Page 1

Helix

Milton Academy’s Science Journal

2016-17


Helix Staff

Helix is Milton Academy’s one and only scientific journal, written by and for Milton students on a range of STEM topics. We strive to help students better share their passion and knowledge in the sciences with the entire Milton community.

Helix Board 2016-17

Co-Heads: James Dunn and Alexa Perlov Layout Editor: Emma James

Faculty Advisor: Dr. Linde Eyster

Kiran Biddinger ZoĂŤ Camaya Alex Chen Alaina Cherry Molly Chiang Seokmin (Ryan) Choi Ariane Desrosiers Desmond DeVaul

Helix Writers Christine Flatley Catherine Gallori Alexandra Galls Sarah Hsu Patrick Huang Zan Huang Quincy Hughes Max Hui Dhruv Jain

Emma James Kate Jones Daniel Little Kevin Lu Jun Seob Shim Nina Taneja Jessica Wang Daniel Xiao

The board would like to thank the following people for their contributions to Helix:

Mr. Edgar, Dr. Eyster, Mr. Bean, Mr. Gagnon, Mr. Hales, Mr. Kernohan, Ms. Lillis, Mr. Moore, Mr. Moy, Dr. Richards, Ms. Seplaki, and Ms. Zimmer.

Cover image: Grand Prismatic Spring in Yellowstone National Park

Source: Michael Nichols. Photograph. National Geographic. May 2016. Accessed May 19, 2017. http://www.nationalgeographic.com/photography/best-photos-2016/.


Article Topics

4

Carbon Capture

8

Quantum Computers vs. Security by James Dunn

by Patrick Huang

Malaria and CRISPR

6

by Molly Chiang

10

Technology Tattoos

14

E-Ink and the Environment

12 16 18 20 22 24 26

by Seokmin (Ryan) Choi

Gold Nanoparticles vs. Cancer Candles of Our Past: Stars

by Kate Jones

by Max Hui

L.E.D. Concussion Treatment 3D Printing Internal Organs Water on Mars Multiverses

by Nina Taneja

by Alexa Perlov

Emotion and Physiology

by Kevin Lu

by Alexandra Galls

by Daniel Little

by Christine Flatley

Senior Interviews

This issue includes interviews of potential STEM majors who agreed to be interviewed. We have done our best to include everyone who expressed interest.

Baffour-Addo, Keisha Bailey, Anne Barrett, Will Basow, Isabel Batt, JJ Cadigan, Luke Cheng, Noah Costa, Jennifer Delano, Casey Dunn, James Erdenesanaa, Michelle Friis, Katie

28 37 31 32 39 28 30 39 36 34 45 38

Galls, Drew Gagnon, Charlie Iwanicki, Allana Jia, Harrison Kong, Jason Leung, Joey Matthews, Charlie Matthews, Chris Magann, Matt Monahan, Silas Ofulue, Earvin Perlov, Alexa Piazza, Tyler

32 44 36 41 35 33 43 37 40 45 42 30 29

Qiu, Zhenfeng Rhodes, Caleb Sakellaris, Christina Saunders, Sam Tabatabaei, Mateen Thadhani, Elina Torous, Will Troy, Logan Viola, Juliana Vyas, Austin Willwerth, Sarah Yalcindag, Ege

43 33 46 35 38 42 44 31 41 40 34 29


Carbon Capture Comes by Patrick Huang

In a world of rising sea levels, rampant pollution, and environmental destruction, we may not hear enough about the solutions to combat carbon dioxide emissions, a key culprit of these issues. Such solutions do exist in the form of carbon capture systems. These systems remedy carbon dioxide emissions at the source of production: for example, a coal power plant. By capturing the carbon dioxide when it is first produced from the combustion of coal, these systems reduce global climate change and store carbon dioxide that can be repurposed. A new carbon capture system called Petra Nova was recently installed on an existing coal power plant near Houston, Texas (1). To understand how the facility can capture a projected 1.6 million tons of carbon dioxide every year (1), we must understand carbon dioxide scrubbing.

The combustion of coal, while relatively efficient at generating heat, is a major source of man-made carbon dioxide emissions (2). In the presence of air, coal can combust and heat water into steam (2). The steam then turns a turbine, converting mechanical energy into useable electricity (2). However, the combustion process produces a flue gas consisting of carbon dioxide, in addition to sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides (3). When released into the atmosphere, this mixture of gases not only escalates global climate change by trapping heat in the atmosphere (4), but also contributes to other nasty consequences such as acid rain and smog (2). Successful isolation and capture of carbon dioxide would therefore alleviate these negative effects. How is carbon dioxide captured in the Petra Nova system? Petra Nova will employ the innovative KM-CDR Process® that utilizes an amine solvent (a liquid with the chemical

Page 4

to

Life

functional group, —NH2 (1)). The flue gas from the combustion of coal first enters the absorber vessel (Figure 1) where it is cooled down, ideally to a range between 35–45°C (95–113°F) (5). The cooled gas comes into contact with the solvent (5), which reacts with carbon dioxide to form a soluble compound in a reversible chemical reaction (6).

On its way to a separate machine called the regenerator (7), the cooled solvent that has chemically reacted with carbon dioxide is preheated for a transition into a hotter environment (5). At temperatures around 120°C (250°F), the “scorching” steam within this vessel provides enough energy to separate the compound back into the amine solvent and carbon dioxide (8), while the solvent stripped of carbon dioxide is cooled into a “regenerated” state (5). Once regenerated, the solvent returns to the absorber vessel and repeats the cycle of carbon dioxide absorption and release (7). The carbon dioxide exits the regenerator vessel to be compressed and dehydrated for transportation (5).

The carbon dioxide captured from the Petra Nova system then will be used in a process called enhanced oil recovery (3). In this process, carbon dioxide can be injected into the ground to facilitate the collection of petroleum from oil reservoirs (9). The injection of nearly pure carbon dioxide changes the petroleum into a more mobile and accessible substance (9). This use of carbon dioxide could extract an estimated 60 million oil barrels from a “depleted” oil well (3).

A combination of a carbon capture system and enhanced oil recovery could potentially help meet modern society’s energy

Helix


Figure 1: The carbon capture system in Petra Nova. Figure designed and produced by Joel Moore.

demands and simultaneously minimize environmental damage inflicted by fossil fuel burning. Long term effects of enhanced oil recovery certainly need to be investigated, but a world yearning for a more sustainable future should consider this technology. While the hope remains that the world will not only curb its emissions but also its use of fossil fuels, the

Works Cited

(1) “Petra Nova.” NRG Energy. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Dec. 2016. <http://www.nrg.com/generation/projects/petra-nova/> (2)“How Coal Works.” Union of Concerned Scientists. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Dec. 2016. <http://www. ucsusa.org/clean_energy/coalvswind/brief_coal. html#bf-toc-4>. (3) Irfan, Umair. “World’s Largest Carbon-Capture Plant to Open Soon.” Scientific American. N.p., 04 Oct. 2016. Web. 04 Dec. 2016. <https://www. scientificamerican.com/article/world-s-largest-carbon-capture-plant-to-open-soon/>. (4)“Mitsubishi’s Carbon Capture Technology.” Carbon Capture Journal (n.d.): n. pag. Web. 4 Dec. 2016.

construction of Petra Nova is a positive step towards recognizing the damage inflicted by pollution. This promising technology offers potential as a viable option to remediate global climate change and gives humanity more time to make a permanent transition to renewable energy sources.

<https://www.mhi-global.com/products/pdf/articles_05.pdf>. (5)“Amine Technology.” Technology Centre Mongstad. N.p., 20 July 2010. Web. 04 Dec. 2016. <http://www.tcmda.com/en/Technology/ Amine-technology/>. (6) Masaki Iijima, Tatsuto Nagayasu, Takashi Kamijyo, and Shinsuke Nakatani. “MHI’s Energy Efficient Flue Gas CO2 Capture Technology and Large Scale CCS Demonstration Test at Coal-fired Power Plants in USA.” Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Technical Review 48.1 (n.d.): n. pag. Mar. 2011. Web. 4 Dec. 2016. <https://www.mhi.co.jp/technology/review/pdf/ e481/e481026.pdf>. (7) “How CO2-EOR Works.” National Enhanced Oil Recovery Initiative. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Dec. 2016. <http://neori.org/resources-on-co2-eor/how-co2eor-works/>.

Helix

Page 5


No More Malaria? CRISPR

and Its

by Molly Chiang

Use

in

Genetic Modification

on

Mosquitoes

The development of CRISPR (pronounced crisper), a new genome editing tool, has led to many discoveries in the field of genetic modification. The CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat) system is actually a natural defense mechanism in some bacteria (1). Basically, a bacterium that survived a virus attack would retain some of the virus’ DNA, and store it in its own DNA. If the same strain of virus attacked again, the bacterium would do four things. First, the bacterium would make an RNA copy of the virus DNA it retained. Second, the bacterium would create proteins (called Cas enzymes) that pick up the RNA copy, now called ‘guide RNA’ (RNA that matches the DNA target) (Figure 1). Third, the Cas enzyme and guide RNA complex find complementary sequences located within the attacking virus. Fourth, the Cas enzyme cuts those matching pieces of DNA, rendering the attacking virus useless (1).

ia can’t be spread from human to human directly, but if a mosquito bites a malaria-infected human and takes in malaria parasites, the mosquito is now a carrier and can continue to pass on malaria (2). However, with the use of the CRISPR system, scientists have been able to genetically edit mosquitoes to inhibit them from harboring malaria (3). This new development could save millions of lives, especially in sub Saharan Africa where malaria is one of the top five causes of death (4).

However, in the past 10 years, scientists have discovered how to combine personalized ‘guide RNA’ and replacement DNA with one of the special Cas enzymes that can “cut” DNA. Thus, the CRISPR system can be used to cut out and replace specific segments of DNA in any living cell (1).

thus eradicating malaria parasites throughout the mosquito (2). Malaria kills over one million people every year (5), so if there are mosquitoes that have been modified to inhibit the harbouring of malaria parasites, why not release them?

Scientists have been able to change the mosquito genome so mosquitoes produce malaria parasite antibodies (specific proteins that tag foreign objects--in this case malaria parasites--to be attacked by the immune system) stopping the malaria parasite’s ability to be carried by mosquitoes. Scientists used the CRISPR system to find and replace a specific gene with a new one that produces malaria antibodies,

the CRISPR system can be used to replace specific segments of DNA in any living cell

Malaria is spread when a mosquito carrying the malaria parasite (a microorganism) bites a human and the malaria parasites enter the human’s bloodstream. Malar-

Page 6

The answer to that is two-fold. First, scientists are still working on ensuring this genetic change, due to CRISPR, passes to all offspring. Because of the random distribution of genes from parents, only if both

Helix


Figure 1: The use of Cas enzymes against viral attack. On the left the Cas enzyme (shaped as a figure eight in blue) and the guide RNA (folded purple ladder) combine to make the ‘Cas enzyme and guide RNA complex’. On the right, the Cas enzyme and guide RNA locate corresponding viral DNA, and the Cas enzyme functions as microscopic scissors to cut the corresponding viral DNA. Source: https://www. flickr.com/photos/ b4fa/27401360562/ in/photostream/

parents had the CRISPR edited gene, could all offspring also have the gene. Therefore, in the wild, the modified gene would likely disappear from the mosquito population (2). Thus, these genetically modified mosquitoes will not be released until science catches up. Secondly, there is also the ethical question of releasing genetically modified mosquitoes into the wild. Although this genetic modification doesn’t change much about the mosquitoes, except for removing their ability to harbour malaria parasites, people still worry that it is morally wrong

Works Cited

(1) http://gizmodo.com/everythingyou-need-to-know-about-crispr-the-newtool-1702114381 (2) http://www.businessinsider.com/howcrispr-will-revolutionize-biology-2015-10

for humans to intervene in nature with such a large scale genetic modification of a mosquito species (6).

The global community will have to make a decision on the use of this new science. This new development could save millions of people, but change the genome of a species. However, not modifying the mosquitoes may leave the ecosystem unchanged, but allow malaria to continue to kill thousands of humans every day.

(3) https://www.broadinstitute.org/what-broad/ areas-focus/project-spotlight/crispr-timeline (4) http://time.com/4125851/mosquitoesgenetically-resistant-to-malaria/ (5) http://www.unicef.org/health/files/health_ africamalaria.pdf (6) https://africacheck.org/factsheets/ factsheet-the-leading-causes-of-death-in-africa/

Helix

Page 7


Quantum Computers and the End of Internet Security

by James Dunn, winner of the Laurence S. Persky Award 2016-17

Figure 1: Comparison of possible states for classical bits and qubits. While classical bits can only have two states, qubits can be in an infinite number, represented by the points on a sphere between 0 and 1. Source: http://qoqms.phys.strath.ac.uk/research_qc.html

Imagine a world where no information is safe. The global economy would collapse, all government secrets and espionage would become public, and we could be on the brink of a global nuclear war (1). This might seem like science fiction, but in fact it could be a reality in just a few years. The reason is a massive leap forward in the development of a new technology called quantum computing, which experts argue has the potential to either revolutionize the world or destroy it altogether (2).

