wjcm;um; ay:rS vlrsm;vnf; tv#Kdv#Kdqif;vm=uonf? “um;awG tm;vHk; xGufcGifhr&bl; æ wJh” “rxo æ u vmwm;oGm;wm” “[ æ tokbydk@wJhum;udk wm;&owJhvm;uGm” wa,mufwayguf pum;oHawGjzif@ vlawGvrf;ay: jyef@usJukefonf? vufudkifzkef;awG wuGu D DG w*Gr*f rG f jrnfuek o f nf? a'gow}uD; v_y&f mS ;[efawGjzifh ywf0ef;usiu f ±kw±f w k o f o J J rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


126

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

jzpfoGm;onf? xl;jcm;aomtajctaerdk@ vrf;oGm;vrf;vmawG wuUpDorm;awGu &yf=unfh a0zef&if; vltkyfu ydk}uD;rm;oGm;onf? usrESifh rESif;a0+idrf; wa,mufrsufESm wa,muf=unfh&if; um;vrf;rudk jzwful;vdkuf onf? wuUpu D m; wpD;ay:wuf+yD; “a&a0; udk æ”[kajymawmh um;orm;u “av;axmif”[k wHk;wdwd jyefajzonf? usrwdk@ESpfa,mufuvnf; “oGm;r,f”[k cyfjywfjywfyif jyefajzvdkuf onf? ol.aemufqHk;c&D;udk a&mufroGm;&aomtjzpfrsKd; usrwdk@ tjzpfrcHEdkifyg? aemufusrS a&mufoGm;wmrsKd;yif rjzpfcsifyg? 0l;ueJxGufvmaom um;av;.aemufrSmawmh a'gojzifh ±kwf±kwfoJoJjzpfaeaom vltkyf}uD; usefcJhavonf? usrwdk@a&a0;okomefudka&mufawmh ol@±kyfuvyfudkyif rxkwf&ao;? ±kyfuvyfxm;&m a&cJwdkuft0wGif EdkifiHa&;/ pmayESifh tEkynmtodkif;t0dkif;rSvlawG ±kwfpk±kwfpkjzpfaeonf? ukdZm*em/ OD;+idrf;at;tdrf/ armifrsKd; (a=umifESpfaumif)/ ausmfol/ roef;jrifhatmif +yD;awmh ol@ZeD;onf raemf[&D ESifh olwdk@. cspfpzG,f om;av; acwfae? usrwd@k apma&mufaeoltcsi;f csi;f E_wq f uf{nfch =H uonf? wzGzJ aJG &mufvm=uolrsm;tm; óudqdkoifholudk óudqdk/ ae&mcsay;oifholudk ae&mcsxm;ay;&if; i,fi,f&G,f&G,fESifh aºuGvGifh& &Smaom ol@twGuf ESajrmwo=uonf? wcsed u f wavSwnf;pD;cJ=h uayr,fh ,cktcsed rf mS awmh vlra_ &;udpw P ckc&k rdS S awG@q=kH u&avaom oli,fcsi;f / &Jabmf&b J ufawG ol@psmyeudk ta=umif;ðy +yD; qHkqnf;=u&avaomtcg qHkqnf;&r_twGuf 0rf;om=u&ayr,fh qHkqnf;&aom ta=umif;t&mtwGuf &ifem 0rf;enf;=u&avonf? ol@rdwfaqGoli,fcsif;awG ol@±kyfuvyfudk wGef;+yD;xGufvm=ucsdefrSmawmh olu yef;yGifh rsm;tv,fwiG f +idro f ufpmG tem;,l&if; vdu k yf gvmavonf? usrwd@k wawG ol@ukd wdwq f w d f pGm E_wfquf=uonf? E_wq f ufaeoltm;vH;k u a=uuGpJ mG wdwq f w d af eayr,fh tm;vH;k &ifxw J iG f ol@ukd us,af vmif pGmE_wfqufpum;awG ajymae=urnfqdkwm usr odonf? “om;av;a& æ om;trSm;awGðycJhwm&Sd&if arar cGifhv$wfw,f æ odvm;? pdwfajzmifh ajzmifo h m oGm;aemf æ? aemufb0us&if vlaumif;av;tjzpfjyefvm+yD; touf&n S &f n S af eaemf om;av; æ” toufrJhaeaom om;rsufESmudk wnfhwnfhpdkuf=unfhum rsuf&nfrusbJ ouf&Sd vlwa,mufudk ajymaeonfhtvm; avoHrSefrSefESifhajymaeonfh ol@arar.toHu usrudk awmh rsuf&nf ydk;ydk;aygufaygufusvmapygonf? ÐÐÐ rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


127

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

usrwd@k ol@ukd tav;ðycJ=h uonf? E_wq f ufuAsmawG/ E_wq f ufpum;awG ajymcJ=h uonf? ol@twGuf *k%f,lcJh=uonf? ol@twGuf a=uuGJcJh=uonf? ol@twGuf ESarsmwocJh=uonf? rD;cd;k acgi;f wdik rf S v$iyhf sx H u G v f maom ol@. aemufq;kH ±kycf E<m"mwfwptjzpf rSw, f &l rnfh rD;cd;k aiG@ rD;cdk;r#ifawGudk=unfh+yD; qkwfqdkif;aom ajcvSrf;rsm;jzifh usrwdk@ tdrfjyefcJh=uonf? um;ay: æ tjyefvrf;rSm rðyH;wHk@wHk@ ol@±kyfv$mu usrrsufaphxJ a0h0Jaeovdkvdk/ ol@toHudkvnf; =um;a,mifaeovdv k ?kd “cufrmu usaemfhudk v_dufvd_ufvSJvSJ róudqdkbl;vdk@ usaemfxifcJhayr,fh 0rf;yef;wenf; awmh vdkufydk@cJhom;As æ” olom usrudk pum;ajymcGi&hf OdS ;D rnfqv kd #if rðyH;wH@k w@kH rsuEf mS jzifh TuJo h @kd aemufovdv k kd twnfvdkvdk ajymavrvm;[k pOf;pm;cJhrdygonf? ?

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


128

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


129

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

a&$bek ;f vl udk owd&jcif; bdkjunf wm&mrif;a0 qHk;oGm;wm 2 ESpfawmif&Sd+yD? ol@ta=umif;trSwfw& pmtkyfav;xkwf csiw f ,f wJ?h wckcak &;ay;ygq+kd yD; pmtkyx f w k zf @kd ppD OfaewJh rdwaf qGawGu awmif;cHvmygw,f? wu,fawmh usaemfodcJhwmu wm&mrif;a0taeeJ@ r[kwfygbl;? a&$bkef;vltaeeJ@/ oydwf arSmufausmif;om;wa,muftaeeJ@ oleJ@ u|rf;0ifcJhwmyg? oleJ@usaemfeJ@ podwmu 1988 ckESpfta&;awmfyHktwGif;u r[kwfyg? olvnf; ol@e,f ajr/ ol@tzJG@tpnf;eJ@ vkyfaewmqdkawmh vlcsif;rqHkjzpfygbl;? vlyHkpHu t&yfykyk/ tom;u vwfvwf/ =unfhvdkuf&if rxHkwufaw;eJ@ayhg? oleJ@ vlcsif;pqHkjzpfwmuawmh 1989 ckESpfrSmrS pod/ pwJjG zpfwmyg? 'gayr,fh usaemfw@kd ESpaf ,muf[m pOf;pm;yHck si;f odyrf wl=uovd/k 0goem csi;f vnf;wl=uwm r[kwyf g? 'gayr,fh usaemfw@kd EpS af ,muf=um;rSm wlwmuawmh 'Dru kd a&pD vdkcsifw,f/ trSefw&m;udk cspfjrwfEdk;w,f/ vlom;awGudk tusKd;รฐycsifw,f? 'DvdkeJ@ usaemfwdk@ ESpfa,muf twltdyf/ twlpm;/ twlykef;ckd=u&if; wa,mufeJ@ wa,muf ydkem;vnfvm=u/ wa,mufta=umif;wa,muf ydkodvm=uygw,f? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


130

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

tJ'DtcsdefawGuwnf;u usaemfodwmu ol uAsm a&;aumif;w,fqdkwmudk odw,f? wae@ae@rSm atmifjrifwJh uAsmq&m 'grSr[kwf pma&;q&mjzpfEdkifw,fqdkwmudk usaemf odaew,f? yef;uav;rsm; yGifhawmhrnf zl;wH0ifv h @kd csD aejcnfrmS a&$&nfavmif; igwdk@ tcsKyfausmif; æ æ txufyguAsmav;uawmh usaemfwdk@ ArmEdkifiHvHk;qdkif&m ausmif;om;or*~rsm;tzJG@ csKyfrx S w k af 0cJw h hJ or*~owif;pmxJu uAsmav;wyk'yf g? usaemfw@kd u oifyek ;f }uD;vd@k trnf ay;xm;w,f? 'Dacgif;pOfudk t=uHay;+yD; a&;wmuvnf; aemifwcsdefrSm wm&mrif;a0 jzpfvm r,fh a&$bkef;vlygyJ? tcsdefumvuawmh 1989 ckESpfuyg? tJ'Dtcsdefu usaemfwdk@&JŒ or*~ owif;pmudkzwfcJhwJh y&dwfowftóuduf uAsmuav;ygyJ? tvm;wl uAsmawG trsm;}uD;vnf; ol a&;cJhygao;w,f? aemufxyf tJ'aD cwf tJ't D csed ef @J udu k n f w D hJ uAsmwyk'u f awmh ‘ausmif;zGichf sed ’f uAsm av;yg? tcsdefuvnf; ppftkyfpku ausmif;awGjyefzGifhawmhr,fqdk+yD; avoHypfaecsdef? usaemf wdk@ ausmif;om;xktwGif;rSmvnf; ausmif;wufr,f/ rwufbl; jiif;ckefae=ucsdefaygh? tJ'D tcsdefrSm olu ausmif;wufr,f/ rwufbl;qdkwJh ol@&JŒoabmxm;udk ‘ausmif;zGifhcsdef’ qdkwJh uAsm&Sn}f uD;eJ@ xif[yfapcJw h ,f? tJ'u D Asm&Snu f ausmif;om;awGukd towfccH &hJ wJh jrifuiG ;f awGudk arhaysmufroGm;atmif jc,frlef;xm;wmyg? tJ'D uAsm&Snf}uD;[m tckcsdeftxd 88 rsKd;qufawG=um;xJrSm pJGusef&pfaewJh uAsmwyk'fyg? ‘ausmif;zGifhcsdef’ ausmif;om;awGeJ@ ausmif;awmf}uD;=um; ck æ aoG;yifv,f}uD;jcm;aeyg+yD æ ‘ausmif;zGifh+yD’ qkdwJh tm%m&SifawG[m aoG;yifv,f}uD;udk ausmfeif; xHk;wHwm;}uD;udk ausmcif;ay;w,f wcsKd@awGu ausmif;wufvm=uvdrfhr,f æ tJ'DxJu wcsKdŒ[m æ “ta=umif;a=umif;a=umihfyg”vdk@ pdwrf aumif;pGmajym&if; xHk;wHwm;udk av#mufeif; ausmif;cef;wGif; 0wW&m;t&xdkif rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


131

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

igwdk@ æ em;vnfcGifhv$wfEdkifygw,f æ wcsKdŒuawmh æ ‘*k%fwk*k%fòydif’ aumif;a=umif;ajym&if; xHk;eH@oif;wJh yef;cif;udkjzwf æ &nf;pm;xm;zdk@ ausmif;jyefwufvdrfhr,f æ tJ'Dvdk æ vlpm;awGudkawmh igwdk@u æ cGifhv$wfonfhwdkifatmif &mZ0ifu cGifhrv$wfoa&GŒ olwdk@[m æ ordkif;rSm æ ‘opPmazmuf’rsm;om jzpfw,f æ? tJ'DvdkeJ@ pmoifcef;udkausmcdkif; wdkufyJGquf0if&if; 1989 ckESpf ESpfukefydkif;avmufrSm ol tzrf;qD;cHvdkuf&w,f? tJ'Daemuf axmif 4 ESpfusoGm;cJhw,f? 'gayr,fh ol[m pdwf"mwf rusbl;? axmifxJudk a&mufaeayr,fhvnf; uAsmawG qufa&;aew,f? tusOf;axmif[m ol@twGuf axmifv@kd rcHpm;&bl; xifw,f? a&;vdu k w f hJ uAsmawG[mvnf; renf;ygy?J tJ'x D J u xif&Sm;+yD; tjcm;axmifawGqDudk ysHŒESHŒvmwmu ‘vGwfvyfa&; ewforD;’ wJh? 'DvdkeJ@ usaemf yxrt}udrf axmifuvGwfvm+yD; 1993 ckESpftukefydkif;avmufrSm xif w,f? ol jyefvGwfvmw,f? +yD;awmh usaemfwdk@ jyefawG@jzpf=uw,f? 1988 ckESpfrSm olu t*Fvdyfpmar*sm yxrESpf ausmif;om;wa,mufyg? tJ'Dawmh usaemfu ar;w,f? “rif; ausmif;jyefwufrvm;”ayghvdk@? 'gayr,fh olu acgif;cg+yD; tajzay; w,f? “'gqdk rif;bmqufvkyfrSmvJ”ar;awmh “ig æ pma&;r,f”vdk@ wHk;wdwd jyefajzw,f? “rif; pmaypdppfa&;uae vGwfatmifa&;Edkifyghrvm;”vdk@ xyfar;awmh “óud;pm;&rSmayghuGm” vd@k jyefajzygw,f? 'Dvekd @J ole@J usaemfrawG@jzpfbJ wvavmuf=umoGm;w,f? +yD;awmh jyefawG@ wJhtcsdefrSm ol axmifuxGuf+yD; yxrqHk;jyefa&;wJh uAsmav;wyk'fudk usaemfhudk jyw,f? usaemfvnf; acgif;pOfrrSwfrdawmhyg? 'gayr,fh a'gooHenf;enf;rsm;aew,fqdkwmudkawmh owdðyrdw,f? a'gooH enf;enf;av#mzh @kd awmh t=uHay;jzpfw,f? wzufuvnf; ud, k b hf mom odaeonfu tcsdefu ol@udk ukpm;ay;vdrfhr,f? aemufawmh ol@uAsmawG r*~Zif;awGrSm ygvmwmudk awG@&w,f? t&rf;*k%f,lcJh&wm ayg?h bmjzpfv@kd vq J akd wmh axmifxu G af wG[m axmifuxGuv f m+y;D &if oH;k pm;vd@k &wJh aumifawG r[kwfygbl;vdk@ xifjrifae=uwJhywf0ef;usifudk tEdkif,lEdkifcJhvdk@yg? 'gayr,fh usaemfu ol@uAsmawGudk zwfcGifhrsm;rsm; r&EdkifcJhygbl;? bmjzpfvdk@vJqdkawmh usaemfu axmifjyefusoGm;vdk@yg? 'gayr,fh axmifeH&Hudkausmfjzwf+yD; wm&mrif;a0 a&;cJhwJh uAsmawG/ 0wWKawG a&mufvmcJhygw,f? ‘tmvl;pm;=uolrsm;/ yef;acwfu vrif;’wJh? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


132

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

tJ'DvdkeJ@ usaemfaxmifuae jyefxGufvmawmh oleJ@ ol@trsKd;orD; (raemf[&D) wdk@ usaemft h rd u f v kd m+yD; ol@trd u f v kd u kd cf zhJ @kd ac:=uw,f? usaemfvnf;vdu k o f mG ;+yD; ole@J pum;awG trsm;}uD; ajymjzpf=uw,f? 'gayr,fh usaemfowdxm;rdwmu ol t&ufawmfawmfaomuf jzpfae+yD? rdwfaqGwa,muftaeeJ@ ol@udk t&ufav#mhaomufzdk@ t=uHðyygao;w,f? tJ'Dae@ [m oleJ@usaemf aemufqHk;awG@cJhjcif;ygyJ? rSwfrSwf&& 1998 ckESpf atmufwdkbmv 7 &ufae@? aojcif;w&m;udk vlwikd ;f u vGeq f efEikd rf mS r[kwb f ;l qdw k m odygw,f? 'gayr,fh tckvrkd sK;d i,fi,f&G,f&G,frSm aoqHk;oGm;r,fvdk@awmh rxifcJhrdygbl;? 'g[m tEkynmavmutwGuf qHk;±H_;rl/ wdkif;jynftwGuf qHk;±H_;rlyg? tckawmhvnf; aºuGvGifhapmvdkufwm æ? ?

