Health Technology Society Environment
A science magazine from Knowledge Oslo
How to do it?
Professor Torger Reve claims Norway has the prerequisites but ...
New technology gives researchers the opportunity to target cells exactly.The science clusters in Oslo are among the best in the world.
Marianne Takle has done research on immigrant organisations.
RHYME Smart textiles make it easier for everyone to communicate.
TIME FOR KNOWLEDGE The clock tower of Oslo City Hall (R책dhuset).
Knowledge Oslo is a cooperative alliance between Oslo municipality and the city’s various specialized knowledge bases. It aims to position Oslo as a national and international knowledge decision centre within targeted areas. Members of Knowledge Oslo Research institutes Arbeidsforskningsinstituttet CICERO Senter for klimaforskning Fafo – Institutt for arbeidslivs- og velferdsforskning Institutt for samfunnsforskning Meteorologisk institutt NIBR Norsk institutt for by- og regionforskning NIFU STEP NILU Norsk institutt for luftforskning NINA Norsk institutt for naturforskning NIVA Norsk institutt for vannforskning Norges Geotekniske Institutt Norsk Regnesentral NOVA SINTEF Byggforsk TØI Transportøkonomisk institutt UiO Institutt for geofag Veterinærinstituttet Student democracy NSU Studentparlamentet ved UiO StL Studentparlamentet ved HiO Business and trade unions Arbeidsgiverforeningen Spekter LO Oslo og Akershus NHO Oslo og Akershus Higher education Arkitektur- og designhøgskolen i Oslo Bjørknes Høyskole Det teologiske Menighetsfakultet Diakonhjemmet Høgskole Handelshøyskolen BI Høgskolen i Oslo og Akershus Høgskolen i Staffeldtsgate Høyskolen Diakonova Kunsthøgskolen i Oslo Lovisenberg diakonale høgskole Markedshøyskolen Campus Kristiania Norges idrettshøgskole Norges musikkhøgskole Norges veterinærhøgskole Politihøgskolen Riksarkivet Rudolf Steinerhøyskolen Universitetet i Oslo Publisher: Knowledge Oslo /Hallstein Bjercke. Design / Concept / production / text / photo: Millimeter Press as. Project Manager: Pål Mugaas, tel. 915 68 229, paal.mugaas @ milli.no. Photographer: Terje Heiestad. Correction: Edward Reibo. Ad Sales: Cogitatio Media, tel 66 75 98 78, email@example.com. Print: Kroonpress, Estonia. Circulation: 98,000
The city of talents! knowledge As new Vice Major for Cultural affairs and Business development in Oslo municipality I have a primary objective: Oslo is to be a city of talents. We shall be focusing on the talents in science, education, culture and business sectors. Each of these has its talents and so it is important that we cater and cultivate them all. I want to make Oslo more attractive both for Norwegian and international businesses, specialists, researchers and students. Oslo has a proud history as an industrial city. But the future lies in knowledgebased business. The inhabitants will increasingly find their workplace within knowledge and cultural secThe role of politics tors. This requires infrastructure and meeting places, so that institutions, organisations, is to create the businesses and individuals with good ideas can get together and create new values. common ground The political role is to create the common where knowledge ground where knowledge and ideas meet and and ideas can meet flourish. As a Vice Major and board leader of Knowand flourish. ledge Oslo I too am part of this common ground. Knowledge Oslo is an alliance of more than 30 knowledge institutions. This alliance works towards a more conscientious use of science based knowledge, development of an international targeted knowledge industry and a wider recruitment in research studies. Oslo has a fine list of qualities that can make the city into one of Europe’s most attractive. Knowledge Oslo has started several measures to reach this target. This includes an international forum, English webpage and common activities to raise the profile of the member institutions at home and abroad. To succeed in the future, it is crucial to have a close cooperation within politics, business, and knowledge institutions. We have to work in a targeted and concise way to develop and position Oslo as a national and international knowledge centre. Hallstein Bjercke Vice Major Department of Cultural Affairs and Business Development
Needs better connections BUSINESs Norway needs better and more conscious connections between its innovation and competence policies. This is one of the main conclusions in a report prepared by NIFU on behalf of Abelia. One main findings in the report is that Norwegian business targeted competence policies are not orientated enough towards broad competence development.
Did you know? On Friday the 2nd December 2011 student number 100 defended her doctorate in sports science at the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences..
EXCELLENCE The Research Council’s evaluation of geo subjects, ‘Earth Sciences Research in Norway’, gives the University of Oslo top marks.
BUILDING AND INFRASTRUCTURE is digital LIBRARY SINTEF magazine Building and Infrastructure has completed an online edition of the historical guide in their Building and Infrastructure series. The newly created Historical archive for the Building and Infrastructure series creates the opportunity to follow both existing and expired issues. The Building and Infrastructure series online has now become a complete national reference library for the building business and is a unique historical resource for knowledge
about Norwegian building techniques both before and after the Second World War. – The Building and Infrastructure series historical archive will be an excellent resource to knowledge about planning, projecting, execution and management of buildings in the light of changed regulations, building methods and practice that have occurred over the last six decades, says research manager Kim Robert Lisø at SINTEF Building and Infrastructure.
Circumcision Change of attitude New research shows that Somalian immigrants view female circumcision as damaging, barbarian and non-Islamic. Researcher Abdi Gele at the Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Science has taken a closer look at the attitudes towards female genital mutilation (FGM) amongst Somalians in Oslo. The research findings suggest that the immigrant group no longer looks at FGM as a form of cleanliness or a religious requirement, but that the conduct is barbarian, damaging and against Islam.
