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STUDENT JOURNAL

ABPL 30048: DESIGN STUDIO AIR EMILY ADAMSON (538935) 2014


ABPL 30048 DESIGN STUDIO AIR EMILY ADAMSON SEMESTER 1, 2014 Cover photo - Anna Cguienko, http://www.flickr.com/photos/ annca/3286758126/in/set-72157614089077308/


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As a child I was lucky enough to travel to Europe with my family, we visited France, England and Italy exploring the century year old cities and admiring the architecture that creates them. This amazment for these large buildings that still stand tall hundreds of years later, I believe, is what began my interest in architecture. After finishing school I fed this love by travelling around South America and discovering countries with new architecture which is bringing them into the 21st Century. As I began my studies at Melbourne University I found myself more intersting in the physical designing process and drawing out my work as I came from a strong art background. I began Virtual Environments and tackled Rhino (opposite). In 2013 I developed my Rhino skills further with an intense workshop which left me an intermediate level of Rhino skills and a beginners level in Grashopper. In the same year I also delevoped my Revit skills with a similar workshop.

Milly Adamson

Melbourne University 3rd Year Environments Majoring in Architecture

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CONTENTS 9

PART A.

27

PART B.

10 12 14

A. 1.1 Design Futuring: LAGI A. 1.2 Design Futuring: Kinetic Energy A. 1.3 Design Futuring: Thin Film Organic Photovoltaic cells 16 A. 2.1 Design Computing: Interface /4 18 A. 2.2 Design Computing: Fibrosity 20 A . 3.1 Composition/Generation: Aerodynamic Microclimate 22 A . 3.2 Composition/Generation: Smithsonian Institute 24 A . 4 & 5 Conclusion & Learning outcomes 25 References

29 B . 1.1 Research Feild: Material Performance 31 B.2.1 Matrix Exploration : The Voussoir Cloud 33 B .2.2 Matrix Exploration 34 B . 3 Case Study 2.0: EXOtique


PART A.

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A. 1.1 Design Futuring: LAGI

The Land Art Generator Initiative (LAGI) competition is an open competition to create an infrastructure art space that showcases sustainable clean energy as Copenhagen aims to become the first carbon neutral city by 2020. Over the years that the competition has been running many different entries with different energy styles have been received. From this competition I have analyzed two different forms of energy from 2012, “Fresh Hills”(Figure 1a. and b) by Matthew Rosenberg (Los Angeles, USA) a wind turbine field that took second place and “The beauty of recycling” (Figure 2. ) by Daniel Elmore (Cherry Hill, USA) a floating solar cell piece.

possible, does not utilise the space in an effective way. Rosenberg has not provided exact details on where the bamboo would be grown, what quantity is needed and how much would be used in the design. By placing the human activity in the center of the site, the nose and wind will make it uncomfortable for anyone to stay within the site for an extended period of time, and therefore disrupt anyone who used the site originally. More could have been done to the site to manipulate it effectively and to create a “power plant as [a] public artwork.”2(p.4).

Similarly this site inefficiency can be seen with “The beauty in recycling”, with the human interaction with the infrastructure is only possible via boat. This means that a percentage of people have When designing for the future, a designer has to confront to access to the site. In this project there is a clear focus on the night “two tasks: slowing the rate of defuturing (because, as indicated, for light show that is achieved through the energy that is collected in us humans the problem adds up to the diminution of the finite time the day. Elmore does not focus on the collection of energy for the city and also does not take into account the issue of rough water, of our collective and total existence) and redirecting us towards far 1 bad weather or other factors that are out of human control. With more sustainable modes of planetary habitation.” (p. 6). With this in mind “Fresh Hills” tries to tackle these tasks. Rosenberg has used these vessels in the water the original shipping paths will be disa material that is fast growing, planted on the site and therefore can rupted. be repaired easily. However, this is only the repair of the decoraThe brief of LAGI is to “continuously distribute clean enertive, unnecessary elements of the design and the wind turbines that gy into the electrical grid at a utility scale (equivalent to the demand lay underneath the bamboo facade will still need regular repair. of hundreds or thousands of homes)”3 (p.4) and to present “the As a sustainable energy, wind turbines are effective close to water power plant as public artwork.” 4 (p.4). These elements as well as and therefor a form of defuturing is trying to be achieved. In “The a focus on stainability and future expansion were key in the design beauty of recycling”, Elmore considers sustainable materials by usof this site. In “Fresh Hills”, Rosenberg hides the wind turbines and ing mainly recycled elements, however this list is not broken down doesn’t embrace there power, going against what the brief requires. in the presentation. Elmore also doesn’t consider the effects of the water on the plastic and the subsequent fogging of it disrupting the In “The beauty of recycling” the whole infrastructure is solar panels, which are clear to see. However, you can only see and interact with ability for sunlight to be caught. them if you are on the water. Both designs have key design features that if developed further could be strong and concise. “Fresh Hills”, although it aims to catch as much wind as 1. Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1–16 2. Ferry, Robert & Elizabeth Monoian, ‘Design Guidelines’, Land Art Generator Initiative, Copenhagen, 2014. pp 1 - 10 3.Ferry, Robert & Elizabeth Monoian, ‘Design Guidelines’, Land Art Generator Initiative, Copenhagen, 2014. pp 1 - 10 4.Ferry, Robert & Elizabeth Monoian, ‘Design Guidelines’, Land Art Generator Initiative, Copenhagen, 2014. pp 1 - 10