So first, what exactly is a quantum computer, and why does it have so much potential to disrupt the world order? The main difference between quantum and classical computers and is the way they process information. Classical computers store information in bits, which can exist in

Page 8

just two states, either a 1 or a 0 (3). Instead of bits, quantum computers use qubits, which can exist as a 1, a 0, or a combination of both due to a principle called superposition, giving them the potential to store exponentially more information (3). One way to think about it is that if a classical bit can be at one of two points, a qubit can be at any point on a sphere (Fig. 1).

Because of superposition, quantum computers could be able to solve some problems in computer science significantly faster than classical computers can. While a classical computer needs to do computations sequentially, performing one calculation at a time, a quantum computer can perform many computations at once, trying out many possibilities simultaneously (2). And this is where quantum computation has the potential to be incredibly danger-

Helix


ous, because most of the world’s cybersecurity relies on cryptography that quantum computers could conceivably break without much difficulty (1).

Despite the potential for quantum computation to end cybersecurity as we know it, many people do not see it as a serious threat. Anyone who followed the 2016 presidential election knows that cybersecurity threats exist even without quantum computation, and the world order has not collapsed yet because of them (4). However, the scale of current cyber attacks is miniscule compared to the possibilities of quantum attacks. A relatively small quantum computer in the wrong hands could have the potential to steal government secrets, bank records, and any other personal, corporate and governmental information with ease (1). All of that data is online, and and the safeguards in place to protect it do not defend against cyber attacks (2). The modern world depends on global connectivity, and quantum computers have the

ogy, announced in 2017 the release of the D-Wave 2000Q, a quantum computer that outperforms its classical counterparts by up to 10,000 times in some tests, the device is still an early generation of quantum technology (5). There are still enormous challenges facing quantum developers, including the fact that qubits are incredibly unstable and require precise temperature and sound regulation (2). Michael Mosca, a leader in quantum research, has said that the question used to be “if quantum computers will become a reality. Now the question is ‘When will they become a reality?’” (1).

The time it takes for quantum computers to become feasible and mainstream is vital for the future of modern society. Several companies, including IBM and its Watson supercomputer, are working to create a viable cyber defense against quantum attacks, but they are still far from that goal (6). And if quantum computers become mainstream before the world has revamped

a relatively small quantum computer in the wrong hands could have the potential to steal government secrets with ease

potential to send us back to the stone age by making neutralizing internet security.

But before everyone panics about quantum computers, remember that this is all still hypothetical. Although D-Wave, a frontrunner in the race to perfect quantum technol-

Works Cited

(1) https://www.scientificamerican.com/ article/how-quantum-computing-could-changecybersecurity-forever-video/ (2) https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/ innovations/wp/2015/05/11/quantumcomputing-is-about-to-overturn-cybersecuritysbalance-of-power/?utm_term=.c84e388cdb53 (3)http://www.wired.co.uk/article/quantum-

its cybersecurity, the repercussions could be devastating. To avoid that possibility, we need to stop avoiding the threat of quantum technology and prepare for its inevitable arrival, so that we are prepared whenever it develops.

computing-explained (4) https://www.nytimes.com/2016/12/13/us/ politics/russia-hack-election-dnc.html (5) https://www.dwavesys.com/press-releases/ d-wave%C2%A0announces%C2%A0d-wave2000q-quantum-computer-and-first-systemorder (6) https://www.wired.com/2017/01/quantumcomputers-versus-hackers-round-one

Helix

Page 9


Tattoos

in the

Technology World

by Seokmin (Ryan) Choi

What if you could control one of your own devices through a fashionable extension of your skin? As wearables (technological items that can be worn) have risen to prominence in the technology world, people have found new, innovative ways such as using the Internet of Things (IoT) to control the electronics they use. A network of electronics that allow devices to send and receive data, IoT controls many different devices such as thermometers, fridges, smartwatches, and smart cars because each of those electronics has its own network connectivity to receive and send data (1).

the tattoo as well as customize the design of the tattoo to oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s liking (5).

These tattoos have different types of circuitry that can perform three different types of functions. First, they can act as an input mechanism where you can control your device (2). For example, you can wear a tattoo that serves as a trackpad to control your music player.6 Additionally, you could use the tattoo to navigate through a presentation using the tattoo as a button or even connect it with your device and have control over the volume of your music.

Although typical tattoos are not in the realm of technology, researchers at DuoSkin, a project at MIT Media Labs in collaboration with Microsoft Research, have created a tattoo that allows you to wirelessly control different devices (2). Because of her drive for meshing fashion and technology together, Cindy Hsin-Liu Kao, a female PhD student at MIT, innovated the technology world (3). Influenced by her origins in Taiwan, she wanted people all over the world to be able to experience the cul-

Second, the tattoo can act as an output tool, displaying images or colors on your skin (2). For example, you could have a tattoo that changes color according to skin temperature or to reflect your mood (3). The tattoo could also be used as a health instrument measuring blood alcohol for example (5). By using electronic sensors that would deploy a drug causing the user to sweat, the sensor would analyze that sweat to indicate whether or not the user is sober (7).

ture of being able to restyle yourself (4). These temporary tattoos are composed of very thin piece of gold made by a company called Gold Leaf. Similar pieces of gold made by Gold Leaf can be often found in expensive desserts to show the dessertâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s delicacy and its fashion. When making the tattoo, one can customize the specific function of the circuitry that will be behind

Third, the tattoo can act as a communication device similar to a Near Field Communications (NFC) Tag, where you can read in data off your skin, after the tag being scanned (2). In addition, the tag can serve as your credit card or a movie ticket when you go to the movies. However, this innovative tattoo is not only used for technology benefits, but also used as a fashion tattoo. The difference between a regular

these tattoos could revolutionize the way we wear and utilize our devices

Page 10

Helix


Figure 1: From afar, it may look like a necklace, but up close, it’s actually a tattoo! Source: http://duoskin.media.mit.edu

tattoo and this variety is that this kind of tattoo emits a beautiful shine, making it appear like expensive jewelry (Figure 1) (4). For example, in the circuitry behind this tattoo you can add LEDs to show your style4. This invention hopes to revolutionize the tattoo parlor industry so that people can have easy access to this new link to communication and fashion. Moreover, one may customize the look of the tattoo by crafting a personalized de-

Works Cited (1) Meola, A. “Internet of Things Devices, Applications & Examples.” Business Insider, 19 Dec. 2016. Web. 05 Apr. 2017. (2) Lab, MIT Media. “DuoSkin.” DuoSkin. MIT, n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2016. (3) Etherington, D. “MIT’s DuoSkin Turns Temporary Tattoos into On-skin interfaces.”TechCrunch, 12 Aug. 2016. Web. 5 Apr. 2017. (4) Kao, C. , H. Christian. , A. Roseway , A. Calvo , and C. Schmandt “DuoSkin: Rapidly Prototyping On-Skin User Interfaces Using Skin-Friendly Materials.”DuoSkin: Rapidly Prototyping On-Skin

sign on the thin gold film from Gold Leaf (4). Imagine implementing this new technology at Milton Academy by way of our IA system. Students would never need to worry about losing or finding their IAs anymore, because the tattoo would become an extension of the individual student. As this new fashionable technology further evolves, the use of these tattoos could revolutionize the way we wear and utilize our devices.

User Interfaces (n.d.): n. pag. Duoskin Media Labs. MIT Media Labs, 12 Nov. 2016. Web. 16 May 2017. (5) Bhattacharya, A. “MIT Shows off a Smart Tattoo That Can Turn Your Skin into a Touchpad.” Quartz, 17 Aug. 2016. Web. 15 Feb. 2017. (6) Jesus, C. D. “DuoSkin: The Tattoo That Lets You Control Electronics From Your Skin.”Futurism. Ed. Sarah Marquart. Futurism, 10 Oct. 2016. Web. 5 Apr. 2017. (7) Bhattacharya, A. “An Electronic Temporary Tattoo Will Warn People If They’ve Had Too Much to Drink.” Quartz, 02 Aug. 2016. Web. 29 Mar. 2017

Helix

Page 11


Using Gold Nanoparticles by Kevin Lu

For many years, the main strategies for curing cancer have been performing radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and/ or surgery (1). Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages, with many treatments leaving patients in a weakened state.

Scientists have figured out a way to detect and treat cancer with nanotechnology and photothermal therapy, the use of electromagnetic radiation to heat nanoparticles (particles that have a size between 1-100nm) (2). To give some context, the width of DNA is just three nanometers. These treatments involve modifying gold nanoparticles, hereafter nanoparticles, to

Fight Cancer

seek cancer cells and attach themselves to the tumor (Figure 1) (2).

Depending on the composition of the nanoparticles, their properties will differ. Spherical particles can be taken up by the body more effectively by slipping through cells; however, rod particles are able to better absorb near infrared radiation (650 nm-950 nm) (3). One example of a nanoparticle is gold nanoshells, which are spherical particles that have a 100 nm silica core and a 15 nm gold coating (3). Changing the thickness of each layer of the nanoshells would also cause the nanoparticle to more efficiently absorb and transmit energy (3).

Figure 1: The red lightning bolt represents the near infrared radiation that passes through and heats the gold nanoparticle. The nanoparticle then transmits the heat onto the cancer cell, which then dies. The green sticks on the gold nanoparticle represent cancer antibodies that lead the gold nanoparticle to the cancer cell, which is shown as the grey oval. Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nanobodies_for_ photothermal_therapy.gif

Page 12

to

Helix

The seeking done by nanoparticles can be accomplished by attaching cancer antibodies (cancer specific proteins) to the nanoparticles, allowing them seek out cancer cells (4). It takes around 24 hours for particles to accumulate at the tumor site (3). The particles that do not make it to the tumor will eventually get flushed out of the body (2).

Once the nanoparticles attach to the tumor, photothermal therapy is performed. This therapy involves using a near infrared laser to heat the nanoparticles (5). Because the light from the laser is near infrared, the light is able to pass through surrounding tissue doing no observable damage (5). As it does so, it heats up the nanoparticles and the energy is transferred to the tumor cells (5). The nanoparti-


cles cause the cancer cellsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; temperature to increase by around 37° Celsius (2). In an experiment, mice that received a nanoparticle treatment had no evidence of tumor growth, while the group of mice that did not receive the treatment had uncontrollable tumor growth within weeks (5).

Another way nanotechnology is being used to treat cancer is through the use of injectable nanoparticle generators (iNPG). The iNPG brings a drug into the tumor cells where the drug can be released (6). The structure of iNPG allows it to pass through cells in a way other drugs can not (6). In traditional methods, 99.9% of the drug remains in the healthy tissue because tumor cells create extra protection (6). The iNPG accumulates in the lungs and liver where, once it reaches the tumor, the iNPG releases a drug attached to nanoparticles (6). The drug then wraps itself up, disguising

The iNPG method allows for the drug to be better delivered to the tumor than happens in chemotherapy. It does so by accumulating in the tumor cell thus avoiding damage to healthy tissue, a major drawback from current forms of cancer treatment (6).

Since the idea of treating cancer with nanotechnology is relatively new, the current costs of production are high. If the process does ever get approved, nanotechnology has the potential to be a faster, cheaper, more reliable, and less invasive method than other forms of treating cancer. The nanoparticles could also be modified to track down bacteria, such as Salmonella, in a similar way (7). This treatment would be more precise and less time consuming than the current methods of detection and elimination (7).

scientists have figured out a way to detect and treat cancer with nanotechnology and photothermal therapy itself as a cell part, where the drug is taken in by the tumor cell and the pH in one part of the cell causes the drug to detach, killing the cell (6).

Works Cited

(1) https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/ treatment/types (2) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/ PMC3473940/ (3) http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ nl052396o (4) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/

anie.200903958/abstract (5) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/ PMC263851/ (6) https://www.cancer.gov/news-events/ cancer-currents-blog/2016/nanoparticlegenerator-metastases (7) http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/ document/5570975/

Helix

Page 13


How Electronic Ink Has Changed Future of the Environment

the

by Kate Jones

Electrophoretic ink, also referred to as electronic ink, has changed the way many people read. This intriguing invention, commonly seen in Electronic Paper Displays (EPDs) such as Amazon KindlesŠ and Barnes & Noble Nooks(R), has increased in popularity since its introduction because its ease of use and decrease in paper usage has resulted in a surge in popularity since its introduction.

Simple chemistry, physics, and electronics provide the foundation of electronic ink even though this somewhat new invention may sound complicated (1). Electronic paper is made up of millions of microcapsules, each of which contain negatively charged black particles and positively charged white particles suspended in a clear fluid (1). (See Figure 1) When the reader interacts with the screen, to turn the page, for example, their touch causes the device to apply an either positively or negatively charged electric field to the microcapsule (1). If the field is positive, the white particles go to the top of the microcapsule

and become visible to the reader; if the field is negative, the black particles go to the top and become visible (1). To create the electronic paper, the microcapsules are put on a film of plastic that is attached to a layer of circuitry that creates the electric field and displays the text or image (2). This technology uses the same ink pigments as printing, making electronic ink very similar to the traditional ink used on regular paper (1). This electronic ink was developed by the E Ink company and is bistable, which means that power is only used to create the image on the EPD, and it takes no power to keep the image displayed (1). Therefore, EPDs last a long time on a single charge (1). Whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s more, in a EPD, the light source comes from the environment around the device as opposed to a backlight, a technology found on gadgets such as smartphones (1). This technology makes the EPD les harmful to oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s eyes when one reads for a long time and also extends battery life without the backlight draining power (1).

