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studio 2 LEXICON


INTRODUCTION

THIS BOOK IS A COMPILATION OF LEXICONS RESEARCH AND COMPILED BY STUDIO 2 WHILST STUDYING UNDER THE THEME OF ‘RURBAN’. tHE LEXICONS ARE BROKEN DOWN INTO 3 KEY THEMES:‘SUBURBAN LEXICONS, COLEXICONS AND RURBAN LEXICONS,’ EACH OF WHICH WILL BE INTRODUCED UNDER THE RELEVANT SECTION. CONTRIBUTORS ARIADNA ASTON rEBECCA HINKLEY JOAN BAPTISTA LUNG JAYNE HOGEN NATALIE LUNT ROBERT MAWSDON HANNAH O’BOYLE MILES PHILLIPS JULIET SAKYI-ANSAH ADITI SAXENA JONATHAN SHAW EMMA WOOD EMINA ZELIHIC


CONTENTS

//CONTENTS SUBURBAN LEXICONS CO-LEXICONS RURBAN LEXICONS


SUBURBAN LEXICON

office park big box urban/work greenway home office drosscape

//SUBURBAN LEXICON

The suburban lexicons were developed after reading the text ‘A Lexicon of Suburban Neologisms’ by Rachel Hooper and Jayme Yen. Their descriptive terms, or Lexicons, provided a starting point for our research. Having each selected three, we explored the terms and represented this research graphically to create our own list of vocabulary based on issues we were interested in.

edge city greyfields infill middle landscape asphalt nation drosscape infill drive-thru carchitecture transition towns smart growth t.o.a.d. walmartisation outer-ring suburb blandburb


Office park

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LOCAL BUSINESS

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The growth of an Office park. With the offices attracting tertiary services such as Creches and gyms.


SUBURBAN LEXICON

office park big box urban/work greenway home office drosscape edge city greyfields infill middle landscape asphalt nation drosscape infill drive-thru carchitecture transition towns smart growth t.o.a.d. walmartisation outer-ring suburb blandburb


BIG BOX

Suburban Lexicon


SUBURBAN LEXICON

office park big box urban/work greenway home office drosscape

A large retail store.typically with 75.000 to 250.000 square feet of space distinguished by its rectangular plan; concrete-block construction windowless, standardized exteriors ; and single-story structure with a three-story height of about 30 feet. The big box model, with expansive parking lots and rapid construction in areas often insufficiently prepared to accommodate such enterprise hasbeen blamedfor traffic congestion and sprawl. Big boxes across the US are being vacated as it is more economically viable for companies to construct bigger stores on new land than extend existing stores. There is currently 26.5million sq feet of empty Walmarts in the US. The UK recession could see a similar trend in vacated big boxes [greyfields / deadmalls] Artist Julia Christensen documents empty big boxes, converted by communities into schools, churches, flea markets and fitness centres. Taking advantage of a purpose built infrastructure and easily adapted shell.

edge city greyfields infill middle landscape asphalt nation drosscape infill drive-thru carchitecture transition towns smart growth t.o.a.d. walmartisation outer-ring suburb blandburb


SUBURBAN LEXICON

office park big box urban/work greenway home office drosscape edge city greyfields infill middle landscape asphalt nation drosscape infill drive-thru carchitecture transition towns smart growth t.o.a.d. walmartisation outer-ring suburb blandburb


Greenway

The high Line / New York

Suburban Lexicon

native seeds dispersed by the wind settle in abandoned urban infrastructure, where no human actions allow the seeds to grown into a natural landscape.

ws The ab s e n c e o f t r a ffi c a n d a s p h a l t a l l o

p

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and

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to tu re

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through the cit y

socia

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ath c yc l e p

s


SUBURBAN LEXICON

office park big box urban/work greenway home office drosscape

greenway (high line) 1/ land converted for recreational use; particularly a trail or linear open space established along a natural corridor, such as riverfront, stream, or ridge line, or along a railroad right of way. 2/ a trail or bike path; any natural or landscaped course for pedestrian or bicycle passage. 3/ open space that links parks and rural land; a belt of interconnected parks or rural land surrounding a town or city.

edge city greyfields infill middle landscape asphalt nation drosscape infill drive-thru carchitecture transition towns smart growth t.o.a.d. walmartisation outer-ring suburb blandburb


Home Office

SEPARATION FROM THE WORKPLACE NO CHANGE TO ENVIRONMENT BORED OF FAMILY DISTRACTIONS

NO COMMUTE FLEXIBLE HOURS SNACK TIME - ANYTIME COMFORTABLE ENVIRONMENT


SUBURBAN LEXICON

office park big box urban/work greenway home office drosscape edge city greyfields infill middle landscape asphalt nation drosscape infill drive-thru carchitecture transition towns smart growth t.o.a.d. walmartisation outer-ring suburb blandburb


SUBURBAN LEXICON

office park big box urban/work greenway home office drosscape

Drosscapes are areas of land left behind in the wake of construction and demolition. They exist on the peripheries of our towns and cites, our suburbs and edge cities; a sign of the development of urban society. Some view drosscapes as a positive and healthy sign of growth. Yet they are much more than this. They are affectively formed out of a contaminated world.

edge city greyfields infill middle landscape asphalt nation drosscape infill drive-thru carchitecture transition towns smart growth t.o.a.d. walmartisation outer-ring suburb blandburb


EDGE CITY: key features of an ‘Edge City’:

city

city

ar ou nd freew ays & airports

arlier

Tysons Corner, Virginia, USA, 1960s:

Tysons Corner, Virginia, USA, c.1957:

KEY: single family houses (2500 no.)

people (2500 no.)

commuters (2500 no.)

retail space, (100,000 sq ft)

office space, (500,000 sq ft)

a ve eie perc

ll y ca

r cte

0 ye ars e

population

tre en

ypi

a har

development t

tre en

no urban c ist ics 3

city

c

c

tre en

c

re a

as a

sing le end destination

Tysons Corner, Virginia, USA, 2007:


SUBURBAN LEXICON

office park big box urban/work greenway home office drosscape

Edge City is a term used to describe an area of rapid growth situated distinctly outside the ‘downtown’ of a city. The area is usually a place which was a small settlement around 30 years prior and then with the addition of nearby freeways and airports becomes a focus for new development.

edge city greyfields infill middle landscape asphalt nation drosscape infill drive-thru carchitecture transition towns smart growth t.o.a.d. walmartisation outer-ring suburb blandburb


GREYFIELDS:

Newer, larger competition attracts inhabitants away from existing smaller retail centres

Reuse of development of greyfields follows SMART GROWTH principles: Example - Uptown District, SanDiego - reuse of site originally used by a large retail store, of 140,000 sq ft - a similar size to shopping centre found in Colombes

2

3 RANGE OF HOUSING CHOICES:

COMPACT LAND USE:

use of land in this way has helped to avoid urban sprawl

reuse:

1

different forms of housing enable an integration of various demographics to live together in a mixed community rather than segregated areas for different social categories

MIXED LAND USES:

4 WALKABLE NEIGHBOURHOODS:

different uses have helped to build in flexibility and allow for adaptation in the future as the current demographic and their needs change

the reinstatement of original streets allows pedestrians safe and easy access to goods and facilities to reduce dependence on the car

reuse:

reuse:

reuse combined with mix use

5 DISTINCTIVE AND ATTRACTIVE PLACES:

10 COMMUNITY AND STAKEHOLDER PARTICIPATION:

with improved pedestrian access and a development making reference to the existing Spanish revival context the project boosts the aesthetic appeal of the area

reuse:

the inclusion of all stakeholders has helped to address all the issues and desires through collaboration to produce a more sustainable outcome

reuse:

6 PRESERVE OPEN SPACES AND FARMLAND: 9 PREDICTABLE AND FAIR DECISION MAKING: development of a dedicated team to ensure speedy endorsement of reuse and redevelopment (not relevant the example)

7

8 TRANSPORTATION CHOICES: the development sits alongside one of the city’s busiest bus network reducing need for parking spaces

DEVELOPMENT IN EXISITNG COMMUNITIES:

these spaces are necessary for interaction and for the production of food (not relevant to the example)

the project has taken advantage of what is already existing, saving resources required with greenfields and revitalise areas like Uptown District that are failing, and here 15 new projects to improve the area are in planning

Typical example of greyfield reuse:

collaboration between:

Winter Park Mall (525,000 square foot or 48,773 square metres) which declined and eventually failed in the 1990s. The city council decided to not simply refurbish only for it to fail again.

>city councils >developers >designers >residents

>>>>discuss needs and make a compromise

Winter Park, Florida began as a dead mall which a simple unused box surrounded by parking

redevelop with mixed used including: >> office space >> cinema >> restaurants >> retail >> residential

(above) street in Winter Park Village

>partial reuse of existing structure (blue) with additional one storey construction creating urban place by breaking up the superblock >over time structures line the streets creating a relationship with the buildings

(side) the development has been successful but not at the expense of the historic shopping corridor, both destinations meet customer needs in differnt ways allowing both to co-exist. There has also been independent pockets of renovation for new uses in the immediate area.