Transportation is most important WELFARE Close to 70 percent of the elderly think a good transportation offer is central for their life quality. But the public transport arrangements are relatively poorly known, and a majority of those with a public transport card do not think it covers their needs for travel. This is shown in a new report from TØI (The Institute of Transport Economics) about the mobility and welfare of the elderly.
CONFUSED FISH ENVIRONMENT Human made CO2emissions effect the central nervous system of fish living in the sea. This can make it more difficult for them to survive. The finding has been documented by an international team of researchers including the Department of Molecular Biosciences at the University of Oslo and the James
Cook University of Australia. Predicted CO2 concentrations in the ocean at the end of this century would affect the fishes ability to hear, smell, orient themselves and avoid predators, says professor Göran Nilsson from the Department of Molecular Biosciences.
New top research centre CIENS Oslo Centre for Interdisciplinary Environmental and Social Research is a strategic research cooperation between independent research institutes (CICERO, TØI, NIVA, NIBR, NILU, NINA and met.no) and the University of Oslo. The centre is situated in the Oslo Innovation Centre at Blindern in Oslo. A new floor on the top of CIENS building is under construction. It will be home to CIENS Top Centre. The Top Centre has received support from the Research Council of Norway and shall aid relations and cooperation within CIENS. It will also create clarity and improve visibility for politicians, management, media and others with an interest in environmental research and
reporting. The centre will also bring together localized interdisciplinary researchers and help foster continuing education, communication and innovation. The plan is to create a knowledge centre aiming to compile research results for environmental management. CIENS is comprised of insitutions that have Norway’s strongest competence and experience of environmental monitoring. Klif (Climate and Pollution Agency) and the Ministry of Environment decided to assign a new Environmental Resource Bank to CIENS. Environmental Resource Bank will think on a long term basis over several decades and give the opportunity to study new environmental problems back in time.
– we must Play ou The global knowledge and innovation competition is tough. Norway has the prerequisites to succeed in certain areas, but only if we do the right things, says BI professor Torger Reve.
Torger Reve is professor at the Norwegian School of Management BI.
ROI The ambitious research project ‘A Knowledge-based Norway’, has involved all parties concerned with science, innovation and business development. The goal has been to discover where Norway has particularly good prerequisites to win the global fight. According to the BI-researchers, these areas are the oil and offshore, maritime and aquaculture sectors. The goal must therefore be to learn from these businesses to see how we can develop new fields.
FOCUS: One of the world’s largest oil crane vessels outside Stavanger. Norwegian investments in offshore supply and technology have created many jobs. An analysis of the factors that must pull together is important to create new areas of business development.
Critical mass Professor Torger Reve points out that ‘critical mass’ is necessary to win the battle for international capital and attract businesses with the ability to bring products out to the world. The scientific and innovation targeted environment must in other words be big enough. If not, we risk successful ideas and knowledge businesses being developed only to disappear instead of creating sustainable workplaces in Norway. – In Oslo we are really good in informatics. We have been for a long time. But Oslo won’t become a global knowledge centre on its own, even though it starts up a few businesses. They stay small and deliver local services, or, they are expanded then disappear. It’s not enough with one Opera Software. We need closer to 30 of such busino nesses in a global market if we will sustain a financial and knowlegable centrifugal force, explains Reve.
There will be global knowledge center just by starting some companies.
The need for capital By building education and research systems of excellence that facilitate innovations driven forward by risk taking venture capital, the U.S. has built up global knowledge centres like Silicon Valley (IT) in California and a similar life science environment in Boston. The right interaction between academia, business life and venture capital represents the core of the model. – Norway should pick the same road, says Reve, who proposes tax policies as an effective instrument. – It is about bringing out investor environments that can develop these businesses. We have become receptive to venture capital involvement in Norway but not built up the investor environments that have competence in this field. We lack the commercialisation capital that can take our businesses out in the world, explains Reve.
Biotechnology and green technology Reve says the University of Oslo has an industrial role within medicine and biotechnology. The planned centre in Gaustabekkdalen (see page 13, ed. note) is important in this respect. – It is a place of cancer research excellence. And both biotechnology and green technology have opportunities there. Maybe particularly green technology, because nature has given us the advantage with our abundance of hydroelectric power, he explains. Life science is a long-term investment. It takes 10-15 years before the products are ready for the market. In a global battle for capital, this is not very tempting. But if you build enough businesses, you get a centrifugal force where businesses will be further drawn to Norway. We have mana-
ur cards right Knowledge dynamics
Environmental attractiveness Cluster attractiveness
Dynamics of knowledge Research and innovation attractiveness
ged this in the offshore sector. All businesses in this sector want to come to Norway. But at the moment life science in Oslo is at a critical mass point, Reve says. The model BI-researchers have developed a new conceptual model to understand the mechanisms that transform knowledge to an increasing value of products and services. For one country or one region to be able to compete as a global knowledge base, it must fulfill the high demands attached to six different attractive dimensions: (1) Cluster attractiveness, (2) Education attractiveness, (3) Talent attractiveness, (4) Research and innovation attractiveness (5) Ownership attractiveness and (6) Environmental attractiveness. These six dimentions are the common knowledge foundation that all firms in an industry take advantage of. n
â€“ In some industries the common field of knowledge is almost neglected, and there are small investments in knowledge and business development. In other industries the common knowledge pool develops continuously, and the companies create a KNOWLEDGE DYNAMICS by playing each other better. Knowledge dynamics means that there is close interaction between the players in the industry, not least between companies and research institutions. The best examples of knowledge dynamics are found in strong business regions like SunnmĂ¸re, Kongsberg and Kristiansand, so the Oslo region has much to learn, says Reve. More on global knowledge hub and the emerald model can be found on www.ekn.no
Life science Our understanding of the human genetic code and how our body functions on a molecular level is the foundation of life science. With this knowledge the researchers can tailor the medications and examinations and adapt them to the individual patient. Diseases can therefore both be detected faster and cured better.
