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================================================================================ rsufeSmzHk; eSifh aemufa}umzHk; tifwmeufwGif wifoGif;jzef hcsDaom Tpmrl. rsufemS zHk;rSm OD;atmifxl; t*Fvdyb f mom jzifh jyKpkaom “Tin Maung Oo: A Forgotten Hero of Asia” . rl&if;rsufemS zH;k jzpfygonf? xdkenf;wl Tpmtkyef Sifh pyfvSsOf; I jAdwdoSs 0ef}uD;csKyfa[mif; *dk'ef ba&mif;/ ASEAN Inter-Parliamentary Caucas (AIPMC) . 'k OuUX Kraisak Choonhaven/ ordkif;ynm&Sif ygarmuQ *sdL;Zuf aq;vfAm; pwdkif; eSifh tar&duef jynfaxmifprk S David Kramer (Former Assistant Secretary of State and Executive Director of Freedom House) wdk h.oabmxm;rSwfcsuf rsm; az:jyxm;cJhonfh aemufa}umzHk;rSmvnf; tqdkyg pmtkyfryS if jzpfygonf? trsdL;om;'Drku d a&pD tzGJ hcsKyfrS q&m}uD; OD;0if;wif. oabmxm;rSwfcsufudkrl txl;tom;ay;I 4if;. rl&if;a&;om;xm;csuf twdkif; t*Fvdyb f momjzifhyif pmtkyf. a&S hqHk;ae&mwGif az:jyxm;ygonf?

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Forgotten Political Prisoners of Burma’s Gulag Archipelagos

About 35 years ago, a hero of Burma, a hero of Asia, Salai Tin Maung Oo, was murdered in Insein Jail, the most notorious prison in the whole world. Salai Tin Maung Oo was a university student of the Chin nationality, a great lover of humanity, freedom, justice and peace. As a student leader, he was at logger’s head with the military rulers. He led many student demonstrations. At long last, he was arrested and sentenced to death. Then he was sent to the gallows. He is the very first student leader to be hanged during the time of Ne Win’s military dictatorship. He was dead. Unsung. Activists used to say Salai Tin Maung Oo had done a great service to the cause of liberty and democracy. He is a hero. But he is a forgotten hero of Burma. This was not true when I was put behind bars. When I was put behind bars, already two decades had gone since Salai Tin Maung Oo was hanged. Nevertheless, the legend of Salai Tin Maung Oo was the talk of the prison. He was still a legendary hero among us political prisoners. His name, his strifes, his struggles, his sacrifices are lavishly talked about among us. Nowadays, thanks to the thorough and investigative research and lovingly care-intensive prose by the author, U Aung Htoo, Salai Tin Maung Oo is no more a forgotten hero. His life and struggles are unveiled to the people of Burma, Asia, and the world over. He now becomes an icon of all the political prisoners in Burma. While one of the most submerged and unknown figures in Burmese history is unveiled for the first time, there still are more than two thousand political prisoners languishing in various dirty, unhealthy and narrow cells in the gulags, which are widely scattered over Burma. All those political prisoners are serving terms ranging over 100 years to over 30, 40, 50, 60 years, and so forth. Some of those political prisoners’ names crop up sometimes in the overseas media. The media reports just mention their names, not their living conditions. Hence, they virtually are forgotten prisoners anyhow. 6


Over two thousand political prisoners are here in Burma now. There are many kinds of demands for their release; political resolutions, appeals, requests, prayers, etc. to no avail. Recently the so-called civilian government, headed by Thein Sein, formerly a general and prime minister of the military junta, decreed an amnesty order reducing one year for every prisoner. It is a big political joke. A great shame for the country. A huge insult on top of injury. The whole world has cursed the half-military government in diplomacy-coated language. The shameless government remains unperturbed, looking foolish to the whole wide world. There are over two thousand forgotten political prisoners waiting in the gulags of Burma. Where are authors, writers, poets like Aung Htoo? Authors wanted; writers wanted; poets wanted for each and every forgotten political prisoner of Burma. You are highly welcomed. Come ye all. For the moment, Aung Htoo is more than good enough. He has done his best. ~U Win Tin National League for Democracy

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OD;a}umifh jzpf&onf[lI tjypfzdk@&ef enf;enf;rSsyifpw d frul;cJh=uacs? udkwifarmifOD;u vl@tzG@J tpnf;twGuf aumif; usK;d jyKcJhonfhtay: rdom;pk0ifrsm;u tvGeaf v;pm;wefbdk;xm;=uonf? 4if;twGuf*k%, f l=uonf? om;awmfarmif (odk@r[kwf) tpfudk}uD;jzpfoltay: cspfjcif;arwWmrsm; 'Da&tvm;wdk;yGm;cJh=uonf? udw k ifarmifOD;udk rdom;pk0ifrsm;u cspfcifav;pm;ouJhodk@yif rdom;pk0ifrsm; tcsif;csif;t=um;wGifvnf; wpfOD;udkwpfOD; ,cifuxuf ydI k tjyeftvSef cspfcifav;pm;vm=uonf? ydkI pnf;vHk;vm}uonf? TonfrmS udkwifarmifOD; a}umifhyif jzpfonf[k qdkedkifonf? Tae&mY xl;jcm;csufrSm tb,fenf;? udw k ifarmifOD;tepfemcHpeG f@v$wfcJhjcif;rsm;onf ta=umif;wdkufqdkif r_a=umifh r[kwfbJ 4if;.yifudk,fp&kdufESifh qufE, $ faeonfudkrdom;pk0ifrsm;. pdwfxJY od&daS ecJh=uonf? uav;b0 uwnf; uyif wifarmifOD;.tusifhp&du k fudk rdbrsm;u owdjyKrdcJh=uonf? udw k ifarmifOD;ESifhywfoufI 4if;wdk@od&Sdxm; onf rsm;udjk zpfEikd fygu wurBmvHk;odk@r#a0today;jcif;jzifh vuf&drS sKd;qufrsm;onfvnf;aumif;/ tem*wfrsKd;quf opfrsm; onfvnf;aumif; udw k ifarmifOD;. tawG ht}uHKrsm;eSifh pGrf;aqmifrSKrsm;rS ocFe;f pm ,lekid fap&ef &nf&G,fum T pmtkyu f dk a&;om;xkwfa0&jcif; jzpfonf? jrefrmEkdifiHwGif&ifeifhzG,f&mjzpf&yfaygif;rsm;pGm&Sdonfhteuf udkwifarmifOD;ESifh4if;.rdom;pk0ifrsm;awG@}uHKcHpm; cJh&onfh jzpf&yfrsm;rSm jrefrmEkdifiHtwGufomruurBmhEkdifiHtrsm;pktwGufyg r}uHKpzl;xl;jcm;aomjzpf&yfrsm;jzpfonf? &JpGr;f owWdEiS fhjynfhpkaH omudkwifarmifOD;onf zrf;qD;xdef;odr;f cH&um ao'%fcsrSwftjypfay;pD&ifjcif;cHcJh&onf? tpfudk }uD; tzrf;cH&+yD; &uftenf;i,f t=umwGif 4if;. nDEiS fh nDrrsm;u ausmif;om;qENjyyGJrsm;udk qufvuf OD;aqmif vSKyf&Sm;cJh}uojzifh xyfrHzrf;qD;cHcJh&+yD; wpfOD;v#if axmif'%f(9)ESpf eSifh (7) eSpfpD csrSwfjcif;cHcJh&onf?tqdk;qHk;rSmum; Ekid fiHa&; v_y&f Sm;r_rsm;wGif vHk;0yg0ifcJhjcif; r&Sdaom/ &kd;om;vSaom rdbESpfyg;udkyg zrf;qD;+yD; wpfOD;v#iaf xmif'%f (5) ESpfpD csrSwfcJhjcif;jzpfonf? udw k ifarmifOD;. nDi,fwOD;udkvnf; axmifxJwGif &SpfvrSs csKyfaeSmifxm; cJhonf? pkpkaygif; rdom;pk q,fOD;&Sdonfhteuf wOD;udk ao'%fcsrSwf/ av;OD;udk eSpf&n S faxmif'%frsm;pD&if/ wOD;udk csKyfaeSmifxm;onfh tcsdew f Gif aetdrfY vlrr,f uav;i,f av;OD;om usefcJhonf? ppftm%m&Sif.vufyg;aprsm;u xdk uav;i,frsm; udkyg +cdr;f ajcmufEdyS pf ufjcif;rsm; jyKvkycf Jh=uonf? qvdkif;wifarmifOD;rSvGJI 4if;. rdom;pk0ifrsm;tm;vHk; axmifrS touf&SifvGwfajrmufvmcJh}ujyD jzpfaomf vnf; awG@}uHK cHpm;cJh&aomtwdwfq;dk rsm;onf 4if;wdk htay: ,ae@wkdifv$r;f rdk;xm;qJ jzpfonf? tqdkyg jzpf&yfrsm; onf 4if;wdk@twGuf tdyfrufq;dk rsm;om jzpf+yD; tdyf&mrS Ek;d xvmcsdew f Gif t&m&mtm;vHk; jyefaumif;oGm;rnf[k ar#mfvifhxm;=uaomfvnf; vufawG@wGifrlxdkuJhokd@ jzpfrvmcJhacs? tdyfrufqdk;rsm;u 4if;wkd@udk t+rJwap ajcmufvSef@ aeonf? pifppftm;jzifh ,if;wdk hrmS tdyfrufqdk;rsm;jzpf&o Hk mru ,ae hwdkif4if;wdk h awG@}uHKcHpm;ae&qJ jzpfaom 'kuQ a0'emrsm;yif jzpfonf? udkwifarmifOD;rSm ol&aJ umif;yDopGm usqHk;oGm;cJhyg+yD? tdk;rif;&ifha&mfae+yD jzpfaom rdbESpfyg; rSm 4if;wdk@.cspfvSpmG aom om;awmfarmifudk ayG@zufEikd fcGifhr&awmhyg? xdk@jyif udkwifarmifOD;.nD/ nDrrsm;onftpfudk }uD;jzpfol. wnf}unf cef hnm;aomrsufEmS udk awG@jrifEdik fcGifh r&}uawmh? udkwifarmifOD;eSifhtwlwuG rdom;pkrsm; tm;vHk; jyHK;&$if&,farmcJh}uonfh tcsderf sm;udk rnfonfhtcgwGifrsS jyefvnf&&Sd}urnf r[kwfawmh? udkwifarmifOD; qHk;yg;oGm;onfh aemufyidk f;rSpI 4if;wkd@twGuf t&m&mqHk;&_;H oGm;ouJhodk@ cHpm;=u&onf? 4if;wdk h. eSvHk;onf;yGwf onf udw k ifarmifOD;eSift h wl ygoGm;cJhygjyD? toufEiS fh cE<m wnf+rJae=uao;aomfvnf; 4if;wkd@. pdwf0n d mOfrsm;rSm rlum; ysufokOf;oGm;cJh}u+yD jzpfonf?

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uif;rJhaejcif;a=umifhavm? rdcifwpfa,muf. ‘cspfjcif;arwWm’udk urBm}uD;utodtrSwfrjyKawmhjyDavm? vGefcJhaom (35)ESpftwGif;wGif udw k ifarmifOD;. rdcif cHpm;cJh&aom a0'emrsm;ESifh ywfoufIpHpk rf;ar;jref;ol r&Sdoavmuf&Sm;yg; cJh onf? jrefrmedkifiHY xdkuJhodk haom rdcifrsLd ;rsm;. &ifwGif;a0'emudk az:xkwfcGifhrSsyif r&aom tajctaeatmuf wGif ‘trsK;d om; &if=um;apha&;’ [lonfudk rnfonfhtcsdefY taumiftxnfaz:Ekdifygrnfenf;? jrefrmEkid fiH tjzpf tysufrsm;. aemufuG,f&dS trSew f &m;udk az:xkwfEdik fa&;twGuf pHpk rf;ppfaq;a&;aumfr&SifzJ@G pnf;a&;ESifh ywfoufI jynfwGif;rSmvnf; rnfonfhvkyfief;pOfrSs r&Sd/ ukvor*~tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;uvnf; aESmifhaES;ae&onfrmS tb,fa}umifh yg enf;? udw k ifarmifOD;. rdcif tygt0if rdom;pk wpkvHk;onf T onfwdk heiS fh pyfvSsOf;I rnfodk hrsS em;vnfekid fjcif; r&Sdyg? udkwifarmifOD;. rdcif a':eSif;jrdKifudk wpHw k &m*k%fjyKonfhtaejzifh Tae&mrSpI olrudk ‘tar’[k ac:a0:oH;k E_ef;ygrnf? a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf aetdrt f csKyfrS vGwfajrmufvm+yD; &ufowWywftenf;ti,ftwGif;wGif olr. om;jzpfoludk awG@qkcH Gifh &&SdcJhonf? xdktcsdew f Gif rdcifESifh om;jzpfolwdk@. aysmf&i$ f0rf;ajrmufru _ dk udk,fcsif;pmemawG; awm =unfhEkdifygonf? &kyfjrifoH}um;zefom;jyifay:wGif tqdkyg &ifoyf&_armzG,faumif;aom yHk&dyrf sm;udk &_jrif&onf rSm =unfE;l zG,f&m aumif;vSayonf? 'Drdkua&pD jy&kyfwpfck tjzpfr[kwfbJ omrefrcd if wpfa,muftjzpf a':atmif qef;pk=unfudk awG@jrifvdkuf&olwdkif;onf 0rf;omyDwdrsm;jzpfcJh&onf? rdcifwpfa,muf. cspfjcif;arwWmonf rdom;pk twGif;/ jynfwGif;Yomru urBmt&yf&yf&dS jynfoljynfom;rsm;xHodk@ ysH@E@SH oGm;cJhonf? a':atmifqef;pk=unfEiS fh om; jzpfolwdk@ jyefvnfqpHk nf;ae=uaom jrifuGif;udk=unfh&if;u udkwifarmifOD;. taronfvnf; om;jzpfoludkar#mfvifh wrf; waecJhrnfrmS trSeyf ifjzpfonf? a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf om;jzpfolEiS fhvufcsif;qufum+yHK;&$ifpmG jzifh a&$wd*Hk bk&m;udk zl;ar#mf=unfndKcJhovdkyif taronfvnf; udkwifarmifOD;ESifhtwl c&pf,mefbk&m;&Sdcdk;ausmif;odk@oGm; a&muf vdkcJhrnf jzpfonf? a':atmifqef;pk=unf. om;jzpfolEiS fh uGmjcm;onfrmS udw k ifarmifOD;onf tar. &ifcGifodk@ rnf onfhtcgr# jyefvnfcdkv_HEikd fawmhrnf r[kwf [lonfh tcsufyifjzpfonf? 4if;. &kyfESifch E<monf TurBmavmu }uD; udk xm0& pGe@f cGmoGm;cJhyg+yD? rsuf0ef;xJrSrsuf&nfrsm;udk tEkdifEdik fqnf&if;u taronf ‘igvJ vlom;wpfa,muf yguG,f? ighudk ausmufom;eJ@xkxm;wmrS r[kwfwmbJ?’[lIom ajymEkdifcJhonf? a':atmifqef;pk=unf. yDwdt+yHK; udk urBmt&yf&yf&dS jynfoljynfom; taygif;wdk@u awG@jrifcJh&aomfvnf; tarh&ifxJY jzpfay:aecJhaom idkaºuG; rnf wrf; jcif;rsm;udk rnfolur# owdjyKEkdifrnf r[kwfacs? udkwifarmifOD;eSifhbk&m;ocihfEikd fiHYom jyefvnfqaHk wG@=u&vdrhrf nf[k tartygt0if rdom;pk0ifrsm;tm;vHk;u ,Hk=unfar#mf vifhae =u&HkrSwyg; tjcm; rwwfeidk f}uawmhyg? udw k ifarmifOD;taejzifh vl@tzG@J tpnf;udkaumif;usKd;jyK&eftwGuf v_y&f Sm;vkyaf qmifcJhjcif;a=umifhtoufpaw; cJh&onfhtay: rdom;pk0ifrsm;u rnfonfhtcgur# aemifw&jcif; r&SdcJh=uacs? odk@aomfvnf; ESpfvrsm; =umjrifhvmcJh onfEiS fhtr# vl@tzG@J tpnf;u udw k ifarmifOD;. toHEiS fh &yfwnfcsufwdk@udk vspfv#L&_vm=uonfhtay:0rf;enf; rd}u onf? ol.toufudk paw;um ppfzed yfatmufwGif 'l;raxmufa=umif;udk udw k ifarmifOD;u oufaojycJhjcif;rSm aemifvm aemufom;rsm;uvnf; ppftm%m&Sifpepfudk tjrpfjyKwfatmif wGe;f vSefEkdifonftxd pGrf;aqmif=uap vdk onfh ol. vdktifqENudk txift&Sm; jyooGm;cJhjcif;jzpfonf? odk@aomf pdwfrcsrf;ajr@zG,faumif;onfrmS ‘'Dru dk a&pD pepf odk@ wjznf;jznf; ajymif;vJ&ef’/ ‘cGifhv$wfpw d fxm;&Sd&ef’ESifh ‘pD;yGm;a&; zG@H +zdK;wdk;wufr_twGufOD;pm;ay;&ef’ponfh aqmifyk'rf sm;udk a}uG;a}umfum trsdL;om;jyefvnfoihfjrwfa&; [lonfudk udk,fhtusdK;pD;yGm;eSihf ,SOfwGJt"dyg` ,fziG fhqkd 17


vSsuf ppftm%m&Sifrsm;eSifhvnf;aumif;/ vuf&dt S csdew f Gift&yfom;toGifaqmifxm;aom ppftpdk;&ESihfvnf;aumif; yl;aygif;aqmif&u G fae}uolrsm;eSifh pyfvSsOf;I jzpfonf? 4if;wdk h. vkyaf qmifrSKrsm;onf tm%m&Sifpepf oufq;dk &Snf a&;twGuf wdkif;jynf,EW,m;rsm;wnfaxmifvnfywfrSKudk w&m;0ifulnDyhyH k;d ay;&ma&mufaeapayonf?tusdK;quf taejzifh wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;rsm; ppfyko H Gif;jcif; cHae=u&um jynfoljynfom;wdk@. vGwfvyfcGifhrSmvnf; uif;rJhvSsuf &Sad e&jcif;jzpfonf? odk hjzpfI vlom;csif;pmemrSKtajccHwGif vGwfvyfr_/ w&m;r#wr_ESifh +idrf;csrf;r_wdk@udk vdkvm;aom jrefrmEkdifiH twGif;&Sd vlxkrsm;omru urBmtESH@tjym;&Sd jynfoljynfom;taygif;wdk@uyg qvdkif;wifarmifOD;. &Sif;vif;jywfom; aom &yfwnfcsufrsm;udk od&deS m;vnfEk;d =um;vmEkdifap&ef eSifh 4if;. pGrf;aqmifrKS rsm;udk avhvmcGifh&}uap&ef&nf&, G f vSsuf 4if;. twˆKy`wWdudk a&;om; wifjyvdkuf&jcif; jzpfonf? urBmajrjyifwae&m&mwGif tm%m&Sifpepf wenf; wzHk oufqdk;&Snfaeor# umvywfvHk; ‚rif;wdk hppfbdeyfatmufrmS igb,fawmhrS 'l;raxmufbl;uG‛ [k }uHK;0g;&if; tm%m&Sifpepfukd jywfjywfom;om; wdkufyGJ0ifcJhaom qvdkif;wifarmifOD;. owWd/ ,Hk}unfcsuf eSifh &yfwnfcsufwdk@ onf tpOftjrJ&iS foefaernf rkcsjzpfonf?

18


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zdcsI tidkwdwfap&ef ajymaomfvnf; tcsD;ESD;yif jzpfcJhonf? aemufqHk;wGif om;jzpfol xdckdufemusifoGm;rnfudk pd;k &draf om tazu ol.acgif;udk jyefv$wfay;cJh&onf? wifarmifOD;tm; wif;rmcufxefpmG jyKrlqufqHI r&a=umif;udk tazu xdktcsderf Spwif od&do S Gm;cJhonf? aEG;axG;aysmhajymif;aom avoHjzifh ‚om;u vdrmR ygw,fuGm? ridkeJ@awmh?‛[k ajymrSomv#if wifarmifOD; tidkwdwf a=umif; od&dcS Jh&onf? Tae&mwGif wifarmifOD;onf ol. nDtpfudk armifESrrsm;ESifh rwla=umif;/ n‡ifom=uifemr_ tjynfhjzifh ajymqdkqufqH rSomv#if vl}uD;pum; em;axmifa=umif;wdk@udk tazESifhtarwdk@ &dyfpm;rdcJh=uonf? wifarmifOD;. nDi,f/ nDri,frsm; tvGet f rif; idk,kdaev#ifrl taru &du k frv S #if 4if;wdk@ tidkwdwfa=umif; 4if;wkd@udk acsmharmhajymqdkI r&a=umif;wdk@udk taru jyefajymif;ajymjyonf? vlrq _ ufqHa&;wGif ‘+cdr;f ajcmufjcif;’/ ‘a=umufvef@apjcif;’ESifh ‘qd;k &Gm;pGm jyKrlqufqHjcif;’wdk@rSm tysuf oabm aqmifaom t&mrsm;jzpf+yD; ‘cspfjcif;arwWm jyojcif;’/ ‘av;pm;r_ ay;jcif;’ESifh ‘wpfOD;. *k%o f duQmudk tjzm;wpfOD;u todtrSwfjyKjcif;’wkd@rSm tjyKoabmaqmifaom t&mrsm;jzpfonf? wifarmifOD;.xl;jcm;aom yifudkp&du k fEiS fh ywfoufI qdk&v#if vlrq _ ufqHa&;wGif 4if;onf ‘tysuf oabmaqmifaom t&mrsm;’udk qef@usif+yD; ‘tjyKjzpfwnfr’_ tjrifudk tpOfusifhoHk;aecJhol wpfa,muf jzpfonf? Tobm0avmu}uD;wGif avjyif;rkew f kdif;/ a&}uD;r_EiS fh rD;avmifr_ ponfh ‘tysufoabmaqmifaom t&mrsm;’udk a&Smif&mS ;I r&Ekid facs? odk@aomfvnf; tqdkyg ‘tysuf oabmaqmifaom t&mrsm;’wdk@onf vlom;wdk@. &kef@&if;=urf;wrf;aom vky&f yfrsm;a=umifh ydrk q dk dk;&Gm; vmjcif; jzpfa=umif;/ 4if;wdk@tm; jyKjyifajymif;vJ&ef vdktyfa=umif;wkd@udk wifarmifOD;u em;vnfoabmaygufcJhonf? i,f&, G fpOf uav;b0uwnf;uyif wifarmifOD;onf opfyifwdk@u ay;aom tusKd;aus;Zl;rsm;udk rdrdbmom od&d&S yd fpm;cJhrd+yD; opfyifrsm;udk tvGefcspfjrwfEd;k cJhonf? wpfpkw H pfOD;u opfyifckwfonfhtcgwdkif;wGif 4if;. rESp+f rdK@ru _ dk xkwfaz:ajym=um;avh&dcS Jhonf? Todk@aom tajctaersm;wGif olonf pdwfraumif;jzpf&a=umif;/ aumif;uifjym}uD;ESifh aumif;uifodk@ xdk;xGufaeaom opfyif&dS opf&Gufrsm;qDudk ai;=unfhaeavh &Sad =umif;wdk@udk ol. nDrtm; wcgw&HY &ifziG fhajymqdkcJhonf? xdktcsdeu f obm0ywf0if;usif jy\emonf ,ae@acwf umvavmuf tajctae rqdk;&Gm;ao;acs? xdkpOfuwnf;uyif opfyifrsm;udk umuG,fxde;f odrf;ay;Ekid fcJhrnfqv dk #if ,ae@acwfwGif urBm}uD; ylaEG;r_jy\emudk }uHKawG@=u&rnf r[kwfacs? tzdk;wef ausmufrsm;/ ajr,mrsm; (odk@r[kwf) wd&p>mefrsm;udk r[kwfbJ opfyifrsm;udkom wifarmifOD;u cspfjrwfEk;d cJhjcif;jzpfonf? tb,fa=umifh qdkaomf obm0avmu}uD;wGif opfyifrsm;onf ‘ouf&Sdjcif;’/ ‘oef@pifjcif;’ESifh ‘touf. vnfywfr_ jzpfpOf’wdk@ oabmaqmifaom oauFwwpfck jzpfaoma=umifh jzpfonf? xdk@a=umifhvnf; opfyifrsm;udk tjyKjzpfwnfr_ t&mrsm; tjzpf owfrw S fEdik fjcif; jzpfonf? vl@b0udk usifvnf jzwfoef;&mwGif tysufoabmaqmifaom t&mrsm;tm; a&Smifv$JI r&onfEiS fhtnD wifarmifOD;onf tysufoabmaqmifaom t&mrsm;udk &ifqidk fawG@}uHK&eftwGuf aESmifhaES;aejcif; tv#if;r&SdcJhol jzpfonf? odk@aomfvnf; vl@b0. tysufoabmaqmifaom t&mrsm;tay: wifarmifOD;u pdwftm&Hk pG+J rJaeol wpfOD; r[kwfcJhacs? ‘pdwfysufjcif;’/ ‘pdwf"gwfusjcif;’ESifh ‘pdwfqif;&Jjcif;’rsm;xJrS &kef;rxGufEdik folwpfOD; r[kwfcJhacs? 20


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pyfvsOf;I &Sif;vif;csufrsm; xkwfcJh&onf? jzpfysufaeaom tajctae t&yf&yfudk &dyfpm;rdonfh wifarmifOD;rSm ratmifhEkdif rtD;Ekid f &,fcsvdkufavawmhonf? xGuf&yfayguf aeol &aohwpfyg;tvm; 0wfpm;qif,ifwwfonfh vlwpfOD; wcgu wifarmifOD;rdom;pk. tdrfcsif;uyf&yfwGif aexdkifcJhbl;onf? ywf0ef;usi&f Sd tdrfe;D em;csif;rsm;u 4if;udk t=um;tjrifaumif;ol/ aA'ifa[m wwfolwpfOD;tjzpf ,Hk=unfcJh=uonf? ntcsdeaf &mufv#if olonf bk&m;pmvnf;r[kwf ygVdpmvnf; r[kwfonfh *gxmuJhodk@aom pmrsm;udk ckESpftrd f=um; &Spftrd f=um; atmfq&dk Gwfzwfavh&do S nf? xdktcsdew f Gif (10)wef; pmar;yGJ ajz&ef jyifqifaeol wifarmifOD;u nydkif;rsm;wGif pmudk tm&Hkpdkuf=unfh&ojzifh ta,mifaqmif&aoh. &GwfzwfoH rsm;a=umifh pdwftaESmifht,SufjzpfcJh&onf? Todk@jzifh wpfae@wGif tqdkyg ta,mifaqmif&aohudk taESmift h ,Sufay;&eftwGuf wifarmifOD; t}uH tpnfwpfck &vmcJhonf? vrdu k fnwpfnwGif wifarmifOD;ESifh vSa&$wdk@onf tarSmifxkudk tm;jyKum 4if;.+cH0if; tem;odk@ wdwfwqdwf uyfoGm;=u+yD; ajrcJpmrsm;jzifh tdrfacgifrk;d ay:odk@ ypfayguf=uavawmhonf? 0&HwmY *gxmrE<grsm;udk us,favmifpmG &Gwfzwfaeaom ta,mifaqmif&aohonf ol. tdrfacgifrk;d ay:rS toHrsm;a=umifh &kwfw&uf wdwfqdwfoGm;+yD; ywf0ef;usit f eD;tem;odk@ jyL;wl;+yJwJ =unfhavonf? 4if;. ywf0ef;usiw f Gif ouf&dw S pfaumifwpf+rD;udkr# rawG@&onfhtcg *gxmrsm;udkom ydkrdkus,af vmifpmG uke;f &Gwfawmhonf? nDtpfudk ESpfOD;uvnf; ajrcJpmrsm;udk xyfryH pfwif+yD; teD;tem;&Sd opfyifEiS fh +cHKykwfrsm;udk v_wfcwf&mwGif ta,mifaqmif &aohu o&JajcmufcHae&onf[k xifrw S fum *gxm&Gwfqjdk cif;udk csufjcif;&yfvdkuf+yD; a=umufa=umufvef@vef@jzifh 4if;.tdyfcef;xJodk@ 0ifa&mufoGm;cJhonf? xdktcsderf SpI 4if;. *gxm&GwfzwfoHrsm; vHk;0r=um;&awmhacs? wifarmifOD;ESifh vSa&$wdk@u Ttjzpftysufudk =unfhum wdk;wdk;}udwf&,farmcJ=h u&onf? wifarmifOD;ESifh ywfoufI &,f&i$ fz, G f&maumif;aom jzpf&yfaemufwpfckrmS Todk@wnf;? wpfae@wGif wuUodkvf ausmif;rS ajrjyef@csif;vlrsKd; tkyfpw k pfpkonf aysmfyJGpm;c&D; xGufcJh=uonf? wifarmifOD; wufa&muf aeaom twef;rS wuUodkvfausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;tjyif olemjyKoifwef;rS ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;ESifh txufwef; ausmif;ol ausmif;om;rsm;vnf; yg0ifcJh=uonf? wifarmifOD;u nDri,f rvS+rdKifudk 4if;wdk@ESifhtwl vdkufch&J efac:&m rvS+rdKifuvnf; oabmwlnDcJhonf? tyef;ajzpcef; a&mufonfhtcg owif;pum;vufqifhurf; upm;enf;wpfckudk upm;=uonf? xdkupm;enf;t& ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;onf ajruGufvyfwpfckwGif 0kid f;xdkif=u&onf? tm;vHk; tqifoifhjzpfonfhtcsdew f Gif 0kid f;xJrS wpfpHkwpfa,mufu pwifI pum;wpfcGe;f udk 4if;. eab;uyfv#ufwGif&daS eoltm; ESpfOD;=um; wD;wdk;ajymvdu k f&onf? xdkoluwzef rdred ab;wGif &Sad eoltm; tqdkyg owif;pum;udk wD;wdk; vufqifhurf;vdkuf&onf? Todk@jzifh wpfa,muf+yD;wpfa,muf ajymoGm;um aemufq;Hk vlxHY &&Sdaom owif;pum;onf e*dkrlvu xGufvmaom owif;pum;ESifh uJGjym;aea=umif;udk &dyfpm;rd=uum &,farmaysmf&i$ f&aom upm;enf;wpfckonf? odk@aomf wifarmifOD;u owif;pum;udk &&Sd+yD;I tjcm;olwpfOD;tm; vufqifhurf; wD;wdk;ajymvdkufonfhtcgwdkif;wGif xdkolonf ratmifhEkdifrtD;Ekdif &,farmum tawmrwwfEdik fawmh aoma=umifh upm;enf;udk tpu jyefpcJh&onfcsOf;om jzpfonf? wifarmifOD;u ab;vludk rnfuJhodk@ ajymvku d f a=umif; rod&aomfvnf; 4if;onf tvGe[ f moajrmufrnfrmS aocsmonf? wifarmifOD;onf [mo^m%f&i$ fol wpfOD; jzpfonfudk tqdkyg tcsif;t&mu oufaojyaecJhonf? 22


wifarmifOD;onf rdrdykid fqidk fxm;aom [mo^m%fprG f;jzifh rdom;pk0ifrsm;ESifh oli,fcsif; taygif;toif;rsm; tm; &,f&i$ fz, G f&mrsKd;pHkwdk@udk ay;pGrf;cJhonf? wifarmifOD;ESifhtwl ae&olrsm;onf rdrdwdk@. ae@pOfb0rsm; ydrk I dk vef;qef;wufºuGr&_ o Sd nf/ tjyKoabmaqmif+yD; wdk;wufr_rsm; &&Sdaeonf [lI cHpm;cJh=u&onf? wifarmifOD;. yifudk,fpw d f&if;udk tajccHI ajym&rnfqv dk #if 4if;onf vl@b0. aysmf&i$ fr_ okcrsm;udk t&dk;cHpw d fjzifh wpdu k frwfrwf &SmazGaecJh&HkomrubJ rdrd&&SdcHpm;ae&aom aysmf&i$ frr_ sm;tm; tjcm;olrsm;ESifhvnf; r#a0cHpm;cJholwpfOD; jzpfonf? wifarmifOD;onf rdwfaqGa&mif;&if;rsm;ukd aumif;rGepf Gm qufqHcJh&HkomrubJ &efol+ydKifbufrsm;tay:Yvnf; rvdkrke;f xm;pdwf &Scd JholwpfOD; r[kwfacs? pdwfEv S Hk; jzLpifoef@&Sif;ol [kqdkv#if rSm;rnfr[kwfyg? tqdkyg pif=u,fr_ rsm;udk wifarmifOD;u rnfuJhodk@ &&Sdydkifqikd fvmcJha=umif;udk rnfolr# rod&dcS Jhacs? odk@wnf;r[kwf xdktcsif;t&monf ol. yifukd,fp&dkuf yifavm? ol. }udK;pm;usifh}uHra_ =umifh jzpf&dv S mcJhonfh &vm'fwpfckavm? wifarmifOD;onf ‘a=umuf&H@G pdwf’udk t&if;cHI ‘cGifhv$wfpw d f’&SdEkdif&ef usifh}uHcJhjcif; r[kwfouJhokd@ ‘udk,fusK;d twGuf =unfhaompdwf’udk t&if;cHI ‘yËdyuQrsm;’udk a&Smif&mS ;cJholwpfOD; r[kwfacs? ‘vlom;jzpfr’_ / ‘vl@*k%foduQm’ESifh ‘vl@wefzdk;’wdk@udk tumtuG,fay;Ekdif&eftwGuf olonf &efolrsm;u pdefac:vmonfh tcgwdkif;wGif a&Smifajy;cJhol r[kwfbJ &J&J0H0h hH wke@f jyefwkdufckdufcJhol jzpfonf? odk@jzpfaoma=umifhvJ ol@udk &J&ifhaom ausmif;om;acgif;aqmif wpfOD;tjzpf xdkacwf&dS vltrsm;wdk@u todtrSwfjyK/ av;pm;cJh=ujcif;jzpfonf? odk@aomfvnf; wifarmifOD;onf ol. rD;avmif+rdKufaeaom pdwfEv S Hk;jzifh &efolrsm;udk wkdufcku d fcJhjcif; r&Sdacs? trke;f w&m;/ rvdkrke;f xm;r_EiS fh a'gorsm;jzifh jynfhaeaom pdwfEv S Hk;onf rD;avmif+rdKufaeaom pdwfEv S Hk;yif jzpfonf? oef@pifat;jr =unfvifaeaom a&ESifh tvm;wlonfh pif=u,faom pdwfEv S Hk;jzifh &efol&efbufrsm;udk &ifqidk fcJhonf? vlwpfa,mufonf rdrd. twGif;pdwfudk oef@pifatmif usifh}uHvkyaf qmifEkdifygu xdkolonf pdwfEv S Hk;wGif pif=u,frE_ Sifh wnf+idrrf _wdk@udk &&SdEkdifayonf? wifarmifOD;onfvnf; tqdkyg pdwftajctaeudk &&SdcJhjcif;jzpfonf? th=H ozG,f&maumif;onfrmS pdwfESvHk; pif=u,fro _ nf ol. todpw d f (odk@r[kwf) rodpw d fxJY jzpfaecJhjcif;yif jzpfonf? wpfudk,faumif;rqefbJ r#0vkdaom todpw d f &Syd /Hk obm0ywf0ef;usit f ay: av;pm;r_ &Syd /Hk aysmf&i$ f aemufajymifwwfaom tjyKtrlrsm;ESifh trSew f &m;bufu &yfwnfum &JprG f;owWdtjynfhjzifh vkyu f kdif aqmif&u G f vdkpdwf &Syd Hk tp&Sad om ol. pdwfESvHk; pif=u,fr_ vuQ%mrsm;udk rdom;pk0ifrsm;ESihf rdwfaqGa&mif;&if;rsm;u ydrk dk owdjyKrdcJhonf? TonfrmS wifarmifOD;. yifudk,f xl;jcm;csufwpfckyif jzpfonf?

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w&kwf rdom;pkudk u,fw,fjcif; xdktcsdew f Gif touf(15)ESpf &S+d yDjzpfaom wifarmifOD;onf vltyk f}uD;. vky&f yfudk apmifh=unfaecJhonf? vltyk f}uD;onf wpftrd fwuf wpftrd fqif;umjzifh w&kwfvlrsKd;rsm; ykid fqkdifaom tdrrf sm;udk rD;&_@d =uonf? rD;avmif aeonfh tdrftwGif;rS vlrsm; ajy;xGufvmaomtcg vltyk f}uD;u tjyifraS pmifhI 0kid f;&kduf=uonf? ajy;v$m;aeaom w&kwfro d m;pkwpfpk. wGe;f wdkufr_a=umifh wifarmifOD;onf vrf;ab;odk@ ,dr;f ,dkifvJusoGm;rvdk jzpfcJh&onf? uHaumif;axmufrojzifh xdkrdom;pkonf vltyk f}uD;u rD;&_@d zsufqD; &SmazG+yD;oGm;aom tdrw f pftdr. f axmifh wpfae&mwGif ykef;cdkaeEkdifcJhonf? a=umuf&H@G r_twdjzifh jzLzwfjzLa&mfjzpfaeaom w&kwfvlrsKd;wkd@. rsufEmS rsm;udk wifarmifOD;wouf rarhEkdifcJhacs? &SOfhºuGufwd&p>mef rsm;uJhodk@yif 4if;. rdom;pkonfvnf; aemufrS vkdufvHowfjzwf rD;&_@d jcif;cHcJh&v#if rnfodk@jzpfrnfenf; [laom tawG;rSm wifarmifOD; acgif;xJ 0ifvmonf? rdrd ,cifu odu|rf;cJh bl;jcif; r&Sdaom w&kwfro d m;pktay: *&k%moufoGm;onf? xdkrdom;pk cdkatmif; ae&mtdrf &d&S mbufodk@ vltyk f}uD; aemufwpftyk f a&mufvmcsdew f Gif wifarmifOD;u +cHwHcg;0Y&yfum TtdrYf rnfolrS r&Sdawmh aoma=umifh tjcm;tdro f dk@ qufoGm;=uyg[k ajymonf? vltyk f}uD;u xdktdru f dk ausmfjzwfoGm;+yD; aomtcgwGif wifarmifOD;onf tdrfwGif;okd@ ajy;0ifoGm;+yD; xdkrdom;pktm; tjcm;wpfae&modk@ oGm;oifha=umif; pk;d &drw f }uD; ajymavonf? Tenf;jzifh olu tqdkyg w&kwfrdom;pk0ifrsm;tm;vHk;. toufudk u,fwifcJhonf? wzef wifarmifOD;onf &yfuGufxJwGif aexkdifaom w&kwfoli,fcsif; rdom;pk tdrfwpftdru f dk owd &um tultnD ay;Ekid f&eftwGuf tajy;tv$m;oGm;a&mufonf? bke;f }uD;ausmif;wpfausmif;wGif tqdkyg oli,fcsif;rdom;pk oGm;a&mufykef;cdkEkdif apa&;twGuf tultnDay;cJh+yD; bkef;}uD;ausmif;wGif 4if;wdk@ &ufowW wpfywfcef@ cdkatmif; aexdkifcJhum touf&iS f vGwfajrmufcJh=uonf? wifarmifOD;onf vlrsKd;0g' rcJGjcm;bJ tm;vHk;onf ‘vlom;’rsm;jzpfonf qdkonfhtay: tajccHum pOf;pm;cJhjcif; jzpfonf? odk@aomfvnf; 4if;udk ‘trsKd;om;pdwf"gwf’ r&SdolwpfOD;[k qdkI r&Ekid facs? rdrd wdkif;jynfudk cspfjrwfEd;k &ef vdka=umif;ESifh trdajr aumif;&maumif;usKd;twGuf vkyaf qmif&efrSm ta&;yga=umif;wdk@udk wifarmifOD; u ol. nDi,f/ nDri,frsm;udk oGeo f ifajym=um;avh&dcS Jhonf? olonf tv#dKcsif; vlrsKd;wpfOD; jzpfaomfvnf; rdrdukd,fudk vlom;wpfOD;jzpfonf [laom &_axmifhu t"duxm; =unfhjrifonf? +yD;awmhro S mv#if rdrdukd,fudk jrefrmEkdifiHom;wpfOD; tjzpf/ wkdif;&if;om; vlrsKd;wpfOD; tjzpf =unfhjrifonf? udkwifarmifOD;onf tv#dKcsif;rsm;. aumif;&maumif;usKd;twGufudkom t"du tav;ay; pOf;pm;cJhjcif; r[kwf? wpfOD;udk wpfOD; av;pm;or_jzifh/ =uifemoem;pdwfjzifh/ vlvlcsif; udk ,fjcif; pmemaom pdwfjzifh qufqHaqmif&u G f&mwGif wkdif;&if;om; vlrsKd;rsm;tm;vHk;onf wef;wlnDr# jzpfonf[k olu xifjrifonf? tqdkyguJhodk@aom enf;vrf;jzifh wpfOD;udkwpfOD; qufqH&mwGif Ekid fiH/ vlrsKd; [lonfh pnf;rsOf;abmif ydkif;jcm; uef@owfxm;jcif;r&Sd [laomoabmyif? xdk@twlyif olonf jrefrmEkdifiHvlOD;a&. trsm;pkjzpfaom jrefrm vlrsKd;rsm; t=um;wGif }uD;jyif;vmcJh aomfvnf; vuf&dpS pftpdk;&u usifhoHk;aeonfh r[mjrefrmvlrsKd;}uD;0g'udk rnfhonfhtcg ur# vufcHcJholwpfOD; r[kwfacs?