Figure 1: Graphic depiction of the components contained in each microcapsule of electronic ink

Page 14

Source: http://runeman.org/articles/e-ink.html

Helix


The invention of electronic ink and paper also has had a positive impact on our environment. Using an e-reader as opposed to a paper book cuts down on petroleum and carbon usage, avoids certain toxic materials, and, most importantly, lessens deforestation. America’s constant use of petroleum is a serious problem due to its negative environmental effects and rapidly decreasing supply (3). Downloading an e-book requires minimal petroleum in

such as polyvinyl chloride (4), a plastic whose production releases harmful greenhouse gasses. Perhaps the most significant environmental issue that electronic ink can help address is deforestation. In 2008, before e-readers gained popularity, 125 million trees were cut down and used for books and newspapers (4). E-readers use no paper or trees and therefore help cut down on this unnecessary waste of trees.

contrast to manufacturing and transporting a paper book (3). America’s carbon emission is another major environmental issue. Devices like e-readers address this issue as the carbon emitted from making and using an Amazon Kindle© will be offset by the energy saved in its first year of use, according to a recent study about the device’s environmental impact (4). A recent Cleantech study estimated that constructing 144 paper books released about 1,074 kilograms of carbon-dioxide, whereas only 168 kilograms of carbon-dioxide were released when the same 144 books were downloaded in the 4 year lifespan of a Kindle© (4). Another environmental benefit to using electronic paper is that it, unlike many other modern-day electronic devices, is not made with certain toxic materials

This recently developed technology is considered a major advance in science due to its positive environmental impact and other stated benefits. Electronic ink and paper have changed the way we read by using electric fields and positively and negatively charged microcapsules rather than traditional paper made from trees. As more people use e-readers as opposed to regular books, they will both minimize the use of our natural resources such as petroleum as well as lower our carbon emission. This new technology is a good example of how scientific innovations work to help keep our planet healthy.

in 2008, 125 million trees were cut down and used for books and newspapers

Works Cited

(1) “Ink Technology.” E Ink: Technology: Electrophoretic Technology. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2015. <http://www.eink.com/technology. html>. (2) “Display Modules.” E Ink: Technology. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Oct. 2015. <http://www.eink. com/modules.html>. (3) Baldwin, Chelsea. “The Environmental

Impact of the e-Reader.” Scribol. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2015. <http://scribol.com/geek/theenvironmental-impact-of-the-e-reader>. (4) Hutsko, Joe. “Are E-Readers Greener Than Books?” The New York Times. N.p., 31 Aug. 2009. Web. 19 Oct. 2015. <http://green. blogs.nytimes.com/2009/08/31/are-e-readersgreener-than-books/?_r=0>.

Helix

Page 15


Candles by Max Hui

of

Our Past

When you look up into the night sky, does it cross your mind that the stars above contain the secrets of our origin, lighting the past like candles in the dark? Artistically rendered in Figure 1, CR7 is a cluster of stars under close scientific watch that may one day reveal the workings of the early universe.

Figure 1: Artist’s impression of a star cluster in CR7, a galaxy thought to be home to the last few remaining population III stars.

produced, resulting in a supernova. As the elements involved in the fusion process become heavier and heavier, the process yields continually diminishing returns: the energy released (represented in Figure 3 as “binding energy”) is greatest between hydrogen (H1) and helium (He4); compare this with the energy difference between carbon and oxygen (C12 and O16) and it becomes apparent that the energy released becomes lesser and lesser until iron (Fe56) is reached. Here, the graph begins to decrease, indicating that the fusion of iron takes more energy than is being produced. At this point, the process comes to a halt, and the star begins to collapse; however, the core of a large star is so massive that upon this cataclysmic collapse the star is engulfed in a explosion so violent that even the heaviest of elements—gold, lead, uranium, to name a few—are fused and scattered across the skies (4). Only through such supernovae can anything heavier than iron form and be distributed into space; in fact, every element we see on this planet was once synthesized in the

Source: http://www.eso.org/public/images/eso1524a/ Stars are radiant spheres of nuclear fusion Credit: ESO/M. Kormmesser.

that combine smaller atoms into larger ones. The nuclear fusion produces an outward pressure on the star, countering the star’s own gravity and preventing it from collapsing (1). A star begins by fusing atoms of the lightest element, hydrogen, into helium atoms; after the hydrogen runs out, it will fuse the helium atoms into carbon atoms. At this point, fusion stops in smaller stars less than 8 times the mass of the sun, which are not massive enough to fuse the carbon atoms into heavier ones (2). Larger stars, however, continue to synthesize heavier elements, producing oxygen, then neon, magnesium, silicon, which creates iron (3). The order of stellar nucleosynthesis—the creation of elements by fusion in stars—is illustrated in Figure 2. Stellar nucleosynthesis ceases after iron is

Page 16

Figure 2: The order in which elements are synthesized within massive stars, starting with hydrogen (H, on the outside ring) and ending with iron (Fe, in the center). The iron core is inert and does not fuse; it continually builds up in the core until all of the other elements are exhausted Source: Wikimedia Commons. Credit: Xenoforme https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Burningshells.png

Helix


which is comprised of younger stars with a greater metal content, and Population II, which encompasses low-metallicity stars that are relatively older.

This classification system has led scientists to theorize a new generation of stars: Population III, stars formed of primordial spacedust and matter, with virtually no trace of heavy metals (7, 8). Such pristine Figure 3: Binding energies for all elements in the periodic table. The difference in stars, unsullied by the energy between hydrogen and helium is the greatest, and the fusion of heavier heavy metals proelements yields less and less energy until iron (element 56), where fusion beduced in supernovae, comes an energy-wasting process. must have formed in Source: Wikimedia Commons. Credit: Fastfission https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ the earliest age of the File:Binding_energy_curve_-_common_isotopes.svg universe. Such stars may be able to shed heart of a supernova (5). some light on how the budding cosmos That heavy metals such as gold and copper helped shape the very first stars. CR7 is can only be fused in supernovae is a key ina small and old galaxy believed to contain dicator to scientists, as the metallicity (the the remaining few detectable Population amount of trace metals) of a star can help III stars (8); by studying it, scientists are determine its age (6). Stars with high methoping to learn more about our origins and al contents must have formed after these the conditions at the time the stars were elements were synthesized in supernovae, formed. CR7 may be one of our only ways making them comparatively younger than to look back at these stars—these candles the stars that formed without these trace of our past—to observe the ancient and metals. As such, these stars are classified untouched universe just beyond our grasp. into two distinct categories: Population I,

Works Cited

(1) Chaisson, E., and McMillan, S.,. Astronomy Today. Boston, Pearson, 2014. (2) “Solar Mass Stars.” The Death of Stars, Australia Telescope National Facility, 7 July 2016, www.atnf.csiro.au/ outreach/education/senior/astrophysics/stellarevolution_ deathlow.html. (3) Schombert, James. “Stellar Evolution: Red Giants.” Astronomy 122, University of Oregon, abyss.uoregon. edu/~js/ast122/lectures/lec16.html. (4) Bolte, Mike. “Type II Supernovae.” UC Observatories, UC Santa Cruz, www.ucolick.org/~bolte/AY4_00/week8/SNeII. html. (5) Pandian, Jagadheep D. “How Are Light and Heavy Elements Formed? (Advanced).” Ask an Astronomer,

Cornell University, 27 June 2015, http://curious.astro. cornell.edu/about-us/84-the-universe/stars-and-starclusters/nuclear-burning/402-how-are-light-and-heavyelements-formed-advanced. (6) Metallicity of Stars. Durham University, icc.dur. ac.uk/~tt/Lectures/Galaxies/TeX/lec/node27.html. (7) “Population III.” COSMOS, Swineburne University, astronomy.swin.edu.au/cosmos/P/Population+III. (8) Carr, Bernard J. “Cosmology, Population III.” Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech, ned.ipac.caltech.edu/ level5/ESSAYS/Carr/carr.html. (9) Garching. “Best Observational Evidence of FirstGeneration Stars in the Universe.” Astronomy Magazine, 17 June 2015, www.astronomy.com/news/2015/06/the-verylarge-telescope-discovers-brightest-distant-galaxy-andsigns-of-population-iii-stars.

Helix

Page 17


Light-Emitting Diode Concussion Treatment by Alexandra Galls

Concussion research has become a major topic of discussion in sports, with 40% of former National Football League (NFL) players in a recent study showing signs of traumatic brain injury (TBI) (1). Concussions and related brain injuries affect not only NFL players but also the broader population, with around 1.7 million people assessed for TBI in the United States every year (2). Individuals who have served in the military are especially vulnerable; over 15% of soldiers returning from Iraq reported cases of TBI (3).

TBI includes both concussions and more serious brain injuries (4). In TBI, a “jolt to the head or a penetrating head injury… disrupts the normal function of the brain” (4). Although the brain is well protected

Figure 1: Image showing MRI of brain abnormality in Patient from source (6). One frontal born is enlarged; an enarged frontal born is linked to congitive decline.

Page 18

by not only the skull but also cerebrospinal fluid cushioning the brain, the force of an impact may cause the brain to be bruised by the skull, nerve fibers to be pulled, and blood vessels to be torn (5). While any of these occurrences can affect brain function, the effect worsens significantly with multiple impacts (5), as often occurs in the NFL.

Increasingly substantial clinical trials are currently testing a promising treatment for TBI: the use of light-emitting diode (LED) treatment. Light at red and near infrared wavelengths is delivered to the damaged brain by application of LED clusters to the scalp (2, 6). The light is absorbed by the protein cytochrome c oxidase (6), an enzyme that resides towards the end of electron transport chains of the mitochondria (7). In the mitochondria, the cell’s adenosine triphosphate (which provides the energy for cellular work) is synthesized through the process of cellular respiration (6). Cytochrome c oxidase is an important regulator in the oxidative phosphorylation step of respiration that is necessary for the synthesis (7). Therefore, light absorption by cytochrome c oxidase boosts adenosine triphosphate production in response to the low metabolic activity associated with chronic TBI (6).

Various trials of this LED therapy have already been performed. A recent study administered 20-minute treatment sessions three times a week for six weeks to eleven patients (2). Patients showed fewer symptoms of TBI post-treatment (2), a contrast with the poor results of alterna-

Helix


tive TBI therapies such as pharmaceutical treatments and nutritional supplements (8). One patient in an earlier study had had a distinguished military career as a high-ranking officer but, prior to LED therapy, had ultimately entered medical disability because of cognitive dysfunction (Fig. 1). Following LED treatment she was able to resume full-time employment (6).

is part of a multi-year partnership between the Players Association and the Football Players Health Study at Harvard University (10). Given the serious concerns about football player brain health, the results of the new study will hopefully reflect the same positive result as the previous trials of LED treatment for TBI.

Testing of LED therapy for TBI has progressed to a double-blind randomized controlled trial funded by the NFL Players Association (10). This double-blind study

Works Cited

(1) Andrews, T. M. “40 Percent of Former NFL Players Suffer from Brain Injuries, New Study Shows.” The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/ morning-mix/wp/2016/04/12/40-percent-offormer-nfl-players-suffer-from-brain-damagenew-study-shows/?utm_term=.126716ec9ce5. (2) Naeser, M. A., R. Zafonte, M. H. Krengel, P. I. Martin, J. Frazier, M. R. Hamblin, J. A. Knight, W. P. Meehan, III, and E. H. Baker. “Significant Improvements in Cognitive Performance PostTranscranial, Red/Near-Infrared Light-Emitting Diode Treatments in Chronic, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Open-Protocol Study.” Journal of Neurotrauma 31, no. 11 (June 2014): 100817. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/ PMC4043367/. (3) Hoge, C. W., D. McGurk, J. L. Thomas, A. L. Cox, C. C. Engel, and C. A. Castro. “Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in US Soldiers Returning from Iraq.” The New England Journal of Medicine 358, no. 5 (January 31, 2008): 45363. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/ NEJMoa072972#t=article. (4) “TBI: Get the Facts.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/ traumaticbraininjury/get_the_facts.html. (5) “Concussions.” American Association of Neurological Surgeons. http://www.aans.org/ patient%20information/conditions%20and%20 treatments/concussion.aspx. (6) Naeser, M. A., A. Saltmarche, M. H. Krengel,

M. R. Hamblin, and J. A. Knight. “Improved Cognitive Function After Transcranial, LightEmitting Diode Treatments in Chronic, Traumatic Brain Injury: Two Case Reports.” Photomedicine and Laser Surgery 29, no. 5 (May 2011): 35158. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/ PMC3104287/. (7) Li, Y., J. Park, J. Deng, and Y. Bai. “Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit IV Is Essential for Assembly and Respiratory Function of the Enzyme Complex.” Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes 38, nos. 5-6 (December 2006): 283-91. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/ articles/PMC1885940/. (8) Morries, L. D., P. Cassano, and T. A. Henderson. “Treatments for Traumatic Brain Injury With Emphasis on Transcranial NearInfrared Laser Phototherapy.” Neurophyschiatric Disease and Treatment 11 (2015): 2159-75. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/ PMC4550182/. (9) Apostolova, L. G., A. E. Green, S. Babakchanian, K. S. Hwang, Y. Chou, A. W. Toga, and P. M. Thompson. “Hippocampal Atrophy and Ventricular Enlargement in Normal Aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease.” Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 26, no. 1 (January 2012): 17-27. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pmc/articles/PMC3286134/. (10) Shridhare, L. “Widening the Field.” Harvard Medical School: The Football Players Health Study. https://hms.harvard.edu/news/wideningfield.