Further development is underway including new housing units, some of which will face neighbouring homes across the street. As a mixed use development it can be adapted to meet changing demographic needs in the future.


SUBURBAN LEXICON

office park big box urban/work greenway home office drosscape edge city greyfields infill middle landscape asphalt nation drosscape infill drive-thru carchitecture transition towns smart growth t.o.a.d. walmartisation outer-ring suburb blandburb


SUBURBANLEXICON LEXICON SUBURBAN

office park big box urban/work greenway home office drosscape

Infill is the development of new buildings on scattered vacant sites in a built up area; it contributes to a compact notion of development by consuming less land and resources; it aims to renew the urban fabric by knitting scattered sites together to invoke a close community.

edge city greyfields infill middle landscape asphalt nation drosscape infill drive-thru carchitecture transition towns smart growth t.o.a.d. walmartisation outer-ring suburb blandburb


need to insert mixed use

develop sense of community/identity

historical/pastoral influence:

modern influence:

MIDDLE LANDSCAPE:

examples vary according to infrastructure devleopment:

Sharpstown, Houston, USA

Framington, Boston, USA


SUBURBAN LEXICON LEXICON SUBURBAN

office park big box urban/work greenway home office drosscape

The term ‘middle landscape’ describes the land that has developed between the city and the countryside as suburban expansion has taken place. The area created is often desolate and lacking a sense of place as bland residential blocks and offices are constructed leaving vacant spaces between them. Middle landscapes can vary according to influences e.g. infrastructure development.

edge city greyfields infill middle landscape asphalt nation drosscape infill drive-thru carchitecture transition towns smart growth t.o.a.d. walmartisation outer-ring suburb blandburb


ASPHALT NATION - a nation succumbed to the use of the automobile land devoted to the movement of the car

national

local

USA is known for its car culture and there are thousands of miles worth of road in the nation. The type of asphalt ranges from that found in the increasing numbers of sprawling suburban housing enclaves to the numerous major highways and intersections across the country allowing the American access to all parts of their country by car.

Century Freeway in Los Angeles has 5 stacked levels of highway, 7 miles of ramps, 2 miles of tunnels and 11 bridges spanning east and west from the airport. - source: “Asphalt Nation: How the automobile took over America and how we can take it back”

2. Judge Harry Pregerson Interchange, Los Angeles, USA

1. Housing at Scottsdale, Arizona each house with their own garage also requires its own access

“The Wal-mart or HomeDepot could not survive without the roads that wind through the countryside and the asphalt encasement to hold the customers’ cars.”

3. Costco wholesale relies on its customers using their cars to access it in order to benefit from wholesale sales

4. Chandler high tech cluster, Maricopa County, Arizona Lying on the outskirts of Phoenix, this facility relies on its employees being able to access it via car

The creation of the car has led to a series of architectural typologies related to its manufacture, storage, sale and fuelling. At first a practical architecture, it is now turning into an aesthetic practice...

8. Freestanding garages, Sheffield The garage is the necessity for the secure storage of a car

selling

entertainment

parking

disposal 10. Car salvage and junkyards near Dallas, Texas “There are more cars than drivers in the average American household (1.75 drivers and 1.90 personal vehicles).”

“Two thirds of America’s petroleum goes to transportation, of which four fifths goes to cars.”

9. Petrol station architecture is standard for most stations but it is a distinct architecture

landscapes for the car From car parking to junkyards, these are large spaces which are essentially wasteful spaces but are necessities for a culture related to the car.

5. What good is a drive-thru without a car?

- Jane Holtz Kay, “Asphalt Nation: How the automobile took over America and how we can take it back”

fuelling

6. BMW car plant, Leipzig, Germany A new kind of designer architecture seems to be appearing for manufacturing plants for automobiles as shown here...

7. Car showroom, Osaka, Japan As with designer manufacturing plants, showrooms are also appearing with more aesthetically appealing desings

storing

manufacturing

new architecture built around the car

pleasure

There are many establishments and developments which rely on the use of a car. Some of these have been outlined here.

work

housing

developments/ establishments dependent on the use of the car

amenities

- Jane Holtz Kay, “Asphalt Nation: How the automobile took over America and how we can take it back

11. Meadowhall shopping centre, Sheffield Although it has access by tram and bus many people use cars to get here and parking creates a large area of asphalt aspha

12. Busselton Drive in outdoor cinema, West Busselton, Australia

“A pedestrian requires 5 square feet when standing and 10 on the hoof. A car and its access demand 300 square feet when standing, 3,000 when moving at 30 miles an hour.” - Jane Holtz Kay, “Asphalt Nation: How the automobile took over America and how we can take it back

image sources:

“We [America] own half the cars, produce half the automobile’s carbon dioxide emissions in the world, and manufacture one-quarter of the vehicles.” - Jane Holtz Kay, “Asphalt Nation: How the automobile took over America and how we can take it back”

1. “Drosscape: Wasting land in Urban America” 2. http://sauer-thompson.com/conversations/archives /2009/10/automobile-heav.html 3. http://www.emconcreteinc.com 4. “Drosscape: Wasting land in Urban America” 5. http://www.goolooloo.com 6. The Architectural Review, June 2005 7. The Architectural Review, June 2005 8. The Architectural Review, June 2005 9. http://www.alibaba.com 10. “Drosscape: Wasting land in Urban America” 11. Google maps 12. http://www.busseltondrive-in.com.au/photos


SUBURBAN LEXICON LEXICON SUBURBAN

office park big box urban/work greenway home office drosscape

“One third of the miles we travel go to consumption and family chores. A bottle of milk, a tube of toothpaste, a Little League game, taking grandma to the hospital or Junior for eye glasses spin the miles. The ministuff of life clogs the nation’s roads. Another third falls under the ‘social and recreational’ category. These are the hours of amusement and frienship reached by the wheel; a workout, a movie, a finner. Total these lifestyle choices...and we have covered two-thirds of our driving miles, more than half of the ten to twelve thousand miles of travel per car per year.” - Jane Holtz Kay, “Asphalt Nation: How the automobile took over America and how we can take it back” Most Western nations are dominated by the automobile and this has inevitably had an effect on the architecture and so this analysis looks at the effects the car has had on the built environment.

edge city greyfields infill middle landscape asphalt nation drosscape infill drive-thru carchitecture transition towns smart growth t.o.a.d. walmartisation outer-ring suburb blandburb


DROSS

“1. The scum, recrement, or extraneous matter thrown off from metals in the process of melting

wasteful landscapes These are landscapes which relate to sprawl. Examples of such scapes are suburban housing developments (as shown below) and the wasteful use of space for car parking, buffer zones between developments and other such ‘spread out’ developments.

2. In general: refuse; rubbish; worthless; impure matter”

SCAPE

“A view of scenery of any kind, whether consisting of land, water, cloud, or anything else.” source: OED Online 2009 edition

DROSSCAPE

“Wasted landscapes within urbanized areas”. Drosscape is a result of two factors; a consequence of urban sprawl, and the leftovers of previous economic and production regimes.

types of drosscape

mall of Georgia, 30 miles north east of Atlanta large expanses of parking space add to the dross surrounding major centres

source: Alan Berger, “Drosscape: Wasting Land in Urban America”

housing, texas urban sprawl in America is the result of developments such as these which are built wastefully

transitional land

derelict structures

These are drosscapes in and around cities across the US which are vacant sites awaiting development. Most such sites are contaminated and need decontamination prior to any development taking place.

Buildings such as former steel works and mills which have shut down are some of the derelict structures across the city which are adding to the dross.

former factory, Kannapolis, North Carolina this former towel factory is now standing vacant following closure

industrial land, 15 miles outside of Chicago abandoned space following industrial production awaiting development

northwest mall, Houston, Texas large structures such as shopping centres, stadiums etc. when derelict create drosscapes no use such as the centre shown above

wasteful infrastructure

“wastescapes”

Millions of miles are dedicated to highways and major roads in the US. The spaces in between the intersections to these roads become wasted landscapes with no use. Other wasteful infrastructure sites include those used as railroad junkyards, spaces surrounding oil and gas pipes and electric tranmission lines etc.

Wastescapes are areas of land which are used specifically for the disposal of waste. This land may be landfill or other disposal sites such as junkyards.

landfill sites such as this are used for dumping the masses of waste produced globally. such drosscapes are simply wasted zones source: http://biofermenergy.com

highway interchange, Houston, Texas spaces surrounding major infrastructure often have no obvious uses and are difficult to work with leaving them to become drosscapes

car salvage and junkyard near Ayer, Massachusetts the vast amounts of cars sent to junkyards leads to this use of land which is simply being used for ‘storage’ of this junk.

all images (unless otherwise stated) are sourced from: Alan Berger, “Drosscape: Wasting Land in Urban America”


SUBURBAN LEXICON LEXICON SUBURBAN

office park big box urban/work greenway home office drosscape

Drosscape is the “wasted landscape within urbanized areas�. It is a result of two factors; a consequence of urban sprawl, and the leftovers of previous economic and production processes. Examples of drosscape can be seen in countries worldwide and this analysis shows the different types of drosscape which are evident across the USA (as an example, but apply to most other nations).

edge city greyfields infill middle landscape asphalt nation drosscape infill drive-thru carchitecture transition towns smart growth t.o.a.d. walmartisation outer-ring suburb blandburb


in the gaps in INFILL filling the fabric of the city...

infill of use - landscape & structures

The High Line Park, New York. Architects: Diller Scofidio + Renfro

Infill of open land or disused structures such as bridges, railway tracks, motorways etc. with a new use.