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


133

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

i&Jcef; u jcaoFh pdk;xufcdkif (tif;pdef eSifh awmifil axmifxGuf) 1990 jynfah &G;aumufyt JG óudumvrSm waygi;f aEGe@J twl ausmif;om;rsm;/ ausmif;om; acgif;aqmifrsm;/ ygwD0if/ ygwDacgif;aqmifrsm;/ tif;pdefaxmif&JŒwdkuftoD;oD;rSm a&muf&Sdae csed rf mS ol (a&$bek ;f vl) eJ@ usaemfqckH w hJ ,f? usaemfu 5 wdu k f 15 cef;rSm ae&+yD; udak tmif'ifu 19 cef;rSm/ a&$bek ;f vlu tcef; 22 rSmae&ygw,f? ole@J twl udx k ufr;kd (usq;kH - atbDtufpf 'Dtufzf - pDtD;pD)/ udkausmfwifh ('v teft,fvf'D tzGJ@0if) wdk@twl wcef;xJae&ygw,f? usaemfwdk@ 5 wdkufrSm tcef;aygif; 22 cef; &Sdw,f? tcef; 1 rSm *sifrD (88 rsKd;quf)/ tcef; 6 rSm ppfudkEdkif (c) pdk;odrf; tp&SdwJh emrnf}uD; ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifawG &Sd=uw,f? ruo twGif;a&;rSL; aZmfrsKd;atmifeJ@ 'k OuUÏ atmifrsKd;wifhu tcef; 18 rSmyg/ vl&$ifawmf t±dkif; eJ@ 88 rsKd;quf udkjrat;wdk@u tcef; 16 rSmyg? 5 wdkufrSm usaemfeJ@ usaemfhnDt&if; atmifrsKd;odef; nDtudkt&if; ESpfa,mufae=uovdk/ udkatmif'ifeJ@ a&$bkef;vl nDtudkt&if; ESpfa,mufvnf;&Sdae=uwJh 5 wdkuf&JŒ xl;jcm;wJhumvwckayhg? tJ'Dumvu ol[m uAsmawGa&;aecsdefyg? a&csKd;qif;csdefav; 15 rdepfrSm a&tajy; tv$m;ajy;csKd;+yD;&if ol@tcef;&Sd&modk@ usaemfoGm;um ol&GwfwJhol@uAsmawGudk usaemf em; axmifwwfwm yHkrSeftvkyfwckvdk jzpfcJhygw,f? ol@&JŒ arSmfqefwJhtawG;tac:awGudk usaemf wdk@em;axmif=u&if; aemifwcsdef (tem*wfrSm) emrnf}uD; pma&;q&mwa,mufjzpfvmvdrfh r,fqdkwm b,folrS rcef@rSef;cJh=uygbl;? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


134

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

1990 arva&G;aumufyt JG +y;D NLD wm0efcH OD;=unfarmifxo H @kd axmifxu J ausmif;om; acgi;f aqmifawGu oabmxm;wifjycsuu f kd v#KŒd 0Supf mG ay;yd@k c=hJ uw,f? tJ'D v_y&f mS ;r_rmS vnf; a&$bkef;vlwdk@nDtudkESpfa,muf &J0HhpGmyg0ifcJh=uwm rarhEdkifwJhordkif;rSwfwdkifwckyg? tJ'aD emufyikd ;f umvawGrmS vnf; axmifxrJ mS Edik if aH &;aqG;aEG;yGaJ wG ydrk jkd yif;xefvmw,f? ppftpd;k &u tm%mrv$&J ifqw kd ahJ cgi;f pOfatmufrmS oabmxm;trsK;d rsK;d &S=d uwJt h wGuf 2 wdu k f rSm&SdwJh vl@abmifopfygwDOuUÏ udkatmifaZ,s eJ@ óud;orm;rsm;[m 1990 pufwifbm26 &uf reufrmS tusO;f om;vGwaf jrmufa&;/ tm%mv$aJ jymif;a&; awmif;qdck suf 2 csuef @J qENjyyGJ pwifvyk cf sed f 2 wdu k b f ufu aºuG;a=umfoaH wG=um;vm&+yD; odyrf =umcif trsK;d orD;taqmif bufu ausmif;om;or*~ocD si;f oDqo kd aH wG =um;vm&w,f? r=umcif usaemfw@kd 5 wdu k v f nf; qENjyyGJxJ yg0ifcJhw,f? ppftm%m&Sifpepf usqHk;ygap? 'Drdkua&pD ta&;awmfyHk atmif&rnf æ pwJh aºuG;a=umf oHawGukd udak tmif'ifu a&SŒuwdik af y;+yD; usaemfw@kd u aemufu vdu k q f ckd =hJ uw,f? r=umcif axmiftm%m&SifawGbufu axmifAl;0bufuae ydkrdkus,favmifwJh oDcsif;oHrsm; wdk;csJŒzGifh xm;+yD; axmifwGif;qlyloHudk axmiftjyifbufu r=um;&atmifvkyf+yD; axmifwGif;qENjyyGJ udk pwifòzdcGJcJh=uw,f? axmif0g'gawG eHygwfwkwfawGeJ@ wdkuf0if;xJ0ifvm+yD; tcef;wHcg;awGzGifhum qENjyol awGukd tcef;xJu qGx J w k /f 0if±u dk v f yk =f uw,f? ae@v,f2 em&DavmufrmS tcef;xJu vlawG udk yHkpHxdkifcdkif;w,f? +yD;wmeJ@ tusOf;OD;pD;Xme 'k-!$efrª;csKyf aoewfcg;=um;xdk;+yD; 5 wdkufudk a&mufvmw,f? wcef;0ifwcef;xGufoGm;&if; ol@cg;rSm&SdwJh aoewfudkykwfjy&if; “tjyifrSm 'geJ@tkyfcsKyf wm/ 'Drdkua&pDawmhr&bl; æ 'gyJ&r,f” qdk+yD; vrf;av#muf&if; ol@abmif;bDudk c|wfjyygao; w,f? a&$bkef;vlwdk@aewJh tcef; 22 a&SŒudka&mufawmh (tm%m&Sif vufwdkifwkwf) 'k!$efcsKyf u a&$bkef;udk “rif;owWd&dSvm;vdk@” ar;awmh “&Sdw,f” vdk@ ajzvdkufw,f? “aºuG;a=umfoHatmfao;vm;” vdk@ xyfar;awmh “atmfw,f” vdk@ olu jyefajymw,f? “rif;eJ@igeJ@ csrvm;”vdk@ 'k!$efcsKyfuar;awmh ol@udk apmfum;wJhtoHyJvdk@ a&$bkef;u rcHr&yf Edkifjzpf+yD; “csr,fuGm æ ” vdk@ &J&J0Hh0Hh jyefajymvdkufw,f? tJ'Daemuf tm%m&Sif vufyg;apawG xyfa&mufvm+yD; tcef; 22 u 3 a,mufvHk;udk tjyifqx JG w k +f yD; yHpk x H ikd cf ikd ;f w,f? ppfzed yfawGe@J uefw,f? ajcaxmufawG vufawGukd wufeif; =uw,f? a&$bek ;f &JŒrsuEf mS udk 'k!e$ cf sKyfu, kd w f ikd f ppfzed yfe@J uefwm olŒrsuv f ;kH xJ aoG;ajcOoGm;wJh txd cHpm;cJh&w,f? ÐÐÐ rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


135

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

udka&$bkef;a& æ cifAsm;eJŒ w'*Fc% axmifxJ ñuHqHkcJh& æ? cifAsm;&JŒ tm%m&Sifudk awmfvSefwJh &J&ifhwJhpdwf"mwfudk awGŒchJ& æ? cifAsm;&JŒpdwf"mwf[m ppftm%m&SifawG&JŒ vufyg;apawGukd wu,f wkev f y_ af pcJw h ,f? ausmif;om;rsK;d qufawGukd &J&ifw h phJ w d af wG tarG ay;EdkifcJhw,fqdkwm usaemfudk,fwdkif awG@cJh&ovdk æ cifAsm;&JŒ tcef; 22 xJ jyefa&mufawmh vnf; “ig.OD;acgif;wGif aoG;csif;csif;wdk@ eD&Jaevifhupm; igum; OD;r!$wf”vdk@ aºuG;a=umfchJ ao;w,f r[kwfvm;? tck cifAsm;uG,fvGefwJh 2 ESpfjynfhrSm wm&mrif;a0 (a&$bkef;vl) trSwfw& cifAsm;&JŒ tif;pdefaxmifwGif;u qENjyyGJordkif;udk rSwfwdkifwcktjzpf urŠnf;xdk;vdkufygw,fAsm æ? ? (2009 Zlvdkif 14)

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


136

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

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137

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

=u,faºuwyGihf æ æ arjidr;f usrwdk@aumif;uifrSm vif;vufawmufyaeqJ=u,fawG tcsdefrwefbJ aºuG aºuGuscJh& wm æ rsm;vS+yD? armifacsmEG,fuawmh aºuGwmudku yGifhjcif;yJ æ wJh æ? [kwfrSm =u,f taºuGawG wzswfzswfawmufyaeqJ&Sdwmudk usrwdk@ jrifae&wmyJav æ? 'gayr,fh quf+yD; tvif; topf topfawG arG;zGm;awmufywmrsKd;awmh r[kwfawmh +yD? olw@kd &ŒJ avmifu|r;f awmufyzl;cJw h hJ tvif;a[mif;awGom æ waiGŒaiGŒ æ? tJ't D cg raºuG cJhbl;qdk&if æ olwdk@&JŒtvif;opfawGudk avmuu pm;oHk;cGifh&OD;rSmvdk@awmh ESarsmwojzpf &wmawGawmh cHpm;&wmaygah v? odoo d mom rSwrf w S &f & =u,faºuaG wG æ òrŒd r+ird ;f æ azmfa0; æ rZPsdrvd_if; udkarmifarmif æ zdk;csKd æ pdk;vGifvGif æ 'dk;vHk; æ t,fvfjzL æ xl;tdrfoif æ armifacsmEG,f æ v$rf;rdk; æ wm&mrif;a0 æ olwdk@[m topfzefwD;&Sif =u,fyGifhawGcsnf; æ? ckawmh ylylaEG;vufv$wfcJh&wJh =u,fwyGifh wm&mrif;a0awmifrS aºuGcJhwm æ 2 ESpf&SdcJh+yD æ? ÐÐÐ rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


138

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

ol@ta=umif; wckcak &;zd@k pOf;pm;awmh usrtwGuf tcufawG@&ygw,f? 'gayr,fh pOf;pm; =unfhawmh tJ'DtcufuyJ a&;p&maumif;aecJhawmhwm? &efukefwuUodkvfavmu tusOf;av;xJrSm ausmif;olb0a&m q&mrb0yg aygif;&if ESpf tpdwfausmf usifvnfcJhwJh usru usrxuf wESpfavmufyJi,fwJh wm&mrif;a0eJ@ wcgrS rqHb k ;l cJyh g? &efuek w f uUov kd (f vdi_ ef ,fajrrSm q&mr jzpfawmhvnf; usru ausmif;wGi;f uAsm pmtkyfawGrSm 0if0ifa&;wwfwJh q&mrrdk@ ausmif;om;avmueJ@ awmfawmf eD;pyfwmyg? rqDrqdik f pufrw _ uUov kd w f @kd aq;wuUov kd w f @kd u ausmif;om;awGxw k w f hJ uAsmpmtkyx f rJ mS awmif uAsma&;zl;wmyg? 'ga=umifh wm&mrif;a0&JŒtudk}uD; RIT u ‘'wˆ’eJ@awmif uAsm pmtkyfwtkyfxJrSm qHkzl;ygao;w,f? tJ'Dtcg ausmif;om;b0uwnf;u ol@ae&meJ@ol emrnf&SdaecJhwJh a&$bkef;vl (wm&mrif;a0) eJ@ wcgom;rS rqHkcJhzl;wm æ rodu|rf; r&if;ESD;cJhzl; wm[m usrtwGufawmh trSwfw&ygyJ? (+yD;awmh ol@oli,fcsif;qdkolawGuvnf; usreJ@ odu|r;f cifrifoal wGyg)? aemufawmh 1994 avmufrSm wm&mrif;a0qdkwJhemrnfeJ@ 0wˆKwdkawGudk usr p+yD; owdxm;rdvmygw,f? usrpdwfxif æ [efopf r*~Zif;rSmyg? aemufawmh o&zl? Modern vdk@ vlawGowfrSwfwJh ol@0wˆKawGudk pum;vHk;toHk;tE_ef;topf æ a&;[eftopfeJ@ tawG; tac:opfawGa=umifh usr rSwfrSwf&&&Sdwmyg? aemufawmh vHk;csif;0wˆKopf a=umfjimwmrSm 0wWKacgi;f pOfup usrudk pdw0f ifpm;atmifqaJG qmifcw hJ m rSwrf yd gw,f? ‘yef;acwfu vrif; æ’ wJ?h ‘acwf’qdkwJh pum;vHk;udk ‘yef;’qdkwmeJ@ wGJoHk;wm[m wu,fhudk topfyg? t"duuawmh pum;vHk;awG&JŒ uAsmqefr_ æ? pxGufwJh vHk;csif;xJrSmudkyJ ‘tcef;xJrSm waiG@aiG@ wdwfqdwf vmonf æ’qdw k mrsK;d / ‘vrf;av;u woGio f iG pf ;D aeonf æ’ ‘jrLaºuGusoaH wGukd em;xJrmS wzGm;zGm; =um;ae&w,f æ’qdkwmrsKd;/ t"dy`m,fydkay:vGifapwJh æ topf æ? pum;vHk; avmfvDr_rygwJh topf æ? tJ'D yxrqHk; vHk;csif;0wˆK[m vli,fawG=um;xJrSm pDpDnHnH jrnfoGm;cJhw,f? yef;acwf&JŒ vrif;[m pmayacwfwacwfrSm wm&mrif;a0udk =u,fwyGifh vwpif; jzpfomG ;apcJyh gw,f? &efuek w f uUov kd f awmifial qmifa&SŒu awmifyEd yJM ifawGatmuf u uifw;D xdik cf akH wGrmS at;wdat;puf æ rðyH;r&,fe@J vmxdik zf ;l wJh ±kyo f ef@oef@ vli,fav;udk tcsif;csif; vufwdk@jy+yD; “tJ'g æ wm&mrif;a0”vdk@ pdwf0ifwpm;=unfholawG&SdvmwJhtcsdef æ usr ol@udk aoaocsmcsmjrifzl;csdefrSmawmh olu wm&mrif;a0&,f vdk@ udk,fydkiftvif;eJ@ [kef;[kef;awmufaecJh+yD? ol@atmifjrifr_u jrefrmpmay yifv,fjyifxJrSmawmh vd_if;vHk;}uD; wvHk;vdk w0kef;0kef;±dkufcwfvmwm jiif;r&? wm&mrif;a0acwf&,fvkd@ &SdcJh+yD? aemufawmh &efukef pmaytodkif;t0dkif;usOf;usOf;av;xJ æ usrrSm oli,fcsif; rdwfaqG awGtrsm;}uD;eJ@ avxefukef; xdkif æ? ol@udkawmh avxefukef;rSmxdkifaewm wcgrSrawG@zl; ygbl;? avxefukef;a&SŒujzwfav#muf+yD; wcsKdŒudkE_wfqufvnf; olu usefwJholawGudk vSnfh ywf=unfhavhr&Sdawmh oleJ@ usru wcgrS rdwfjzpfaqGjzpf ðyH;jy&wmrsKd;awmif r&SdcJhwm æ/ usrtwGufawmh tJ'gu qef;ygw,f? bmvdk@qdk usru odyf rdwfaqGaygwmudk;? ol r_efukyf rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


139

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

ukyf cyfwnfwnfaewwfawmh trSet f wdik ;f ajym&&if tifrwef rdwaf qGjzpfv, G w f hJ usrawmif ol@udk E_wfqufzdk@ wGef@cJhygw,f? usru eDukd&Jwdk@ æ rif;cdkufpdk;pefwdk@eJ@ armifESrt&if;awGvdk &,farm ajymifaemufaewwfayr,fh udak &$bek ;f eJ@awmh wcgrS rsuEf mS csi;f rqdik cf zhJ ;l ygb;l ? 'gayr,fh ol@tEkynmeJ@ pmayt,ltq aqmif;yg;awGudkawmh usr rjywfzwfqJ æ? b0xJ vufyrf; usaewJh touf 30 ausmf rdef;rwa,muftaeeJ@ ol@&JŒwcsKdŒvHk;csif;0wˆKawGudk &ifrckefwwf awmhayr,fh ol@tEkynmudkawmh todtrSwfrðybJ raeEdkifygbl;? ol@&JŒ tifwmAsL;wckxJrSm æ jzpfEdkif&if ckcsdefrSm udk,fhudk,fudk aveJ@r_wf+yD; +id‡rf;ypfcsifw,fvdk@ajymwmav;udkawmif oabmusvGef;vdk@ iSm;ajymjzpfwwfygao;w,f? wu,fyJ taiG@av;vdk aysmufysufoGm;rSm b,favmufaumif;vdkufovJaygh? aemufawmh usru òrd@jytodkuft0dkif;uaexGufajy;+yD; e,fòrdŒav;wòrdŒrSm awm&dycf ?kd tJ'u D mvawG pma&;wmawGawmif cyfusu J sJ æ? wm&mrif;a0 uawmh w&Sdef&Sdef awmufyqJ æ? aemufawmh oleJ@twl vSywJh emrnfav;wck ,SOfwGJ æ? raemf[&D æ wJ?h ewforD;av;wyg;&JŒ emrnf? tJ'D emrnfav;u vdi_ w f uUov kd &f ŒJ aemufq;kH tcsed af wGrmS uwnf;u usrodc&hJ wJh uAsmewforD;av;aygh æ? tJ'eD mrnfEpS cf &k ŒJ tEkynmawG vnf; ,SOfwGJ zl;yGifhawmufywJh umvwck? 'g[m =u,fESpfpif; tòydifxGef;vif;wJh aumif;uif wck? aemufawmh =u,fESpfpif;&JŒtvif;awG pkpnf; æ aewpif; topfxGef;vif;owJh? ‘acwfae’ æ? ÐÐÐ ud, k w f ikd f 'Dvakd vmu"Hukd &ifqikd cf zhJ ;l wmrd@k ‘wm&mrif;a0’vd@k awG;vdu k &f if æ ‘acwfae’ qdkwmu yJhwifxyf+yD; vdkufvmw,f? aewpif;vdk xGef;yr,fh acwfwacwfrSm =u,fwpif;vdk at;jrwJh tvif;ay;r,fh taz qdkwmu wu,fawmh pdwftiftm;wck æ? tJvdkeJ@ ðAef;qdk æ umv,E W,m;}uD;u wGef;wGef;wdkufwdkuf vnfywf æ? bmrSef;rS rodvdkuf&cif æ 2007 qdkwm}uD;u usrqD jrefjref}uD;a&mufvmw,fvdk@ cHpm;&qJ æ? 19 ESpfjynfh 8 av;vHk;ta&;awmfyHktwGuf txdrf;trSwfpmawG a&;r,fjyifqJ æ? 8 av;vHk;&JŒ aoG;aomuf&Jabmfwa,mufjzpfwJh wm&mrif;a0 qdkwJh =u,fwyGifh aºuG+yDwJh? vGefcJhwJh 19 ESpf&JŒ 8 av;vHk;rSm aºuGcJhwJh=u,fawGta=umif; a&;zdk@jyifaewJhusr vwfwavm aºuGoGm;& wJh 8 av;vH;k &JŒ=u,fwyGiv hf nf;jzpfwhJ ol@aºuGjcif;udo k m t&ifa&;vdu k &f awmhw,f? tJ'w D ek ;f u usr bavmhrmS a&;jzpfcw hJ hJ 0rf;enf;pmav;rSm usr&JŒ ESarsmwor_ukd ckvakd &; jzpfcyhJ gw,f? jrefrmjynf&ŒJ &opmayavmuxJ v_yv f y_ &f mS ;&Sm;jzpfomG ;wJh tcsed w f csed u f kd wm&mrif;a0 u zefw;D Ekid cf yhJ gw,f? vli,fawG&ŒJ cHpm;csuaf wG &ifcek o f aH wG ayguu f rJG a_ wG tm;vH;k udk olu ud, k pf m;ðyEdik cf w hJ ,f? wenf;tm;jzifah wmh acwfut kd rDu, kd pf m;ðyEdik w f hJ tEkynmawG todawG ol ay;EdkifcJhw,f? ol@pmawGu vli,fawG vlvwfawGudk trsm;qHk; v$rf;rdk;cJhw,f? jrefrmjynf &opmay a&pD;a=umif;xJrSm tEkynmtaeeJ@ tm;aumif;ovdk aps;uGuft&yg tm;aumif; rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