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(top left) Figure 1a. “Fresh Hills”, Mathew Rosenberg, Los Angeles (USA) (right) Figure 2. “The Beauty of recycling”, Daniel Elmore, Cherry Hill, USA (bottom left) Figure 1b. “Fresh Hills”, Mathew Rosenberg, Los Angeles (USA)

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A. 1.2 Design Futuring: Kinetic Energy

When researching different sustainable energy forms, in relation to LAGI design competition, Kinetic forms of energy stood out for me. In particular Piezoelectric and Pyroelectric. Piezoelectric energy is created through mechanical strain that is converted into electrical energy. Pyroelectic energy is the conversion of temperature change into an electrical current. The energy is created when the crystal within the system is heated. Examples of this are light up shoes, singing birthday cards and pavers that light up when they are jumped on. A company named PaveGen has created a tile (Figure 3 ) that lights up or collects energy as someone walks over it. An example of this on a large scale is during the Paris marathon where a part of the course was covered in these tiles. 40, 000 people passed over them creating “7 kilowatt hours of electricity during the entire race, which is enough energy to power a light bulb continuously for five days” 1 (inhabitat.com). This is a low number, however, MIT realized that they created a generator (Figure 2), as small as a 5 cent peice (Figure 1), that created 100 times more energy then any other generator of its kind. The “MEMS-based microscale power generator utilis[es] a PZT thick film and the transducer to harvest ambient virbation energy”2 (p.82). From these kinetic energy different ways of creating energy and therefore different design ideas can be explored. Through research I discovered that if water is dripped on a piezoelectric cell, the vibration activities it and creates energy. This with the pyroelectric cell and temperature it makes me wonder if you could harness the rain and funnel it to create this dripping motion and changes its temperature if you are able to create a larger amount of energy then each cell would create by themselves. 1. Kinetic-Energy Harvesting Tiles, http://inhabitat.com/kinetic-energy-harvesting-tiles-generate-power-from-paris-marathon-runners/pavegen-energyharvesting-tiles/ 2. Energy Harvesting Technologies, By Shashank Priya, Daniel J. Inman, 2009

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(top left) Figure 1. Generator sizing, http://nextbigfuture.com/2011/04/piezoelectric-mems-boosts-vibration.html ( bottom left) Figure 2. Piezoelectric generator, http://www.gizmag.com/mitmems-device/19856/

(right) Figure 3. PaveGen tile, http://www.gizmag.com/pavegen-tiles-kineticenergy-harvesting/20235/

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A. 1.3 Design Futuring: Thin Film Organic Photovoltaic cells

As kinetic energy cannot provide enough energy on its own to supply the amount that is needed in the LAGI competition, I further researched another form of energy that could be used with Kinetic energy to harness both of there potentials to the maximum. I decided to pick Thin film organic photovoltaic cells. Thin film organic photovoltaic cells (OPVC) uses organic polymers to absorbs sunlight and submit electrical charges1. Due to its organic and plastic nature it means it can be easily fabricated and manipulated into different shapes. This also means that the cells is able to have some form of transparency to it too. They can be produced at a low cost in comparison to other photovoltaic cells as they can be easily printed. The cells have a conversion efficiency of 10% and can preform with low sunlight which is key for the LAGI project as in winter Denmark does not receives of average 7 hours of full sunlight. Due to the nature of the product, the cells can be sewn onto fabric, another element that could be optimized in LAGI submission. As the cells are so flexible and malleable, I feel as though there could be a way of using this with the kinetic energy so that they both help each other. What if the cells moved in the wind and there movement generated kinetic energy, whilst harnessing solar. I think materiality and using energy systems as a material is something that I want to focus on and analyze more as my design for LAGI further develops.