A former elevated freight rail track has been converted into a public park which holds various activities. 1.

2.

infill on brownfield sites Infill of open land or disused structures such as bridges, railway tracks, motorways etc. with a new use. Olympic Sculpture Park, Seattle Architects: Weiss Manfredi A waterfront contaminated site in Seattle which was formerly industrial is developed as a sculpture park. 3. Aerial view

infill of use - buildings 4. View from across the Thames

This type of infill uses existing buildings which have been renovated and now house a new use. These may be former industrial buildings etc.

Left: Tate Modern, London. Architects: Herzog & de Meuron.

6. Aerial view

This former Bankside Power Station was closed in 1981 and was converted into an art gallery in 2000. Right: Magna Science Adventure Centre, Rotherham Architects: Wilkinson Eyre Architects This former steel factory has now been converted into a science museum thus an infill of use within the same building structure. 5. View of the main gallery space

urban infill

8.

7. View of main space

9. The infill completes the corner of an urban block.

Am Kupfergraben 10, Berlin Architects: David Chipperfield Architects.

This is the kind of infill found in an urban setting. Spaces leftover by demolished buildings and empty spaces are filled in to keep the urban fabric tight.

10. The building addresses the heights of its neighbouring buildings.

This building sits in the centre of Berlin a few metres from Museum island. It infills a space left by a building destroyed by the war. This is a sucessful example of infilling since the new building addresses the buildings it sits between and uses their facade language to inform its own design. Although respectful of its surroundings, it still manages to stand out from the existing fabric as a contemporary edition to the area.

image sources: 1. www.thehighline.org 2. The Architectural Review, September 2009 3. Detail, March-April 2008 4. http://architecture.about.com/od/museum1/ss/Tatemodern.htm 5. Aditi Saxena 6. www.rotherhamweb.co.uk 7. www.flickr.com 8. Detail, November-December 2008 9. Detail, November-December 2008 10. Aditi Saxena


SUBURBAN LEXICON LEXICON SUBURBAN

office park big box urban/work greenway home office drosscape

Infill looks at making use of areas in the landscape which lie vacant, unused or dilapidated. Although infill does not always have to involve structural infill or infill of a building, in fact it could be infill of use. This sheet begins to show the different types of infill.

edge city greyfields infill middle landscape asphalt nation drosscape infill drive-thru carchitecture transition towns smart growth t.o.a.d. walmartisation outer-ring suburb blandburb


SUBURBAN LEXICON LEXICON SUBURBAN

office park big box urban/work greenway home office drosscape

An establishment, such as a fast food restaurant or a bank, where customers drive up to a window to conduct business while they remain in their cars. Popular since the 1920s for their convenience, drive-thrus have recently been banned in some cities because the curb cuts for automobiles disrupt the sidewalk, endanger pedestrians, and take up more space than a standard parking lot.

edge city greyfields infill middle landscape asphalt nation drosscape infill drive-thru carchitecture transition towns smart growth t.o.a.d. walmartisation outer-ring suburb blandburb


SUBURBAN LEXICON LEXICON SUBURBAN

office park big box urban/work greenway home office drosscape

1. Buildings that respond to the ambivilance emoted by a society to the automobile and the automotive industry. “Carchitecture has been a long, slow evolutionary response to the problem of accommodating the inherent contradiction of the car; the car will set society free, an automotive society creates traffic, traffic enslaves society.” 1 2. Buildings designed to be seen from cars. “We are living in a carchitecture age, an era in which most buildings are designed to be seen and appreciated from moving vehicles.2 1 Jonathan Bell, ed. ‘’Carchitecture.” London: August Media, 2001 2 Charlene Rooke. “Scenic Drive” enRoute (July 2004)

edge city greyfields infill middle landscape asphalt nation drosscape infill drive-thru carchitecture transition towns smart growth t.o.a.d. walmartisation outer-ring suburb blandburb


SUBURBAN LEXICON LEXICON SUBURBAN

office park big box urban/work greenway home office drosscape

TRANSITION TOWNS (also known as Transition network or Transition Movement) is a movement that was created by Louise Rooney and popularized by Rob Hopkins. It was founded in Kinsale, Ireland and was then spread to Totnes, England by environmentalist Rob Hopkins during 2005 and 2006. The aim of the project is to equip communities for the dual challenges of climate change and peak oil.

edge city greyfields infill middle landscape asphalt nation drosscape infill drive-thru carchitecture transition towns smart growth t.o.a.d. walmartisation outer-ring suburb blandburb


SUBURBAN LEXICON LEXICON SUBURBAN

office park big box urban/work greenway home office drosscape edge city greyfields infill middle landscape asphalt nation drosscape infill drive-thru carchitecture transition towns smart growth t.o.a.d. walmartisation outer-ring suburb blandburb


Community Theatre

Closure Recession

Bankrupcy Community Shopping Center

Disuse Downturn in Market Art Workshops + Studios


SUBURBAN LEXICON LEXICON SUBURBAN

office park big box urban/work greenway home office drosscape edge city greyfields infill middle landscape asphalt nation drosscape infill drive-thru carchitecture transition towns smart growth t.o.a.d. walmartisation outer-ring suburb blandburb


WALMARTISATION Suburban Lexicon

o ut o supef town poprumarkets rise in larity 1980during the s

60 % sma fo sh o p l l i s.

is et nt areknda m p odnde

en s op ket chainiced r a rm her pr s pe r hig e su allne town centronce inated sm s ilocal shops m e r do stohere w

e titiv ge compe ran ce d n r a prices cts fo close u o d t o r p f o ops local sh

1960

sm independ

a

nt

number of tesco stores

all

food market share

1980

/ Food desert - Suburban fresh no ere wh as are an urb food shops exist within 10-15minutes walking l area distance of a residentia

2000 food market share

shops


SUBURBAN LEXICON LEXICON SUBURBAN

office park big box urban/work greenway home office drosscape

To become like or have an effect similar to Wal-Mart, the world’s largest retailer known for discount priced goods. The phrase is pejoratively used to describe the rise and economic impact of large, outer-suburb shopping outlets and big box stores over smaller commercial districts and locally owned businesses “There is widespread belief ... that many small shops will have ceased trading by 2015, with few independant businesses taking their place. Their loss, largely the result of a heavily unbalanced trading environment, will damage the UK socially, economically and environmentally” -high street britain report 2006 local communities could be losing inward investment of up to £100bn every year because of supermarket centralisation. In 2006 Tesco had a 51% share of the market for groceries in Inverness, earing it the label “tesco town”.

edge city greyfields infill middle landscape asphalt nation drosscape infill drive-thru carchitecture transition towns smart growth t.o.a.d. walmartisation outer-ring suburb blandburb


SUBURBAN LEXICON LEXICON SUBURBAN

office park big box urban/work greenway home office drosscape

‘Outer-ring’ suburbs are developments further from the urban core than first or ‘inner-ring suburbs’. Suburban terminology often reflects the time that they are constructed ie. ‘post world war 2 suburbs’ or an attribute that reflects/ identifys the area, for instance ‘ les banlieues’. I’ve used Paris as an example to chart the different types of suburb or urban area in this diagram.

edge city greyfields infill middle landscape asphalt nation drosscape infill drive-thru carchitecture transition towns smart growth t.o.a.d. walmartisation outer-ring suburb blandburb


SUBURBAN LEXICON LEXICON SUBURBAN

office park big box urban/work greenway home office drosscape

Blandburb describes a suburban location characterised by extreme homogeneity and monotomy which causes residents to become depressed, bored and act in uninteresting and sometimes frustrated ways. There are a number of problems associated with living in a ‘blandburb’, i’ve shown examples of each of these and represented them in a comparrison between U.S/U.K Blandburb and French Blandburb.

edge city greyfields infill middle landscape asphalt nation drosscape infill drive-thru carchitecture transition towns smart growth t.o.a.d. walmartisation outer-ring suburb blandburb


CO-LEXICON SUBURBAN LEXICON

greyfield drosscape social drosstructure asphalt nation living traces residential grain

//CO-LEXICON

The walk mapping and the relational mapping workshop helped us to reassess the original lexicons and create new lexicons that are more relevant to the issues specific to Colombes. These have helped to develop a vocabulary for collective thinking which we called, the Co-lexicon.

treevolution periphery carchitecture social drosstructure neon signs [macau] highrise [macau] billboard [macau] marketplace [macau] plug-in housing [macau] portuguese pavement [macau] scooter [macau]