140

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

xdyw f ef;a&mufEikd w f ,fqw kd m tvGeef nf;yg;wmyg? tEkynm tm;aumif;ayr,fh aps;uGurf mS ratmifjrifoal wG æ? aps;uGut f & atmifjrifayr,fh tEkynmrSm wef;r0ifoal wGom rsm;wm? wm&mrif;a0uawmh 0wˆKwdk æ vHk;csif;0wˆK æ +yD;awmh uAsm? ae&mwdkif;rSm AdkvfpGJEdkifcJhol? ol@uAsmawG tawG;awGudk a&$bkef;vl qdkwJh uAsma&;olb0uwnf;u oabmuscJhwmyg? olu tifwmAsL; ajzwmrSmawmif tEkynmeJ@ tawG;tac:ygol? acwftay: wm0efausol? tJ'Dtjyif EdkifiHa&;rSmvnf; wm0efausol? bmtwGufeJ@rS tm%m&SifawGudk 'l;raxmufcJhol? ck ol@owif;ud=k um;awmh ol tifwmAsL;wckrmS ajymzl;wJh pum;wckukd owd&oGm;ygw,f? tJ'DrSm olajymcJhwm æ udk,fhudk,fudk aveJ@r_wf+yD; +id‡rf;vdkufcsifw,f æ wJh? wm&mrif;a0 (a&$bkef;vl) touf (40) ESpf 5/ 8/ 07 (we*FaEGae@) ae@v,f 12;40 wGif uG,fvGef? ckawmh ²² ol ajymcJhovdk +idrf;cJh+yDaygh? 'g[m acwfopfpmayavmurSmvnf; qDrD;wwdkif +idrf;oGm;wmygyJ? wdkufwdkufqdkifqdkif æ trSwf&p&m =o*kwfvrSm atmufarhzG,f rSwfwdkifwwdkif wdk;jyefaygh? 'Dae&mrSm xl;tdrfoif trSwfw&taeeJ@ uAsmq&m apma0 a&;cJhzl;wmav; owd& w,f? “aorif;u taumif;óudufvGef;vdk@ tvGrf;udk &GufukefzGifhxm;&w,f æ ” wJh? ar+idr;f (=o*kwf 6/ 07) ÐÐÐ wdkufwdkufqdkifqdkif Armjynf&JŒ =o*kwfvrSm 88 aoG;pGef;ae@awG &SdcJhw,f? xl;tdrfoifeJ@ q&mrif;ok0%f &ufqifh qH;k cJw h ,f? aemufawmh wm&mrif;a0 æ? usruawmh apmaºuGomG ; =uwJh=u,fawG&JŒ awmufyEdkifao;wJh tvif;awGudkyJ ESarsmwo vGrf;qGwfwmyg? +yD;awmh tJ'D=u,fawGu &Sm;&Sm;yg;yg; tm;&SdwJhtvif;a&mifeJ@ vif;ywJh=u,fawG æ? wcgwcgawmh tJ'D=u,fawGu olwdk@udkolwdk@ ac|csypfae=uwmyJvdk@vnf; cHpm;rdygw,f? bma=umifh tJvdk rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


141

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

awGjzpfae=u&wmvJvdk@ ta=umif;&if;udkqef;ppfrdwJhtcg pdwfxJ wqpfqpf emusifudkufcJ &ygw,f? 'Dawmhvnf; wm&mrif;a0&JŒ psmyeae@ =o*kwf 7 &ufae@ (wdkufwdkufqdkifqdkif 8 av;vHk;tóudae@)rSm usr bavmhrSmyJ aemufxyf 0rf;enf;pmwydk'f a&;jzpfcJhygw,f? wu,fawmh t*F gae@qdkwm ol@&JŒarG;ae@? 'gayr,fh ol@rdbawGcrsm olwdk@ om;uav;udk arG;xkwfcJh&wJhae@rsKd;rSmyJ olwdk@ arG;cJh&wJh tJ'D om;av;&JŒ ±kyfcE<mudk ed*Hk;csKyfay;&awmhr,f? 'gayr,fh æ tJ'Dom;av;[m avmu}uD;xJuae vltaeeJ@om aysmufuG,foGm;ayr,fh emrnfeJ@ ordkif;a=umif;wckawmh usef&pfEdkifcJholrdk@ rdbawGtzdk@awmh emusifa=uuGJ&ayr,fh *k%f,lp&mvdk@ qdk&rSmyg? æ ESarsmp&m aumif;vSygw,f? odyfawmfwJh pma&;q&mwa,muf æ odyfarSmfatmifwJh uAsmorm;wa,muf æ odyfc|efwJh pmayorm;wa,muf æ usrwdk@ qHk;±_H;&jyef+yD? wu,fawmh olvkyfcsifwmawG olvkyfEdkifpGrf;wmawG trsm;}uD; usefaeOD;rSm? usrwdk@ wm&mrif;a0 udk qHk;±_H;&wm[m pmaytEkynmavmu}uD;wckvHk;&JŒ qHk;±H_;r_wckvnf; jzpfygw,f? tJ'D 0rf;enf;pm 2 ESpfjynfhcJhyg+yD? 'gayr,fh æ usrwdk@&JŒ ESarsmwor_ qHk;±H_;r_awGuawmh vwfqwfqJ æ? +yD;awmh æ acwfaeav;twGufvnf; wm&mrif;a0 qdkwJh =u,fwyGifh vif;vufcJhwJh aumif;uifu awmufyqJ æ? ? (15 Zlvdkif/ 2009)

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142

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

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143

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

udak &$bek ;f vl ESihf wavSwnf;pD; rif;Zif (tydik ;f 1) trsm;tusKd; aqmif&GufcGifh&jcif;onf b0ukd t"dy`m,f jynfh0&ifhusufaponf[k xifyg onf? cspfjrwfEkd;jcif;/ tepfemcHjcif;/ wm0ef,lwwfjcif;/ apmifhxdef;wwfjcif;/ onf;cHem;vnf jcif;/ av;pm;jcif;/ cGifhv$wfjcif; pwJh t&nftaoG; aumif;wkd@onf trsm;eJ@qufpyfrS trsm;eJ@ qkid w f hJ tvkyu f v dk yk rf o S m jznfq h nf;cGi&hf onfh tavhtxrsm; jzpfygonf? trsm;aumif;usK;d aqmif=unfzh ;l rSom cHpm;csuef @J v/l &nfreS ;f csuef @J vl pwJh vlxu J vlawGuo dk mru ,k=H unfcsuf eJ@vlqkdwJh vlpm;rsKd;ukdyg &if;ESD;av;pm;cGifh&wwfwm jzpfygonf? ukda&$bkef;ESifh wavSwnf;pD;cJh&jcif;ukd jyefpOf;pm;rdwkdif; 'DvkdtawG;rsKd;awG ykdckdifrmvm wwfygonf? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


144

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

(tykdif; 2) “'DuAsmu rif;wkd@twGuf a&;xm;wm? a[mh'DrSm æ” ajymajymqkq d edk @J yJ ukad &$bek ;f u tjzLtpdr;f 2 a&miftzk;H eJ@csKyfxm;wJh pmtkyyf g;av;awGudk txyfvkduf usaemfhvufxJ xnfhay;onf? ‘ausmif;zGifhcsdef’ æ wJh? 1989 ckESpf ZGefvxJrSm[k rSwfrdaeygonf? usaemfu 15 ESpf0ef;usif txufwef; ausmif;om;? t-u-o vkd@twkdaumuf vlodrsm;wJh tajccHynmausmif;om;or*~ukd vkyfazmfukdifzufawGeJ@twl &efukefwkdif;rSmzGJ@pnf;+yD;vkd@ wjynfvkH;tESH@ zGJ@pnf;Ekdifzkd@ óud;pm;ae =uwJhtcsdef? Auo (ArmEkdifiH vkH;qkdif&m ausmif;om;or*~rsm;tzGJ@csKyf)rSmvnf; t-u-o ukd,fpm;vS,ftjzpfeJ@ usaemfu wm0ef,l&onf? 1988 ckESpf aESmif;ykdif;vawGxJupvkd@ Auotpnf;ta0;awGrSmyJ ukda&$bkef;eJ@ qkHjzpfcJh onf? ukad &$bek ;f oGijf yifu cyfyed yf ed /f rsuEf mS 0kid ;f 0kid ;f ? ab;cGq J yH if ajzmifph if;pif;u ol@nmbuf rsuv f ;Hk ukd r=umc% zk;H zk;H oGm;wwfonf? rsuv f ;Hk awGu cyfnKd ŒndKŒESihf taqG;&dyo f ef;aewwf ovkd *spu f efuefe@J rr_wwfwt hJ =unfu h v dk nf; ol@rsuv f ;Hk rSm awG@&onf? 'gayr,fh ukad &$bek ;f &,f&ifawmh odoo d momyJ rsuv f ;Hk eJ@ p&,fwwfonf? +y;D rS uGr;f aoG;eJ@e&D aJ ewwfwhJ E_wcf rf;ukd axmifrh S pauG;+yD; ðyH;&,f &,favh&o dS nf? ukad &$bek ;f u pyk@d &yS ef @J &Syt f usv ô ufwdk cyfErG ;f EGr;f ukyd J oyfoyf&yf&yf 0wfwwfonf? tJ'h u D mvu acwfpm;aeovkd ykq;dk ukd cyfww dk rdk 0wfbJ cyf&n S f &SnfeJ@ ykHusus 0wfonf? usaemf tygt0if txufwef;ausmif;om; ta&;awmfyo Hk rm;awGuawmh ukad &$bek ;f eJ@ tzG@J uswm rsm;onf? pum;ukd wk;d wk;d eJ@ cyfjznf;jznf;ajymwwfwhJ ukad &$bek ;f u usaemfw@dk udk tcsdefay;onf? 88/ 89 umvwav#muf usaemfeJ@ vufyGef;wwD; taersm;olawGukd trSwfw&ajym&&if ukday: (ukdrif;ukdEkdif)/ ukd*sifrDESifh ukda&$bkef;wkd@ukdom owd&wwfonf? usef Auo acgif;aqmifawGu ol@tvkyfeJ@ol±_yfaewm rsm;onf? ukdrkd;oD;ZGefu vl@abmif opfygwD c&D;pOfawG/ tpnf;a0;awGeJ@ rtm;vyfwwf? auusK(ukdukd}uD;)eJ@u tpnf;ta0; tjyifcsdefqkdvkd@ ol ykef;a&SmifaewwfwJh uefawmfav;tdrfoGm;rSom awG@&wwfonf? qHyif *kyfw0ufaxmuft&SnfeJ@ ukdatmif'ifuawmh cyfwnfwnfaewm rsm;onf? ukdndKxGef; u awmh ol@tpktzGJ@av;eJ@ ol? 'DtxJrSmyJ ukda&$bkef;ukdawmh awmfvSefa&;eJ@ tEkynmwGJaeol rkd@ usaemfwkd@acwf&JŒ ukdA[def;yJ jzpfavrvm;vkd@ av;pm;rdonf? ppfwyfu tm%modr;f +y;D aemuf a&$*w Hk idk u f zqyvjc/H ajcmufxyf}u;D eJ@ vSn;f wef; Auo tpnf;ta0;awGrSm qkHjzpf=uonf? Auov_yf&Sm;r_awGrSm tvkyfcGJa0 wm0ef,lcJh=uonf? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


145

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

vufzuf&nfqidk rf mS 'l;csi;f cwf/ wawmifcsi;f wku d x f idk +f y;D pum;awG trsm;}u;D ajymjzpf=uonf? ppftpk;d &u ausmif;awGjyefziG rhf ,fv@dk a=unmawmhvnf; usaemfw@dk acgi;f csi;f qkid f jzpf=uonf? “ausmif;om;awGeJ@ ausmif;awmf}uD;t=um; ck aoG;yifv,f}uD; jcm;aeyg+yD ‘ausmif;zGifh+yD’ qkdwJh tm%m&SifawG[m aoG;yifv,f}uD;ukd ausmfeif; xkH;wHwm;}uD;ukd ausmcif;ay;w,f? wcsKdŒawGu ausmif;wufvm=uvdrfhr,f” ‘ausmif;zGifhcsdef’ uAsmxJu tykd'fwykd'f? 1989 arv tv,fykdif; rE Wav;rSm ausmif;om;nDvmcH vkyfonf? usaemfeJ@ tuo vkyfazmfukdifzufwcsKdŒ oGm;wufcJhonf? t"du aqG;aEG;&wJhudpPwcku ppftpkd;&u ausmif; jyefzGifhwmukd ausmif;om;or*~awGtaeeJ@ oydwf arSmufoifh/ rarSmufoifh jzpfonf? usaemf u ausmif;zGifhwmukd oydwfrarSmufoifh/ ausmif;om; ausmif;wuf+yD; ausmif;xJrSmyJ ausmif;om;v_y&f mS ;r_awG qufvyk o f ifo h nf[k ,lqonf? ausmif;zGiw hf mukd oydwaf rSmuf&if ausmif;om;trsm;pk vkdufygEkdifrSmr[kwfvkd@ ausmif;om;or*~[m ausmif;om;eJ@ uif;uGm oGm;vdrfhrnf[k aqG;aEG;onf? 'g[m tuo twGif;rSm trsm;oabmwl qkH;jzwfxm;wJh rlvnf; jzpfonf? rE Wav; rpkd;&drfausmif;wkdufrSmvkyfwJh nDvmcH tóudtpnf;ta0;awGrSm nvk;H ayguf jiif;ckecf =hJ u&onf? jiif;&if;eJ@yJ =urf;jyifay:rSm tdyaf ysmo f mG ;cJw h mukd rSwrf ad eonf? 'Dvkd ausmif;wufa&;/ rwufa&; aqG;aEG;jiif;ckefaewJhumvawGrSm ukda&$bkef;u ol@&JŒ ‘ausmif;zGifhcsdef’ uAsmpmtkyfawGukd usaemfhvufxJ vmxnfhwmjzpfonf? pmtkyftzkH;ukd tpdrf;a&mifeJ@ ykHESdyfxm;ukdu tjzLtpdrf;0wf txufwef; ausmif;om;av;awG&JŒ pGef@v$wfr_ ukd *k%ðf ycsiv f @dk vk@d ukad &$bek ;f u &Si;f jyonf? uAsm&JŒ tEkynmcGet f m;uvnf; }u;D rm;vSonf? tuo tpnf;a0;awG/ tcrf;tem;awGeJ@ qENjyyGJawGrSmygrusef ukda&$bkef;&JŒ ausmif;zGifhcsdef uAsmxJu tykd'fawGukd &Gwf=uonf? &Gwfola&m/ emolyg rsuf&nf0J a=uuGJ&onf? tm;jyef arG;zkd@ vufcsif;qkyfukdif rmefwif; jzpf=uonf? 'gayr,fh ol@uAsm&JŒrufaqhcsfu jyif;xefonf? atmifyGJeJ@om ausmif;awmfqD jyefoGm; a&; jzpfonf? ppftpk;d &zGiw hf hJ ausmif;ukd jyefrwufa&;qkw d o hJ abmbuf ,dr;f onf? usaemfw@dk tuoawG tm;vk;H bmvky&f rSe;f rod? tuo&JŒrle@J qef@usiaf ewJh 'DuAsmpmtkyu f dk tuo òrdŒe,fe@J ausmif;ud, k pf m;vS,af wG tm;vk;H qD jzef@ay;&rvm;/ rjzef@bx J m;&rvm; ±kww f &uf rqk;H jzwfEidk ?f aemufq;Hk awmh tuo acgi;f aqmifwcsKŒd eJ@widk yf if+yD; pmtkyu f dk jzef@ay;zk@d usaemf qkH;jzwfcJhonf? t,ltqpGJ jyif;xefvSwJh EkdifiHa&; aoG;Ekom;Ekt&G,frSm t,ltqrwlwJh uAsm&Snw f yk'u f dk jzef@ay;zk@d q;Hk jzwfcw hJ mukd th=H oaerdonf? 'g[m ukad &$bek ;f &JŒtEkynma=umifh rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