OSLOâ€™S new business Oslo has one of the worldâ€™s leading research environments for life sciences. This is what we shall live off in the future, says Ole Petter Ottersen, rector of the University of Oslo.
oslo Life science has been a
buzzword in Oslo’s research environment over the last years. Researchers with backgrounds in biology, medicine, molecular medicine, chemistry and other diverse subjects have flowed towards the research institutions and many firms that mainly are established Odd Stokke in and around Oslo Innovation Centre. Gabrielsen, UiO Every year more and more is added, and now a further gigantic development is planned in the area in between the current Oslo Innovation Centre and the new Rikshospitalet. The new development in Gaustadbekkdalen is now being looked into at the Ministry of Education and Research. The goal is to enforce Norwegian life science in all fields. If it becomes as Many young and UiO wishes, the new cencompetent researtre will be geographically chers are applying to placed right in the middle of Norway’s largest hosthis environment. pital and biggest centre for informatics. In other words right in the thick of the action. “Life science has absolutely the first priority in UiO”, has been the clear message from the rector Ole Petter Ottersen. And he follows up with the expression: “Life science is the new oil”. This is what we shall live of in the future. Interdisciplinary commitment The commitment to life sciences at its higher levels is interdisciplinary. At the University there is close cooperation between four different faculties and Oslo University Hospital. More than a thousand UiO-researchers are involved within a wide variety of different fields such as biology, chemistry, physics, pharmacy, molecular biology, medicine and informatics. And already today UiO has four centres of excellence researching within life sciences.
Photo: Yngve Vogt, Apollon
Each centre represents the excellence of international research in its field. In addition UiO cooperates with the Norwegian School of Veterinary Science and the University of Life Science in Ås. – At this time many young and competent researchers are applying to this environment. Many of them bring
FOUR CENTERS OF EXCELLENCE AT UiO CCB Centre for Cancer Biomedicine CEES Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis CIR Centre for Immune Regulation CMBN Centre for Molecular Biology and Neuroscience
impulses and experiences from their studies and research abroad, and that is very good, explains professor Odd Stokke Gabrielsen, who is leading the interdisciplinary commitment in life sciences (called MLS) at UiO. – The research is measured in terms of publications and citations. In UiO the number of publications has shot through the roof since the changes made in recent decades, and we can also see a high increase in citations – meaning how often other researchers make use of the results, explains Gabrielsen. The measurements show us that the citations from researchers within molecular biology in Oslo is significantly higher than the world average, but also well over other Norwegian research institutions. – This is gratifying, but we would also like to see even more interdiscipli-
CENTRAL LIFE SCIENCE ENVIRONMENTS IN OSLO • Oslo Cancer Cluster • Oslo Bio Network • Oslo Medtech Network • Nansen Neuroscience • Network
nary work. Why isn’t there still any particular interaction between cancer researchers and the fish researchers, when on a molecular level they have so much in common in method and theory? Gabrielsen asks rhetorically. (See interview with Kjetill Jakobsen in page 21, editors note). The success: Algeta 90 percent of all biotechnology firms in Norway are in the Oslo region. Most of them are small, but a number have now
Targeted goals One of the advantages of the new life science technology is that researchers can control the medicine agents specifically to the right cells. Fellow Gunnveig Grødeland and professor Bjarne Bogen at Vaccibody.
grown to be large. Algeta is one of the success stories. The company was founded by researchers from UiO and the Radium Hospital in 1997 and in 2000 they developed into a pharmaceutical firm. In 2009 they signed a 6 billion kroner contract with Bayer Schering Pharma AG for the leading product Alpharadin. – Alpharadin is the first pharmaceutical based on alpha radiation that has reached the so called phase III study (last phase before approval, ed. note). The medication uses powerful alpha radiation to kill the cancer cells in the tumour whilst at the same time not damaging the surrounding healthy tissue. The study has shown that the treatment gives the patient a longer expected lifetime and is associated with relatively few mild side effects. Several patients
have also experienced considerable pain relief, explains Algeta’s technology chief Thomas Ramdahl. Algeta has developed the pharmaceutical Alpharadin to treat prostate cancer. This form of cancer is the most frequent and fastest growing cancer amongst men. However, the treatment offered for the patient group is limited. Alpharadin could become a key pharmaceutical for patients with an advanced prostate cancer. After the breakthrough the company’s stock immediately rose by 40 percent. Algeta started up before Oslo Cancer Cluster existed, and Ramdahl claims most firms are working with such different technologies that it’s the people who make the greatest difference in the life science environment in Oslo.
Thomas Ramdahl, Algeta
Ole Henrik Brekke, Vaccibody
– When it comes to access to the human resources, it can be an advantage to have a greater environment within reach, he says.