Greyfield opprtunities in Colombes

shopping centre

supermarket

un

underground parking

Champion - 25 Avenue de l'Europe

Leclerc - Rue Jules Michelet

u ro rg

de nd

route to Stade

in rk pa g

park across the road [potential allotment space] site footprint: approx. 3100m2

LeClerc - Boulevard Charles de Gaulle shopping centre supermarket

Franprix - Rue Saint-Denis

potential link to railway

high density housing [shopping centre could become social space for residents]

site footprint: approx. 3300m2

site footprint: approx. 795m2

quiet street frontage

potential link to A86 motorway

associated public space

g

arkin

dp

un rgro nde

u

supermarket

Monoprix - Rue Saint-Denis

residential above

neighbouring market hall

site footprint: approx. 11,500m2

fac

in go

nt om

ain

str ee

t

associated public space

potential link to railway site footprint: approx. 390m2

[could become indoor/outdoor social space for residents]


CO-LEXICON

greyfield drosscape social drosstructure asphalt nation living traces residential grain

I have begun to explore the reuse of shopping centres/supermarkets in Colombes. The ones highlighted are the larger examples that I have been able to find, and include basic information about size and context.

treevolution periphery carchitecture social drosstructure neon signs [macau] highrise [macau] billboard [macau] marketplace [macau] plug-in housing [macau] portuguese pavement [macau] scooter [macau]


CO-LEXICON

greyfield drosscape social drosstructure asphalt nation living traces residential grain

Throughout the Colombes region drosscapes exist as a result of abandoned homes, derelict sites, empty site, and poorly designed transport infrastructure.

treevolution periphery carchitecture social drosstructure neon signs [macau] highrise [macau] billboard [macau] marketplace [macau] plug-in housing [macau] portuguese pavement [macau] scooter [macau]


CO-LEXICON

greyfield drosscape social drosstructure asphalt nation living traces residential grain

Social Housing / Infrastructure / Drosscape - are all prevalent throughout Colombes, however such elements exist not as separate elements but as a product of each other. The infrastructure has led to the development of social housing within close proximity , and drosscape is formed as a result of the waste landscape created from these series of converging edges. Hence such space could be utilized on then environmental and sociological levels to reappropriate for spaces for resilient uses.

treevolution periphery carchitecture social drosstructure neon signs [macau] highrise [macau] billboard [macau] marketplace [macau] plug-in housing [macau] portuguese pavement [macau] scooter [macau]


6

10

large roads cutting though the centre of Colombes create divisions within it

9

major roads create barriers between different parts of Colombes creating divides as shown here at the entrance to Fosse St. Jean in the NE of Colombes

8

7

signage is required to provide some sense of order on the streets

the car dominates the streetscape and restricts movement streetscape

McDonald’s drive through with a car wash

4

5

facilities accessible only by car

vacant space under the railway is used for yet more parking

3

the DIY store is designed for those with a car...

2

centre for the retired but no access unless you drive!

1

individual houses have at least one private garage

P storage

each street is used for street parking

several instances of large garage sites

ASPHALT NATION - in Colombes

11

12

disconnectivity

1 This analysis of the ‘asphalt nature’ of Colombes shows how the car is the dominant means of transport. Spaces are dominated by them and their areas of movement create barriers between different areas of Colombes. Although this is currently the case, future changes such as the new tramway which is being built in Petit Colombes will hopefully encourage people to use public transport more often and as their main means of transportation.

6

P 5

11

8

This shows that the automobile is one of the issues within Colombes which needs to be addressed in the future; its use and its storage. Maybe the role of the car will change in the future when fuel is less readily available. The role of the car needs to change in the future, those who have grown up with it need to learn to become less dependent on it and to change their lifestyle in terms of the use of the car.

2

3

P

P

10

12 4

P

7

P storage

designed for car accessibility

streetscape

disconnection


CO-LEXICON

greyfield drosscape social drosstructure asphalt nation living traces residential grain

As a suburb Colombes’ urban fabric is inevitably a result of heavy automobile use. This work builds on the previous suburban analysis of asphalt nation but in relation to Colombes and how the car has affected its built environment and resulted in an architecture of the car.

treevolution periphery carchitecture social drosstructure neon signs [macau] highrise [macau] billboard [macau] marketplace [macau] plug-in housing [macau] portuguese pavement [macau] scooter [macau]


LIVING TRACES - what do these tell us about Colombes? disuse

-- lack of finance and community support + potential for community led use of space

CURRENT SITUATION There are numerous instances of derelict structures and sites within Colombes which may be vacant due to various reasons. Some such areas may be suffering from lack of finance and others may be awaiting construction. These areas create a negative image for the neighbouring areas and can also cause their decline.

disuse spaces and buildings which are no longer used and are in a state of disrepair

FUTURE POSSIBILITIES

-- lack of successful waste management strategy + potential for local waste & recycling centres

Funding could be fed into such areas to prevent them reaching the stage of dereliction. In the future such areas could be developed in accordance with the local community to use it in a way which benefits the neighbouring residents.

CURRENT SITUATION

rubbish

Many areas of Colombes have large amounts of discarded garbage, parts of which could be recycled. This perhaps highlights the lack of local recycling facilities or waste management strategies. Rubbish such as cardboard boxes and drinks cans can be easily recycled but are instead strewn about in the streets.

rubbish literally garbage which is disposed off and not recycled

FUTURE POSSIBILITIES There appears to be a need for a wider waste management strategy which might include providing rubbish bins along commonly used routes and generally at a large scale (not necessarily in size but in quantity). Also since a lot of this rubbish is recyclable perhaps another problem is where to recycle such rubbish. Along with providing more waste bins there could be the implementation of recycling centres in neighbourhoods making recycling more accessible.

-- lack of successful recycling strategy + potential for community led ‘swap shop’ style schemes

CURRENT SITUATION Similar to the rubbish situation, there are clusters of unwanted goods/ products which have been discarded onto the streets. This may be because items have reached the end of use or they may have become unwanted items.

unwanted goods unwanted goods

FUTURE POSSIBILITIES

household goods and personal items which have been thrown out on the street

Many of the items found seemed to be in good condition and other than being unwanted had no reason to be on the streets. Future solutions to this problem of dumping unwanted goods might be to introduce ‘swap shops’ where the local community could exchange their unwanted goods for someone else’s unwanted goods which might be useful to them - similar to the freecycle idea. Another possibility may be to use the component materials of these objects and to recycle them into something new.

CURRENT SITUATION

-- several instances of graffiti perhaps due to lack of youth facilities + potential for community backed youth and participative initiatives

territory territory

Currently groups of people (assumed to be youths) are spraying areas with graffiti to mark their territory. Perhaps this has some relation to a lack of facilities for youth. Other examples show groups of men gathering on benches to chat. A bold symbol of territorialisation is seen on the left where one political party has marked out its territory by stamping several of its posters to a board at a housing development. Although not negative or positive, this would probably not change in the future except if the party changes and decided to display its own posters.

FUTURE POSSIBILITIES

spaces which have been marked in order to signify a person or group’s territorial zone

Issues such as graffiti could be partly addressed through removing the boredom aspect from the lives of youth by providing them with spaces and activities to fill their spare time.

GRAFFITI

The political party poster display could be challenged only by the residents of the housing estate themselved. If they took responsibility for its maintenance then it could be used more effictively to disply posters which could be more useful to the neighbourhood as a whole rather than being a publicity wall for the local party.

CURRENT SITUATION + potential for community led self-growing initiatives

appropriation

There is some evidence of areas where there has been attempt at appropriation, however, it has been minimal. One bold step at appropriation has been where a set of allotments have been created in the space left by a demolished building. Perhaps this shows a need for more such initiatives and also the emergence of a group of people who are interested in own food production.

appropriation objects which show a change of use from their original signifying some sort of appropriation

FUTURE POSSIBILITIES The emergence of the hidden away allotments comes as a pleasant surprise but shows that there is demand for more such community led projects. Future possibilities could include using perhaps some of the vacant sites (as shown at the top of this page) and to convert them into community initiatives such as a shared garden or allotments.


CO-LEXICON

greyfield drosscape social drosstructure asphalt nation living traces residential grain

This is a follow up of the ‘traces walk’ carried out within Colombes (see section on walking). It takes the ‘traces’ found along the walk and analysis them in terms of their current effect on spaces within Colombes. One of the most common traces was rubbish and this begs the question is there a problem with waste management within Colombes?

treevolution periphery carchitecture social drosstructure neon signs [macau] highrise [macau] billboard [macau] marketplace [macau] plug-in housing [macau] portuguese pavement [macau] scooter [macau]


STADE

RESIDENTIAL GRAIN. COLOMBES

Residential built before 1974 88.9% Residential built after 1974 11.1%

This map shows the different types of building that make up the urban grain of Colombes. The urban grain is broken down into residential and non residential. Residential is the split into apartments, including high rise tower blocks and smaller apartment blocks dotted around the area, and housing, which includes stand alone villas, semi detached villas and terraced villas. The non-residential buildings include everything else, such as offices, shops, commercial buildings, schools, churches, cinemas and government buildings. Indicated on this map is the percentage of housing that predates 1974 for each quatier, in addition to this the ‘chomage’ [unemployment] level is shown as a percentage of the overall population. The areas that have a high percentage of old housing stock and high unemployment will benefit most from the Adaptive Housing project. This will only account for housing rather that apartment blocks as they will have been constructed after this time but are possibly in requirement of renovation, areas such as Petit Colombes and Fosses Jean