25


w&kwf-Arm ta&;tcif;wGif vnf;aumif; tjcm; tjzpftysufrsm;wGifvnf;aumif; =unfhrnfqv dk #if udkwifarmifOD;onf rdrd. pdwfESvHk;udk ,Hk=unfudk;pm;+yD; udk,fhqHk;jzwfcsufEiS fhudk,f aewwfoljzpfonfudk awG@Ekdifayonf? tjyifvlrsm;. zdtm;a=umifh ol. pdwfaeoabmxm;rsm; tvG,fwul udkif;!GwfoGm;jcif; r&Sd? w&kwf-jrefrmta&;tcif;wGif ol. taygif;toif;tcsdK@onf w&kwfvlrsKd;wdk@. td;k tdrpf nf;pdrf rsm;udk zsufqD;jcif;/ aetdrrf sm;udk rD;&_@d jcif; ponfh vky&f yfrsm;wGif yg0ifywfoufcJh=uonf? ppftpdk;&uvnf; twkta,mif jrefrm rsKd;cspfpdwfEiS fhtnD jrefrmvlrsKd;wdk@bufraS eum tqdkygvky&f yfrsm; jzpfay:vmapa&;twGuf pD;vm;vdkufaecJhcsdef jzpfonf? wifarmifOD;rSmrlum; xdkuJhodk@ r[kwfcJh? tjcm; vli,frsm; vkyo f vdk vdkufrvkycf Jh? tjcm;olrsm; t=um;wGif rdrdemrnf ysufoGm;Ekid fonfudk riSJ@uGufbJv#uf w&kwfro d m;pk0ifrsm;udk tultnDay;cJhonf? TuJhodk@ ulnDjcif;onf vlom;wpfOD;taeESifh vkyo f ifhvkyx f dkufonf[k [lqaoma=umifhyif?

trd/ tz rsm;udk av;pm;*k%fjyKwwfol ukdwifarmifOD;xHY ukd=unf0if; [kac:aom i,foli,fcsif; wpfa,muf &Scd Jhbl;onf? rdbrJhjzpfaeol =unf0if;udk i,fpOfuwnf;uyif udkwifarmifOD;. tdrfe;D csif; trsKd;orD;wpfa,muf arG;pm;cJhjcif;jzpfonf? xdktrsKd;orD;u =unf0if;udk i,f&, G fpOfuwnf;uyif rdcif&if;ozG,f jyKpkapmifah &SmufvmcJhjcif;jzpf+yD; 4if; *sDwDtidk f ausmif;+yD;onftxd &Smau|;cJhonf? wpfae@wGif xdktrsKd;orD;onf touf&, G f}uD;&ifhvm+yD; toef;toef zsm;emum aq;&Hkydk@&rnfh tajctaetxd jzpfvmcJhonf? rdcift&if; r[kwfaom tzGm;tdkudk aq;&Hkydk@&eftwGuf um;rSwfwdkifodk@ ayG@csDac:aqmifoGm;&rnfudk &Sufrdojzifh udk=unf0if;u wGe@f qkwfwGe@f qkwf jzpfaecJhonf? TwGif tajctae tvHk;pHu k dk od&do S Gm;aom udkwifarmifOD;u ol. oli,fcsif;tdrfodk@ vma&mufum ‚'gu rif;tart&if; r[kwfayr,fhvJ rif;udk i,fi,fav;xJu au|;arG;jyKpkvmwJholavuGm? ol@a=umifhrvdk@bJ rif;u tckvdk vlvm; ajrmuf+yD;awmh ynmwwfwpfa,muf jzpfvmcJhwmbJ r[kwfvm;? wu,fq&dk if olu rif;tart&if;vdkygbJ? rif;u ol@twGuf bmjzpfvdk@ &Sufae&rSmvJ? rif;udk arG;pm;cJhwJhtarwpfa,muf/ rif; aus;Zl;&Sifwpfa,muf aoa&;&Sifa&; jzpfaewJhtcsdefrSm rif;u wjcm;vlawGukd bmjzpfvkd@ *&kpku d f&rSmvJ? rif;taru olwdk@wawGxuf trsm;}uD;ydk+yD; ta&;ygwJholavuGm? rif; 'Dvdkvkyaf ezdk@ roifhbl;? rif;tarudk aq;&Hkydk@&r,f? ‛[lI ajymcJo h nf? xdk@ae@wGif udkwifarmifOD;onf 4if;wdk@ESifhtwl aq;odk@yif twlwuG vkdufygoGm;cJhao;onf?

vrf;ay:u tzGm;tdkwpfOD;udk ulnDaqmif&Gufay;jcif; 1971ckESpf &efuke+f rdK@. um;t&_yq f Hk; vrf;rwpfckay:wGif rSwfom;zG,f&maumif;aom tjzpftysufwpfck jzpfyGm;cJhonf? bwfpum;wpfp;D ay:rS qif;vmol tzGm;tdkwpfOD;onf bwfpum;. a&S@ydkif;rSaeI vrf;jzwful;rnf tjyKwGif bwfpum;. aemufbufraS eI qdkifu,fwpfpif;onf t&Sdefjyif;jyif;jzifh armif;vmonf? xdkqdik fu,fu tzGm;tdu k dk jyif;xefpGm wdkufrd+yD; olronf ta0;wpfae&modk@ vGifhusoGm;cJhonf? teD;0ef;usif&dS vlrsm;onf aoG;tdkifxJ vJaeol tzGm;tdkudk rsufvHk;jyL;rsufqHjyL;jzifh rSifaoaoum 'Dtwkdif; 0dkif;=unfhaecJh=uonf? xdktcsdef 26


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29


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oabmwloGm;onf? 4if;wdk@&Gmudk jyefa&mufvmaomtcg aq;q&mu vlemudk aq;wpfvHk;xdk;ay;+yD; pm;aq;tcsK@d ay;um ta=umaq; ay;xm; cJhonf? odk@aomf ESpf&uf=umaomtcgwGif vlemtrsKd;orD; aoqHk;oGm;jcif;a=umifh udkwifarmifOD; tawmfyif pdwfxdckdufcpH m;cJh&onf? usef;rma&; jyKpkapmifah &Smufrr_ sm; ay;Ekid fjcif; r&Sdjcif;a=umifh jrefrmEkdifiH. qif;&Jom;vlxkwdk@ toufwdkae&jcif;udk udkwifarmifOD;u udk,fawG@}uHKcJh&jcif;jzpfonf? aoqHk;oltrsK;d orD;wGif aqGrsK;d r&Scd Jhacs? udkwifarmifOD;ESifh &Gmom;tcsdK@u tokbcs&ef pDpOf=u+yD; tavmif;wGif;wl;&eftwGuf ocFsKdif;ukef;odk@ oGm;a&muf cJh=uonf? ocFsKdif;ukef;ESifhywfoufvmv#if udkwifarmifOD;. twef;az:rSm t,lonf;+yD; tenf;i,fa=umufwwfol jzpfonf? xdk@a=umifh tavmif;udk ajrjr‡Kyf&mwGif yg0ifulnDjcif; r&SdbJ ta0;wae&mu &yfum ajrjr‡Kyfjcif; jrefjref +yD;apzdk@twGuf wwGwfwGwfvkyaf ecJhonf? udkwifarmifOD; ajrwGif;wl;ae&if;u (4)ayteufavmuf a&mufonfh tcgwGif ol.a*:jym;ESifhtwl qHyifrsm;/ t&kd;rsm;ESifh tusôprsm; ygvmcJhonf? Ta'owGif qif;&Jom;rsm;udk ajrjr‡Kyf o+*FKvf&mY tkwf*w l dkifrsm; xm;&Sdavh r&Sd=uacs? xdk@a=umifhvnf; 4if;wdk@u ae&ma[mif;wpfckudk wl;az:rdcJhjcif; jzpfonf? TwGif udkwifarmifOD;. oli,fcsif;rSm aoG;qkwfoGm;um ‚0d^mOfq;dk rsm;‛ol@qo D dk@ rvmEkid fap&eftwGuf bk&m;pmrsm;udk &Gwfavawmhonf? vGecf Jhonfh (3)ESpu f tqkwfema&m*ga=umifh aoqHk;oGm;cJhol rdef;uav;wpfOD;. tavmif;udk Tae&mY jr‡KyfESHxm;cJhjcif;jzpfonf? c&pf,mefbmom0if jzpfonfEiS fhtnD a=umuf&H@G jcif; (odk@r[kwf) t,lonf;jcif; wpHw k &m r&Sdaom wifarmifOD;u txl;taxG pOf;pm;raebJ tavmif;aumifukd vuf&daS e&mYyif jr‡Kyfvkdufonf? ‚vlaoaumifrsm;onf rnfonfht&mudkr# odEdik fprG f; r&Sdawmh‛[k c&pf,mef usrf;pmY qdkxm;onf r[kwfavm? (a'oemusrf; 9;5) usef;rma&;jyKpkapmifah &SmufrE_ Sifh tjcm;aom ulnDaxmufyHrh r_ sm; uif;rJhae&onfh &Gmol&o G m;rsm;tay: tvGe*f &k%moufcJh&aom udkwifarmifOD;onf 4if;awG@}uHKcJh&aom tqdkygtjzpftysufrsm;udk ol.rdom;pk0if rsm;tm; r=umc% ajymajyavh&dcS Jhonf? vltrsm;wkd@. usef;rma&;qdkif&m ta&;ay: tajctaewGif vdktyfaom jyKpkukor_udk ay;Ekid fjcif; r&SdonfEiS fh ywfoufI awG;rdwkdif; udkwifarmifOD; pdwfqif;&JcJh&onf? Todk@jzifh vkyt f m;ay; oufwrf;rSm (2)vjynfhoGm;cJhonf? wuUodkvfausmif;om;rsm; ae&yfjyef&rnfhae@rSm tm;vHk;twGuf 0rf;enf;p&m ae@wpfae@ jzpfcJhonf? 0rf;enf;rsuf&nf uscJh&olrsm;vnf; r&Sm;yg? &Gmol&mG om; rsm;onf aiG;a=u;tm;jzifh csK@d iJh=uaoma=umifh 4if;wdk@wGi&f aSd om aumufn‡if;qefrsm;/ i&kwfoD;ajcmufrsm;ESifh yJrsm;udk ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;ESifhtwl twif;xnfhay;=uonf? &Gmom;rsm;. qif;&JErG f;yg;r_ tajctae tvHk;pHu k dk od&dx S m;aom udkwifarmifOD;url 4if;wdk@xHrS bmwpfckr# ,lroGm;vdkay? odk@aomf &Gmom;rsm;u twif;xnfhay;=uonf? udkwifarmifOD;ESifh ol. twef;az:wdk@onf vkyt f m;ay;umvrsm;wGif woufwm tawG@t}uHKrsm; &&SdcJh=uonf? 4if;wkd@u tm;oGecf Gepf u kd f pmoifjyay;cJhonfrsm;. tusK;d &vm'fudk awG@}uHKcHpm; &onfrSm =unfE;l p&m taumif;qHk;yifjzpfonf? 4if;wdk@a=umifh &Gmol&mG om;tawmfrsm;rsm;onf pm a&;wwf/ zwfwwf/ tajccH *%ef;ocsmFrsm;udk wwfvmcJh+yDjzpfonf? vkyt f m;ay; umvtwGif;wGif wifarmifOD;ESifh oli,fcsif;rsm;onf &Gmol&mG om;rsm;. ae@pOfb0 tajctaersm;udk awG@}uHKcJh&+yD; 4if;wdk@ todkif;t0kdif;wGif aexdkif&jcif;. vl@oabmobm0udk od&dcS Jh&onf? ordkif;rwdkifrD acwfumv vlaer_b0rsm;ESifh tawmfyif qifwlaom &Gmom;rsm;. &k;d &Sif;onfh ae@pOfb0rsm;udk vnf;aumif;/ 4if;wdk@. ae@pOftawG@t}uHKrsm;ay: tajccHum qif;&JErG f;yg;ae&jcif; tajctaersm;ESifhpyfv#O;f 34


qufvuf pl;prf;&SmazGaer_rsm;udk vnf;aumif; ausmif;olausmif;om;tm;vHk;u *&k%moufcJh=uonf? 4if;wdk@. ae@pOfb0rsm;ESifhpyfvsO;f I aemufykid f;wGif wuUodkvf0if;twGif; twef;+yD;csderf sm;Y ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;t=um; ajymqdkaqG;aEG;r_rsm; &SdvmcJhonf? xdk@jyif &Gmol&mG om;rsm;. &d;k om;r_/ az:a&Gr/_ yGifhvif;r_/ =uifemr_/ aysmfaysmf aewwfrE_ Sifh opPm&Sdr_ tp&So d nfh vl@wefzk;d rsm;a=umifh udkwifarmifOD;ESifh oli,fcsif;rsm;u 4ifwdk@tay: av;pm; txif}uD;cJh=uonf? pdwfydik f;qdkif&m tm;jzifhaomfvnf;aumif;/ vufawG@b0wGifaomfvnf; tysufoabm aqmifaom tjyKtrlp&dkufrsm;udk u|Ekfyfwkd@ awG@jrifEdik faomfvnf; a,bk,stm;jzifh vlom;wdk@xHwGif tjyKoabm aqmifaom pdwfaepdwfxm;&Sda=umif;udk od&dcS J&h onf? Todk@qdkv#if tjyKjzpfwnfr_ wefzdk;rsm; qufvuf jzpfwnfaeapa&;twGuf yHyh ;dk jr‡ifhwif ay;&if;wbuf tysufoabmaqmifaom tjyKtrlp&kdufrsm; avsmhyg;oGm; apatmif rnfuJhodk@ jyKvkyaf qmif&Guf Ekid frnfenf;? vli,frsm;omomyif &Scd Jhao;aom udkwifarmifOD;ESifh oli,fcsif;rsm;onf Tonfwdk@twGuf tajzaumif;wpfckudk &SmazGaz:xkwfjcif; r&SdEkdifcJhaomfvnf; vlom;wdk@. tysufoabmaqmif tjyKtrlp&dkufrsm;udk ukpm;Ekdif&eftwGuf enf;vrf;&S&d rnf[k ,H=k unfcJhonf? xdktcsdeu f pwifum udkwifarmifOD;onf ‘vlom;jzpfr’_ ESifh pyfvsOf;I avhvmoif=um; cH,lusifhoHk; vdkpdwfrsm; ydrk dk xufoef vmcJhonf? vl@avmu}uD;udk ydI k taumif;jrif wwfvmcJhonf? vl@tzG@J tpnf;udk tusKd;jyK&ef ydkrdk pdwftm;xufoefvmcJhayonf?

35


4 arwWmudk &SmazGol qdkonfxuf arwWmudk ay;a0vdkol udkwifarmifOD;onf 4if;. nDtpfudk armifESrrsm;teuf touft}uD;qHk;jzpfonf? ‚tpfr}uD; trdt&m/ tpfudk}uD; tzt&m‛qdkaom jrefrmpum;yHk uJhokd@yif tdrfwGif tar r&Sdygu udkwifarmifOD;u rdom;pk0ifrsm;udk =unfh&_apmifha&SmufcJhonf? taru om;zGm;q&mr wpfOD;jzpfonfEiS fhtnD olr. tvkycf sderf Sm yHrk Sefr&Sdacs? tcsK@d aom udk,f0efaqmiftrsK;d orD;rsm;rSm csufcsif; rD;rzGm;Ekdif=uaoma=umifh taru 4if;wdk@xHwGif ntdyfnwm aecJh&aom tajctaersm;vnf; &Scd Jhonf? tar r&Sdaomtcsderf sm;wGif udkwifarmifOD;u ol. nDi,f/ nDri,frsm;udk t+rJwap aumif;rGepf Gm =unfh&_apmifha&SmufcJhonf? ntdy&f m r0ifrDw S Gif tdrf&dS wHcg;ESifh jywif;aygufrsm;tm;vHk; *vef@cs+yD;jcif; &Srd &Sd vkdufvHppfaq;onf? nDi,f/ nDri,frsm;wkd@ twGuf csufjyKwfay;jcif;/ 4if;wdk@ ausmif;roGm;cif rkef@zdk;ay;jcif;rsm;/ vdrv f drrf mrmae&ef/ pm}udK;pm;=u&ef qdkq;Hk rjcif;rsm;udk udw k ifarmifOD;u jyKvkycf Jhonf? xdkacwfumvrsm;wGif udkwifarmifOD; rdom;pk tygt0if jrefrmEkdifiH&dS jynfolvlxk trsm;pkonf jrefrmhqdk&S,fvpf vrf;pOfygwD. tkycf sKyfr_atmufwGif pm;0wfaea&; c|wf+cHKuscJh&onf? udkwifarmifOD; &yfuGufxJwGif aexdkifol trsm;pkrmS vufvkyv f ufpm;ESifh v,form; vlwef;pm;rsm; jzpf=uonf? 4if;wdk@ awG@}uHK ae&aom tajctaersm;udk aumif;rGepf Gm &dyfpm;rdcJhol udkwifarmifOD;u ol.rdom;pkEiS fh tdrfe;D csif;rsm;. ae@pOfb0udk pmemcJhonf?

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uJhokd@ jyKrlqufqHEkdifaom udkwifarmifOD;. trlt&mESifh ajymqdkyHkrsm;a=umifh q&mru ol@udk txif}uD; av;pm; oGm;cJhonf? udkwifarmifOD; jyefoGm;aomtcgwGif q&mru vSa&$tm; ‚eifhtpfudk}uD;u eife@J rwlbl;? eifu t&rf;n‡ufwmbJ? eifu *spfwpfwpfeJ@bJ? eifhtpfudk}uD;u ajymvdu k fwmeJ@ ig oabmaygufoGm;w,f? aemufwpfcg eifausmif;ajy;w,fq&dk ifvJ ig eifhtpfudk}uD;bJ ac:ajymawmhr,f‛[k ajymavonf? uav;b0wGif vSa&$onf ausmif;ajy;I ig;r#m;jcif;ESifh pGefv$wfjcif;wkd@wGif 0goemxHkcJhonf? xdktcsdef rsm;wGif ukdwifarmifOD; ol.nDi,fudk qHk;rcJh&p+rJjzpfonf? ‚'Dtcsderf Sm 'grsK;d vkyfaevkd@ rif; wpfae@us&if 'kuQa&mufr,f? ynmrwwf&if 'kuQa&mufr,f? rif; 'Dtcsderf Sm ausmif;ajy;wmawG/ abmvHk;oGm;uefwmawG/ pGefv$wfwmawG rvkyfeJ@? tcsdeef J@ 'Da&[m vludk rapmifhbl;uG? tcsdeu f dk wefb;dk &Sd&Sd toHk;cswwfzk@d vdkw,f?‛[kqu dk m pnf;urf;}uD;aom ukdwifarmifOD;u vSa&$ twGuf tdycf sde/f pm;csdeEf Sifh pmzwfcsderf sm; yg&Sdaom tcsdeZf ,m;wpfckudk a&;qGJay;cJhonf?

temoufomapaom tpfudk}uD;. &ifcGif udkwifarmifOD;onf ol.nDi,fjzpfol oef@Zifudkvnf; aumif;rGepf GmjyKpkapmifha&SmufcJhonf? oef@Zif (5)ESpf/ (6)ESpo f m; t&G,fwGif rkef@pm;qif;csderf sm;Y udkwifarmifOD;u ol@qv D ma&mufum tpm;au|;jcif;/ rkef@zdk;ay;jcif; rsm;udk jyKvkyaf vh&dcS Jhonf? vdrv f drrf mrmae&efEiS fh pm}udK;pm;&efwdk@twGuf oGeo f ifay;cJhonf? wpfae@wGif oef@ZifEiS fh vSa&$wdk@ aqmhupm;aepOftwGif; oef@Zif rawmfwq vdrfu h sum vufusK;d oGm;onf? oef@Zif. i,foHygatmif atmf[pfvkdufoHudk =um;onfhtcg udkwifarmifOD;onf tvGepf ;dk &draf eaom rsufESmxm;jzifh ol. nDi,fudk vm=unfhonf? olu oef@Zifudk n‡ifompGm ayG@zufum ‚bmjzpfoGm;vJ/ bmjzpfoGm;vJ/ nDav;‛[kar;onf? oef@Zif. vufrmS rcHr&yfEkdifatmif emusifaeaomfvnf; pd;k &drw f }uD; jzpfaeaom tpfudk}uD;. rsufEmS udk awG@vdkuf&onfhtcg temw0uf oufomoGm;ovdk cHpm;cJh&onf? tpfudk}uD;. cspfcif=uifem oem;*&k%m pdwfa=umifh ol. cE<mudk,f aEG;axG;oGm;onf? ESvHk;cHkoHrsm; jrefvmonf? xdk@aemuf aq;&Hkodk@oGm;&eftwGuf udkwifarmifOD;u ol@udk ayG@csDum tdrfem;&Sd um;rSwfwdkifodk@ ac:oGm; onf? um;rSwfwkdifonf 4if;wkd@trd frS tenf;i,f vSr;f aoma=umifh oef@Zifudk vufcsnf;oufoufjzifhom csD oGm;&ojzifh udkwifarmifOD;onf vrf;wGif oHk;av;}udrf oef@Zifudkcsum tem;,l&onf? bwfpum;ay:wGifvnf; olu '%f&m&aeaomnDi,fjzpfol xkdifEdik fap&eftwGuf tjcm;c&D;onfrsm;xHrsm; ae&mawmif;cHcJhonf? tpf}uD;jzpfol. =uifem,k,r_udk oef@Zif. woufwmwGif arhr&EkdifcJhacs?

37


&,farmaysmf&i$ f csrf;ajr@=uaom nDtpfudkarmifESrrsm; &HzH&cH gY wifarmifOD;onf tvGet f rif; tpoefoljzpfonf? olonf naeydkif;rsm;wGif tm;upm;&HkY 0dwf oGm;r+yD; ac|;oH&&J Jjzifh tdrfjyefvmavh&do S nf? tdrfay:ta&mufwGif rnfolu olEiS fhteD;uyfqHk;&Sad evJqdkonfudk OD;pGm=unfhvkduf+yD; nDi,fwpfa,mufudk qJGzrf;um ac|;pnf;rsm;jzifh eHapmfaeaom ol. *sKdif;=um;wGif nDi,fjzpfol. rsufEmS udk n‡yx f m;avh&do S nf? nDi,f touf&SL=uyfum tvGet f rif;pdwfq;dk oGm;rSomv#if udkwifarmifOD;u ol@udk jyefv$wfay;wwfonf? +yD;v#if rsufESmr_eo f dk;odk;jzpfaeaom nDjzpfoludk =unfhum wifarmifOD;u tlwufrwwf &,farmavonf? oef@Zif touf (13)ESpfom; avmuft&G,fwGif udkwifarmifOD;tm; ‚udkwifarmifOD;? usaemfvJ tpfudk}uD;vdkbJ Ekid fiHa&;awGbmawG odcsifw,f? Ekid fiHa&; vkycf sifw,f? 'gayr,fh usaemfu bmrS rodawmh usaemhfudk oifay;yg?‛[k awmif;qdkavonf? TwGif udkwifarmifOD;u Ekid fiHa&;ESifh ywfoufonfh ta=umif;t&mwcsdK@udk pmtkyw f pftkyx f JY csa&; ay;onf? (3)rsufEmS cef@ a&;+yD;aomtcgwGif olu oef@Zifudk xdkta=umif;t&mrsm;tm; E_wfv$wftm*HkaqmifEdkif onftxd usufrw S fyg[k ajymonf? vl@ordkif; tpjyKvmyHk/ vlwdk@. oabmobm0 tp&Sdonfwkd@udk wifarmifOD;u a&;ay;cJhjcif; jzpfonf? olu tb,fa=umifh Ekid fiHa&;v_y&f Sm;r_rsm;wGif yg0ifywfouf&a=umif;/ Ekid fiHa&;ESifh ywfoufI olu rnfuJhokd@ xifjrif,lqa=umif; ponfwdk@udk udkwifarmifOD;u ol. nDi,f/ nDri,frsm;tm; ajymjyavh&dcS Jhonf? 1962ckESpf ppfwyf tm%modr;f +yD;onfh tcsderf S pwifum tpdk;&onf qENjy ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;udk zdESdyf ESrd feif; onf? 4if;.tusKd;qufrmS txl;ojzifh tvkyform; vlwef;pm;rsm;onf ukeaf ps;E_ef;av#mhcsa&;ESifh vpmwkd;ay;a&;wkd@twGuf awmif;qdkvmcJhjcif;yif jzpfonf? odk@aomfvnf; 4if;wkd@onf ppfwyf. aoewf usnfqHrsm;atmufwGif jym;jym;0yfcJh=u&onf? ppftpdk;&. rw&m;r_EiS fh &ufpuf=urf;=uKwfrr_ sm;udk cHpm;aevm cJh&onfh ausmif;olausmif;om;/ tvkyo f rm;ESifh &[ef;oHCmawmfrsm; tygt0if jynfolvlxk wpf&yfvHk;wdk@. vGwfajrmufa&;twGuf Ekid fiHa&;v_y&f Sm;r_rsm;wGif yg0ifywfouf&jcif; jzpfonf[k udkwifarmifOD;u qdkcJhonf? odk@rSomv#if wkdif;oljynfom;tm;vHk; vGwfvyfrE_ Sifh w&m;r#wr_wkd@udk &&SdcHpm;Ekdifrnfjzpf+yD; vlom;rsm ;uJhodk@ aexdkifEdkifrnf[k olu ,Hk=unfcJhonf? nDi,f/ nDri,frsm; pm}udK;pm;&efESifh tdrfpm rSefreS fvkyf=uap&eftwGuf wifarmifOD;u t+rJ oGeo f ifcJhonf? tdrfpmrsm;udk ulvkyaf y;cJhonf? ausmif;oifcef;pmrsm;udk em;rvnfaomtcgYvnf; tpfudk}uD;wifarmifOD;uyif uljyay;cJhonf? nDi,f/ nDri,frsm; tcsderf SefrSef pm=unfh/ upm;/ tdy/f pm;/ a&csdK;Ekdif&eftwGuf tpDtpOfZ,m; wpfckudk a&;qGJay;cJhonf? vywfpmar;yJrG sm;udk trSwfaumif;aumif;jzifh atmifjrifolrsm;tm; csD;r$r;f cJhonf? qkaiGrsm; csD;jr‡ifhcJhonf? txl;ojzifh twef;wif pmar;yG}J uD;wGif tqifh(1)rS (3)twGif; 0ifolrsm; qkay;yJGwGif 0wfqif&ef 4if;wdk@}udKufEpS fouf&m tusôt0wftpm;rsm;udk 0,fay;ap&eftwGuf udkwifarmifOD;u rdbrsm;xHrS awmif;cHay;cJhonf? 38


udkwifarmifOD;. ti,fq;Hk nDrav; &if&ifvSonf olr (4)wef;a&mufonftxd ausmif;wGif t*Fvdyfpm oif=um;cJh&jcif; r&Sdacs? tajccH t*Fvdypf mvHk;rsm;ESifh toHk;tE_ef;rsm;udk udkwifarmifOD;uomv#if olrudk oif=um; ay;cJhjcif; jzpfonf? ol. oifjyr_a=umifh nDi,f/ nDri,frsm; t*Fvdypf m atbDp'D Dudk tprStqHk;xd tvGwftm*Hk aqmifEkdifcJh=uonf? tcgtcGifhoifhonfh tcsdew f dkif;wGif oGm;yGwfwH/ oGm;wdkufaq;/ acgif;+zD;/ aqmif;vdr;f qD/ cJwH/ pmtky/f abmyif/ tusô/ abmif;bD/ zdeyf/ xD;/ rdk;umtusô/ vG,ftw d f/ opfoD;/ [if;oD;[if;&Guf/ xrif;/ tom;/ ig;/ ajryJ tp&Sdonfh t*Fvdypf um;vHk;rsm;udk oif=um;ay;cJhonf? usef;rma&;ESifh ywfoufIvnf; reuftyd f&mu xxjcif;wGif a&zefcGuf tjynfhwpfcGufudk aomuf&ef/ tdrfomoGm;+yD;onfhtcgwdkif;ESifh tpmrpm;rDwkdif;wGif vufudk qyfjymjzihf aocsmaq;&ef/ vufonf;rsm;udk rudkuf&ef/ vufvnf; t&Snfrxm;&ef/ vufonf;rsm; &Snfvmygu vl}uD;wpfa,mufudk n‡ycf kdif;&ef tp&Sdonf rsm;udk udkwifarmifOD;u oGeo f ifajym=um;ay;cJhonf? nDi,f/ nDri,frsm;onf tpm;taomufEiS fhywfoufI *sD;rsm;v#if udkwifarmifOD;u 4if;wdk@tm; tm[m&jynfh0aom tpm;tpmrsm;udk pm;oHk;jcif;. tusKd;aus;Zl;udk ajymjyonf? nDi,fwpfOD;u ig;rpm;csifonfhtcgY ig;wGif tm[m&"gwf trsm;tjym; yg0ifa=umif;/ ig;pm;olonf tm;tifoefprG f;+yD; ^m%faumif;Ekdifa=umif;wkd@udk udkwifarmifOD;u oGeo f ifay;cJhonf? wuUodkvfausmif;om; jzpfonfEiS fhtnD tvkyfrsm;onfh=um;xJuyif udkwifarmifOD;onf nDi,f/ nDri,frsm;udk ausmif;odk@ rv$wfrw D Gif xrif;&nf wpfa,mufwpfZGe;f pD wkdufavh&do S nf? xrif;&nfwGif tm[m&"gwf rsm;pGmyg0ifaoma=umifh ^m%faumif;Ekdifonf[k oluajymonf?

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tpfudk}uD;tjzpf jyKrlusifh}uHjcif; nDtpfudk armifESrrsm; aqmhupm;=u&mwGif wcgwH&YH pum;jrm;/ &efjzpfonfrsm; &Sdwwfonf? TwGif udkwifarmifOD;u 0ifa&mufjzefajz&ay;p+rJjzpfonf? nDtpfudk armifESr tcsif;csif; wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD; csifcif&rnf/ *&kpku d f&rnf/ &Sw d mudk r#a0&rnf ponfwdk@udk olu oifay;cJhonf? udkwifarmifOD;. cspfjcif;arwWmjzifh axG;+cHK cH&aom 4if;. rdom;pk0ifrsm;onf ydrk I dk aEG;axG;vHk+cHKr_&Sdonf[k cHpm;vm=u&+yD; rdom;pk0ifrsm; t=um;&Sd cspfcifav;pm;r_rSmvnf; wdk;yGm;vmcJhonf? udkwifarmifOD;onf 4if;. nDi,f/ nDri,frsm;udk r=umc% qkdqk;H rum oGefoif !$ejf yonfrmS rSefaomfvnf; rdrdukd,fwkdifrmS um; armifErS rsm;. a&S@wGif [dwf}uD;[ef}uD;jzifh aewwfavh&do S l r[kwfacs? nDi,f/ nDri,frsm;udk pvm;/ aemufvm;jzifh aewwfolwpfa,mufjzpfonf? udkwifarmifOD;}udKufaom oD;csif;rsm;udk a&'D,kdu v$ifhae+yDqkv d #if armifESrrsm;ESifh twl ucke=f uonf? ti,faumifrsm;uvnf; oDcsif;udk ryDuvm yDuvmjzifh vdkufq=dk uonfrmS aysmf&i$ f=unfE;l zG,f&maumif;onf? rdrdwdk@. om;orD;rsm; aysmf&i$ fjrL;xl;ae=uonfh jrifuGif;udk=unfhum rdbrsm;rSmvnf; =unfE;l rqHk;jzpfcJh&onf? rdom;pk0ifrsm;tay: xm;&Sdaom wifarmifOD;. arwWmrSm tuef@towfr&Sdacs? xdk@jyif TarwWmonf 4if;. oli,fcsif; taygif;toif;rsm;ESifh teD;tem;ywf0ef;usi&f Sd vltrsm;xHodk@vnf; wenf;r[kwfwenf; ysH@E@SH oGm;onf? wifarmifOD;onf oli,fcsif; taygif;toif;rsm;ESifh qufqH&mwGif rnfaomtcgur# 4if;wdk@xHrS wpHkw&m tcGifhta&; ,lcJhjcif; r&Sdacs? tcGifhta&; r,lonfhtjyif wifarmifOD;u 4if;wdk@udkyif rdrdwwfEdik for# tultnDay;cJhonf? 4if;wkd@ tusKd;pD;yGm;twGuf wpHw k &m taxmuftyhHay;cJhonf? oli,fcsif;rsm; pHq k Hkrd=u+yD qdkv#if rdrdta=umif;ajymrnfhtpm; tjcm;olta=umif;udkom olu pajymavh&do S nf? rdrdoli,fcsif; wpfOD; 40


wpfa,mufpD. tajctae/ 4if;wdk@ rdom;pktajctaersm;udk avhvmoHk;oyf+yD; 4if;wdk@awG@}uHKae&aom pdwfyidk f;qdkif&m (odk@r[kwf) cE<mudk,fykdif;qdkif&m qif;&J'kuQrsm;udk wwfEdik for# ukpm;ay;onf? odk@aomfvnf; rdrdta=umif;udk qdkv#if ar;rSom ajymavh&d+S yD; oli,fcsif;rsm;xHrSvnf; rdrd. udk,fa&;udk,fwmtwGuf tultnDawmif;cHjcif; r&Sdoavmufyif jzpfonf? 4if;wdk@. udk,fykdifb0rsm;tm; udkwifarmifOD;u pdwf0ifpm;wwfa=umif; ol. oli,fcsif;rsm;u cHpm;rdcJh=uonf? olEiS fh twl &Sad e&aom tcsdeu f mvrsm;onf aysmf&i$ f=unfE;l p&maumif;aom tcsdeu f mvrsm; jzpfcJhonf? tjyKjzpfwnfr_ tjrif&do S l/ aumif;rGepf Gm jyKrlaexdkifwwfol/ wyg;oltay: aumif;rGepf Gm jyKrlqufqHwwfol udkwifarmifOD;. tusifhp&ku d frsm;udk oli,fcsif;rsm;u twk,lcJh=uonf? tcsdeu f dk tusKd;&S&d Sd toHk;cswwfr/_ pnf;urf;ao0yfr/_ rl;,pfaq;0g; uif;&Sif;atmif aewwfr/_ pdwfykid f;qkdif&mESifh cE<mudk,fydkif;qdkif&m zG@H +zdK;wdk;wuf atmif vkyaf qmifr_/ rdef;uav; ayG&_wfjcif; r&Sdr_/ udk,fcyH nm wwfprG f;r_/ vl@tzG@J tpnf;ESifh ywf0ef;usiu f dk avhvmwwfr_ ponfh udkwifarmifOD;. xl;jcm;aom tjyKtrlrsm;udk av;pm;cJh=uonf? txl;ojzifh 4if;. vlvlcsif; udk,fcsif;pmemwwfaom pdwfxm;ESifh &JpGrf;owWdwdk@udk tvGet f rif; av;pm;cJh=uonf? xdk@a=umifh 4if;wdk@ rsufpdxJwiG f udkwifarmifOD;onf tbufbufu ajymavmufp&m r&Sdaom pHjyvli,fwpfOD;/ 4if;wkd@ tm;udk; tm;xm;&m/ twk,lp&m vli,fwpfOD; jzpfvmcJhonf? TuJhodk@aom aumif;usKd;&vm'frsm; tm;vHk;onf ukdwifarmifOD;. twGif;pdwfxJwGif udef;atmif;aeaom ‘tE_dif;rJh arwWm’a=umifhyif jzpfonf? ‘arwWm’ESifh ywfoufaom tvkyw f pfckudk woufvHk; vkyo f Gm;rnf [lIyif olu ajymqdkcJhbl;onf? wpfae@wGif udkwifarmifOD;u ol. rdbrsm;xHodk@ csOf;uyfum wuUodkvfausmif; qufwufvdkpdwf r&Sdawmha=umif;/ c&pf,mefbke;f }uD; vkycf sifa=umif; wkd@udk ajymvmonf? txl;ojzifh uufovpfbke;f }uD;tvkyu f dk pdwf0ifpm;onf[k olu qdkonf? odk@rSomv#if vltrsm;udk xdxda&mufa&muf tultnDay;Ekdifrnf[k olu xifrw S fcJhaoma=umifh jzpfonf? bke;f }uD;wpfyg;taejzifh qdkygu vltrsm;wdk@twGuf pdwfyidk f;qdkif&mt&aomf vnf;aumif;/ cE<mudk,fykid f; qdkif&m t&aomfvnf;aumif; vufawG@b0wGif ulnDaxmufyhrH r_ sm; ay;Ekid fvdrhrf nf[k olu ,Hk=unfcJhonf? c&pf,mefbke;f }uD;rsm;u ausmif;ESifh rdbrJh a*[mrsm;udk vnfywfaeyH/k aq;&Hkrsm;wGif ulnDaqmif&u G fay;aeyHw k kd@udk wifarmifOD;u ESpo f ufcJhonf? Todk@jyKvkyjf cif;jzifh vltrsm;udk tultnDay;vdkaom ol.pdwfqENudk jznfhqnf; ay;Ekid fvdrhrf nf[k ,Hk=unfcJhonf? odk@&mwGif uufovpf bmomw&m;. t,ltqrsm;udk }udKufEpS foufI olu xdkuJhodk@ qHk;jzwfcsufcsrSwfcJhjcif; r[kwfacs? c&pf,mef bkef;}uD;rsm;onf rdbrJh uav;a*[m/ aq;&HkESifh ausmif; rsm;wGif vdktyfcsuf&daS eolrsm;twGuf ulnDaqmif&u G f ESpfodrhrf r_ sm; ay;Ekid fonf[laom tcsufuomv#if ol@udk qJGaqmifaecJhjcif; jzpfonf? trsm;wumuJhodk@ tdraf xmif&ufom;usum rdom;pk ysKd;axmif&aom b0rsKd;udk olu rESpo f ufcJhacs? b0udk wpfudk,fa& jzwfoef;jcif;jzifhomv#if rdrd. &nfreS f;csufrsm;ukd taumiftxnfaz:&eftwGuf ydrk t dk m&Hkxm;Ekdifrnf[k ,Hk=unfcJhonf? TonfEiS fhpyfvsO;f I wpfae@wGif tazu wifarmifOD;ESifh ajymqdkaqG;aEG; onf? ‚igo h m;? rif;u bkef;}uD;vkyf+yD;awmh vlawGudk tultnDay;csifw,f qdkwmudk =um;&awmh ig 0rf;om rdw,f? 'gayr,fh wuUodkvfynmudk +yD;atmif oif+yD;awmh bJG@&oGm;wmrsKd;udk t&ifq;Hk jrifcsifao;w,f? igu rif;ukd bmjzpfvkd@ 'Dvdk ajym&ovJqadk wmh igwkd@rdom;pk&@J ordik f;udk =unfhr,fq&dk if ighaqGrsK;d awG bufrmS aum/ rif;tar 41


aqGrsK;d awG bufrSmyg wuUodkvfbJG@&bl;wJhol wpfa,mufrS r&SdcJhzl;bl;uG? tck rif;u yxrqHk; 'gudk vkyEf ikd fawmhrmS r[kwfvm;? igwkd@ rdom;pkwpfpv k Hk;twGuf rif;u pHjywpfa,muf jzpfvmrSmayghuGm?‛ [k tazu ajymonf? wzef tazu ‚wuUodkvf bJG@&+yD;wJhtcgus&if rif;}udKufwm vkyaf wmhaygh?‛[k azsmif;zsjyefonf? TonfESifh ywfoufI tpydik f;wGif ukdwifarmifOD;u csnfwHkcswHkjzpfaeaomfvnf; zcifjzpfudk av;pm;or_jzifh zcif. vdktifqENtwkdkif; vky&f ef qHk;jzwfcJhonf? odk@aomf c&pf,mef bke;f }uD; jzpfvm&eftwGuf bJG@wpfck&dx S m;&rnf jzpf+yD; usrf;pmoif ausmif;wGifvnf; (2)ESpf (3)ESpf OD;pGm oGm;ae&onf? xdk@a=umifhvnf; olu ausmif;qufwuf vrf;udkom qufvuf a&G;cs,fcJhjcif;yif? udkwifarmifOD;onf arwWmudk ‘&SmazGol’r[kwf? arwWmudk ‘ay;tyfol’wpfOD; jzpfcJhonf? ol vkyaf qmif cJhaom jyKrlaqmif&u G fcsufrsm;onf wpHkwOD;xHrS arwWmudk tvdk&aSd om pdwfqENtay:Y tajcrcHacs? rnfol wpfOD;wpfa,mufxHu rnfonfht&mudkr# ar#mfvifhxm;jcif; r&SdbJ ol. ‘pdwfaumif; t&if;cH’oufoufjzifhom tjcm;olrsm;udk ulnDay;cJhjcif; jzpfonf? rdom;pk0ifrsm;/ oli,fcsif;rsm;ESifh tjcm;olrsm;tay:xm;&Sdaom arwWm uwqifh vlom;rsKd;EG,fwpf&yfvHk;tay: xm;&Sdaom arwWmtjzpfodk@ ysKd;axmifEdik fcJhonf? omref ae@pOfb0wGif ukdwifarmifOD;tm; awG@}uHKqufqHcJh&bl;olwkdif;onf ol. arwWmudk wenf;r[kwf wenf; cHpm;cJh&onf? olEiS fh pum;ajymqdk&jcif;/ olEiS fhtwl &Sad e&jcif;udk ESpfouf=u&onfcsnf;omjzpf+yD;/ rdrdwdk@. b0tawG@t}uHKrsm;tm; udkwifarmifOD;udk zvS,fvdkpdwfrsm; jzpfcJh=u&onf? Ak'<bmomwGif a*g"rR jrwfpmG bk&m;u ‘tusK;d ESifh ta=umif; qufE, $ fr’_ oabmw&m;udk a[m=um; cJhonf? rdom;pk0ifrsm;/ oli,fcsif;rdwfaqGrsm;ESifh vltrsm;wkd@tay: xm;&SdcJhaom jrwfpmG bk&m;. tEd_if;rJh arwWm w&m;a=umifh vltrsm;wdk@uvnf; jrwfpmG bk&m;tay: arwWmtjynfht0&SdchJjcif;jzpfonf? odk@aomfvnf; Tae&m wGif jrwfpmG bk&m;onf vltrsm;wdk@xHrS wpHkw&m jyefvnfar#mfvifhawmifhwaoma=umifh xdkuJhodk@ arwWmw&m; xm;cJhjcif; r[kwfacs? TuJhodk@aom ‘arwWmurBm’ tajcjyKjcif;jzifh jrwfpmG bk&m;onf cufcJyifyef;r_/ &ufpuf ,kwfrmr_EiS fh +cdr;f ajcmufrw _ kd@udk &ifqdkif&eftwGuf tHrh cef;aom ,Hk=unfcsufrsm;udk &&Sdydkifqikd fvmum vl@tzG@J tpnf; udk ajymif;vJ&ef aqmif&u G fEdik fcJhjcif; jzpfonf?