Ingrid Alfheim, Biomedisinsk innovasjon
The next? Vaccibody A traditional vaccine consists of injecting antigens into the body. The body’s defence cells then multiply and some will produce a type of proteins that give protection against future attacks. An antigen can be a molecule (for instance pollen from mugwort), a virus (for instance influenza) or a bacteria (for instance cholera). We know certain cells in our body have the task to learn from other cells and recognize these antigens, but to inject a vaccine haphazardly is neither purposeful nor rational. However, if we use new technology to make a three-parted vaccine with a ‘spearhead’, which is assigned to locate these ‘training cells’, in combination with a centre part that contributes to increase the effect, plus a main part consisting of the antigen, we can perhaps achieve immunity. By hooking onto the right antigen we hope we can make more effective vaccines against any type of disease. Hopefully, if we hook on cancer antigens, we might even be able to get our body to develop immunity
against cancer! A simple and ingenious idea but naturally not so easy to do in reality. This is one of the issues they are working intensely on within the life sciences in Oslo. – We have just reached some amazing results with our mice experiments. Mice that had developed cancer got well after they received our vaccine. We are now ready for a formal pre-clinic, and then the first clinical testing in patients will proceed in 2013, explains Ole Henrik Brekke from Vaccibody. In this first clinical phase the vaccine will be tested on women thought to have a cervical tumour. In this phase the intention is to examine the safety and the dosage of the vaccine given, and in return Vaccibody will receive valuable information about the effects. – If this succeeds, the next step is a phase II-testing, where the therapeutic effect of the vaccine is tested. But there is still a long way to go and many firms will fall by the wayside after this phase. Just a small percentage reach the next clinical test phase III, where the pharmaceutical is tested on a much larger patient group, he explains. By the end of phase III there is a report of the results from the exami-
THE VISION On the remaining area between Department of Informatics and Oslo University Hospital UiO wants to build the new Centre for life sciences. The application is now at the Ministry of Education and Research. The illustration shown is from the exhibition The City and Blindern - The University of Oslo in 200 years.
nations. The report forms the basis of an application of registration and marketing of the substance as a pharmaceutical. The impact of a vaccine that can cure certain shapes of cancer would naturally have a large potential market value. – Up to phase II there is approximately five years and it would cost about 90 million NOK. My job now is to provide this money from investors, says Brekke, who has big faith in the opportunities of life science in Oslo. Money and more money The Oslo region is internationally acknowledged by the journal Genome Technology as a very promising area for research within life sciences, but at the same time the researchers would
have liked to see more venture capital materializing since life sciences demand substantial investments. Within medicine there is an especially long journey transforming good ideas into a successful and sustainable business model. We are looking at this from a perspective of decades for the good ideas and vaccines to reach validation explains manager of Biomedisinsk innovasjon (BMI), Ingrid Alfheim. Decades of uncertain yields demand long term investment plans and the willingness to take a risk and few Norwegian investors have shown a will to do so. – At BMI we have worked on obtaining money for promising business ideas within life science. This is very challenging. We are looking for capital both in Europe and in Norway, and with today’s economic situation this has generally proved to be difficult. Professor Odd Stokke Gabrielsen agrees. – You may question if we have competent investors. Many of the successful firms are bought up by foreign capital, and this can be a problem if we are looking for an initiative that gives workplace stability and knowledge production in Norway, he explains. Gabrielsen would have liked to see even more venture capital and larger research mobility between academia and the business sector. – We are in a key position now. We have good instruments for recruit-
ment and the Ministry of Education and Research are presumably investing in the new centre, so we must hope the businesses can develop and stay in Norway, says Gabrielsen. Innovation awards In the fall of 2011 the University innovation award was awarded for the first time. The award is given on the basis of the ideas that have been achieved at UiO and the way in which they have been applied in society, preferably in cooperation with external partners. The award went to professor Inger Sandlie at the Department of Molecular Bioscience. Sandlie has been a central figure in the research environment for many years, and has been heavily involved in research based innovation and entrepreneurship. She is also one of the founders of Vaccibody (see above). – UiO is focusing on innovation in 2013. Many foreign universities and disciplines have been strong in this field for years. UiO is now investing strongly, tells Inger Sandlie. Sandlie, through her whole research life has been working in parallel with innovation and basic science, and explains that she has been inspired by international colleagues and environments over the last 20 years. – The most important aspect I have learned is that there has to be excellent effort in all fields. Research of excellence is a starting point for excellent
innovation and entrepeneurship. Sandlie points out that brain research, geno repair (important within research about aging) and cancer and immune system research are central fields of life science in Oslo in the years to come. – These were important fields 15 years ago too, but what is new is that the Inger Sandlie, UiO research is now organized in larger networks making the researchers enjoy each other’s special competence and technology. For instance the access to certain types of microscopes, modelling and bioinformatics as well as super effective geno sequential techniques (see page 21, ed. note.) are very important to create good synergy effects, The most important concludes Sandlie. And Inger Sandlie is thing I have learned not the only one to have received a prize. In Sep- is that there has to tember the Norwegian be excellent efforts Bank DNB’s highly prestigious innovation prize made in all fields. was awarded to PCI Biotech. The firm has developed and patented a technology for photochemical pharmaceutical deliverance within cancer and other diseases. The firm is one of 60 members of Oslo Cancer Cluster, an umbrella organization for businesses and research institutions working on cancer issues. This is a fine example showing how Oslo is where the future of life sciences will be shaped.
LIFE’S GINGERBREAD That’s one way of putting it. Lene A. Norlund’s contribution won one of the first prizes in the 2011 Gingerbread house competition held at the National Museum of Architecture. The assignment for last year’s gingerbread house competiton was to design the new life science centre which UiO is building in Gaustad in Oslo and to freely interpret the term life science.
KJETILL JACOBSEN Jakobsen and his team have mapped the codâ€™s genome. It produced a lot of unexpected knowledge that can be used in both aquaculture and medicine.