Unemployment 16%

FOSSES JEAN

65.4% Residential built before 1974 34.6% Residential built after 1974 17% Unemployment

EUROPE

Residential built before 1974 89% Residential built after 1974 11% Unemployment 17%

GREVES / PLATEAU

Residential built before 1974 76% Residential built after 1974 24% Unemployment 17%

AGENT SARRE

89% Residential built before 1974 11% Residential built after 1974 11% Unemployment

HOUSING

HENRI MARTIN- D’ESTIENNED ’ORVES

[DETECHED/SEMI/TERRACED]

Residential built before 1974 90% Residential built after 1974 10%

CENTRE

Unemployment 12%

73.5% Residential built before 1974 26.5% Residential built after 1974 11% Unemployment

OTHER

[RETAIL/COMERCIAL/SCHOOL/HOSPITAL/ CHURCH]

APARTMENTS

[TOWER BLOCKS/HIGH RISE/LOW RISE]

VALLEES

91% Residential built before 1974 9% Residential built after 1974 9% Unemployment

PETIT COLOMBES

Residential built before 1974 60% Residential built after 1974 40%

HOUSING

[DETECHED/SEMI/TERRACED]

Unemployment 19%

PETITE GARENNE

86% Residential built before 1974 14% Residential built after 1974 10% Unemployment

HOUSING + APARTMENTS

[MIXED]


CO-LEXICON

greyfield drosscape social drosstructure asphalt nation living traces residential grain

This map shows the different types of building that make up the urban grain of Colombes. The urban grain is broken down into residential and non residential. Residential is the split into apartments, including high rise tower blocks and smaller apartment blocks dotted around the area, and housing, which includes stand alone villas, semi detached villas and terraced villas. The non-residential buildings include everything else, such as offices, shops, commercial buildings, schools, churches, cinemas and government buildings. Indicated on this map is the percentage of housing that predates 1974 for each quatier, in addition to this the ‘chomage’ [unemployment] level is shown as a percentage of the overall population. The areas that have a high percentage of old housing stock and high unemployment will benefit most from the Adaptive Housing project. This will only account for housing rather that apartment blocks as they will have been constructed after this time but are possibly in requirement of renovation, areas such as Petit Colombes and Fosses Jean

treevolution periphery carchitecture social drosstructure neon signs [macau] highrise [macau] billboard [macau] marketplace [macau] plug-in housing [macau] portuguese pavement [macau] scooter [macau]


TREEvolution

Large Scale

The tree population of Colombes is limited, this lack of natural green space and forested area has a large impact on the inhabitants. All timber must be sourced outside Paris, there is nothing to reduce the sparwl of urban development and there is a general lack of green space.

Present

The current situation in Colombes showing a lack of forested areas and green spaces. Trees are managed by the council, being removed and pruned regularly.

Small Scale

2010

Future

With a reduction in management of the trees and reintroduction of commont species, Colombes as an area will start to recover and grow back its natural grain.

2100

Future Future

The growth of trees and wooded area will stop the sprawl of urban develoment and allow managed production of Timber for the local building trade.

2200


CO-LEXICON

greyfield drosscape social drosstructure asphalt nation living traces residential grain

The tree population of Colombes is limited, this lack of natural green space and forested area has a large impact on the inhabitants. All timber must be sourced outside Paris, there is nothing to reduce the sprawl of urban development and there is a general lack of green space.

treevolution periphery carchitecture social drosstructure neon signs [macau] highrise [macau] billboard [macau] marketplace [macau] plug-in housing [macau] portuguese pavement [macau] scooter [macau]


CO-LEXICON

greyfield drosscape social drosstructure asphalt nation living traces residential grain

An issue that i think is important in addressing the future of Colombes is the relationship between the two peripheral areas that lie around the more historic centre of the suburb. There are two types of peripheral boundaries here, the first being a housing periphery, the second an industrial periphery. I’m interested in how these three areas relate to each other and have mapped important features along the main peripheral edge: area boundaries and edges, possible connection points and infill gaps, areas of appropriation and territory and existing infrastructure. I’ve started to analyse these features and make links where there is a future potential for various networks to develop. This is a work in progress and needs some further investigation and analysis.

treevolution periphery carchitecture social drosstructure neon signs [macau] highrise [macau] billboard [macau] marketplace [macau] plug-in housing [macau] portuguese pavement [macau] scooter [macau]


CO-LEXICON

greyfield drosscape social drosstructure asphalt nation living traces residential grain

Mapping car-centric sites / industry in Fosse Jean area.

treevolution periphery carchitecture social drosstructure neon signs [macau] highrise [macau] billboard [macau] marketplace [macau] plug-in housing [macau] portuguese pavement [macau] scooter [macau]


CO-LEXICON

greyfield drosscape social drosstructure asphalt nation living traces residential grain

Social Housing / Infrastructure / Drosscape - are all prevalent throughout Colombes, however such elements exist not as separate elements but as a product of each other. The infrastructure has led to the development of social housing within close proximity , and drosscape is formed as a result of the waste landscape created from these series of converging edges. Hence such space could be utilized on then environmental and sociological levels to reappropriate for spaces for resilient uses.

treevolution periphery carchitecture social drosstructure neon signs [macau] highrise [macau] billboard [macau] marketplace [macau] plug-in housing [macau] portuguese pavement [macau] scooter [macau]


CO-LEXICON

greyfield drosscape social drosstructure asphalt nation living traces residential grain

Neon signs are luminous-tube signs that contain neon or other inert gases at a low pressure. Applying a high voltage (usually a few thousand volts) makes the gas glow brightly. They are produced by the craft of bending glass tubing into shapes. The modern interpretation of neon lights is through the use of led lights.

treevolution periphery carchitecture social drosstructure neon signs [macau] highrise [macau] billboard [macau] marketplace [macau] plug-in housing [macau] portuguese pavement [macau] scooter [macau]


CO-LEXICON

greyfield drosscape social drosstructure asphalt nation living traces residential grain

A high-rise residential building is a tall structure which the main function is to accommodate people to live in. High-rise buildings became possible with the invention of the elevator and cheaper, more abundant building materials. There are many types of high-rise buildings in Macau; from a single standalone structure to a complex consists of multiple buildings with its own amenities.

treevolution periphery carchitecture social drosstructure neon signs [macau] highrise [macau] billboard [macau] marketplace [macau] plug-in housing [macau] portuguese pavement [macau] scooter [macau]


CO-LEXICON

greyfield drosscape social drosstructure asphalt nation living traces residential grain

A billboard is a large outdoor advertising structure, typically found in high traffic areas such as alongside busy roads. In Macau, due to lack of space, billboards are usually mounted on buildings external walls and the spaces behind could be parking space, unused residential or storage space.

treevolution periphery carchitecture social drosstructure neon signs [macau] highrise [macau] billboard [macau] marketplace [macau] plug-in housing [macau] portuguese pavement [macau] scooter [macau]


CO-LEXICON

greyfield drosscape social drosstructure asphalt nation living traces residential grain

Marketplace is the temporary tent-covered stalls located in town plazas, however shops located in permament structures can also be classified under this type because they share its characteristics. In Macau, Marketplace has a different meaning because it is highly driven by local tourism.

treevolution periphery carchitecture social drosstructure neon signs [macau] highrise [macau] billboard [macau] marketplace [macau] plug-in housing [macau] portuguese pavement [macau] scooter [macau]


CO-LEXICON

greyfield drosscape social drosstructure asphalt nation living traces residential grain

Housing which requires the installation of subsequent ‘accessories’ due to safety reasons or practicalities in order to make the internal space more usable.

treevolution periphery carchitecture social drosstructure neon signs [macau] highrise [macau] billboard [macau] marketplace [macau] plug-in housing [macau] portuguese pavement [macau] scooter [macau]


CO-LEXICON

greyfield drosscape social drosstructure asphalt nation living traces residential grain

Portuguese pavement (in Portuguese, ‘Calçada Portuguesa’), is the traditional paving used in most pedestrian areas in Portugal and old Portuguese colonies such as Brazil and Macau. Being usually used in sidewalks, it is in plazas and atriums this art finds its deepest expression. Usually black and white stones of basalt and limestone are used. In Macau we can find other interpretations of ‘Portuguese Pavement’ by using new pictures por practical uses.

treevolution periphery carchitecture social drosstructure neon signs [macau] highrise [macau] billboard [macau] marketplace [macau] plug-in housing [macau] portuguese pavement [macau] scooter [macau]


CO-LEXICON

greyfield drosscape social drosstructure asphalt nation living traces residential grain

A scooter is a motorcycle with step-through architecture and either a platform for the operator’s feet or footrests integral with the bodywork. It is a very popular mean of transport in Macau due to its practical characteristics.

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RURBAN LEXICON LEXICON SUBURBAN

peak oil core economy self subsistance biomass/biogas energy Bioenergy Production resilence alternative energies

//RURBAN LEXICON

The Rurban Lexicon are terms that are used to describe and explore potential elements of Rurban.

permaculture localism peak oil waste common bioregionalism biocapacity cpul permaculture no waste resilience


RURBAN LEXICON

peak oil core economy self subsistance biomass/biogas energy Bioenergy Production resilence alternative energies permaculture localism peak oil waste common bioregionalism biocapacity cpul permaculture no waste resilience


Housework Estimated economic value of unpaid housework in Australia by market cost: (Source: Gudrun Biffl, WIFO).