1. Feild Guide: Renewable Energy, Photovoltaic cells, http://landartgenerator. org/LAGI-FieldGuideRenewableEnergy-ed1.pdf

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Figure 1. Flexability of Thin Film organic photovoltaic cells, http://www.thomasnet.com/articles/image/thin-film.jpg

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A. 2.1 Design Computing: Interface /4

”Computation has provided the most radical shift in our methods of prescribing volume – a toolset that abstracts form to a dimensionless yet absolute state.”1 (AD) As computation has developed it has allowed architects to redesign and re-imagine things that were impossible before computers. Richard Beckett (DMC London), Sarat Babu (Betatype) and Vasilis Chlorokostas from the, Bartlett School of Architecture, University College London (UCL) are the creators of Interface /4. Interface /4 is an ongoing series of experiments exploring the notion of a high-definition interface. They “adapt design tools to include both macroscopic form and material properties, to fabricate them on current commercial additive manufacturing systems, and engage in localized control of material properties throughout their physical volume.”2(AD). Shown here are examples of a four layered membrane with microscopic fibers, 100 per centimeter. In Figure 1 and 2 a natural light shines through the materials membrane structure of 4 individual layers that are joined together. This visually appealing scene and atmosphere that is created shows Interface /4’s “ability to design below the macroscopic scale”3 (AD) through the use of selective laser sintering to create microscopic fibers on a surface that is over layered to create a new material and texture completely. Here computation has allowed for a unique material to form. To create a surface with such minute detail and a complex four membrane structure. This creation of an individual material has allowed for a renewal of “the architect’s traditional role as the master builder empowered with the understanding and ability to digitally create in the material realm”4(Oxman, p.5). This recreation provides inspiration in relation to the LAGI project; by creating a new surface or material different energies could be harnessed to a greater potential, as well as creating something that presents the energy source is a visually aesthetic way.

(above) Figure 1. The rear of the membrabe showing the detailed sections of the structure, Beckett & Babu, Interface /4, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/ doi/10.1002/ad.1709/pdf

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1. High Definition: Zero Tolerance in Design and Production, January/February 2014, Volume 84, Issue 1, Pages 1–136, i–iii, Issue edited by: Bob Sheil, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ad.1709/pdf 2. as above 3. as bove 4.Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 5. High Definition: Zero Tolerance in Design and Production, January/February 2014, Volume 84, Issue 1, Pages 1–136, i–iii, Issue edited by: Bob Sheil, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ad.1709/pdf 6. as above 7. Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10


Interface /4 are not saying what architecture may be but are instead exploring the “physical reality of a new language for architecture that matches the potential of additive manufacturing”5 (AD). The material that is created is not new but is exploring the boundaries between form and material. Interface /4 explores the boundaries and the capabilities of the material and looks to see what new geometries can be created. The team is” working to understand the practical limits, capabilities and properties that can be exhibited through a persistent material data set created by digital and physical testing”6 (AD). Each practise is printed on a scale of 1:1 as to see the full capabilities and to learn from each test.

“This new continuity transcends the merely instrumental contributions of the man-machine relationship to praxis and has begun to evolve as a medium that supports a continuous logic of design thinking and making.”7 (Oxman, p.1) This designing with trial and error to explore the limitation of design is something that I can take away for my own design for the LAGI project. By working with computation and allowing it to push you as a designer and thinking in a new way,new materials, concepts and ideas can be generated.