146

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

vm;/ ukda&$bkef;qkdwJh yk*~dKvfa&;oHa,mZOfa=umifhvm;/ ESpfckpvkH;a=umifhvm;/ bma=umifhvJ tckcsdefxd ra0cGJwwf? “ausmif;om;eJ@ ausmif; wae@awmh aygif;&rSmyJ igwdk@awG aoG;yifv,fukd jzwful;+yD; ausmif;}uD;qD ta&mufoGm;=ur,f” 'DuAsmykd'fav;ukdawmh 'Dae@xd pGJaerdonf? (tykdif; 3) 1989 ckEpS f Zlvidk v f a&mufawmh usaemf pwdr;f a&Smif&onf? 1990 rSm ukad &$bek ;f tzrf;cH &wJh owif;=um;&onf? aemuf ukad &$bek ;f eJ@ ukad tmif'if nDtpfudk ESpaf ,mufpvk;H ukd o&uf axmifajymif;vku d w f m =um;&onf? ouf0if;atmif/ pk;d rk;d / eef;EG,/f zk;d nD pwJh usaemfh vkyaf zmf ukdifzufawGu ukda&$bkef;wkd@tdrf t0iftxGuf &Sdonf? owif;ar;onf/ pGrf;or# ukd,ftm; E_wftm;wkd@jzifh ulnDonf? rdbawG pm;0wfaea&; usyfwnf;wm/ ukda&$bkef;wkd@ nDtpfukd ukd axmif0ifpm ta0;}uD;vkdufawG@&wJh tazeJ@ tar&JŒ 'kuQawGukd =um;&onf? 1992/ 1993/ 1994 ckEpS af wG[m Ekid if aH &;v_y&f mS ;r_awG a&csed t f edrq hf ;Hk vk@d qk&d rnfxifonf? pD;yGm;a&;tay: tm±kHpkdufr_awG ykdrsm;vmonf? typf&yf +idrf;tzGJ@wcsKdŒu ukr`%DawG axmif onf? aiGrnf;awG aiGjzLjzpfvmonf? avòydifyGJ/ rm&oGefòydifyGJ/ pawhcsf±d_;/ avxD;ckefolckefeJ@ aysmaf ysmaf rmfarmf òrdŒjyvlwef;pm;w&yf ay:vma&mhovm;vk@d awG;rdonf? 'Dru dk a&pDa&;vkyv f @dk usq;Hk cJo h /l tepfemcHae&olawGudk vlawGu arhrsm;arhae+yDvm;[k usaemf cHpm;rdonf? pmawG ukd oJorJ rJ J zwfjzpfonf? a'gph wkd ,ufpuD;/ uyfzum/ url;/ eDa&S;pwJh ewW0d g'qefqef/ jzpfwnf r_t"du tawG;tac:qefqefawGu usaemfwkd@ukd v$rf;rkd;aewJhumv jzpfonf? wcgawmh ouf0if;atmifu aq;ayghvdyf zifpDcH pm&Guftykdif;tpawGrSm vufa&;ao; ao;eJ@a&;xm;wJh uAsmykd'fwcsKdŒukd usaemfhqD ,lvmjyonf? “'g æ ukda&$bkef; axmifxJuae a&;ay;vkdufwm” rSifa&mif cyfrSdefrdSef uAsmtykdif;tpawGukd tm;pkdufzwf=unfh&onf? “a=umufrufzG,f&m vlawG&JŒ r[mbkwf aA'ifrSmrS iguvnf; ‘t"dywdbGm;’ jzpfcsifcJhwmukd;? tdrftjyef nrsm;pGmrSm æ rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


147

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

b,folrS rajymcsifwJh pum;awG ayGŒykduf ukd,fhukd,fukd,f ‘vlrkduf’ vkd@ jyefac:cJh&w,f?” “xdyfxm;a& æ uacsonfwkd@&JŒ aw;awGeJ@ +idrf;at;aysmf&$if xm0pOf csrf;ajrŒapom; æ aumif;aom rkd;aomufcsdefYvnf; +idrfoufwnf=unfap æ ig æ qkawmif;ay;aer,f æ yef;cl;&if; oli,fcsif;awGeJ@ ae&if; æ pum;ajym&if; æ oDcsif;av;awGqkd&if; æ rif; æ ighukd arhoGm;rSmyg æ?” usaemfwkd@ cHpm;ae&wJh typfy,fcH cHpm;r_rsKd;ukd tusOf;axmifwGif;u ukda&$bkef;vnf; cHpm;&[efwo l nf? wcgwavusawmhvnf; trsm;tusKd;aqmifolawG&J@b0[m opfjrpfawGeJ@ wlrsm; wl ovm;vdk@ awG;=unfhzl;onf? opfyifwyif &Sifoef}uD;xGm;+yD; tukdif;tvuf tcuf tyGifh toD;awG a0jzmzk@d / aea&mifjcnf&&dS mukd wk;d jr‡iahf EG;axG;apzk@d / opfjrpfawG[m [k;d teuf±i_d ;f qk;H / tarSmifrJqkH;xJukd xkd;azmufcJG ykef;v#Kd; ukwfwG,fay;xm;&onf? tJh'Dumvu ukda&$bkef;&JŒ ,kH=unfcsuftjrpfawG oefrmtm;aumif;vSygonf? (tykid ;f 4) 95/ 96 ckESpfawG[m usaemfhb0&JŒ tcuftcJqkH;umvawGyg/ ukda&$bkef;u ‘wm&mrif;a0’ &,fvkd@ p atmifjrifaecsdef usaemfwkd@eJ@ ausmcsif;uyf “pdwf"mwfruseJ@ nDav;a& æ” vkd@ tm;ay;cJhwm tjrJtrSwf&rdygw,f? '*kHòrd@opf&JŒ arSmifarSmifrJrJ/ rkd;xJ a&xJ nDtpfukdawG jzwfoef;cJh&ykHyg” ukda&$bkef; qkH;+yD qkdawmh 'Dpmwkdav;ukd aumufjcpfrdonf? 1994 ckEpS f ukad &$bek ;f axmifu jyefvw G v f mwJt h csed rf mS usaemfw@dk tuo awGu Auo rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


148

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

wm0efawGukd tifjynfhtm;jynfh wm0efquf,lae=ucsdefjzpfonf? ukda&$bkef;u wm&mrif;a0 uavmiftrnfeJ@ tEkynmavmuukd ajcvSrf;usJusJeJ@ jyef0ifonf? usaemfodoavmuf 'Duavmifemrnfu ukdatmif'ifh&JŒ uavmifemrnfwck jzpfonf? ukda&$bkef;u nDav;rGef trnfeJ@ pmtenf;i,fa&;+yD;rS ukdatmif'ifqDu uavmifemrnfukd qufcH,ljcif; jzpfonf? ukad tmif'ifuawmh axmifujyefvw G w f mawmif ppftpk;d &&JŒ taESmift h ,Sut f rsK;d rsK;d ukd ñuH& +yD; jynfwGif;rSm vkyfukdifpm;aomuf r&avmufatmifjzpfcJhonf? aemufawmh ukdatmif'if pifumylxGuf+yD; tvkyfvkyfonf[k =um;&onf? 1994 ckEpS rf mS usaemf wdr;f a&Smifae&mukd ykrH eS 0f ifxu G af ewJh ausmif;om;wcsKŒd tzrf;cH& onf? usaemfvnf; ajratmuf Ekid if aH &;v_y&f mS ;r_awGudk c%t&Sed af v#mu h m pma&;wJt h vkyu f dk tvSnfhay;jzpfonf? wm&m+idrf;csrf; uavmiftrnfjzifh 1994 ckESpf Ekd0ifbmvxkwf &eH@opf r*~Zif;rSm aqmif;yg;wyk'f p a&;jzpfonf? 'Dhaemuf pmay*sme,f/ tawG;tjrif pwJhr*~Zif; awGrmS yg Ekid if aH &;'\eqkid &f m aqmif;yg;awG a&;onf? t"duuawmh tJ'h u D mvu acwfpm; aewJh ‘pdwaf umif;&Sw d hJ tm%m&Sipf epf’ tawG;tac:eJ@ pD;yGm;a&; vGwv f yfciG o hf may;+y;D Ekid if aH &; vGwv f yfciG u hf dk xde;f csKyfxm;oifo h nfqw dk hJ tm&Swefz;dk t,ltqawGudk ±laxmifah ygi;f pkH a0zef a&;om;cJw h mjzpfonf? usaemf wm&m+idr;f csr;f uavmiftrnfeJ pmawGa&;ae+yDqw dk muko d ad wmh ukad tmif'ifu “'Daumifa&;wm [kw&f ifawmh aumif;wmayg”h vk@d omqkad =umif; ukad tmif'ife@J qcHk w hJ hJ ouf0if; atmifu usaemfu h dk jyefajymjyonf? usaemfu odyf b0ifrus? ud, k af v;pm;cJw h hJ acgi;f aqmif awGqu D 'Dx h ufyw dk hJ todtrSwðf yr_rsK;d ukd usaemf ar#mv f ifch [ hJ efwo l nf? 'gayr,fh ukad &$bek ;f odawmh 0rf;omonf[k qko d nf? ouf0if;atmifuwqifh usaemfe@J awG@z@dk pDpOfcidk ;f onf? 'Dvedk @J yJ '*kòH rdŒopfu tdrw f tdrrf mS usaemfw@dk yxrqk;H t}udrf jyefawG@jzpf=uonf? ±kyef nf;enf;&ifo h mG ; wmuvGJvkd@ ukda&$bkef;u odyfrajymif;vJ? t&ifuvkdyJ [uf[ufyufyuf &Sdonf? E_wfcrf; axmifu h dk pauG;+yD; ðyH;&,fwwfwmuvnf; t&ifvydk if? “a[ha&mif (aumif) rif; pGypf yG f rvkyef @J OD;” vkd@ t&ifuvkdyJ usaemfhukd owday;wkef;yif? usaemf wdrf;a&Smifae&wJh tajctaeawGeJ@ Auovkyfief;awGta=umif; ar;onf? tJh'D umvu Auotrnfe@J v_y&f mS ;aewJh t"du tpktzGŒJ ESpcf k &So d nf? usaemf tygt0if tuo vla[mif;awGqufcHwJh AuoeJ@ tjcm;wpku Auo pnf;±kH;a&;aumfrwD trnfcHonf? ukad &$bek ;f tygt0if tjyifrmS &So d nfh Auo vla[mif;tawmfrsm;rsm;uawmh usaemfe@J vl&if; jzpfwma&m/ Ekid if aH &;t,ltq eD;pyfwmawGa&ma=umifh usaemfu h dk yhyH ;dk uln=D uonf? ukad &$bek ;f u axmifwiG ;f ñuHc&hJ wmawGudk jyefajymjyonf? tJ'h u D mvu wcsKŒd u ukad tmif'ife@J ukad &$bek ;f wkd@ axmifwGif;wkdufyGJawGukd a&Smifonf/ a=umufonf[k pGyfpGJwm usaemfwkd@ =um;&zl;onf? ukad &$bek ;f u axmifwiG ;f umv olw@dk nt D pfuadk wG wku d yf 0JG ifoifw h idk ;f jywfjywfom;om; wku d yf JG 0ifcyhJ eHk @J uGejf rLepf tpGo J efoal wGe@J t,ltq rwku d q f idk cf w hJ t hJ wGuf tckvdk oGm;ykwaf vvGihf pGypf cJG cH &hJ ykaH wGukd &Si;f jyonf? ukad &$bek ;f &Si;f jyaeyku H cyfat;at;? ol@u, dk o f l ckcu H muG,af eykH rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


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atmif'if pDpOfonf?

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rm;uGwpf f Garcia Marquez eJ@ rDvefueG 'f &m Milan Kundera vnf;ygonf? trsK;d om;nDvmcH vnf;ygonf? aemufq;Hk awmh tJ'h w D ek ;f u olóuu d af eonfh ,Ofaus;r_wuUov dk u f aumifrav; ta=umif;eJ@yJ tqk;H owfomG ;wwfwm rsm;onf? pmtkyt f iSm;qkid f zGix hf m;wJh tJ'h aD umifrav; ta=umif; ðyH;+zD;+zD;eJ@ ajymaewwfonf? wcgwavawmh usaemfu ukda&$bkef;ukd ‘p’onf? “vufzuf&nfqidk x f idk v f u dk /f òrdŒxJxu G f r*~Zif;wku d af wGomG ;vku d /f wcgwav usaemfw@dk eJ@ t&uf0idk ;f zG@J vu dk /f aumifrav; jyefvmwJv h rf;rSm apmifah evku d ef @J ukad &$bek ;f pmzwfcsed af &m &S&d ŒJ vm;” tJ't D cgrsK;d us&ifawmh ukad &$bek ;f qDu pum;jyefr&? cyfwnfwnfe@J rodcsiaf ,mifaqmif aewwfonf? aemufusawmh ol@udk yg&rD&iS w f a,muftjzpf usaemfyjdk rifvmrdonf? ol@bmom ol tEkynmrSm arSmfatmif+yD;olyif jzpfonf? wcgwavusawmhvnf; ukda&$bkef;ukd=unf@&wm wckck v#KdŒ0Sufxm;olwa,mufvkd usaemf cHpm;&onf? 'gayr,fh usaemfwkd@ tay:rSmawmh tjrJaEG;axG;onfom? w&ufawmh usaemfwkd@eJ@twl xrif;pm;/ waeukefeD;yg;twlae+yD; nbuf t&ufaomuf&if; usaemfeJ@ ouf0if;atmif *pfwmwD;wmukd cyfawGawGeJ@ em;axmifaeonf? '*kHòrdŒopftdrf&JŒ opfom; jyLwif;ayguu f ae tqD;twm;r&Sd jzmqif;vif;usaewJh va&mifomom/ yk&pfawG wpDpjD rnf aewJn h rSm usaemfyh ck ;Hk uku d idk +f yD; “pdw"f mwfruse@J nDav;a&”vk@d ukad &$bek ;f u tm;ay;cJo h nf? (tykdif; 5) 1995/ 1996 ckESpfawGtwGif; Auov_yf&Sm;r_ukd ,l*sDac: ajratmuftoGifomru ajray:v_y&f mS ;r_wcsK@d tjzpf pm=unfw h u dk zf iG w hf m/ pmaya[majymyGaJ wGudk pDpOfwm/ wuUov dk f twGif; uAsmpmtkyfeJ@ pmapmifawGxkwfwm vkyfcJh=uonf? ‘pkpnf;r_’/ ‘&mpkopfjrpfusOf;’ pwJh pmtkyaf wGu oufaojzpfco hJ nf? tJ'h u D mvrSmyJ ukad &$bek ;f u aq;wuUov dk f ausmif;om; armf'ef pma&;q&m vli,fwa,mufe@J qufo, G zf @dk wku d w f eG ;f onf? usaemfw@dk oD;jcm; csed ;f qkd awG@jzpfonf? ajratmufEkdifiHa&;udpPawGtjyif ynma&;e,fy,frSm vGwfvyfwJh Civil Society oif;zGJ@v_yf&Sm;r_awGvkyfa&; aqG;aEG;jzpf=uonf? tvGwfpmoifwef;awGeJ@ oif±kd;ðypka&; awGtwGuf b,fou l b,fwm0ef,rl nf/ b,fq&morm;awGudk xyfcsO;f uyf=urnf pojzifh ajymjzpf qkjd zpf=uonf? 1996 ESpv f ,favmufa&mufawmh rE aW v;eJ@ &efuek u f Auov_y&f mS ;olwcsK@d tzrf;cH& onf? aq;ausmif;om; armf'ef pma&;q&mav;&JŒtdru f v dk nf; axmufvrS ;f a&;u 0if&mS onf? olu tdrrf mS r&S/d aemufrS &Jpcef;uko d mG ;+yD; tzrf;cHum axmufvrS ;f a&;eJ@ awG@onf[k qko d nf? tjcm; zrf;qD;cH&wJh ausmif;om;trsm;pk&ŒJ tajymt&awmh axmufvrS ;f a&; ppfaq;a&;umv twGi;f xkq d &mav;&JŒxGucf suo f nf ajzmifch suo f zG,f tukeaf zmfonf[k qko d nf? usaemfw@dk rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