Foto: John Huges
Kjetill S. Jakobsen is a researcher from UiO who can pack a hall with physicians and see their eyes light up with his lecture’s insights about cod.
the codfather ■■ What on earth is a genome? – We must differentiate between a gene and a genome. A gene is a tiny bit of the DNA (our genetic material). DNA actually only consist of 2-5 % of genes. The rest can, for the sake of simplicity, be called ‘other things’. So the total of the genetic material, hence our whole DNA, we call genome, whether it is genes or not. ■■ Is a cod only a cod? – The spawning cod is migrating from the Barents Sea to Møre. The fjord cod is stationary and amongst other things it is adapted differently to local conditions that can vary in temperature and salinity. And even though the fjord cod don’t like deep sea areas, it may well think of taking a swim over Skagerak. It also goes to Svalbard when the water is warm enough. So, the answer is that it has a significant ability to adapt. ■■ Who has participated in the research? – The University of Oslo, the University of Life Sciences, Nofima, The University College of Hedmark, The University of Bergen, The University of Tromsø, The University in Nordland and the Institute of Marine Research in Bergen. In addition, we have involved experts from the Sanger Center in Cambridge, Roche 454 Life Sciences USA and from the Max Plank Institute in Berlin. ■■ How difficult is this work? – As of today the academic environment in the Oslo area (UMB, Nofima and UiO) is leading in Norway. We have been selftaught and so, naturally, along the way our extensive efforts have met certain frustrations. We have collaborated with other scientists and developed new calculation programmes to be able to put toghether new
genome information. And this demands extremely high amounts of data power. When we started up the machines here at UiO, the meteorologists couldn’t run their long-term forecast! After that we have bought some banks of computer - which we of course have called COD1 and COD2. ■■ What have you discovered that has really surprised you? – The cod seems to lack the one half of the immune system! It lacks what we researchers call MHC II. If the cod had been a human, it would have been dead! But the cod is a success. There is something strange! It must have solved it in one way or another. There are no books describing this, but we had a feeling that it was something to find, considering other research has indicated that there is something strange with the cod. ■■ Can you explain this in greater detail? – Think of small children. They go to kindergarden and get infected all the time. The result is that they build up immunity. It’s called immunolgical memory. The cod cannot do this, since it’s lacking MHC II. But it has antibodies. An explanation can lie in the fact that the cod has ten times as much as humans of what we call MHC I, which can be described as the immune system’s virus defence. It has also a congenital defence, which is completely different than that of any other fishes. We checked other cod types, such as haddock, whiting and turbot, and found that this is most likely common for all cod. The salmon on the other hand is different. It has MHC II. Therefore we can relatively easily make vaccines for salmon and humans, but it does not work as simply with cod.
■■ How can we apply this knowledge? – Aquaculture and its management is an obvious area. Everything from the findings of variations of genes that enable the cod to exist in both cold and warm waters, to the knowledge that we cannot make vaccines for cod in a traditional way, are important. In addition, wild cod is incredibly important economically as a food source and the more we know, the better we can manage it. But it is also medically interesting. ■■ Ok. In what way has this meaning to those dealing with medical research? – Considering the cod can survive without the same immune regulation and that it doesn’t have the same immunological memory as us, means we can look at the immune defence on both humans and animals This is a in new ways. In addition the goldmine of MHC II is associated with auto immune diseases (asthma, aller- information! gies, ms, celiac disease etc). The cod has a special way of solving this, which makes us think outside the box in relation to traditional immunology. The medical environments within this field are interested in our findings. That’s why physicians’ eyes light up at the cod lectures I give. ■■ What do you think will happen to the cod in Norway in 20 years? – If we use our head in the relation to cod farming we can have a strong aquaculture. In addition, I hope we can keep the extremely important wild cod. It’s a goldmine of information we have here - we just have to use it sensibly.
NEW ROADS Student Kadra Noor and teacher Hilde Dalen who know the importance of building bridges. – Here we teach the students to think outside the box and do things in a smarterway, says Dalen.
Hunting tomorrows Solutions
At Diakonhjemmet University College a group of students learn how to build bridges over the troubled water between users and The Norwegian Labour and Welfare Service. UNDERSTANDINGaCULTURE
One of 17 students on the bridge-building course is the well known leader of the Somalian Womens Union, Kadra Noor. She daily works at the Primary Medicine workshop at Kirkens Bymisjon, Oslo’s Church Mission. – I wanted a more professional competence. I’ve worked for a long time, especially to create understanding betComplicated society ween the Somalian and Norwegian challenges require cultures. Through the bridge-buildother approaches ing course we and new solutions learn, for example, about what legal rights users and NAV have, and therefore I can work more independent than before. The cases get clearer and I know more about what I shall communicate and say to the client, says Kadra Noor.
Pioneering work The relatively new bridge-building course gives 60 credits over two years. The study was initiated in 2010 and the first bridge-builders graduates will complete the course this summer. The students come from a variety of backgrounds and experience and they are recruited from both public and volunteer sectors. The important subjects are communication and personal development, law, health, cooperation, conflict and mediation as well as social entrepreneurship. An important initiator to and driving force in the teaching of the course, Hilde Dalen, explains it like this: – Complicated society challenges require other approaches and new solutions. We need individuals that can function across fields and agencies – if not we only reproduce more of what we already have. The bridge-building course facilitates more interaction; we develop a methodology to realize common goals. If for instance NAV implement a poll amongst
its users, they get an answer to what they ask about. But if instead you create a dialogue forum with the benefit recipients, you get to know more and completely different things. And within those answers there often lies newer solutions that can be both cheaper and easier to implement. My dream is that the public and private, to a greater extent, use the bridgebuilder resources. A bridge-builder has no agenda other than to make the parts agree on the goal. The bridge-builder is inspired by social entrepreneurship and social innovation, and the goals are the bridge-builders force, says Dalen to finish. BRIGDE BUILDING STUDY The main subjects are project work, communication and personal competence. The students study subjects such as law, physical and mental health, oral and written communication, cooperation, grief, crisis, conflict and mediation as well as social entrepeneurship.