(left) Figure 2. Front surface under a natural light, Beckett & Babu, Interface /4, (right) Figure 3. Close up of fiborus texture, each panel has 100 fibres per http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ad.1709/pdf centermeter, Beckett & Babu, Interface /4, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/ doi/10.1002/ad.1709/pdf

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A. 2.2 Design Computing: Fibrosity

“formation precedes form, and design becomes the thinking of architectural generation through the logic of the algorithm. This is truly the shift towards a topological logic independent from formal and linguistic models of form representation.”1 (Oxman, p.3) Newnham’s project, Fibrosity, is “an attempt to highlight the difference between an architectural algorithm versus an applied algorithm”2 (Suckerpunch). Newnham has created a project that directly uses algorithms to sketch a bridge, with walkways and passages, that directly removes the design element out of it and only uses mathematics. To create the structure Newnham made it so that “programmatically the algorithm is dealing with sound attenuation walls and pedestrian bridges”3 (Suckerpunch) to create its barriers and walkways around the road and the surrounding land. In this project Newnham is stating: “Through this we propose that algorithmic design currently leans far too heavily on simply application of existing systems. Algorithmic design should take into account a much greater spectrum of architecture, not just beauty, and be intricately tailored to a project, rather than found and applied.”4(Suckerpunch) This project presents a unique prospective on design computing and makes one question where the line is drawn and what do we call “design” today. From this work inspiration for the LAGI project can be explored through possibly statistics for Denmark and the site to see if they in themselves can help design what is placed on it. However this should not be the only element that is considered. For design to develop there should be a clear relationship between what the computer can help you design algorithmically and what is made purely for beauty. Elements that I could consider in my design in rain statistics and noise pollution for the area. 1. Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 2. Cam Newnham, Melbourne Australia, RMIT University, critic: Roland Snooks, http://www.suckerpunchdaily.com/2014/02/13/fibrosity/ 3. as above 4.as above

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(left) Figure 4. Close up of bridge, Fibrosity, Cam Newnham,http://www.suckerpunchdaily.com/2014/02/13/fibrosity/

(right top) Figure 5. Aerial view, Fibrosity, Cam Newnham,http://www.suckerpunchdaily.com/2014/02/13/fibrosity/ (right bottom) Figure 6. Section, Fibrosity, Cam Newnham,http://www.suckerpunchdaily.com/2014/02/13/fibrosity/

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A . 3.1 Composition/Generation: Aerodynamic Microclimate

” The Aerodynamic Microclimate project explored the themes of biomimicry, emergence, sustainability, evolutionary computation, system control logics, kinetic design, interactive design and large-scale fabrication technologies. The adaptive material system explorations reflected the anisotropic property of plywood and smart behaviour of shape memory alloy. The physical and computational toolset of the fabrication process were CNC milling, composite material production and smart material activation by Arduino micro-controller.” 1 (suckerpunch quoting Cagla Gurbay, Yemin Ma, Prajish Vinyak, & Jinjing Yu) The project Aerodynamic Microclimate by Cagla Gurbay, Yemin Ma, Prajish Vinyak, & Jinjing Yu focuses on the changes in temperature and humidity and figure out ways “of responding the heterogeneous thermal demand of the occupancy variation”2 (Suckerpunch). This changing building is created through moving panels with open and close through parameters that are placed on the building. “The clustered controlled multiple parameters of interior heat and humidity was achieved in a single system by sensory data input”3 (suckerpunch). Kolarevic states that “by assigning different values to the parameters, different objects or configurations can be created” 4 (Kolarevic, p.17), this change in configuration is achieved through the moving panels. In Figure 2 multiple situations are shown for the variation in wind, area temperature and the frequency that the building is being used. To create this “methodology was set on evolutionary computation with tools of Grasshopper and Rhinoceros” 5 (suckerpunch). By accessing a building by the people that move in and out of it we are able to not just think of the building as a permanent unmoving object. By enabling these parameters and calculating optimum efficiency it could possibly lead to a more static architecture. This form of building however could not be put into practise everywhere due to weather conditions that have not been assessed.

(above) Figure 1. Aerial of model, Cagla Gurbay, Yemin Ma, Prajish Vinyak, & Jinjing Yu: “Aerodynamic Microclimate”,http://www.suckerpunchdaily. com/2014/03/05/aerodynamic-microclimate/

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1. Cagla Gurbay, Yemin Ma, Prajish Vinyak, & Jinjing Yu: “Aerodynamic Microclimate”,http://www.suckerpunchdaily.com/2014/03/05/aerodynamicmicroclimate/ 2. as above 3. as above 4. Kolarevic, Branko, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003) Suggested start with pp. 3-62 5. Cagla Gurbay, Yemin Ma, Prajish Vinyak, & Jinjing Yu: “Aerodynamic Microclimate”,http://www.suckerpunchdaily.com/2014/03/05/aerodynamicmicroclimate/