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wm&mrif;a0 (odr@k [kw)f jrm;xufjrifah tmif ysHwihJ u S f jrifhpdk; (o7ufaxmif? 1991-2005) a&$bkef;vlta=umif;pOf;pm;rdawmh ajymcsifwmawGjzpfvmw,f? 2007 a&$0ga&mif awmfvSefa&;jzpfawmh ausmif;om;vli,f awmfawmfrsm;rsm; axmifxJ a&mufukef=uw,f? axmifxrJ mS tcsed af wGuek w f ,f? axmifxrJ mS bmrSvyk v f @kd r&bl;qdw k hJ t,ltqawGukd omref oabmavmuf a&;=u ajym=uwmrsKd;awG=um;&awmh ajymcsifpdwfawG ydkjzpfvmw,f? erlem jyp&mpOf;pm;&if a&$bkef;vlu ausmif;om;vli,fawGtwGuf pHerlemaumif;wckyJ? aemuf vlawG ppftm%m&SifatmufrSm jynfolawGbufu&yfwnf&if; axmifxJa&mufoGm;cJh&if awmif bmawGvkyfvdk@&w,fqdkwm ajymcsifvmw,f? a&$bkef;vl axmifxJa&mufawmh toufu 20 0ef;usif&Sdr,f cef@rSef;w,f? pmayeJ@ ywfoufwhJ tawG@tñuH/ Edik if aH &;eJ@ywfoufwhJ tawG@tñuHawGuvnf; wyHw k yife@J qakd wmh axmifxrJ mS ajymp&mpum;vnf;&Sw d ,f? toufui,fao;awmh oif,cl sipf w d &f &dS if avhvm vdpk w d &f &dS if axmifxrJ mS oif,pl &mavhvmp&m wyHw k yif}u;D ygy?J rlv"mwfcu H vnf; xufjruf wJh pdwf"mwfeJ@ ZGJaumif;aumif; acgif;rmrmqdkawmh olvdkor#udk ,l±HkygyJ? a&$bkef;u 1990 rSm tif;pdeaf xmif (5)wdu k u f ae taqmifukd a&mufw,f? tif;pde&f ŒJ pufwifbmta&;tcif; vdk@ axmifwGif;todrsm;wJh axmifwdkufyGJrSm ±dkufESufcH&+yD; taqmifudk ydk@cHvdkuf&wmyg/ rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


154

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155

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

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156

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157

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

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158

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159

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160

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

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161

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162

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

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163

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164

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165

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166

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167

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168

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

'DvdkeJ@ ESpfawG=umvmygw,f? ajcmuf ESpfcGJumvtwGif;rSm ol@owif;awG &Hzef&Hcg =um;&ygw,f? txJrSm r*~Zif;awG zwfjzpfwJhtcgawGrSmvnf; ol@0wˆKwdkawG pmaya&;&m aqmif;yg;awGudkawG@wdkif; rSwfrSwf&& zwfjzpfygw,f? ajcmufESpfcGJumvudk jzwfoef;+yD;vdk@ usaemftjyifxu G v f mwJt h cgrmS awmh usaemfb h 0uvnf; awmfawmf}uD; ajymif;vJomG ;ygw,f? axmifuvGwfayr,fh tdrfrjyefEdkifbJ w&m;&dyfomrSm aomifwif+yD; csnfwdkifaysmufaecsdefrSm xHk;pHtwkdif; udkol&u owif;&oGm;wmrdk@ udkol&qDrSm c%aezdk@a&mufoGm;rS ol@ta=umif; udkvnf; awmfawmfodvm&ygw,f? tJ'DaemufrSmawmh olaecJhwJh raemf[&Dwdk@tdrfem;u oli,fcsif;wa,muf&JŒ vlraewJh tdrfav;wvHk;rSm c%aeaeygw,f? tJ'DaemufrSmawmh raemf[&DeJ@awG@+yD; ol@usef;rma&; tajctae/ tdrfaxmifa&;tajctae awmfawmfrsm;rsm; od&ygw,f? 'ga=umifh raemf[&D qDuae vdypf mawmif;+yD;awmh olaeaewJh v_id o f m,m u (FMI)tdr, f mudk vdu k o f mG ;ygw,f? ol usaemfa&mufvmvdrfhr,fqdkwm óudodxm;ykH&ygw,f? raemfu ol@qDrSm vdyfpmawmif; oGm;w,fvdk@ zkef;xJrSmajymoGm;w,fvkd@ ol ajymygw,f? +yD;awmh usaemfh tdrfaxmifa&; jy\emudk ol aoaocsmcsm ar;ygw,f? +yD;awmh “[m æ 'Dvv kd yk v f @kd b,fjzpfrvJ igu, kd w f idk f reufjzef oGm;ajymr,f”vd@k twif;vkyaf ewmrd@k tajctaeawGu odyrf xl;awmhwt hJ a=umif; awmfawmf azsmif;zs&ygw,f? 'gudkyJ olrauseyfEdkifao;bJ wAspfawmufawmufeJ@ vkyfaeyg ao;w,f? usaemfuyJ “wjcm;udpaP wG ajym&atmifAsm”vd@k awmif;yef&ygw,f? +yD;awmh ole@J raemf=um;u jy\emudk tusOf;ajymjyygw,f? raemfudk zkef;quf+yD;awmhvnf; usaemf a&mufvmwJhta=umif; ol ajymygw,f? c%aeawmh ol@udkðypkaewJh ol@wynfhav;udk ol aomufzdk@ aq;awmif;ygw,f? +yD;awmh usaemfudk xrif;au|;zdk@ jyifqifcdkif;ygw,f? usaemfh udv k nf; ole@J twlvmaevd@k &wJt h a=umif; ajymygw,f? usaemfuawmh use;f rma&;udk *±kpu kd f zdk@yJ owday;jzpfygw,f? ol@ajcckHawGu awmfawmfav; trf;aewmrdk@yg? usaemfwdk@ xrif;pm; +yD;awmh usaemfu usaemfwdk@&GmrSm&SdwJh ausmif;om;acgif;aqmif Adkvfatmifausmf trSwfw& pm=unfw h u dk t f wGuf olw@kd t&ifziG chf w hJ hJ ‘yef;acwfu vrif;’ pmtkyt f iSm;qdik u f pmtkyaf wG tvSLcHawmh csufcsif;yJ olu óudufwJhtcsdefrSmoGm;,lqdk+yD; vSLwJhtjyif ol pkaqmif;xm;wJh pmtkyfawGxJuygvm,lzdk@ ajymygw,f? pmtkyfu enf;enf;aemaem r[kwfygbl;? umv aygufaps;eJ@wGuf&ifudk 8 odef;ausmfzkd; &Sdygw,f? &Gmu Adkvfatmifausmfpm=unfhwdkufrSm ck yef;acwfu vrif; pmay&JŒaumif;r_ukd urŠn;f xd;k Edik cf yhJ gw,f? ol@tvSLpmtkyaf wGa=umifv h nf; usaemfhrSm &Gmtjyef rsufESmyef;vScJh&ygw,f? ole@J usaemfw@kd ajymcJw h ahJ =umif;t&mawGuvnf; rsK;d pHak ecJw h mrd@k aemufyikd ;f awG@whJ tcsed f awGrSmawmh pum;awG odyfrajym=uawmhygbl;? t=um}uD; pum;rajymbJ xdkifae&wmudk usaemfw@kd EpS af ,mufpvH;k ydt k &omawG@vm=uygw,f? wcgawmh ol b,forl S toH;k rðyao;wJh tEkynmyHkpHopfwck wifqufzdk@ vkyfaew,fvdk@ ajymvmygw,f? usaemfuawmh usef;rma&; udyk J t&ifq;kH *±kpu kd yf gAsm vd@k xyf xyf rSmae&ygw,f? ol b,favmuf acgi;f rmw,f/ ayw,f qdkwmudkodwmrdk@ ol@udkðypkaewJhvli,fav;udkvnf; zkef;eHywfay;xm;+yD; ol@udk *±kpdkufzdk@eJ@ rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


169

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

ta&;&Sd zkef;qufzdk@ rSm&ygw,f? 'DvdkeJ@ usaemf 2005 rSm Recycle qdkwJh wukd,fawmf yef;csDjyyGJudk avmuewf yef;csD jycef;rSm vkyjf zpfcyhJ gw,f? &efuek òf rdŒxJukd b,fawmhrS rvmawmhb;l vd@k ajym=uwJh ol@ukd jycef; xJ0ifvmawG@awmh wjcm;vlawGu awmfawmf tHh=oae=uygw,f? usaemfudk,fwdkifvnf; awmfawmf tHh=oaerdygw,f? ola&mufvmvdk@ 0rf;omayr,fh ol aeraumif;rSef;odwmrdk@ “bmvd@k vm&wmvJ udak &$bek ;f &,f” vdŒk ajymrdygw,f? olu bmrSrwk@H jyefbJ “csmwdwaf wGe@J vmwmyg? olwdk@uvnf; oGm;csifaevdk@”vdkŒ ajymygw,f? oleJ@ygvmwJh ol@udk &ifckefaeqJ csmwdwaf wGu um;awG wum;csi;f vdu k =f unfah e=uayr,fh oluawmh cef;rtv,fu ukvm; xdik af y:uae xdik af e&if;uyJ wum;csi;f udk rsupf ad &$Œ+yD; vdu k =f unfEh ikd yf gw,f? ol tm;&awmhrS usaemfhudk aoaocsmcsm=unfh+yD; “awmfawmf ajymif;vJoGm;w,f” vdk@ wcGef;ajymygw,f? tJ'g oleJ@usaemfwdk@ aemufqHk;awG@qHkr_ygyJ? usaemfvnf; ar#mfvifhrxm;bJeJ@ aemufxyf tdrfaxmifðyjzpfoGm;+yD; EkdifiHtjyifbufudk a&mufvm&ygw,f? tdrfaxmifbuf&JŒtvkyfu avmavmq,f vef'efrSmrdk@ awmfawmfeJ@ tdrfrjyefEkdifjzpfaewkef;rSmyJ olxGufcGmoGm;awmh wmygyJ? usaemf axmifuvGwf+yD; udkol&u ±kyf&Sif±dkufuGif;udk vmcJhygac:wma=umifh oGm;awmh awmfawmft=hH o&ygw,f? ±ky&f iS t f jzpfzefw;D zd@k rvG,v f w S hJ ol@&ŒJ Zmwf!e$ ;f ‘jrif;pD;xGuaf om tdyrf ufrsm;’udk ±du k af evd@k ygy?J udo k &l tdrrf mS vGecf w hJ hJ q,fEpS af usmaf vmufuzwf+y;D oabmus cJhwJh Zmwf!$ef;yg? “rif;udk 0rf;om&atmif wrifac:wm? uJ æ Zmwf0ifcef;wckckrSmawmh 0ifxdkifoGm;uGm? trSwfw& aygh æ a&$bkef;uawmh rvmEdkifbl;”qdkwmeJ@ 0ifxdkifjzpfcJhygao; w,f? jrefrmEkid if u H rxGucf ifav;rSm wnf;jzwf+yD;wmrd@k udo k &l tdrrf mS =unfch &hJ ygw,f? udo k &l uvnf; rJjymykqdk;awGeJ@yJ+yD;aewJh AD'D,dkavmurSm xl;xl;jcm;jcm;um;av; wifqufcGifh&vkd@ aysmaf ecJyh gw,f? 'gayr,fh r=umcifrmS yJ udak &$qifqmtzGŒJ u ydwv f u kd w f t hJ a=umif;vnf; odchJ &ygw,f? usaemft*Fvefa&muf+yD;aemufrSm tJ'D AD'D,dk udk DVB uae v$ifhxkwfvmwmrdk@ awmfawmfudk tm;&0rf;om&jzpfcJhygw,f? udka&$bkef;udk,fwkdifvnf; aemufqHk;=unfhcGifh&cJhwJh ol@&JŒvuf&m AD'D,dk Zmwfum;wxkwf jzpfcJhygvdrfhr,f? ‘jrif;pD;xGuaf om tdyrf ufrsm;’ Zmwfum; DVB uvm+y;D r=umcifrmS yJ olvnf; avmu xJu xGucf mG oGm;+yDv@kd usaemfw@kd odc&hJ wmygy?J ‘vli,fwa,muf&ŒJ ausmufxiG ;f &mZ0if’rSm oleJ@ 'DacwfxJ ckefcscGifh ul;cwfcGifh&wJhtwGuf 'Dae@xd*k%f,lae&qJyg? wm&mrif;a0 &JŒ ‘òydijf rif;wd@k &ŒJ cGmoH’ acwfay: tEkynmqdik &f m aqmif;yg;awG[m twkid ;f wmwckxd usaemf&h ŒJ yef;csq D &maygupf b0rSm aus;Zl;&Scd yhJ gw,f? wm&mrif;a0 a&;cJo h r#xu J ‘yef;acwfu vrif;’/ ‘"m;oGm;ay:u qyfuyf’/ ‘ta&SŒòrdŒ±dk;u rdk;a&pufrsm;’wdk@[m usaemfh&JŒ &ifxJrSm 'Dae@xd v_ycf wfaeqJygy?J aemufq;kH tcsed x f ad &;oGm;wJh tdik 'f , D m r*~Zif;u 0wˆKwdak wGe@J wm&mrif;a0 &JŒ ESvHk;om;pGrf;tm;udk jyoGm;w,fvdk@ ajym&ygvdrfhr,f? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


170

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

a&$bek ;f vl&ŒJ Edik if aH &;jzwfoef;r_rmS vnf; ol@,=kH unfcsuu f kd aemufq;kH tcsed x f d qkwu f ikd f oGm;cJhjcif;twGuf *k%f,lcJh&ygw,f? ol@&JŒ aemufqHk;tcsdefawGrSm udk,fu tem;rSmr&SdcJh&vdk@ udk,fhudkudk,f tjypf&Sdaeovkd tjrJcHpm;aecJhcsdefrSm ck 2 ESpfjynfh trSwfw& pmpkav; a&;cGifh&vdk@ awmfao;&JŒvdk@ ESvHk;oGif;+yD; yef;acwfu vrif; odk@ vGrf;csif; pmpDcJhrdygw,f? avmu avtqefrSm udk,fhudkudk,f tefxkwf igwdk@tm;vHk; rdk;rcsKyfrD tdrf udk jyef =u rnf? ? (wm&mrif;a0 &JŒ wdrfjzLwdk@ESifhtwl æ uAsm rS)

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


171

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

nDav;rGef tvnfvmwke;f u rif;vGif rd;k awGuvnf; wae@v;kH &Gmvdu k w f m? csi;f rdik rf ;kd uawmh t&ifEpS af wGxufawmif yd&k mG w,f vd@k xifao;w,f? ajrmufbufu vdKG ifqx l pfawmifrmS awmh rd;k pufawG=um; xD;xD;}uD;? nu tdyfr&wmeJ@ tcef;tjyifxGufxdkifr,fvdk@ pdwful;wmeJ h tjyifudk xGufcJhw,f? tjyifudkxGuf xdik v f nf; rd;k uvnf; rpJbJ &Gmaew,f? tòid;w}uD;eJ@y?J rd;k &Gmaewke;f tdraf &SŒrSm vlwa,muf tdrfxJudk0ifvmaeovdkyHkpHeJ@ vlwa,muf0ifvmw,fvdk@ xifw,f? 'geJ@ tdrfa&SŒudkxGufvm vdu k w f ,f? wud, k v f ;kH vnf; rd;k awGp&kd aJ$ ewm tay:u *si;f tus0ô wfxm;wmawmif rvHb k eJ @J twGif;xd cE<mudk,fxdawmif pdkaewm? wvrf;vHk; rdk;rdvmwJhyHkrsKd;yJ? idkufpdkuf idkufpdkuf tdrfxJ udk 0ifvmw,f? ol0ifvmwJh tdraf &SŒbufukd rD;rxGe;f xm;awmh csucf si;f b,forl eS ;f cGrJ &bl;? rD;tvif;a&mifbuf 0ifvmwmawmif udk,fu b,folrSef;cGJr&bl;? OD;aESmufudk tjrefqHk; pOf;pm;w,f? oluawmh idkufpdkuf idkufpdkuf {nfhcef;xJxd 0ifvmw,f? +yD;awmh usaemfhudk armh=unfh+yD; E_wfqufw,f? “a[h aumifav; æ rif;bmvkyaf ewmvJ? igrh mS awmh renf; rif;qDa&mufatmif vmcJ&h w,f? rd;k uvnf; &Gmvdu k w f m/ at;aewm” ajymvnf;+yD; wqufwnf; ol@acgi;f udk armhvu kd f w,f? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