30% of GDP

...other methods estimate the loss of income compared to if the housewife was employed full time. In reality, both housework and income are necessary for a happy and productive household, and it is impossible to ojectively evaluate them against one another. It can be argued that homebuilding and housework in a marriage or life-partner context can be valued as equal to the monetary income of the household, since in economic terms a marriage is a 'fair share' arrangement (Douglas W. Allen, Simon Fraser University).

Caregiving

$21T

ÒCarers' unpaid work saves the state £87bn [...] Six million people in the UK look after a sick, frail or disabled relative, partner or friend and a Leeds University study calculates they save the government billions of pounds in NHS treatment and home help.Ó (Guardian) However, the same report states that the majority of unpaid caregivers feel the work has an adverse effect on their own health, and that many of them regularly feel unable to cope. Public support for caregivers is essential to maintain their massively beneficial work in communities. agriculture

$2T

$38T

Core Economy Estimated Value

$15-20T source: UN 1995

Volunteering

Childcare

Charities, churches, and millions of other community groups rely on the time and efforts of networks of dedicated volunteers. They are expecially important when working within communities where knowledge of local conditions and integration are invaluable.

Estimated value of unpaid childcare in the UK:

In May 2006, the government even created a department specifically to deal with this ÔThird SectorÕ

services

manufacture

(Source: ONS)

Valuing the Core Economy 25% of GDP

The issue of regulating arrangements to protect children has come to the fore in recent months, with the government cracking down on informal childcare arrangements and increasingly requiring Criminal Records Bureau checks for anyone who comes into contact with children. High quality childcare and education will be vital to teach and prepare the coming generations for the massive changes affecting our world.

source: UN estimates, 1995

The Term ÔCore EconomyÕ was first coined by economist Neva Goodwin to recognise the key areas of human life and exchange (economies) that are excluded from traditional economic thought because they do not involve money.


RURBAN LEXICON

peak oil core economy self subsistance biomass/biogas energy Bioenergy Production resilence alternative energies permaculture

“The Term ‘Core Economy’ was first coined by economist Neva Goodwin to recognise the key areas of human life and exchange (economies) that are excluded from traditional economic thought because they do not involve money.”

localism peak oil waste common bioregionalism biocapacity cpul permaculture no waste resilience


Self-subsistance Supporting life independantly of anything external to itself. Amish people in America try to live within self subsistent terms, they live within their community and grow their own produce so support themselves. Amish people believe in simple living and simple dress, they have a resistance to modern western conveniences The tv series ‘ the good life’ involved a couple who gave up their jobs and tried to produce everything they needed from their garden in the suburbs of London. This is an example of self subsistance in a small scale. Allotments are an example of people trying to be more self subsistant in the UK, there are also systems for sharing extra produce amongst those who require it. See Also - Local Sourcing - Sourcing produce, information and labour primarily from the immediate community, allowing the community and local area to benefit from a cyclical sustained growth.


RURBAN LEXICON LEXICON SUBURBAN

peak oil core economy self subsistance biomass/biogas energy Bioenergy Production resilence alternative energies permaculture localism peak oil waste common bioregionalism biocapacity cpul permaculture no waste resilience


BIOMASS/ BIOGAS ENERGY VIRGIN WOOD

ENERGY CROPS

AGRICULTURAL RESIDUE

consists of wood and other products which have had no treatment applied to them. include chips, pellets, bark and logs

these are grown especially to be used as fuel and can include wheat amongst other crops

this consists of waste products such as straw and also animal manure

FOOD WASTE

INDUSTRIAL WASTE

IN

BIOMASS SOURCES

energy produced from organic material

this includes organic waste such as fruit and vegetable skins and also wasted food

this waste includes treated wood but also products which have been created using organic products such as paper and textiles

anaerobic digestion

BURN DIRECTLY

ANAEROBIC DIGESTOR

COMBUSTION OF BIOMASS

(and use for heat or to cook)

PRODUCTS

In an air free environment bacteria break down the carbon in the organic matter. The process is ideal for material which has a high moisture content.

BIOGAS 60% methane 40% carbon dioxide

Biomass is burned to release its energy in a controlled manner. It can then be used in district systems.

SOLID RESIDUE

LIQUID LIQUOR

(similar to but not the same as compost)

(which can be used as a fertiliser)

HEAT

CARBON DIOXIDE

STEAM

OUT

PROCESS

combustion

SOIL CONDITIONER

USES

DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEM

ELECTRICITY

GENERATE HEAT in a boiler or

in a combined heat and power (CHP) system

BURN AS FUEL

GENERATE ELECTRICITY

BIOGAS ADVANTAGES - biogas is a renewable energy source - less reliance on natural gas - recovery of the product (methane) is spontaneous - organic waste from landfill can be reduced - biogas electricity plants can be built at lower capital cost than coal, oil or nuclear power plants - its waste products can be used for other uses - can be used at small scale DISADVANTAGES - limited large scale production - control on amount of gas produced is limited - creates smells

COMBINED HEAT AND POWER (CHP)

BIOMASS ADVANTAGES - renewable energy source - available worldwide - carbon dioxide releases is no more than that absorbed by the organic matter in the first place - can be converted into different forms of energy - reduces the amount of waste sent to landfill DISADVANTAGES - direct combustion can lead to global warming - if growing crops for energy generation then energy is required in the first instance to grow them and also there is a need for fossil fuel produced fertilisers


RURBAN LEXICON LEXICON SUBURBAN

peak oil core economy self subsistance biomass/biogas energy Bioenergy Production resilence alternative energies permaculture

High percentages of our waste is composed of organic matter meaning that burning it should release the same amount of carbon that went into its production. This analysis looks at two possible means of energy generation; biomass and biogas energy. These methods of energy are sustainable because alongside creating energy from non-fossil fuel sources, they also tackle our problems of increasing amounts of waste which can be biodegraded or burnt using these methods.

localism peak oil waste common bioregionalism biocapacity cpul permaculture no waste resilience


RURBAN LEXICON LEXICON SUBURBAN

peak oil core economy self subsistance biomass/biogas energy bioenergy production resilence alternative energies permaculture

Bioenergy utilises materials of biological descent that has been extracted directly or was a living organism. Biomass can be used for energy generation, in this instance, energy crops, agricultural waste, food waste, industrial waster and energy crops can all contribute to its production. Bioenergy is viewed as a sustainable source of energy due to the its offset of the carbon cycle.

localism peak oil waste common bioregionalism biocapacity cpul permaculture no waste resilience


RURBAN LEXICON LEXICON SUBURBAN

peak oil core economy self subsistance biomass/biogas energy bioenergy Production resilence alternative energies permaculture

Resilience is defined as the ability of a system to endure disruption without destabilising into a non characteristic state orchestrated by an alternative influence. In essence for something/someone/someplace to become resilient it must be able to withstand external change. Hence the principles of creating resilient towns or transition towns that will reduce their dependence on global sources and re-appropriate the town through networks within the community for food and energy production.

localism peak oil waste common bioregionalism biocapacity cpul permaculture no waste resilience


RURBAN LEXICON

WIND POWER Wind energy is generated by a wind turbine. A windmill’s rotors work as a movable obstacle to the wind and as the wind pushed past, it moves the rotors generating torque (turning energy) which then caught by the turbine and converted into electricity.

BIOMASS/ BIOFUEL/ BIOENERGY

Bio-mass/fuel/energy are all derived from biological sources. Biomass is the fuel (so generally plant matter e.g. crops and wood but also includes animal matter such as cow dung) which is used as biofuel to create bioenergy.

Advantages:

[source: “Alternative Urban Futures: Planning for sustainable development in cities throughout the world, 2004]

Advantages:

- renewable and clean source of energy - the technology has been used for centuries e.g. to pump water, grind grain etc. - wind turbines take up less than 1% of the space in a typical wind park and the remaining land can be used for farming or grazing

- renewable source of energy - it can help aid the waste management of organic waste - modern systems can reduce the release of harmful gases - potential for wider applicability - use of waste biofuel in a more efficient way - waste produced from modern systems can be used as fertiliser

Disadvantages:

Disadvantages:

- wind power plants require intensive energy use since materials such as steel, concrete and aluminium are required for construction - fossil fuels are required for the initial production stage of components - location is very important and large land area is often required for large scale production

In an average location, the energy produced by a wind turbine throughout its 20 year lifetime is 80 times larger than the amount of energy used to build, maintain, operate, dismantle and scrap it again

- biomass fuels release harmful air pollutants - large amounts of biomass is required to generate substantial amounts of energy

Biomass is the primary fuel for 2 countries Biomass fuels include wood, things

The world’s largest wind park is near Copenhagen and in 2008 Denmark generated 19% of electricity through wind power

million people, mostly in developing

crop wastes and dung among other

NUCLEAR POWER

Nuclear power is power generated through controlled nuclear reactions and currently the reactions used are nuc nuclear fissions. Following fission, reactors heat water which produces produc steam that is used for generating electricity.