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5 ‘rw&m;r_rsm;’udk wku d fzsufjcif;ESifh ‘*k%foduQm’udk umuG,fxed f;odrf;jcif; udkwifarmifOD;xHY i,fpOfuwnf;uyif &Scd Jhonfh xl;jcm;aom yifudkp&ku d f aemufwpfrsKd;rSm 4if;onf rdrd. &nfreS f;csuf +yD;ajrmufatmifjrifonftxd ZGJrav#mhwrf; vkyu f dkifaqmif&u G fwwfjcif;yifjzpfonf? tjcm; nDtpfudk armifESrrsm;ESifhpmv#if rwlnDaom tcsufrmS ukdwifarmifOD;onf vG,fvG,fEiS fh pdwfa00g; axGjym;jcif; r&Sdol yifjzpfonf? wpfpkw H pfckudk vkdcsif+yDqdkv#if wHk;wkdufwkduf usm;udkufukduf xkdt&mudk &&Sdonftxd t&H_;ray;aom pdwfjzifh aqmif&u G fwwfol jzpfonf? t&G,fa&muf vmaomtcg udkwifarmifOD;onf tm;upm;wGif 0goemxHka=umif;udk rdru d dk,fudk od&dv S mcJhonf? rnfonfh tm;upm;enf;udk rnfuJhodk@ upm;&rnf[laom enf;AsL[mrsm;tm; em;vnfodu|rf; cJhonf? xdk@a=umifhvJ rsm;aomtm;jzifh oluomv#if tEkdif&&Sdjcif;jzpfonf? uav;b0wGif oa&uGif;ypf upm;enf;/ acgif;yef;vSef upm;enf;/ a*:vDypf upm;enf; rsm;Y oluomv#if trsm;tm;jzifh tEkdif&&SdcJhonf? odk@aomfvnf; Ekid fol tukepf m;vkdaom pdwfqENrsKd; olxHY r&SdcJhacs? rdrdwGif&daS om t&mtm;vHk;udk qHk;&_;H oGm;ojzifh pdwfqif;&J ae&onfh uav;wpfa,muf. rsufEmS udk wifarmifOD;u r=unfh&ufaoma=umifh rdrdEdkifxm;onfrsm;xJrS w0ufcJGay;vkdufp+rJjzpfonf? odk@aomfvnf; t&_H;orm;onf pdwfxm;qdk;olwpfa,mufjzpfygu jyefay;vdrfhrnf r[kwfacs? i,f&, G fpOf uav;b0uwnf;uyif wifarmifOD;udk vlcspfvlcif rsm;cJhaoma=umifh wifarmifOD;.nD vSa&$onf olEiS fhtwl wpfausmif;xJY ae&jcif;udk ESpfoufcJhonf? wifarmifOD;u ol@udk t+rJapmifha&Smufonfhtjyif tjcm; nDi,f/ nDri,frsm; tEkdifusifhcH&jcif; r&Sdap&eftwGufvnf; umuG,fay;cJhonf? xrif;pm;qif;csderf sm;wGif wifarmifOD;ESifh vSa&$wdk@onf oli,fcsif;rsm;ESifhtwl &Sad eavh &So d nf? i,f&, G fpOfu wifarmifOD;onf ydefoG,f+yD; rsufreS fvnf; wyfcJh&onf? xdk@jyif wifarmifOD;onf tjcm;uav;rsm;uJhodk@yif ol. cJwHEiS fh abmyifrsm; raysmufr&Sap&eftwGuf tusôtyd fuyfxJwiG f xnfhxm;avh&do S nf?

tEdkifusifh Adkvfusr_udk qwfqwf rcHol xdktcsdeu f 4if;wdk@ausmif;wGif tjcm;ausmif;om;rsm;udk tEkdifusihf Akv d fuswwfaom ausmif;om;wpfOD; &Scd Jhbl;onf? 4if;onf wifarmifOD;xuf vlaumif yd}k uD;onf? wpfae@wGif wifarmifOD;ESifh rsufESmcsif;qdkifrS vrf;av#mufvmaom tqdkyg ausmif;om;u wifarmifOD;udk ykcHk;jzifh wrifwum 0ifwkdufum &efpavonf? ‚'D iydefu av;vHk;bJuG?‛[lI wifarmifOD;udk avSmifajymifum ‚rif;eJ@igeJ@ csrvm;uG‛[k tom;vGwf pdefac:avonf? xdktcg wifarmifOD;u ‚igrif;eJ@ rcscsifygbl;? rif;u bmjzpfvkd@ wjcm;vlawGudk jy\em&Smcsif&wmvJ? rif;u tm;vHk;udk &ef&SmaewmbJ? bmjzpfvdk@vJuG‛[k jyefajymonf?

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vrf;o&Jrsm;u wpfpkw H pfa,mufudk =unfhr&I +cdrf;ajcmufv#if +cdrf;ajcmufjcif;cH&olonf vrf;o&Jrsm;udk tEl;tnGwfawmif;yef&onf? Todk@jzifh &yfuGufxJ&dS vrf;o&Jrsm;u udkwifarmifOD;udk =unfhr& jzpfvmonf? wuUodkvfausmif; toGm;tjyef vkyaf eaom udkwifarmifOD;udk vrf;o&Jrsm;u ae@pOfawG@jrifaeaomfvnf; udkwifarmifOD;u wuUodkvfausmif;om;wpfa,mufjzpfa=umif;udkrl 4if;wdk@ r&dyrf dcJhacs? ukdwifarmifOD;. udk,fhudkudk,f,Hk=unfr_ pdwf"gwfEiS fh cyfrdkufrdkuf yHpk Hwdk@a=umifh vrf;o&Jrsm;u ol@udk awmf&kw H ef&Hk &efrp&JcJh=uacs? wpfOD;csif; ESpfOD;csif; &ifqdkif pdefac: xdk;owfcJh=uolrsm;onfvnf; udkwifarmifOD;. ukd,fcyH nm u|rf;usirf _a=umifh arSmufoGm;cJh=uonfu rsm;onf? 1971ckESpf atmufwdkbmvwGif ae@wpfae@ wuUodkvfausmif;u tjyefwGif wifarmifOD;onf ordik f; blwm&Hk vrf;twdkif; av#mufvmonf? TwGif ‚u,f=uyg/ u,f=uyg‛[k wpmpmatmfaeoHudk wifarmifOD; =um;vkduf &onf? olu toHvm&mbufudk csufcsif;ajy;oGm;&m touf(15)t&G,fcef@&aSd om vli,fwpfOD; &ku d fEu S fvk,uf cHae&onfhjrifuGif;udk awG@vdkuf&onf? ‚a[haumifawG? &yfvkdufprf;?‛[k udkwifarmifOD;u [dr;f a[mufvkdufonf? TwGif vrf;o&J(3)a,mufonf vli,fudk xm;+yD; csufcsif; xGufajy;oGm;=uonf? zkwfv_dufzkwfv_dufjzifh touf&SL aeaom vli,fu wifarmifOD;a&mufvmonfhtwGuf aus;Zl;wifa=umif;ajymonf? wifarmifOD;u ‚'Dblwm&Hku vrf;o&J awG usufpm;wJhae&m? rif; 'DudkvmwJh tcgus&if aumif;aumif; owdxm;&r,f? +yD;&if 'Dudk b,fawmhrS wpfa,mufxJ rvm&bl;?‛ [k owday;onf? udkwifarmifOD;u vrf;o&Jrsm; vk,ufaeonfudk 0ifa&muf aESmifh,SufcJhr_tay: t+idK;taw;xm;um &yfuGuftwGif;&Sd vrf;o&Jrsm;u ol@udk apmifh=unfhaecJh=uonf? aemuf&uftenf;i,ft=umwGif udkwifarmifOD;onf blwm&Hv k rf;rSyif tdrfjyefvmcsdew f Gif vrf;o&J*dk%;f 0if vli,f av;ig;a,mufcef@ vrf;ab;wpfae&mwGif xdkifae=uonfudk owdjyKrdonf? xdkvli,frsm;xJrS wpfOD;u ‚a[haumif/ iwHk;‛[k atmfajymoHudk=um;aomtcg udkwifarmifOD;u csufcsif;&yf+yD; olwdk@udk =unfhvkdufonf? ‚rif;u bmjzpfcsifvdk@vJuG‛ [k vrf;o&Jrsm;u &efponf? udkwifarmifOD;u olwdk@qD av#mufoGm;+yD; ‚ighudk tJ'Dvdkac:wm b,folvJ? rif;wdk@txJu b,faumifvJuG‛[k ajym&m vrf;o&Jvli,frsm;tm;vHk; xdkif&mu xvm=uonf? olwdk@xJrS wpfOD;u ‚igbJuG‛[kqdkum udkwifarmifOD;xH vufoD;wpfvHk; ypfoGif;avonf? TwGif udk,fcyH nmudk aumif;rGepf Gm wwfu|rf;xm;ol udkwifarmifOD;. v_y&f Sm;r_rsm;rSm jrefqefvGe;f vSonf? 0ifvmaom vufoD;udk wm;vdkuf+yD; csufcsif; wefjyefwkdufcdkufonf? vrf;o&JaemufwpfOD; ajy;0ifvm&mwGif olu um&maw; enf;jzifh ab;apmif;uefvdkufonf? vrf;o&Jrsm;u wpfa,muf+yD;wpfa,muf qufwdkuf0ifa&muf wkdufcdkufvm ouJhodk@yif ol. wefjyefydwfq@dk wdkufcku d frr_ sm;rSmvnf; avt[keu f Jhodk@ jrefqefvSonf? udk,fcHynmudk TITr# wwfu|rf;olESifh &ifqkdif&vdrrfh nf[k ar#mfvifhrxm;rdcJhaom vrf;o&Jrsm; tht H m;oifhoGm;onf? udkwifarmifOD;udk tEkdif,lI r&Ekid fa=umif; tv#iftjref&dyfpm;rdoGm;+yD; 4if;wdk@ qufrwkdufcdkuf=uawmhacs? TwGif ‚rif;wdk@ ighudk aemufwpfcg vmrprf;eJ@? iguvJ 'D&yfuGufxJrmS }uD;vmwJhaumifbJuG‛[k olu ajymonf? aemufwpfywfcef@=umoGm;onfhtcgwGif udkwifarmifOD; xyfrHwdkufcku d fcH&jyefonf? oli,fcsif;tdrfrS jyefvmonfhtcsdew f Gif jzpfonf? olu *smuiftusôudk ykcHk;ay:wif+yD; vrf;twkdif;av#mufvmonf? xdktcsdeu f 45


ordkif;+rdK@e,fwGif cifarmifwif (odk@r[kwf) "g;cifarmifwif [kac:qdkaom vrf;o&JwpfOD; &Scd Jhbl;onf? vlwpfOD;udk "g;jzifh ypfaygufum t}uD;tus,f '%f&m&oGm;apEkdifaom pGrf;&nf&daS oma=umifh ol@udk "g;cifarmifwif[k ac:=ujcif;jzpfonf? udkwifarmifOD; vrf;axmifhwpfae&mu opfyif}uD;wpfyifudk jzwfav#mufvmcsdew f Gif "g;cifarmifwifonf opfyifaemufwGif yke;f uG,faecJhonf? ukdwifarmifOD;u opfyif}uD;em;odk@ ta&mufwGif "g;cifarmifwifonf opfyifaemufrS &kwfw&uf xGufvmu vSHpGyw f pfacsmif;jzifh ypfaygufonf? udkwifarmifOD;twGuf jyifqifcsdef odyfr&cJh? ol. v#ifjrefaom trSwfwrJh wke@f jyefra_ =umifhomv#if toufraocJ&h jcif; jzpfonf? olu csufcsif;yif ykcHk;ay:u *smuifjzifh vSHvm&mvrf;a=umif;udk vJ$um+yD; eab;odk@ a&SmifxGufvkdufonf? vSHpGyu f ol.*smuifxJ pku d f0ifoGm;onf? udkwifarmifOD; aoG;xGufoH,kd jzpfoGm;vdrrfh nf[k xifrw S fum "g;cifarmifwifonf vSHpGyfudk ypf+yD;onfEiS fhw+ydKifeuf ae&mrS vSnfhajy;onf? udkwifarmifOD;u vrf;ab;&Sd vufoD;qkyt f &G,f ausmufcJwpfvHk;udk ,l+yD; "g;cifarmifwifudk ypfaygufavonf? ausmufcJu "g;cifarmifwif. OD;acgif;udk oGm;a&mufxdreS fonf? OD;acgif;wGif aoG;xGufvm aomfvnf; "g;cifarmifwifu aemufvSnfhr=unfhbJ qufajy;avonf? jzpfysufr_ tvHk;pHkudk 4if;wdk@ teD;tem;wGif &Sad eaom vSa&$. oli,fcsif;wpfa,mufu awG@jrifcJh&onf? xdkoli,fcsif;u vSa&$udk jyefajymif;ajymjy cJhjcif; jzpfonf? vSHpGyaf =umifh udkwifarmifOD;. *smuiftusôpw k f+yJoGm;cJhonf? Ttjzpftysufudk =um;&odv#if tarjzpfol pdwfyloGm;rnfudk od&dx S m;ojzifh udkwifarmifOD;u tarhudk rajymjycJhacs? &yfuGuftwGif;wGif vlwpfa,mufudk owf+yD; "g;jzifh tpdwfpw d ftydkif;ydkif;jzwfum pGe@f ypfxm;cJhonfhowif;udk vlajymrsm;aecsdef jzpfonf? tdrjf yef a&mufonfhtcgwGif udkwifarmifOD;u 4if;awG@}uHK&onfrsm;udk nDr vS+rdKiftm; ajymjycJhonf? ‚nDrav;/ tpfudku 'Davmu}uD;rSm b,fol@udkrS a=umufwmr[kwfbl;? olrsm;awGu tpfudk@ukd pdefac:vm&if tpfudk olwdk@udk &ifqidk f&w J ,f?‛[k ajymcJhonf? Todk@jzifh vrf;&J*dk%;f om;rsm;onf udkwifarmifOD;tay: ydI k t+idK;}uD;vmcJhonf? xdktcsderf Spwifum oluvnf; ausmydk;tdyfEiS fh "g;ajr‡mifwpfacsmif;udk udk,fESifhruGm aqmifvmcJhonf? wpfae@wGif olonf oli,fcsif;rsm;ESifh twl&SdaecJhaoma=umifh ausmif;rS tdrfjyefaemufusonf? olu rD;&xm;vrf;a=umif;twkdif; vrf;av#mufum tdrfjyefvmcsdew f Gif tawmfav;arSmifaecJh+yD? udkwifarmifOD;onf vrf;av#muf&mwGif rdrd. ywf0ef;usiu f dk owdjyKaeol/ t+rJ owd&daS eoljzpfonf? &kwfw&uftarSmifxJwGif 4if;. a&S@Y vlav;ig;a,muf ay:vmonf? aemufausmwGifvnf; vltcsK@d &daS e+yDukd owdxm;rdvkdufonf? TwGif vrf;o&J (10)OD;cef@u ol@udk 0kid f;&Hvkduf+yD; jzpfaeonf? 4if;wkd@onf "g;/ wkwfrsm; udk,fpDESifh jzpf=uonf? udkwifarmifOD;uvnf; ol@"g;udk tv#iftjrefxkwfvkduf+yD; wkdufcdkuf&ef toifhtaetxm; jyifvdkufonf? ‚igq h Dudk t&yfqHk; uyfvmwJhaumif ao+yDbJrw S f‛[k udkwifarmifOD;u cyf=urf;=urf; }udr;f 0g;vdkufonf? vrf;o&Jrsm;onf tkyfpEk Sifh rdu k fae=ujcif;omjzpf+yD; wpfOD;csif;qdkv#if owWdr&Sad =umif;udk olu &dyrf dxm;cJhonf a=umifhyif? vrf;o&Jrsm;uvJ 4if;wkd@txJu rnfol p0ifrnfvJ qdkonfudk apmifhae=uonf? TwGif wifarmifOD;u olwdk@udk pum;pajymavonf? ‚igu wuUodkvfausmif;om; wpfa,mufbJ? vrf;o&J*dk%;f 0if r[kwfbl;? igu 46


udk,fhtvkyu f dk vky+f yD;vdk@ tdrfjyefaewm? igu rif;wdk@eJ@ &efjzpfzk@d bmta=umif;rS r&Sdbl;? rif;wdk@&@J tajctaeawG udkvJ igem;vnfw,f? rif;wkd@b0u qif;&Jwma=umifh tckvdkrsK;d tcuftcJrsKd;pHk awG@ae&w,fqdkwm igodw,f? 'ga=umifhvJ rif;wdk@u tckvdk 'kp&ku d fra_ wG usL;vGeaf e=uwm r[kwfvm;?‛ ‚igu 'D&yfuGufxJrmS ae+yD; 'D&yfuGufxJrmS }uD;vmwJhol? ightaruvJ 'De,fajr&J@ oGm;zGm;q&mr wpfa,mufavuGm?‛ [k udkwifarmifOD;u qufajymonf? ordkif;+rdK@e,fwGif udkwifarmifOD;. taru om;zGm;q&mrtjzpf tvkyfvkyu f dkifaecJhonfrmS (10)ESpfausmf &So d Gm;+yDjzpfonf? e,fcrH sm;uvnf; tarhudk av;pm; =uonf? usef;rma&; jyKpkapmifha&Smufr_rsm; ay;onfhtjyif T+rdK@e,f&Sd udk,f0efaqmifrsm;/ uav;tarrsm;twGuf vkyu f dkifaqmif&Gufay;aeaom trsm;u av;pm;&onfhtarhudk vrf;o&Jrsm; odu|rf;=urnfyifjzpfonf? odk@aomf udkwifarmifOD;u tarhom;jzpfa=umif;udkrl 4if;wkd@ od&dx S m;cJh[ef rwlacs? udkwifarmifOD;u xdkuJhodk@ ajym=um; &mwGif vrf;o&Jrsm; wjznf;jznf; aemufqkwf+yD; tarSmifxJ0ifa&muf aysmufuG,foGm;=uonf? xdktjzpftysufukd }uHKawG@cJh&+yD; aemufyikd f;wGif udkwifarmifOD;onf wwfEdik for# nrarSmifcif tcsderf SD tdrfjyefvmonf? tarSmifxJwGif 4if;wdk@ESifh aemufwpf}udrf rsufEmS csif;qdkif }uHKawG@&v#if rvdkvm;tyfaom ckduf&efjzpfyGm;r_rsm; jzpfvmEkdifonfudk &dyfpm;rdaoma=umifhyif jzpfonf? xdknu vrf;o&Jrsm; jy\emudk ajz&Sif;EkdifchaJ omfvnf; "g;cifarmifwifurl udkwifarmifOD;tay: tcJraus cJhao;acs? "g;cifarmifwifonf vlodrsm;aom vrf;o&J*dk%;f acgif;aqmifwpfOD; jzpfonf? rnfolur# ol@udk tmcH&Jjcif; r&SdcJh? xdk@a=umifhvnf; olu udkwifarmifOD;tay: a'goxGufum ‚'Daumifu bmaumifrk@d ighudk tmcH&JwmvJ? olu ighe@J wu,fwrf; xdyfwkdufawG@&Jvdk@vm;‛[kawG;um wpfpHkwpfck vky&f ef t}uH&vmcJhonf?

ocõsKif;ukef;Y csde;f yJG &uftenf;i,ft=umwGif udkwifarmifOD;onf "g;cifarmifwifxHrS pmwpfapmif&avonf? *lwpf*x l JwGif jcaoFhESpaf umif ratmif;Ekdifa=umif; pmxJwGif a&;xm;onf? xdk@aemuf ‚igeJ@rif;eJ@ wpfa,mufcsif; csz@dk pdefac:w,f? tckuae aemuf(10)&uft=um vjynfhnrSm awG@=ur,f? usKu d Uvm; ocsõKif;ukef;rSm n(9)em&Dus&if awG@r,f? rif; }udKufwJhvufeufudk ,lcJh? tJ'Dtcgusawmh b,folu owWd&SdovJqdkwm awG@=uwmayg?h ‛[k pdefac:xm;onf? udkwifarmifOD;uvnf; ‚igrif;udk tJ'DrmS vmawG@r,f‛[k pmjyefvkdufavonf? udkwifarmifOD;xHwGif *syefuif'"dk g;wpfacsmif; &Scd Jhbl;onf? um&maw;ESifh *sL'dk oifwef;rsm;tjyif uif'k"d g;oifwef;udkyg olu (7)wef;rS (9)txd t&G,frsm;wGif wufa&mufoif=um;cJhonf? wuUodkvfausmif;u jyefvm+yD; naewkdif;wGif udkwifarmifOD;onf uif'k"d g; upm;enf;udk avhusifhvmcJholjzpfonf? ,ck ol@udk "g;cifarmifwifu pdefac:vmav+yD? odk@&mwGif Tcsde;f yJGESifhywfoufI rdom;pk0ifrsm;udk rajymjycJhacs? rdrdbmom avhusifh&mwGif olonf uif'k"d g;udk roHk;bJ uif'k"d g;t&Snfcef@&+Sd yD; uif'd"k g;wpfacsmif;xuf av;ig;q ydrk adk v;vHaom oHacsmif;wpfacsmif;udk oHk;+yD; upm;avh&do S nf?

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csde;f yJG&uf eD;uyfvmaomtcg udkwifarmifOD;u *syefuif'k"d g;udk toHk;jyKI avhusifhonf? TuJhodk@ avhusifh&mwGif ol. v_y&f Sm;r_rsm;rSm jrefqefvGe;f ojzifh "g;oGm;. v_y&f Sm;aeonfudkyif rjrifEdik facs? uif'k"d g;rSm ol.vufxJwGif =uufar$;av; ouJhokd@ aygyh g;vSonf? csde;f yJGwGif wkdufcku d f&eftwGuf tqifoifhjzpfaecJhonf? tpfudk}uD; udkwifarmifOD;onf &kyf&iS fum;xJwGif ygaom qmrl&kid f;"g;orm;uJhodk@yif jzpfonf[k vSa&$u jyefajymif;ajymjyonf? vjynfhna&mufaomtcg csdef;yJGESifh ywfoufI udkwifarmifOD;u vSa&$udk today;um ‚'g b,fol@udkrS rajymjyeJ@? txl;ojzifh tar vHk;0rodapeJ@?‛ [k ajymavonf? xdk@jyif ol@twGuf pdwfryl&ef ajym+yD; ‚tJ'Du jyefvmwJhtcgus&if bmawGjzpfysufcJhw,fqdkwm tpfudk rif;udk ajymjyr,f‛[k qdkcJhonf? xdknwGif udkwifarmifOD; ,Hk=unftm;udk;&aom oli,fcsif;ESpfa,mufudkyg ac:oGm;onf? ‚'Dn igwpfa,mufbJ ole@J csrSm? rif;wdk@ bmrS vkypf &m rvdkvm;? 'gayr,fh wu,fvdk@ wjcm;vrf;o&JawG 0ifygvmw,f qdk&ifawmh rif;wdk@ ighbufu ulay; aygu h Gm?‛[k udkwifarmifOD;u olwkd@udk ajymonf? Todk@jzifh ukdwifarmifOD;ESifh ol. oli,fcsif;(2)a,muf ocsõKif;ukef;t0if0odk@ owd&d&S djS zifh csOf;uyfvm =uonf? ywf0ef;usirf Sm yuwd wdwfqdwf+idro f ufaeonf? opfudkif;rsm;t=um;u xdk;azguf0ifa&mufvmaom va&mifrmS acsmufcsm;p&myif? va&mifatmufwGif tkwf*lwdkifrsm;udk txift&Sm;awG@jrifae&onf? wcgw&HwGif vif;Ekd@rsm; xyHsoGm;onfhtoHudk =um;&onf? 'DvdkESifh ocsõKif;ukef;xJudk olwdk@ csOf;eif;0ifa&mufvm=uonf? ocsõKif;ukef;xJta&mufwGif oli,fcsif;ESpaf ,mufEiS fhtwl wifarmifOD;u vufyku d f+yD; &yfapmifhaeonf? ol. cg;ywf xlxlY csdwfqx JG m;aom uif'k"d g;onf "g;tdrfxJuxGuf&ef toifjh zpfaeonf? n (9)em&D (10)rdepfcef@ &S+d yD jzpfaomfvnf; ouf&dq S I dk wpfaumifwpf+rD;rS 4if;wdk@xH csOf;uyfrvmacs? c%=umaomtcg tkwf*lwkdifrsm;t=um;&Sd csKyH kwfwpfckxJuaeI wpfpkw H pfa,mufu 4if;wkd@udk acsmif;ajrmif;=unfh&_aeouJhokd@ xifrw S fvdkuf&+yD; xdkcsHKykwfxJudk ukdwifarmifOD;wdk@ tm&Hkpdkuf=unfhaepOf xkdolonf tarSmifxkxJodk@ ajy;0ifaysmufuG,foGm;onf? csde;f yJGodk@ vma&muf&ef owWdr&Sad om "g;cifarmifwifu 4if;. wynfhwpfa,mufudk v$wfum udkwifarmifOD; vmrvm =unfhcdkif;onfjzpfa=umif;udk &dyrf dvkdufonf? vSa&$uvnf; tpfudk}uD; jyeftvmudk &ifwxdwfxdwfjzifh apmifhar#mfaecJhonf? opPm&Sdaom nDi,fonf csde;f yJGESifh ywfoufI rnfol@udkr# todray;cJhyg? udkwifarmifOD; tdrfjyefa&mufvmaomtcg vSa&$u ol@udk csOf;uyf ar;jref;avawmhonf? ‚bmjzpfoGm;vJ? tpfudk}uD; ole@J cscJhvm;?‛ ‚'Daumif csdef;yJGudk rvmygbl;uGm‛[k udkwifarmifOD;u +yHK;+yD; vSa&$udk ajymonf? aemufwpfae@ "g;cifarmifwifu udkwifarmifOD;xH pmwpfapmif xyfyk@d vmjyefonf? pmxJwGif ‚wifarmifOD;? ig rif;eJ@ pum;ajymcsifw,f? blwm&Hkem;u vrf;ab;t&ufqidk fudk vmcJh?‛[k a&;xm;onf? vSa&$u tpfudk}uD; twGuf pd;k &dru f m ‚tpfudk}uD; roGm;oifhbl;xifw,f? 'DvkdaumifrsKd;awGu tifrwef aumufuspfwmaem?‛[k

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owday;onf? odk@aomfvnf; udkwifarmifOD;u ‚=unfh&wm olu tpfudk}uD;udk wu,f pum;ajymcsifvdk@eJ@ wlygw,fuGm? bmrS pdwfryle@J ? tpfudk}uD; ole@J pum;oGm;ajymr,f?‛[kajymonf? xdkae@ naewGif udkwifarmifOD;u vrf;ab; t&ufqikd fodk@ oGm;a&mufonf? "g;cifarmifwifu udkwifarmifOD;udk awG@onfESifhw+ydKifeuf csufcsif;xum jymjymovJ vufqEJG _wfqufavonf? xkd@aemuf olu ‚ig rif;eJ@ &efrjzpfcsifawmhygbl;uGm? ig rif;e@J rdwfaqGbJ jzpfcsifw,f? rif;u wu,fudk &JpGr;f owWdeJ@ jynfhpHkwJh vlwpfa,mufbJ? igu vlawGtawmfrsm;rsm;udk ocsõKif;uke;f rSm csz@dk pdefac:cJah yr,fhvJ b,folurS tJ'Dvkdvmcsz@dk owWdr&Scd Jhbl;? rif;u tJ'Dukd vm&Jwmqdkawmh rif;uwu,f Z&Sw d Jh vlwpfa,mufbJuG? tck igeJ@rif;eJ@ rdwfaqGawG tjzpf qufqH=uygpkd@vm;uGm? &yfuGufxJrmS rif; jy\em&Sdvmw,fq&dk ifvJ ighudk ajym? ig rif;udk tultnD ay;r,f?‛[kqdkavonf? wifarmifOD;u ‚ig rif;&J@ tultnD rvdktyfygbl;? 'gayr,fh igwkd@ rdwfaqGawGtjzpf aygif;vdk@&w,f?‛[k ajymonf?

rD;ESifh a& awG@jcif; wnaewGif udkwifarmifOD;eSifh oli,fcsif;wpk tif;,m;uefraS &;ul;jyD; jyefvm}uonf? &efukew f uUokdvf 0if;udk ausmcdkif;jyD; qifa&wGif;vrf;rSaeI &efuket f if;pdefvrf;r}uD;udk OD;wnf azgufxGuf&ef&yfuGuftwGif; jzwfoef;avSsmufoGm;ae}ucsdejf zpfonf? nae ajcmufem&Dcef h&dS aecJhjyD? qifa&wGif; vrf;wavsSmufwGif yk*~vdu trsdL;orD;taqmifi,fuav;rsm; &Sad eonf? ausmif;oluav;rsm;rSm a&rdk;csdK;jyD; oeyfcg;yg;uGuf}um;vdr;f / bavmufpf tuFsDvSvS uav; rsm;0wfum taqmifa&S hjcH0if;xJxGufjyD; rwfwyf&yfpum;ajymol ajymae}u/ vrf;avSsmufol avSsmufae}uonf? a&pdk abmif;bDtusF Drsm;udk vufu udkifoludkif/ ycHk;ay:wifolwifvm eSifh oli,fcsif;wtkyf pum;wajymajym a&S huaeavSSsmufoGm;ae}ujyD; udkwifarmifOD;uaemufqHk; u vdkufygvmvSsuf &Sad eonf? &dk;raqmifa&S h ta&mufwGif um;[Ge;f oHvdkvdk }um;rdonf? odk h&mwGif rnfolrsS owdrxm;rd}u? qifa&wGif;vrf;rSm ajrvrf;jzpfjyD; ajcvsifavSsmufolrsm; t"du oHk;ojzifh um;vmvdrhrf nf[kvnf; rxifcJh}u? aemufqHk;w}udrf um;[Ge;f wD;vdkufonfh tcsdew f Gif[Gef;oHrmS tawmfyif us,favmifjyD; &Snfvnf;&SnfvSsm;ojzifh oli,fcsif; tm;vHk; rwfwyf&yfvdkufrjd yD; aemufudkvSnfh}unfh rd}uonf? rdrdwdk htm;vHk;.aemufwGif ppfa&mif jzpfaom tpdrf;ykyfa&mifeiS fh*spfum;wpD;u vrf;awmif;aejcif; jzpfonf? udkwifarmifOD;u aemufq;Hk uae vdkufvmaoma}umifh tqdyk g*spfum;rSm oleiS fhteD;qHk;jzpfaeonf? us,favmifonfh [Gef;oH&n S f}uD; xGufay:vmaomtcg rdef;cav;aqmifjcH0if;rsm; twGif; [efa&;jy vSsuf&daS om ausmif;oluav;rsm; omru/ vrf;oGm;vrf;vmrsm;yg &yfjyD; tqdkyg*spfum;udk 0dik f;}unfhae}uonf? *spfum;xJrmS rdrw d dk heiS fh&G,fwl vli,fwpkygvmonf? um;armif;olvli,fu um;pwD&m&if aemufrSaeI udk,fcE<mudk ab;udkudkif; acgif;jyLxGufjyD; ‚a[haumifawG um; [Ge;f wD;oH r}um;bl;vm;/ rif;wdk hem;yif;ae}uovm;?‛ [k atmfajym vdkufonf? 49


udkwifarmifOD;eSifh oli,fcsif; wpkvHk;rSm &kwfw&uf rSifoufro d vdk jzpfoGm;}uonf? trSwfwrJh bmjyefajym &rSe;f rodcJh}u? rdrw d dk@udk tovGwf &efpaejyD [k odvdkufonf? c%av; }umjyD;aemuf udw k ifarmifOD;u ‚igwdk hem;ryif;bl;? pum;ajym&if; vrf;avSsmufvm}uvdk hrif;wD;wJh [Gef;udk r}um;wm?rif; pum;ajym&if aumif;aumif;ajymyg‛ [k jyefajymonf? *spfum;xJrS vli,fu ‚aumif;aumif; rajymawmh bmjzpfvJ? --- jzpfvm;? rif;ubmaumifvJ csjcifvdk@vm;?‛ [k qdkum tqdkyg vli,fu *spfum;ay:uae atmufudkqif;um um;ab;wGif &yfjyD; udkwifarmifOD; udk pl;pl;0g;0g; }unfhvdkufonf? vrf;oGm;vrf;vmawG a&m aqmif0if;xJ&Sd rdef f;cav;awGuyg wckckjzpfawmhrnfudk pd;k &drjf yD; 0dkif;}unfhae}uonf? udkwifarmifOD; twGufrl onfvdk yGJrsdL;rSm &dk;aeygjyD? cyfat;at;yif rwfwyf&yfvdkufjyD; ‚iguawmh rcsjcifygbl;? rif; csjcif&if vmavuGm? vmprf;}unfhaygh‛ [k wkef hjyef vdkufonf? wa,muf wa,mufjcif; jzpfaeojzifh rdrdwdk holi,fcsif;awGuvnf; udkwifarmifOD; bmvkyrf vJ onftwdkif; }unfhaevdkufonf? 0ifa&mufulnDp&mrvdk [kvnf; ,Hk}unfonf? *spfum;xJwGif xdkifae}uaom wzufu vli,ftyk fonfvnf; xdkenf;twdkif;yif jzpfyHk&onf? bmrS 0ifrajymbJ tomyif }unfhae }uonf? *spfum;ay:u qif;vmjyD; &efpum;ajymaom vli,frmS 4if;udk,fwdkifu a'goxGufaeoavmufudkwifarmifOD;u cyfat;at;yHak y:aeojzifh rdef;cav;rsm;eSifh vrf;oGm;vrf;vmrsm; a&S hwGif &SufoGm;yHk &onf? &Suf&rf;&rf;onfh taejzifh *spfum;xJudk vufedKS ufI ypPnf;wckudk xkwf,ljyD; udkwifarmifOD;udkcsdef&G,fum yg;pyfuvnf; }udr;f armif;&if; udkwifarmifOD; &yfae&modk hwvSr;f jcif; avSsmufvmonf? ‚acG;rom; rif;u ighudk bmaumifxifovJ? aooGm;jcifovm;? tckcsufjcif; t0Dpd a&mufoGm; csifovm;?‛ tqdkyg vli,f. vufxJrS ajcmufvHk;yl; aoewfudk awG@vdkuf&aomtcg udkwifarmifOD;onf wcsufawmh tH}h ooGm;yHk&onf? odk@&mwGif enf;enf;rS pd;k &drx f dwfvef@yrHk ay:? aemufudkvnf; wvSr;f rSrqkwfbJ awmifhawmifh}uD; &yfaeonf? ajcmufvHk;yl; jcdrf&G,fvmaom vli,fu udkwifarmifOD;eSifh rvSrf;rurf; ta&mufwGif &yfvdkufonf? xdktcg udkwifarmifOD;u xdkvli,f. rsufemS udk wvSnfh ajcmufvHk;yl;udk wvSnfh}unfh&if; oljyHK;aeus twdkif; raxhwaxh jyHK;vdkufonf? xdk@aemuf ol@tusF D &ifyyfus,foD;rsm;udk wckjcif; jzKwfI &ifudk aumhay;vdkufjyD; ‚a[haumif rif;owWd&if ypfavuGm‛ [k ajymvdkufonf? ywf0ef;usio f nf tyfusoH }um;&avmufatmifyif jidrfoufoGm;cJhonf? tm;vHk;. tm&Hkonf olwdk@ eSpfOD;ESifh ajcmufvHk;yl;xHodk ha&mufae}uonf? aemufrS od&onfrmS *spfum;ay:u qif;vmaom vli,fonf ppfAkv d ftodkif;t0dkif; tm%mydkif vl}uD;rdom;pkxJrS jzpfjyD; naeydkif;rsm;wGif &dk;raqmif&Sd rdef;cav; wOD;udk yHrk Sef vma&muf yd;k yrf;aeoljzpfonf? tcsif;jzpfcsdeYf 4if;ydk;yef;aeaom rde;f cav; udk,fwdkifxGuf}unfhae aoma}umifh vla&;jyvdkonfh oabmjzifh 4if;.zcif udkif[efwlaom ajcmufvHk;yl;udk xkwfI jcdrf&G,fum jcdrf;ajcmufvdkufjcif; 50


jzpfonf? ajcmufvHk;yl;awG h&vSsif a}umuf&HG hjyD; udkwifarmifOD; a&SmifxGuf oGm;vdrhrf nf[k wGufvdkufykv H nf;&onf? twGufrmS ; oGm;ygjyD? udkwifarmifOD;u jcaoFh}uD; waumif [def;a[mufvdkufaom toHrsLd ;jzifh ‚a[haumif aoewf}uD;udkifjyD; bmvkyaf ewmvJ? rif; owWd&Sd&ifypfavuGm‛ [k ajymum ol htuFsDudk vufepS fbufjzifhjzJ/ &ifyyf}uD;aumhjyD; ajcmufvHk;yl; wnfhwnfhudk OD;wnf avSsmufvSr;f vdkufonf? ajcmufvHk;yl;udkifxm;aom vli,f.rsufemS rSm aoG;r&Sd awmh? udkwifarmifOD;u a&S@udk wvSr;f jcif; wdk;vmaomtcg olu ajcmufvHk;yl; jcdrf&ufeiS fh aemufudk wvSr;f jcif; jyefqkwfoGm;onf? vufwurf; tvdkodk hta&mufwGif udkwifarmifOD;u xdkvli,f. ajcmufvHk;yl; udkifxm;aom vufudk rdrdb,fvufjzifh usm;ykwf ykwfxkwfvdkufjyD; nmvufjzifh jzwfvufoD; wvHk;oGif;vdkuf&m xdkvli,frmS wcsufwnf;eSifh yufvufvef vJusoGm;cJhonf? yg;pyfrv S nf; aoG;awG jzmueJxGufoGm;onf? ajray:ta&muf acgif;udk ajcaxmufeiS fh qufuef&ef jyifvdkufaomtcg rdrdwdk holi,fcsif; wpku udkwifarmifOD;udk ajy;uyf 0dkif;csKyf vdkuf}uonf? udkwifarmifOD;. ajcaxmuf uefcsufjyif;onfudk oli,fcsif;tm;vHk; odonf? vJaeol acgif;udk abmvHk;uefovdkuef&vSsif a}uxGufoGm;edik fonf? ‚wifarmifOD; awmfawmh/ vufvGeu f kerf ,f/ olrif;udk bmrSqufrvkyfedkifawmhbl;‛ [k atmf[pf&if; wm;qD; cJh}u&onf? wifarmifOD; [lonfrmS onfvdkvlrsdK;jzpfonf? xdkvli,f ajrjyifay: vJusaecsdew f Gif ajcaxmufjzifh uefzdk@ &nf&G,fcsuf r&Sda=umif;/ ol@ vufxJu ajcmufvHk;jyL;jzifh rypfEkdifap&eftwGufom vli,fqDokd@ tv#iftjref oGm;a&mufcJhjcif; jzpfa=umif;wdk@udk aemufykid f; wGif udkwifarmifOD;u oli,fcsif;rsm;udk &Sif;jyonf? tcif;jzpfyGm;+yD;aemuf tdrftjyefvrf;wGif oli,fcsif;rsm;u udkwifarmifOD;. rsufEmS udk tuJcwf=uonf? ol. toGit f jyifrmS trsufa'goa=umifh wke, f ifaejcif; r&Sb d J at;aq;wnf+idraf eonf? udkwifarmifOD; +yHK;aeus rxdwxd t+yHK;rsKd;udk awG@vdkuf&onf? ,ckw}udrw f Gifrl ol.t+yHK;onf a=umufp&m raumif;bJ cspfcifz, G f&m t+yHK;rsKd; jzpfonf? vlowfvufeuf ukdifxm;ol &efbufvli,ftm; rdrw d wfu|rf;xm;aom cg&maw;ynmjzifh tEkdif,l cJhaomfvnf; ol. rsufEmS xm;rSmum; 0ifh0gjcif; tv#Of;r&S?d trSet f m;jzifh qdk&v#if udk,fcyH nmonf ol. pGrf;tif r[kwf? pdwf. oef@&Sif;pif=u,fjcif;uomv#if ol. pGrf;tifjzpfonf? wpfpkw H pfOD;. cdkif;apr_a=umifh r[kwfbJ rdrdbmom vkyo f ifhvkyfxdkufonfudk vkycf Jhjcif;a=umifh a=ueyfyw D d jzpfaeyHkawmh &onf? xdk@aemuf oli,fcsif;wpfa,mufu ol@udk ar;onf? ‚wifarmifOD;/ rif;u woufvHk; uufovpfbke;f }uD; vkycf sifw,fvdk@ t+rJ ajymaecJhw,f r[kwfvm;? 'gayr,fh vufawG@b0 vlawGe@J qufqHwJhtcgrSm ‘onf;cHjcif; w&m;’ r&Sdbl;qdk&if rif;u b,fvdkvky+f yD; bkef;}uD; jzpfEikd frmS vJ?‛ udkwifarmifOD;u-

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r&&S=d uawmhacs/ 4if;wdk@ ynmrwwfaoma=umifh tvky&f zdk@ qkdonfrmS vnf; rjzpfEdkifawmhacs? ynmrwwfI ydu k fqHr&SmEkdifaoma=umifh 4if;wdk@ rdom;pk0ifrsm; iwfjywf=u&onf? Todk@jzifh vli,frsm;onf vk,uf"g;jywkdufjcif;/ +cdrf;ajcmufI aiGn‡pjf cif;/ cg;ydkufEdu _ fjcif; paom 'kp&du k frr_ sm;wGif yg0ifywfoufvmcJh=uavawmhonf? tcsdK@aom olrsm;. rdom;pk0ifrsm;rSm tonf;toef zsm;emae+yD; aq;ukor_ay;Ekid f&eftwGuf aiGa=u;vdktyfaeaoma=umifh omv#if 4if;wdk@u cg;ydkufE_dufpm;ae&jcif;jzpfonf? vrf;o&J*dk%;f 0ifrsm;. ae@pOfb0tajctaersm;udk =um;odavhvmcJh&+yD;onfhaemufwGif udkwifarmifOD;u T jy\emrsm;tm;vHk;wkd@. tajccH&if;jrpfESifh pyfvsOf;I 4if;wdk@udk &Sif;vif;ajymjyay;onf? wkdif;jynf. vuf&dS Ekid fiHa&; tajctaeudk rD;armif;xdk;jyonf? Adkvfae0if;ESifh jrefrmhq&dk S,fvpf vrf;pOfygwDwdk@u jrefrmEkdifiH wpfEkdifiHvHk; tay: pDrHcef@cGJr_ nHhzsif;yHkudk ajymjyonf? jynfolvlxkwpf&yfvHk; iwfjywfaetcsdew f Gif vufwpfqkyfpmr# &Sad om Adv k fcsKyfrsm;ESifh 4if;wdk@ aemufvdkufaemufygrsm;u wkdif;jynf. o,HZmwrsm;tay: udk,fusK;d &SmtjrwfxkwfaeyHu k dk &Sif;jyonf? Todk@jzifh vrf;o&J*dk%;f 0ifrsm;onf jrefrmEkdifiH. Ekid fiHa&;tajctaersm;udk em;vnfoabmayguf vmEkkdif cJh+yD; udkwifarmifOD;udk ydI k av;pm;vmcJh=uonf? ‚usaemfwdk@ bmvkyo f ifhovJ‛[k ar;vm&mwGif udkwifarmifOD; u‚wkdif;jynfrmS tajymif;tvJawG jzpfz@dk tcsdew f efvmygvdrhrf ,f? tajymif;tvJawG jzpfvmygvdrhrf ,f? tJ'Dtcgus&if usaemfwkd@wawGtm;vHk; w&m;r#wr_twGuf wdkufyG0J ifEdkifw,f?‛[k cyf&Sif;&Sif;bJ jyefajzvdkufonf? odk@aomfvnf; vufawG@wGirf l 4if;wdk@twGuf tjcm;a&G;cs,fp&mvrf; qkdI r&Sdoavmufyif &Sm;yg;aecJha=umifh tqdkyg vrf;o&J*dk%;f 0if trsm;pkonf raumif;r_'pk &dkufvkyif ef;rsm;wGifom qufvufusifvnfaecJh=uonf? wpfae@ wuUodkvfausmif;wGif udkwifarmifOD;udk oli,fcsif;wpfa,mufu ol. tzdk;wef abmyifwpfacsmif; cg;ydkufE_dufcHcJh&a=umif; ajymavonf? ordkif;+rdK@e,f bwfpum;wpfp;D ay:wGif cg;ydkufE_dufcHcJh&jcif; jzpfonf? TwGif udkwifarmifOD;u ‚ig rif;udk ulnDEdik fr,fxifw,f? iguordik f;+rdK@e,frSmaewmqdkawmh tJ'Dudk rif; igeJ@vkdufchaJ ygh?‛[k ajymonf? Todk@jzifh udkwifarmifOD;onf ol@oli,fcsif;udk &yfuGufxJ&dS vrf;o&J*k% d f;acgif;aqmifxH ac:oGm;avonf? p&dkuf=urf;aom e,fxJudk vkdufvm&aoma=umifh oli,fcsif;jzpfolrSm tenf;i,f aemufwGe@f aecJhonf? vrf;o&J *d% k f;acgif;aqmifudk awG@onfESifh w+ydKifeuf udkwifarmifOD;u‚'gu wuUodkvfausmif;u igh oli,fcsif;wpfa,mufbJ? 'Dae@ ol bwfpum;ay:rSm cg;ydkufEdu _ f cHvdkuf&wJh abmyifudk jyefvdkcsifw,f?‛ [k ajymonf? aemuf(1)em&Dcef@ =umoGm;aomtcg *dk%;f acgif;aqmif abmyifudk jyefvmay;onf? udkwifarmifOD;u vrf;o&J*dk%;f acgif;aqmiftay: =oZm&SdyHk/ *d% k f;acgif;aqmifu udkwifarmifOD; pum;udk em;axmif+yD; udkwifarmifOD; tay: av;pm;r_&dyS kH wdk@a=umifh 4if;. oli,fcsif;onf udkwifarmifOD;tay: ajymrjyEkid favmufatmif txif}uD; 55


av;pm;oGm;onf? rdrdabmyifudk jyef&onfhtwGuf udkwifarmifOD;tay: aus;Zl;wifrqHk; jzpfum ‚udkwifarmifOD;u b,fvdkvkyf+yD;awmh olwdk@udk 'Dwkdif;av; ajymvdu k f&kH abmyifudk jyef&wmvJ? vHk;0 r,HkEikd fp&mbJ‛[k awG;ae avonf? a&&Snfudk =unfhrnfqv dk #if jrefrmEkdifiHwGif tm%m&Sifpepf oufq;dk &Snfaeor# umvywfvHk; vrf;o&J *d% k f;rsm; uJhokd@aom Tvl@tzG@J tpnf;&Sd ‘om;aumifrsm;’. jy\emudk ajz&Sif;I &Ekdifrnf r[kwfa=umif;udk udkwifarmifOD;u &dyfpm;rdcJhonf? xdk@a=umifh ppftm%m&Sifpepfudk pkaygif;wGef;vSew f dkufzsufEdik fa&;twGuf wuUodkvf wcGifwGif ol. v_y&f Sm;r_rsm;udk ydrk w dk dk;csJ@vmcJhonf? TwdkufyGw J Gif yg0ifrnfh rdwfaqGa&mif;&if;rsm; wdk;yGm;vmap&ef vkyaf qmifcJhonf? wuUodkvfausmif; apmapm+yD;I tm;vyfcsderf sm;wGif udkwifarmifOD;ESifh ol. oli,fcsif;rsm;onf tif;,m;uefxJY a&oGm;ul;avh&do S nf? &efuke+f rdK@. jcpfjcpfawmufyjl yif;aeaom &moDOwkwGif tif;,m;uef&dS at;jraeaom a&xJY 0ifpdrfvkduf&jcif;onf 4if;wdk@udk pdwfa&mudk,fyg vef;qef;vmaponf? xkd@jyif trsm;tm;jzifh udkwifarmifOD;onf wpfa,mufxJ a&ul;avh&do S nf? olu a&xJ t=um}uD; pdrfae&jcif;udk ESpfoufonf? Ttjcif;t&ma=umifhvnf; ol. tm&Hkpl;pdkufEkdifaom pdwfpGrf;tifudk &&SdvmcJhjcif; jzpfEikd fonf? olonf *Dw 0goemxHkol wpfOD; jzpf+yD; wa,mudk u|rf;usiyf idk fEdik fpGm wD;wwfonf? tm;vyfcsdef rsm;wGif r=umc% qdkovdk olu wa,moHrsm;xJwGif pdwfEpS fxm;vkdufjcif;tm;jzifh tyef;ajz tem;,lavh&Sdonf?