172

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

“[m æ udka&$bkef;” usaemf tJ'DtoHyJ ajymEdkifw,f? usaemf wu,fudk t&rf;tH=o oGm;w,f? usaemf wtHw=o)eJ@ ol@udk =unfhw,f? &ifbwfwckvHk; usm;acgif;tjynfhyHkygwJh tjzLa&mif wD&yS u f 0kd wfxm;w,f? yg;pyfrmS vnf; t&iftwdik ;f uGr;f 0g;xm;w,f? xl;jcm;wm u ol@vnfyif;eJ@ vufaumuf0wfrSm owˆKwrsKd;udk yHkazmf+yD; 0wfxm;w,f? “cifAsm; b,fvdkvkyf a&mufvmwmvJAsm? cifAsm; 0 vmw,fAsm? usaemfwdk@ rawG@& wmawmif q,fpkESpfwpk &Sd+yDaemf? usaemf xifw,f/ aemufqHk;tacgufu udk0if;udk r*Fvm aqmifrmS r[kwv f m;” usaemf tqufrjywf ajymcsvu kd w f ,f? oluawmh ol@ZmwfaumifawG xJuvdyk J rxdwxd? “aumifav;&m æ rif;wdk@udk &Sm&wm vG,fygw,f? tck igvmwm rif;udk awG@csifvdkyg” usaemf udka&$bkef;udkpawG@zl;wm oCFefu|ef;òrdŒe,fu 16 &yfuGufu tdrfuav;rSmyg? udka&$bkef;u tJ'Dtdrfuav;udk vmwwfw,f? tJ'Dwkef;u udka&$bkef; tdk;a0 r*~Zif;&JŒ t,f'w D mvd@k xifw,f? rdwq f ufay;wmu qH;k oGm;wJh udjk rwfarmf? olu udrk ;kd oD;wd@k &yfuu G f rSm aew,f? udkrif;udkEdkifwdk@eJ@vnf; oli,fcsif;aygh? aemufodyfr=umbl;/ udka&$bkef; tzrf;cH& w,f? tjyifrSmawmh ol@ta=umif; trsm;}uD;ajym=uwm =um;aew,f? udkjrwfarmfvnf; 89 ESpu f ek yf ikd ;f avmufrmS tzrf;cH&w,f? axmifxrJ mS udak &$bek ;f eJ@twlae&w,f? udjk rwfarmf u udka&$bkef;&JŒtvkyftay: pnf;urf;&Sdr_ &Jabmf&Jbuftay: umuG,fEdkifr_awG ajymwwf w,f? jy\emwckay:&if rnnf;rnL vkyfay;wwfwm/ tJ'Dwkef;u tepfemcJhp&m&Sdvnf; tepfemcHwwfwJh &Jabmf&Jbufpdwf? udkjrwfarmf&JŒajympum;t& udka&$bkef; uHqdk;w,fyJ ajym&rvm;? ol@udk zrf;rdoGm;wJhtcsdef ol@'dkif,m&Dav;udk axmufvSrf;a&;u odrf;EdkifcJhw,f? tJ'geJ@uGif;pyfvkduf+yD; rHk&Gmu ol@&Jabmfwa,muf tzrf;cH&w,f? olawmifhcHxm;ayr,fh 'dik , f m&Dpmtkyaf =umifjh zpfayr,fh oltawmfav;udk pdwrf aumif;bl;? oljyefvw G v f mcsi;f yJ tJ'D &Jabmfudk rHk&Gmxdawmif oGm;awG@w,f? 19 ESpfeD;yg;u tjzpftysufawG? usaemf tawG;awGudk jzwfvdkufw,f? ol@udk pum;jyefajymw,f? “udka&$bkef; bmpm;+yD;+yDvJ? bmpm;csifvJ”vdk@ usaemfu ar;w,f? “tpm;uawmh rpm;csifawmhygbl;? vufzuf&nfcsKdcsKdwcGuf aomufcsifw,f”vdk@ajym awmh usaemf tdrfaemufaz; rD;zdk;bufxGuf+yD; udka&$bkef;twGuf vufzuf&nfwcGuf oGm; azsmaf y;w,f? jyefxu G v f mawmh udak &$bek ;f u vuf&rf;ygwhJ ESpaf ,mufxikd cf rkH mS xdik af ew,f? t&iftwdkif; ol wckckudk pOf;pm;aew,f? uAsmawGyJ pdwful;xJrSm zGJ@aevm;rodbl;? rdk;puf rdk;r_efawG=um;rSm udka&$bkef;pdwfawG tHk@jymaervm;? ÐÐÐ rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


173

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

'Dae hyGJ[m ±_H;±H_; EkdifEdkif ,SOfòydifjcif;om t"du qkdwhJ yGJr[kwfbl; olao udk,fao tòydifE$J 0d^mOfcsif; ±dkufcGJwJh yGJ jzpfw,f? “a[h æ óud;pif” ig &ifaumh+yD; vmcJhr,f? (O'ge;f ) aemufqHk;rSm æ a'gif;tvHudk æ ajymif;qefatmif v$ifhxl&if; trSew f &m;wckxH igwdk@ opPmt"dÏmefðy tdk æ ol&Jaumif;wdkŒ tkd æ usqHk;cJhavaom 'Drdkua&pD wkdufyJG0if oli,fcsif;a[mif; æ ol&aJ umif;wd@k xm0pOf rysufjy,fEkdifavmufatmif jrifhjrwfpGm usqHk;cJhaom æ oifwdk@.0d^mOfwefcdk;awmfrsm;onf igwdk@. a&SŒaemuf0J,m æ xufatmuf0ef;usiYf ysŒH ES@H wnf&=dS uukeaf wmh.? (ausmif;zGifhcsdef) udka&$bkef; axmifxJa&mufoGm;ayr,fh ol@uAsmawGuawmh ausmif;om;vli,ft=um; ysHŒae+yD? O'gef; eJ@ ausmif;zGifhcsdef? tJ'DuAsmawGxGufvmvdk@ udka&$bkef; taz ‘bb’udk ac:ppf cH&w,f? bb uawmh axmufvSrf;a&;ar;or#udk rajzwJhtjyif pum;wvHk;rS rajymbl;? axmufvSrf;a&;u bbyg;pyfudk olwdk@vufawGeJ@ twif;[cdkif;w,f? vHk;0 r[bl;? aemuf qHk;awmh axmufvSrf;a&; t¶_H;ay;&awmhwmygyJ? bbudk tdrfjyefydk@ay;&awmhwmaygh? udak &$bek ;f uAsmawGu ausmif;om;vli,fawGtay: b,favmufxad wmif =oZmv$r;f rd;k ovJ qdk&if aemufydkif;rSm udkrif;cdkufpdk;pH uawmif ajymzl;w,f? ol udka&$bkef;uAsmawGzwf+yD; ol uAsma&;cJh&wmyg wJh? udka&$bkef;uAsmawG ol@tay: v$rf;rdk;ygw,f wJh? ol@eJ@ydk+yD;eD;pyfwmu olvGwf+yD; r=umbl;? usaemfwdk@wawG &efukefòrd@jyifudk c&D;wdk rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


174

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

wacguo f mG ;w,f? oGm;wmuawmh ausmufwef;òrdŒrSm&Sw d hJ a&v,fb&k m;? 'Daemuf oefvsif usKdufacguf yg? ygwJhvlu udka&$bkef;eJ@ usaemfhtjyif rEœav;axmifrSm usoGm;wJh udkouf0if; atmif/ udek ef;EG,ef @J &Sr;f jynfu {nfo h nfEpS af ,mufygw,f? wae@wm c&D;qdak wmh pum;awG trsm;}uD; ajymjzpfw,f? axmifxJtawG@tñuHuawmh vwfvwf}uD;vGwfvmwJhol@twGuf ajymp&mtopfawGyaJ yg?h olu 3 axmif ajymif;cJzh ;l w,fv@kd xifw,f? axmifuxGu+f yD;r=um bl;/ uAsmwyk'pf +yD; r*~Zif;rSm pygw,f? ‘nDav;rGe’f emrnfe@J ? 'Daemufyikd ;f ‘nDav;rGe’f uae ‘wm&mrif;a0’ jzpfomG ;w,f? udak &$bek ;f udk wm&mrif;a0 emrnfe@J jrefrmpmaye,frmS 0wˆKwdk e,fy,frSm atmifjrifw,f? ‘armifa,m’qdk+yD; a0zefa&;awG p a&;w,f? “udak &$bek ;f udk usaemf ar;csiw f ,f? t&ifuvnf; usaemf ar;zl;w,f? udak &$bek ;f bmvd@k armifa,m eJ@ uAsmq&m =unfatmifwdk@udk a0zefwmvJ? olwdk@bmom olwdk@aeaewm taumif;om; r[kwfvm;? tJ'Dvdk a0zefvdk@vJ armifndKrd_if;wdk@uvnf; ‘a&$bkef;vl’taeeJ@ qufqaH &; rysucf siaf yr,fv h nf; ‘armifa,m’udak wmh tawmfemwmvnf; cifAsm;odom;eJ@” vd@k ajymw,f? csufcsif;tajzray;bJ vufzuf&nfcsKdcsKdudk ol tukefaomufvdkufw,f? vufzuf&nf yk*HvHk;udk toHrjrnfatmifcsvdkuf+yD;rSm usaemf ar;wmudk ajzw,f? “topfxGifzdk@twGuf 'DvlawGu ydwfaewmuG” 'gyJajym+yD; udka&$zkef;qufrajymawmh bl;? aemufyikd ;f awmh armifa,memrnfe@J usaemf rawG@&awmhyg? usaemf c&D;oGm;ae&vd@k rawG@ jzpf/ rzwfjzpfwmvnf; jzpfEdkifw,f? “aemufydkif; udka&$bkef; t,ltqawG ajymif;vmw,faemf” usaemf ar;awmh æ “aumifav;&m æ rif; igh0wˆKawG tukefvkH;eD;yg; zwfbl;vdk@vm;uGm? igu ajymif;wmrS r[kwb f ;l ? igph w d x f &J w dS mudk a&;wm? o±kyrf eS w f @kd armf'efw@kd rcGb J ;l ? od;k aqmif; pum;vdak ygu h mG ? av;onfawmfwa,muf ausm=f um;wmu oljrm;a=umifh r[kw?f ol&ŒJ csed o f m;udu k rf a_ =umifyh J vdk@ ajymw,fav? igu ightEkynm csdefom;udkufatmif v$wfEdkifzdk@yJ r[kwfvm;” udak &$bek ;f wm&mrif;a0eJ@ atmifjrifaewJt h csed rf mS yJ udrk if;Zife@J usaemfw@kd tajccHynm ausmif;om;rsm;or*~u &JabmfawG ArmEdik if v H ;kH qdik &f m ausmif;om;or*~rsm;tzG@J csKyfuae+yD; EdkifiHa&; ,Ofaus;r_pmwrf;udk tdk;a0 uae+yD; trSwfpOfvdkuf xkwfw,f? tJ'Daemufydkif; udka&$ bkef;tdrfudk usaemfwdk@ r=umr=um a&mufw,f? txl;ojzifh udkrif;ZifeJ@ usaemf? udkrif;Zif rygvnf; usaemfu ydka&mufjzpfw,f? ÐÐÐ rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


175

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

Auo &JŒ 94-96 v_yf&Sm;r_awGudk txl;ojzifh usaemfeJ@ ydk+yD;pum;ajymjzpfw,f? udka&$ bke;f udv k nf; today;wJo h abmayg?h udak &$bek ;f eJ@ pum;awGtrsm;}uD; ajymjzpfw,f? Edik if aH &;/ ausmif;om;a&;/ 'Drdkua&pDynma&;/ ppftm%m&SifcsKyf+idrf;a&;? h cgrmS tcif;tusi;f (Space) “wu,fawmhumG aumifav;&? yg0g (Power) udk upm;wJt eJ@ acgif;aqmifae&m,lr_ (Position) vdkw,fuG? wcgwav yGef; uae+yD; bk&if udk csufvdk@ &w,fav” udka&$bkef;&JŒ q,fpkESpfausmfwkef;u EkdifiHa&;oabmw&m;u tckxd&Sdaewkef;vdk@ usaemf ar;w,f? ol rajzbl;? ta0;u rdk;pufawG=um;u vdGKifqlxpfawmifudk ai;aew,f? t&ifwkef; uwnf;u axmfavmfuef@vef@jzpfwJhol@twGufu tckcsdefxd axmfavmfuef@vef@jzpfaewkef; rSmygy?J udak &$bek ;f u e*du k wnf;u bDv;l qdw k m wu,f&rdS &Sd oHo, &Sad eolyaJ v? tEkynm u udka&$bkef;&ifbwfxJrSm udef;0yfoGm;cJhav+yD? “udak &$bek ;f cifAsm; ‘tmvl;pm;olrsm;&JŒwnaecif;’ udak &;wm bm&nf&, G +f yD; a&;cJw h m vJAs” usaemfu udak &$bek ;f &JŒ tatmifjrifq;kH 0wˆKwckukd ar;rdw,f? tJ'0D wˆKwdak v;u jrefrm pmaye,frSm atmifjrifcJhwJhwckayghav? vGefcJhwJh 15 ESpfavmufwkef;u? “ukd,fa&;cJhwkef;u t"duuawmh acwfudkvnf; xif[wfcsifw,f? vlawG ppfab; ppf'%fñuHae&wmudk;? igu tJ'gudk t"du rD;armif;xdk;jycsifw,f” wu,fawmh udak &$bek ;f [m awmifwiG ;f &Si+f idr;f r,f&ŒJ &mjynft h ikd af wGukd óuduw f ,f? q&m aZmfaZmfatmif&JŒ ,kZe rcifysKdudkvnf; óudufw,f? usaemfw@kd &ŒJ b0awGxJ npfax;=urf;wrf;atmif aq;a&mifq;dk rnfh wdrw f u kd af wGa&muf vmwJh 1996 ckESpfrwdkifcifxd udka&$bkef;eJ@ ydkawG@jzpfw,f? tJ'Dtcsdefwkef;u udka&$bkef;&JŒ vrif;av;u rE Wav;vrf;rSm omae+yDav? cspo f v l rG ;f &if ar#mfwdkif;jrifvGef;vdk@ vufnK‡d ;!$e&f m oljzpfygapom; t&Sifbk&m; æ rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


176

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

“udka&$bkef; cifAsm;rSwfrdvm;? cifAsm;ajymw,f tdrfaxmifa&;eJ@ywfowfwJh oabm w&m;av? ESpfuawmh =umcJh+yDaemf” usaemfpum;pawmh udka&$bkef;u b,fbuf E_wfcrf;udk yg;yg;av;wGef@+yD; ðyH;w,f? “[m æ rSwrf w d maygh aumifav;&? rif;udk ud, k af jymzl;om;yJ? ud, k rhf mS tdraf xmifa&;eJ@ ywfowfwJht,ltqu ESpfckyJ&Sdw,f? udk,fvufxyfjzpfcJh&if bmrSrodwJh omreftrsKd;orD; jzpf&ifjzpf/ rjzpf&if wae&m&mrSm odyfawmfwJh trsKd;orD;rsKd; jzpf&r,f? tpGef;ESpfbufayghuGm? bmrSrodwJhvleJ@ odyfodwJhvlaygh? [dkvdkvdk 'Dvdkvdkawmh enf;enf; odwJhvludkawmh vufrxyf csifbl;” udak &$bek ;f u ol@0wˆKxJu Zmwfaumifajymovdrk sK;d od;k aqmif;pum;eJ@ ajymw,f? “Little wJh?

knowledge is dangerous”

[dk;ta0;u udka&$bkef;&JŒ yGJawmfnu vif;jymvSyaeqJ? wzuf rdk;aumif;uifodk@ ar#mf=unfhvdkufaomtcg rE Wav;vrf;[m va&mifatmufrS wdrfcdk;awG arsmvGifhaewmudk awG@r,f? tckawmh tJ'DyGJawmf&J h acgifrdk;rSm ESif;aiG@ESifh rD;ckd;aiGŒawG vl;vdrfhaew,ff? udka&$bkef;u “ig jyefawmhr,f”ajymw,f? olajymwJhtcsdefu oef;acgifausmf+yDaygh? usaemfu “aeygtHk; æ” vdk@ wm;ao;w,f? “rif;u tvkyf&Sdw,f? reufjzef tvkyfudkoGm;&tHk;r,f? rjzpfygbl;” wJh? usaemfu “[m æ jzpfygw,f? udka&$bkef;&,f at;at;aq;aq; w&uf aeoGm;ygtHk;? usaemfrSm udka&$bkef;udk ajymp&mawG&Sdao;w,f? aeygtHk;Asm” ajymw,f? r&bl;? udka&$bkef; jyefzdk@jyifw,f? ol@aemufqHk;tusef uGrf;,mudk yvpfpwpftdwfxJ u xkwf+yD; 0g;w,f? udak &$bek ;f rE aW v;vrf;bufukd jyefa&mufjzpfao;vm;vdk ah r;awmh jyefrajzbl;? ta0;udk oDu&D ai;aew,f? t&ifvdkygyJ tawG;aygif;rsm;pGmeJ@ udka&$bkef; usaemfhtdrfuae jyefxGuf oGm;cJh+yD? udka&$bkef;u =o*wfpf&JŒ rdk;a&pufawG=um;rSm jyefxGufoGm;cJh+yD? cifAsm;u usaemfwdk@udk ðypm;+yD; xm;cJhwmvm;Asm? rE Wav;vrf;u udka&$bkef;&JŒ&ifbwfwae&mwnf;rSm &SdaerSmyg? 'grrS [kwv f nf; t"dywdvrf;u udak &$bek ;f &ifbwfxrJ mS vm;? ewfq;kd wd@k vnf; aysmaf eavmuf +yDxifyg&JŒ? tarSmifwacwfrSm yGifhv#ufajymifajrmuf udka&$bkef; u acwfwacwfudk axmifcJh +yDav? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


177

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

jrefrmjynf +idrf;csrf;ygap aoG;pawG pdkvl; tvHOD;rSm udk,fhtrnfcsdwfvdk@ óud;pif&yd 0f ,f usaemfwdk@ wdkufyGJ0ifaeygw,f? ydwrf xm;&ao;wJh om;}uD;wdk@&JŒ ausmif;pmtkyfrSm a'gif;±kyfav;awG om;i,fqGJawmh arar rsuf&nf0Ja&mhr,f? &Spq f ,f&h pS cf Ek pS &f ŒJ vufeuf eJ@ vG,ftdwf wdkufyGJrsm; r_e0f g;jyma0 urBmra=ubl; bDvl; wacwf/ a'gif; wacwf? wae@ae@av raoao;&if jyefvmcsifw,f &ifcGifrSm axG;vdk@óudyg arar&,f? jrefrmjynf +idrf;csrf;ygap aoG;pawG pdkvl; tvHOD;rSm udk,fhtrnfcsdwfvdk@ óud;pif&yd 0f ,f usaemfwdkŒ wdkufyGJ0ifaeygw,f?