PHOTO: VisitOSLO/Heidi ThonÂŠVigeland-museet/BONO
VIGELAND SCULPTURE PARK The fantastic sculptures made by artist Gustav Vigeland form the great outdoor sculpture park in central Oslo.
.society The STUDENT
Trond Gjellum (40) won Knowledge Oslo’s prize with the paper “I just wanted to scare him!” about identity making and role positioning in multicultural youth environments in the east side of Oslo.
The quest for the life of immigrant organisations
n Congratulations, what happens now? – Right now I’m working full time on a documentary book on the subject. If all goes well, the book should be out this year.
Neither the researchers or politicians know much about how immigrant organiaations operate or how they participate in political processes. Researcher Marianne Takle finds out more.
■■ Why did you choose to study at UiO? – I took a bachelor’s degree at the University of Oslo in the 90s and worked as a teacher in Oslo for many years. In 2008 I decided to take a master’s degree in social anthropology, as it was impossible to study elsewhere than at the university. The Social Anthropology Institute at the University has the expertise and the breadth of understanding I sought. I found it useful when I wanted to study identity creation and role positioning in multicultural youth environments on the east side of Oslo. ■■ Your best experience whilst studying? – To become familiar with so many hard working and exciting students. It was very educational. And it made me realize that there is a lot of unreasonable criticism of ‘lazy students’. ■■ The best aspect of studying in Oslo? – The best part is that it is a city that can offer so many opportunities to let off steam from the studies. The longing for a centrally placed student house, such as in Trondheim, is there. But there are other opportunities to be active on our own. The abundance of cultural entertainment, the nightlife for all tastes, the forest provides a lot of cheap therapy and the islands, offer a short boat trip to your own pearl archipelago. ■■ Where do you see yourself in three years? – I might teach in high school or I might write my next book. Or I might do my doctorate. The possibilities are many!
AcTIVISM In Oslo today, 28 percent of the population are of immigrant origin. With funding from Knowledge Oslo Marianne Takle at NOVA (Norwegian Social Research) will conduct a post-doctoral study to determine which factors make immigrant organisations participate in the political life in Oslo. Mariann Takle, Norwegian Social Research (NOVA)
■■ What do you want to find out? – We are used to treating immigrant organisations as passive recipients of government schemes, and not as active participants. But today, 28 per cent of the population of Oslo has an immigrant background. It means that we must treat the immigrant organisations as suppliers of the agenda. My approach is that I study immigrant organisations as independent actors in the society, with their own integration strategies, and not only as recipients People with an of the government’s inteimmigration back- gration policy. On this basis ground are just as we can formulate a number of questions. How do the active in volunteer state and municipal subsidies and regulations effect work as ethnic the immigrant organisaNorwegians. tions’ activities? How do the immigrant organisations work to mobilize their own members to participate in Norwegian politics? How do the generational differences effect the political activity? In Oslo the immigrant organisations cooperate in a common council. How does the Council of immigrant organisations
in Oslo communicate between immigrant organisations and the municipality? ■■ What is so special about Oslo? – Immigration is an urban phenomenon. Most immigrants choose to live in cities. This is what it is like all over the world. One in three persons from an immigrant background in Norway lives in Oslo. If you want to understand integration processes in Norway it is useful to study what happens in the capital. There is great activity amongst immigrant organisations in the city. Last year approximately 200 different activities received support from the state and the municipality. I am particularly concerned with the political activity coming out of this, and especially at the local democratic levels. ■■ Have you found something that surprises you? – The negative surprise is that immigrant organisations are engaged in a lot of cultural and folklore activities and little with Norwegian politics. The positive surprise is how the immigrant organisations serve as a venue for resourceful activists. The activists are people with an immigrant background taking the initiative to implement actions for the other members of the organisations. I have studied immigration organisations actions’ before the municipal elections in the autumn
Foto: Knut FalchScanpix
Participation The Norwegian Gambian Women’s Network MKBN mark their opposition to female circumcision / female genital mutilation during a ceremony at Youngstorget.
of 2011, and here the activist’s role is very clear. It is striking that many of these activists of the same country or religion have the same situational awareness. They believe that it is important to participate politically in Norway, and they justify this aspect in the same way. They are emerging as activists for democracy and participation. Such enthusiasm is a key factor in integration efforts. ■■ How many immigration organisations is there in Oslo? – Nobody knows the exact number. But in 2011 Oslo municipality had registered 283. ■■ Norwegians are said to likely be a member of at least four organisations. How about immigrants? Statistics show that people with immigrant backgrounds are equally active in volunteer work as ethnic Norwegians. But they are to a lesser degree a member of the organisations they work for. Perhaps the membership model is not perceived as equally relevant for all? ■■ Which immigrant groups are you looking at?
– All groups take part in the survey. Among those registered in Oslo, Somalis have the highest with 34 immigrant organisations, the Pakistanis have 28, the Turks have 16 and Sri Lanka has 11. All the other country groups have fewer organisations. There are many multinational organisations. ■■ Have you found some other interesting differences when it comes to political participation? – It turned out that the majority of the immigrant organisations had trouble motivating young people to participate before the municipal elections in the autumn of 2011. Only those actions that were directly aimed at young people could mobilize young people. Some of the activists I interviewed explained that young people are better informed about how Norwegian society works than their parents’ generation. Others rejected this and said that young people are not interested in politics. Many felt that young people are more concerned with social media, and are disinterested in what older generations are involved in. In the contexts I have studied, there are always more men than women, but the women are certainly present. As a rule,
it is men that are responsible for the actions, so that almost all of those who have turned up to be interviewed have been men. ■■ Can you recommend specific actions on the basis of your findings ? – It’s a little too early in the project to come up with any suggestions for action. But the project has given me greater confidence in that the immigrant organisations have an important function. Just to draw people with immigrant background out of the family and private sphere and into the activities of civil society is important in itself. Many immigrant organisations initiate activities to mobilize members to participate in society. An urban phenomenon All over the world most immigrants choose to live in cities. Oslo has a large immigrant population, with backgrounds from all over the world. To investigate what is happening among immigrant organizations is important for our understanding of integration.