Helix

Page 19


The Potential of 3D Printing for Internal Organs by Daniel Little

When people need a new organ, they are often placed on a waiting list, and left hoping for an organ donor whose organs are compatible with the recipient’s body. This donor-recipient matching system has proven to be somewhat ineffective, partially because of a lack of willing donors: only 45% of adults are registered organ donors, but in some states, such as New York, that number decreases to only 12.7% (1). As a result, about 22 people died each day in the United States in 2015 from a lack of organs for transplant (2). 3D printing, a modern technology that has improved greatly in recent years, offers a unique solution to this problem: What if we could 3D-print human organs as needed? Although the ultimate goal of printing whole organs for transplant is still out of our reach, we have made significant strides in using 3D printing both inorganic and biological material, or bioprinting, for medicine. Where are we right now with 3D printing and its uses in medicine? Althugh scientists currently do not know how to print an organ for transplant, they are experimenting in ways to print non-biological materials to help medical problems. For example, a team of scientists, with members from University of Minnesota, Virginia Tech, University of Maryland, Princeton University, and Johns Hopkins University have used 3D printing to allow injured nerves to regenerate (3). The team mapped the nerve’s original pathway with a scanner, and then 3D printed a special guide, somewhat like a scaffold, for the nerve to grow back (3). The Y-shaped scaffold was embedded with chemicals, which aid nerve regeneration (Fig. 1) (3).

Page 20

The team used the scaffold on a rat’s damaged sciatic nerve, and the rat’s nerve healed, allowing the rat to walk normally 10-12 weeks after the scaffold was installed (3). Nerve injuries have very complex mechanisms, and in many cases, the damaged nerve is unable to be repaired (3). These uses of 3D-printing demonstrate its innovative use in medicine, but how close exactly are we to printing organs for human transplant? We have successfully printed “human” livers, but these function only as stand-alone organs, and cannot be transplanted due to their short lifespan. These organs would die before blood vessels could develop (4). The short lifespan of the organs presents challenges for putting them in humans; however, scientists at the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine have spent the last 10 years developing a successful system to print longer-lasting biological tissue (5,6). The system, called the Integrated Tissue and Organ Printing System (ITOP), uses a custom-built 3D printer to print multiple components, which work together to allow bioprinted material to integrate with a living organism (5,6). The first component, the tissue itself, is printed in a “water-based gel” material specifically designed for cell growth (5,6). The second component is a biodegradable structural material, which acts as a scaffold, and holds the printed cells in place (5,6). This structural material also contains miniscule channels to allow vital molecules to diffuse into the bioprinted tissue, keeping it alive long enough to develop necessary structures like blood vessels (5,6). Technologies like ITOP are forging the path towards bioprinted organs.

Helix


Figure 1. A 3D-printed Y-shaped scaffold. The scaffold is chemically impregnated to allow a ratâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s sciatic nerve to heal. The rat was able to walk again 10-12 weeks after the scaffold was installed. Source: Michael McAlpine, University of Minnesota

Although 3D printed organs for transplant are a goal we have not yet reached, researchers are delving into new territory and examining certain aspects of bioprinting, such as longevity of the tissue, that need to be mastered in order to print functional organs. The potential applications for bioprinted organs are immense: organs could be made as needed, rather than from willing donors. Ideally, we would print organs using the very tissue of the person in need of an organ, and then the chance of organ

Works Cited

(1) https://www.theatlantic.com/health/ archive/2014/11/why-dont-people-want-todonate-their-organs/382297/ (2) http://www.organdonor.gov/statisticsstories/statistics.html (3) https://www.sciencedaily.com/ releases/2015/09/150918105030.htm

rejection would be dramatically decreased, because incompatible variables like blood type of the donor and recipient would no longer be a concern. If the organ-printing system becomes cheap enough, the cost of an organ transplant could even be reduced, as only the recipient needs surgery, rather than both a donor and recipient. If bioprinting organs would allow us to overcome these hurdles, countless lives would be saved.

(4) http://organovo.com/tissues-services/ exvive3d-human-tissue-models-servicesresearch/exvive3d-liver-tissue-performance/ (5) https://www.sciencedaily.com/ releases/2016/02/160215113856.htm (6) https://3dprint.com/133438/3dbioprinting-where-are-we/ (7) Michael McAlpine, University of Minnesota

Helix

Page 21


Water

on

Mars

by Nina Taneja

Recently, NASA has made staggering discoveries about the universe, contributing to some of the most eventful years yet in terms of space exploration. In the never-ending search for extraterrestrial life, NASA has made two major discoveries– liquid water on Mars, and a planet very similar to Earth in terms of size and temperature. In late September of 2015, NASA released a statement saying the organization has strong reason to believe there is liquid water on Mars. Earlier, in July, Nasa found Earth’s “cousin” in space.

NASA researchers have detected and described “signatures of hydrated minerals on slopes where mysterious streaks are seen” (1) on Mars through cameras aboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. These dark lines fluctuate and change their paths depending on season through slopes and hills (Figure 1). These exist in areas above -10 degrees fahrenheit (1) and strongly suggest the existence of liquid water on Mars. The average pressure of Mars’s atmosphere

(7.5mb) is vastly lower than that of Earth’s (1,013 mb), explaining how water can be liquid at a lower temperature on Mars (2). However, National Geographic reports that “for all their picturesque drama, these dark marks represent more of a trickle than a flow” (Figure 2) (3). Although it was well known previously that frozen water or water from millions of years ago existed on Mars, the discovery of even scarce liquid water on the surface is still mind-altering for scientists worldwide. Mars was thought to be vastly different from Earth in its current state, with its cold temperatures, thin atmosphere, and dust storms. However, water on Mars doesn’t necessarily equate to life on the planet, or whether Mars can even support life. One astronaut describes NASA’s approach towards Mars by saying that “our quest on Mars has been to ‘follow the water,’ in our search for life in the universe, and now we have convincing science that validates what we’ve long suspected.” (1)

Modeled by “a digital terrain map of the area based on stereo information from two HiRISE observations”, the dark patterns on the slopes of Mars prove as evidence to scientists of liquid water flowing on Mars.

Source: http://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/jpl/pia19916/recurring-lineae-on-slopes-at-hale-crater-mars

Page 22

Helix


Just a few months earlier, NASA’s Kepler Space Telescope found Kepler-452b, a planet 1,400 light years away from earth, with a diameter 60% greater than Earth’s (4). Kepler-452b is the only known planet similar to Earth in size and temperature, in what astronomers call “the habitable zone”. JPL reports that the habitable zone, also called the “Goldilocks Zone”, is “the band of congenial temperatures for planetary orbits — not too close and not too far” (5), a notion similar to Goldilocks and her porridge. A Figure 2. In a picture taken by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, planet too close to its starwould black streaks shown above demonstrate the existence of liquid, be “fried”(5), and a planet too far although it may be a small amount. would freeze. A planet like KeSource: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2015/09/150928mars-liquid-water-confirmed-surface-streaks-space-astronomy/ pler-452b in the habitable zone could potentially have liquid waBut why is finding life and liquid water so ter on its surface, and support life forms important to NASA and the science comsimilar to Earth’s. The Earth and Sky Ormunity? The answer is twofold. Curiosity ganization reported that Kepler-452b has and the thirst for knowledge about outer spent 6 billion years in the habitable zone space and our place in it are certainly imof its star, making it older than Earth. The portant. Another motive for finding life planet even has a 385 day year and is only outside earth is the idea that humans could 5% farther from its star than Earth is to inhabit one of these planets some time in the sun (4). According to NASA’s Ames the distant future. While it seems impossiResearch Center, the age of the planet ble to transport humans to a planet 1,400 suggests “substantial opportunity for life light years away, the risks to humans speto arise, should all the necessary ingredicies from climate change, potential asterents and conditions for life exist on this oid impacts and overpopulation makes the planet”(4). While NASA has found other search for a “new earth” essential. planets similar to Earth, Kepler 452-b is extraordinarily similar in almost all aspects, making it a prime candidate for habitation.

Works Cited

(1) Brown, Dwayne and Cantillo, Laurie. “NASA confirms evidence that Liquid Water flows on Today’s Mars”. NASA, 28 September 2015 https://www.nasa.gov/press-release/nasaconfirms-evidence-that-liquid-water-flows-ontoday-s-mars (2) “Humans and Atmospheric Pressure” Phoenix Mars Mission, University of Arizona http://phoenix.lpl.arizona.edu/mars103.php (3) Drake, Nadia. “Water on Mars – What does it really mean?” National Geographic. 29

September 2015 http://news.nationalgeographic. com/2015/09/150928-mars-liquid-water-lifespace-astronomy/ (4) “Kepler-452b is older, bigger Earth cousin”. Earth and Sky Organization. 23 July 2015 (http://earthsky.org/space/kepler-452b-isearths-bigger-older-cousin) (5) Brennan, Pat. “Finding Another Earth”. Planet Quest. Cal Tech Jet Propulsion Lab. 23 July 2015. http://planetquest.jpl.nasa.gov/news/207

Helix

Page 23


Multiverses by Alexa Perlov

Throughout the past decades, physicists have made vast advancements towards understanding our universe and where we come from. Yet, there is still so much we have yet to discover. Namely, are we alone in outer space? Or are we simply one universe floating in a matrix of multiverses?

To understand the hypotheses supporting multiverses, we must first understand both the origins and the geometry of our universe. Based on many cosmological observations, scientists believe our universe originated from the Big Bang. The Big Bang Theory states that our universe started out extremely hot and dense and has since been expanding and cooling (2). Therefore, the universe should have radiation that is “remnant heat left over from the Big Bang” (5). This radiation can be seen via satellites and is called the Cosmic Microwave Background, also known as the CMB (5). When the universe had expanded and

bending, which would yield an angle larger than 1° (7). Conversely, in a hyperbolic universe, light travels at an angle less than 1° (7). That the geometry of our universe is flat reveals that it will expand for an infinite amount of time while the expansion rate approaches zero (8). If the universe was spherical or hyperbolic, the universe would either be closed and eventually collapse or it would be open and expand forever, respectively (8).

So, because the universe is flat and will expand forever, the possibility of multiple universes seems probable (3). Additionally, there are only so many ways particles can be rearranged (3). Thus, in an infinitely large multiverse, eventually universes could start repeating themselves, creating a multiverse of many parallel universes (3). Some of these universes may be exactly the same as our own, some may differ by

because the curvature of space determines how light travels, the universe must be flat cooled down enough to be transparent, the first photons that had escaped are what compose the CMB (2). Satellites display the temperature fluctuations of the CMB (Fig. 1) (6). These temperature variations allowed scientists to measure the observed angular size of the hot and cold spots, which they found to be 1° (6). This means that light travels at an angle of 1°, and because the curvature of space determines how light travels, the universe must be flat (7). In a spherical universe, light travels by

Page 24

only one extra particle combination, and some may be completely different.

Another theory, known as Bubble Universes, states that pockets of space may be inflating due to a similar Big Bang, while other pockets of space may have stopped (3). This idea of eternal inflation argues that the multiverse is composed of bubble universes, each dictated by different laws of physics (3).

Helix


Figure 1: The image of the Cosmic Microwave Background captured via satellite.

Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:WMAP_image_of_the_CMB_anisotropy.jpg

The Daughter Universe Theory is founded on the basis of quantum mechanics -- how subatomic particles behave. This theory states that for every decision you make, another universe branches off where you execute the other option (3). This theory is based off of probability rather than definite outcomes (3). However, for now, thereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s no sure way of verifying any of these theories. Even with the highest quality telescopes, we can only

Works Cited

(1) http://www.learner.org/courses/physics/ unit/text.html?unit=11&secNum=3 (2) http://curious.astro.cornell.edu/theuniverse/cosmology-and-the-big-bang (3) http://www.space.com/18811-multipleuniverses-5-theories.html (4) http://theconversation.com/the-theory-ofparallel-universes-is-not-just-maths-it-is-sciencethat-can-be-tested-46497

the possibility of multiple universes seems probable

see 13.8 billion light years away. But who knows, with the rapid advancement in technology, maybe the answers are closer than we think.

(5) https://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/universe/bb_ tests_cmb.html http://www.learner.org/courses/physics/visual/ (6) visual.html?shortname=wmap_unit4 http://www.einstein-online.info/spotlights/ cosmic_sound (7) http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/ StarChild/questions/question35.html

Helix

Page 25


Exploring Connections Between Human Emotions and Physiology by Christine Flatley

Every day, we feel different emotions. We feel happiness when we hug a friend; we feel anxiety when assignment deadlines haunt our minds; we feel angry when things donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t go our way. We get used to feeling these common emotions. But have you ever noticed that you feel each sentiment in a different place in your body? Have you ever noticed that when you get angry, you feel the heavy tension at the top of your body, around your chest and head? It turns out that each emotion occurs in its very own place of your body.