?

(a&$bkef;vl . æ ar#mf)

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


178

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


179

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

wm&mrif;a0eJ@ olŒarG;pm;taz ta=umif; armifpr G ;f 7nf wm&mrif;a0udk usaemf yxrqk;H odyu Hk uAsmq&mwifr;kd &JŒarG;pm;om;wa,muftjzpfe@J yg? ‘wifrdk;&JŒ arG;pm;om;’wa,mufvdk@ ajym&wmu wifrdk;rSm arG;pm;om;awG trsm;}uD; &Sad evd@k ygy?J wifr;kd [m axmifxrJ mS ausmif;om;t&G,f vlrr,fuav;awG trsm;}uD;eJ@ awG@qaHk ygi;f oif;cJ&h ygw,f? vli,fav;awGukd awG@&wJt h cg uav;cspw f wf/ ausmif;om; cspw f wfwhJ wifr;kd u tvGeo f em;*±k%moufryd gw,f? ol@'u k o Q al rh+yD; uav;awG&@J 'u k u Q kd twwfEikd q f ;Hk ulnD ajz&Si;f ay;ygw,f? pm;a&; aomufa&; use;f rma&; vlrq _ ufqaH &; ynma&; ponfw@kd ukd tpGr;f ukef ulnyD gw,f? uav;awGuvnf; ol@ukd rd&if;/ z&if; q&m&if;vdk atmufarh+y;D ol@twGuq f kd taocH&rvm; qdkwmrsKd;txd cspfcif=uygw,f? olwdk@tcsif;csif; oHa,mZOfu axmiftjyif txd ygvmcJhygw,f? wifr;kd u pm;p&m&S&d if olrpm;bJ uav;awGukd au|;ovd/k uav;awGuvnf; aq;vdyv f kd [mrsKd;u tp ol@udk tvGefpkHrufygvsuf olwkd@q&m}uD;twGuf odrf;qnf; ac|wm &Sm=uH+yD; ay;=uygw,f? uav;awGrmS pmoifay;p&m&Sv d nf; oifay;ygw,f? qdq k ;Hk rp&m&S&d ifvnf; qk;H r ygw,f? uAsmpyfenf;vdk[mrsKd; oifay;ygqdkvnf; oifay;ygw,f? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


180

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

ysif&d+iD;aiG@vm&if wifrdk;u ol@rdom;pkta=umif;/ ol@i,fb0rSm qif;qif;&J&J ynm&Sm cJh&ykHta=umif;/ ol@oli,fcsif;rsm;ta=umif; ponfwdk@udk txyfxyftcgcg jyefvnf ajymjy avh&Sdygw,f? 'ga=umifh uav;awGu armifomEdk;/ armifpGrf;&nf/ =unfatmif pwJh wifrdk;&JŒ oli,fcsif;awGta=umif;udk ‘acs;cg; tlr rusef’qdkovdk od&Sd&if;ESD;ae=uygw,f? 'Dvdk od&Sdae =uolawGxJrSm ‘wm&mrif;a0’ vnf; ygcJhygw,f? wm&mrif;a0 axmifuvGwv f mawmh usaemfw@dk ukd pdr;f raeygb;l ? tvGe&f if;ES;D wJh OD;}uD;/ OD;av;awGvdk qufqHygw,f? ol axmifuvGwfvmawmh &efukefwuUodkvfausmif;/ awmifil aqmifa&SŒ/ awmifyEd yJM ifatmufu pmaypum;0dik ;f udk a&mufvmwwfygw,f? wifr;kd u ol@ukd Aspaf wmuf Aspaf wmufe@J qq J &kd if; ol@ukd aygi;f ay:qGx J ikd cf ikd ;f +yD; ayG@zufxm;ygw,f? wm&mrif;a0 &JŒykc;kH udk ar;eJ@ zdvu kd /f udu k v f u kd /f erf;vdu k ef @J pum;awG ajymr0 jzpfaeygw,f? +yD;rS usaemfw@kd e@J rdwq f ufay;ygw,f? tu,fI wm&mrif;a0u ol@t&ifvGwfwmqdk&if usaemfhqD wm&mrif;a0 t&ifa&muf &ygr,f? usaemfhqDudk pmta=umif;/ ayta=umif; vmajymr,f? ol&JŒ i,faygif;oli,fcsif;vdk usaemfhta=umif;awG jyefjyefajymr,f? wcsKd@uav;awGqdk&if usaemfh&nf;pm;pmwdk@/ usaemf arhae+yDjzpfwJh usaemfhi,fvuf&m uAsmwdk@udkawmif &Gwfjywwfygw,f? wcsKdŒudk tzGJ@vdkuf pmoifay;&ygw,f? udk,frEdkifwJh bmom&yfudk olrsm;qDudk vdkuftyfay;&ygw,f? twef; ratmifao;&if ratmifrjcif; oifay;zdk@ rSmygw,f? wm&mrif;a0u usaemhef mrnfurkd w l nf+yD; rE aW v;pmayorm;awGukd uvdwhJ aqmif;yg; wapmifa&;vdkufw,fvdk@ =um;&ygw,f? wifrdk;u wm&mrif;a0 vmawmh“acG;aumifav; æ rif;bmodv@kd v/J vl}uD;awGukd ruvde@J æ”vd@k q+kd yD; Adu k q f v JG rd yf gw,f? wm&mrif;a0u wcG;D cG;D eJ@ oabmusaeygw,f? tJ'Dae@rSm usaemf wuUodkvfpum;0dkif;xJuapm+yD; tjyifxGufvmawmh jynfvrf;rjzwf tul;rSm ordkif;q&m udkat;csrf;(&cdkif) eJ@ awG@ygw,f? (udkat;csrf;u cktcg *syefrSm ordkif; ygarmuQ a'guw f mat;csr;f jzpfaeygw,f)? udak t;csr;f eJ@Ew _ q f uf&if; “cifAsm; wynfh a&muf aew,f” vdk@ owif;ay;vdkufygw,f? “b,folvJ”vdk@ oluar;awmh “wm&mrif;a0” vdk@ ajymjyvdkufygw,f? axmifxJrSm q&mat;csrf;eJ@ wm&mrif;a0 wdk@ awG@qkH&if;ESD;cJh=uw,f vdk@ usaemf odxm;&vdk@ ajymjyvdkufwmyg? “usaemfhudk uvdwJh aqmif;yg;a&;vdk@ wJh/ q&m*srf;(wifrdk;)u qkH;raew,f”vdk@vnf; usaemfu ajymjyvdkufygw,f? q&mat;csrf;u “atmifr,f/ 'Dtaumif aeESifhtkH;/ qkH;r& tkH;r,f ²²” qdk+yD; olwdk@ axmifaqGrsKd;awG qkHzdk@ 0rf;yef;womeJ@ ajy;ygw,f? r=umcif wm&mrif;a0 pmawG trsm;}uD;a&;vmwmawG@&awmh usaemfwdk@ rDatmif&Sm rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


181

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

rzwfEdkifawmhygbl;? wae@awmh usaemf &,f/ wifrdk; &,f/ yef;csD,Ofrif;ydkuf &,f/ ±kyf&Sif rif;om;}uD; OD;xGef;a0tdrfudk oGm;vnf=uw,f? c&pf,mefomoemydkifcsKyf tif'±l; jr[ef (uAsmq&m armifaygufpnf/ ref;wuUodkvf)u um;eJ@vdkufydk@wmyg? tJ'DurS ODxGef;a0udkyg ac:+yD; yef;csD udn k Kd 0if;tdru f kd oGm;=uygw,f? ajrmuf'*kx H u J kd oGm;wmyg? tJ'u D rS xGuv f m+yD; ajrmufOuUvmvrf;qkHu pm;aomufqdkifav; 0if&atmif/ opfyiftkyfuav;eJ@ om,mw,f qd+k yD;0if=uawmh wm&mrif;a0eJ@ rde;f uav;wa,muf at;at;aq;aq; pm;aomufz@kd xdik af e wm awG@vu kd yf gw,f? tJ'g ole@J &cgp ZeD;yg? wifr;kd u tvsipf vdk ajy;oGm;+yD; wm&mrif;a0udk ayG@zufE_wfqufygw,f? olwdk@ ZeD;armifESHeJ@ usaemfwdk@wzGJ@vkH;eJ@ rdwfqufay;ygw,f? wm&rif;a0&JŒZeD;u c&pf,mefruav; vdk@qdkawmh c&pf,mefomoemydkifcsKyf}uD;jzpfol tif'±l;jr[efu qkrGefaumif;awGawmif;+yD; qkH;rygw,f? “igwdk@ wynfhruav;udk aumif;aumif; aygif;oif;yg? ighwynfhruav; pdwftaESmuf t,Sufjzpfatmif rvkyfygeJ@/ vkyf&if igeJ@awG@r,f æ” ponfjzifh &,farmaemufajymif qkH;r+yD; q&mawmfuyJ 'umcHvdkufygw,f? tJ'Dwkef;u q&mawmfu "mwfykH±dkufay;ygw,f? usaemfwdk@wzGJ@vkH;eJ@ wm&mrif;a0 ZeD;armifESHykH usaemfhtdrfu "mwfykHt,fvfbef pmtkyfxJrSm &Sd&pfygw,f? wm&mrif;a0&JŒzcif[m zufqpfawmfvSefa&;orm;/ EdkifiHa&;orm;a[mif;}uD;wOD;vdk@ od&wJt h cg wm&mrif;a0udk pdwx f u J yd&k if;ES;D oGm;rdygw,f? Edik if aH &;orm;a[mif;}uD;awGq&kd if udk,fhOD;}uD; OD;av;vdkyJ cifavh&Sdygw,f? udkatmif'ifeJ@vnf; nDtudkqdkwm odvm&awmh 'Drdkua&pDrdom;pktjzpf ydkrdkoHa,mZOf wG,f&ygw,f? e,l;a,mufrSm ‘qkHqnf;&m’ pmtkyfqdkifqdkwm &Sdygw,f? e,l;a,mufudk a&muf&SdwJh pmayorm;wdkif; tJ'Dpmtkyfqdkifudk 0if=uygw,f? wifrdk;eJ@ usaemf a&muf&ifvnf; tJ'DrSm wcsdefvkH; pmxdkifzwf=uygw,f? wifrdk;u pmtkyfqdkifjywif;aygufem;rSm aq;vdyfaomuf&if; pmzwfavh&Sdygw,f? wm&mrif;a0 topfawG@&if usaemfu ol@qDoGm;ay;ygw,f? “a&mh cifAsm;om;&JŒpm” vdk@vnf; ajymavh&Sdygw,f? wcgwav av;/ ig; tkyf ykHay; vdkufygw,f? wifrdk;u “'Daumifa&;wmawmh topftqef;awGcsnf;yJ? bmawGrSef;vnf; rodbl;” vdk@ qdkavh&Sdygw,f? “awmfawmfa&;EdkifwJh aumif” vdk@vnf; tjrJ rSwfcsufcsygw,f? rsm;vGe;f vd@k usaemfvnf; pkaH tmif rzwfEifkd yf g? ckawmh wm&mrif;a0vnf; uG,v f eG &f mS +yD? ol@arG;pm;tazvnf; uG,v f eG cf &hJ mS yg+y?D axmifu tv#Kv d #Kx d u G v f m=uwJh vli,fawG[m wcsKŒd u pmayorm; r[kwf=uyg? wifrdk;eJ@awG@+yD; uAsmawG/ pmawG a&;csifpdwfay:vm+yD; ckqdk&if axmifxu G pf ma&;q&mav;awG&ŒJ pmawGukd vdu k zf wfv@kd rqk;H Edik yf g? jynfwiG ;f rSm a&;cGihf r&Syd g? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


182

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

pmtkyfxkwfcGifhvnf; r&Sdyg? jynfyrSm a&;=u/ xkwf=uvdk@ zwf&ygw,f? wm&mrif;a0eJ@ wifrdk;wdk@&JŒ pmaytkyfpk[m axmifxJrSm b,fvdkaecJh=uygovJ? b,fvdk pmayqnf;yl;=uygovJ? okawoe ðy=u&ygvrd rhf ,f? wm&mrif;a0&JŒpmawGuv kd nf; jyefvnf pkpnf; zwf±_+yD; ol@pmayt,ltq/ ol@ta&;tom;udk avhvm+yD; pmwrf;a&;=u&ygvdrfhr,f? ol@pmtrsK;d tpm;[m acwfwacwfjzpfcw hJ ,fv@kd xifygw,f? ol@pmtrsK;d tpm;rSm ol[m v$r;f rd;k cJhw,fvdk@vnf; em;vnfxm;ygw,f? wae@awmh wuUodkvfu pmwrf;zwfygvdrfhr,f? usaemf pdw0f ifpm;wmuawmh wm&mrif;a0 tygt0if axmifwiG ;f pmayvli,frsm;[m olw@kd pmayb0udk b,fvðkd ypkysK;d axmifc=hJ uygovJ? wifr;kd wd@k v/kd OD;0if;wifw@kd vdk vl}uD;awGu b,fvdktcef;u ygcJh=uygovJ? tJ'D 2 csufudk pdwf0ifpm;ygw,f?

? (Zlvdkif 17/ 2009)

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183

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88 xJu wa,muf armif7pf 1988 ta&;awmfykHrSm tvGefi,f&G,f/ Eke,fwJh ausmif;om;vli,fawG[m ppfvufeuf tjynfhtpkH/ &ufpuf=urf;ñuwfr_ urf;ukefwJh ppftm%m&SifawGudkzDqefvdk@ awmfvSefcJh=uyg w,f? tJonf vufeufrJhawmfvSefa&;rSm rdbjynfolawG[m v_dif;vkH;rsm;ozG,f w0kef;0kef;eJ@ xºuGvmcJh=uw,f? ,cktcsdeftxd ppftm%m&Sifvufatmufu vGwfajrmufzdk@ pcJh=u&wJh ajcvSr;f awG rqk;H ao;yg? tJonf ajcvSr;f awGaemuf qufavsmufvm=uwJh &J&ifw h hJ rsK;d qufopf vli,fawG&JŒ vufqifhurf;c&D;=urf;uvnf; a&SŒodk@ tjrifhrm;qkH; csDwufaeqJygyJ? [k;d vGecf w hJ hJ tESpf 20 wke;f u usaemfw@kd wOD;udk wOD;vnf; rod=ubl;? wOD;udk wOD;vnf; r&if;ES;D =uygb;l ? od@k aomfvnf; wavSwnf;pD;/ wc&D;wnf;oGm;=uwJo h al wGtjzpf wOD;vufrmS wOD;toufut kd yf+y;D csw D ufae=uw,fqw kd hJ &Jabmf &Jbufpw d t f jynfq h w kd mudak wmh tcdik t f rm odcw hJ ,f? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