How do we learn? Teachers with expertise and students who have learned more than social skills in elementary school are the recipe for how we create top researchers in the future. LEARNING
How do we create teachers with professional knowledge that also have the ability to communicate and engage, and how do we create our primary school students who really want to go in depth? Finn Daniel Raaen is Professor of Education at the SPS, Centre for Professional Studies at the University College of Oslo and Akershus and he has juggled with the issue Countries with his research less resources, throughout life. â€“ If we are to foster top such as Finresearchers, we need land, produce to create a culture in schools where learning students who pressure can be combiacademically ned with a meaningful perform better. customized training, so
that students when they become adults remain curious, inquisitive, reflective and enduring, says Raaen, adding that the discipline and the ability to function together are necessary factors. The teachers are crucial too. Research clearly shows that for students to achieve well they need good teachers. Teachers are crucial Raaen and his team of five sub-projects and researchers from University College in Vestfold, the University College in Volda and HiOA will, in a large four-year project funded by the Research Council, look closer at four professional educations, including teacher studies. In particular, it is the relationship between experience-based and research-based education that will be put under the microscope.
RESEARCH BASED vs. EXPERIENCE BASED The fact that all higher education should be research based, is statutory. The Hernes Commission (1988) stated that the characteristic of higher education is that it is research based, which means that it is based on vested scientific insight. The term has varying content and is used differently depending on disciplines and the studyâ€™s nature and purpose. Experiential education is based in practice, and refers both to their own experiences and the experiences that over the years have accumulated within the job-specific knowledge of the tradition. Source: Network Norway Council report
IMORTANT PERSON The teacher can be an important person in the child and young people’s lives. In action, high school lecturer in Education, Kirstin Thorsen.
– Norway’s economic wealth has made it possible to inject substantial resources into the school system, Raaen says - but countries with fewer resources, such as Finland, produce students who academically perform better than ours. It is, of course, important that Norwegian pupils score high on the understanding of democracy, but what do they do, for example, in Finland? asks Raaen. Maybe it has something to do with the teacher education in Finland? There they have a teacher education policy that recruits some of the best students. Only about 10 percent of the applicants each year are offered a place. And it is a prerequisite for permanent employment as a primary teacher that the applicant has a MA-degree. There has been a priority within teacher education to make educators who are professionals who are critical consumers of knowledge. Systematic research-based methods that improve and develop managers at all levels of education have been seen as particularly important. -
Perhaps young people’s educational achievements should be understood in the light of the special features existing in Norwegian society? It may be the youth in our rich welfare state, in contrast to a number of small wealthy European countries, do not feel that they need a good education in order to support themselves, and for that reason feel the need to shape up in school to get a job to live on, maintains Raaen. Substantial challenges – What else has failed when we see that the level of knowledge is low? – There are many opinions about this, and when this is publically debated you can see that perceptions are also politically coloured. There is no doubt that both primary and teacher education are facing significant challenges, and so there’s a need to know more in depth about the factors that prevent schools from developing further. Here research comes in, so that changes are not only based on ‘common sense’
Increased professional standing – Since autumn 2010 the new national policy framework for teacher education has provided insight into teaching in lower secondary level, says Kirstin Thorsen, college lecturer in Education at HiOA. – Previously, the general teacher could have 30 credits from several different subjects, and we had teachers who knew a little about everything, but had no specialization in any subjects. From 2010, one can choose three subjects with 60 credits, and with greater academic weight the teachers can increasingly focus on their professional inspirations. Thorsen researches the connection between theory and practice in education. - With increased scientific focus on the theoretical part of education, it is a challenge that during the practice in the classroom, support is given to the students’ development as good academic intermediaries. – Research points out that the teacher is a relationally important person in the children and young people’s lives. When we ask the current students what teachers they remember from their own education, there are two conditions that stands out: the close teacher who shows you respect and the academically successful and committed teacher.
Maybe young people’s educational achievements should also be understood in the light of the special features of the Norwegian society? views, says Raaen. – Teachers need to know more about how to keep continuously updated through their career. In earlier eras students respected the teacher as a natural authority. Now it is more a negotiation, a different learning environment. But communities also need adventurous, insightful students, says Raaen. – For schools to have students who are more motivated and willing to be independent, also depends on the teachers to be good models for them. Maybe this is a challenge for some student teachers, says
Kirsti Klette, UiO
Raaen. As they in their course of education may not have worked especially diligently, but were mostly content with following the compulsory education, it’s a danger that they do not properly recognise what it means to struggle. In this case, it will not be particularly surprising if they in the future become teachers who will have problems creating credible ways to convince their students about why it is so important to strive, work and perform. In his research project Raaen will, among other things, use video footage to analyse what happens in the classroom. Here, Norway is internationally top class, says Kirsti Klette, professor the Department of Education and School Research at the University of Oslo. Onwards and upwards with video With the new video-based research methods that use multiple cameras and film whilst connecting with what the
teacher does and with how students respond, comparisons with other data sources enable us to draw a broader picture of what produces good learning. The University collaborates heavily with Stanford University of California on this, and Oslo municipality is also a partner on reading and reading strategies. – We are in a paradoxical situation, Klette says. – Pupils enjoy school. Truancy and registration of dissatisfaction has fallen dramatically at lower secondary level the last 20 years. At the same time, we have not managed to connect this to knowledge hunger. The social project with the school has realised its intentions, whilst the knowledge project is problematic, she says. Klette points out that at the lower secondary school students are safe and have good social skills and a high degree of student activities and student expressions. But there are still many practical
Four pillars of education
Mastering That teachers have a watchful eye for the students is essential for effective learning is one of the findings of Finn Daniel Raaen and his colleagues.