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ocsFmcsdef a&mufaomtcgwGif tdrfpmr+yD;aom ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;udk q&mru twef;a&S@ ac:xkwfavonf? +yD;aemuf q&mru olvkyaf eustwkdif; xdkausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;udk wpfa,mufcsif; em;ov,fwGif ydwf&u kd fonf? rvS+rdKiftvSnfhodk@a&mufaomtcg olru tpfudk}uD; rSmxm;ouJhodk@yif vufz0g; ay:wGif &dkuf&ef q&mrudk ajymavonf? TwGif q&mru ceJ@aom avoHjzifh‚eifu AdkvfrSL;orD; rd@k vdk@ igu eifhudk vufrmS &dkuf&rSmvm;?‛ [k ajymonf? q&mrudk,fwkdifuwnf; AdkvfrLS ;uawmfwpfa,muf jzpfaeaoma=umifhyif TuJhodk@ oHk;E_ef;vdkufjcif; jzpfonf? ‚usru Adv k frLS ;orD;awmh r[kwfygbl;? 'gayr,fh usr rdbuawmif usrudk em;ov,frmS wcgrS r&dkufchzJ ;l bl;? tJ'ga=umifh usrudk vufrmS bJ &dkufyg?‛ TwGif q&mru ‚eifhudkig em;ov,frmS r&kduf&bl;qdk&if eif twef;xJu xGufoGm;‛[k qdkavonf? rvS+rdKifuvnf; olronf pmoif&eftwGuf ausmif;vmwuf&jcif; jzpfa=umif;/ xdk@a=umifh twef;xJu xGufroGm; Ekid fa=umif; jyefajymaomtcg q&mru ‚eif xGufroGm;&if ig xGufoGm;r,f‛[k a'gow}uD; ajymqdkum twef; xJu csufcsif;xxGufoGm;onf? q&mru ausmif;tky}f uD;&Hk;cef;wGif rvS+rdKif tr_udpPudk oGm;a&mufwkdif=um;jcif; jzpfonf? xdk@a=umifh rvS+rdKifonf ausmif;tky}f uD;&Hk;cef;odk@ tac:cH&+yD; ausmif;tkyq f &m}uD;u ‚eifhudkig ausmif; xkwfw,f‛[k qkdavonf? ausmif;tky}f uD;. pum;udk =um;aomtcg thHtm;w}uD; jzpfoGm;+yD; olrudk ausmif;xkwf&jcif; ta=umif;&if;ESifh ywfoufI rvS+rdKifu ar;onf? q&m}uD;u ‚eifh tdrfudkjyef? +yD;awmh eifhrdbwpfa,mufudk 'Dudk ac:vmcJh? 'grSr[kwf&if eif ausmif;udk jyefrvmeJ@‛[k qdkonf? rvS+rdKifu olr. rdbrsm; tvkyrf tm;=ua=umif;/ tdrfwGif tpfudk}uD;wpfa,mufom&Sda=umif; ajymaomtcg ausmif;tky}f uD;u ‚tpfudkbJjzpfjzpf bmbJjzpfjzpf }udKufwJhaumifudk ac:cJh‛[k &ifh&ifhoD;oD;qdkum rvS+rdKifudk tdrfjyefv$wfvdkufonf? tdrfjyefa&mufvmaomtcg rvS+rdKifu 0rf;enf;&Suf&H@G pGmjzifh udkwifarmifOD;tm; ausmif;wGifjzpfysufcho J nf rsm;udk jyefajymif;ajymjyavonf? udkwifarmifOD;uvnf; olrESifhtwl ausmif;odk@vkdufcJhrnf[k ajymonf? xdkae@wGif rd;k &GmoGef;aeaoma=umifh udkwifarmifOD;onf rd;k umtusôt&Snfwpfxnfudk 0wfqifum ausmif;odk@vkdufvmonf? ol ESpfoufvSaom *syef"g;&Snfudk rd;k umtusôatmufwGif xnfhvmonfudkvnf; rvS+rdKifu owdjyKrdonf? q&m}uD;&Hk;cef;odk@ a&mufaomtcg udkwifarmifOD;u ukvm;xkdifwpfvHk;udk ajcaxmufjzifh uefvkduf+yD; rvS+rdKifudk xdkukvm;xkdifay:Y 0ifxdkifaponf? olrmS rl &yfv#ufom;jzifhyif q&m}uD;ukd pl;pku d f=unfhaeonf? ausmif;tkyf q&m}uD;rSm tvGet f t hH m;oifhoGm;+yD; ajcrudkifr/d vufrudkifrd jzpfoGm;onf? udkwifarmifOD; rd;k umtusôxJ&Sd 57


"g;&SnfudkvJ awG@oGm;+yD; ‚xkdifyg/ xkdifyg‛[k jymjymovJ ajymavonf? q&m}uD;ay;aom xkdifcHkwGif udkwifarmifOD; vHk;00ifxkdifjcif; rjyKbJ‚usaemfhnDrudk ausmif;xkwf+yD; tdrfjyefckdif;&wJhtxd ol@rSm bmtrSm;&Sv d dk@vJ? wu,fvdk@ ol@rSm trSm;&Scd Jh &ifawmif rdbudk ta=umif;=um;&if rdbu qHk;rEkdifw,f? q&mr&J@ vlrqefwJh &du k fEu S fq;Hk rr_udk rcHcsifwma=umifh eJ@wif usaemfhnDrudk ausmif;xkwfw,f qdkwmu vHk;0 rjzpfoifhbl;?‛[k qdkonf? ausmif;tkyq f &m}uD;uvnf; tajctaea=umif;pHkudk aumif;rGepf Gm od&dx S m;jcif; r&Sdaoma=umifh rdrd. vky&f yftwGuf wpHkw&m ta=umif;jycsuf ray;EkdifcJhacs? aemufqHk;wGif q&m}uD;u ocsFmq&mrudk &Sif;jyvdkufrnf jzpfa=umif;/ rvS+rdKifonfvnf; yHrk Sefvdk ausmif;qufwufEdik fa=umif; ajymcJ&h onf? xdk@a=umifh rvS+rdKif ausmif; jyefwufEdik fcJh+yD; xdktcsdeu f pwifum olr. ocsFmq&mronfvnf; ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;udk Ekid fxufp;D eif; jyKjcif;/ yg;&du k fjcif;rsm; rjyKawmhacs?

aysmhajymif;aom arwWmESifh rmausmaom arwWmudk [efcsufnDapjcif; udkwifarmifOD;u vlom;tm;vHk;udk arwWmxm;onfrmS tjiif;yGm;zG,f r&Sdacs? odk@aomf ol. arwWmonf ‘tºuGif;rJh’ r[kwf? w&m;r#wr_udk rsufuG,fjyK olrsm;tay: olu arwWm rxm;? udkwifarmifOD;onf vl@*k%foduQm udk xdyg;aESmifh,Sufvmolrsm;tay: onf;cHcGifhv$wfpw d f&do S l r[kwfacs? w&m;r#wr_qikd f&m jy\emrsm;udk vpfvsL&_ xm;ol/ rdrd. a&S@armifwGif ‘raumif;r_’usL;vGejf cif;udk cGifhjyKwwfol r[kwfacs? rnfonfhenf;ESifhrqdk/ rnfodk@aom tepfemcHrr_ sm;jzifh ay;qyf& ay;qyf& udkwifarmifOD;onf w&m;r#waom enf;vrf;jzifh jyKrlaqmif&u G fjcif; r&Sdol rsm;udk qef@usifum tav#mhray;pwrf; wkdufyG0J ifv_y&f Sm;cJhonf? Todk@qdk&mwGif raumif;r_ usL;vGeo f lrsm;tay: udkwifarmifOD;u pufqky&f @GH rek f;aoma=umifh r[kwf? pmemaxmufxm;rdaoma=umifhom jzpfonf? ‘raumif;r_’ usL;vGefrsm;u 4if;wdk@. tjyKtrlrsm; jyKjyifajymif;vJa&;udk olu vdkvm;onf? vl@tzG@J tpnf;wGif vlom;tcsif;csif; wpfOD;tay:wpfOD; vlrqefpGm qufqH aqmif&u G faejcif;rsm; qufvuf rjzpfyGm;Ekdifapa&;udk olu vdv k m;onf? udkwifarmifOD;. pdwf0^d mOfxJwGif ‘arwWmw&m;’ude;f atmif;aeonfrmS rSefaomfvnf; vl@tzG@J tpnf;wGif jzpf&aSd eaom tajccHusonfh jy\emrsm;udk ‘arwWm’qkdaom vufeufwpfckwnf;jzifhom ajz&Sif;I r&Ekid fa=umif;udk olu &Sif;vif;odjrifvmapcJhonf? Tta=umif;a=umifhyif udkwifarmifOD;onf ol. ‘arG;&myg owWd’udk pepfwus jyKpkysK;d axmifum w&m;rr#wr_rsm;udk wkdufzsufEdik f&eftwGuf }udK;yrf;aqmif&GufcJhjcif; jzpfonf? odk@aomfvnf; ol. twGif;pdwfxJ&dS ‘}uD;rm;aom arwWm’rSmrlum; qufvuf&iS foefaecJhonf? rdrdudk,fudk }uH@ckdifzH+G zdK;atmif wrif wum usifh}uHtm;xkwf&mu udkwifarmifOD;onf thcH sD;zG,f&maumif;aom vli,fwpfOD;jzpfvm+yD; vlom;rsm; twGuf/ vl@*k%foduQmtwGuf/ vl@wefzk;d twGuf pGef@v$wftepfemcH&ef &JpGr;f owWdtjynfhjzifh }udK;yrf;aqmif&Guf cJhayonf?

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7 vGwfvyfpGm awG;ac:ydkifcGifhESifh awG;ac:r_ vGwv f yfjcif; ‘vGwfvyfr’_ ukd arG;&mygwefzk;d wpfcktjzpf vlom;wdk@u &SmazGvmcJh=uonfrmS ordkif;OD;umvuwnf;u ,ae@tcsdex f d jzpfonf? t*FvefEdik fiH 0ef}uD;csKyf a';Apfuifr&Gef u‘urBmvHk;qkdif&m vGwfvyfr_’twGuf r=umao; rDuyif axmufcHajym=um;oGm;cJhonf? odk@aomfvnf; vGwfvyfr_ qkdonfha0g[m&udk rnfuJhodk ht"dy`g,fziG fhqrdk nf/ em;vnfcH,lrnf/ vufawG husifhoHk;rnf [lonfwdk hrmS ta&;t}uD;qHk; jzpfonf? Todk@qdk&mwGif tjynfjynfqidk f&m vl@tcGifhta&; a=unmpmwrf;xJY xnfhoGi;f jyXmef;xm;onfh vGwfvyfpmG xkwfaz:ajymqdkydkifcGifh/ vGwfvyfpmG pnf;&Hk;ykdifcGifh/ vGwfvyfpmG toif;tzG@J zG@J pnf;ykdifcGifh tp&Sdonfh vufqkyfvufudkif jyEkdifaom tajccHvl@tcGifh ta&; rsm;udk rpOf;pm;rDwGif vufqkyfvufudkif jyEkdifjcif; r&Sdaomfjim;vnf; vl@tcGifhta&;rsm; tm;vHk;. tajccH jzpfaom vGwfvyfpmG awG;ac:jcif; qdkonfEiS fh pyfvsOf;I OD;pGm pOf;pm;qifjcifoifhayonf? vly*k K~d vf wpfOD; wpfa,mufonf vGwfvyfpmG awG;ac:wwfjcif; r&Sdygu xdkolonf tjcm; vl@tcGifhta&;rsm;udk &,lusifhoHk;ae onfhwdkif tjcm; vly*k K~d vfrsm; eSifh vl@tzG@J tpnf;wpfckvHk; twGufomrubJ rdru d dk,fYtwGufyg tusKd;&S&d ef rvG,fulvSacs?

tawG;tac: vGwfvyfr_udk zGifhqkjd cif; rsufreS fpdr;f wyfI =unfhaomolonf t&m&mwkdif;udk tpdr;f a&mif t&m0wˆKrsm;tjzpf awG@jrifwwfonf [laom pum;yHkwpfck &Sad yonf? tawG;tac:rSmvnf; xdkenf;wlpGmyif jzpfonf? bmoma&; tpGe;f a&muftjrif/ vlrsKd;a&; trke;f w&m;/ Ekid fiHa&; bufvdkufr_/ twWrme/ &k;d &m,Ofaus;r_qidk f&m rormr_/ rdrdb0 tajctae od@k r[kwf rdrd usifvnf&m vl@t0ef;t0kdif;tay: rauseyfr_/ odrif ,fpw d f/ rjynfh0aom pdwf eSifh tqdk;jrifwwfaom pdwfxm;wdk@u wpfpkw H pfOD;tay: v$r;f rdk;aeygu xdo k lonf vGwfvyfpmG awG;ac:Ekdifjcif; &Sdrnf r[kwfacs? rdrd. bmomw&m;onfomv#if tppftrSefjzpfonf[k pJ+G rJ,Hk=unf&ko H mrubJ tjcm;bmomw&m; rsm;tay: txifao;tjrifao;/ vGJrSm;pGm tuJjzwf/ &efvdkpGm jyKwwfjcif;onf ‘bmoma&; tpGe;f a&mufr’_ . ueOD;ykdif; tjyKtrl vuQ%m jzpfonf? tjcm;vlrsKd; (odk@r[kwf) vlrsKd;rsm;udk paw;um rdrd vlrsKd; aumif;pm;a&; twGuf jyKrl aqmif&Gufjcif; onfaomfvnf;aumif;/ tjcm;vlrsKd;wpfrsK;d wGif raumif;aom trlp&kdufrsm; &Sad }umif; jzifh rcdkifvHkonfh ,kwWdaA'rsm;udk xkwfum xdkvlrsKd;tay:Y trke;f w&m; jzpfwnfvmapa&;twGuf jyKrlaqmif&u G f jcif;onfaomfvnf;aumif; ‘vlrsKd;a&; rke;f wD;r_’ udk trSwfwrJh cH,lusifhoHk; vdkufouJhodk@ jzpfoGm;Ekid fonf? tjcm; vly*k K~d vfrsm; awG@}uHKcHpm; &onfh twd'kuQ (okd@r[kwf) a0'emudk OyuQmjyKum rdr. d udk,fusK;d udkom &nfarSsmfvsS uf zGJ hpnf; wnfaqmufr_ wckck/ tpd;k &wpf&yf&yf (odk@r[kwf) Ekid fiHa&;ygwD wpfckck bufr&S yfwnf axmufcHtm;jcif;onf ‘EkdifiHa&;bufvdkufr’_ jzpfonf? acgif;aqmif. twdwfujyKvkycf Jhaom aumif;usKd;udk axmuf &_aomfvnf; 4if;. edik fiHa&;tm%m (odk hr[kwf) edkifiHa&; zGJ hpnf;wnfaqmufr_a}umif vlxk xdcdkufcpH m;vmcJh&aom/ xdk htjyif tem*gwfwGif qufvufI xdcdkufcpH m;edik faom taetxm;rsm;udk xnhfoGi;f rpOf;pm;bJ tqdkyg acgif;aqmifudk rsufprd w Sd faxmufcHvSsif ‘Ekid fiHa&;bufvdkufr_’ jzpfonf?

59


&efbufjyKvkdaom t,ltqw&yf&yfudk jzpfap/ 4if;ESifh qufpyfaeaom rl0g'udkjzpfap wdkufzsuf&ef}udK;yrf; &mwGif tm%mydkif (odk hr[kwf) EkdifiHa&;ygwD(odk@r[kwf) edkifiHa&;zGJ hpnf;wnfaqmufrw _ pfckckonf teD;uyf r[mrdwf jzpfEikd fonf [laom ta=umif; jycsufjzifh tqdkyg tm%mykid f (odk@r[kwf) EkdifiHa&;ygwD (odk@r[kwf) edik fiHa&; zGJ h pnf;wnfaqmufr_. raumif;aom vky&f yfrsm;ESifh pyfv#Of;I vspfvsL&_xm;jcif;onf ‘EkdifiHa&;bufvdkufr’_ jzpfonf? wlnDaom t,ltq w&yf&yfudk jzpfap/ 4if;eSifh qufpyfaeaom rl0g'udk jzpfap taumiftxnfaz: usifhoHk;edik fa&;twGuf }udK;yrf;&mwGif tm%mydkif (odk hr[kwf) Ekid fiHa&;ygwD(odk@r[kwf) edik fiHa&;zGJ hpnf;wnfaqmufr_ wpfckckonf teD;uyf r[mrdwf jzpfEikd fonf [laom ta=umif; jycsufjzifh tqdkyg tm%mykdif (odk@r[kwf) Ekid fiHa&; ygwD (odk@r[kwf) edik fiHa&; zGJ hpnf;wnfaqmufr_. raumif;aom vky&f yfrsm;ESifh pyfv#Of;I vspfvsL&_xm;jcif;onf vnf; ‘EkdifiHa&;bufvdkufr_’ jzpfonf? olwyg;. touftEW&m,f/ usef;rma&;ESifh *k%o f duQmudk xdyg;apaom ,Ofaus;r_xHk;wrf;pOfvmrsm; usifhoHk;jcif;udk vufcHvSsif xdkol. pdwftpOfwGif ‘&dk;&m,Ofaus;r_qkid f&m rormr_’ v$r;f rdk;aernf jzpfonf? tjcm;olrsm;. pdk;&drrf _rsm;udk *&krxm;bJ rdr. d udk,fusK;d twGufudkom vdkufpm;vSsif xdkol. pdwftpOfwGif ‘twWpw d f’}uD;pkd;aernf jzpfonf? tjyKjzpfwnfrt _ jrifudk obm0uspGm cH,lusifhoHk;edik fjcif;r&SdvSsif xdkol. pdwftpOfwGif ‘rdrdb0 tajctaeodk@r[kwf rdrd usifvnf&m vl@t0ef;t0kdif;tay: auseyfrr_ &Sdonfhpdwf’ vGeu f Jae rnfjzpfonf? rdrd.aiGa=u;tcuftcJ jy\emudk wpHw k &m vdktyfaom twkdif;twmtxd ajz&Sif;EkdifpGr;f r&Sv d Ssif xkdol. pdwftpOfwGif ‘odrfi,fpw d f’ &du k fcwfaernfjzpfonf? vlra_ &; t0ef;t0kid f;/ obm0ywf0ef;usif tajymif;tvJwdk@ESifhtnD tvdkuftxdkufjzpfatmif rdrd. pdwfxm;udk jyKjyifajymif;vJEdik fjcif; r&Sdaomol. pdwftpOfonf vHkavmufpmG }uHhckdifrnf r[kwf/ b0wGif awG@}uHKvm&aom jy\emudpP&yfrsm;udk &Sif;vif;pGm oHk;oyfEkdifrnf r[kwf/ jy\emajz&Sif;&ef rSefuefoifhawmfaom qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;udk csrSwfEdik frnf r[kwfacs? vlonf rdrd. tm&Hkig;yg;jzifhjzpfap/ qifjcifwHkw&m;jzifh jzpfap awG;awmaeonfhwkdif pdwftm&kHtwGif;Y awG;csif&m awG;ae&HkrSs/ wenf;tm;jzifh awG;jcif&mawG;cGifh&ae&HkrSsudk vGwfvyfpmG awG;ac:jcif;[k rqdkeidk facs? txufwGif om"utaejzifh az:jycJhonfh pdwftaetxm;rsm;uJ hodk h pdwftpOfrsm;atmufwGif&daS eygu awG;jcif&m awG; aeaomf vnf; tqdkygyk*~dKvf. awG;awmr_onf vGwfvyfr_ uif;rJhvSsuf&daS eaonf? awG;awmoludk,fwdkif rodvdkufbJ v$r;f rdk; jcif;/ zH;k tkyfjcif;/ }uD;pdk;jcif; cHae&onf? xdktcg xdkolwGif ‘vGwv f yfpmG awG;ac:edkifprG f;’r&Sdawmh? ‘vGwfvyfpmG awG;ac:edkifprG f;’ r&Sdv#if vufawG@b0wGif ‘vGwfvyfaom awG;ac:r_’ jzpfwnfvmEkdif&ef ta=umif; vHk;0 r&Sdacs? ‘vGwv f yfaom awG;ac:r_’ r&Sdv#if ‘trSefw&m;’udk &SmazGEkdifrnf r[kwfouJhokd@ ‘w&m;r#wr_’ rSmvnf; arS;rSdefaysmufuG,foGm;ayrnf? TuJhodk@aom tajctaersKd;Y vl@tzG@J tpnf;wGif tjyKjzpfwnfrr_ sm; oufa&mufawmhrnf r[kwfbJ tysuf &vm'frsm;om }uD;pd;k aernf jzpfonf?

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r[kwfbJ xm0& &SifoefEdkifayrnf?‛ (&Sifa,m[ef; 3;16) ponfwdk@ uJhokd@aom c&pf,efbmomw&m;. t,ltqrsm;udk udkwifarmifOD; i,fpOfuwnf;uyif ol@zcifxHrS oif,lod&dcS Jhonf? udkwifarmifOD;u c&pf,mefbmomESihf ywfoufaom todynmrsm;udk ol. oli,fcsif;rsm;tm; today;ajymqdkcJhonfrmS t}udraf ygif;rsm;pGmyif jzpfonf? ol. oli,fcsif;rsm;udk c&pf,mef bk&m;&Sdcdk;ausmif;odk@ vdkufcJh&ef zdwfac:um bk&m;ocif. oem;=uifemr_atmufwGif aexdkif&onfrmS +idrf;csrf;r_ &Sad =umif;/ vlom;wdk@u bk&m;ociftay: ,Hk=unfudkif;&_dif;r_ &Sjd cif;rSm aumif;jrwfaom t&mjzpfa=umif;wkd@udk &Sif;jyonf? odk@aomfvnf; udkwifarmifOD;onf tcgtcGifhoifw h kdif;wGif tjcm;bmomw&m; wkd@. qdkqk;H rr_rsm;udk avhvm&ef t+rJ tqifoifh jzpfaecJhonf? Todk@jzpfaoma=umifhvnf; olonf bm&mw&m; rsm;udk E_id f;,SOfavhvm&ef pdwfxufoefcJhonf? Oyrmqdk&v#if c&pf,mefbmom. ‘xm0& &Sifoefr_’ qdkaom t,ltqESifh Ak'<bmom. ‘r+rJjcif; w&m;’qdak om t,ltqwkd@udk E_id f;qcsifhcsdecf Jhonf? udkwifarmifOD;. oli,fcsif;wpfa,mufrmS pmzwf0goem}uD;ol jzpfonf? oabmw&m;ESifh tawG;tjrif pmayrsm;udk txl; cHkrifonf? odk@aomf ol. aysmhuGufrmS rdrdu pmayrsm;udk tawmftwef zwf&_avhvm xm;onfhtay:wGif tajccHum udk,fhudkudk,f awmfonf/ wwfonf[k pdwf}uD;0ifaejcif;yif jzpfonf? &if;ESD;aom oli,fcsif;rsm;ukdomru odyrf &if;ESD;olrsm;udkyg olu rdrd zwf&a_ vhvmxm;onfh ta=umif;t&mrsm;ESifh ywfoufI 4if;wdk@ rnfIrnfr# A[kokwºuG,f0a=umif;udk ar;jref;ajymqdkjcif;jzifh wyg;ol pdwftaESmuft,Sufjzpfatmif jyKvkyw f wfoljzpfonf? odk@aomf trsm;tm;jzifh ol. jiif;cHkajymqdkcsufrsm;rSm t}udK;ta=umif;cdkifvHkr_ r&Sad cs? wpfae@ olu raxhwaxh+yHK;um udw k ifarmifOD;udk Todk@ar;onf? ‚a[haumif wifarmifOD;? a,&_c&pfawmfu Ak'<a*g"rR&J@ wynfhom0u jzpfcJhbl;w,fqw dk m rif;odvm;uG?‛ ‚rif;u 'gudk b,fvdkvkyo f dvJ?‛ ‚umvwckrmS a,&_c&pfawmf[m tdEd, N EkdifiHudk oGm;+yD;awmh Ak'<bmom0if bke;f }uD;wpfyg;tjzpf usifh}uH aexdkif cJw h ,fav?‛ tjcm; oli,fcsif;rsm;u 4if;wdk@ESpaf ,muf. tajcwifajymqkdr_tay: pdwf0ifwpm;&Sdvm=uonf? c&pf,mefbmomukd ouf0if,Hk=unfol udkwifarmifOD;tm; xdyg;vkdufjcif;jzpfonfudk 4if;wkd@tm;vHk;u &dyfpm;rd =uonf? udkwifarmifOD;u pmzwfaumif;olawmh r[kwfojzifh oli,fcsif;jzpfol ajymvmaompum;rSm ordkif;0iftcsuftvuf tppftrSef [kwfr[kwfudk rdrdudk,fYuvnf; raocsm? odk hjzpfaoma=umifh ol@oli,fcsif;. pum;udk cGef;wHk@jyef&ef tcufawG@aeonf? odk@aomfvnf; oli,fcsif;. pum;udk usK;d a=umif;cdkifvHkpGm jyefvnfacsyEkdifjcif;r&Sv d #if xdkoli,fcsif;. pum;EkdifjyKwwfaom tusifhqk;d udk azsmufzsufI &Ekdifrnf r[kwfa=umif;udk &dypf m;rdonfhESifhtnD udkwifarmifOD;u Todk@ jyefajymavonf? ‚yef;yifwpfyif ajr}uD;xJrSm &SifoefEkdifzk@d twGuf r&Srd jzpfvdktyfwJht&mu bmvJ? rif;odvm;?‛ ‚'gu vlwdkif;odygw,fuGm? vG,fvG,fav;bJ? a&vdkwmaygh?‛

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vm;/ ajrjyef@csif;vm;?‛[k ar;onf? vSa&$u ‚usaemfu to#dKcsif;qdkawmh ajrjyef@csif;vlrsKd; yg? usaemfwdk@ acG;om;rpm;ygbl;? q&mrajymwmawGu rrSeu f efwJhtjyif usaemfwdk@vlrsKd;udk apmfum;vdkufovdkbJAs?‛ [k jyefajymonf? q&mru oa&mf+yHK;+yHK;um ‚rif;u csif;vlrsKd;awGta=umif; bmrS odyrf odygbl;? rif;u 'Dvdk +rdK@}uD;jy}uD;rSm }uD;jyif;vmwJhol r[kwfvm;? rif;u +rdK@om;av;wpfa,mufbJ?‛[k qkdonf? TwGif vSa&$u ‚usaemf csif;vlrsKd;ta=umif; odw,fAs? q&mrajymwmawGu vHk;0 rrSeb f l;?‛[k ta=umuftuef jyefajymonf? aemufyidk f;wGif q&mru bmrS qufrajymawmhaomfvnf; wpfwef;vHk;.a&S@Y olrudk jyefyufaom vSa&$udk pdwfxJwGif aw;xm;vdkufonf? vSa&$ tdrfjyefa&mufonfhtcg ordik f;oifcsdew f Gif jzpfysufchJonfrsm;udk udkwifarmifOD;tm; ajymjyavonf? udw k ifarmifOD;u ‚rif;ajymvdkufwmu t&rf;aumif;w,f? rif;u rSew f Jhbufu &yfwnf+yD;awmh csif;vlrsKd;tay: cJGjcm;qufqHwmukd vufrcHbl; qdkwm jyvdkufwmbJ? +yD;awmh q&mr ajymwmawGvJ vHk;0 rrSeb f l;av? q&mru twef;xJrSm tJ'v D dkrsK;d rajymoifhbl;?‛[k rSwfcsufay;onf? tcif;jzpfymG ;+yD; wpf&uf ESpf&uftwGif;wGif ordik f;tcsdefY bmjy\emrS xyfjzpfrvmcJh? odk@aomf wpfae@wGif vSa&$onf ordkif; zwfpmtkyfudk ausmif;odk@,lvm&ef arhcJhonf? Tonfudk q&mru &dyrf doGm;+yD; ‚csif;uav;u bmjzpfvdk@ zwfpmtkyf ygrvm&wmvJ?‛[k ar;onf? ‚usaemf arhcJhvdkyg? 'gayr,fh usaemfhudk ‘csif;uav;’vkd@ rac:ygeJ@?‛ ‚td;k / rif;u zwfpmtkyf arhcJh&w Hk if rubl; rif;&J@ tcsdK;uvJ rajycsifygvm;? rif; ighudk pum;ajymwJhtcg rwfwwf&yf+yD; ajymprf;?‛ TwGif vSa&$u pdwfq;dk rmefqdk; jzpfum twef;xJwGif q&mrESifh tajctwif pum;rsm;=uawmhonf? aemufqHk;wGif q&mru ‚igh twef;xJu xGufoGm;prf;? rif; rdbawG 'Dudk ac:rvmbl;qdk&if twef;xJudk b,fawmhrS jyefrvmeJ@?‛[k trde@f ay;vkdufonf? vSa&$u tvGet f rif; pdwfraumif;jzpfoGm;+yD; twef;xJu tifwifwifjzifh xGufum tdro f dk@ vrf;av#muf jyefvmonf? olu vrf;av#muftrd fjyefvmaepOfwGif *syefuif'"dk g;udk jyifqikd f yd@k &ef oGm;aeaom udkwifarmifOD;udk vrf;wGif awG@&onf? nDi,fudk trSwfrxif awG@vdkuf&aom udkwifarmifOD;u ‚a[haumif vSa&$? rif; 'DrSm bmvkyaf ewmvJ? tcku ausmif;csdef r[kwfvm;?‛[k ar;onf? vSa&$u ordkif;tcsdefwGif jzpfysufchJ onfrsm;udk udkwifarmifOD;tm; jyefajymif;ajymjyonf? TwGif udkwifarmifOD;u ‚'gq&dk if 'DudpPudk &Sif;zdk@twGuf ig rif;eJ@ ausmif;udk vdkufchrJ ,f? tar tvkyfu jyefrvmao;bl;? tazuvJ ppfawGrSm r[kwfvm;?‛[k ajymum vSa&$EiS fhtwl ausmif;odk@oGm;=uonf? ausmif; a&mufoGm;&mwGif ausmif;0if;wHcg; aomhcwfxm;onfudk awG@&+yD; ausmif;apmifw h pfOD;u ausmif;wHcg;em;wGif &Sad eonf? ausmif;apmifu h ausmif;tky}f uD;xHrS cGifhjyKcsufr&v#if ausmif;wHcg;udk rzGifh Ekid fa=umif; ajymaomtcg udkwifarmifOD;u ‚usaemhfnDukd ausmif;xkwfvdkufwJh q&mreJ@ &Sif;p&m&Sdvdk@yg? 'ga=umifh usaemfwdk@udk wHcg;zGifhay;&if aumif;r,f?‛[k ajymonf? TwGif udkwifarmifOD; ta=umif;udk odxm;aom ausmif;apmifu h ausmif;wHcg;udk zGifhay;vdkufonf? 63


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oHk;E_ef;ydkifcGifh r&Sdawmh? jynfaxmifpu k cGJxGufp&m rvdktyfbJv#uf wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pkrsm;wkd@twGuf wef;wlnDr# tcGifhta&;rsm;ESifh udk,fydkiftyk fcsKyfcGifh &&Sda&;wdk@udk tmrcHay;xm;onfh ppfreS faom jynfaxmifpk wnfaqmifEdik f&eftwGuf tqdkyg a0g[m&rsm;udk oHk;E_ef;jcif; jzpfaomfvnf; 4if;udk jypfr_obG,f oabmxm;cJhonf? wkdif;jynftm%modr;f &mwGif acgif;aqmifjzpfol Adv k fcsKyfae0if;onf rdrdudk,fudk Ekid fiHawmf ol&aJ umif; tjzpf a=unmcJhonf? jrefrmEkdifiHvGwfvyfa&;twGuf wkdufyG0J ifcJhaom/ jynfolvlxkwpf&yfvHk;u av;pm;=unfndK&aom Adv k fcsKyfatmifqef; +yD;v#if olu 'kwd,acgif;aqmifjzpfonf[k a=unmcJhonf? TtajctaewGif Adv k fcsKyfae0if;. 0g'jzef@rr_ sm;a=umifh jynfolrsm;pGmwk@d onf txifrSm; tjrifrmS ; jzpfcJh=u&+yD; ‘jrefrmEkdifiH vGwfajrmufa&; wyfrawmf (bDtkdifat)’/ ‘jrefrmh umuG,fa&;wyfrawmf (bD'Dat)’ESifh vGwfvyfa&; wkdufyGu J mvtwGif;wGif wnfaxmifcJhonfh tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;wGif yg0ifcJhol tawmfrsm;rsm;onf yk*~dKvfa&;udk;uG,fr/_ yk*~dKvfa&; tusdK;pD;yGm;/ yk*~dKvfa&;t&ywfoufuGsr;f 0ifcJhr_ wdk htay:tajccHvSsuf ‘EkdifiHa&; bufvdkufrr_ sm;’ &SdcJhonf? 4if;.tusK;d quf a=umifh jrefrm jynfolrsm;pGmwdk@onf vGwfvyfpGm awG;ac:EkdifprG f; uif;rJhoGm;cJh=uonf? xdk@twlyif ppftm%m odr;f jcif;onf jynfolrsm;twGuf vGwfvyfr_/ +idrf;csrf;r_ESifh w&m;r#wr_rsm; tygt0if a&&Snf Ekid fiHawmf zG@H +zKd; wkd;wufa&;twGuf az:aqmifay;Ekdifrnfh ppfrSefaom tajccHtw k fjrpf [kwfr[kwfudk 4if;wdk@ cGJjcm;odjrif&mY tm;enf;cJhonf? +Adwdo#udkvdkeDtkycf sKyfrv _ ufatmufrS vGwfajrmuf&eftwGuf }udK;yrf;wkdufyG0J ifpOf tcsdeu f mvrsm;wGif OD;atmifqef; tygt0if edkifiHa&; acgif;aqmiftawmfrsm;rsm;wdk@onf uGejf rLepfEiS fh qdk&S,fvpf0g'rsm;udk ouf0if ,Hk=unf cJh=uonf? 1939ckESpfwGif udkatmifqef;onf ‘Armjynf uGejf rLepfygwD (Auy)’. taxGaxGtwGifa&;rSL; jzpfcJhonf? xdktcsdeu f tm&Swkduf/ tmz&duwkdufESifh vufwif tar&duwkduf&Sd Ekid fiHrsm;pGmwdk@. &nfreS f;csufrmS qdk&S,fvpf Ekid fiHrsm;udk wnfaxmif&ef jzpfonf? 'kwd,urBmppf aemufyidk f;wGif qdk&S,fvpf0g' t&Sdeft[kef aumif;vmcJhonf? TaemufcHwGif jrefrmEkdifiHonf 1948ckEpS f Zefe0g&DvY vGwfvyfa&;&cJhonf? 1962ckESpf jrefrmEkdifiHwGif ppfwyf tm%modr;f &jcif;. tjcm;&nf&, G fcsufrmS qdk&S,fvpf wnfaqmuf&ef jzpfonf[k ta}umif;jycJhonf? a&S;,cif uwnf;uyif jrefrmEkdifiHudk pwifwnfaxmifcJholrsm;u qdk&S,fvpf edik fiHtjzpf wnfaqmufvdkcJh=uaomfvnf; 'Drdkua&pD tpdk;&tqufqufu vpfvsL&_cJh=ua}umif; toHaumif;[pfcJhonf? tqdkyg &nfrSef;csufudk taumiftxnf az:&eftwGuf 1962ckEpS f Zlvdkifv (4)&ufae@wGif ppftpdk;&onf ‘jrefrmh qdk&S,fvpf vrf;pOfygwD (rqv)’udk wnfaxmif+yD; ‘jrefrmh qdk&S,fvpfvrf;pOf’[k qkdum ‘vlEiS fh vl@ ywf0ef;usiw f kd@. tjyeftvSef qufE, $ fr_ oabmw&m;’qdkonfh rl0g'wpfckudk xkwfjyefa=unmjcif;jzifh qdk&S,fvpfjynfaxmifpu k dk wnfaxmif rnf[k jynfolwdk@tm; ouf0if,Hk=unfvmapcJhonf? xdktcsderf Sm 'Drdkua&pD tpdk;& tkyfcsKyfra_ tmufY txl;ojzifh jrefrmEkdifiH&dS 'Dru dk a&pDpepf Eke,faeao;aom 1948ckEpS frS 1962ckEpS f umvrsm;twGif;Y Ekid fiHa&;ygwD tuGJt+yJrsm;/ EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm; t=um;z&dzk &J ,SOf+ydKifaecJrh _rsm;tay: jynfolvlxk tawmfrsm;rsm;u wpHkw&m pdwfysufaecJh=ucsdejf zpfonf? tqdkyg tajctaersm;a=umifhvnf; 1962ckEpS fwGif ppfwyf u tm%modr;f edik fcJhjcif;jzpfonf? ppfwyf tm%modr;f csdew f Gif wifarmifOD;. touf (11)ESpfom &Sdao;onf? ppftpdk;&u xdkodk@aom Ekid fiHa&; y&d,m,fudk zefwD;vkduf&mwGif TuJhodk@ ppfwyf tm%modr;f jcif;onf qdk&S,fvpf t,l0g'ESifh qufpyfaeonf[k tcsdK@u xifa=u;ay;=uum ‘EkdifiHa&;bufvdkufr_’onf 4if;wdk@. odpw d fxJwGifaomfvnf;aumif;/ rodpw d fxJwGifaomfvnf;aumif; jzpfwnfvmcJhayonf? qdk&S,fvpf t,l0g'udk 67


vdkufpm;ol Ekid fiHa&;acgif;aqmifEiS fh tkyfpk rsm;pGmwdk@u ppftpdk;&udk axmufcHcJh=uonf? xdk@jyif ppfwyfESifh eD;uyfr_&do S l trsm;tjym;onf ppftpdk;&. a&mif;&if;rsm;taejzifh wenf;r[kwf wenf; yl;aygif;aqmif&u G fcJh=uonf? rdrd udk,fusK;d &Smol AsL&dku&uf t&m&Srd sm;ESifh ynmwwfrsm;u ppftpdk;&udk tvkyftau|;jyKcJh=uonf? ppftm%m odr;f jcif; udkta=umif;jyKIom ppftpdk;&u wkdif;jynfudk tkyfcsKyfaejcif;jzpfonf[k ,lqv#if rSm;oGm;rnfjzpfa=umif;/ rqvu &Sif;vif;jywfom;pGm az:xkwfvmcJhaom jrefrmh qdk&S,fvpfvrf;pOfonf urBm. acwfa&pD;a=umif;ESifhtnD wkd;wufys@H ymG ;r_rsm; &&Sdaeonf[k xifjrif&a=umif; wdk@udk jrefrmEkdifiHwGif vlodrsm;aom Ekid fiHa&;orm; 0d"l& ocif cspfarmifu a=unmcsuf xkwfjyefcJhonf? jrefrmEkdifiH ol&aJ umif; Akv d fcsKyfatmifqef;. tpfudk OD;atmifoef;uyif ‚jrefrmEkid fiHrmS qdk&S,fvpf jynfaxmifpk wpf&yfudk wnfaxmifwJhae&mrSm jrefrmh qdk&S,fvpf vrf;pOfu tvkyfjzpf vdrhrf ,fvdk@ usaemf ,Hk=unfw,fAs?‛ [lI ajym=um;cJhonf?