Cognitive neuroscience researchers explored how the mind and the body are connected, focusing particularly on the question of how every emotion closely connects to human physiology. In a 5 part experiment, they used 701 participantsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; perceptions of where certain emotions occurred in their bodies to create a chart that would

map out where exactly emotions happen. (1)

In the first part, researchers did not use outside sources to trigger emotion among the participants (1). Participants were asked to verbally describe where they felt love, fright, surprise, anger, joy, unhappiness, disgust, pride, jealousy, humiliation and several other emotions; participants were also asked to pinpoint where they felt the state of being neutral (3). Then, when the name of a particular emotion was read out loud, participants marked on a computer image of a human body where they felt a reaction to that sentiment (1). The computer screen displayed two outlines of human bodies (1). For the first body, the participants marked the area on the silhouette where they felt a sudden boost of activity, such as a faster heart rate; for the second body, they marked the opposite: a decrease in activity (3). Results revealed that positive, warm boosts of energy were

Figure 1: Change in activation of body regions when feeling emotions. Warm colors denote increased activation while cool colors denote decreased activation. (The color bar indicates the t-statistic value.) From source (1).

Page 26

Helix


commonly felt everywhere, but most commonly around the heart and the head (1). In addition, the majority of the participants felt sadness around the head and limbs, whereas anger was commonly felt in the arms and hands (2).

In the second experiment, the participants were again asked to rate sensations, this time after the scientists read “vignettes”, or short narratives, that could trigger strong emotional feelings without mention of the emotion scientists were trying to activate. Then, scientists asked participants to gauge the intensity of the emotion on a scale from 1, the lowest, to 5, the highest (2). For example, a vignette intended to stimulate sadness read, “While visiting the hospital, you see a dying child who can barely keep her eyes open,” while a vignette meant to make you feel happy read, “It’s a beautiful summer day. You drive to the beach with your friends in a convertible and the music is blasting from the stereo.” (1)

The fourth experiment consisted of two male actors and two female actresses, each portraying different emotions on his or her face. The participants wrote down how each face made them feel. Finally, in the fifth experiment, “heatmaps”, or colorful pictures, similar to the picture in this article (see Fig. 1) displayed some physiological responses to emotions existing in certain areas of the body. However, the participants had to pick the emotion they believed the picture resembled. (1)

Using data gathered from each of their 5 experiments, the researchers was able to differentiate the physical feelings of anger and happiness. The experiments demonstrate that although these feelings both originate from the brain, they go on to have different physical effects. Because the participants were selected from several countries including Finland, Taiwan, and Sweden, the researchers concluded

although both anger and happiness In the third experioriginate from the brain, they have ment, the individuals were asked to caredifferent physical effects fully watch short pieces of movies, which were meant to trigger certain emotions (3). These excerpts had no sound, and there was no limit on how many times a participant could watch the video clip. After they watched the short clips, participants reported which emotion they felt (1).

Works Cited

(1) http://www.pnas.org/content/111/2/646. full (2) http://www.huffingtonpost. com/2014/01/03/body-emotions-finnish-studyvideo_n_4532617.html

that different emotions are universally felt in the same areas of the body (2). With this fact in mind, the scientists believe that their work in this research project will not only help to learn more about depression and anxiety, but also to give doctors across the world an easier time diagnosing emotional illnesses.

(3) http://www.usnews.com/news/ articles/2013/12/30/study-finds-emotions-canbe-mapped-to-the-body (4) http://www.npr.org/sections/healthshots/2013/12/30/258313116/mappingemotions-on-the-body-love-makes-us-warm-allover

Helix

Page 27


Keisha Baffour-Addo Interviewed by Emma James

What college will you attend? Columbia University.

What will your major/focus area be in college?

I’m currently hoping to major in Neuroscience & Behavior with a possible concentration in Comparative Literature.

Why do you like science?

I think those who study science tend to have a poor creative reputation because of the tangibility of statistics and data, but I think science, for the most part, is a subject that lends itself to creativity, which I really enjoy, because creativity keeps you on your toes. The approach to a scientific question or the explanation of data are just two examples of areas in which creativity comes to play, and in a way, science reminds me of a never ending puzzle-- the more you play

Luke Cadigan

Interviewed by Patrick Huang

What will your major/focus area be in college?

I’m considering computer programming or psychology, but I’m very undecided.

What college will you attend?

I will be attending Brown University.

Why do you like science?

I really enjoy seeing the complexity that can emerge from a few simple rules. I mean, interactions among a mere four fundamental forces can explain all the insanity of our universe.

How did you first become interested in science? Even as a kid, I enjoyed pop sci-

Page 28

with the pieces, rotating and shifting them, the more you discover. That being said, I would say the most fascinating aspect of science is in its ability to provide a sense of logic or understanding to how both we and our world work, what we are made of, and how we move forth with the knowledge scientists all over the world acquire every day.

What was your DYO this year? Favorite DYO at Milton?

This year, my DYO consisted of testing various ratios of manganese to iron and observing the effect on both the germination percentage and the growth of ryegrass. I think my favorite one at Milton would be my junior year DYO. I worked with Daphnia, which are small, translucent crustaceans; under a microscope you can see the heart. In my experiment, I increased the amount of caffeine in their “tanks” and observed if the rate of recovery would differ as their heart rates increased. I’m pretty positive that not only

was my data insignificant with extremely high AAD values, but it was all over the place. Nevertheless, I had fun.

What is your senior project?

I’ve decided to do two half projects. The first is a book club with Michelle Erdenesanaa, Karina Cheung, and Ms. Goldenberg, where we will be reading Swing Time, Invisible Man, and Between the World and Me. For my second half project, I am writing a set of songs (piano/voice) and performing them.

ence in the form of Animal Planet, Discovery channel and books of fun facts. But probably the first time I really considered science (particularly computer science) as a career path was from working with Jacob Aronoff (now a freshman at Northeastern) and Mr. Hales. Their genuine enthusiasm for programming was infectious, and they’ve been amazingly supportive in my pursuit of programming.

Which science electives did you take?

I took Advanced Physics, Nuclear Physics, and Cosmology and Modern Physics.

Have you done any internships or held any jobs related to your interests?

I’ve worked with Mr. Hales over the summer to try to develop an app that allows Milton students and teacher to schedule frees together.

Helix

This internship was very helpful at teaching the basics of app design and database manipulation. For this summer, Mr. Hales helped me and other students find a job at Brain Power, a Cambridge company that is attempting to use Google Glasses technology to assist people with autism.


Tyler Piazza

Interviewed by Patrick Huang

What will your major/focus area be in college? I intend to focus on mathematics and computer science in college.

What college will you attend? Harvard University

How did you first become interested in science and how did you explore your interest in science?

When I was in elementary school, I participated in something called a “Pinewood Derby” in my local Cub Scout troop. The premise of this derby was that we were given a wooden block with wheels, and we were supposed to make modifications to the car so that it would be the fastest car to go down a

Ege Yalcindag

Interviewed by Emma James

What will your major/focus area be in college? I think that I want to major in biology, but I’m not sure what I would focus on. I really like molecular biology so probably that, in combination with something like anthropology or English.

ramp. As I worked on the car with my dad, we had to grapple with topics such as friction (between the axles and the wheels), air drag, and weight placement. I could see that various laws of nature were at work, but I didn’t know exactly how they worked; I believe that this curiosity about physics inspired me to learn more about how the world works.

Which science electives did you take? Advanced Physics.

What do you like about science specifically at Milton?

I appreciate the flexibility of Milton’s science department. Especially when we work on DYOs, I almost consistently notice that my teachers are making an effort to allow us to do experiments that are not strictly related to the current class or experiments that

push beyond topics that we are comfortable with.

What is your senior project?

My senior project will involve chess and artificial intelligence. I hope to create a computer program that can play human players and that can interpret a chess board in order to find an optimal move.

ing out how many times he could chop up a planaria and each piece would be a new planaria. I think the number was 247 or something. It’s really ridiculous that someone would do that and I feel like it’s a very sciency thing to do. I want to find a passion that will make me do something weird like that.

What was your DYO this year?

My Advanced Bio DYO - my last DYO at Milton - was supposed to be our What college will you attend? biggest science project. But, I was having some issues with it because I’m not sure yet but probably UChiI worked with bacteria and they’re cago. really fickle and annoying. (That part failed but it’s okay.) PTC is this Why do you like science? chemical that scientists accidentally The thing I like the most about made but some people can taste it science is that it’s really surprisand some can’t, and when you taste ing, there’s always something new it it tastes really bitter. It’s cool to find out. It’s weird that a thing because only one gene controls already existed, but once you know whether you taste it or not, which about it it’s surprising. This year is really rare. I know I’m heterozyin Advanced Bio we worked with gous because I was taking Molecuplanaria, this little worm. If you cut lar Genetics earlier this year when off its head, the head piece of the we did another project. So, for my worm will grow a body, and the part DYO I wanted to sequence the DNA that doesn’t have a head will grow of each of my family members to another head. It’s the coolest thing see where my alleles come from. ever - some guy spent years figurI found that my mom is recessive

Helix

and that my dad can taste it but I don’t know if he’s heterozygous or homozygous, I just know that he’s a taster.

What is your senior project?

My senior project was not related to science. I worked with Aidan Hartman on mashups of classical piano and pop songs on the piano, kind of stylized as a duet. We’ll also add other instruments into the piece using a computer program.

Page 29


Noah Cheng

Interviewed by Patrick Huang

What will your major/focus area be in college?

I’ll most likely major in biology, but I am going to try engineering as well, and if I like engineering, I may double major in bio and engineering. I will also complete the pre-med track.

What college will you attend? Swarthmore College.

Why do you like science?

I like science because it allows one to always discover new phenomena and to continue researching unknown topics for a long time. I also like science because I think it is a very hands-on discipline, and that aspect helps me keep engaged. Finally, I believe science is the best method to make the world a better place. By studying science, I can

Alexa Perlov Interviewed by Christine Flatley

Why do you like science?

I really like science because it helps us make sense of our world. I think it’s crazy how much we’ve already discovered, and it’s even crazier knowing that there is always so much more to discover. I also really like the hands-on nature of science: we can talk about different concepts theoretically and then see these ideas applied in real-life through an experiment.

What will your major/focus area be in college? Computer Science.

What college will you attend?

Columbia University School of Engineering and Applied Science.

Page 30

either directly help other people or I can contribute to the scientific research that indirectly helps the greater world.

How did you first become interested in science? I think I first got interested in science when my aunt and uncle started to tell me about the research they did in both of their labs respectively. As a little kid, I visited each of their labs, and I think I was so impressed at how “cool” the labs were that I was convinced that I would become a scientist one day.

Did you take any science electives? Yes, I took Advanced Biology.

What do you like about science specifically at Milton?

Science at Milton is so special because the department provides so many opportunities and is able to fund everyone’s academic pursuits. For example, I feel like there

is really no limit on what one can do for their DYO, which is pretty awesome. I also think the structure of the classes are perfect for the field of science. Being able to transfer between the classroom and the lab space is essential for an academic discipline like science.

Have you done any internships or held any jobs in the field of science? Yes, last summer I worked in a lung cancer research lab at MIT.

Which science electives did you take?

Cosmology and Modern Physics, Advanced Physics, and Architecture and Engineering.

What do you like about science specifically at Milton?

I really like Milton’s emphasis on taking a hands-on approach for labs. I think it’s really cool being able to learn the material and then see these concepts first-hand. I also think that it’s awesome that we get the opportunity to conduct a DYO. This year in Advanced Physics, I found the charge-tomass ratio of an electron. My work fortified my understanding of magnetism and electricity. I think we’re lucky that Milton can provide us with the resources to run these experiments.

What is your senior project?

It’s called “If Thoreau Had a Cam-

Helix

era.” It’s a mix of photography, reading, and hiking. I read a bunch of different nature literature and then went to the nature spots where these books took place. There, I took pictures and went on hikes or bike rides. The final product was a coffee table book with all of my pictures and quotes from my readings.

Interests for after college?

I want to work at a startup and stay within the tech field.


Logan Troy

Interviewed by Patrick Huang

What will your major/focus area be in college? Computer Science.

What college will you attend?

Columbia University School of Engineering and Applied Science.

Interests for after college?

Cyber-security and/or consulting.

How did you first become interested in science?

Both of my parents teach science, so from a very early age—even before I learned much scientific content—I knew what the scientific process meant. When I grew older, I wanted to learn as much as I possibly could about the way the world works, but I also held onto the scientific method as a very important and fun part of science. For example, there’s no better way to learn about projectile motion than to build a potato cannon!

Will Barrett

Interviewed by Patrick Huang

What will your major/focus area be in college? Computer Science.

What college will you attend? Williams College.

Interests for after college?

I want to be a game developer.

Why do you like science?

I like computer science because it’s fun to create things that I or other people can use.

How did you first become interested in STEM and how did you explore these interests?

I took introduction to programming last year and I loved it, so I

Which science electives did you take?

Organic Chemistry I and II with Mr. Moore and Advanced Physics with Mr. Kernohan.

What do you like about science specifically at Milton?

I really love when students ask “why” and the teachers take the time to go over something in more depth. Science teaches us to question everything both in order to better understand and to prevent flawed information from spreading. Getting to use the skill of critical questioning in class sure beats memorizing a whole bunch of “science” that we won’t remember in a few years.

What was your favorite DYO from Milton?

In Honors Biology I studied the effect of cobalamin, or vitamin B-12, on the efficiency of bacterial plasmid transformation. Basically, I took E. coli and mixed them with new genetic information that

would provide antibiotic resistance. If mixed in the right solution at the right temperature, the new DNA works its way into the cells. But increasing concentrations of cobalamin stopped that from happening, interestingly enough. It was my favorite experiment at Milton because the procedure used fancier equipment and had to be super precise to get results. It felt great when I finally got results, especially since they backed up my hypothesis.

asked Jacob Aronoff to help me learn the Milton curriculum at a faster pace. He tutored me the advanced level 2 curriculum. This year I took both applications, level 3, and Artificial Intelligence, level 4. I have an internship this summer where I’ll be programming with Brain Power, a company that helps kids with autism.