SOLAR POWER

ALTERNATIVE ENERGIES

Advantages:

- renewable and clean source of energy - virtually maintenance-free - have guarantees of 20-30 years - is not harmful for the environment once in operation

Disadvantages:

- photovoltaic (PV) cell production requires the use of non-renewable sources. Although silicon is one of the abundant elements on earth, fossil fuels are required to turn it into the PV cell - location is important since some places receive more sunlight than others - energy generation is quite low therefore many PV cells are required therefore large area and high costs

Advantages:

- sustainable and clean source of energy - no air pollution is generated through nuclear power generation - there is enough amount of uranium on earth to last at least 100 years (at current consumption rates)

need for

Solar energy is that which is generated using sunlight. Solar energy can be used in two ways; it can be used to generate electricity through photovoltaics or as solar thermal energy. Both methods use the energy from the sun and the first captures it to generate electricity and the second uses it to heat liquids which can then be used to generate electricity.

Disadvantages:

fossil fuel depletion & increase in greenhouse gases

- high capital cost for construction of nuclear power stations - risk of Chernobyl style nuclear disasters - storage and disposal of nuclear waste is still an unresolved problem - requires large amounts of water for electricity generation - location is important since it needs a large amount of space and also needs to be at a safe distance from communities

6% of global energy comes from nuclear sources and 16% of global electricity is generated through nuclear power

It would only take 0.3% of the world’s land area to supply the world’s electricity

10,000 of the world’s largest nuclear power stations would be required to

needs through solar power

produce the amount of energy we currently use. Although there is enough uranium on Earth to last 100 years, this would be used up at once if these power stations were to be built.

The amount of energy which goes into PV production is paid back in clean electricity within 4 years

USA produces the most nuclear energy but

80% of France’s electricity production is through nuclear power

GEOTHERMAL POWER Geothermal energy is heat recovered from within the Earth’s crust. Water from such areas is hot enough to boil and the steam generated is passed through a turbine which generates electricity. The steam is then cooled back to water.

HYDROPOWER Hydropower is generated through the energy produced by moving water.

Advantages:

- the source of energy is naturally found in the ground - energy production is clean and sustainable - no harmfull gases are released into the atmosphere - geothermal plants are self-sufficient in terms of energy requirements - the energy does not depend on the weather!

Disadvantages:

- location is key here and more so than other means of energy generation since geothermal rocks are only existent in some parts of the world - drilling of hot rocks is a specialised process and if carried out incorrectly can release harmful gases - drilling to the hot rocks is an expensive procedure

The three high grade geothermal fields in the world are Lardetto, Italy, San Francisco and Wai Raken, New Zealand The largest number of geothermal power plants are located at The Geysers in California, USA

Advantages:

- clean source of energy which does not contribute to the greenhouse effect - energy production is cheaper than if fossil fuels are usef for electricity generation - dams can be flexible according to demand

Disadvantages:

- dam failure is a major risk - water can become unsuitable for marine life therefore having an environmental impact

Hydroelectricity generates approximately 19%

world’s electricity

of the


SUBURBAN RURBAN LEXICON

peak oil core economy self subsistance biomass/biogas energy bioenergy production resilence alternative energies permaculture

An inevitable peak in cheap oil production will mean that the cost of oil will rise sharply leading to a need for alternative means of energy production. Also with increasing climate change we need to think more sustainably in terms of how we generate energy. This sheet looks at the possible alternative (and sustainable) methods of energy production for the present and increasingly in the future.

localism peak oil waste common bioregionalism biocapacity cpul permaculture no waste resilience


RURBAN LEXICON LEXICON SUBURBAN

peak oil core economy self subsistance biomass/biogas energy bioenergy production resilence alternative energies permaculture

The concept of permaculture concerns the creation of self reliant communities through the use of biodiverse agriculture. Permaculture is principle involved in the creation of ecological designs devised on an ethical framework by making use of the knowledge of ecosystems, their development, adaptation and lifecycle. Overall permaculture looks at the networks of ecosystems of the earth, its communities, and how the use of its resources should be limited to everyone’s fairshare.

localism peak oil waste common bioregionalism biocapacity cpul permaculture no waste resilience


Localism The support of local production and the consumption of local goods, local control of government, and local culture and identity. This is in contrast to large, all-encompassing frameworks for action or belief, such as national and multi-nationals communities Localism supports local specialities in food, culture, religion and ways of living. Slow food is an example of supporting the local community through buying local non commercial foods and produce, this is in response to the major fast food establishemnts, which are devoid of any locality by producing the same ‘burger’ in 100’s of countries.

good

bad Capitalism

local culture The Cheeseburger

local food local identity

Tesco

local government

Packaging


RURBAN LEXICON LEXICON SUBURBAN

peak oil core economy self subsistance biomass/biogas energy bioenergy production resilence alternative energies permaculture

The support of local production and the consumption of local goods, local control of government, and local culture and identity. This is in contrast to large, all-encompassing frameworks for action or belief, such as national and multi-nationals communities Localism supports local specialities in food, culture, religion and ways of living. Slow food is an example of supporting the local community through buying local non commercial foods and produce, this is in response to the major fast food establishments, which are devoid of any locality by producing the same ‘burger’ in 100’s of countries.

localism peak oil waste common bioregionalism biocapacity cpul permaculture no waste resilience


PEAK OIL

Hubbert was an American geophysicist who made the original estimates of future oil production whilst working at the Shell oil research plant in Houston.

Peak oil is a geological limitation to the oil supply in the ground. Often confused with oil depletion; peak oil is the point of maximum production while depletion refers to a period of falling reserves and supplies.

M. King Hubbert

Hubbert’s peak Hubbert predicted that U.S. oil production would peak in the early 1970s and decline following ‘peak oil’. This prediction came true.

FUTURE

major transport relies on oil

approx. 20.7 barrels per day!

nd em a rea s

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= inc

inc

re as e

in

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tio n

USA is the world’s largest consumer of petroleum

agriculture largest consumer of fossil fuels in modern agriculture is ammonia production for fertilizer

PLASTICS, MEDICINES, LUBRICANTS, PAINTS, etc. all require some form of oil!

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“There are plenty of energy sources other than fossil fuels. Running out of energy in the long run is not the problem. The bind comes during the next 10 years: getting over our dependence on crude oil.” - Kenneth S. Deffeyes, “Hubbert’s Peak: The Impending World Oil Shortage”

alternative energies...

A: extracting oil from non-conventional sources such as heavy crude oil, oil sands and oil shale B: find ways to survive with less dependence on oil

55%

of oil used worldwide is for transportation

MOST OF THE CONVENTIONAL CRUDE OIL HAS ALREADY BEEN FOUND. THE FUTURE DEPENDS ON EITHER:

PAST & PRESENT

geothermal using the heat recovered from the Earth’s crust.The steam from the water from geothermal springs runs runs turbines to generate electricity

nuclear although there are dangers associated with nuclear power, it is one of the cleanest forms of energy generation and will become increasingly importnat in the future

unconventional oil...

Above: oil shale, Colorado, USA Above right: oil sands, Utah, USA Right: Orinoco belt, Venezuela

food

€€€ an increase in oil prices will mean transporting food will become expensive leading to price of food shooting up this will lead to alternative production


RURBAN LEXICON LEXICON SUBURBAN RURBAN

peak oil core economy self subsistance biomass/biogas energy bioenergy production resilence alternative energies permaculture

Peak oil is a geological limitation to the oil supply in the ground. M. King Hubbert predicted that the production of oil in the USA would peak in the 1970s. This prediction came true and his predictions drawn in graph format are referred to as ‘Hubbert’s curve’. Peak oil will cause increases in almost all aspects of life since oil is used for many everyday products. The fight for cheap oil will lead to wars and the cost of food and transport will skyrocket.

localism peak oil waste common bioregionalism biocapacity cpul permaculture no waste resilience


SOLID WASTE - its sources and methods of disposal

most favoured option

MODIFIED WASTE HIERARCHY

The estimated quantity of waste collected worldwide is between 2.5 - 4 billion tonnes. - source National Environmental Agencies, OECD

least favoured option

If food packaging is included in food waste figures then developed countries send 1/3 of their total waste to landfill. - source “Alternative Urban Futures: Planning for sustainable development in cities throughout the world”

cut down on waste in the first place. in terms of food stop creating surplus

reuse

reuse materials for other uses. food: use wasted produce to produce other products eg. pies etc.

redistribute

redistrubute wasted food amongst the under priveledged by donating or selling at lower price or feed to pigs

recycle

recycle waste products to produce new items. such as glass, drinks cans, paper etc.

recover

burn remaining waste to generate energy from the process

landfill

the last resort should be sending waste to landfill

It is estimated that nearly 36 million tonnes of municipal waste was generated in the UK in 2004/05.

methods of disposal used

MEANS OF DISPOSAL recycling

there are lots of things that can be recycled including, paper, glass, aluminium and plastic

- source www.wasteonline.org.uk

packaging waste, food waste, paper waste

reason for food waste disposal inedible (eg. skins etc) left on plate out of date mouldy looked bad smelt/ tasted bad left from cooking other in fridge/ cupboard too long

‘Swap shops’ (such as Freecycle) allow products to be exchanged between people without an exchange of money cutting down on waste.