(above) Figure 2. Parametric Change, Cagla Gurbay, Yemin Ma, Prajish Vinyak, & Jinjing Yu: “Aerodynamic Microclimate”,http://www.suckerpunchdaily. com/2014/03/05/aerodynamic-microclimate/

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A . 3.2 Composition/Generation: Smithsonian Institute

“A single computer program, written by Brady Peters, an architect on the design team and a member of Foster + Partners’ Specialist Modelling Group (SMG), generated the geometry of the roof. The computer code was used to explore design options and was constantly modified throughout the design process. It was also used to generate the final geometry and additional information needed to analyse structural and acoustic performance, to visualise the space, and to create fabrication data for physical models.” 1 (Peters, p.13) The roof over the courtyard of the Smithsonian Institute by Foster + Partners shows a clear example of computer generate design with a piped mesh being lain over existing architecture. As stated in the quotation above several parameters were enters so that multiple generations could be achieved to create the shape and structure of the roof. The firm Foster + Partners design process uses “computational designers working in internal specialist groups largely separate from the design teams. These groups act as internal consultancies and designers integrate with the design process to varying degrees depending on the needs of the project”2 (Peters, p. 11). The specialisation in computational design allowed them to generate many different iterations to produce the most effective outcome to be placed on the building. By generating multiple outcomes they were able to test and examine what outcome would be most effective to the space. The meshed roof seems to float above the existing building and creates a large covered open space that seems as though it is outdoors. Through there generative design they considered the factor of the pre-existing building and how the new addition needed to react with it. I believe that this roof is simple and therefore is effective in its setting as it continues the conversation of the building. The interaction between the existing and new design is something that I can take away in my own LAGI design as external factors should be considered when generating design.

(above) Figure 1. Close up off roof, Foster + Partners, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, 2007, http://www.fosterandpartners.com/projects/ smithsonian-institution/

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1. Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15 2. as above


(above) Figure 2. Angle shot of water reflection, Foster + Partners, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, 2007, http://www.fosterandpartners.com/projects/smithsonian-institution/

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A . 4 & 5 Conclusion & Learning outcomes

Through investigation over the past four weeks, I have discovered many presidents that I believe that I can learn from for my own design. Investigation into previous works for LAGI on pages 1011 has shown me what I don’t and do want to achieve in my design and allowed me to view myself in a more critical way. By investigating piezoelectric energy as a sustainable energy source it sculpted the types of precedents that I wanted to gain knowledge from. From Part A I take away the concept of materiality and the ability to create a material of structure that is reactive and that will optimize my energy source. Along side my discoveries, the readings have allowed me to question my previous design ideals and think not just about sustainable practise and what it means to be “sustainable� but about defuturing and what it means to design. This ideas have made me rethink my previous designs as I have previously thought about design in a more analog why, through this exploration and discovering Grasshopper it has allowed me to transfer these thoughts and develop them into a more digital thinking.

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References Beckett & Babu, Interface /4, http://onlinelibrary.wiley. com/doi/10.1002/ad.1709/pdf Cam Newnham, Melbourne Australia, RMIT University, critic: Roland Snooks, http://www.suckerpunchdaily. com/2014/02/13/fibrosity/ Cagla Gurbay, Yemin Ma, Prajish Vinyak, & Jinjing Yu: “Aerodynamic Microclimate”,http://www.suckerpunchdaily. com/2014/03/05/aerodynamic-microclimate/ Energy Harvesting Technologies, By Shashank Priya, Daniel J. Inman, 2009 Ferry, Robert & Elizabeth Monoian, ‘Design Guidelines’, Land Art Generator Initiative, Copenhagen, 2014. pp 1 - 10 Foster + Partners, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, 2007, http://www.fosterandpartners.com/projects/smithsonianinstitution/

“Fresh Hills”, Mathew Rosenberg, Los Angeles (USA)

High Definition: Zero Tolerance in Design and Production, January/February 2014, Volume 84, Issue 1, Pages 1–136, i–iii, Issue edited by: Bob Sheil, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ ad.1709/pdf Kinetic-Energy Harvesting Tiles, http://inhabitat.com/ kinetic-energy-harvesting-tiles-generate-power-from-paris-marathon-runners/pavegen-energy-harvesting-tiles/

Kolarevic, Branko, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003) Suggested start with pp. 3-62 Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10

PaveGen tile, http://www.gizmag.com/pavegen-tileskinetic-energy-harvesting/20235/ Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15 Piezoelectric generator, http://www.gizmag.com/mitmems-device/19856/

Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1–16 Generator sizing, http://nextbigfuture.com/2011/04/piezoelectric-mems-boosts-vibration.html

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PART B.