Which STEM electives did you take?

I took Programming 1-4 and Engineering the Future.

What do you like about programming specifically at Milton? Mr. Hales does a great job of allowing us to learn by creating rather than memorizing or taking tests.

Any teacher/friend/scientist inspired your passion for STEM?

Jacob Aronoff (Class of 2016). Mr.

Helix

Hales. My brother.

What is your senior project?

I’m creating a physical board game and then programming a virtual version of it.

What is your favorite exhibit in the Museum of Science? Dinosaurs.

Page 31


Isabel Basow

Interviewed by Sarah Hsu

What will your major/focus area be in college? Electrical and computer engineering is my main major, but I may be doing something with computer science or robotics.

What college will you attend?

Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

How did you first become interested in science and how did you explore your interest in science?

Growing up, I didn’t like English or history, and I liked science and math. I did Legos a lot as a kid. Once I came here to Milton and went to the activities fair, and Juliana asked me to join robotics, so I signed up. After I went for the first time, I realized I really liked it.

Drew Galls

Interviewed by Alex Chen

What will your major/focus area be in college?

I’m planning on majoring in biology.

What college will you attend?

I will be going to Yale next year.

Interests for after college?

At Milton, I’ve enjoyed research— mostly in the sciences, but also elsewhere—the most. I’m planning to pursue more research, primarily in biology, in and after college. I know the research I would be doing in the future is very different than what I’ve done in high school, but my current plan is to go to graduate school and then pursue a career in research.

Why do you like science?

There’s something about doing

Page 32

What is/are your DYOs this year? Favorite DYO from Milton?

This year, my class is not doing a DYO, so we’re doing a project on a certain drug for organic chemistry. The drug I am working with is prednisone, and we’re researching the drug, how it works, and how we can synthesize it. My favorite DYO is probably from sophomore year; my partner and I did what’s called an iodine clock reaction.

Which science electives did you take?

This year I took Organic Chemistry.

What do you like about science specifically at Milton?

I like that science at Milton is lab-based and that we can experiment and and apply what we have learned instead of just reading from the textbook. It is also fun just to mix chemicals together and see what happens. This year in Organic Chemistry, we got to make nylon, which is really cool.

Did any teacher/friend/scientist inspire your passion for science?

I don’t know if they “inspired” my passion, but I’ve had certain people who’ve helped, like Mr. Moore. I just met him this year, but he’s great: he helped me realize how much I liked and how good I am at chemistry. And my parents did help a lot because they both went to medical school and helped me realize what science I was passionate about.

research I find very satisfying and very enjoyable.

How did you first become interested in science and how did you explore your interest in science?

Before junior year, I never had a favorite subject in school. I had always liked science, but I liked most other subjects as well. However, when I took biology for the first time junior year, I just fell in love with it; my two biology classes have been some of my favorite classes at Milton. Additionally, during my freshman year, Mr. Bingham was part of a research expedition to Greenland, and he brought back an ice core that we analyzed in Milton’s Greenland Club. Being allowed to participate, even in a very small way, in a professional research project was an amazing experience.

Any teacher/friend/scientist inspired your passion for science?

Helix

Mr. Edgar has been an amazing mentor for me in biology.

What was your DYO this year? Favorite DYO from Milton?

This year I attempted to vary the growth rate of E. coli with UV radiation and then test the effect of that differential growth rate on the E. coli’s response to antibiotics with different mechanisms. It was probably my favorite DYO.


Joey Leung

Interviewed by Seokmin (Ryan) Choi

What college will you attend? UChicago.

What will you focus on?

Biochemistry, but I might minor in economics, business, or computer programming.

Any other interests in college?

I will definitely continue rock climbing and weight training at college. I might consider joining a business fraternity or clubs related to programming in college.

Which science electives did you take?

I took Cosmology and Modern Physics, Astronomy, and Organic Chemistry (first and second semester). I also started my own biochemistry independent study with Mr. Moore to study biochemistry and the effects of polar aprotic solvents on

Caleb Rhodes Interviewed by Kiran Biddinger

What college will you attend? Yale University.

What will your major/focus area be in college? I hope to major in biology and history in college.

How did you first become interested in science and how did you explore your interest in science?

I think I have always been interested in science. My mom is a doctor, and my dad works in biotech, so science has always been an element in my life. At Milton I got to explore my interest in science

the lifespan of C. elegans, which are roundworms.

What do you like about science specifically at Milton?

I love how much access we have to different equipment. For example the DNA electrophoresis and PCR DNA replication machine isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t something most high schools have, and they are very useful tools to have in biochemistry and molecular genetics. The faculty members are very open to questions. For example, when I first started my experiment with C. elegans, I easily got the help of Mr. Bean, Ms. Lillis, and Mr. Edgar just by asking them when I bumped into them.

What was your DYO this year?

My DYO for Honors Biology this year is seeing how different concentrations and polarities of ions will affect how each substance passes through dialysis tubing. This is meant to mimic our blood capillaries and see which molecules will clog up our blood vessels, eventually leading to chest pains, physical weakness, and heart

attacks.

Have you done any internships or held any jobs in the field of science?

I interned for Catabasis, a pharmaceutical company in Boston, the summer of my junior year.

What is your senior project?

My senior project is interning at the Milton Hospital. Dr. Kechejian will take me into the surgery room to observe medical techniques. Outside of the operating room, I will have the chance to witness doctor-patient interactions.

not only through my classes but also in Greenland Club and Science and Engineering Club. Outside of Milton, I explored my interest through my internship at Synlogic Therapeutics the summer after junior year.

What do you like about science specifically at Milton?

At Milton, there is a real emphasis on doing science rather than just consuming it. The science department values teaching lab skills, instead of treating them as secondary to learning the material. Furthermore, I think the DYO is an unique opportunity to apply our knowledge and skills in a lab we design ourselves.

What was your DYO from Advanced Biology this year?

Helix

For my DYO this year, I worked with JJ Batt to study magnetoreception in Drosophila, fruit flies, particularly whether the Cry MagR complex responds in a dose-dependent manner based on the intensity of blue light. This was probably my favorite DYO at Milton.

Page 33


Sarah Willwerth Interviewed by Kate Jones

What will your major/focus area be in college?

As of now, I’m hoping to study medicine in college. I’m thinking about pursuing the pre-med track. In regards to a major, I am not sure as of now. I am thinking about biology or neuroscience, but I also have a lot of interest in the social sciences, like psychology, sociology, and anthropology.

What college will you attend? Williams College.

How did you first become interested in science and how did you explore your interest in science?

James Dunn

Interviewed by Kate Jones

What will your major/focus area be in college?

I haven’t decided for certain yet, but right now I’d like to double major in computer science and something in the social sciences, maybe economics.

What college will you attend? Yale University.

How did you first become interested in science and how did you explore your interest in science?

I’ve been really interested in science-type things for as long as I remember, from lower school when we built marble runs and wind powered cars with Mr. Shrager. Then in middle school I started doing Lego robotics, which at the time was just mind-blowing to me because I’d never done pro-

Page 34

I’ve known I had an interest in medicine from a young age, mainly because both of my parents work in medicine. I think the way the human body works is so interesting: it’s so complicated yet manages to work perfectly in sync the majority of the time. At Milton, I’ve taken two years of biology and Anatomy and Physiology in my junior year.

What was your DYOs this year? Favorite DYO from Milton?

This year I’m studying the acid resistance of E. coli in two different growth phases, logarithmic and stationary, and how it affects population growth and lac operon expression. My favorite DYO was my Honors Biology experiment last spring. I tested the cardiovascular fitness of about 20 of my class-

mates by recording their heart rates before and after a short fitness workout and comparing this to how “healthy” a lifestyle they led. This was interesting to me because it involved the human body and applied directly to my peers.

What is your favorite exhibit in the Museum of Science? The giant T-rex.

gramming or anything like that, so making a robot that could stack blocks or escape from a maze was really cool. And since then I’ve just experimented with science whenever I could; I took a bunch of programming classes, and last summer I interned at a computational biology lab at Johns Hopkins writing a program to do analysis on drug dosing strategies.

What was your DYOs this year? Favorite DYO from Milton?

This year my DYO for advanced physics was an experiment with an e/m apparatus, which calculates an electron’s charge over mass ratio by firing electrons through a magnetic field. My favorite DYO at Milton, though, was from Honors Biology last year; in that lab I used Daphnia water fleas to measure the effects of sustained electric shock on heart rate and arrhythmia. I ran an electric current through the Daphnia and wrote a program to analyze heart rate

Helix

regularity while the Daphnia were under stress.

What is your favorite exhibit in the Museum of Science?

When I was younger, I always loved the dinosaur exhibit, especially the triceratops fossil and the T-rex model that would sometimes have a scarf on. I also liked the massive ball machine that was right in the middle of the museum.


Jason Kong

Interviewed by Seokmin (Ryan) Choi

What do you plan to major in? Environmental Science.

What are your interests for after college? Divestment Advising.

Why do you like science?

I love science because there is always something out there to be discovered. You never stop searching, and there is no end to it. I really feel great when I am researching, and I like being able to help scientists.

How did you first become interested in science, and how did you explore your interest in science?

I became interested in science when my parents introduced me to it, and I explored that interest by taking science courses outside of school and interning in labs.

Sam Saunders

Interviewed by Zan Huang

What college will you attend?

University of Southern California.

How has science at Milton influenced your interest in science?

Up until my senior year, I had not gotten a lot of exposure to electrical engineering, but I became passionate for it because of my programming class. My Physics class this year has also helped me find that connection between math and science because the class was focused more heavily on math.

What was your DYO this year?

My senior year DYO was looking at the effects at pulse-width modulation (PWM) on operational

Which science electives had you taken?

Marine Science, Advanced Environmental Science, and Advanced Physics.

What do you like about science specifically at Milton?

I love the lab component of the classes as well as the DYO projects. It’s a really great opportunity to work with the concepts right there in the lab and see things happen before my own eyes. With the DYO projects, I am able to take command of the science behind something that I am very interested in, and that really appeals to me.

What was your DYO this year? Favorite DYO from Milton?

I am studying runoff and fertilizer by simulating rainfall on top of portions of sod. My favorite DYO at Milton was my soap film project last year with Advanced Physics.

Did anyone inspire your passion for science? My mother and her intense passion for scientific inquiry inspired me—I amplifiers. PWM takes a DC square wave or a DC voltage and switches them on or off very quickly. Most electrical components will perceive a voltage that is equal to the time that your square wave is on times the maximum voltage of the square wave. I wanted to see if a more complex piece of analog circuitry would respond the same way that a light-emitting diode would.

What is your senior project?

Fishing being one of my hobbies, I was trying to identify trends in the way I am catching fish, which is what great coast fishermen will do. They are not fishing to get data, but they log all of their catches to identify patterns in how they’re fishing.

What are your career aspirations?

Helix

want to be just like her.

Have you done any internships or held any jobs in the field of science? I have done internships at UCSB, UCLA, and the Wyss Institute.

What is your senior project?

I studied how competing perceptions of climate change pose a threat to the climate change movement.

What is your favorite exhibit in the Museum of Science? The fossils!

I’m assuming that this is going to change in the next few years. Right now how USC electrical engineering specializations work is you can either pick computer engineering, power systems, or circuits and signals. I think I am going to choose circuits and signals. The defense industry is prominent in Southern California, so maybe electrical engineering will take me there.

Page 35


Allana Iwaniki

Interviewed by Patrick Huang

What will your major/focus area be in college? I’m not sure, but probably biological engineering.

What college will you attend? Princeton University.

Are you going to have any minors? Yes, likely in Music Performance.

Interests for after college?

I’m thinking about being a professor.

Casey Delano Interviewed by Kevin Lu

What will your major/focus area be in college?

I’m not yet sure what I want to study in college. I know it will be something in math or science, but, besides that, I’m not sure. I may go into statistics or biomedical research.

What college will you attend?

I will be attending Williams College in the fall.

What was your DYOs this year? Favorite DYO from Milton?

For Advanced Physics this year, we did a variation on Young’s double slit experiment. The experiment involves a laser being shone through two slits that are very close together. While most would assume this would create a pattern of two bright spots on the wall, light diffraction and wave interference cause a pattern of bright and dim spots to form on the wall. In our DYO, we varied the distance between the two slits and we measured a particular section of the pattern on the wall. My favorite DYO from Milton would be the one I did in Chemistry in my sophomore year. We did a DYO about chromatography—we

Page 36

Which science electives did you take?

I took Astronomy, Cosmology and Modern Physics, and Advanced Physics.

Have you done any internships or held any jobs in the field of science?

Yes, I did an internship the summer before my junior year with a MIT astrophysicist. I analyzed spectral data from the supernova remnant G156. It was really exciting to investigate something so different from typical Milton labs.

What is your favorite exhibit in the Museum of Science?

It’s not an exhibit, but I love Laser Floyd (a laser show set to either The Wall or The Dark Side of the Moon)!

varied marker type and temperature of water, and we measured the length of the resulting streak of color.

Any teacher/friend/scientist inspired your passion for science?

I’ve had a lot of great science teachers. I had a particularly great time in Mr. Edgar’s Honors Biology class last year.