edik fiHa&;bufvdkufr_udk y,f&Sm;jcif; ppftm%modr;f csdew f Gif udkwifarmifOD;rSm touf (11)om &SdcJhao;onf? udkwifarmifOD; vli,fb0 1966ckEpS frS 1976ckEpS f umvrsm;wGif ppftm%m&Sifrsm;/ 4if;wdk@. taygif;taz:rsm;ESifh rqvygwD todkif;t0kdif;u vl@tzG@J tpnf;. txufwef;v$mudk }uD;pdk;aecJh=uonf? jrefrmh qdk&S,fvpfvrf;pOf. ppfreS fr_tay: ‘Armjynf uGejf rLepfygwD (Auy)’u jyif;jyif;xefxef apm'uwufcJhaomfvnf; vl@tzG@J tpnf;. tc&musaom tcef;u¾ rsm;wGifrl qdk&S,fvpf0g'Dwdk hu t"du v$r;f rdk;aecJhonf? ppftpdk;&onf qdk&S,fvpf0g'. tudkif;t&Guf rsm;=um;wGif udk,fa&mifazsmufum 4if;. tm%m &nf&n S fwnfwHhEkdifa&;twGuf tcGifhaumif;,lcJhonf? vGwfvyfpmG awG;ac:r_udk jzpf&SdvmEkdifapaom vlod&iS f=um; aqG;aEG;jiif;cHkyGJrsm;udk ydwfyifwm;jrpfcJhonf? jrefrmh qdk&S,fvpfvrf;pOf qkdaom t,ltqudk rD;armif;xdk;um 0g'jzef@rr_ sm; t}uD;tus,f pOfqufrjywf vkycf Jhonf? jrefrmh qdk&S,fvpfvrf;pOfonf qdk&S,fvpf oabmw&m;ESifh Ak'<bmom vrf;pOfwkd@udk aygif;pyfxm;jcif;yifjzpfonf[k Ekid fiHa&; awG;ac:&Sifrsm;u oHk;oyfcJh=uonf? odk@aomf vufawG@wGifrl 4if;onf qdk&S,fvpf0g'DEiS fh Ak'<bmomwdk@. tESpo f m&rsm; r&Sdacs? tD*spfESifh vpfbsm;EkdifiHrsm;wGifvnf; tvm;wl tajctaersm; jzpfyGm;cJhonf? 1961ckESpf tD*spfEkdifiHwGif ‘tm&yf qdk&S,fvpf0g'’[lI [pfaºuG;um jynfolvlxkudk ESpfodr&fh eftwGuf ‘emqm’onf tpPvmrf bmomESifh qdk&S,fvpf0g'Dwdk@udk aygif;pyfum 'kwd,t}udrf awmfvSeaf &;udk tpjyKcJhonf? vpfbsm;EkdifiHwGif Adv k frLS ;}uD; *'gzDu ‚Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya awmfvSeaf &;}uD;. OD;aqmifvrf;jy‛tjzpf rdrdudk,fudk t!$e;f wyfcJhonf? ppftpdk;&u usifhoHk;aeaom ‘jrefrmh qdk&S,fvpf vrf;pOf’ppfrSejf cif; &Srd &Sd qef;ppf&eftwGuf vl@tzG@J tpnf;udk oHk;oyf&mY uGejf rLepf (odk@r[kwf) qdk&S,fvpf0g'Dudk vufcHaom jrefrmEkdifiH&Sd wuUodkvfausmif;om;ESifh vli,f tcsdK@wdk@onf qdk&, S fvpf t,ltqudk rDSjirf;udk;um;cJh=uonf? xdk@aemuf um;(vf)rwfu wnfaxmifcJh+yD; qdk&S,fvpf0g'ESifh uGejf rLepf0g'wdk@. t"du tpdwftydkif; wpfckjzpfaom ‘ordkif; qdkif&m &kyf0g'’qdak om t,ltq. usKd;a=umif;nD!Gwfrt _ ay: pdefac:tHwk cJhjyD;aemuf uGejf rLepfygwD (tvHe)D . taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;csKyf ocifpk;d vufeufcstnhHcHcJhonf? xdk ygwDonf ESpfaygif; tawmf=umatmif vufeufudkif wdkufyJG0ifvmcJhaom ygwDwpfckjzpfonf? ocifpd;k onf jrefrmEkdifiH vGwfvyfa&; twGufwkdufyJG0if&mwGif acgif;aqmifydkif;u¾rS yg0ifcJh+yD; tvGef emrnfausm=f um;cJhaom uGefjrLepfacgif;aqmifwpfOD; 68


jzpfayonf? ocifpd;k tnHhcHcJhcsdew f Gif oHk;oyfr_wpfckudk xkwfjyefcJhonf? 4if;rSm- ‘ordkif; qdkif&m &kyf0g'’ESifhtnD qdk&v#if t&if;&Sifpepf. txGwftxdyo f kd@ a&muf&aSd eaom Ekid fiHonf ‘qd&k S,fvpfpepf’odk@ ul;ajymif; usifhoHk;&rnf [lonfyif jzpfonf? tar&duef Ekid fiHonf ‘t&if;&Sifpepf’ . txGwftxdyo f dk@ a&muf&aSd ecJhcsdew f Gif qdk&S,fvpf wkdif;jynfwpfcktjzpf ajymif;vJapa&;twGuf wpHw k &m t&dyf vuQ%mrsm; r&SdcJhacs? tb,fa=umifhqkad omf tar&duefEkdifiHonf 4if;. ‘t&if;&Sifpepf’udk jyKjyifajymif;vJEdik fcJh+yD; tvkyform;tpnf;t&H;k rsm;udk vGwfvyfpGm &SifoefvnfywfcGifh ay;um tvkyo f rm;rsm;. tcGifhta&;rsm;udk jr‡ifhwifay;cJhojzifh ‘ordkif; qdkif&m &kyf0g'’ t,ltqrSm rSefuefr_r&Sdawmh[lI jzpfonf? ppfreS faom qdk&S,fvpfpepfEiS fh uGejf rLepfpepfwdk@. t,ltqrsm;udk avhvmvSsuf&do S lvli,frsm;onf ocifpdk;. oHk;oyfr_udk }um;od&aomtcg awGa0oGm;cJh=uonf? jrefrmEkdifiH . vltzGJ@tpnf; tajccHwGif omrefvli,frsm;taejzifh rnfonfhbufu &yfwnf&rnf qkdonfudk cGJjcm;qHk;jzwfEdik fa&;rSm tawmfyif cufcJ&y_ faxG;aom udp&P yfjzpfonf? odk@aomf udkwifarmifOD;ESifh oli,fcsif;rsm;twGufrl xdkodk@ r[kwfcJhacs? qdk&S,fvpfpepftawG;tac:wdk hteuf ‘tcGifhta&;ESifh tcGifhtvrf;rsm; wef;nDr#r_’qdkaom t,ltqudk udkwifarmifOD;u oabmwlEpS f+cKdufcJhonf? xkd@twlyif vpfb&,fpepfwGifvnf; ‘udk,fydkif vGwfvyfr_ESifh tuef@towfjzifh tkyfcsKyfaom tpdk;&’qdkaom oabmw&m;rsm;udk vufcHcJhonf? odk@aomf udkwifarmifOD;onf Ekid fiHa&; t,ltqrsm;ukd udk;um;um jrefrmEkdifiH vl@tzG@J tpnf;wGif jzpfysuf aeaom tajctaersm;udk oHk;oyfavh&dcS JholwpfOD; r[kwfacs? tjcm;olrsm;. xdkodk@aom oHk;oyfcsufrsm; tay:Yvnf; a0zefajymqdkjcif; r&SdcJh? Todk@jzifh udkwifarmifOD;onf ol. vGwfvyfpmG awG;ac:r_udk xde;f odrf; xm;EkdifcJhonf? odk@aomfvnf;olu tqkdyguJhodk@aom E_dif;,SOfoHk;oyfr_wpfckudk xl;xl;jcm;jcm; vkycf Jhbl;avonf? wnaecif;wGif &efukefwuUodkvf0if;twGif;&Sd *syfqyf taqmufttHka&S@Y oli,fcsif;wpftkyf pkqHkcJh=upOfujzpfonf? tcsderf Sm nae (6)&Dcef@&+Sd yDjzpf+yD; wuUodkvfausmif;0if;xJwGif vlajcjywfp jyKae+yD? TwGif udkwifarmifOD; ajymqdkonfrsm;rSm rSwfom;zG,f&maumif;ayonf? olajymaom t&mrsm;rSm- *smreDEdik fiHwGif [pfwvm OD;aqmifum qdk&S,fvpf trnfcH ygwDwpfckudk wnfaxmifcJha=umif;/ ’emZD’qdkonfrmS trsK;d om; qdk&S,fvpf [k t"dyg` ,f&a=umif;/ qdk&S,fvpf0g'Dudk rsufEmS yef; jyxm;aomfvnf; tqdkyg ygwDu vufawG@usifhoHk;aeonfrmS zufqpf0g'Dom jzpfa=umif;ESifh jrefrmh qdk&, S fvpf vrf;pOfygwDudkvnf; tqdyk guJhodk@yif owfrw S fI &Ekdifa=umif;wkd@ jzpf=uonf? udkwifarmifOD;u tqdkyguJhodk@ oHk;oyfajymqdkcJhjcif;onf rqv ygwDudk pwifwnfaxmif+yD;aemuf (10)ESpf cef@ t=um/ rqvygwD t&Sdefaumif;aeaom tcsdew f Gif jzpfonf? xdkacwfumwGif vli,frsm;pGmwdk@onf rqv ygwDu wnfaxmifxm;aom ’vrf;pOfvli,f’/ ’a&S@aqmifvli,f’ESifh ’awZvli,f’tp&Sdonfh toif;tzGJ@rsm;wGif 0ifygcJh=uonf? rqvygwD ta&mifjyxm;aom ppftm%m&Sifrsm;onf jrefrmEkdifiH&Sd vli,frsm;udk xde;f csKyf Ekid f&eftwGuf 4if;wdk@. acgif;xJwGif rSm;,Gif;aom t,l0g'rsm;udk pnf;pepfwusjzifh &du k foGif;cJhonf? xdkacwf umvwGif jrefrmEkdifiHwpf0Sr;f &Sd ppftm%m&Sifrsm;. taygif;taz: rdom;pkrsm;/ tpdk;& tm%mydkifrsm;/ jynfol@0 efxrf;rsm;/ rqv todkif;t0dik f;/ tvkyform;ESifh v,form; tpnf;t&H;k rsm; uJhodk@aom rqv. vufyg;ap tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;wdk@xHrS qif;oufvmonfh oef;aygif;rsm;pGmaom vli,fvl&, G frsm;onf ppftpdk;&u pOf;0g;vdkuf ay;onfh oHpOftwkdif; urSef;rod uaecJh=uayonf?

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odk@aomf uHaumif;axmufronf[k qdk&rnfvm; rod? udkwifarmifOD; tygt0if vli,ftcsdK@wkd@onf vl@tzG@J tpnf;. tajctaerSefEiS fh jy\em t&if;cH ta=umif;w&m;rsm;udk cGJjcm;odjrifEdik fcJh=uonf? &_wfaxG; eufev J Saom EkdifiHa&; t,ltqrsm;t=um;wGif 4if;wdk@ vrf;aysmufoGm;jcif; r&SdcJhacs? ’'Dru dk a&pD’/ ’qd&k S,fvpf’/ ’ppftpdk;&’ odk@r[kwf rnfonfh pepfudk vufudkifusifhoHk;aeumrl tm%m&Sif tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfa=umifh qdk;usK;d rsm;udk jzpfapa=umif;/ vlxktcGifhta&;rsm; t}uD;tus,f epfemqHk;&_;H &a=umif;ESifh omref jynfoljynfom;wkd@ qif;&J c|wf+cHKus&a=umif; wkd@udk vGwfvyfpGm awG;ac:EkdifprG f;&Sdol udkwifarmifOD;u &Sif;vif;pGm odjrifem;vnfcJhonf? ol. oHk;oyfcsufrsm;rSm &d;k &Sif;aomfvnf; ajr}uD;vufcwfrvJG rSefuefaecJhonf? ta&S@tv,fykid f;a'o tm&yfEkdifiH (10)EkdifiHwGif vuf&djS zpfysufaeaom tm%m&Siftyk fcsKyfr_udk qef@usifonfh vlxk tHºk uGrr_ sm;udk=unfhrnfqv dk #if udkwifarmifOD;. oHk;oyfcsufrSm ,ae@wkdif rSefuefaea=umif;udk awG@Ekdifayonf? xdk@aemuf ol. rdwfaqGa&mif;&if; tcsdK@EiS fh twlwuG udkwifarmifOD;onf jrefrmEkdifiH&dS ppftm%m&Sifpepfudk wdkufzsuf&eftwGuf ausmif;om; vli,ftawmfrsm;rsm;udk aqmf=opnf;&Hk;Ekid fcJhonf? orRw rlbm&wfu usifhoHk;cJhaom tm%m&Sifpepfudk qef@usifwdkufzsufcJh=uonfh tD*spfEkdifiH&dS vli,frsm;udk ukvor*~ taxGaxG twGif;a&;rSL; befuDreG f;/ tar&duef orRw tdkbm;rm;ESifh EkdifiHaygif;rsm;pGm&Sd acgif;aqmif rsm;wdk@u csD;r$r;f *k%fjyKcJh=uonf? 2011ckEpS f Zefe0g&Dv (25)&ufrS azaz:0g&Dv (11)&ufae@twGif; jzpfyGm;cJhaom qENjyyGJrsm;wGif oef;csDaom vlaygif;rsm;pGm yg0ifcJhonfhteuf (60)&mckid fEe_ f;rSm vli,frsm; jzpfonf? csD;rGr;f zG,f &maom vky&f yfrsm;yif jzpfonf? jrefrmEkdifiHudk =unfhrnfqv dk #if 1962ckEpS f Zlvdkifv ausmif;om;qENjyyJGrsm;rS pwifum &J&ifhowWdEiS fh jynfpkaH om vli,frsm;wkd@. paw;cJh&jcif;rsm;udk ordik f;wGif rSwfwrf;wifcJhayonf? udkwifarmifOD;ESifh a&mif;&if;rsm;onf tqdkyguJhokd@aom pdwf"gwf&do S lrsm; jzpfonf? 4if;wdk@. vGwfvyfaom awG;ac:r_jzifh wkdif;jynftajctaeudk avhvmoHk;oyfcJhonf? qef@usifv_y&f Sm; wkdufyG0J if&eftwGuf r[mAsL[mrsm; a&;qJGcJhonf? 1974rS 1976ckEpS ftxd vlxkEiS fh ausmif;om;qENjyyGJrsm;udk pwif taumiftxnfaz:ay;cJhonf? Ekid fiHa&; udprP sm;ESifh pyfvsOf;I pOf;pm; qifjcif&mwGif udkwifarmifOD;. awG;ac:ar#mfjrifro _ nf vGwfvyfr_ tjynfht0 &Scd Jh+yD; ’vGwfvyfpGm awG;ac:r_’udk aumif;rGepf Gm usifhoHk;Ekid fcJhonf?

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8 b0wdk;wuf&ef ud, k fusdK;&SmazGr_ ESifh twWpdwu f dk cGJjcm;az:aqmifjcif; vlom;wpfa,muftaejzifh rdrd. ukd,fusK;d twGuf &SmazGonf qdkonfrmS xl;qef;aom t&mr[kwfacs? vlom;wdk@onf pOf;pdrOf pPm/ tm%m/ ausmf=um;r_/ *k%o f duQm/ cspfcsif;arwWm/ vlra_ &; tqifhtwef; ponfwdk@udk &SmazG=uonf? udk,fusK;d twGuf &SmazGvkyu f dkifjcif;a=umifh vl@b0onf t"dyg` ,f &Sdvmonf? Ek;d =um;wufºuGr_ &Sv d monf? vkycf sifudkifcsifpdwfrsm; wdk;yGm;vm+yD; rdrd. &nfreS f;csuf yef;wdkifodk@ ta&mufvSr;f Ekdif&eftwGuf wwfEdik for#aom enf;vrf;aygif;pHkudk &SmazGum rdr. d vkyu f dkifzefwD;EkdifpGrf;udk tuef@towfr&Sd csJ@xGiaf v awmhonf? Todk@jzifh rdrd. &nfreS f;csufyef;wkdifudk ta&mufvSr;f Ekdif+yD;onfhaemufwGif vlom;wdk@ 0rf;omyDwd jzpf=u&onf? xdk@a=umifh rdrdudk,fusK;d twGuf &SmazGvkyu f dkifjcif; qdkonfrmS b0t"dyg` ,fwpfck jzpfvmonf? udk,fusK;d =unfhjcif; ESifh twWpw d fwkd@udk u¾wpfckxJwGif twlwuG xm;&SdEkdifaomfvnf; 4if;wdk@onf tajccHtm;jzifh uJGjym;=uonf? vl@tzG@J tpnf;tygt0if wyg;olwdk@. tusK;d pD;yGm;udk xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;um rdrd ukd,fusK;d twGuf &SmazGvkyu f dkifjcif;onf rdrdtwGuf omru wyg;olrsm;ESifh vl@tzG@J tpnf;udkyg tusKd;jzpfxGe;f aponf? TuJhodk@aom udk,fusK;d =unfhjcif;onf aumif;aomt&mjzpfonf? odk@aomfvnf; wyg;olrsm;udk ab;csdwfxm;+yD; rdrd. vkdtifqEN/ avmbpdwfEiS fh wG,fwmpdwfrsm;udkom xnfhoGi;f pOf;pm;wwfaom twWpw d fonf yifukd,ftm;jzifh raumif;t&m jzpfonf? twWpw d fonf wzufowfjrifwwfaom pdwfjzpfonf? wyg;olrsm;. pk;d &dryf lyefr_/ 'kuQa0'emESifh tajctaersm; OyuQmjyKaeaom oabm&Sdonf? vl@tzJ@G tpnf;onf vlwpfOD;wpfa,mufcsif;. udk,fusK;d &SmazGEdik fr_ tcGifhtvrf;rsm;udk zefwD;ay;um udk,fusK;d twGuf &SmazGaeaom woD;yk*v ~ rsm;udk wyg;olrsm;u (okd@r[kwf) tpdk;&tm%mydkifrsm;u 0ifa&muf aESmifh,Sufjcif; rjyKEkdifap&eftwGuf tumtuG,f ay;&rnf? TuJhokd@jyKvkyf&mwGif jzpfay:vmEkid faom tpGe;f a&mufr_ ESpfck&do S nf? yxrwpfckrmS vl@tzG@J tpnf;u vlwOD;csif;wkd@. udk,fusK;d &SmazGrE_ Sifh ywfoufI pnf;rsOf;pnf;urf; owfrw S fxm;&Sdr_rsm;/ vrf;!$efjyr_rsm;ESifh }uD;=uyfr_rsm;ukd jyKvkyjf cif;jzpfonf? tm%m&Sif tkyfcsKyfaom vl@tzG@J tpnf;wGif xdkuJhodk@aom tjzpfrsKd;udk }uHK&wwfonf? tjcm; tpGe;f a&mufrw _ pfckrmS wOD;csif;vlyk*d~Kvfrsm;u vl@tzG@J tpnf;wpfckvHk;. ta&;yg t&ma&mufru _ dk tºuGif;rJh ypfy,fxm;jcif; (odk@r[kwf) jiif;qefjcif;yifjzpfonf? tqdkyg wOD;csif;vlyk*d~Kvfrsm;. pdwfEv S Hk;xJwGif twWpdwf ude;f atmif;aeaom tajctae rsm;Y xdkuJhodk@jzpfwwfonf? ‘twWpw d f’ }uD;xGm;vmvSsif ‘avmb’/ ‘b0ifjrifhaompdwf’/ ‘vSnhfzsm;vdak ompdwf’/ ‘tysufpw d f’ ‘tmCmw’ eSifh ‘&efjidSK;odkr_’ wdk@udk jzpfaponfESifhtnD wpfpkw H pfOD;xHwGif twWpw d f jzpfwnfvmonfEiS fh w+ydKifeuf 4if;. odpw d fxJYaomfvnf;aumif;/ rodpw d fxJYaomfvnf;aumif; pdwf. oef@pifrr_ Sm aysmufysuf oGm;avawmhonf?

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tcsKyftwnf;r&Sad om twWpdwf&djS cif;. &vm'frsm; wyg;olrsm;. tusKd;pD;yGm;udk vpfvsL&_um ‘twWpw d f’xm;&Sdaom woD;yk*v ~ rsm;a=umifh vltrsm;wdk@. ‘*k%foduQm’/ ‘vGwfvyfr’_ ESifh ‘tcGifhtvrf;rsm;’udk csKd;azguf&ma&mufEkdifonf? Todk@aom tajctaersKd;wGif woD;yk*v ~ rsm; twlwuG ,SOfwGJ aexdkif=uaom vl@tzG@J tpnf;wGif ‘vlom;tcsif;csif; ,Hk=unfr’_ uif;rJhaernf? ‘uvJph m;acsjcif;’udk a&SmifvGJI &Ekdifrnf r[kwfbJ vltrsm; +idrf;csrf;pGm twlwuGaexdkifjcif;rSm ysufokOf;oGm; ayrnf? twWpw d fEiS fhtwl vdrv f nfvSnfhjzm;r_ESifh r&kd;om;r_wdk@ ,SOfwJGvmavh&do S nf? EkdifiHrsKd;pHw k Gif tajcpdu k faom ukr% ` D}uD;rsm;u twWpw d fudk usifh}uH&mwGif- 4if;wdk@. ukr% ` Drsm;udk wnfaxmifjcif;a=umifh tvkyf&Ekid faom tcGifhtvrf;rsm; ydrk w dk dk;yGm;vm+yD; a'ocH vlxkwdk@ tusKd;tjrwf &&Sdrnf/ Ekid fiHjcm; &if;ESD;jr‡yfESHrr_ sm; 0ifa&muf vmrnf[k 4if;wdk@u qdkavh&d=S uonf? TtqdkrSm wpHw k &m twdkif;twmtxdom rSefuefayonf? vufawG@wGirf l tjrwftpGe;f trsm;pkudk ukr% ` Dvkyif ef;&Sifrsm;uom &&SdoGm;=u+yD; a'ocHvlxku &&Sdaom tjrwftpGe;f rSm rajymyavmufay? tpdk;&twGif;&Sd tjrifhqkH; &mxl;ae&mrsm;udk twWpw d f&daS om tm%m&Sifrsm;u &,lydik fqdkifxm;v#if vl@tzG@J tpnf;}uD;wpfckvHk; qdk;usdK;cHpm;&ayonf? jynfolydkifypPnf;rsm; tvJGoHk;pm; vkyjf cif; cH&onf? jynfolwkd@. touftEW&m,frsm;udk xdyg;jcif; cH&onf? woD;yk*v ~ rsm;. vkyyf idk fcGifhrsm; csKyfcs,fuef@owfjcif; cH&+yD; vl@tzG@J tpnf;wpfckvHk; uaomif;ueif; jzpf&avonf? TuJhodk@aom tajctaersm;udk jrefrmEkdifiHESifh tm&Swkduf&Sd tcsdK@Edik fiHrsm;wGifom rubJ Oa&mywkduf ta&S@ydkif;/ tmz&duwdkuf/ vufwiftar&duwkdufEiS fh vwfwavm ta&S@tv,fykid f;a'o&Sd EkdifiHrsm;wGifyg awG@jrifEdik fayonf? 2011ckEpS f azaz:0g&Dv (21)&ufae@wGif vpfbsm;EkdifiHudk (42)ESpf=umatmif tm%m&Siftjzpf tkyfcsKyfrif;vkyv f mcJhaom rmrl0g *g'gzDu ol. twWpw d fudk umuG,f&eftwGuf +idrf;csrf;pGm qENjyaeaom jynfoljynfom;rsm;udk ppfwyfjzifh ypfcwfEdrS ef if;apcJhonf?wkdif;jynfudk tkycf sKyfrif;vkyo f lrsm;u twWpw d fudk usifh}uHonf[kq&dk mwGif 4if;wdk@u jynfolrsm;. tusK;d pD;yGm; zG@H +zdK;wdk;wufa&;twGuf aqmif&Gufay;rnf[k ta,mifaqmifavh&d=S uonf? vufawG@wGirf l wkdif;jynf. pOf;pdrOf pPmrsm;udk tkyfcsKyfolrsm;ESifh 4if;wdk@. taygif;taz:rsm;uom &&SdpHpm;=u+yD; omrefjynfolvlxkrmS c|wf+cHKus =u&onf? tD*spf orRw rlbm&wf. ESpf(30)=um tkycf sKyfr_udk (18)&uf=um vlxkqENjyyJGrsm;u tqHk;owfapcJh+yD;onfhaemufwGif rlbm&wfu vlxkxHrS cdk;,lum qGpZf vefb%frsm;xJY odkrSD;xm;aom aiGa=u;rsm; tydwfcHcJh&onf? wle;D &Sm;EkdifiHwGif vlxkqENjyyJG rsm;a=umifh orRw biftvD. (23)ESpf=um tkycf sKyfr_ tqHk;owfcJh&+yD; 2011ckESpf Zefe0g&Dv (14)&ufae@Y biftvD u aqmf't D ma&As Ekid fiHodk@ xGufajy;oGm;cJh+yD;onfhaemufwGif jynfolrsm;xHrS cdk;,lxm;aom vuf0wf&wemrsm;udk ol.aetdrw f Gif awG@&SdcJh&onf? wpfpkw H pfOD;xHwGif twWpdwf }uD;pdk;aev#if pmemaxmufxm;r_EiS fh &d;k om;r_rsm; uif;rJhoGm;onf? vl@usi0fh wfESifh *k%o f duQmrsm; arS;rSdefaysmufuG,foGm;+yD; aemufqHk;wGif vl@wefzkd; r&Sdawmhacs? vGecf Jhonfh q,fpEk Spfrsm;twGi;f wGif avmb}uD;aom woD;yk*v ~ rsm;ESifh tm%m&Sifrsm;u twWpw d fudk qxufwdk; usifh}uH vmcJhjcif;a=umifh wkdif;jynf. a*[pepfrsm; ysufp;D qHk;&_H;cJh&+yD; urBmw0Srf;&Sd oef;aygif;rsm;pGmaom jynfolvlxkwdk@ 72


tiwfab;qdkufch&J onf? 4if;. tusK;d &vm'fa=umifh EkdifiHaygif;rsm;pGmwk@d wGif vlra_ &; o[Zmjzpfr_ESifh w&m;r#wr_ rsm; csKyf+idr;f cJh&onf? wkdif;jynfudk tkyfcsKyfolrsm;/ Ekid fiHa&;orm;rsm;/ pD;yGm;a&;orm;rsm;ESifh omrmef jynfolvlxk tp&So d nfh tm;vHk;aom woD;yk*v ~ rsm;onf udk,fusKd;twGuf &SmazGvkyu f dkifEdik f=uaomfvnf; 4if;wkd@. twWpw d fudkrl acszsufoifhayonf? odk@aomf txl;owdjyK&rnfh tcsufrmS udk,fusKd;=unfhjcif;ESifh twWpw d f wkd@udk wdwdusus cGJjcm;owfrSwfxm;aom e,ferdwf wpHw k &m r&Sdjcif;yif jzpfonf? udk,fusK;d =unfhjcif;udk oifhavsmfreS fuefpGm pDrHcef@cGJEdik fjcif;r&Sdv#if 4if;onf twWpdwf toGifodk@ ajymif;oGm;Ekid fonf? Ttjcif;t&mudk a&Smif&mS ;Ekdif&ef rdrdudk,fusK;d twGuf &SmazGonfh tcgwdkif;wGif wyg;olwdk@. tusKd;pD;yGm;udkvJ xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;&ayrnf? 4if;onf t"duusaom tcsufwpfcsufjzpf+yD; wyg;olrsm;ESifh qufqHaqmif&u G f&onfhtcgwkdif;wGif xdktcsufudk vkdufem usifhoHk;Ekid fonf? TwGif udkwifarmifOD;ESifh ywfoufaom udp&P yfwpfckudk avhvmoifhayonf?

rdrd. &nfreS f;csufrsm;udk taumiftxnf az:&if;u tjcm;olrsm;udkvnf; jyKpkapmifha&Smufol udkwifarmifOD;. rdbESpyf g;onf tpdk;&0efxrf;rsm; jzpfonfEiS fhtnD vpmaiG rsm;rsm;pm;pm; r&=uacs? &cdkifjynfe,f. yifv,fqdyfurf;+rdK@wpf+rdK@jzpfaom ppfawG+rdK@wGif udkwifarmifOD;.taz oGm;a&muftvkyv f kyf aecJhpOftcsdefu jzpfonf? udkwifarmifOD;.tazonf ppfawG+rdK@&Sd tpdk;& }udK;rJha=u;eef;&H;k wpfckwGif a&'D,kd atmfya&wmorm;wpfa,muftjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifcJhonf? (6)vv#ifwpf}udrf olu &efuke+f rdK@udkjyefum ol.rdom;pkudk vma&mufawG@qkaH vh&Sdonf? tazvkyo f l tdrfwGif &Srd aeonfhtcgrsm;wGif udkwifarmifOD;u tdrfru _ pPrsm;udk wm0ef,laqmif&Guf&onf? zcifwpfOD;uJhodk@yif ol. nDi,f/ nDri,frsm;udk jyKpkapmifha&Smufonf? taru om;zGm;q&mrwpfOD;om jzpfaoma=umifh uav;(8)a,mufpvHk;ukd au|;arG;apmifha&Smuf xm;Ekdif a&; qdkonfrmS olrtwGuf rvG,fulcJhacs? TonfrSm jrefrmhq&dk S,fvpf vrf;pOfygwDu wkdif;jynfudk pDrHtyk fcsKyfr_ nhHzsif;jcif;/ tpdk;& &mxl;Xme tqifhqifhwGif vmbfpm;r_rsm; us,fus,fjyef@jyef@ &Sad ejcif;wkd@a=umifhjzpfonf[k t"duqdkEkdifayonf? T&vm'fa=umifh Ekid fiHw0Srf;vHk;wGif pD;yGm;a&; c|wf+cHKusch&J onf? aps;uGufxJ&dS pm;oHk;ukef ypPnf;rsm;rSm wpfae@xufwpfae@ aps;yd}k uD;vmaomfvnf; vlxktrsm;pkwdk@ &&Sdaom vpmaiGrsm;rSmrl wnf+rJtwkdif; &Sad ecJhonf? wkdif;jynftwGif;wGif pm;oHk;ukeyf pPnf;rsm;udk vHkavmufpmG xkwfvkyjf zef@jzL;Ekid fjcif; r&Sdaoma=umifh pD;yGm;a&;tajctaersm;udk ydrk q dk dk;&Gm;vmapcJhonf? jrefrmEkdifiH&dS omrefvlxkonf 4if;wdk@&&Sad om rpdk@ryd@k vpmrsm;jzifh rdom;pk0ifrsm;udk au|;arG;xm;Ekdifjcif; r&So d nfhtjyif taºuG;EHeG pf aecJh=u&onf? aps;xJwGif aps;onfrsm;u 4if;wdk@ ,Hk=unfpw d fcs&olrsm;udk taºuG;pepfjzifh aps;0,fciG fhjyK=u+yD; taºuG;,lxm;olrsm;u vuke&f ufwGif jyefqyf=u&onf? aps;onfrsm;xHu taºuG;0,fpm;olrsm;xJwGif udkwifarmifOD;. tarvnf; yg0ifonf? olr vpmaiG&onfhtcgwdkif;wGif aps;onfrsm;udk taºuG;jyefaeqyf&aoma=umifh tdrftwGuf bmrSrusefawmh oavmufyif jzpfonf? xdk@a=umifh aemufvrsm;wGifvnf; taºuG;pepfjzifh aps;0,f&aoma=umifh

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wpfpkw H pfa,mufudk tusKd;ta=umif;&Sif;jy&mwGif wbufom;. tm&Hkudk zrf;pm;Ekdif+yD; rdrd. t}uHjyKcsufudk wyg;olvufoifhcHvmEkid fatmif azsmif;zsEikd fprG f;onfh arG;&myg t&nftcsif;&Sdonf? udkwifarmifOD; a&;qJGay;cJhaom &oHk;aiGpm&if;ESifhtnD csK;d +cHac|wm oHk;pJ&G mwGif 4if;.rdom;pkonf taยบuG;EHGxJu &ke;f xGufEdik fcJhonf? xdk@a=umifh aemufyidk f; taru vpmxkwfvmonfhtcgwdkif;wGif wpfvvHk;twGuf olr}udKuf&m tpm;taomufrsm;udk 0,f,lEdik f&ef vufxJwGif aiGtoifh&daS ecJhonf? Todk@jzifh ol.rdom;pkonf pm;aomufp&dwfrsm;udk pepfwus pDrcH ef@cGJEdik fcJhonf? nDtpfudkarmifES (8)a,mufxJwGif t}uD;qHk;jzpfonfEiS fhtnD udkwifarmifOD;u rdom;pkudk apmifha&Smuf&ef wm0ef&dcS Jhonf? oludk,fYuwnf; Twm0efudk vdkvdkvm;vm; vufcHcJhonf? rdom;pk0ifrsm;tm;vHk;udk ol. }uD;rm;aom cspfjcif;arwWm ay;tyfEdik fcJh+yD; wyg;olwdk@u vma&muf xdyg;jcif; tEW&m,frsm;rSvJ umuG,fay;cJhonf?

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a&S@odk@wufvSr;f Ekdifrnf qdkonfhtcsufudk jiif;Ir&acs/ TonfrSm &_axmifhwpfck jzpfonf? T&_axmifhu =unfhv#if vly*k K~d vfwOD;csif;. udk,fusK;d &Smr_udk xde;f odr;f umuG,f jr‡ifhwif&ef vdktyfayonf? wcsdew f nf;Yyif tjcm;&_axmifhwpfck udkvJ xnfhoGi;f pOf;pm;&ygrnf? 4if;rSm vl@tzG@J tpnf;Y w&m;r#wr_/ vGwfvyfr/_ +idrf;csrf;r_ESifh zG@H +zdK;wkd;wufr_rsm; jzpfxGe;f aerSomv#if vly*k K~d vfwOD;csif;wdk@. tusKd;pD;yGm;udk jzpfxGe;f apEkid frnf qkdonfhtcsufyif jzpfonf? xdk@a=umifh vly*k K~d vfwOD;csif;rsm;ESifh vl@tzG@J tpnf;wdk@ t=um;&Sd tjyeftvSef qufE, $ fr. _ ta&;ygyHkudk av#mhwGufI r&acs? Todk@qdkv#if vl@tzG@J tpnf;. t&if;cHusaom jy\emrsm;udk tm&Hk;pl;pdu k f&ef/ 4if;wdk hudk ajz&Sif;I vl@tzG@J tpnf;udk aumif;usdK;jyKedik faprnfh enf;vrf;rsm;&SmazG&ef / vl@tzG@J tpnf;. tqifhtwef; jrifhwifvmap&ef&nf&G,fum vly*k K~d vfwOD;csif;pDu tm&HkjyKvkyaf qmif&ef vdktyfonf? odk@rSomv#if 4if;wdk@onf vl@tzG@J tpnf;twGufomru wdkif;jynftwGufyg wm0efcHr_&daS om Ekid fiHom;rsm; jzpfvm=uayrnf? tqdkyg Ekid fiHom;wdk@. pdwfEv S Hk;xJwGif ‘twWpw d f’tjrpfwG,f aev#ifrl 4if;wdk@onf vl@tzG@J tpnf;. aumif;&maumif;usKd; udk vHk;0O\Hk OyuQmjyKxm;+yD; rdrdwdk@ aumif;pm;a&; twGufudkom vdktyfonfxufykI d tm&Hkxm;ae=urnf jzpfonf? rdrd. ‘twWpw d f’udk zH;k uG,fvdkaom woD;yk*v ~ rsm;onf ‚igh&@J }uD;yGm;csrf;r_udk t&ifq;Hk &Smr,f? +yD;awmhro S mv#if wjcm;vlawG&@J b0udk ulnDa xmufyHah y;r,f?‛[k r=umr=um qifajcay;avh&d=S uonf? tyifwpfyif aumif;rGepf Gm }uD;xGm;&SifoefEkdifro S mv#if tjcm;tyifrsm;. &Sifoefr_udk taxmuftyhHjyKEkid frnf [kqdkum rdrw d dk@. twW}uD;aom vky&f yfrsm; rSefuefa=umif; oufaojy&ef }udK;yrf;=uonf? em;0ifuawmh csKad yonf? odk@aomf vufawG@wGirf l 4if;wdk@trsm;pkonf rdrdwdk@. twWyifrsm; tuef@towfrhJ }uD;xGm;&Sifoef vmEkdifap&eftwGufudkom tcsdejf ynfh vkyaf qmifaeavh&dSonf? rdrw d dk@. &nfreS f;csufrsm; jynfhrSDoGm;cJh+yD;onfhwkdif 4if;wdk@onf tjcm;tyifrsm;. &Sifoefr_twGuf wpHkw&m tav;rxm;=uacs? rdrw d dk@. twWyifrsm; tawm rowfEikd fatmif &Sifoefa&;twGufukdom ae@a&mnyg tm&Hkxm;aeaoma=umihf tiftm;jynfh+zdK;aom tyif. t&dyaf tmufwGif tm;EGJ@aom tyifrsm;rSm aea&mifjcnfr&awmhbJ aoa=uysufokOf; =u&onf? 4if;. tusKd;&vm'fa=umifh vlra_ &;o[ZwjzpfrE_ Sifh obm0a*[pepfwdk@ +ydKvJysufp;D =u&um 0J=oCqdk;}uD; wzefjyefvnf jzpfxGe;f vmayonf?