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Figure 1. Aerial view, http://www.iwamotoscott.com/VOUSSOIR-CLOUD Firgure 2. View through the cloud, As above

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B . 1 Research Feild: Material Performance

The material system that I decided to explore further was Material Performance with Iwamoto Scott ‘s 2008 Voussoir Cloud installation. In previous precedents, materiality and its performance has been a key element that I have tried to explore. By exploring material performance in this context I hoped to grasp a further understanding and context in computational design. Voussoir Cloud grasps inspiration from Gaudi and Otto’s concepts of chain modelling to find an efficient form1. Chain modelling is a concept where the form of a hanging chain was observed and gravitationally reversed with stone and concrete to create arches that were structurally sound and different in form. The chain modelling used allows for the low sloping arches and simple compressions of the structure. Each vault is divided into Delaunay tesselations which allows the panels to optimize the vault structure. The petal panels optimize the structure through bunching and smaller petals at the bases of the structure and at the ribs of the vault, opening up and spreading out as the go up and out. The wedge shaped masonry that is usually used in vaulted arches is able to be replaced with paper this wood panels due to the compression and tension factors realized through the chain modelling and Dealunay tesselation. The thin wood panelling that is used creates its own surface tension through the curved folded seams. This tension of the folds wanting to bulge out is what allows for the structural porosity within the constraints of the sheet material2. There are four different times of petals with zero, one, two or three curved folds which allows for each petal to behave in a different way and interact between each other. Designed on Rhino, Voussoir Cloud clearly shows what computational design is capable of, or was in 2008, and creates an atmospheric space through mathematical spacing, shape formation and overall vault formation.

1. Iwamoto Scott, Voussoir Cloudm, 2008, http://www.iwamotoscott.com/ VOUSSOIR-CLOUD 2. As above

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B.2.1 Matrix Exploration: The Voussoir Cloud

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B . 2.2 Matrix Exploration From the above matrix I have selected four which I believe show the best outcome, or potential to learn from for future design generation. The four images (from top to bottom) show an alteration in the physics application, altering gravitational forces, an alteration in horizontal forces, a plugin in point change to a spiral formation with few points, and then many points. To select these iteration from my matrix I assessed material performacne and considered what type of materials i want to use within my own design. I think the organic, bulbous shapes of the first two could lend themselves well to thin film photovoltaic cells as a meterial as the shape allows for movement in the shapes and material. The bottom two present a more ridid structure with hidden elements and confusion to the eye as well as the ability for moving element for kinetic energy. When modeling these iterations my aim was to break to model, to distort it and push it to its boundaries. The first two do not essentially show this but show where i began and the physics capabilities of the program which could be used to my advantage.

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B . 3.1 Case Study 2.0: EXOtique

Start with a brief analysis of the project. Discuss the design intent (idea/concept) behind the project and critically analyse if it has been successful in what it set out to achieve. EXOtique was

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(top) Firgure 1. EXOtique, (bottom) Figure 2. Close up of panels and cut outs,

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B . 3.2 Case Study 2.0: EXOtique

1 Hexagonal grid

Using the hexgrid function and offsetting the hexagonal shape, we have created a hexagonal pattern which mimics the panel tessellation of the EXOtique installation. The integers used for the grid were odd numbers in order to satisfy the tessellation requirements of the hexagonal shape. We have used an x integer of 3 and y integer of 5.

2 Box

After establishing the hexagonal grid pattern, we established a panel space using this grid as a base. The box is created by the joining of points, whose locations are informed by the grid geometry through use of the subtract command. The rectangular space serves as a panel, which allows the hexagonal pattern to be applied to our lofted surface.