184

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

Oyrm ausmif;om;nDvmcHawGrSm te,fe,ft&yf&yfu or*~ eJ@ wyfOD; toD;oD;u csw D ufvm=uwJh ausmif;om;vli,fawGukd nDtudak rmifErS t&if;awGvkd yuwdtwdik ;f cifrif cspcf ifaewmrsK;d ? axmifawG &Jpcef;awGxrJ mS =urf;wajy;xJ/ uGyjf ypfwckxJ &ifabmifwef; aexdik f &if;rSm aotwl &SifruGJ tumtuG,fay;&r,fh aoG;aomufolykefawGvdkrsKd;? vrf;ay:rSm/ +yD;awmh aoewfajymif;awGa&SŒ csw D uf=uwJt h cg vufcsi;f jrJjrJcsw d v f @kd tHwif;wif;}udwv f @kd igw@kd &JabmfawG 'Dae&mrSm wcgyJ twlwlao=ur,fqdkwJh pdwf"mwfrsKd;awGeJ@ wufºuGcJh=uovdkrsKd; usaemfw@kd wawG tJonfvkd &Jabmf &Jbuf pdwaf wGe@J usaemfw@kd touf&iS cf =hJ uw,f? touf±LS cJ=h uw,f? tJonf tod/ tJonf ,kH=unfr_eJ@ tJonf&JŒ pdwf"mwf[m tJonf 1988 ta&;awmf yk}H uD;uae usaemfw@kd &ŒJ vdyjf ymxJukd csi;f eif;a&muf&cdS v hJ @kd tJonfpw d "f mwftarGe@J usaemfw@kd wawG cspfcifvdk@ &J&ifhvdk@ opPmawG&Sdvkd@vmcJhygw,f? 1988 aemufyikd ;f rSm usaemfw@kd wawG t&yf 10 rsuEf mS b,fae&m/ b,furBmod@k vGiphf if usa&mufcyhJ gap/ tJonf oHa,mZOfawG[m jrJjrHcikd jf rJpmG usaemfw@kd ukd csnaf ESmifcw hJ ,f? usaemf wdk@wawG[m wcgzl;r# rqkHcJhzl;ygap? awG@vdkuf&wJhc%rSm 88 ta&;awmfykHwkef;u jzwfoef; cJ=h u&wJh &JabmfawGv@kd odvu kd &f w,fq&kd ifyJ wr[kwcf si;f ESpaf ygi;f rsm;pGmu i,faygi;f }uD;azmf rsm;yrm jzpfvdk@oGm;cJh=uwm b,fvdkrS&Sif;jyvdk@rvG,fwJh vSywJhcHpm;r_wckyJ jzpfygw,f? tJonfvrkd sK;d eJ@ a&$bek ;f vlukd usaemfw@kd cspcf ifn! D w G cf w hJ ,f? tJonfvrkd sK;d eJ@ wm&mrif;a0 udk em;vnfcHpm;cJhw,f? tJonfvdkrsKd; cspfcifnD!GwfwJh tJonfvdkrsKd; em;vnfcHpm;wJh 88 xJu vlwa,muf a&;vdkufwJh tEkynmawGqdkwm tm;vkH;udk &yfwef@ ai;armrdapatmif =oZm}uD;apcJhwmaygh vdk@ em;vnfrdygw,f? tJonfvrkd sK;d cHpm;csuaf wGqw kd m ESpu f mv=umvmonfEiS t hf r# wjznf;jznf;csi;f zG@J wnf vm pGjJ rJvmwmrsK;d yg? 1988 eJ@ wjznf;jznf;a0;vmwJt h cg usaemfw@kd wawG usaemfw@kd a&muf aewJah e&mav;awGrmS txD;useo f vdjk zpfc=hJ u&wJh umvawGvnf; trsm;}u;D yg? tusO;f axmif xJu &JabmfawG/ e,fpyfa'ou &JabmfawG/ usqkH;oGm;wJh &JabmfawG +yD;awmh usaemfwdk@vdk vGifhpifaysmufqkH;oGm;wJh &JabmfawG[m wpdrf;awG=um;rSm cGeftm;awGwif;+yD; &SifoefcJh=uwJh &ufawGvnf; trsm;}uD;yg? 'gayr,fh 2004 ckESpfumvrsm;rSm tusOf;axmifxJu usaemfwdk@&JŒ ausmif;om;vli,f awG ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm tusOf;usae&mu vGwfajrmufvm=uwJhtcsdefup+yD; usaemfwdk@a&SŒu &Jabmf}uD;awG (rif;udkEdkif/ udkudk}uD;/ *sifrD/ vSrsKd;aemif/ udkaX;ºuG,f tp&SdwJh æ) tusOf;axmif toD;oD;u xGufav#mufvm=uwJh tcsdefup+yD; tJonf ‘vdyfjym’[m usaemfwdk@tm;vkH; &ifxJrSm ydkrdkjyif;xefpGm Edk;xvdk@vmcJh=uw,f xifygw,f? ÐÐÐ rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


185

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‘88 rsKd;quf ausmif;om; æ’vdk@ olwdk@wawGu vlod&Sif=um; armfuGef;xdk;+yD; &J&J0Hh0Hh xkwfazmfcH,ljyvdkufwm[m usaemfwdk@wawGtm;vkH; wppDuGJuGmae=uwJh nDtudk armifESr awGudk &Jabmf &JbufawGtjzpf topfwzef aoG;opfavmif;vdkufovdkygyJ? jrefrmjynf wESH@wvsm;rSm/ jrefrmjynfjyify upifhuvsm;rSma&muf&Sdae=uwJh 1988 ta&;awmfykHu ausmif;om;vli,fawG[m a&mufwahJ e&mu csucf si;f udk rwfrwfx&yfv@kd usaemfw@kd &JabmfawG tcsif;csif; jyefvnfvdk@ &SmazGawG@&SdcJhaygh? usaemfwdk@ tJonftcsdefrSm jyefpOf;pm;rdvdkufwmu igwdk@wawG ae&ma'otoD;oD;rSm b,favmufyJ a0;uGmaeae/ uGu J mG aeae igw@kd wawG[m wavSwnf;pD; wc&D;wnf; oGm;ae =uwJh &JabmfrdwfaqGawGygvm; qdkwmygyJ? 88 rsKd;qufawGxJrSm axmifxGufawG/ olykefawG/ 0&rf;ajy;awGtjyif uAsmq&m/ pma&;q&m/ ±kyf&Sif'g±kdufwm/ aps;onf/ 0efxrf;/ vkyfief;&SifeJ@ b0rsKd;pkH tzkHzkHeJ@ b,fvdkyJ ±kyfzsufvdk@ zkH;uG,fxm;ygap? igwdk@wawG[m 88 awGygvm; qdkwJh todvdyfjym[m ydkvdk@ cdkifrmoGm;ygawmhw,f? 2007 =o*kwfv 5 &ufrSm a&$bkef;vl (wm&mrif;a0) uG,fvGefw,f? 88 rsKd;quf ausmif;om;vli,frsm; wpkwa0;wnf; &yfwnf=u+yD; olwdk@&JŒ &Jabmf&JŒ aemufqkH;c&D;udk ydk@aqmifE_wfquf=uw,f? &yfeD; &yfa0;u 88 cGyfa'gif;awG[m olwdk@odwJh a&$bek ;f vl/ olw@kd cifwhJ wm&mrif;a0udk olw@kd &ŒJ &Jabmf 88 xJu wa,muftjzpfe@J 0rf;enf;jcif; txdrf;trSwfðy=uw,f? tJonfrSm usaemf jyefvnfcHpm;vdk@&wmu 88 ta&;awmfykH}uD;rSm tcsi;f csi;f vufwn JG ! D w G f &J0phH eG @f pm; pdwu f ;l ,Ofc=hJ uzl;wJh &Jabmf&b J uf qdw k hJ pdwu f ;l vdyjf ym jzpfygw,f? +yD;awmh 88 u a&$bkef;vl wjzpfvJ uAsmq&m wm&mrif;a0 trnfeJ@ vufqifh urf;vdkufwJh ol@tEkynmtvif;a&mifatmufrSm ol&JŒ cspfcifol vli,fy&dowfawGudkvnf; usaemfwdk@&JŒ &ifckefoHcsif;wlwJh nDtudk armifESrawGvdkrsKd; &SmazGawG@&Sdvdkufygw,f? olu aemufqkH; uAsmwyk'frSm a&;cJhw,f? ol&JŒ txky`wWdudk zGifh=unfhw,f wJh? a&xJudk cJusovdk/ a&xJu ig; ckefwufvmovdkrsKd; wJh? ‘yvkH’ wJh? usaemfhtaeeJ@ ol@udk tJovdkrsKd; rjrifyg? 88 xJu wa,muf æ +yD;awmh a&$bek ;f vl twGuf æ usaemfw@kd awGrmS vufqifu h rf; wJh*,ufawGeJ@ usef&pfcJhw,fvdk@ ,kHygw,f? bma=umifhqdkawmh 88 xJu wa,mufrdk@vdk@yg? usaemfuawmh 88 xJu wa,mufudk ay;vdkufp&m uAsmwyk'fyJ &Sdygw,f? 2008 u a&;cJhwJh uAsmyg? ÐÐÐ

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


186

wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

88 opfyif -o*kwf 8/ 2008 tJonfwek ;f u olwdk@rSm ay;p&mqdkvdk@ toufyJ &Sdw,f? olwdk@rSm pGef@p&m cýmyJ &Sdw,f? tJ'gukd tukefvkH; ðr‡yfESHvdk@ tJ'Du ta&;awmfykHrSm olw@kd ud, k f olw@kd ajcpkHypf csDwufcJh=u? olw@kd aoG;awG olw@kd toufawGe@J olwdk@ pdkufcJhwJh opfyif tJ'Du &SifoefvmwJh æ 88 ta&;awmfykH opfyif? igwdk@ æ oifwdk@ t&dyfatmufrSm oifwdk@ ajc&if;rSm igwdk@ tav;ðyvdkufygw,f?

? (Zlvdkif 20/ 2009)

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


187

atmif'if pDpOfonf?

aus;Zl; rSwfwrf; wm&mrif;a0 uG,fvGefjcif; 2 ESpfjynfh trSwfw&tjzpf 'Dpmtkyfuav;udk pDpOfxkwfa0 vdkufygw,f? 2007 =o*wfpf 5/ ol uG,fvGefcsdefuwnf;u pDpOfzdk@q端&SdcJhayr,fh ta=umif; trsKd;rsKd;a=umifh wm0efrauscJhyg? ckawmh xkwfa0jzpfyg+yD? wm&mrif;a0 udk cspfwJhvlawG&Sd=uovdk rkef;wJhvlawGvnf; &Sd=urSmyg? ol@udk owd& ae=uwJhvlawG&Sdovdk arhaysmufxm;csifwJhvlawGvnf; &Sd=urSmyg? ol[m vltm;vkH;twGuf wm0efausEikd cf o hJ rl [kww f m aocsmygw,f? 'gayr,fh ol@a=umifh emusicf &hJ olawGawmh odwf rsm;rsm; &Srd ,frxifyg? ol[m ol@udk rke;f wJv h al wGuakd wmif emusiaf tmif wk@H jyef&uforl [kwf yg? ol@udk cspfwJhvlawGtwGuf 'Dpmtkyfuav;[m tvGrf;ajyp&m jzpfygvdrfhr,f? ol@a=umifh emusicf pH m;cJo h al wGtwGuv f nf; 'Dpmtkyu f av;[m rsuaf jzvuFmjzpfygap vd@k qkawmif;yg w,f? rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0jzefhcsdonf/


wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm;

188

oHa,mZOf}uD;rm;pGmeJ@ trSww f & uAsm pmpkrsm; yg0ifa&;om;=uoltm;vk;H udk aus;Zl; txl;wif&adS =umif; ajymyg&ap? wcsKŒd u ol@udk a&$bek ;f vltaeeJŒ odu|r;f cJ=h u+yD; wcsKŒd uawmh ol@udk wm&mrif;a0 tjzpf &if;ESD;cJh=u/ ol@uAsmrsm;/ 0ˆKrsm;udk ESpfoufcJh=uolawGyg? wcsKdŒ uawmh ol@udk a&$bkef;vl taeeJ@a&m/ wm&mrif;a0 tjzpfeJ@yg b0ESpfckpvkH;eJ@ ywfoufcJh=u olawGyg? olw@kd &JŒ yg0ifa&;om;r_a=umifo h m 'Dpmtkyu f av; touf0ifvmwmyg? tcsed w f w kd kd twGif;rSm wufokwf±dkuf pDpOf&wmrdk@ tcsKdŒ&if;ESD;olrsm;xH pmrl rawmif;EdkifcJhwJhtwGuf awmif;yefyg&ap? rsufESmzkH; 'DZdkif;a&;qGJay;wJh yef;csDq&m udkoef;aX;armifudkvnf; aus;Zl;wif&ygw,f? pmtkyftwGif;rSm ol@yef;csDum;awG okH;zdk@cGifhðywJh xdefxdef (yef;csD xdefvif;) udkvnf; aus;Zl; wifyg&ap? pmtkyfjzpfajrmufatmif zGJ@pnf;jyifqifay;wJh udkarmif&pf/ udkOD;/ roœm eJ@ rdk;rc tzG@J om;rsm;udv k nf; rarhravsmh rSww f rf;wif&ygw,f? wm&mrif;a0&JŒ uAsmawG/ pmrlawGukd pepfwus pkpnf;xm;wJh pdk;nDnD (acvGef;) udkvnf; txl;aus;Zl;wif&ygw,f? pmrlawGudk pmvkH;aygif;/ owfykHppfay;wJh rar+idrf; udkvnf; rSwfwrf;wif&rSmyg? aemufqkH;rSa&mufvmwJh pmrlwcsKŒd (q&m armifprG ;f &nf/ armif&pf/ yef;csD xdev f if; eJ@ 'D aus;Zl; rSww f rf;) udk pmvk;H aygi;f / owfykH ppfcsdefr&cJhyg? udkrkwfokef/ udkarmifEdk;/ udkbdkbdkxGef;wdk@. yef;csDum;rsm; ESifh acvGef;/ rdk;v_difn/ udkòz; wdk@&J@ uAsmrsm;twGufvnf; cGifhðycsuf rawmif;EdkifcJhyg? wm&mrif;a0&JŒ aemufqkH;tcsdefawGrSm teD;uyfapmifha&SmufcJh+yD; psmye tpDtpOf vSy atmif 0dik ;f 0ef;cJ=h uwJh oli,fcsi;f rsm;tm;vk;H udv k nf; txl;yJ aus;Zl;wif vGr;f qGwrf yd gw,f? tawmfrsm;rsm;[m rw&m;ojzifh tusO;f cscaH e=u&wmrd@k olw@kd tusO;f axmifrsm;u tjrefq;Hk jyefvGwf=uygap vdk@vnf; qkawmif;ygw,f? uAsma&;zdk@vljzpfvmwmrdk@ wrvGefrSmvnf; ol uAsmawG qufa&;aerSmygyJ? wrvGef rSmqufa&;aer,fh ol@&JŒuAsmawGudk usaemfwdk@ zwfcGifhr&Sdawmhyg? tESpf 40 aecJhwJhb0rSm ol csex f m;&pfcw hJ u hJ AsmawGe@J yJ ol@ukd vGr;f qGwaf e&ygawmhr,f? a&$bek ;f vl (ac: ) wm&mrif;a0 wrvGefrSm +idrf;csrf;ygap? ? arWmjzifh æ atmif'if jo8wfpf 5?2009

rdk;rc pme,fZif;tzGJhu xkwfa0 jzefhcsdonf/


æ fw,f ,f? i k d E f p ’kH nf; jz f; jzpfEdkifw ‘yv v m n soGm;w fvmwmv u J c ,f æ k d w f u Ju u k d w f x e k & c a nfhv Ju ig; zGifh=u g i k d a&x du ˆK`W rodbl;? t h g i vJ @rSm wae dkjzpfoGm;o 0 rif;a b,fv wm&m ’kH ‘yv


rdk;rcrD'D,m u xkwfa0cJhonfh pmtkyfeSifh rSwfwrf;rsm; pm7if; 1? rdk;rc a&'D,dk = wifrdk;eJŒ 12 v&moD cHpm;r+rsm;/ toHoGif;tifwmAsL; pkpnf;r+rsm;/ 2004 2? rdk;rc a&'D,dk = 2004 ckESpf tywfpOf tpDtpOfrsm; toHzdkifaygif;csKyf/ 2005 3? Zm*em = oD;av;oD;eJŒ aq;a&mifpkHt_idrfh = 'DAD'D ±kyfoHacG/ 2006 4? rdk;rc rD'D,m = vpOfowif;v$mrsm; 2006 aygif;csKyf = yD'Dtufzf pD'D/ 2007 5? Zm*em = 1990 o}uFef oHcsyfrsm; = pD'D ±kyfoHacG/ 2007 6? 2007 oHCmhoydwf ta&;awmfykH "mwfykHrSwfwrf;rsm; = yD'Dtufzf pD'D/ 2007 7? 2007 oHCmhoydwf ta&;awmfykH trSwfw& aw;oDcsif;/ uAsm rSwfwrf;rsm; = 'DAD'D ±kyfoHacG/ 2007 8? uAsmq&m}uD; OD;wifrdk; uG,fvGefjcif; 1 v jynfh/ zvfrD;tdrfodkŒ tvGrf;pm pmpkrsm; = pmtkyf/ 2007 9? uAsmq&m}uD; OD;wifrdk; uG,fvGefjcif; 6 v jynfh/ pmayaqG;aEG;yGJ txdrf;trSwf = pmtkyf/ 2007 10? rdk;rc rD'D,m = a-u;rkH OD;aomif; (atmifAv) uG,fvGefjcif;/ trSwfw& pmpkrsm; = pmtkyf/ 2008 11? oD;av;oD;eJŒ aq;a&mifpkH t_idrfh/ uefawmf}uD; ar#mfpifu|ef;yGJ 2007 = 'DAD'D ±kyfoHacG/ 2008 12? rdk;rc rD'D,m = a':atmifqef;pk-unf 63 ESpfajrmufarG;aeŒyGJ a':rmrmat; *k%fðytpDtpOf = 'DAD'D ±kyfoHacG/ 2008 13? rdk;rc rD'D,m = [Hom0wD OD;0if;wif ESifh pme,fZif;aqmif;yg;rsm; = pmtkyf/ 2008 14? rdk;rc rD'D,m = rmrmat; azmif;a';&Sif;&efyHkaiG = oDcsif;pD'D = 2008 (trsKd;om;a&;oDcsif;opfrsm; ESifh EdkifiHawmfoDcsif; jyefvnfxkwfazmfr+) ,ck 15? rdk;rc rD'D,m = wm&mrif;a0 trSwfw& pmpkrsm; = pmtkyf/ 2009

qufoG,f&ef = rdk;rc a&'D,dk eJŒ rD'D,m/ pmwkdufaowWmtrSwf 320=207 qefz&efppPudkòrdŒ/ u,fvDzdk;eD;,m;/ ,ltufpfat/ 94132=0207/ tifwmeufvdyfpm = rdk;rc a'ghuGef;


TaryarMinwai Memories  

TaryarMinwai Memories Writer-@ungDin

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