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‚bmjzpfvkd@ udk,fusifhw&m;eJ@ rnD&rSmvJ? 'gu olrsm;om;r,m;eJ@ azgufjyefaewmrSr[kwfbJ? rk'rd f;r_ usL;vGew f mrS r[kwfbJ?‛ ‚[kwfw,fuG? udk,fu t&nftcsif; rjynfhrDb S Je@J jynfol@0efxrf;/ 'grSr[kwf tpdk;&0efxrf; &mxl; wpfae&mudk &,lzdk@ }udK;pm;w,f qkdwmu udk,fusifhw&m; ysufuGufwmbJ? iguawmh ighb0 aumif;pm;a&;twGuf ar#mfudk;+yD;awmh ppfAkv d fwpfa,muf&@J om;udk oGm;aygif;rSm r[kwfbl;? 'gu ukd,fusifhw&m;eJ@ rnDbl;vdk@ igxifw,f?‛ udkwifarmifOD;ESifh tjcm;oli,fcsif;rsm;tm;vHk;onf xGe;f 0if;u ajymvdu k faom pum;ESifhywfoufI tawG;e,fcsJ@ae=uonf? armifarmifu ajymjyefonf? ‚'Dpepf}uD; wpfckvHk;u vmbfpm;r_awGe@J jynfhaewmqdkawmh rif;rSm t&nftcsif;&Sdayr,fhvJ b,fawmhrS ta&G;cH&rSm r[kwfbl;? ppfwyfu t&m&Sd}uD;wpfa,mufu axmufcHay;awmhrb S J vpmaumif;aumif;&wJh tpdk;&0efxrf;&mxl;udk rif; &Ekid fvdrhrf ,f? 'DvkdrS r[kwf&if rif;u tJ'D ppfAv dk fcsKyf}uD;awGe@J trsK;d awmfrS &r,f? 'gu wu,fhvufawG@b0rSm jzpfysufaewmudk ajymwmuG?‛ TwGif udkwifarmifOD;u toHcyfrmrmjzifh =um;jzwfajymonf? ‚armifarmif? 'Dvl@tzG@J tpnf;rSm &Sw d Jh pepf}uD;wpfckvHk;u vmbfpm;r_awGe@J jynfhaew,fqw dk mudk rif; odxm;wmaumif;w,f? 'gayr,fh rif;ajymwJh t}uHudk igvJ vufrcHEdik fbl;? bmjzpfvdk@vJqadk wmh rif;ajymwJh vky&f yf[mw&m;r#wr_r&SdwJhvlra_ &;eJ@ EkdifiHa&;udkpepf taxmuftuljyKaevdk@bJ? ppfAdkvfcsKyf}uD;awG&@J om;orD;awGe@J rdwfz@GJ zk@d qkw d Jh t}uHjyKcsuf[m rif;&J@ ‘twWpw d f’tajccH+yD;awmh ajymaewmjzpfw,f? 'DvdkbJ rif;&J@ oli,fcsif;udkvJ olwkd@&J@ ‘twWpw d f’udk jr‡ifhwifay;zd@k twGuf tm;ay;&ma&mufw,f? *k%foduQm&SdwJh vli,fwdkif;[m 'Dvrf;udk ra&G;cs,foifhbl;? igwdk@ tem*wf[m igwdk@vli,fawG&@J vufxJrmS &Sw d ,f? igwdk@&J@ ‘twWpw d f’awGtay:rSm tm&Hkxm;aer,fhtpm; igwdk@[m 'Dvl@tzG@J tpnf;udk jyKjyifajymif;vJEdik fprG f;&Sd&r,f qdkwJh pdwf"gwfudk xde;f odrf;xm;zdk@ vdkw,f? w&m;r#wr_&SdwJh vl@tzG@J tpnf;udk ar#mfudk;+yD;awmh ighwkd@wawG tm;vHk;[m igwdk@&J@Ekdifiu H dk jyKjyifajymif;vJ zd@k twGuf tpGrf;ukef }udK;pm;=u&r,f?‛ aemufqHk;wGif armifarmif toHwdwfoGm;onf? *k%foa&&Sdaom vli,frsm; rnfuJhokd@ &yfwnfoifha=umif; udkwifarmifOD;. a0zefcsufudk =um;+yD;aomtcgwGif oli,fcsif;trsm;pku &Sif;vif;pGm em;vnfoabmayguf oGm;=uonf? odk@aomfvnf; armifarmifrSmrl xdkuJhodk@ r[kwfcJhacs? wuUodkvfbJG@&+yD;aemufwGif armifarmifonf vl0ifr}_ uD;=uyfa&; t&m&Sw d pfOD;tjzpf tvkyfav#mufxm;cJhonf? ol@oli,fcsif;. taz ppft&m&S}d uD;wpfOD;. axmufcHay;r_a=umifh xdktvkyu f dk &oGm;cJhjcif; jzpfonf? tm%m&Sif ppftpdk;& tkyfcsKyfra_ tmufwGif tpdk;& 0ef}uD;Xmersm;twGif; vmbfpm;r_rsm; t}uD;tus,f jzpfyGm;aecJhonfESifhtnD vl0ifr_ }uD;=uyfa&;t&m&Sd armifarmifonf 0ifaiGrsm;pGm &&SdcJhonf? armifarmifonf ol. twW}uD;aom &nfreS f;csufudk wrifwum&nf&, G fI usifh}uHaqmif&GufcJhayonf? jrefrmEkdifiHwGif armifarmifuJhodk@aom vli,fvl&, G f trsm;tjym;&SdrnfrmS taotcsmyifjzpfonf? 83


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olu oifcef;pmwpfckudk ausmufoifyek f;ay:Y pa&;avonf? TwGif ausmif;olwpfOD;u qD;aphwpfaphjzifh ypfayguf&m xkdq;D aphonf udkwifarmifOD;. OD;acgif;tem;&Sd ausmufoifyek f;udk oGm;a&mufxdreS fonf? ausmif;ol rsm;u q&mtopfudk prf;vdkaoma=umifh ol.tidkufwGif xdkuJhodk@ jyKvkyfvkdufjcif; jzpfEikd fayonf? qD;aphudk ypfayguf+yD;onfEiS fh w+ydKifeuf 4if;wdk@u rodcsifa,mifaqmifae=uonf? odk@aomf qD;aphvm&m vrf;a=umif; bufudk rSef;qrdaom udkwifarmifOD;u csufcsif;vSnfh=unfhvkduf&mwGif tqdkyg ausmif;olrsm; tht H m;oifhoGm; =uonf? olu xdkausmif;oltyk fpkudk tvGeyf if wnf=unfaom rsufEmS xm;jzifh pdu k f=unfhonf? udkwifarmifOD;u wnf=unfav;eufaom rsufEmS xm;jzifh wpfpHkwpfOD;udk pl;pl;&J&J pdu k f=unfh+yDqdkv#if vrf;o&J *d% k f;om;rsm;uyif ol@rsufvHk;rsm;udk &ifrqkdif&=J uacs? csufcsif;qdkovdkyif ausmif;oltkyfpo k nf toHwdwfoGm;+yD; wkwfwkwfr# rv_y&f J=uawmh? 4if;wkd@udk wc%=umatmif pdkuf=unfh+yD;aemufwGif udkwifarmifOD;u ausmufoifyek f; bufodk@ vSnfhum pmqufoifavonf? xdktcsdeu f pwifum tqdkygausmif;oltkyfpk tygt0if twef;xJ&Sd ausmif;ol ausmif;om;rsm;tm;vHk;onf udkwifarmifOD;tay: av;pm;vmcJh=uonf? ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;u ol. pmoifjyyHkudk tvGeEf Spfouf=uonf? 4if;wdk@ em;rvnfaom ocsmFypk >mrsm;udk udkwifarmifOD;u vG,ful&iS f;vif;oGm;atmif &Sif;jyEkid fprG f;&Sdojzifh ausmif;pmrsm;wGif wdk;wufr_ rsm;pGm &&SdvmcJhonf? csOf;uyf&vG,ful+yD; azmfazmfa&Ga&G&dSolwpfOD; jzpfonfEiS fhtnD ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;u ol@twef;wuf&onfudk ESpf+cdKuf=uonf? &ufumvrsm; =umjrifhvmonfEiS fhtr# pum;ajymaumif;+yD; [mo^m%f&i$ faom udkwifarmifOD;a=umifh twef;xJwGif aysmf&$if&,farmp&mrsm;jzifh touf0ifvmonfrmS =unfE;l zG,f&maumif;vSayonf? Todk@jzifh vuke&f ufwGif udkwifarmifOD;onf ol. yxrqHk;aom vpmudk &vmonf? jrefrmusyfaiG (100)/ tar&duef aiGjzifhqkv d #if (35) a':vmcef@ &Sad yrnf? xdktcsdeu f qdkv#if tawmfrsm;aom aiGyrm%yif jzpfonf? vpmaiG &aoma=umifh tvGepf dwfv_y&f Sm;aeaom udkwifarmifOD;u rnfuJhodk@ vky&f rnfudk pOf;pm;avonf? wuUodkvf ausmif;om; vli,fwpfOD; jzpfonfhtavsmuf ausmif;odk@ 0wfoGm;&ef t0wftpm; aumif;aumif;rsm; (odk@r[kwf) tjcm;aom t&mrsm;twGuf rdrdpw d f}udKuf 0rf;csrf;Ekdifrnf jzpfaomfvnf; olu xdkuJhodk@ rvkycf Jhacs? rdom;pk0ifrsm;u xdknaecif;udk aumif;rGepf Gm trSwf&aeayao;onf? xdknaeu ol tdrfjyefaemufuscJhonf? xrif;[if;csufonfhtdk; topfcsyfc|wfrsm; 0,fjyefvmaom udkwifarmifOD;udk awG@aomtcg rdom;pk0ifrsm;tm;vHk; th=H ooifhoGm;=uonf? 4if;wkd@ rdom;pkwGif TuJhodk@aom xrif;[if;tdk;rsm; vdktyfaeonfrmS twef=umjrifhcJhay+yD? xdk@jyif olu pawmfb,f&o D D; vwfvwfqwfqwfrsm;/ Edk@qD/ o=um;ESifh a&cJwkH;}uD;wpfwHk;udkyg ,laqmifvmcJh ao;onf? rdom;pk0if tm;vHk;twGuf TuJhodk@ 'umcH au|;arG;onfrSm aysmf&i$ fp&myif? nDi,f/ nDri,frsm; tljrL;ae=uonf? vdkcsifaewm =umcJh+yDjzpfaom xrif;tdk; [if;td;k topfrsm;udk &&Sdvkdufaoma=umifh taru 0rf;omyDwdjzpfum bmrS rajymEkdifcJhovdk rsuf&nfrsm;yif 0kid f;vmcJhonf? tdk;opfwpfckxJwGif udkwifarmifOD;u pawmfb,f&/D Ekd@qD/ o=um;ESifh a&cJwdk@udk xnfhar$um rdom;pk0ifrsm;twGuf pawmfb,f&aD zsmf&nf vkyaf y;onf? 4if;wdk@ rdom;pktwGuf aysmf&i$ f=unfE;l zG,f&maumif;aom aEG&moDnaecif;wpfck jzpfcJhayonf? wuUodkvf 'kwd,ESpaf &mufonftxd olu usL&Sifq&mtjzpf vkycf Jhonf? tpdk;&qef@usifa&; ajratmuf ausmif;om;v_y&f Sm;r_rsm;Y yg0ifywfoufcJhjcif;a=umifh 1972ckEpS f 'DZifbmv (5)&ufae@Y tzrf;cH&onfh tcgrSomv#if usL&Sifq&mtvkyu f dk &yfem;cJh&jcif; jzpfonf? 1974ckEpS f Zefe0g&Dv (3)&ufae@ axmifrS 85


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+idrf;csrf;r_udk &SmazG&mwGif udkwifarmifOD;onf twGi;f pdwf +idrf;csrf;r_udka&m tjyifykdif; +idrf;csrf;r_udkyg eSpfckvHk;twGuf OD;wnfcsufxm;cJhonf? olonf ueOD;ydkif;uwnf;uyif twGif;pdwf +idrf;csrf;r_tay: tm&Hkxm;um ‘pdwf. oef@pifjcif;’udk &SmazGcJhonf? pdwf. oef hpifro _ nf twGif;ydkif;jidr;f csrf;r_twGuf ta}umif; taxmuftyHh jzpfonfudk olem;vnfcJhonf? ‘pdwfaxGjym;r_’ESifh ‘rodem;rvnfr_’ wdk hudk y,f&Sif;um rdrd. pdwfoef hpifru _ dk t&if;jyKI ‘b0 &nfreS f;csuf’udk wpdu k frwfrwf pif}u,fpmG &SmazGekid fcJhonf? rdrd. rdom;pk0ifrsm;udk omru tjcm; olrsm; tay:wGifyg ‘arwWm’xm;&SdcJhjcif;a=umifh ‘rESp+f rdK@jcif;’ [laom pdwfxm;udk wqifhcsif; z,f&Sm;Ekid fcJhonf? ol. pdwfESvHk;twGi;f wGif ‘trkef;w&m;’ESifh ‘&efjidSK;odkr_’wdk@ uif;cJhonf? vrf;o&J *k% d f;0ifrsm;udk olu rkef;wD;ojzifh wdkufcku d fcJhjcif; r[kwf? 4if;wdk@udk qHk;rvdk cJhjcif;a=umifhomjzpfonf? &kyf&nf ajyjypfaom vli,fwpfOD; jzpfaomf jim;vnf; olonf b0wpfav#muf vHk;wGif rdef;uav;&nf;pm; wpfOD;wpfa,mufudkr# xm;cJhjcif; r&Sdacs? jrifhjrwf aomt&mtwGuf wpdu k frwfrwf }udK;yrf;vkyu f dkif aecsdew f Gif ‘taESmiftzGJ@’ udk vufrcHcJhacs? xdk@jyif vlom;rsK;d EG,fwdk@tay:Y v$r;f +cHKxm;&Sd aom ‘arwWmw&m;’ESifh vlwpfOD;wpfa,muf tay:Y xm;&Sdaom ‘ork',taESmift h zGJ@’wkd@udk cGJjcm;odjrifEdik fcJhonf? arwWm w&m;tay: tm&Hkxm;&SdcJhaomfvnf; aESmifzJ@G jcif; uif;atmif aecJhonf? xkd@a=umifh ol. pdwfEv S Hk;rSm t+rJwap +idrf;csrf;ae cJhonf? udkwifarmifOD;onf i,f&, G fpOfuwnf;uyif r#a0vkdaom pdwfxm;udk usifh}uHvmcJhaoma=umifh rdrd. ‘avmb’ESifh ‘wyfrufr_’pdwfwdk@udk twdkif;twm tawmfrsm;rsm;txd av#mhcsEikd fcJhonf? rdrd. atmifjrifrt _ wGuf auseyftm;&r_ &S&d o Hk mru tjcm;olrsm;. atmifjrifr&_ vm'frsm;tay:Yvnf; 0rf;omyDwd jzpfcJhonfudk =unfhrnf qdkv#if trsm; tm;jzifh ol. pdwfxm;onf ‘remvdkr_’ uif;&Sif;aeonf? ykdI ta&;ygonfrmS um; udkwifarmifOD;xHY tjyKjzpfwnfrt _ jrif &Sjd cif;yifjzpfonf? b0wGif awG@}uHKvm&aom tcuftcJrsm;udk nnf;nLjcif; tv#Of;r&SdbJ v#uf tjyKjzpfwnfrt _ jrifjzifh &ifqidk fausmfjzwfcJhonf? vl@tzG@J tpnf; jy\emrsm;udk taumif;bufu =unfhjrif oHk;oyfcJhonf? wdbufa'o. oef@&Sif;aom 0dnmOfawmf 'vdkifvm;rm; uJhokd@yif aumif;jrwfaom pdwf0n d mOf (odk@r[kwf) [mo^m%fjzifh udkwifarmifOD;u tjcm;olrsm;udk qufqHcJhonf? 4if;wdk@onf ‘pdwf. oef@pifjcif;’udk xif[yfjyoaeaom p&dkufvuQ%mrsm;yifjzpf+yD; ppftm%m&Sifrsm;. vufxJY toufpaw;cHcJh& onfhtcsdet f xd udkwifarmifOD;u tqdkyg p&dkufvuQ%mrsm;udk xde;f odrf;usifh}uHoGm;cJhonf? pdwf. oef@pifjcif;udk xde;f odrf;xm;Ekdif aoma=umifh olonf twGif;pdwf +idrf;csrf;r_udk wpHw k &m twkdif;twmtxd &&SEd ikd fcJhonf? twGif;pdwf +idrf;csrf;r_udk &SmazGjcif;. ta&;ygyHu k dkaomfvnf;aumif;/ twGif;pdwfjidr;f csrf;r_onf vl@tzGJ h tpnf;twGufrsm;pGm tusKd;jzpfxGef;aponfudkvnf;aumif; aumif;rGepf Gm odxm;aomfvnf; w&m;r#wI vGwfvyf +yD;+idrf;csrf;aom vl@tzG@J tpnf; odk@ toGifajymif;apEkid fa&;twGuf }udK;yrf;aqmif&Guf&mwGif twGif;pdwfjidr;f csrf;r_ r#ESifh rvHkavmuf a=umif;udk udkwifarmifOD;u &dyfpm;rdcJhonf? xdk@jyif vl@tzG@J tpnf;wpfckonf ajcmufypfuif; oJxJpif jzpfaeapumrl twGif;pdwf +idrf;csrf;r_ r&Sdjyefv#ifvnf; vlom;wdk@onf t"dyg` ,f jynfh0aom/ touf0if aom/ aysmf&i$ fz, G f&maumif;aom b0rsm;udk &&SdcHpm;Ekdif=urnf r[kwfa=umif;vnf; em;vnfoabmaygufcJhonf? vl@tzG@J tpnf;u puf0ef;rsOf; jzpfv#if vlom;wdk@. twGif;pdwf +idrf;csrf;r_u A[dkcsufr jzpfonf? twGif;pdwf +idrf;csrf;r_udk wdk;csJ hekid f/ t&Snfojzifhwnfwef hapedik faomtcg vlom;wdk@onf tqHk;pGefaom aysmf&i$ fcsrf;ajrhr_udk &&SdcHpm;Ekdif=uonf?

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jrufaom vufa&G;pif vlpjk zpfojzifh wkdif;jynftwGif; zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufr_ESifh wnf+idrrf _wdk@udk az:aqmif ay;edik frnf[k a}uG;a}umfcJh=uaomfvnf; vufawG@wGirf l jzpfrvmcJhacs? tm&yfwkdif;jynfrsm;wGif bk&ifrsm;uomv#if Ekid fiHa&; tm%mudk qkyfudkifxm;=u+yD; tm%m&Sifpepfudk oufq;dk &SnfapcJhonf? tD*spf/ wle;D &Sm;/ ,DrifEiS fh qD;&D;,m; tp&So d nfh orRw EkdifiHrsm;wGifvnf; tm%m&Sif tkyfcsKyfr_pepfudk pwifusihfoHk;vmcJh=uonf? tm%m&Sif pepfrsm; xJwGif tqdk;&Gm;qHk;jzpfaom ‚bk&ifrsm;. bk&ifpepf‛ udk usifhoHk;vmcJhol rmrl0g *g'gzDonf ,ae@tcsdet f xd tm%mwnf+rJaeay ao;onf? vpfbsm;EkdifiHudk bk&if tD'&pfu tkyfcsKyfaepOftwGif; 1969 ckESpfwGif *g'gzDESifhwuG &mxl;i,f ppfAkv d f tcsK@d wdk@u ppfwyftm%modr;f cJhjcif;jzpfonf? ta&S@tv,fykid f;a'o&Sd vli,fwpfOD;jzpfol *g'gzDu tm%m&Sifpepfudk pwif usifhoHk;vmcsdew f Gif tm&Swdkuf&Sd vli,fwpfOD;jzpfol udkwifarmifOD;uvnf; vl@tzG@J tpnf; ESifh ywfoufI pwif avhvmvdkufpm;um tm%m&Sifpepfudk jzKwfcs&eftwGuf jyifqifrr_ sm; jyKvkyaf ecJhonf? Tae&mwGif 4if;wdk@ESpOf D; teuf rnfolu &JpGr;f owWdEiS fh ydjk ynfhpHkonfudk rnfolr# rod&dES dik facs? odk@aomfvnf; owdjyK&rnfh tcsufwpfcsufrSm &nfreS f;csufyef;wdkifodk@ ta&mufvSr;f &eftwGuf 4if;wdk@. vkyyf u Hk dkifykrH sm; rwlnD=ujcif; yifjzpfonf? *g'gzDu ppfwyf tiftm;udk rDcS dktm;xm;aecsdew f Gif udkwifarmifOD;u vlxkprG f;tm;udk trDSjyKcJhonf? +idrf;csrf;aom vrf;pOfudk usifh}uH cJhonf? xdktcsdeu f vlxkprG f;tm;qdkonfrmS a&yef;pm;aom a0g[m&wpfck r[kwfcJhacs?

uGejf rLepfpepfudk a&Smif&Sm;&ef }udK;yrf;&mrS tm%m&Sifpepfudk axmufcHcJh=ujcif; udkwifarmifOD;onf 1969ckESpfwGif wuUodkvf yxESpYf wufa&muf ynmoif=um;cJhonf? zdvpfykid fEdkifiH orRw zm'Deef rm;udk@(pf)u Ekid fiHhordkif;wGif r}uHKpzl; 'kwd,t}udrf orRwtjzpf jyefvnfta&G;cHcJh&onfrmS vnf; 1969 ckEpS fuyif jzpfonf? tif'ked ;D &Sm;Ekid fiHwGif emrnfq;dk jzifh ausmf=um;ol ppftm%m&Sif Adv k fcsKyf ql[mwdkudk v$wfawmf u orRwtjzpf a&G;cs,fcef@tyfcJhonfrmS 1968ckEpS fu jzpfonf? tqdkyg orRwESpfOD;pvHk;onf oufqikd f&m EkdifiH toD;oD;wGif uGejf rLepf ykeu f eftHkºuGrr_ sm;udk ESrd feif;cJhonf[lI emrnfausm=f um;cJh=uonf? tm%mr&rDwGif tif'kdeD;&Sm;Ekid fiH Adv k fcsKyf ql[mwkdonf uGejf rLepfrsm;udk &Sif;vif;okwfoif&eftwGuf ppfwyfudk OD;aqmifcJh+yD; vlaygif; (5)ode;f cef@udk owfjzwfcho J nf? zdvpfykid fEkdifiHwGif rm;udk@(pf)u rm&S,favm xkwfcJh+yD;onfh aemufwGif uGejf rLepfjynfol hwyfrawmfopfudk eSrd feif;&ef ppfwyfudk txl;tm%mtyfeiS f;cJhonf? xdkumvtwGif; Yyif awmifudk&D;,m; EkdifiHwGifvnf; 'kwd, orRwedik fiHudk jzdKcsjyD; OD;aqmiftm%modr;f cJhol Adv k fcsKyf ywfc|ef[D;onf orRwtjzpf jyefvnf ta&G;cHcJh&onf? 1966 ckEpS frS 1976 ckEpS frsm;twGif;wGif w&kwfEdik fiH. acgif;aqmif }uD; armfpDwke;f u ,Ofaus;r_ awmfvSeaf &;}uD;qifEJc$ Jh+yD; jynfolwkd@. vGwfvyfcGifhudk t}uD;tus,f uef@owfcsKyfcs,f cJhonf? TonfrmS rSm;,Gif;aom vkyaf qmifcsufwpf&yfjzpfa}umif; w&kwfEdik fiH uGejf rLepfygwD udk,fYuyif aemufyidk f;Y oHk;oyf oGm;cJhonf? 1975ckESpf uarBm'D;,m;EkdifiHY crmeDygwD tm%m&&Sdvmcsdew f Gif tqdk;&Gm;qH;k aom tm%m&Sif tkyfcsKyfr_ pepf jzpfwnfvmcJhonf? udkwifarmifOD; vli,fb0 tcsdeu f mvrsm;wGif tm&Swkduf&dS EkdifiH rsm;pGmwdk@Y tm%m&Sifpepf yHpk HtrsKd;rsK;d xGe;f um;aecJhonfudk txufyg jzpf&yfrsm;u oufaojyaeayonf?

95


udkwifarmifOD; t&G,fa&mufpjyKcsdef 1969ckESpw f Gif Adv k fae0if;u wkdif;jynftm%modr;f +yD; tkyfcsKyfvm cJhonfrSm (7)ESpf=um &SdoGm;cJh+yDjzpfonf? ppfat;umvrsm;wGif tif'dkeD;&Sm;Ekid fiH Akv d fcsKyf ql[mwdk/ zdvpfydkifEdik fiH zm'Deef rm;udk@(pf)ESifh jrefrmEkdifiH Adv k fcsKyfae0if;wkd@u ta&S@awmiftm&Sa'owGif uGefjrLepfpepf rjyef@yGm;apa&; twGuf [ef@wm;ay;Ekdifvdrhrf nf[k tar&duefEkdifiHEiS fh taemufwkdif; 'Drdkua&pDEkdifiHrsm;u ar#mfvifhcJh=uonf? wzufuvnf; tm&SEdik fiHtoD;oD;wGi&f aSd om uGejf rLepfygwDrsm;ESifh 4if;wdk@. v_y&f Sm;r_rsm;udk qdkAD,uf ESifh w&kwfEdik fiHwdk@u axmufcHay;cJh=uonf? xdk@a=umifh ppftm%m&Sifrsm;udk qef@usifwkdufzsuf ae=uaom jrefrmEkdifiH twGif;&Sd omref ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;ESifh jynfolvlxktwGuf Ekid fiHwum. ulnDaxmufyHrh u _ dk &&Sda&; qdkonfrmS vHk;0 rjzpfEdik f cJhacs? TwGif udkwifarmifOD;u jrefrmEkdifiH. v_yf&Sm;r_onf wkdif;wyg; tultnDrsm;tay: tm;udktm;xm;jyKaernfh tpm; jynfwGif;Yom tajcjyKoifha=umif;/ 4if;onf +idrf;csrf;aom v_y&f Sm;r_ jzpfoifhaomfvnf; wufยบuGr&_ &Sd ef/ toufyg&efESifh vlxktiftm;udk tcsuftjcmjyKaom v_y&f Sm;r_ jzpf&ef vkdtyfa=umif;wkd@udk od&eSd m;vnfcJhonf? wuUodkvf wwd,ESpYf udkwifarmifOD; ynmoif=um;aecsdef 1973ckEpS fwGif zGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'opf rl=urf;a&;qJGa&; vkyif ef;pOfudk ppftpdk;&u zefwD;cJhonf? jrefrmEkdifiH. 1947ckESpf zG@J pnf;yHktajccHOya'onf 1962ckESpf tm%modr;f +yD; aemufykid f;wGif ysufy,foGm;+yDjzpfaoma=umifh ppftpdk;t&u zGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya' opfwpfckudk a&;qJG&eftwGuf tpjyKcJhjcif; jzpfonf? jrefrmEkdifiH ordik f;udk=unfhrnfqv dk #if vGwfvyfa&;&+yD; aemufyidk f;wGif 1947ckEpS f zGJ@pnf;yHk tajccHOya'ESifhtnD ygvDrefpepfudk usifhoHk;cJh+yD; OD;Ekonf jrefrmEkdifiH. yxrqHk;aom 0ef}uD;csKyf jzpfvmcJhonf?

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tajccHOya'opfonf tm%m&Sif tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfudk t"du tmrcHcsufay;xm;a=umif;/ jynfvlolxkudk yl;aygif;yg0if cGifhrjyKbJv#uf zG@J pnf;yHktajccHOya' a&;qGJa&;vkyfief;pOfukd jrefrmhqdk&S,fvpf vrf;pOfygwDuom tºuGif;rJh xde;f csKyf xm;a=umif;/ xkd@a=umifh 1974 zG@J pnf;yHktajccHOya' eSifh TzGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'ESifhtnD usif;yjyKvkyrf nfh a&G;aumufyGrJ sm;udk vufrcHoifha=umif;wdk@udk udkwifarmifOD;u &Sif;vif;pGmod&Sdxm;cJhonf? zGJ@pnf;yHk tajccH Oya'jzifh omru tjcm;aom wdkif;jynf tpdk;& taqmufttHkrsm;/ tkyfcsKyfa&;,EW,m;rsm;jzifhyg tm%m&Sifpepfudk ausm axmufaemufcH jyKaeor# umvywfvHk; tqdkyg zG@J pnf;yHktajccHOya'udk tajccHI jyKvkyo f nfh a&G;aumufyGrJ sm; onf vlxktwGuf vGwfvyfr_udk aqmifusOf;ay;Ekid frnf r[kwfouJhokd@ ppfrSeaf om 'Dru dk a&pDodk@vnf; ta&mufvSr;f Ekid f rnf r[kwf a=umif;wkd@udk olu }udKwifreS f;qEkdifcJhonf? udkwifarmifOD;onf trSefw&m;udk &SmazGcJholwpfa,muf jzpfayonf? vl@tzG@J tpnf;&Sd jy\emrsm;udk ESpfwcsK@d =umatmif apmifh=unfhavhvmcJh+yD;onfaemufwGif udkwifarmifOD; xHY todynm wpHkw&m &&Sv d mcJhonf? jynfolwdk@. 'kuQcHpm;&r_rsm;/ jy\em tajccH&if;jrpfrsm;ESifh jzpfEikd fajc &Sad om ajz&Sif;enf;rsm;udk od&deS m;vnfcJhonf? ‚4if;wkd@ESifh pyfvsO;f I rnfuJhokd@ jyKvkyaf qmif&GufEdik frnfenf;? jynfol jynfom;wkd@. twd'u k Qrsm;udk vpfvsL&_um rdrd wudk,fa& aumif;pm;a&;twGufaomfvnf;aumif;/ twGi;f pdwf +idrf;csrf;r_udk &SmazGEkdif&eftwGufaomfvnf;aumif; ukd,fusK;d &SmazGa&; vrf;a}umif;udkom avSsmufvSrf;&rnfavm? okd@r[kwf vl@tzG@J tpnf;wGif jzpfysuf aeaom raumif;r_rsm;udk z,f&mS ;&efvdkvm;olrsm;ESifh yl;aygif;um wdkufyJG0ifv_y&f Sm;&rnfavm?‛ ponfhar;cGe;f rsm; udkwifarmifOD;. acgif;xJ 0ifa&mufvmcJhonf? rnfonfh vrf;a=umif;udk a&G;cs,frnf qdkonfu rdr. d qHk;jzwfcsuf tay:Yom rlwnf+yD; rnfolur# rdrt d m; twif;t=uyf vkycf dkif;aejcif; r[kwfa=umif;udk olu aumif;rGepf Gm em;vnfcJhonf? omrefvli,ftrsm;pkuom qdkv#if udk,fusK;d &Sma&;vrf;a}umif;oufoufudkom vkyu f dkifaqmif&Guf=uayrnf? vlwkdif;onf rdrdb0twGuf udk,fusK;d &Sm Ekid faom vGwfvyfcGifhudk &&SdcHpm;aecJhrnf qdkv#if udkwifarmifOD;u tqdkyg vli,frsm;udk tjypfwifrnfr[kwfacs? odk@aomf udkwifarmifOD; twGufrl w&m;rSswr_ qdkif&m jyoemrSm ar;cGe;f xkwfp&m jzpfcJhonf? w&m;rSswr_onf ol vGerf if;pGm pdwf0ifpm;onfh ta}umif;&yfjzpfcJhonf? w&m;r#wr_ &&Sda&;tm; wefbdk;xm;I }udK;yrf;pGrf;aqmif oifhonf [lIvnf; cH,lcJhonf?

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102


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xdk@twlyif udkatmif=unfuvnf; ynma&;wuUodkvf/ udkausmfaZ,su &efukef 0dZ…mESifh ESifh odyH` wuUodkvf/ udkjrifhpdk;u pD;yGm;a&;wuUodkvf ponfjzifh wuUodkvftoD;oD;&Sd ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;udk pnf;&Hk;&ef wm0ef,lcJh =uonf? udkwifarmifOD;. todkif;t0kdif;xJu r[kwfaom tjcm; wuUodkvfausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;vnf; tvkyo f rm; qENjyyJGrsm;wGif yl;aygif;yg0ifcJh=uonf? w&m;r#wr_twGuf wkdufyG0J ifv_y&f Sm;&mwGif ausmif;ol ausmif;om;rsm;onf tvkyform;rsm;ESifh twlwuG pdwfxm;xufoefrt _ jynfhjzifh yl;aygif; aqmif&GufcJh=uonf? odk@aomfvnf; 4if;wdk@xHwGif ausmif;om; tpnf;t&H;k uJhodk@aom udk,fydkif toif;tzGJ@rsm; r&Sdonfhtjyif woD;yk*v ~ v_y&f Sm;olrsm;ESifhjzpfap/ tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;ESifh jzpfap yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufbl;aom tawG@t}uHKr&Sdjcif;a=umifh 4if;wkd@. pnf;&Hk;a&;enf;emrsm;rSm pepfwus r&SdcJhacs? tvkyform; ta&;tcif;wGif yg0ifaom ausmif;olausmif;om; rsm;onf wpfOD;csif;taeESifh 4if;wdk@ eD;pyf&m todrdwfaqGrsm;udk qJGac:cJ=h ujcif;om jzpfonf? ausmif;olausmif;om; rsm;onf jywfom;ckdifrmr_ tjynfhjzifh tvkyform;ta&;tcif;Y yl;aygif; yg0ifcJh=uaomfvnf; ausmif;om;or*~ r&Sdaoma=umifh 4if;wdk@u tvkyo f rm; ta&;tcif;udk axmufcHa=umif;ESifh pyfvsOf;I vlod&iS f=um; az:xkwf today;Ekdifjcif; r&SdcJhacs? 4if;. tusKd;&vm'fa=umifh 1974ckESpf tvkyforsm; ta&;tcif;onf xda&muf oifhoavmuf xda&mufr_ r&SdcJhacs? udkwifarmifOD;u pepfwusjzifh pkpnf;&Hk;Ekdifa&;twGuf enf;vrf;udk &SmazG&mwGif ausmif;ol ausmif;om;rsm;/ vli,frsm;ESifh tvkyform;rsm; t=um;&Sd qufoG,fa&;uGef,uf. ta&;ygyHk tvdkvdk od&dx S m; cJhonf? aemufykid f;umvrsm;wGif olu ppfwyf t&m&Srd sm;ESifhyg tcsdwftquf&do S nftxd jzpfvmcJhonf? tvkyo f rm;ta&; tcif; uwnf;u pwifum udkwifarmifOD;onf ol@enf; ol@[eftwkdif; qufoG,fr_ uGe, f ufrsm;udk zefwD;cJhonf? ausmif;olausmif;om; todkif;t0dkif;udk =unfhrnfqv dk #if olu ‘tcsuftcsmusaom’ ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh rdwfz@GJ cJhonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;xJwGif omref a,bk,s todynm&Sdolrsm;/ tm;upm; xl;c|efolrsm;/ pmawmfolrsm;/ &d;k &m,Ofaus;r_qdik f&m qHkcsufusolrsm;/ pum;ajym aumif;olrsm;/ vlrq _ ufqHa&; aumif;rGeo f lrsm;/ Ekid fiHa&; todynm ºuG,f0olrsm;ESifh avmif;upm;Y uGsr;f usifolrsm; tp&So d lwkd@ yg0ifonf? TuJhodk@ ‘tcsuftcsm’ ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;. teD;tem;0ef;usiw f Gif tjcm; omref ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm; pka0;aeavh&daS =umif;udk olu aumif;aumif;&dypf m;rdcJhonf? xdkausmif;olausmif;om; rsm;ESifh yHrk SeftqufoG,fvkyjf cif;/ 4if;wdk@xH oGm;a&mufvnfywfjcif;rsm; jyKvkycf Jhonf? uHraumif;onfrmS xdkacwfumvwGif rdkbdkif;zke;f / tifwmeuf/ tD;ar;(vf)/ face book tp&So d nfh tqifhjrifh qufoG,fa&; enf;ynm rsm; r&Sdonfhtjyif udkwifarmifOD; rdom;pkxHYvnf; tdrfzek f;yif r&SdcJhacs? &efuke+f rdK@twGif;Y oGm;vm&efc&D;p&dwftwGufudkyif udkwifarmifOD;xHY ydu k fqHtydt k v#H r&SdcJhacs? odk@aomf olonf rvSr;f rurf; e,fajrrsm;&Sd ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm; xHodk@ ajcvsifc&D;eSifum t}udraf ygif;rsm;pGm oGm;a&mufEdik fcJhonf? &yfuGuftwGif; aexdkifaom tjcm;oli,frsm;xHokd@ oGm;a&mufonfhtcgwdkif;wGif ajcusifav#mufoGm;cJhonf? udkwifarmifOD;onf oli,fcsif; tdrfodk@ a&mufa&mufcsif; a&awmif;aomuf+yD; wc% tem;,lavh&Sdonf? oli,fcsif;jzpfolu ol@udk iSufaysmoD; (odk@r[kwf) rkef@wrsK;d rsK;d jzifh wnfcif;{nfhcH&krH sS eSifh ol@twGuf vHkavmufonf? +yD;aemufwGif olu xHk;pHtwdkif; ryGifhwyGifh +yHK;um pum;pajymawmhonf? wuUokdvfausmif;0if;xJ&Sd taqmifwGif aexdkifaom oli,fcsif;rsm;url ol@udk taqmifpm;zdkcef; odk hr[kwf 4if;wdk htcef;xJu &S&d o Sd r# tpm;taomuf rsm;jzifh au|;arG;avh&do S nf? udkwifarmifOD;u xkduJhodk@aom pnf;&Hk;a&; c&D;pOfrsm;udk txl;ESp+f cdKufonf? a0;vHaom ae&m&Sd tjcm;wuUodkvfrsm;odk@ oGm;a&muf&mwGifrl bwfpum;udk rjzpfrae pD;&onf? okd@aomf ol@rdom;pkuvnf; 110


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Ttcsif;t&ma=umifh vufrSwfa&mif;ol &kwfw&uf a=umifoGm;onf? odk@aomf bmrS ajymraebJ udkwifarmifOD;udk vufrw S fwpfapmif a&mif;ay;vkdufonf? Ttjzpftysufudk udkwifarmifOD;u jyefajymif;ajymjyaomtcg ol@ oli,fcsif;rsm; [m;wdkuf&aD rmcJh=u&onf? xdk@jyif w&m;r#wr_ twGuf v_y&f Sm;aqmif&u G faejcif;a=umifh awG@}uHK vm&onfh aiGa=u;tcuftcJtm; wwfor#enf;vrf;jzifh ajz&Sif;ae&aom ol@tay:Yvnf; oli,fcsif;rsm; *&k%m oufoGm;=uonf? Todk@jzifh udkwifarmifOD;onf ol. ‘tcsuftcsm’ oli,fcsif;rsm;udk qufvuf pnf;&Hk; Ekid fcJh+yD; 4if;wdk@onf aemufyidk f;wGif tvkyo f rm; ta&;tcif;Yaomfvnf;aumif;/ tjcm;aom ausmif;om;qENjyyJG rsm;Yaomfvnf;aumif; udkwifarmifOD;. a&mif;&if;rsm;tjzpf yl;aygif;yg0ifcJh=uonf? ZGev f (6)&ufae@ eHeufykid f;wGif vrf;rrsm;ay:Y qENjyolOD;a& ydrk w dk dk;yGm;vmcJhonf? udkwifarmifOD; tygt0if ol. oli,fcsif;rsm; tm;vHk;eD;yg;ESifh teD;tem; wuUodkvfrsm;&Sd tjcm;aom ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm; vrf;rrsm;ay:odk@xGufvm=uum qENjyyJGrsm;wGif yl;aygif;yg0ifcJh=uonf? 4if;wdk@onf ordik f;vrf;qkHrSwqifh csnfpuf &dyfoma&S@odk hvnf;aumif;/ tkwfusif;*keef D puf&kHvrf;twdkif; av#mufum csnfpuf&dyfom a&S@odk h vnf;aumif;/ udkwifarmifOD;u ordkif; ausmif;aqmifrsm;&dS 4if;. oli,fcsif;rsm;udk pk pnf;um csnfpuf&yd fom a&S@odk@vnf;aumif; a&mufvm aygif;qHkrd=uonf? ordkif; csnfr#ifEiS fh txnfpuf&Hk 0if;twGif;rS tvkyform;rsm;. qENjyaºuG;a=umf oHrsm; csnfpuf&dyfoma&S@ESifh csnfr#ifEiS fh txnfpuf&Hak &S h &efuket f if;pdev f rf;ray:&dS vltyk f}uD;twGif;rS qENjy atmf[pfoHrsm; qlnHv#uf&Sdonf? wjznf;jznf;ESifh vrf;r }uD;ydwfoGm;jyD; &efukef tif;pdefvrf;ay:wGif um;toGm; tvm vkH;0&yfqdkif;oGm;cJhonf? tvkyo f rm;rsm;a&m ausmif;om;vli,frsm;yg pkaygif;I qENjyvltyk f}uD;udk xde;f &ef }udK;pm;=uonf? wa,mufwayguf atmf[pfajymqdk aernhftpm; pnf;urf;wus 0dkif;xdkifjyD; rdrdwdk@ ajymvdkonfrsm;udk wa,muf wvSnfh ajymqdk=u&ef/ tm;vkH; jidrfjidro f ufouf xdkifjyD; em;axmif=u&ef oabmwlcJh=uonf? xdk@aemuf tvkyo f rm;rsm; wa,mufjyD; wa,muf vltyk f}uD;a&S@udkxGufum 4if;wdk@. b0 epfemcsufrsm;tm; &ifziG fh=uonf? tcsdK@rmS ajym&if; rsuf&nfusolrsm; vnf;&dS=uonf? vltyk f}uD;u wpfa,muf xGufajymonfhtcgwdkif; aomif; aomif;zszs =obmay;=uonf? wjznf;jznf;ESifh qENjyol ta&twGufrmS rsm;onfxuf rsm;vmonf? vlxkrmS ydrk I dk pdwftm;wufºuGvmjyD; wckck vkyv f dkaomqENawG jyif;xefvmcJh=uonf? xdktcg udkwifarmifOD;u qENjyvltyk f}uD;tm; &efuket f if;pdef vrf;rtwdkif; OD;aqmifcsDwufapum &efukejf rdK@v,f&dS jrefrmhqdk&S,fvpf vrf;pOfygwD XmecsKyf&k;H a&S@ ta&muf oGm;a&muf qENjy=uzdk h t}uHay;onf? 4if;. oli,fcsif;tm;vkH; vufcHum vltyk ftwGif;&dS vufvSr;f rDS&m tvkyo f rm; rdwfaqGrsm;tm; csufcsif; &Sif;jy&m 4if;wdk@uvnf; oabmwl=uonf?

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}udK;yrf;cJh=uonf? qENjy vlxk}uD;rSm &kwfw&uf xdwfvef@jyD; [dkajy;onfajy; jzpfoGm; cJh=uonf? odk@&mwGif tvkyo f rm; vli,frsm;/ udkwifarmifOD;ESifh u|efawmfwdk@ ausmif;om;vli,frsm;u awG@or# tkwfcJusdK;rsm;/ ausmufcJrsm; aumuf,lum jyefvnfypfaygufjyD; ckcHcJh=u&m z&dkz&JjzpfoGm;aom qENjyvl xk}uD;rSm jyefvnf pkpnf;EdkifvmjyD; vkHxdef;rsm;aemufudk qkwfoGm;=uonf? a&S hwef;rSm&dSaeaom vkHxdef;rsm;ae&mY ppfwyfu tpm;xdk; 0ifa&mufwm0ef,lonf? &efuket f if;pdef vrf;rudk ydwfum xkH;tjzLESifh pnf;okH;a=umif; wm;onf? tqdkyg pnf;rsm;. aemufwGif oHql;}udK;acGrsm; csxm;vdkufjyD; tqdkygoHql;}udK;acGrsm;. aemufwGif ppfom;rsm; toifhtaetxm;jzifh aoewfudk qENjyvltyk f }uD;bufodk hcsde&f G,fum rwfwyf&yfae=uonf? vkHxdef;ESifh ppfwyfrsm; taejzifh ,if;odk h jyifqifaeonfh tcsdef twGif;rSmyif rdrdwdk@ qENjy vltyk f}uD;twGif;Yvnf; tcsif;csif; jyefvnfp&k ;kH =uonf? ppfwyfu aoewfjzifh csdex f m;onfh=um;rSmyif 4if;wdk@udk xdk;azmufI rlvOD;wnfcsuftwdkif; rqvygwDXmecsKyf&H;k a&S@ a&mufonftxd qufvuf csDwuf=u&ef }udK;yrf;=uonf? ,if;odk@ &daS eonfhtcsdew f Gif ppft&m&dw S OD;u toHcsJ@pufudkudkifI tjrefq;kH vlpkcGJjyD; tdrfjyef=u&ef wm;xm;aom pnf;rsm;udkausmfjyD; a&S hudkqufrvm=u&ef pnf;rsm;udk jzwfausmf vmygu aoewfjzifh ypfcwf ESrd feif;&rnf jzpfa=umif; csde;f ajcmufonf? xdktcsdew f Gif rnfonfhae&mrS a&mufvm rSef;rodaom jrefrmEdkifiH tvHwpfckudk awG@vkduf&onf? xdktvHrmS (1947) zGJ hpnf;ykHtajccHOya' twnfjzpfcJhpOfu tokH;jyKcJhaom tvHjzpfonf? udkwifarmifOD;u tqdkygtvHudk qGJ,lum teD;tem; ajrmif;xJ&Sd 0g;vkH;&SnfwckwGif csnfvdkufjyD; v$ifhxlvdkuf&m vlxky&dwfowf}uD;u aomif;aomif;zszs =obmay;=uonf? tvHEiS fhtwl tvkyo f rm; &Jabmfrsm;/ udkwifarmifOD;ESifh ol. oli,fcsif;wdk@rSm qENjyvltyk f}uD;. a&S@qH;k wef; ae&mwGif a&mufv#uf&Sad ecJh=uonf? qENjy aºuG;a=umfoHrsm;ESifh twl a&S hudk qufvuf csDwuf&ef tm;ay;=uaom vltyk f}uD;. toHrmS nHv#uf &do S nf? 'Davmufrsm;wJh vlxk}uD;udk ppfwyfu wu,f ypf&rJ Smr[kwf/ oufouf ajcmufwm/ bmrS ra=umuf=ueJ h tp&do S jzifhvnf; tcsif;csif; tjyeftvSef tm;ay;=uonf? xdktcsdew f Gif aoewfoHrsm; xGuf ay:vmcJh&m qENjyvlxk}uD;rSm atmfolatmf/ ajy;olajy;/ arSmufolarSmuf ESifh tvJvJ tuGJuGJjzpfuke=f uonf? udkwifarmifOD;ESifholi,fcsif;rsm; tm;vkH;rSm tvkyo f rm;/ &Jabmfrsm;ESifhtwl ppfwyfEiS fh rsufEmS csif;qdkif xm;aom vltyk f}uD;. a&S hq;kH wGi&f adS eojzifh ppfwyfu pwif ypfcwfaomtcg aemufvSnfhxGufajy;=u&mwGif aemufq;kH wGif &daS ecJhonf? wvSr;f / ESpfvSr;f aemufjyef vSnfhajy;aepOf ‚'DaumifawG aoewfe@J wu,fypfaejyD/ 0yfcsvdkuf/ 0yfcsvdkuf‛ [lI atmf[pf ajymqdkaom udkwifarmifOD;.toHudk aemufqkH;=um;vdkuf&onf? udkwifarmifOD;u usnfqHrsm;. &efrS vGwfajrmufcJhaomfvnf; ol. &if;ESD;aom i,foli,fcsif; udkcifarmifat;rSmrl aoewfusnfqH xdreS f+yD; cyfvSrf;vSr;f wae&mY vJususef&pfcJhonf? TonfrmS udkwifarmifOD;u ol@udk aemufqkH;t}udrf awG@jrif cJh&jcif;jzpfonf?