HOUSEHOLD WASTE COMPOSITION UK 2001 other combustibles

misc. non-combustibles

nappies

wood

soil and other organics

scrap metal/ white goods

fines

glass

plastic film

kitchen waste

textiles

paper and board

metal packaging

garden waste

Les Glaneuses (The Gleaners) by François Millet, 1857

This painting shows the rural life of nineteenth century France showing three women gathering the leftovers after the harvest - or gleaning. Gleaning was traditionally a part of the natural cycle of the agricultural calendar undertaken by the poor and took place in France and other countries. Although it has stopped in most countries, in some parts of France it is still practiced.

dense plastics

Landfill quite simply involves placing waste in a hole in the ground and covering it in soil. Landfill is highly damaging to the environment since the rotting waste releases methane into the atmosphere. For every tonne of landfill waste, greenhouse gases (mainly carbon dioxide) increase by at least 1.3 tonnes as compared to generating energy by incineration. In newer landfill sites, systems are installed to capture and remove the gases and liquids produced by the rotting rubbish.

industrial waste construction waste

waste generated through industrial processes this includes anything from packaging and objects which are past their ‘shelf-life’ to large infrastructure such as railway sleepers, factories etc.

anaerobic digestion - this is used to treat sewage and increasingly farm slurries. Germany is one of the most successful countries for AD since they have on-farm digesters which deal with animal slurry and food waste

Supermarkets and other food retailers waste approx. 4.6 millions tonnes of food a year in the UK!

gasification - biomass is burnt in the presence of oxygen to release gases which can then be used to generate electricity

- source “Waste: uncovering the global food scandal” Sheffield incinerator

pyrolysis - this process is similar to gasification but is carried out in the absence of oxygen

incineration & energy from waste

incineration - the energy generation from combustion can be used to generate electricity

landfill

- source “Waste: uncovering the global food scandal”

waste includes produce, hay, animal slurries from farms

Composting is the biodegradation of organic matter. The decomposition happens through micro-organisms such as bacteria, yeast and fungi. The compost can then be used to nourish soil.

composting

Supermarkets often unsatisfied with the aesthetic appearance of vegetables and fruit force farmers to throw it away instead of allowing reduced price sale.

agricultural waste

To reduce food waste organisations such as Fareshare (UK) and Feeding America (USA) distribute unwanted produce from farms amongst the underpriveledged.

source: www.wasteonline.org.uk

36.5% 15.7% 15.1% 9.3% 8.8% 4.5% 4% 3.8% 1.5%

redistribution

municipal solid waste/ household waste

SOURCES

reduce

Pre-industrial waste production was largely organic and so in cities such as London it was left in the streets to decompose. Leftover food was eaten by pigs and waste such as sewage (human and animal) was used as manure. Although pre-industrial waste was largely organic, the waste we produce today in processed. surplus materials from building sites such as bricks, stone, timber, plastics, paints etc.

- source “Hungry City: How food shapes our lives”


RURBAN LEXICON LEXICON SUBURBAN RURBAN

peak oil core economy self subsistance biomass/biogas energy bioenergy production resilence alternative energies permaculture

Increasing amounts of waste (of all kinds) are beginning to become problematic. The predominant method of disposal has been landfill but this is not a long terms solution and is highly damaging for the environment. There are certain methods that can be employed to tackle the issue of waste and this shows what the sources of waste are and how they can be disposed off.

localism peak oil waste common bioregionalism biocapacity cpul permaculture no waste resilience


A group of people speaking together in a single voice, sometimes using the ‘power in numbers’ theory to acheive a greater impact. Usually for the greater good of the community.

COMMON AIR

ood

Many believe that all air in our environment is commonly owned by the population of the earth. This does not take into account the other non human population of the earth.

on G

‘The design of durable cooperative institutions that are organized and governed by the resource users themselves’

mm

COMMON VOICE

COMMON LAND

Land owned collectively or by one person, but over which other people have certain traditional rights, such as to allow their livestock to graze upon it, to collect firewood, or to cut turf for fuel.

A technique for facilitating interpersonal relationships. In order to find common ground between parties, participants must search for signals of recognition, which are often subtle and cause for misunderstanding

COMMON SPACE

Stewardship

For the Co

COMMON WATER

International waters such as oceans are considered as commonly owned by all nations. Each country only has jurisdiction of waters 200km from their coastline.

COMMON GROUND

COMMONS Elinor Ostrom, Nobel economics prize winner 2009 for her research into the idea of commons

It is a common belief that all space and the extents of the universe are collectively owned by the inhabitants of the earth. Common also means the protection and stewardship of a thing.


RURBAN LEXICON

peak oil core economy self subsistance biomass/biogas energy bioenergy production resilence alternative energies permaculture localism peak oil waste common bioregionalism biocapacity cpul permaculture no waste resilience


RURBAN LEXICON LEXICON SUBURBAN

peak oil core economy self subsistance biomass/biogas energy bioenergy production resilence alternative energies permaculture

Bioregionalsim is defined as a political, cultural, and environmental system based on naturally defined areas called bioregions. Bioregionalism takes into account the resources available within that bioregion and defines a local economy of resources to that region.

localism peak oil waste common bioregionalism biocapacity cpul permaculture no waste resilience


RURBAN LEXICON LEXICON SUBURBAN

peak oil core economy self subsistance biomass/biogas energy bioenergy production resilence alternative energies permaculture

Biocapacity is the capability of the planet to sustain all living organisms through the its biologically productive land.

localism peak oil waste common bioregionalism biocapacity cpul permaculture no waste resilience


CPUL

Continuous Productive Urban Landscape

Rurban Lexicon

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PUL + CL = CPUL


RURBAN LEXICON

peak oil core economy self subsistance biomass/biogas energy bioenergy production resilence alternative energies permaculture

Continuous Productive Urban Landscape (CPUL) is a design concept advocating the coherent introduction of interlinked productive landscapes into cities as an essential element of sustainable urban infrastructure. Central to the CPUL concept is the creation of multi-functional open urban space networks, including urban agriculture, that complement and support the built environment. The concept grew out of design research exploring the role of urban agriculture within urban design and was first articulated and designed by Bohn and Viljoen Architects.

localism peak oil waste common bioregionalism biocapacity cpul permaculture no waste resilience


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RURBAN LEXICON LEXICON SUBURBAN

peak oil core economy self subsistance biomass/biogas energy bioenergy production resilence alternative energies permaculture

Permaculture is based around key ethics and principles and offers a framework for sustainable development. The three ethics are: earthcare, people care and fair share. The design principles are broken down into 12 principles (six which explore bottom up principles originating from individuals, elements and organisms, and the other six are top-down perspective of patterns and relationships).

localism peak oil waste common bioregionalism biocapacity cpul permaculture no waste resilience


NO WASTE

en ing oft lean se c reu uires ort req ransp t or

Reuseable shopping bags

REDUCE - minimise waste production

product durability needs to meet product purpose requirements

detailed knowledge of materials/ manufacturing process required

produce only what is needed

Objects can be reused for an alternative purpose with no or little alteration

Annie the shopping trolley chair transformed by Reestore to become a beautiful yet functional upright chair

- the website ‘Freecycle’ is a non-profit scheme to allow people to pass on their unwanted items to others who want them - this means items are not put into landfill

- salvaged brick and redwood siding were used extensively in the new Jasper Ridge Field Station

Solara Lofts: San Diego 2007

Jasper Ridge Field Station

online network to reuse items

Annie chair by Reestore

TAG E VA N AD DIS

TAG ES VA N AD

use only what is necessary

DISADVANTAGES

ED NT WA CTS UN DU

UNNECESSARY REDUCE CONSUMPTION

D] SE IGNE REU DES

F EO S US JECT

Items can be reused again and again (this requires them to be durable which often requires more resources to produce)

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recycled glass bottles

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materials are broken down into raw materials to be reformed into new products

- resuse heavy-duty Type 1 structural steel and commercial grade concrete slabs between floor levels - original commercial parking structure

[RJC Architects]


RURBAN LEXICON LEXICON SUBURBAN

peak oil core economy self subsistance biomass/biogas energy bioenergy production resilence alternative energies permaculture

No waste is based upon the principles of Recycle, Reuse, and Reduce. Reducing the use of materials is the most efficient way of having no waste but requires careful consideration and understanding of supply and demand. Reusing allows the product/material to be be useful after it is no longer required for its original purpose. Reuse is more energy efficient than recycling which often requires energy to break down a product into its original elements.

localism peak oil waste common bioregionalism biocapacity cpul permaculture no waste resilience




 

  

                         

                                                

                           

            

                   


RURBAN LEXICON

peak oil core economy self subsistance biomass/biogas energy bioenergy production resilence alternative energies permaculture

A study into how the community in Fosse Jean may become resilient in a Rurban context - through energy generation, food production, alternative employment, transport changes and collective effort - and what that might look like.

localism peak oil waste common bioregionalism biocapacity cpul permaculture no waste resilience

Rurban Lexicons  

Studio 2 Group Work

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