How did you first become interested in science and how did you explore your interest in science?

I’m not really sure how I first became interested in science. I’ve always been interested in math, so I guess the overlaps between those two subjects could explain why I like science. I like doing experiments, learning with my hands, and then having to explain that work in a lab report. The way Class IV Physics was designed worked well for me. We “discovered” things like Newton’s Second Law by doing lab work. Since Class IV Physics, I took Honors Chemistry and Honors Biology. This year, I took Molecular Genetics I and II as well as Advanced Physics. For junior and senior year, I either took two math or two science classes; I tried to have a variety among the math and science classes I was taking so that I could explore dif-

Helix

ferent areas and see what I like.

What do you like about science specifically at Milton?

I like classes that are lab heavy. We have unusually advanced lab equipment for a high school, so we’re able to do things in our lab that other high schools can’t. I think it’s great that so many courses try to take advantage of the equipment we have on campus. I also like how in most science courses at Milton, students get to do a DYO. Being able to design your own lab, try, fail, and learn how to do the experiment better, and then explain your results can be really difficult. This process is more similar to lab research that many of us will have the opportunity to do in college and beyond. I expect and hope that Milton DYOs will have prepared me for research opportunities in college.


Chris Mathews

Interviewed by Patrick Huang

What will your major/focus area be in college? Biology, and/or Political Science.

What college will you attend? Dickinson College.

Interests for after college?

Right off the bat, I want to work on obtaining a Master’s and getting into the hard sciences, whether that be in the military or in a hospital. Since I was a kid, I wanted whatever profession I chose to have substance and meaning. Currently, a profession like a general surgeon seems to fit the bill because of my fascination with science and my desire to help others.

Why do you like science?

I am fascinated by the concept of tiny chemical interactions having large scale repercussions on our physiology and the way we interact with the world around us; I just have this innate interest in learning the most fundamental, biological reasons for the way in which our

Anne Bailey

Interviewed by Sarah Hsu

What will your major/focus area be in college?

I’m thinking math or data science or computer science, but I’m not really sure yet.

What college will you attend? Dartmouth University.

Are you going to have any minors?

Probably, I would pick one of those three, or pick two like math or computer science to major in one and minor in the other.

What was your DYOs this year? Favorite DYO from Milton?

bodies and the world around us appears and functions.

How did you first become interested in science and how did you explore your interest in science?

I always had an inkling that I might be interested in science because my grandfather was a medic in Vietnam and a general surgeon in Evanston, Chicago. However, for the longest time, nothing I studied in science—whether in middle or high school—actually piqued my interest. That all changed, however, in Ms. Seplaki’s Biology class my junior year. I’m not sure whether it was the topic or the teacher, but something about the way in which she engaged us in the physical world around grabbed my attention and made me interested in pursuing biology even further.

Which science electives did you take? Advanced Biology and Organic Chemistry.

What do you like about science specifically at Milton?

I love how passionate and devoted the science teachers at Milton are. While I’m not wild about lab

work, people like Mr. Edgar and Ms. Seplaki are some of the most dedicated and passionate individuals I’ve ever encountered.

What was your DYO this year?

I looked at the impact various FDA category C drugs can have on fruit fly growth and development.

What is your senior project?

Because I wanted to broaden my horizons a little, I did an internship at a corporate consulting firm that specializes in grass root politics to achieve their goals. For me to understand what I really want to do with my life, I needed to approach it from many different angles.

This year for Advanced Physics, we did a Rubens’ tube, which is when you run methane gas through a metal tube with holes in the top and light the gas coming out of the holes on fire and run a sound wave through it, and the flames form the image of a sound wave. So, that’s pretty cool, and it’s probably my favorite one.

Why do you like science?

It’s interesting, and I like looking at data and finding patterns, and I like learning how things work (anything from machines to organisms), and I like experimenting.

How did you first become interested in science, and how did you explore your interest?

Helix

I just knew that I liked math, and science is kind of related. I explored science by taking classes in school that I would enjoy.

Which science electives did you take?

I took Advanced Physics this year.

Page 37


Katie Friis

Interviewed by Arianne Desrosiers

What will your major/focus area be in college? Right now, I’m thinking of majoring in computer science, but I’m also really interested in sustainability and architecture.

What college will you attend?

I’m going to Brown University.

Why do you like science?

I think it’s amazing how there’s always a lot of discovery in science; it’s a very current field and I really enjoy keeping up with it. You can actually witness what you’ve been learning through a textbook by watching a reaction taking place in front of you in a lab. It’s also a unscripted discipline — you never know for sure what results you’re

going to get because of all the factors that go into an experiment. I’ve also always liked the outdoors; I used to do a lot of camps when I was younger, and people would point out all the different kinds of plants, which fascinated me. I liked playing with Legos as well; in 7th grade I took a physics class where we would just build things out of Legos, and it made science really fun for me.

Which science electives did you take?

I took Issues in Environmental Science, which is a semester course, and Architecture and Engineering, which was an interdisciplinary course that mixed science and art.

What are your interests for after college?

I’m not sure yet, but I think it would be cool to have/work at a startup, or at a company that combines computer science, technology, and design.

What is your senior project?

It’s called “If Thoreau Had A Camera.” It combines photography and nature — we’ll be taking photos on different excursions, reading some books about experiences in nature, and doing some nature journaling as well.

Mateen Tabatabaei Interviewed by Patrick Huang

What college will you attend?

University of Pennsylvania, School of Arts and Sciences.

Are you going to have any minors? It’s probable. I’m interested in a bunch of things from biology to philosophy to neuroscience to English so we’ll see.

Interests for after college?

Medicine and entrepreneurship.

How did you first become interested in science and how did you explore your interest in science?

From a young age, my consumtion of media was dominated by science. First it was The Magic School Bus, watching Animal Planet, and reading books about various animals. In third grade, I got this science encyclopedia that I used

Page 38

to learn about the periodic table of elements and the states of matter. I’d also watch The Science Channel and play around with snap circuits, the Lego Mindstorm robot and other science experiment kits.

Which science electives did you take?

I took Molecular Genetics and Advanced Physics this year.

What do you like about science specifically at Milton?

The access to resources is amazing. The pGLO lab we did in Honors Bio was the same one a college student co-oping at the same lab as I last summer did as a junior in college. Also, the focus on labs teaches you the basics of scientific writing and gets you to understand and be engaged with the essence of the scientific process.

Have you done any internships or held any jobs in the field of science?

Helix

I’ve spent the past two summers interning at an immunology and nanobiology lab. The first summer I hadn’t even taken biology yet, so I was mostly observing and learning. But in the second summer, I understood most of the experiments I saw or helped with and the academic papers I read to familiarize myself with the lab’s work, thanks to Honors Bio!

What is your senior project?

Half of my project is to learn and play some Beethoven piano sonatas. My other half project that I’m working on with three other students is getting a go kart to drive itself.


Jennifer Costa

Interviewed by Patrick Huang

What will your major/focus area be in college? Biology, Physical Therapy or PreMed.

What college will you attend? Dartmouth College.

Interests for after college?

I want to play in the NWHL (National Women’s Hockey League) and work with children/athletes. So maybe pediatric therapy or working as an athletic trainer. I’m still deciding.

Why do you like science?

I like science because I think it is the one subject that can truly change and help the lives of others. Through science, new medicines can be discovered, cures can be found, and diseases can be treated. Science gives people with failing health a sense of hope.

How did you become interested in science?

JJ Batt

Interviewed by Jun Seob Shim

What college will you attend? Tufts University.

What will be your major? Biomedical engineering.

Why do you like science?

With science, you can find concrete ways to help people. Especially in biology, you’re able to change people’s lives.

When I was 13 years old, I started to become more interested in PT because I was doing PT for my knee at the time. I was recovering from a surgery because my femur bone had a hole.

Which science electives did you take? Molecular Genetics and Human Anatomy and Physiology.

What do you like about science specifically at Milton?

I love how there are a lot of hands on opportunities in labs and how the classes are very small in numbers.

Any teacher/friend/scientist inspired your passion for science?

Mr. Moore inspired my passion for science.

Have you done any internships or held any jobs in the field of science?

I did an internship with a physical therapist all of last summer. I interned at Excel Physical Therapy and shadowed many of the workers.

What is your senior project?

For one half project, I am studying the history of the Milton Girls’ Hockey Team. I am interviewing alumni and comparing their experiences. I am making a poster board with a huge timeline. My other half project is focused on multisport female athletes. What does it mean to be a multisport athlete at Milton? Then, I am focusing on hip/knee/ankle injuries and creating exercise prevention videos and programs.

What was your DYO this year? Favorite DYO from Milton?

We looked at whether or not a magnetic navigation compass was activated by blue wavelength light. It was my favorite: we built our own system from scratch, and the procedure was complicated.

What is your senior project?

I had two half projects. For one half, I wrote a feature article on alternative medicine. For the other, I am training artificial in-

Helix

telligence to detect tumor malignancy by using factors such as cell density.

Page 39


Matt Magann

Interviewed by Daniel Little

What will your major/focus area be in college?

That’s a really good question. I might major in some kind of earth science, which is something I’m really interested in, and possibly take on another major or minor in something about Middle-Eastern politics—I guess I’m looking at two opposite ends of the spectrum. But I’ll definitely major in some kind of science.

What college will you attend? Dartmouth College!

What was your DYO this year?

This year for biology I worked with slime molds—I examined whether the number of oats around them affects their development. They are pretty interesting single-celled organisms which come together into a big blob, and they essentially send out these little tubes to find out where the food is, and I wanted to see if they could utilize more

Austin Vyas

Interviewed by Max Hui

Where are you going for college? I will be attending Northeastern University: College of Arts and Sciences.

What will be your major?

I will most likely major in Biology (possibly considering a Dual Major Program in Biology and Mathematics).

What do you plan to do once you graduate from college?

I will be on the Pre-Med track at Northeastern, so I will hopefully be attending medical school after my undergraduate studies. As you

Page 40

food when it was available. I only had two weeks to do it, but I got real results!

Have you had any internships or jobs relating to science?

No internships, but I have a job at the Blue Hill Observatory. I’ve worked up there for a little over four years, and it’s pretty cool: it has the oldest continuous weather record in all of North America. I’ll help record and work with climate data, give tours when we’re open, or just do all sorts of work that has to be done. I’ve also done some archaeology, which is actually my senior project! I work in Boston every day with Boston City Archaeology. We’ve been digging outside even though the weather has been 97°F the past two days, so that’s been fun. I’ve also volunteered in a dig in Milton for a couple weeks each summer. That’s more on the social science side, though it still uses the scientific method.

What do you like about science specifically at Milton?

I like how there’s a lot of focus on experimentation instead of just

memorizing information. It’s like learning science by doing science. In biology, we read really complex articles and figure out how the processes work. Instead of getting the overview, we dive really deep, learning how to process the information rather than just learning the information itself. Of course at this point, all of the information is available on the internet, so we don’t really need school to teach us facts anymore. So I like how the science department focuses on asking how we process information, what the information means, and how you can draw connections across different systems.

might know, Northeastern is on a 5-year graduation track, so it is a bit longer than other universities.

What was your favorite STEM class at Milton? Who was your favorite STEM teacher at Milton? My favorite STEM class was Nuclear Physics and it happens that Mr. Sando, the teacher of Nuclear Physics, is also my favorite STEM teacher.

Any internships, research programs, or summer jobs?

I worked in an infectious disease laboratory at the Massachusetts General Hospital last summer. This summer I will work as an Admin-

Helix

istrative Assistant in the Emergency Department (ED) at the MGH.

What was your senior project?

I made a film about hunger, focused around the Milton Food Pantry, where I have volunteered for almost two years now.


Harrison Jia

Interviewed by Patrick Huang

What will your major/focus area be in college? Not entirely sure, but I am pretty interested in physics.

What college will you attend? UChicago.

Are you going to have any minors? Most likely maybe in econ or data analysis and statistics.

Which science electives did you take?

I took Advanced Physics in my junior year. This year, I took Cosmology and Modern Physics and Nuclear Physics.

What was your DYOs this year? Favorite DYO from Milton?

I did not have a DYO this year. But my favorite DYO would be the one I did in Class IV Physics. My partner and I were testing the acceleration of a block on different types of surfaces—i.e. wood, plastic,

Juliana Viola

Interviewed by Dhruv Jain

What will your major/focus area be in college?

I’m going to start with computer science and data science, but I’m not sure where I’ll be after the first semester.

What college will you attend? Yale University.

Are you going to have any minors?

Yale doesn’t have any minors, but I might double major in political science or gender studies because I am very interested in how data can help social justice and public policy.

What was your favorite DYO from Milton?

My favorite DYO was the one I did

cloth, silk, etc. Although we did an experiment different from the one we were planning to, had a total of 125 runs, and recorded data that gave us a relationship opposite of what we were expecting, I enjoyed the unexpected challenges because they forced me to react and adapt quickly under pressure.

Any teacher/friend/scientist inspired your passion for science?

Stephen Hawking. When I was younger, my family would take me with them whenever they went grocery shopping at Costco. Rather than shopping for groceries and snacks with them, I always went to explore the books aisle. As a general rule, I never bought any of the books. However, there is one book that I bought: Stephen Hawking’s A Brief History of Time. As soon as I picked up this book, I was hooked; by the time my parents finished shopping, I was too captivated to put it down. This book took me on a journey that I’m still navigating today. Hawking presented me with a wide variety of physics knowledge, from proven laws to assumed theories,

that opened my eyes to a new, unseen world. His theories were so counterintuitive and foreign, while simultaneously seeming so fundamental to our existence that I became excited to learn more.