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xdk@aemuf rdepfydkif; twGi;f rSmyif 'kwd,t}udrf qufypf&ef trde@f oH =um;vdkuf&onf? arSmufusefcJhaom vlxk}uD; udkyif csde&f G,fI ypfcwfonfhoabmjzpfonf? usnfqHonf uwW&m vrf;rudkaxmuf nmzufajcz0g;udk xkwfjcif; azmufum ol.nmbuf ajcovkH;twGi;f odk@ wkduf&ku d f0ifcJhonf? ylueJ jzpfoGm;a=umif;om wcsufodvdkufjyD; usnfqHxdumpwGif aoG;ylaeojzifh emusif&rSe;f rodcJhyg? ypfcwfonfhbufokd@ olu ajcaxmufxm;I arSmufr&d ufom; jzpfojzifh usnfqHrSm ajcaxmufwGif;odk@ 0ifoGm;jcif;jzpfonf? arSmufae&if;rS rdrdab;odk@ =unfhvdkuf&m ypfcwfonfhbufodk@ acgif;xm;I arSmufaeaom tvkyo f rm;vli,fwOD;. i,fxdwfwnfhwnfhodk@ usnfqH0ifoGm;jyD; qwfueJwcsufwGe@f um rsufpad &S@Yyif toufxGufoGm;a=umif; awG@vdkuf&onf? 'kwd,t}udryf pfcwfoH +idro f Gm;onfhtcsdeYf udkcifarmifat;u xajy;&ef }udK;yrf;cJhonf? ol. nmbuf ajcovkH;&d;k rSm vkH;0 usdK;oGm;cJh+yD jzpfonf? axmufvdk@r&bJ uwW&mvrf; ay:odk h 'vdrhaf umufauG; vJusoGm; cJhonf? vl axmifaygif;rsm;pGm pka0;cJhaom ae&monf rdepfydkif; twGi;f rSmyif ok\mefwpjyifuJhodk h jzpfoGm;cJhonf? tavmif;rsm; '%f&m&olrsm; aoG;tvdr;f vdr;f ESifh jrif&ufp&mr&dyS g? rajy;Edkifawmhaomfvnf; qufvuf ypfcwfOD; rnfudk pd;k &dro f jzifh cE<mudk,fudkvdSru fh m &efuket f if;pdef vrf;r}uD; ESifh uyf&uf a&ajrmif;xJodk h rdrdudk,fudk ypfcs vdkufonf? atmf[pf ajy;v$m;oHrsm;/ trdef hay;oHrsm; idk+iD; oHrsm; i&JyGufovdk =um;ae&onf? aoewfoHrsm; udkvnf; }udK=um;}udK=um; =um;ae&qJ jzpfonf? a&ajrmif;xJodk h a&mufoGm;aomtcg usnf vrf;a=umif;ESifh vGwfoGm;ojzifh touf raoEdkifawmh[k odvdkufonfh tcsdeYf ajcovkH;&d;k usdK;jyD; usnfqH0ifoGm;aom ae&mrSm vGerf if;pGm emusifvmojzifh yufvuf vSeu f m usdK;oGm;aom ajcaxmufudk 'l;acgif;auG;,ljyD; vufEpS fbufEiS fh udkifxde;f xm;cJhonf? xdktcsde fY ppfom; wOD; ay:vmjyD; udkcifarmifat;udk qufvuf ypfcwf&ef aoewfEiS fh wnfhwnfh csde&f G,fcJhonf? uHaumif;axmufr pGmyif ‚a[haumif rypfeJ hawmh/ awmfjyD/ awmfjyD‛ [lI aemufyidk f;rS 4if;.t&m&dS jzpf[efwlol. atmf[pftrde@f ay;oH =um;onfhtcgwGifro S m tqdkyg ppfom;onf aoewfajymif;udk atmufcsjyD; vSnfhxGufoGm;cJhonf? aoa=u '%f&m&aeolrsm; vrf;ay:Y vJavsmif;aeonf? c%r#t=umwGifuke;f vrf;o,f,lykd haqmifa&;rS x&yfum;}uD;rsm;a&mufvmonf? vlaotavmif; rsm;/ '%f&m&olrsm;tm; ppfom;rsm;u a&S hwa,muf/ aemufwa,muf vufEiS fhajcaxmufrsm;rSudkifjyD;ykcuf v$Jovdk v$Jum acG;aoaumifudk pGef hypfovdk ypfwifcJh=uonf? x&yfum;ay:odk udkcifarmifat; t&ifq;kH ypfwifcH& ojzifh a&mufoGm;aomtcg tavmif;rsm;=um;rSaeI ppfom;rsm; vkyu f dkifaeonfrsm;udk rsuf0g;xifxif jrifcJh&onf? csufcsif;vdkyif rD;owfum;rsm;a&mufvmjyD; uwW&mvrf;ay:wGif usefcJhonfh aoG;uGuf}uD;rsm;tm; rD;owfyku d f rsm;jzifh xdk;um aq;a=umypfcJhonf? tavmif;rsm;a&m '%f&m&olrsm;yg wifaqmifxm;onfh x&yf um;}uD;rsm; onf r*Fvm'kHppfaq;&kHodk hOD;wnfarmif;oGm;cJhonf? aq;&kHa&mufrS '%f&m&olrsm;tm; a&G;csxm;cJhjyD; tavmif;rsm; udkrl rnfonfhae&modk ho,f,loGm;jyD;pGe@f ypfcJha=umif;rod&awmhyg? aq;&HkY a&G;csxm;jcif; cH&olrsm;xJwGif udkcifarmifat;ESifh udkatmif=unfwdk@vnf; yg0ifcJhonf?

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qHk;&H_;r_rSaeI cdkifrmaom ydkif;jzwfcsuf tjzpfodk hajymif;vJjcif; ppfom;rsm;u ypfcwfjcif;a=umifh qENjy vltyk f}uD;rSm tvJvJ tuJGuJG jzpfuke+f yD; toufvk ajy;=u&mrS teD;tem;ywf0efusifrsm;odk@ wuJGwjym;pD a&muf&do S Gm;=uonf? tcif;jzpfyGm;onfh ae&mu qENjyolrsm; o,f,l vmaom tvkyo f rm;wpfa,muf. tavmif;aumifudk ajrjyifay:wGif csxm;vkdufonf? udkwifarmifOD;ESifh oli,fcsif;tcsdK@vnf; xdktavmif;em; &yfae=uonf? olonf vlvwfydik f;t&G,f tvkyo f rm;wpfOD;jzpf+yD; &ifywfwGif aoewfxdreS f aoqHk;cJh&jcif;jzpfonf? udkwifarmifOD;/ ol. oli,fcsifrsm;ESifh tvkyform;tcsK@d wkd@u csufcsif;yif tavmif;udk zsmESifh vdy+f yD; ypfuyfum;wpfpD;ay: wifvdkufonf? TwGif udkwifarmifOD;u ‚igwdk@ 'Dtavmif;udk &efukef pufr_wuUodkvf ,loGm;oifhw,f? 'Dtavmif;udk tJ'DrmS &Sw d Jh ausmif;om;awG tm;vHk;udk jyvkdufr,f? toufrhaJ ewJh tvkyo f rm;&J@ cE<mudk,f[m igwdk@ rdbawGudk udk,fpm;jyKw,f? igwdk@ rdbawGu tifrwefrSudk yifyifyef;yef; vkyu f dkif=u&ayr,fhvJ tpdk;&u 'DvdkrsK;d wkef@jyefwmbJ r[kwfvm;?‛[k qdkavonf? Todk@jzifh 4if;wdk@onf ypfcwfonfhae&mrS ajrmufbuf (3)rdik fcef@tuGmwGif wnf&daS om &efukepf ufrw _ uUodkvfqDodk@ &efukef tif;pdef vrf;r}uD;uwqifh tavmif;udk um;jzifh o,foGm;&ef pDpOf=uonf? odk@aomf 4if;wdk@onf pufrw _ uUodkvf a&mufonftxd roGm;EdkifcJh? wuUodkvfem; a&mufcgeD;wGif ppfum;wpfp;D 4if;wkd@ rsufESmcsif;qkdifu vmaeonfudk awG@vdkuf&onf? TwGif udkwifarmifOD;wdk@rSm bmrS rwwfEkdifawmhbJ csufcsif;yif xdkae&mu vSnfhjyefvmcJh=u&onf? xdkae hnaeu udkwifarmifOD; tdrfjyef tawmfaemufuscJhonf? rdom;pk0ifrsm;u ol@udk wcsuf=unfhvkduf&Hk r#jzifh qdk;qdk;&Gm;&Gm; wpfpHkwpfck jzpfysufvm+yDqdo k nfudk odvdkufonf? odk@aomf om;awmfarmif ab;roD&efrc tdrfjyefvmEdkifonfhtay: taru 0rf;omrqHk;Ekid fcJh? 4if;wkd@ aetdrrf S aeIvnf; ypfcwfoHrsm;udk =um;aecJh&aom a=umifh rdom;pk0ifrsm;tm;vHk;u ol@twGuf pdwfylaecJhaoma=umifhyif? tdrfjyefa&mufoGm;aomtcg rsuf&nf,dkAHk; xdxm;ojzifh ol. rsufemS wckvHk;a&m rsufvHk;rsm;yg eD&JvSsuf&daS ecJhonf? ukdcifarmifat; vJus usefcJhonfudk awG@cJh&aomfvnf; aoewfusnfqef rsm; qufvufusa&mufvSsuf&daS oma}umifh rnfodk hrsS ulnD u,fwifjcif; rjyKedik fcJhojzifh rsm;pGm 0rf;enf;a}umif; udkwifarmifOD;u 4if;. rdom;pk tm;jyefvnfajymjyonf? aoewfreS fxm; ojzifh '%f&m&aeol t&if;qHk; oli,fcsif; ukdcifarmifat;udk aemufcsefxm;cJh&onfhtay: tvGef pdwfraumif; jzpfaerdcJhonf? udkcifarmifat; touf&iS faeao;ovm; 'grSr[kwf tzrf;cH&+yD; axmifxJa&mufae+yDvm; qdkonfudk taotcsm rodcJh? xdk@tcsdeu f pwifum ppftpdk;&udk jzKwfcs&eftwGuf udkwifarmifOD;. oENdÏmefrsm; ydrk cdk dkif+rJvmonfudk rdom;pk0ifrsm;u owdjyKrdcJh=uonf? rsm;r=umrDwGif udkwifarmifOD; wpfpHkwpfck vkyaf wmhrnfudk rdom;pk0ifrsm;u twwfodaecJh=uonf?

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tvkyo f rm;wpfOD;qdkv#if vSHpGyjf zifh em;onfudk xkwfcsif;ayguf txdk;cHcJh&onf? rdrda&S@ ajr}uD;ay:Y aoG;tef+yD; aovkarsmyg;jzpfaeaom tvkyo f rm;udk rsufjrifoufaowpfOD;u jrifhawG@cJh&onf? '%f&m&aeoltwGuf bmrS vkyrf ay;Ekdif? tjcm;tvkyo f rm;wpfa,mufqv dk #if aoewfusnfqHxdrSefojzifh ol. atmufar;&dk;wpfckvHk; r&Sdawmhonfh tjyif ol. v#mudkvnf; uwfa=u;ESifh jzwfxm;ouJhodk@jzpfonf? qmavmifiwfrw G faeaom rdrw d dk@. rdom;pk0ifrsm; qefyrdk dk &&Sda&;twGufudkom awmif;cHcJh=ujcif;jzpfaomfvnf; tvkyform;rsm; qef r&onfhtjyif 4if;wdk@ rdom;pkrsm;udkyg t+yD;tydik f pGe@f cGmoGm;cJh&onf? 1974ckESpf tvkyform;ta&;tcif; jzpfyGm;csdefwGif owif;rD', D mrsm;onf rvqygwDEiS fh ppftpd;k &. vufatmufodk@ vHk;0usa&mufaecJhonf? xdkumvwGif ,ae@acwfuJhodk@ owif;rD', D mESifh qufoG,fa&; uGe, f uf rsm; rxGeu f m;ao;? vli,fvl&, G frsm; tygt0if tvkyo f rm; axmifaygif;rsm;pGm yg0ifonfh tvkyform; ta&;tcif;rsm; jrefrmEkdifiH tESH@tjym;wGif jzpfyGm;cJhaomfvnf; ppftpdk;&. zdESdyfrE_ Sifh t=urf;zufrr_ sm;a=umifh tvkyo f rm;wdk@. epfemr_rsm;/ twd'u k Qrsm;/ '%f&mtemw& jzpfrr_ sm;ESifh aoqHk;r_rsm;udk wurBmvHk;odk@ jynfhjynfhpkpH kH az:xkwftoday;jcif; r&SdEkdifcJh? toufpaw; cHcJh&olrsm;ESifh 4if;wdk@ rdom;pkrsm;twGuf av#mfa=u; wpfpkw H pf&m ay;jcif;rsK;d vJ r&SdcJh? rdrdwdk@. epfemcHpm;&r_rsm;udkyif &ifzGifhtoday;Ekdifaom tcGifhtvrf;rsm; r&Sdonfh tajctae jzpfcJh&onf? vl@tzG@J tpnf;wGif ‘w&m;r#wr_’ vHk;0O\Hk uif;rJhaecJhonf[k qdkEkdifayonf?

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1974 zGJ hpnf;ykHtajccH Oya' yk'fr (157) ESifh (158) wdk@wGif txufaz:jyyg rlvtcGifhta&;rsm; taejzifh jyXmef; xm;aomfvnf; ‚qdk&S,fvpftusdK;pD;yGm;udk rqef husifv#if‛ [lonfh c|if;csufqidk f&m jyXmef;csufjzifh uef@owf xm;onf? tvkyo f rm; qENjyyGrJ sm;udk t=urf;zufjzdKcGif;jyD;aemuf rqvtpdk;&u jynfolvlxkudk &Sif;vif;csuf ay;&mwGif t"dutm;jzifh tvkyo f rm; qENjyyGJrsm;onf qdk&S,fvpfpepf. tusdK;pD;yGm;udk qef@usifa=umif;[lI jzpfonf? ,ck 2008 zGJ hpnf;ykHtajccHOya' yk'fr (354) wGif jyXmef; xm;onfh c|if;csufqidk f&m jyXmef;csufrmS 1974 zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccH Oya' rSmxuf ydrk I dk abmifudk csJ hum uef howfjyXmef; xm;onf? 4if;rSm ‚EdkifiHawmf vkHjcKHa&; tusdK;iSm jyXmef;xm;onfh Oya'rsm;ESifh rqef husifv#if‛ [lIjzpfonf? jrefrmEdkifiHwGif vuf&St d csdeYf EdkifiHawmf vkHjcHKa&;tusdK;iSm jyXmef;xm;onfh Oya'rsm; tajrmuftrsm; wnfqJjzpfonf? vGwfvyfpmG ajym qdkcGifh/ pnf;&kH;cGifh/ pka0;cGifh/ pDwef; vSnfhvnfcGifh tp&daS om tajccH vGwfvyfcGifh wdk hudk usifhokH; vdkv#if tqdkyg Oya'rsm;ESifh rqef@usif ap& [lonfrmS tajccHvGwfvyfcGifhwdk hudk usifhokH;cGifhr&d[ S lI oG,f0ku d fjyXmef;xm;onfh oabm aqmifonf? odk@jzpfI 1974ckEpS f zGJ hpnf;ykHtajccHOya' atmufwGif tvkyo f rm; qENjyyGJrsm; t=urf;zuf zdEdSyfcHvdkuf &onfh tawG t=uKHudk oifcef;pm,lum tqdkyguJhokd@aom zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'rsm;udk csKyfjidr;f apjyD; vlxk. tajccH vGwfvyfcGifhrsm; tjynfht0 &,lusifhokH;cGifh&dSaprnfh jyXmef;csufrsm; yg0ifaom zGJ hpnf;ykHtajccHOya'w&yf ay:ayguf vma&;twGufom v_y&f Sm;wkdufyJ0G ifoGm; oifhonf? vlxkt"du vl@tzG@J tpnf; [laom t,ltqY tpdk;&. tcef;u¾onf tvGet f rif; ta&;ygvSonf? odk@&mwGif Zlvdkifv(7)&ufae@wGif ausmif;olausmif;om; rsm;pGmwdk@ udk owfjzwfch&J ko H mrubJ 1974ckEpS f tvkyf orm; ta&;tcif;wGifvnf; tvm;wljyKrlcJhonf? odk hjzpfI tpdk;&taejzifh vlxkudk umuG,f&rnfh 4if;. wm0ef0wW&m;rsm;udk csK;d azgufcJhonfrmS odomxif&mS ;ayonf? TonfrmS tm%m&Sif tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfudk usifhoHk;jcif;a=umifhyif? udkwifarmifOD;onf tm%m&Sif tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfudk tjrpfjzKwf&eftwGuf rdrd.pdwfukd ,wdykid f;jzwfum vkyaf qmifcJhonf? Tv_y&f Sm;r_ twGuf ol@xHwGif ‘aiGa=u;’/ ‘vufeuf’ESifh ‘ppfwyf tiftm;’ wpHkw&m r&SdcJh? odk@aomf ‘cdkifrmaom oENdÏmef’/ ‘rav#mhaom ZGJvHk@v’ESifh ‘,Hk=unfcsuf’wdk@ &Scd Jhonf? ‘trSefw&m;’rSm ol@&ifxJwGif ude;f atmif;aecJhonf? ppftpdk;onf 4if;.tm%mwnf+rJa&;twGuf vlxk. pGrf;tm; udk wpfOD;csif; taeESifhjzpfap/ tpktzGJ@taeESifhjzpfap/ avsmhenf;atmif enf;trsK;d rsKd;jzifh vkyu f dkifaqmif&Gufaejcif; jzpfa=umif;ESifh Ttaetxm;udk ajymif;jyefvSe&f rnfjzpfa=umif;wdk@udk udkwifarmifOD;u &dyfpm;rdcJhonf? 1974ckEpS f tvkyo f rm; ta&;tcif;udk awG@}uHK jzwfoef;cJh&+yD;onfh aemufyikd f;wGif udkwifarmifOD;. ,Hk=unfcsufrsm; ydrk cdk dkifrm vm+yD; ‘ausmif;om; or*~’ay:aygufvmatmif }udK;yrf;jcif;enf;vrf;jzifh ausmif;om;rsm;. pkaygif;tiftm;udk jr‡ifhwifay; &ef twGufvnf;aumif;/ ‘tvkyo f rm;rsm;’ ESifh yl;aygif;um vlxktoif;tzG@J rsm; tm;aumif;vmap&ef twGuf vnf;aumif;/ ppftm%m&Sifpepfudk jzKwfcsvdkaom ‘ppft&m&S’d rsm;eSifh qufoG,fum wyfrawmftm;jyKjyif ajymif;vJekid fap7ef }udK;yrf;jcif;jzifhvnf;aumif;/ ol. v_y&f Sm;r_t0ef;t0dkif;udk csJ@xGifjcif;jzifh vlxkprG f;tm;jrifhrm; vmapa&;twGuf }udK;yrf;aqmif&u G fcJhonf?

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tm%m&Sif tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfudk tjrpfjzKwf&ef }udK;yrf;jcif; tvkyo f rm; ta&;tcif;YwufºuGpmG yg0ifcJhaom qvdkif;wifarmifOD;. v_y&f Sm;r_rsm;udk ppftpdk;&u owdjyK rd jcif; r&SdcJhojzifh ta&;tcif;aemufykid f;umvwGif ol wuUodkvfausmif; qufwufcJhonf? 1974ckESpf pufwifbm vwGif wuUodkvfwwd,ESpfY pwifynmoif=um;&m ukdwifarmifOD;touf(23)ESpf &SdcJh+yDjzpfonf? tvkyo f rm; ta&; tcif; Y awG@}uHKcHpm;cJh&onfh tjzpfq;dk rsm;tay: tajccHum udkwifarmifOD;onf twdwfudk arhazsmuf+yD; wuUodkvfausmif; +yD;atmif qufwufI rdrdb0 atmifjrifa&;twGufudkom qufvkycf Jhrnfqv dk #if ol@udk tjypfqI dk &rnf r[kwf? oltvdk&Sdygu rdrdtwGuf wdk;wuf&m wkd;wufa=umif;udkom a&G;cs,fI qufvuf av#muf vSr;f oGm; EkdifcJhayonf? odk@aomf olu xdkuJhodk@ vkyaf qmifjcif;rjyKcJh? udkwifarmifOD;onf tajctae t&yf&yfukd odjrifcJGjcm; oHk;oyfEdik fprG f; &Scd Jhonf? usK;d a=umif; qifjcifEdkifprG f; &Scd Jhonf? ta=umif;t&mwpfckudk oHk;oyf&mwGif 4if;. woD;wjcm; jzpf&yfrsm;udkomru jzpf&yfwpfckvHk;udkyg +cHKiHkI aomfvnf;aumif;/ 4if;wkd@ ESpfckt=um;&Sd tjyeftvSef qufE, G faer_rsm;udkaomf vnf;aumif; odjrifEdik fcJhonf? Oyrm tm;jzifh opfyifwpfyifudk oHk;oyfrnf qkdv#if olu tqdkyg opfyifudkom rubJ opfawmwpfckudk vnf;aumif;/ opfawmwckvHk;eSifh opfyifwyifjcif;pD. qufE, $ fr_ oabmw&m;udk vnf;aumif; odjrifEdik fcJhonf? tm%m&Sif tkyfcsKyfr_ vufatmufY usa&muf aeaom vl@tzG@J tpnf;onf vlom;wkd@. vky&f yfa=umifh xdcdkufzsufqD;jcif; cHae 118


&onfh opfawmwpfckEiS fh tajctae wla=umif;udk olu &dyfpm;rdcJhonf? xdkodk@aom tajctaersKd;wGif opfyif wpfyifcsif;pDonf jynfh0pGm }uD;xGm;&SifoefEkdifrnf r[kwf? vlvkyaf om qdk;usK;d rsm;a=umifh opfyifrsm; xdcdkufysufp;D jcif; r&Sdoifo h uJhodk@yif tm%m&Siftyk fa&;r_pepfudkvnf; tjrpfjzKwf&ef vkdtyfa=umif;udk olu od&deS m;vnfcJhonf? olonf 1962ckEpS f Zlvdkif (7)&ufae@ vlowfyGEJ iS fh tvkyform; ta&;tcif;wGif awG@}uHKcJh&aom tjzpfq;dk rsm;udk vG,fvG,f arhwwfonfh vlpm;rsKd; r[kwfcJh? jynfolrsm;taeeSifh xdkjzpf&yfrsm;udk arharhaysmufaysmuf xm;vdkufjcif; onf vl@ usifh0wfudk csK;d azguf&ma&mufrnf[k olu ,lqcJhonf? vl@tzG@J tpnf;ta=umif; od&dv S dkaom pdwfqEN tygt0if rdrd. udk,fusifhw&m; t,ltqrsm;udk tajccHonfh pOf;pm;qifjcifr_rsm;a=umifhvnf; udkwifarmifOD;u tm%m&Sif pepfudk wdkufzsuf&eftwGuf tcGifhtvrf;rsm; qufvuf &SmazGcJhjcif;jzpfonf?

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OD;oef@uJhokd@aom yk*dK~ vfrsKd ;tm; tjcm;aom txifu& EkdifiHawmf tr_xrf;rsm;tm; jyKvkyaf y;ouJhodk@yif *lAdrmef/ Ekid fiHawmf tokb tcrf;tem; ponfwdk@jzifh OD;ae0if;u w&m;0if tokbcsay;rnf[k jynfolvlxku xifrw S fcJhonf? odk@aomf OD;ae0if;ESifh OD;oef@wkd@ t=um;&Sd yk*~dKvfa&;&m ra=uvnfrr_ sm;a=umifh OD;oef@twGuf Ekid fiHawmf psmyetcrf;tem; vkyrf ay;cJhacs? OD;oef@. tacgif; &efukeaf vqdyo f dk@ a&muf&dcS sdew f Gif vufaxmuf ynm a&;0ef}uD; OD;atmifxGe;f wpfa,mufrS vJGI *k%jf yKtcrf;tem;rsm;jzifh }udKqdkjcif; (odk@r[kwf) wdkif;jynf acgif;aqmifrsm;taejzifh vma&muf }udKqdkjcif; r&SdcJh? vufaxmuf ynma&;0ef}uD;vnf; csufcsif; tvkyfxkwf cHcJh& onf? OD;ae0if;. t}uHtpnfrmS OD;oef@ tacgif;udk usdKuUqH jrif;+ydKifuGif;Y acwWc% cif;usif;jyo+yD;onfh aemuf wGif 4if;tm; omref t&yfom; jynfolrsm;udk jr‡KyfESH&m }uHawmokomefY oGm;a&muf ajrjr‡Kyfo+*õKvf&ef jzpfonf? OD;ae0if;u pdwfxm;,kwfaoma=umifh OD;oef@udk xdkufavsmufonfh psmyetcrf;tem; rusif;yay;jcif; jzpfonf[k vltrsm;wkd@ cHpm;cJh=u&onf? TwGif udkwifarmifOD;ESifh oli,fcsif;rsm;u OD;oef@ tajctaeESifh ywfouf I aqG;aEG; wkdifyifum wpfpkHwpfck vky&f ef qHk;jzwfcJh=uonf? xdkuJhodk@ aqG;aEG;wkdifyifonfh txJwGif jrefrmEkdifiH ausmif;om;rsm; 'Drdku&ufwpfwyfOD;. OuUÏa[mif; udkxGe;f atmifausmv f nf; yg0ifcJhonf? Todk@jzifh 4if;wkd@onf wuUodkvftaqmifrsm; tygt0if &efuke+f rdK@wGif;&Sd&Ekdifor#aomausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;ESifh vli,frsm;udk pnf;&Hk;cJh =uonf? Ekid fiHawmf. txifu& yk*~dKvfwpfOD;udk xdkuJhodk@ rxDrJhjrifjyKum rw&m; jyKrlqufqHonfhtay: ausmif;ol ausmif;om;rsm; a'gojzpfcJh=uonf? Todk@jzifh wuUodkvf ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;onf bpfpum; iSm;um usdKuUqHuGif;odk@ oGm;a&muf&ef qHk;jzwfcJhonf? odk@aomfvnf; 4if;wdk@udk bwfpum; iSm;cGifhrjyKapa&;twGuf tpdk;&u bwfpum;ukr% ` Drsm;udk today;wm;jrpfxm;cJhjcif;a=umifh 4if;wdk@ xyfrH a'goxGufcJh&jyefonf? xdk@a=umifh OD;oef@udk *g&0jyKvdkaom ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;tm;vHk;onf wuUodkvfrS usKu d UqHuGif;odk@ ajcvsif csDwufcJh=u &onf? OD;oef@ tokbcsaomae@rmS 1974ckEpS f 'DZifbmv (5)&ufae@jzpfonf? xdkae@ eHeufykid f;wGif udkwifarmifOD; tdrfuxGufrnf tjyKwGif xHk;pHtwkdif; taru pd;k &draf om rsufESmxm;jzifh ‚tJ'Dae&mudk om; roGm;oifhbl; xif w,f? vlawGu tawmf a'goxGufae=uw,fqw dk m tar =um;xm;w,fav? om;twGuf wpfckck jzpfoGm; Ekid fw,faem?‛[k ajymavonf? udkwifarmifOD;uvnf; ol@tarudk ‚pdwfrylygeJ@ tar? 'gayr,fh wuUodkvf ausmif;om; wpfa,muftaeeJ@awmh usaemf 'Dtokbudk oGm;&vdrhrf ,f?‛[lI ESpfodrhpf um; qkdcJh&onf? xdkae@wGif

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143


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puf&Hk taemufbufwGif wnf&daS om tif;pdev f rf;ESifh tvkyo f rm; tdrf,mrsm;. ta&S@bufwGif wnf&daS om ordkif;aumvdyv f rf; wdk@t=um;&Sd tawmfyif {&d,mus,f0ef;aom ajrae&mwGif ordik f; csnfr#ifEiS fh txnfpuf&HkESifh tvkyo f rm; tdr, f mrsm; wnf&daS eonf? tvkyo f rm;tdrf,mrsm;u puf&. Hk ta&S@bufjcrf;wGif wnf&do S nf? ordkif;aumvdyv f rf; wav#mufwGif tkwfwHwdkif;}uD;u tvkyo f rm; tdrf,mrsm;udk ydik f;jcm;xm;jcif; jzpfonf? tif;pdev f rf;teD;wGif &maygif;rsm;pGmaom tvkyo f rm;rsm; tvkyf+yD;cgp tcsdejf zpf+yD; puf&ku H ae tvkyform;rsm; jyefxGufvm=u+yDjzpfonf? 4if;wkd@ tvkyrf qif;rDuwnf;uyif tjyifbufY jzpfysufaeaom &kwf&w k foJoJ tajctaersm; tm;vHk;udk =um;odcJh&+yD;jzpfum tjyifbufwGif qlylrr_ sm; qufjzpfaeOD;rnfudk 4if;wkd@u twwf odaecJh=uonf? vGecf JhonfhEpS f 'Duae@'D&ufwGif puf&Hk tjyifbuf tif;pdev f rf;ray:Y tvkyo f rm;rsm; owfjzwf zrf;qD;jcif; cHcJh&onfh tajctaersm;udk ,ae@wkdif jrifa,mifaeao;onf? tjyifbufY ,ckuJhodk@aom qENjyyJGrsm; xyfrH jzpfysufaeonfudk =um;odvdkuf&aomtcg 4if;wdk@ th=H o rqHk;Ekid fcJh? rdrdwdk@. udk,fpt D vkyfrsm;udk jrefjref+yD; atmifvkyu f m tjyifxGufoGm; =unfhvdkpdwfudk reJxde;f xm;cJh&onf? puf&kx H JwGif tvkyfvkyf&if;u wpfa,mufudk wpfa,muf=unfhum &$ifvef;wufยบuGaecJh=uonf? =uufoD;arG;nif;rsm; xvmonf? txl;ojzifh ,ckvdk ae@&ufrsKd; wGif TuJhokd@ aemufwpf}udrf xyfjzpfvmrnfudk 4if;wdk@ ar#mfvifhrxm;cJh? tjyifbufu tajctaersm;udk 4if;wkd@ awG@}uHKcJhbl;=uovdkyif? 4if;wdk@tvkyq f if;I puf&HkwHcg;aygufrsm;rS toD;oD; xGufvmcsdew f Gif tjyifbufY axmifcsDaom qENjyvltyk f}uD;udk awG@vdkuf&onf? tvkyo f rm;rsm;u xdkqENjyolrsm;qDodk@ vma&mufyl;aygif;=ujcif;a=umifh vltyk f}uD; uvnf; auseyftm;&um vufckyf wajzmif;ajzmif;wD;=uavonf? TwGif udkwifarmifOD;ESifh twl tjcm;aom ausmif;om;acgif;aqmiftcsdK@EiS fh tvkyform;wdk@u rdef@cGe;f rsm; ajym=um;=uonf? qlqn l HnH ysm;yef;cyf aeaom vltky}f uD;twGif;wGifvnf; vlOD;a& axmifaomif;ru wdk;yGm;vmonf? ordkif;aumvdyf tm;upm;&HkY udkwifarmifOD; rdef@cGe;f pajym+yD; aemuf (2)em&D (3)em&D =umaomtcg 4if;wdk@ESifh vma&mufyl;aygif;=uol vlOD;a& aomif;ausmfoGm;cJh+yD; 4if;wdk@tm;vHk;onf ppftpkd;&udkqef@usifaom qENjyyJGrsm; jyKvky=f uavonf? Tenf;jzifh 4if;wdk@u ppftpdk;&udk wdkuf&du k f qef@usifawmfvSeaf e=ujcif;jzpfonf? odk@aomf ppftpdk;&uvnf; TuJhokd@aom qENjyyJGrsm;udk vHk;0 vufoifhrcH? ae0if; tm%modr;f +yD; uwnf;u pwifum tpdk;& qef@usifa&; qENjyyJGrsm;udk ae@nrjywf qufwkduf ESrd feif;vmcJhayonf? 1962ckESpYf tm%m& +yD;+yD;csif;wGif ausmif;om;or*~taqmufttHu k dk AH;k cJGzsufqD;um &maygif;rsm;pGmaom ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;udk owfjzwfcJhonf? xdk@jyif vGecf Jhaom (1)ESpf ujzpfymG ;cJhaom tvkyo f rm; ta&;tcif;ESifh vGecf Jhaom (6)vu jzpfyGm;cJhaom OD;oef@ ta&;tcif; qENjyyJGrsm;udk &uf&ufpufpuf ESrd feif;cJhonf? xdk@a=umifh ,ckuJhodk@aom ae0if;udk 150


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pdwfr0ifpm;bl;‛ [kqu dk m olu tqdkyguJhodk@aom tyef;ajzr_rsm;udk jywfjywfom;om; jiif;qefcJhonf? Todk@jyKvkyf rnfhtpm; ‚usaemhfudk befaumuf+rdK@xJ um;ywfarmif;ay;yg? +rdK@&c_ if;awGudkbJ usaemf cHpm;csifw,f?‛[k olu ajymavonf? jrefrmEkdifiH tjyifbuf&dS urBmudk awG@}uHKpm;&rnfrmS Tonfu ol@twGuf yxrqHk;t}udrf jzpfaom a=umifh olu vrf;jytm; befaumuf+rdK@xJwGif um;ywfarmif;cdkif;cJhjcif; jzpfonf? befaumuf+rdK@ &_cif;rsm;udk ywf=unfh&if;u udkwifarmifOD;onf rdrd. trdajr jrefrmEkid fiHEiS fh xdkif;EkdifiHwdk@udk E_id f;,SOfro d nf? xkdif;EkdifiHonf jrefrmEkdifiHxuf tqaygif;rsm;pGm acwfrDzS H@G +zdK;wdk;wufae+yD jzpfa=umif; rsufjrif}uHKawG@ vkduf&onf? +rdK@xJwGif acwfqefaom vlaer_b0rsm;/ wkdufwm taqmufttHkrsm;/ 0wfaumif;pm;vSwkd@udk 0wfqifxm;aom +rdK@ol+rdK@om;rsm;ESifh tpm;taomuf aygºuG,f0yHkwdk@udk um;jywif;aygufuaeI twkdif;om; awG@jrifae&aom a=umifhyif? TEkdifiHonf &Sifoefxajrmufaeaom EkdifiHwpfckjzpfa=umif; tvdkvdk &dyfpm;rdvdkufonf? wcsdew f nf; rSmyif ol. trdajrudkvnf; jyefvnfjrifa,mifaerdonf? jrefrmEkdifiHonf o,HZmw aygºuG,f0aom Ekid fiHwpfck jzpfaomfvnf; wpfudk,faumif;qefaom ppftm%m&Sifrsm;u jynfoljynfom;rsm;udk qif;&JwGif; eufaeapcJhonf? acwfaemufususef aeapcJhonf? urBm}uD;udk trSDvdkufEdik f&eftwGuf jrefrmEkdifiHwGif ajymif;vJrr_ sm;pGm jyKvky&f ef vdktyfonfudk udkwifarmifOD;u em;vnfoabmaygufcJhonf? Tc&D;pOfonf ol@twGuf rsufpdyGifh em;yGifh jzpfapcJh aom tawG@t}uHKwpfckyifjzpfonf? befaumuf+rdK@ c&D;pOfwGif udkwifarmifOD;. awmif;qdkcsuf aemufwpfckudkvnf; vrf;jyjzpfolu rSwfrad e ao;onf? xkdif; tpm;tpmonf jrefrm tpm;tpmESifh odyrf uGmvSaomfvnf; udkwifarmifOD;url jrefrm tdrfwGif;r_ vkyf tpm;taomufrsm;udk wrf;wrdojzifh jrefrm xrif;[if;a&mif;aom qdkifwpfqdkifodk@ ac:oGm;ay;&ef vrf;jyjzpfol xH awmif;qdkavonf? befaumuf+rdK@v,f}uD;wGif jrefrmxrif;qkdif rnfuJhodk@ oGm;&Sm&rnfudk awG;&if;u vrf;jy jzpfoltwGuf tusyf&ku d fcJh&onf? odk@aomf jrefrm tpm;tpma&mif;aom qkdifwpfqdkifudk &SmawG@ Ekid fcJhonf? udkwifarmifOD;uvnf; aus;Zl;wifpGmjzifh jrefrmxrif;[if;rsm;udk +rde&f nf&u S f&nf pm;aomufavawmhonf? wpfae@wGif rdwfaqGrsm;u udkwifarmifOD;tm; &kyf&iS foGm;=unfh&ef r&ru av;ig;q,f}udrf wkdufwGe;f aom tcg udkwifarmifOD;u pdwfrygwygESifh oabmwloGm;onf? odk@aomf &kyf&iS fZmwfum; +yD;oGm;aomtcg &ky&f Sif r=unfhbJ &kyf&iS f&HktjyifbufY pmtkyx f dkifzwfI apmifhaeaom udkwifarmifOD;udk rdwfaqGrsm;u awG@vdkuf&onf? 4if;wdk@u ol@udk=unfhI Za0Z0gjzpfoGm;um ‚cifAsm;u bmjzpfvkd@ &kyf&iS fr+yD;ao;cif xGufvm&wmvJ? &kyf&iS f Zmwfum;udk r}udKufbl;vm;?‛[k ar;avonf? udkwifarmifOD;u ‚cifAsm;wdk@u t&rf;uma&m wkdufwGe;f aevkd@om usaemf vkdufch&J wmygAsm? wu,fqdk usaemfu &kyf&iS f=unfhavh r&SdoavmufbJ? usaemf &kyf&iS fr=unfhwmawmif tawmfav; =umoGm;cJh+yD? usaemfh pdwfawG yd+k yD; cdkifrmvmapzkd@twGuf pdwfprG f;tm;udk ysKd;axmifay;aewmAs?‛[k at;at;aq;aq;yif jyefajzcJhonf? udkwifarmifOD;onf ausmif;om;v_y&f Sm;r_rsm;Y yg0ifywfoufjcif; rjyKrD i,f&, G fpOf uwnf;uyif olonf &kyf&iS f r=unfhvdkawmha=umif;ESifh ywfoufI tarhtm; ajymjycJhbl;onf? tb,fa=umifh &kyf&iS f r=unfhcsif &oenf; [kar;aom tcg olu ‚&kyf&iS fawGu usaemhfpdwfudk aysmhaysmif;apw,f‛[k jyefajzcJhonf? &ky&f Sifrsm;u vlwpfOD;. pdwfESvHk;udk ygvmatmif qJGaqmifEkdifprG f; &Sdonfhtcsufudk olu rESpfoufjcif; jzpfonf? &ky&f Sifrsm;onf y&dwfowf. 167


pdwftm&Hkudk v$r;f rdk;Ekdifa=umif; olu od&d&S yd fpm;rdcJhonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh tcspfZmwfvrf; &kyf&Sifum;wpfum;udk =unfhrnfqv dk #if xdk&ky&f Sif. Zmwfvrf;ZmwfuGufrsm;onf vl@pdwfcHpm;csufrsm;udk +idK@,lzrf;pm;vkduf+yD; xdkol. pdwftm&HkwGif aemuf oHk;av;&uf =umonfhwkdif xdkcHpm;csufrsm;u v$r;f rdk;aeayonf? &kyf&iS f 'g&kdufwm. &nf&, G fcsufrmS y&dwfowf. pdwftm&Hkudk apvdk&mapEkdif&ef jzpfonf? y&dwfowfudk &,farmaponf? 0rf;enf;ylaqG; idk,kdr_rsm; jzpfaponf? a=umuf&H@G pdwfrsm;udk jzpfonf? xkd@jyif a'opdwf (okd@r[kwf) pufqkyf&H@G &Smpdwf rsm;udkyg jzpfapEkdifprG f;&Sdonf? udkwifarmifOD;. xl;jcm;aom yifudk,fp&kduf wwd,wpfrsKd;rSm ol. pdwfprG f;tifudk rnfuJhokd@ xde;f odrf;&rnf/ jr‡ifhwifay;&rnf qdkonfrsm;udk tvdkvdk em;vnfod&daS ecJhjcif;yif jzpfonf? aemufyidk f;&ufrsm;wGif udkwifarmifOD;onf ywfw&m yifv,furf;ajc+rdK@wGif aexkdifcJh&onf? y'y tzGJ@ acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh aqG;aEG;yJGrsm; jyKvky&f eftwGufom xdkae&modk@ oGm;a&mufcJhjcif; jzpfonf? jymvGifaom rd;k aumif;uifatmuf&dS ywfw&m yifv,furf;ajc. ovif;ausmufuJhodk@ =unfvifaeaom yifv,fa&xJwGif a&ul;&jcif;udk udkwifarmifOD;u tESpo f ufq;Hk jzpfonf? ywfw&m+rdK@wGif rsm;aomtm;jzifh udkwifarmifOD;onf OD;oGif tygt0if tjcm;aom yD'yD D tzGJ@acgif;qmifrsm;ESifh aqG;aEG;yJrG sm; jyKvkyu f m tcsderf sm; ukefq;Hk aeapcJhonf? wpfae@ OD;oGifEiS fh udkwifarmifOD;wdk@ yifv,furf;pyfY twlwuG a&ul;ae=ucsdew f Gif OD;oGifu udkwifarmifOD; tm; ‚rif;u a&ul;tawmf oefwmbJ? +yD;awmh rif;&J@ cE<mudk,fu tifrwef }uH@cdkifoefpGr;f w,f? tm;upm; awG bmawG vdkufpm;ovm;?‛[kar;avonf? TwGif udkwifarmifOD;u cyf+yHK;+yHK; jyefajzonfrmS ‚usaemfu 0dwfrw,f? a&ul;w,f? +yD;awmh udk,fcHynm udkvJ vdkufpm;w,f? txl;ojzihf um&maw; upm;wmAs?‛[lI jzpfonf? OD;oGifuvnf; &,f&,farmarmjzifh ‚[kwfvm;? 'gqdk&if cifAsm; wwfxm;wJh um&maw; tuGufawG eJeJ vkyjf yygvm;‛[k ajymonf? TwGif udkwifarmifOD;u yifv,furf;ajc oJaomifjyifwGif um&maw; tuGufwcsdK@udk upm;jyonf? OD;oGifuvnf; udkwifarmifOD;tm; wbufvl. vufxJu"g;udk rnfokd@rnfykH vGwfusoGm;atmif vkyEf ikd fonf qkdonfEiS fh ywfoufI jyoonf? udkwifarmifOD;. xl;jcm;aom yifudk,fp&kduf pwkwˆwpfrsKd;rSm olonf i,f&, G fpOfuwnf;upI ,cktcsdex f d udk,fcyH nm&yfrsm;udk avhvmvdkufpm;cJh+yD; rdrd. &JpGr;f owWdudk wqifhjcif; ysKd;axmifjr‡ifhwifoGm;jcif;yif jzpfonf?