Similarities and differences Similarities General curvature while keeping rigid structure because of the hexagonals The hexagonal panels follow the curvature of the loft, rather than being twodimensional pieces placed together to create a lofted shape. Differences The configuration of the circular cut-outs is dissimilar to that of our definition in that our circular pattern expressed itself in singular lines, rather than a concentric configuration. The outside edges of EXOtique are limited to the borders of the hexagonal shapes, rather than adhering to the shape of the lofted surface. Our definition adheres to the boundaries of the loft.

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3 Loft

Applying the loft command to a collection of curves creates a planar surface to which the hexagonal panel geometry. The lofted plane is representative of the lofted shape of the EXOtique installation.

Where would we like to go next? Increase dimensionality by splitting the lofted plane to fold it into different directions. Additionally, we would extrude some panels to create a more 3 dimensional effect. We would increase the ‘sharpness’ of the form by implementing panelised ribs which would protrude from the loft.


4 Applying

The hexagonal grid was applied to our lofted surface by morphing the grid surface, the box panel and the loft surface box. The combination of shape and pattern creates the overall form which is identifiable as a variation of EXOtique.

5 Adjusting

Experimentation with the surface loft shape, and of the values of various commands such as the surface divider, facilitated minor adjustments to our form that resulted in a greater level of resemblance to EXOtique.

6 Attempt at point charges

The EXOtique panels have circular cutouts. We recreated this circular pattern using point charges. We divided our hexagonal surfaces into points. We then created point charges, altered by equation which controls the circle radius. This new surface was then mapped onto the loft. We encountered an error in executing this, however the simulation was still completed. EXOtique is lit with LED bulbs attached to some panels, the circles are only present on the panels which are not lit. We could not replicate the inconsistency of the circular patterning, as we could not find a way to instruct point charges to only effect certain portions of the grid surface.

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B . 4.1 Technique: Development

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B . 4.2 Technique: Development

exotique

In this iteration we redid our reverse engineer of EXOtique to create a piped frame with hexagonal panelling on them. This different iteration meant that we would be able to achieve different outcomes and generations in our matrix through using different iterations and different methods to receive the same outcome.

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piping pattern

In this render the geometric piping was offset to create a two layered structure with no surface between the pipes. This one was picked as we believed the shape and movement was emotive whilst still retaining the material texture we want to create in our structure. This structure could be applied to the site in different ways, vertically upright, horizontal in the sky or on the ground, or even over hanging the water.

tensile tunnel

In this rendering we looked at removing the curve at one end of the structure and replacing it with a point, this creates a pinched end. By removing the surface and only having piping it allows for us to place piezoelectric film within them that will react to external factors such as wind and hum contact. To create maximum accessibility and efficiency, this structure would be placed horizontal to the site so that pedestrians could walk though and interact with the structure.


turning tower

For a final iteration we created a twisted, abstracted rectangle form that takes a full revolution. The tower has a ribbed façade that twists to create an abstracted shape. It is this twist that we want to utilize for our energy generation. By using lightweight material, or hollowed material, we will be able to create a moving structure and will move around, like a pinwheel, when the wind blows. This movement will create kinetic energy through piezoelectric cells. These panels can also be covered, or created out of photovoltaic cells that will collect sun energy at 360 degrees of the site. As for site placement the tower could either standalone or have multiple to create a moving ‘farm’. The panels closer to the ground would have tighter joints and therefor need more force to move. This is so that pedestrian interaction will be safe and people will be able to interact with the structure and physically move the bottom panels themselves.

phat pipes

Through expanding and pushing the algorithms we came up with a flattened and enlarged piping system that was more organic and chunky in comparison to our other outcomes. We picked this, as we believe it could be applied to the site floor as a more solid, building structure. The large openings could create wind tunnels through the site, which would in turn move panels within the structure that would generate kinetic energy. These panels will move on latches and therefore close off different areas during different wind paths, creating a constantly changing experience for viewers. This internal movement would create an interactive experience for people as they walked through the structure as they path would change depending on the direction of the wind. The walls of the structure could be lined with photovoltaic cells that would be able to harness the energy from the sun in the day. These would also be working at an efficient level, as the curved structure would be able to receive the sun as the sun travels in the sky and as the sun path changes for the different seasons. By using both photovoltaic cells and kinetic energy more efficient energy levels can be reached then by using both on there own.

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B . 5 Technique: Prototypes

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B . 6 Technique: Proposal

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B . 7 Learning Objectives and Outcomes

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Student Journal Part B  

Updated Version

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