What is your senior project?

My friends and I were trying to go viral on different social media platforms by analysing memes and how they become popular.

What is your favorite exhibit in the Museum of Science?

I haven’t been there in a long time, but I remember there was a virtual fish game in the blue section that I loved so much.

this year in Advanced Physics. My project involved a Rubens’ tube, which is a pipe covered with holes along the top. By sending natural gas through the pipe, you can light the tube on fire—flames were coming out of each hole in the pipe. Then, you send a soundwave through it, and the flames take the shape of a standing wave. It was really cool because I got to play with fire and sound.

Have you done any internships or held any jobs in the field of science?

I did Girls Who Code outside of school last summer. It’s a free summer program that takes in groups of high school girls and puts them in tech companies. I went to Google, which was very cool, and did some work there. I was previously into computer science because I enjoyed math, but

Helix

that program solidified my interest in that field. I’m interning at Affectiva, which is a motion detection and facial recognition company, for my senior project. It’s all about AI at Affectiva. There, I’m doing part marketing and part coding. From the marketing side, I get to work on the social media blog posts; as for coding, I’m helping figure out what’s wrong with a bug in a software.

Page 41


Earvin Ofulue

Interviewed by Catherine Gallori

What are you thinking of focusing on in college?

I’m going to Baylor, and I want to study Engineering—right now I’m trying to decide between mechanical and aeronautical engineering.

What science electives did you take?

I’m took Advanced Physics. I liked it; I’m pretty good at physics, so it was fairly straightforward, but some of the concepts were pretty interesting, so it was a good mix.

danced, so that was pretty cool.

Was there any experience or person that got you interested in science?

My parents. Throughout my whole school career I’ve always been good at science, so my parents always told me I could be an engineer—I haven’t objected, and I like it, so that’s kind of why I’m interested.

Was there anything you particularly liked about science at Milton?

Milton science is different because I went to a British school, and science there is more lecture based: the teacher is giving you instructions and writing on the board while you’re taking notes But Do you have a favorite DYO from here, it’s more like a discussion, your time at Milton? and that allows you to understand Yeah, actually, my DYO this year the material deeper in a way, so for Advanced Physics was on Ooyou get, in the little time that bleck—we put it on a speaker and it you have, a better understanding.

Elina Thadhani

Interviewed by Lanie Cherry

What will your major be in college? I want to major in biological sciences.

What college will you attend? Stanford.

Why do you like science?

I like science because it’s challenging in a way that no other subject is. You really need to use every skill to be successful. You need to be able to solve puzzles, think critically about data, analyze results, and write coherently. I love it because you can never really say for sure what’s going to happen in an experiment. Doing something new and revolutionary is exciting, and you might be discovering something that no one else has discovered before.

How did you first become interested in science and how did you explore that interest?

Page 42

At the beginning of high school, I thought I was going to major in math in college, though I’ve always been interested in and liked science. I didn’t realize I wanted to go into science until sophomore year when I started working in a lab. When I started taking harder science classes, I realized that science can be applied to real-world problems. Science has a novelty that math doesn’t, and science is more in your own hands.

Have you done any internships or held any jobs in the field of science?

The past two summers I interned at a biological engineering lab at M.I.T. The first summer I spent there, I did a lot of grunt work. We focused a lot on learning the procedures and protocols, and I got used to the lab environment. The second summer I was there, I worked on a project for measuring DNA image. My team hoped that we could detect potential damage that a drug or chemotherapy caused that was previously hard to detect. We also tried to miti-

Helix

That’s one big difference, but both ways have their advantages and disadvantages.

Were there any teachers who inspired you, or who you wanted to thank?

Well, I really liked Mr. Kernohan, because he always made himself available to help me. And of course, I want to thank Mr. Edgar, my advisor.

gate the amount of damage these drugs could cause.

Did anyone inspire your passion for science? As a successful woman in STEM, my mentor at the lab that I worked at heavily influenced me. She helped me throughout the college process and in the lab environment. My parents are both doctors, and they filled my childhood with inquiry and curiosity by giving me puzzles and science experiments to do at home.


Zhenfeng Qiu Interviewed by Max Hui

What college will you attend? University of Chicago.

What do you plan to study in college?

I’m choosing between economics and neuroscience. They recently started offering a neuroscience major, and they have some very impressive facilities. On the other hand, economics is more mainstream, almost like a go-to major at UChicago. I’m still choosing, but the good thing is that I don’t have to decide until the end of sophomore year.

What first inspired your passion for science? It has to do with my upbringing and my earlier education, because I grew up in Beijing, and the cul-

ture is very STEM-focused. I would say that when I came to Milton I had more background in STEM than, say, humanities, and I also developed a passion for biology here. I got to work at the Tufts Medical Center over the summer, which helped develop my passion for STEM. I think that science answers a lot of questions about the world around us, which I find interesting.

Of all the science courses you’ve taken, which was your favorite?

I really liked Advanced Biology because the way of learning feels like scientific training more than just memorizing facts or following procedures. It feels like you’re actually exploring science and devising methods to investigate the phenomena around you.

What was your experience at the Tufts Medical Center like?

It was really cool—I tested a type

of biotechnology similar to CRISPR, which scientists only began experimenting with recently. It turns out that the technology doesn’t work, which is kind of a disappointment, but the experience of studying it was valuable. To do this research, I had to know a lot of basics in genetics, but I got to chat with all the scientists who had been in the field for at least 10 years, which was an experience I found particularly inspiring.

did you first become interestCharlie Mathews How ed in science?

Interviewed by Patrick Huang

What will your major/focus area be in college?

Next year, I plan on studying Economics and Mathematics with an emphasis on Statistics and Calculus.

What college will you attend?

I will be attending Bucknell University.

Why do you like science?

I like science because of the way it teaches me to approach questions. Logic is required at all steps, and the need for trial and error adds some excitement to the moment when you finally reach a conclusion about what you are studying.

I first became interested in science during my Introduction to Physical Science (IPS) course in middle school. After that, and my Class IV Physics course, I realized that within science, physics was the field I was most interested in.

Which science electives did you take?

Nuclear Physics and Modern Physics & Cosmology.

What science projects did you do this year that you enjoyed?

This year, in my Nuclear Physics course my final project was writing a paper about the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant meltdown. This was probably my favorite final project in a science class.

Any teacher/friend/scientist inspired your passion for science?

Helix

Mr. Sando was a source of inspiration for me. My freshmen year, I had Mr. Sando in Class IV Physics, and I also had him this year for Nuclear Physics. His teaching style combined fun with productivity and made it easy to learn and delve into very complicated topics.

What is your senior project?

I am doing two half projects. One half is studying the 2008 Financial Recession, and the other is producing a feature video for our lacrosse team this year.

Page 43


Will Torous

Interviewed by Max Hui

What college will you attend?

Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

What is going to be your major focus in college?

Right now I’m supposed to major in Applied Math and minor in Computer Science, but I might change my mind and major in Computer Science, or maybe even Informatics, which is basically about statistics but with a focus on the biomedical field. I’m happy with Applied Math because for most colleges, once you’re a Junior or a Senior, you get to focus on other fields too, like Applied Math with Physics, Applied Math with Chemistry, Data Mining, or something along those lines. It pretty much lets you do a mathematics-focused Physics or Chemistry course, but you don’t have to choose just yet.

Any plans for pursuing science in or after college?

Charlie Gagnon

Interviewed by Molly Chiang

What will be your major in college? Marine biology or environmental science.

How did you first become interested in science and how did you explore your interest in science?

My dad is a teacher here at Milton Academy, and he teaches marine bio. So from a young age I have always been around the ocean a lot, and have been interested in marine life in general. While growing up, I visited the New England Aquarium a lot and watched a lot of National Geographic, movies, and TV shows about science and the environment. All of these activities got me hooked on science.

Page 44

Well, I plan on getting some internships in the summer, try to get one in Silicon Valley; at some point I might go to graduate school because that seems to be the norm now in STEM for professional jobs. I probably want to enter the workforce, and right now I’m interested in defense contracting—Boeing, Lockheed, Raytheon are a couple of big names—and I might do that for a bit before going for a Master’s degree.

What STEM electives have you taken at Milton?

I took Advanced Physics with Mr. Kernohan, as well as Computer Programming 1, 2, and 3.

Why did you choose to go into STEM?

I find the problems in math and science interesting in themselves, and I find that we have good discussions in class. I also enjoyed conducting experiments, and I am looking forward to college because we will be assigned blocks to do lab work. This makes it easier for me to find time to come into the

lab and conduct experimentation, and it might help reduce the stress of working on labs.

What was your favorite non-STEM course at Milton?

Definitely my senior english class, Three Writers in Depth. It was a really small class, and only barely enough people signed up for the course to actually run at all, so we got some freedom with that. We got to choose one of the writers that we would study, and it was interesting to look into literature that I really enjoyed reading.

Which science electives did you take?

I am taking Advanced Environmental Science this year, and I also took Biology junior year.

What do you like about science specifically at Milton?

My favorite course not only in science but in all of my Milton career has been Advanced Environmental Science class I took this year. I think that’s because it focused more on my science interest areas than any other science class I’ve taken so far. However, my favorite part of science classes at Milton in general have been the hands-on lab experiences.

Is there any teacher/friend/scientist that inspired your passion?

Helix

Definitely my dad has inspired my passion. Mr. Bingham, who I knew since I was very young, was my Environmental Science teacher, and has also played a role in furthering my interest in science. I think he and my dad were very influential in shaping my passion for STEM.


Silas Monahan

Interviewed by James Dunn

What school will you be attending next year? Carleton College.

What do you plan to major in?

Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m not totally sure what I will be majoring in but I am leaning towards civil engineering or architecture.

What was your DYO this year?

My DYO this year was making a coil gun and measuring how the voltage affected the muzzle velocity of a magnetic projectile. The main point of the project was to make the coil gun as effective as possible, so we did not spend much time on gathering the voltage data. I think that this was my favorite DYO because we had the most freedom out of any other

year.

Have you taken any science electives? What has that experience been like?

I took Molecular Genetics and Cosmology this year. I loved both of the electives. Mol Gen was very focused on going through procedures and learning about different tools in the lab, whereas Cosmology was more focused on concepts.

How did you first get interested in science? Have you done anything related to your interests in STEM outside of school? I have been interested in science ever since I was very young and loved exploring ecology in nature. I have also always loved building with anything I can get my hands on, and I think that is what sparked my interest in architecture and civil engineering. The

summer after freshman year, I went along the coast of Maine with a program and studied the marine life. Also, last summer, I worked with an architect to redesign the entrance and leading dock for a barn on a farm in Vermont where my family goes.

Michelle Erdenesanaa Interviewed by Ariane Desrosiers

What will your major/focus area be in college?

Next year, I plan on studying Economics and Mathematics with an emphasis on Statistics and Calculus.

What college will you attend?

I will be attending Bucknell University.

Why do you like science?

I like science because of the way it teaches me to approach questions. Logic is required at all steps, and the need for trial and error adds some excitement to the moment when you finally reach a conclusion about what you are studying.

How did you first become interested in science?

I first became interested in science during my Introduction to Physical Science (IPS) course in middle school. After that, and my Class IV Physics course, I realized that within science, physics was the field I was most interested in.

Which science electives did you take?

Nuclear Physics and Modern Physics & Cosmology.

What science projects did you do this year that you enjoyed?

This year, in my Nuclear Physics course my final project was writing a paper about the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant meltdown. This was probably my favorite final project in a science class.

Helix

Any teacher/friend/scientist inspired your passion for science?

Mr. Sando was a source of inspiration for me. My freshmen year, I had Mr. Sando in Class IV Physics, and I also had him this year for Nuclear Physics. His teaching style combined fun with productivity and made it easy to learn and delve into very complicated topics.

What is your senior project?

I am doing two half projects. One half is studying the 2008 Financial Recession, and the other is producing a feature video for our lacrosse team this year.

Page 45


Christina Sakellaris Interviewed by James Dunn

What school will you be attending next year?

Did you take any science electives? What was that experience like?

Stanford University.

What do you plan to major in? Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m not sure yet, but maybe Mechanical or Biomechanical Engineering.

What was your DYO this year? What has been your favorite DYO at Milton?

iment I did for Honors Bio, where I tested the effects of ash on the chemical communication performed by slime molds.

Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve taken Molecular Genetics 1 and 2, and Advanced Biology this year. I loved Advanced Biology; it was challenging enough with new material and interesting lab work without being high stress.

My DYO this year was attempting to perform RNAi on the beta-catenin gene in planaria. My favorite DYO was the exper-

How did you first get interested in science? Have you done anything related to your interests in STEM outside of school?

I started getting interested in science during my fifth grade science class with Mr. Shrager here at Milton. I just liked discovering how things worked, and building things.

Helix Board 2017-18 Co-Heads: Max Hui and Kevin Lu

Senior Editors: Patrick Huang and Catherine Gallori

Layout Editor: Emma James

Faculty Advisor: Dr. Linde Eyster

Page 46

Helix


“How to Handle Life” painted by Zoe Camaya (II)

Helix

Page 47


Helix 2016-2017  

Milton Academy's Science Journal

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you