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ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh tvkyform;rsm;tjyif ppfrx _ rf;rsm;udkyg vufwJGyg0ifvmatmif pnf;&Hk;odr;f oGi;f EkdifchrJ nf qdkygu T ta&;tcif;onf ,cifu jzpfcJh+yD;aom ta&;tcif;rsm;xuf rsm;pGmomvGef xda&mufr_ &Srd nfjzpfa=umif;udk olu &dypf m;rdcJhonf? qENjyyJGrsm;udk tm%m&Sifrsm;u &ufpufpmG ypfcwfEdrS ef if;cJhonfhjzpf&yfrsm;tm; udkwifarmifOD;u udk,fawG@ }uHK cJh&aomfvnf; olonf tm%m&Sifpepfudk qef@usifolEiS fh axmufcHolrsm;tm; cJGjcm;odjrifcJhonf? wkdif;jynfwGif tiftm;taumif;qHk; taqmufttHkjzpfaom ppfwyfonf tm%m&Sif pepfudk tumtuG,fay;aeonfh trde@f wpfckwnf;udkom emcHae&ygu ppfreS faom 'Drku d a&pDpepfodk@ toGiful;ajymif;a&; qkdonfrmS rnfodk@r# jzpfvm Ekid frnf r[kwfa=umif;udk olu od&deS m;vnfcJhonf? xdk@a=umifh Tjzpf&yfrsKd;udk a&Smif&Sm;Ekdif&eftwGuf wyfrawmf twGif;rSmyif tm%m&Sif pepfudk qef@usifvdk=uonfh ppfr_xrf;rsm;udk qufoG,f&rnf? todtrSwfjyK &rnf? axmufcHtm;ay;&rnf [k olu cH,lcJhonf? udkwifarmifOD;. r[mAsL[mESifh qufpyfum ppfwyftwGif; jzpfysufaeonfrsm;udkvnf; aphaphpyfpyf avhvmtuJcwfoifhonf? 1974ckEpS fwGif ae0if;u Adv k fcsKyf}uD; wifOD;udk zrf;qD;cJhonf? xdktcsdeu f Adv k fcsKyf}uD; wifOD;onf ppfom;rsm;t=um;wGif tvGefausm=f um; a&yef;pm;aecJhol jzpfonf? trsK;d rsK;d aom ppftyk fpkwkd@udk pkpnf;nD!Gwfr_ &Sv d map&ef pGrf;aqmifEdik fjcif;/ qlylrr_ sm;udk ajz&Sif;EkdifprG f;&Sdjcif; ponfh t&nftaoG;rsm;ukd Adv k fcsKyf}uD; wifOD;u ykid fqidk fxm;onfESifhtnD 4if;onf rdrd. tm%mudk xdyg;vmEkdifonf[k tm%m&Sifae0if;u,lqum Adv k fcsKyf}uD;wifOD;udk zrf;qD;cJhjcif;jzpfonf? xdktcsdew f Gif Adv k fcsKyf}uD; wifOD; xHwGif emrusef;jzpfaeaom &ifaoG;wpfOD; &SdcJhonf? ppfwyfwGif wm0efxrf;aqmifaeaom ol. ZeD;onf q&m0efru uav;udk txl;ukwpfa,mufxH oGm;a&mufjyo&eftwGuf t*FvefEdik fiHodk@ ac:aqmifoGm;cJhonf? uav;. tajctaerSm oufomaumif;rGef vmcJhaomfvnf; ae0if;u Tonfudk tcGifhaumif;,lum AdkvfcsKyf}uD; wifOD;tm; 4if;wkd@rdom;pkonf EkdifiHawmf b他maiGrsm;udk t*FvefEkdifiH oGm;a&mufI tvJGoHk;pm; vkyaf ecJhonf[k pGyfpGJcJhonf? Todk@jzifh ae0if;onf AdkvfcsKyf}uD;wifOD;. &mxl;ESifh tm%mrsm;udk jzKwfcsum ppfwyfxJu xkwfy,fcJhonf? Adv k f}uD;tke;f ausmfjrifh onf Adv k fcsKyf}uD;wifOD; &mxl;u z,f&mS ;jcif; cHcJh&onfhtay: tvGef pdwfemcJo h nf? xkd@a=umifh 4if;onf tkypf kwpfpkudk OD;aqmifzJ@G pnf;um ae0if;udk vky}f uHowfjzwf&eftwGuf v#Kd@0Suf}uHpnfaecJhonf? Adv k fcsKyf}uD;wifOD;udkvnf; ol. t}uHtpnfrsm;ESifh ywfoufI today;cJhonf? Adv k fcsKyf}uD; wifOD;u 4if;udk aocsm pGm pOf;pm;csifhcsdef cJhaomfvnf; wpHw k &m ta=umif;jyefjcif; r&SdcJh? wcsdew f nf;rSmyif ae0if;udk vky}f uHowfjzwf+yD; Adv k fcsKyf}uD;wifOD; udk tm%m jyefvnfay;tyfrnfh Adv k f}uD; tkef;ausmfjrifh. t}uHtpnfrsm;rSm ppfwyftwGif;&Sd Adv k f}uD;wpfOD;a=umifhae0if;xH ayguf=um;oGm;cJh&onf? TwGif ae0if;u Adv k fcsKyf}uD; wifOD;udk tjypfzk@d um ol.tdrf odk@ 0ifa&mufp;D eif; &SmazG&mwGif vky}f uHr_ t}uHtpnfrsm; yg&Sdonfh pm&Gufpmwrf;rsm;udk awG@&SdcJhonf? Adv k fcsKyf}uD; wifOD;u TZmwfuGufwGif rdrd yg0ifywfoufr_ r&Sda=umif; jiif;qdk&m/ vky}f uHr_ t}uHtpnf rsm;udk od&dx S m;v#ufEiS fh a&iHkE_wfyw d faejcif;onf xdkt}uHtpnfwGif yg0ifywfoufaejcif;jzpfonf[k ae0if;u jyefvnfacsycJhonf? xdk h aemuf Adv k fcsKyf}uD; wifOD;ukd zrf;qD; axmifcscJhonf? xdk@jyif Adv k f}uD; tkef;ausmfjrifhudkvnf; csufcsif;zrf;qD;+yD; aemufyidk f;wGif }udK;ay;uGyfrsufcJhonf?

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OD;oef@ ta&;tcif;wGif rnfonfhausmif;olausmif;om;rsm; yg0ifywfoufcJh=uonfudk ppfwyftwGif;&Sd &mxl;}uD; ppfrx _ rf; rsm;pGmwdk@u od&dcS Jh=uonf? jrefrmEkdifiH&dS jynfoljynfom;rsm; vGwfajrmufa&;ESifh 'Drdkua&pD pepf jyeftoufoGif;a&;wdk@twGuf ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;u &k;d om;ajzmifhrSeaf om ppfrx _ rf;rsm;. axmufcHr&_ ,l&ef }udK;yrf;aecJhjcif;rsm;ESifh ywfoufIvnf; 4if;wkd@u od&dcS Jh=uonf? tcsdK@aom &mxl;}uD; ppfrx _ rf;rsm;onf udkwifarmifOD;udk qufoG,fum udkwifarmifOD; tygt0if tjcm;aom ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifhtwl v#dK@0u S faqG;aEG;yJG jyKvky&f eftwGuf 4if;wdk@. udk,fpm;vS,fwpfOD;udk apv$wfvdkufonf? ocifudk,fawmifrdi_ f; &mjynfhyJG tcrf;tem; ae@&ufwGif csDwufqENjyjcif;onf ta&;tcif; aemufwpf}udrf jzpfvmEkdif&eftwGuf toifhawmfq;Hk tcGifhtvrf;jzpfonf[k xkdudk,fpm;vS,fu ausmif;om;rsm;udk t}uHjyKcJhonf? Adv k fcsKyf}uD;wifOD;tay:opPm&Sdaom ppfr_xrf;rsm;pGmwdk@uae0if;. vky&f yftay: tvGet f rif; pdwfem cJh=ujcif; jzpfonf? ppfwyfudk,fpm;vS,fu tqdkjyKaom tpDtpOfrmS qENjyyGJjzpfvmaomtcg ausmif;om;rsm;u OD;aqmifjyD; Adv k fcsKyf}uD;wifOD;tm; jyefvnfcef hxm;a&;twGuf a}uG;a}umfawmif;qdk}u&efjzpfonf? xdktcg tqifhjrifh ppft&m&Sd }uD;rsm;onf pkaygif;jyD; wyfrawmftwGif;Y ppfa&;t& ta&;,laqmif&u G foGm;rnf? Tvky&f yfonf ppfwyfudk xufjcrf;uJGoGm;aprnf jzpf+yD; 4if;wkd@u Adv k f}uD;tke;f ausmfjrifh. tultnDjzifh ppfwyf twGif;udk xde;f csKyfxm;um ae0if;. bufawmfom;rsm;udk ajcr_ef;I Adv k fcsKyf}uD;wifOD;ukd &mxl; jyefvnf cef@tyfxm;rnfjzpfa=umif; udk,fpm; vS,fu ajymonf? tu,fIom xdI k xdkr# wdkawmif;aom tcsdeu f mv twGif;wGif Adkvf}uD; tkef;ausmfjrifh. t}uH tpnfrsm; atmifjrifrnfqdkcJhygu udkwifarmifOD;. toufudk u,fwifEdik fcJhrnf jzpf+yD; jrefrmEkdifiH ordik f;wpfckvHk;yg ajymif;vJoGm;cJhayrnf? odk@aomfvnf; xdkuJhokd@ jzpfrvmcJh? TonfrSm udkwifarmifOD;. r[mAsL[m rSm;,Gif;r_a=umifh r[kwfbJ tm%m&Sif ppftpd;k &. ppfaxmufvSr;f a&;u vufOD;r_ &&So d Gm;cJhjcif;a=umifhom jzpfonf? Adv k fcsKyfae0if;OD;aqmifaom ppftm%m&Sifrsm;onf 1974ckEpS f zGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'udk wnDw!GwfxJ vufcHtwnfjyKum ppf0wfpkHrsm; c|wf+yD; t&yfom;0wfpkrH sm;jzifh udk,fa,mifazsmufaecJh=uaomfvnf; jrefrmEkdifiH wGif tm%m&Sif tkycf sKyfa&;pepf qufvuf wnf+rJaeao;a=umif;ESifh tm%m&Sifrsm;udk zHk;uG,faxmufr ay;aeaom Ekid fiHa&;pepfatmufwGif ppfreS faom 'Drdkua&pDudk rnfonfhtcgr# &&SdEkdifrnf r[kwfa=umif;wkd@udk udkwifarmifOD;u em;vnfoabmaygufcJhonf? udkwifarmifOD;. &yfwnfcsufrsm;onf &Sif;vif;jywfom;vSonf? tm%m&Siftyk fcsKyfr_ pepfudk wenf;wzHk oufq;dk &Snfap&ef ulnDyhyH k;d ay;aeolrsm;jzpfygu ppfwyftwGif;&Sd t&m&Srd sm; tygt0if rnfonfh vly*k K~d vfeSifhr# udkwifarmifOD;u n‡dE_dif;aqG;aEG;cJhjcif; r&Sdacs? udkwifarmifOD;onf tm%m&Sifpepfudk +zdKcs&efoabmxm;&Sdolrsm; tm;vHk;ESifh yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufvdkpdwf &Scd Jhonf? xkd@a=umifhvnf;olu tqdkygoabmxm;&Sdaom ppfwyf. udk,fpm;vS,frsm;ESifhyif qufqHaqmif&u G fcJhjcif; jzpfonf? EkdifiHwpfEkdifiYH ppfrSefaom 'Drku d a&pD pepf xGe;f um;aernfqv dk #if ppfwyfonf 4if; vkyo f ifhvkyfxdkufaom wm0efudk xrf;aqmifae&onf? qdkvdkonfrSm ppfwyfonf jynfy&efrsm;udk umuG,f&rnf? odk@rSomv#if ppfwyftwGif;&Sd pnf;vHk;nD!Gwfr_ ckdif+rJvmayrnf? odk@aomfvnf; wkdif;jynf wnf+idrrf _ &&Sda&;twGuf [laomta=umif;jycsufjzifh rnfonfh tajctae wGif rqdk ppfwyftwGif; pnf;vHk;nD!Gwfr_ &Sad eoifo h nf [laom t,ltqudk udkwifarmifOD;u vufrcHcJhacs? jynfolvlxk. tajccH vGwfvyfcGifhrsm; uif;rJhaeaom tajctaewGif 184


wkdif;jynftwGif;wGif tay:,HYom wnf+idrrf _ &Sad eayrnf? TuJhokd@aom tajctaewGif ppfwyftwGif; pnf;vHk;nD!Gwfr_ qkdonfrmS tm%m&Siftyk fcsKyfa&;pepf tjrpfwG,fap&eftwGufom jzpfvmayvdrfrh nf? ppfwyftwGif; pnf;vHk;nD!Gwfr_ &&SdEkdifa&;twGuf jynfolvlxk. vGwfvyfr_rsm; paw;&rnfh tjzpfrsKd;udk udkwifarmifOD;u vHk;0 oabmrwlcJh? udkwifarmifOD;. r[mAsL[mrSm ppfwyftwGif;&Sd tjrifrSef&aeolrsm;udk pnf;&Hk;odr;f oGi;f +yD; 4if;wdk@taejzifh ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;/ tvkyo f rm;rsm;ESifh vufwJGapEkid fa&;twGuf ulnDaqmif&u G fay;um tm%m&Sifpepfudk t+yD;ydik f jzKwfcsjcif;jzifh 'Drdkua&pDEkdifiHawmfwpfck wnfaxmif&ef jzpfonf? udkwifarmifOD;. r[mAsL[monf ,ae@tcsdex f dwkdif toHk;cs&ef oifhawmfaeqJjzpfonf? Tr[mAsL[mudk toHk;csjcif;jzifh wkdif;jynfudk vrf;rSeaf y:a&mufvmatmif jyKvkyEf ikd fayrnf? ordik f; wa=umhjyefvmonfh tjzpfrmS Adv k fcsKyfrLS ;}uD;oef;a&$ OD;aqmifaom ppftm%m&Sifrsm;onf 2008ckEpS f zJ@G pnf;yHktajccHOya'udk twif;t}uyf twnfjyKjyÏmef;vdkuf+yD; ppf0wfpkrH sm;udk c|wfum t&yfom;0wfpkrH sm;jzifh udk,fa,mifazsmuf ae=ujyefjcif; jzpfonf? tm%m&SifpepfrSmvnf; ydI k yif cdkifrmpGm qufvuf wnf+rJaeao;onf? tm%m&Sifpepfudk zH;k zdxm;aom (odk@r[kwf) tm%m&Sifpepfudk ydI k w&m;0ifjzpfvmatmif vkyx f m;aom ,ckvuf&Sd tajctaersKd;wGif ppfreS faom 'Drdkua&pD &&SdEkdif&ef vrf;rjrifacs? vuf&dS jrefrmEkdifiHwGif oef;a&$ OD;aqmifaom tm%m&Sifrsm;onf 1974ckESpf umvrsm;Y ae0if; az:aqmif cJhaom y&d,m,frsKd;udkyif jyefvnfusifhoHk;ae=uonf? udkwifarmifOD;u }udKjrifxm;cJh ouJhokd@yif ppfwyftwGif;Y tajctaersm; ydrk q dk dk;&Gm;vmaeonf? xdyo f D; ppft&m&S}d uD;rsm;ESifh atmufajc ppfom;rsm; t=um; pD;yGm;a&;qdkif&m &ykdifcGifh tcGifhtvrf;rsm;. uGm[r_rmS ydI k yif odomxif&mS ;vmonf? ppftyk fpkxdyo f D;rsm;u wdkif;jynf o,HZmw rsm;. tusKd;tjrwfrsm;udk trsm;qHk;&&Scd Hpm;ae=uonfhtcsdew f Gif atmufajcppfom;rsm;rSmrlum; omreftvkyf orm; rsm;uJhokd@yif c|wf+cHKusae=u&onf? 4if;. tusK;d &vm'fa=umifh ppfwyftwGif;wGif atmufajcppfom; rsm;. qENjyr_rsm; rsm;jym;vm+yD; tv,ftvwftqifh ppft&m&Sd rsm;pGmwk@d uvnf; ppfom;rsm;bufudk ygvm=uonf? udkwifarmifOD;. acwfumvukd jyef=unfhrnfqv dk #if ppfrx _ rf; t&m&Srd sm;u rausreyf jzpf&onfhta=umif; &if;rSm 4if;wdk@av;pm;&aom ppfwyf t}uD;tuJ Adv k fcsKyf}uD;wifOD; &mxl;u xkwfy,fcHcJh&jcif;a=umifh jzpfonf? xdk@a=umifh Ttajctaeukd yk*~dKvfa&;ESifh ywfoufonfh rauseyfcsuf[k ajymI&Ekdifayonf? udkwifarmifOD; uvnf; Tonfudk tcGifhaumif;,lum rausreyf jzpfae=uaom ppfrx _ rf; t&m&Srd sm;ESifh yl;aygif;I tm%m&Sif pepfudk jzKwfcs&ef }udK;yrf;tm;xkwfcJhayonf? ,ae@acwfumvwGif tv,ftvwftqifh ppf t&m&S}d uD;rsm; tygt0if atmufajc ppfom;rsm;. rauseyfcsufrsm;onf yk*~dKvfa&;a=umifh r[kwfbJ wdkif;jynf. rl0g'rsm;/ Ekid fiHa&;cH,lcsuf rsm;ESifh ydrk dk qufE, G faeayonf? 2011ckEpS f {+yDvwGif ajcjrefwyf&if; trSwf (709)ESifh (710)wdk@onf 2008ckEpS f zG@J pnf;yHktajccHOya'ESifh ppfr_rxrf;rae& Oya'wkd@udk jyifqif&ef / 4if;wkd@. vlaer_ tqifhtwef;rsm; tm;wdk;jr‡ifh ay;&ef/ jrefrmEdkifiH&dS tajccH usaom Ekid fiHa&; jy\emrsm;udk Ekid fiHa&;enf;vrf;jzifh ajz&Sif;&ef/ jynfolvlxk. ppfreS faom axmufcHru _ dk &,lum tpdk;& jyefvnf zG@J pnf;ay;&ef ponfwdk htwGuf vuf&dt S yk fpdk;aeaom tm%m&Sif tpdk;&xH awmif;qkdcJhonf? 2010ckEpS f twkta,mif a&G;aumufyJrG sm; t+yD;wGif orRwode;f pdef OD;aqmifaom tpd;k &opfwpf&yfudk zJ@G pnf;vdkuf+yD; jzpfapumrl ppfwyftwGif;wGif tqdkyguJhodk@aom rauseyfcsufrsm; xGufay:vm&jcif;. vuQ%mrSm 185


tm%m&Sifpepftay:wGif ppfr_xrf;rsm;. rauseyfcsufrsm; wdk;yGm;vmaeonf [laomoabmyif jzpfonf? 4if;rSm ppfwyftwGif;&Sd ppfom; ajrmufrsm;pGmwdk@onf tm%m&Siftyk fcsKyfr_udk onf;rcHEdkifawmhbJ aygufxGufawmhrnfh taetxm;udk jyqdak eonf? 0rf;enf;p&maumif;onfrmS udkwifarmifOD; usqHk;oGm;cJh+yDjzpfonf? TwGif rnfolu udkwifarmifOD;. enf;AsL[mudk xdxda&mufa&muf vufcHusihfoHk;rnfenf; qkdonfu ar;p&mjzpfvmonf? tm&yf Edik fiHrsm;pGmwkd@wGif tm%m&Siftyk fcsKyfr_pepf qef@usifa&; v_y&f Sm;r_rsm; wjznf;jznf; tm;aumif;vm=u+yDjzpf aomfvnf; jrefrmEkdifiHwGif ,cktcsdeYf bmoHrS xGufrvmao;onfrmS 0rf;enf;p&myif? udkwifarmifOD;uJhokd@yif &JpGr;f owWdEiS fh jynfhpHk=u&efeiS fh trsm;jynfolwkd@.aumif;usKd;twGuf tm%m&Sif pepf qef@usifa&; v_y&f Sm;r_rsm;udk az:aqmif }u&ef ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;/ vli,frsm;udk OD;aZmf0if;u wdkufwGe;f E_d;aqmfonf? udkwifarmifOD;. r[mAsL[mudk vdkufygaz:aqmif&eftwGuf &JpGr;f owWdomrubJ &Sif;vif;jywfom;aom oabmxm; tjrifEiS fh tpDtrHrsm; vdktyfayonf? ,ckvuf&dS jrefrmEkdifiHwGif oabmxm;tjrif rjywfom;r_rsm; jzpfay:vSsuf&do S nf? trsKd;om; jyefvnfoifhjrwfa&;[lonfh tay:wGif tav;xm;vGe;f ae=ujcif;a=umifh xdkuJhodk@ oabmxm;tjrifrsm; rjywfom;=ujcif;jzpfonf? trsK;d om;jyefvnf oifhjrwfa&;udk xyfcgwvJvJ &Gwf qdkae=u aomfvnf; xdka0g[m&udk rnfonfhEdkifiHa&;ygwDur# &Sif;vif;jywfom;pGm t"dyg` ,fziG fhqkjd cif; r&Sdao;acs? yxrqHk; taeESifh ajym&rnfqv kd #if tm%m&Sif tkyfcsKyfa&;ESifh trsKd;om;jyefvnfoifhjrwfa&; [laom t&mESpcf konf twl wuG ,SOfwJGaeEkid fjcif; r&Sd[laomtcsufjzpfonf? 4if;wkd@ESpfckteufu wpfckudk usihfoHk;rnfqv dk #if tjcm;wpfckudk y,fzsuf&ayrnf? tm%m&Sifpepf wnf+rJaeor#umvywfvHk; ppfreS faom trsK;d om; jyefvnfoifhjrwfa&; qdkonf rSm '¾m&D wpfyk'yf if jzpfaeayvdrfrh nf? xkd@a=umifh tm%m&Sifpepfudk OD;pGm zsufodr;f &rnf? odk@rSomv#if trsK;d om; jyefvnfoifhjrwfa&; tygt0if tjcm;aom EkdifiHa&;&m jyKjyifajymif;vJa&; vkyif ef;pOfrsm;udk av#mav#m&SL&SL taumif txnfaz:Ekdifrnf jzpfonf? TonfrmS udkwifarmifOD;. &Sif;vif;jywfom;aom vrf;a=umif;yif jzpfonf? 'kwd,tcsufrmS trsK;d om;jyefvnfoifhjrwfa&;udk &Gwfqadk eaomfvnf; }uD;rm;vSaom jypfr_}uD;aygif; rsm;pGm usL;vGecf H&olrsm;twGuf w&m;rSswr_&&Sad &;udk vSspv f SsL&_xm;jyD; usL;vGe&f mY wm0ef&daS om tkypf ;dk ol ppftyk fpkrsm;eSifh qufqefaqG;aEG;a&;udkom t"du tm&Hkxm;aeorSsumvywfvHk; tay:,H [efjy trsdK;om; oifhjrwfa&;om &edkifygrnf? ydkqk;d onfrmS um; &mZ0wfaumifrsm;onf tºuGif;rJh vGwf+idr;f csrf;omcGifhudk &&SdcHpm;ae =uum jypfrr_ sm;udkvnf; qufvufI xyfcgxyfcg usL;vGeaf e=uOD;rnf qdkonfhoabmudk oufa&muf oGm;jcif;yif jzpfonf? udkwifarmifOD;onf ol.aemufq;Hk tcsdet f xd jypfr_usL;vGef cH&olrsm;bufu &yfwnfum w&m;r#wr_ twGuf wkdufyJG0ifcJhonf? wwd,tcsufrmS 2008ckEpS f zG@J pnf;yHktajccH Oya'ESifhtnD w&m;0if twnfjyKxm;aom tm%m&Sif tkyfcsKyfrp_ epfudk y,fzsufjcif; rjyKv#if aomfvnfaumif;/ vHk+cHKa&;wyfzGJ@rsm; tygt0if zdEdyS w f wfonfh oabm&Sdaom wdkif;jynf taqmufttHkrsm;udk jyefvnfjyKjyifjcif; r&Sdv#if aomfvnf;aumif; ppfreS faom trsK;d om; jyefvnfoifhjrwfa&;rSm vufawG@wGif jzpfvmrnf r[kwfacs? jrefrmh qkd&S,fvpfvrf;pOf. aemufuG,fwGif udk,fa,mifazsmufaeaom ppftm%m&Sif tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfudk w&m;0ifjzpfaponfh 1974ckESpf zG@J pnf;yHktajccHOya'udk ukdwifarmifOD;u vHk;0 vufrcHcJhonfhtjyif ppfwyfudkvnf; jyKjyifajymif;vJEdik f&ef }udK;yrf;tm;xkwfcJhonf? ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;/ vli,frsm;/ tvkyo f rm;rsm;ESifh ppfrx _ rf;rsm; ponfh t"duusaom vl@tv$mrsm;udk aygif;pnf;apjcif;jzifh vlxkprG f;tm; wpf&yf jzpfwnfvmaponfh udkwifarmifOD;. Ekid fiHa&;ESihf vlra_ &;qdkif&m r[mAsL 186


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xdk haemufwGif a}uG;a}umfoHrsm; pwif wdkif}ujyefonf? onfw}udrw f Gifrl a}uG;a}umfoH . awmif;qdkcsuf ajymif;oGm;cJhjyD? ‚ausmif;om;or*~zGJ hpnf;a&;/ 'dk hta&; 'dk hta&;‛ ‚zrf;qD;cH ausmif;om;rsm;/ v$wf v$wf‛ ‚ausmif;om; eSifh tvkyo f rm;rsm;/ aoG;pnf;}u aoG;pnf;}u‛ ‚ta&;awmfykH atmif&rnf‛ ponfwdk hjzpfonf? ausmif;om;rsm;onf q&m}uD; ocifudk,fawmfrd_if;tm; *g&0 jyK}ujyD;aemuf tcrf;tem;udk atmifjrifpmG jyD;qHk;vdkuf}uonf? odk h&mwGif ausmif;om;or*~zJG hpnf;cGifh eSifh ausmif;om;tcGifhta&; rsm; &onftxd qENjyr_ukd qufvuf az:aqmifoGm;7ef eSifh edkifiHa&; tusOf;om;rsm;tm;v$wfay;a&; twGuf tpdk;&udk awmif;qdkoGm;&ef ydik f;jzwfcsuf cs}uonf? wuUodkvf0if;odk htjyefvrf;wGif ausmif; om;rsm;tm; axmufcHtm;ay;}uaom vlxkOD;a&rSm ydI k rsm;vmonf? aemufqHk;wGif rGef;vGJykid f;Y wuU odkvfausmif;0if;odk hjyefvnfqu dk fa&mufcJh}ujyD; bGJ@eSif;obifcef;r odk hOD;wnfoGm;cJh}uonf? cef;r odk h t0if wHcg;}uD;rsm;udk aomhcwfyw d fxm;jyD; q&mrsm;u wHcg;udk ydwfqdk@vSsuf&yfaecJh}uonf? ausmif;om;rsm;tm; cef;rxJodk h0ifcGifhray;bdk htpdk;&u 4if;wdk htm; trde@f ay;xm;a}umif; eSifh qENjyyGJudk &yf qdkif;vdkuf&ef q&mrsm;u wdkufwGe;f onf? q&mrsm;eSifh ausmif;om;rsm;. tjyeftvSef aqG;aEG;r_rSm tcsdet f awmf}umoGm;aomfvnf; ratmifjrifcJhyg? aemufqHk;wGif ausmif;om;rsm;u atmufygtwdkif; ajymqdkcJh}uonf? ‚'g[m uGsefawmfwdk@ ausmif;om;awGe@J q&mwdk@ t}um;u jy\em r[kwfygbl;? uGsefawmfwdk@udk oif}um; jyoay;wJhtwGufa&m *&kpku d fr_jyK}uwJh twGufyg q&mwdk haus;Zl;udk rar hygbl;? bGJ heiS f;obifcef;reJ huGseaf wmfwdk@ t}um;rSm 0if&yfay;xm;}ubdk h tpdk;&u q&mwdk hudk twif;t}uyfjyKxm; w,fqw dk m uGseaf wmfwdk hodygw,f? onfawmh av;av;pm;pm; eJ huGseaf wmfwdk harwWm&yfcHygw,f? uGseaf wmfwdk hq&mwdk hudk tcsdef 15 rdepfay;ygr,f? 15 rdepfjynfhjyD;wJhaemufrmS q&mwdk hbmjzpfr,f qdkwmudk uGseaf wmfwdk hwm0efr,lekid fawmhygbl;?‛ xdk@aemufwGif q&mawG z,f&mS ;oGm;}uonf? ausmif;om;rsm; ordkif;0if bGJ@eSif;obif cef;r}uD; twGif;odk@ 0ifa&mufjyD; qENjy A[kdXmetjzpf toHk;jyK}uonf? udkvdkeDacwfuxJu pwifum ausmif;om;rsm; a&S@wef;xGuf wdkufyGJ0if}uonfh tcgwdkif; bGJ heiS f;obifcef;rudk qENjyA[kdXme tjzpf toHk;jyKcJh}uonf? r}umao;cifu jzpfyGm;cJhonfh OD;oef hta&;tcif;rSm om"uyif? bGJ@eSif;obifcef;r udk odr;f ydkufjyD;jyD;jcif;rSmyif ausmif;om;rsm;onf vSsifvSsifjrefjref pwifv_yf&Sm;}uonf? vufurf;a}umf jimrsm; &du k fedyS x f kwfa0}uonf? bGJ@eSif;obifcef;r t0if0wGif pka0;a&muf&aSd e}ujyDjzpfaom vlxk}uD;tm; rdef hcGe;f rsm;pwifajym}um;onf? ta&twGuftm;jzifh waxmifausmfcef@ rSs&Sdaom vlxk}uD;onf ausmif;om;rsm;. rde@f cGe;f rsm;udk em;axmif&ef xdkifae}ujyD jzpfonf? ausmif;om; tawmfrsm;rsm;u olwdk h. rdom;pkrsm;twGif; bmawG jzpfysufae onfudk &ifziG fhajym}um;}uonf? tdrfwGifrl ydv k D,dka}umifh vrf;a0;a0; ravSsmufekid fonfh 'kwd, tudkt}uD;qHk;jzpfol udkjr'if onf rvSjrdKifeSifh udkvSa&$wdk hxGufoGm;jyD;aemuf bmawGjzpfysufaeonfudk rodojzifh rsm;pGm pd;k &dryf lyef vSsuf&Sdonf? olu armifoef hZiftm; pufbD;wpD;eSifh wuUodkvfodk h oGm;jyD; }unfh&_&ef cdkif;vdkufonf? armifoef hZif wuUodkvfodk htcsderf Da&mufoGm;cJhonf? xdktcsdew f Gif rvSjrdKifu vlxk}uD; ed;k }um;vmap rnf hred f hcGef;rsm;tm; wuf}uGpmG ajym}um;vSsuf&daS eonf? armifoef@Zifonf pdwfv_y&f Sm;pGmjzifh udkjr'if qDodk@ jyefowif;ydk@&m udkjr'if udk,fwdkif wuUodkvf0if;xJodk@ vdkufvmjyD;}unfh&_avhvmonf?ausmif;om;rsm; toH0ifroGm;}uapa&; twGuf rdu k fu&dkzke;f eSifhtoHcsJ hpufrsm; oH;k }ubdk h oluausmif;om;rsm;tm; t}uHay;onf? 197


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csefxm;vdkonfhtarGteSpw f dk h &S}d uonf? tjyifykid f; tem; pGef;eSifh twGi;f ydkif; A[kdcsufwdk@onf wckwnf; jzpf&rnf jzpfa}umif;eSifh wckeiS fhwck o[Zmw jzpf&ef vdk a}umif;wdk hudk qvdkif;wifarmifOD; odjrifcJhonf? olonf ol.twGif;ydkif; A[dkcsuf&Sd&modk hjyefvnfqkwfcGmcJo h nf? xdk haemuf rnfonfht&mwGif atmifjrifrKS &vdka}umif;udk olav;eufpmG pOf;pm;cJhonf? ol. vSKyf&Sm;rSKrsm;onf ol h&nfreS f;csufrsm;tm; atmifjrifatmif az:aqmifekid fcJhjcif; &SdrS &Sdudk oHk;oyfcJhonf? tarGteSpf tjzpf olbmudk csefxm;cJh vdkonf qdkonfudk ol hudk,fol aocsmpGm ppfa}umcJhonf? xdk haemuf ol. vSKyf&Sm;rSKrsm;udk jyefvnf jyKjyifonf? ol hb0. aemufq;Hk tcsdeYf tqdkyg vSKyf&Sm;rSKrsm;jzifh aemufrsLd ;qufrsm;twGuf olbm csefxm;cJhvdkonf [lonfudk aocsmap&ef }udK;yrf; cJhonf? ajrmufrsm;vSpmG aom ol&aJ umif;rsm;onf olwdk hb0. tjyifykdif; tem;pGe;f wGif vSKyf&Sm;pGrf; aqmif&if; usqHk;cJh}uolrsm;jzpfonf? olwdk h. twGif;ydkif; A[dkcsufeSifh ppfreS fpGm jyefvnfxdawG hekid fcJhjcif; r&Sd}u? tjyifykid f; vSKyf&Sm;rSKrsm;eSifh twGi;f ydkif; A[dkcsufonf wckwnf;jzpfonf/ wckwnf;jzpf&rnf [l onfudk rod&cSd Jh}u? qvdkif; wifarmifOD;onf tjyifykid f;tem;pGef;wGif vSKyf&Sm;cJhedkif&Hkomru twGif;ydkif; A[dkcsufodk hjyefvnf qkwfcGm edkifcJhol jzpfonf? tjyifykid f;tem;pGef;vSKyf&Sm;cJhrSKrsm;udk twGi;f ydkif; A[dkcsuf eSifh wom;wnf;usatmif jyefvnf aygif;qHkap edik fcJhol jzpfonf? ol. aemufq;Hk xGufoufudk xkwf vdkufonfh tcsdew f Gif }uD;rm;aom arwWm/ ol&owWd eSihf trsm; aumif;usdL;twGuf pGef hv$wfrKS wdk hudk tarGtjzpf csefxm;&pfcJhonf? ol hb0woufwmvHk;udk tm%m&Sif pepftm; acsrSKef;&eftwGufom jyifqif/ vSKyf&Sm;/ wdkufyGJ0if/ toHk;cs oGm;cJhonf? rnfonfht&mwGif atmifjrifr_ &vdka}umif; olodonf? TonfrmS ol htwGif;ydkif; A[kdcsufudk oludk,fwdkif avhvmoHk;oyfedkifaoma}umifh jzpfonf? rnfonfh ordik f;umv/ rnfonfh vl@tzG@J tpnf;/ rnfonfh edkifiHa&; pepf atmufwGif jzpfap tm%m&Sifrsm; eSifh tm%m&Siftyk fcsKyfr_onf vl htzGJ htpnf;twGuf qdk;usdL;ukdom aqmifusOf;avh &So d nf? 4if;wkd honf vl@tzG@J tpnf;. tema&m*grsm;jzpfonf? tm%m&Siftyk fcsKyfrKS wnf&daS eygu vlwOD;csif;pD. vGwfvyfrSKudk &kyfodr;f onf? wdkif;&if;om;vlrsLd ;wrsdL; eSifh tjcm;wrsdL;t}um;/ vl htv$m wckeiS fh tjcm;wckt}um; pkpnf;nDnGwf rSKudk jydKuGJap onf? vl htzGJ h tpnf;. wefb;dk rsm;udk zsufqD; onf? tusdL;quftaeeSifh tm;vHk;. *k%o f duQm xdcdkufusqif;&jrJ jzpfonf? ausmif;om;jzpfap/ q&mjzpfap/ vli,fjzpfap/ vl}uD;jzpfap/ tvky&f Sifjzpfap/ tvkyform; jzpf ap/ txufwm0ef&do S ljzpfap/ atmufajcwyfrawmfom; jzpfap/ edik fiHa&;orm;jzpfap vlxkjzpfap/ tpdk;& trSKxrf;jzpfap edik fiHom;jzpfap/ rcGJjcm;bJ tm%m&Siftyk fcsKyfrSKtm; wenf;enf;jzifh axmufyho H l/ ckcH umuG,fol/ ajrawmifajrSmuf ay;olwdk htm; a0zef/ zGifhcs/ xdk;eSuf oifhonf? 4if;wdk h. pOf;pm;rSKeSifh &yfwnfrKS jyifqifajymif;vJ oGm;atmif pGrf;aqmifoihfonf? odk h&mwGifTonfrmS tajymvG,foavmuftvkyf cufygonf? tb,fa}umifhqkad omf tm%m&Sifrsm;eSifh tm%m&SiftkyfcsKyfrSK wdk honf trsdL;om;a&; eSifh a'oqdkif&mta&; tjriftajccHrsm;rS wckr[kwf tjcm;wckjzpfaom edkifiHa&;/ vlrsLd ;a&; eSifh bmoma&; ta}umif;jycsufrsm;udk &nfn$e;f vSsuf vnf;aumif;/ qGJaqmifrKS &Sdaom edkifiHa&;a}uG;a}umfoHrsm;udk [pf a}uG;Ivnf;aumif;/ 4if;wkd hudk,fudk tay:,H edik fiHa&;zGJ@pnf;rSK rsm;eSifh yHkzsuf zHk;v$r;f xm;}uaoma}umifh jzpfonf?

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avsmfuefpmG vnfywfapvdkvSsif vkyx f Hk;vkyfenf;t& pD&if onfh tcef;u¾udk tquf rjywfjrSifhwif xdr;f odr;f xm;&ygrnf? qvdkif;wifarmifOD;. rSKcif;wGif vkyx f Hk; vkyef nf;t&pD&ifrSKudk vHk;0 usifhoHk;jcif; rjyKcJhyg? ppftm%mydkif rsm;u wifarmifOD;tay: &efjidSK;eSifh tmCmwrsm; xm;vSsuf tajccH oabmt&pD&ifjcif; rSseSifh jypf'%fcsrSwfcJhonf? ,if;odk hjzifh 1976 ckeSpf {jyDv (3) &uf paeae hwGif 4if; tay: ao'%fjypf'%f pD&ifcJhonf? ao'%f jypf'%f pD&ifcH&jyD;aemuf vufawG h uGyrf sufjcif;rjyKrDaxmiftwGif;Y zrf;qD;csKyfaeSmif cHxm;& aom umvwGifvnf; udkwifarmifOD; onf rw&m;jyKrSKrsm; eSifh &ifqdkifcJh&onf? tusOf;axmif tm%mydkifrsm; taejzifh axmifudktkycf sKyf&mY axmifpnf;rsOf;pnf;urf;udkcsdK;azgufaom axmifom;rsm; tm; axmifvufpJeG iS fhtnD ta&;,l&onf? ppftpdk;&onf axmifvufpJu G dk od&dyS gvSsuf axmiftwGif;Y vufawG hvdkufemusihfoHk;a&;udk OyuQmjyKxm;avh&Sdonf? 4if;tpm; edkifiHa&; tusOf;om;rsm;udk zdeSdyf&ef Oya'eSifh qef husif/ tajccHvl htcGifhta&; rsm;udk csdL;azgufaom jyKusifhrSKrsm; vkyaf qmif edik fa&;twGuf 4if;wdk hvdkovdk pnf;rsOf;rsm;csrw S fusihfoHk;av h&do S nf? om"utm;jzifh qdk&vSsif qvdkif;wifarmifOD;tm; ppftpdk;&. vufudkifwkwf ppfyv k dyw f OD;eSifh vufa0S h yGJ wckxdk;owf&ef twif;t}uyf zefwnf;apcdkif; onfh vky&f yfrsKd ;jzpfonf? TonfrmS tusOf;axmifvufpJG eSifh udkufnDjcif; r&SSdyg? 1955 ckepS fwGif ukvor*~ u twnfjyKcJhonfh tusOf;om;rsm;udk qufqef&ef tedrq fh Hk;pHxm; csuf pnf;rsOf;t& jyifyurBmeSifh qufoG,fcGifhonf tusOf;om;rsm;. tcGifhta&;w&yfjzpfonf? ,if; yk'fr 39 t& ‚pmay;pm,ljzifhjzpfap/ tvnf tywfvma&mufrKS udk vufcHjcif;jzifhjzpfap/ yHrk Sefumv tydkif;tjcm;owfrSwfjyD; vdktyfaom }uD;}uyfrKS atmufwGif tusOf;om;rsm;tm;4if;wdk h. rdom;pkrsm;/ rdwfaqGrsm; eSifh qufoG,f&ef cGifhjyK&rnf?‛ [k jyXmef;yg&o Sd nf? qvdkif;wifarmifOD;udk }udK;ray;rD rdb eSpOf D;eSifh wOD;vSsif ig;rdepf cef hrsS pDom awG hqHk cGifhjyKcJhonf? jrefrmedkifiHwGif edik fiHa&;rSKcif;rsm;Y ppfaxmufvSr;f a&;rsm;onf w&m;cGifrsm;Y wufa&mufae avh&d}S uonf? w&m;&Hk;.vkyif ef;pOfrsm;/ w&m;ol}uD;rsm;/ a&S haersm;/ w&m;&Hk;trSKxrf;rsm;. tjyK trl rsm;udk avhvmae wwf}uonf? zrf;qD;csKyfaeSmif oif}um;ay;xm;jyD;rS xkwf,lvmaom oufaorsm; udk w&m;&Hk;a&S harSmufodk hac: aqmif vmwwf}uonf? toifha&;xm;jyD;aom pD&ifcsufrsm;udk ay;ydk hjyD; w&m;ol}uD;rsm;udk zwf&ko H mzwfcdkif;onfh rSKcif;rsm;vnf; &So d nf? w&m;cHa&S haeeSifh 4if;. trSKonfwdk h wdkifyifaqG;aEG;rSKrsm;udk }um;jzwfem;axmifrKS rsm;vnf;&Sdonf? tif;pdeaf xmif0if;twGif; rSKcif;rsm;udk ppfaq;pD&ifjcif;jzifh rSKcif;eSifh oufqidk faom yk*dK~ vfreS forSsudk oG,f0ku d fvSsuf jcdrf;ajcmufonf? xdkodk h aom ywf0ef;usit f ajctaersm;atmufwGif w&m;ol}uD;rsm;/ a&S haersm;/ oufaorsm;/ w&m;pD&ifa&; ydik f;qdkif&m0efxrf;rsm; tygt0if vlxkrsm;tm;vHk;wGif ta}umufw&m;rsm; zH;k v$rf;apvSsuf&do S nf? odk h jzpfI w&m;rSswaom w&m;cGif rwnf&?Sd edik fiHa&; tusOf;om;rsm;udk ppfaq;onfh rw&m;aom w&m; cGifrsm; tm;vHk;teuf qvdkif;wifarmifOD;tm; ppfaq;cJhaom w&m;cGifonf tqdk;0g; qHk;jzpfcJhonf? wifarmifOD;rSKcif;Y ta&;t}uD;qHk; Oya'a&;&mjyoemrSm 4if;tm; w&m;pGq J dkonfh tpdk;& onf w&m;0if tpdk;& [kwfr[kwf[lI jzpfonf? 4if;tay: edik fiHawmfopPmazgufzsufykefuefrSKjzifh w&m;pGJqkcd Jhonf? rnfolonf ekid fiHawmf opPmazgufzsufykefuefrSKudk usL;vGeyf goenf;? ausmif;om;acgif; aqmif qvdkif;wifarmifOD;vm;? 220


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Forgotten Hero Of Asia