issues of the character; ’what should we do now?’, ‘who do I do it with?’, ‘should I write with a green pen now?’ and less of academically relevant questions. – If one manages to connect the student activity and the professional, one has laid the Columbi egg of learning, she says. – But we have not exploited this potential and have not yet made knowledge interesting and relevant and important. Instead, we struggle with subjects and a curriculum that emphasizes width - a somewhat encyclopaedic approach where one shall know a little bit about everything. It stimulates surface knowledge, but not deeper learning and thus we lack the knowledge eagerness. If we are to create good scientists we first have to create more knowledge eagerness, teach students to dig and teach them the value to delve into an area, which is nearly the opposite of what the secondary school are doing today, concludes Klette. n
A study conducted by Finn Daniel Raaen and his colleagues found that it is important that newly qualified teachers are supported by other teachers at their starter Finn Daniel schools. The study’s Raaen, HiOA findings report that in schools where the teachers worked in professional teams and shared their experiences with other teachers the students perform better. Research also supports that good teaching rests on four pillars: • Good technical knowledge • Supportive Social Climate: A classroom where students experience a teacher who is sensitive to student needs, opportunities and limitations • Good classroom management: Teachers who are able to create rules, have a plan to prevent the lessons from not breaking down • A good eye for the pupils: the teacher must have a sharp eye for what he/she does in order to create pupil engagement, and be prepared to adjust the approach along the way.
ART AT UNIVERSITY Painting on acoustic surfaces by Patrik Entian.
.The Student Capital
Students (from left).: Kaia Marie Rosseland (deputy representative, SPU Norwegian School of Management BI), Liv Kristin Cross Lake (Chair, Student Parliament HiOA), Birgit Røkkum Skarstein (Chairman, Welfare Council), Siriann Bekeng (Chair, The Norwegian Students’ Society), Stian Skaalbones (Chairperson, University Student Parliament UiO) and Marianne Hova Rustberggard (Executive Director, SiO).
– NORWAY’S BEST academic CITY Oslo students are not just future employees, but also valuable actors in society. The Student Capital is an important player in Knowledge Oslo. STUDIEs
Oslo is the largest (and best) place to study. It has almost 60 000 students studying in and around the capital. With the merger of the Student Welfare Organization (SiO) and the Oslo and Akershus University College (OAS), as well as the establishment of a common Welfare court for students in Oslo and AkersThe Welfare Coun- hus, there are now far better opportucil has the task of nities to organize student forces both creating the best politically and culpossible social turally.
situation for Oslo
Utilising resources The Welfare Council has the task to create the best possible social situation for the students. Anything from residential to day care, fitness, health, cafes, interest groups and social happenings fall within its remit. In addition, the municipality of Oslo and Knowledge Oslo are helping to facilitate
the best utilisation of the resources for the students in the capital. This is done through the liaison body The Student Capital (Studenthovedstaden). Here Oslo students have the opportunity to show both their scientific knowledge and social commitment. Willingness to learn The Career Centre, practices and summer jobs are measures that will help to make the studies more targeted, while the city benefits through a dedicated willingness to learn from current work practices. – For those like me, who study political science here at the University in Oslo, the closeness to political life is very important. Whilst the course is very good, it presents the opportunity to be close to Oslo’s political administration, and that was crucial for my choosing Oslo as a place to study, says head of The Welfare Council, Birgit Røkkum Skarstein. Cooperation As examples of what role The Student
Capital may have, Birgit Røkkum Skarstein include student events at international research conferences, the establishment of an entrepreneur centre and other across institution innovation initiatives. – We also see that, for example, it could be interesting to collaborate on the design and announcement of the municipality of Oslo’s scholarships, she says. n
The Student capital The Student Capital is a working group under Knowledge Oslo and it shall: • Develop common objectives, projects and practical measures • Be the coordination arena between student leaders in Oslo, the municipality of Oslo and Knowledge Oslo
Ole-Johan Dahls House The new informatics building at the University of Oslo, has modern teaching and research facilities.
Photo: Birgitta Cappelen
Rhyme: Fun w The combination of e-textiles, music and design provides new opportunities for communication for people with severe disabilities. COOPERATION You might as well start adjusting to the possibility that the couch sings a little song. New research and development at the interface between ICT, design and music is opening up great opportunities. In an award-winning collaboration reseThe sensors archers from the respond much like Institute of Design of Architecture and improvising jazz Design School Oslo (AHO), the Departmusicians. ment of Computer Science at the University of Oslo and the Centre for Music and Health at Norwegian Academy of Music has started to investigate how we can create better health and quality of life for persons with severe disabilities. The RHYME project researches how clever musical concepts and objects can
improve the health for families with children with severe disabilities, says Karette Stensæth, who is an associate professor in music therapy at the Norwegian Academy of Music. The objects motivate people with severe disabilities to play, work and create together. The goal is to obtain reduced passivity and isolation as well as promote better health and well-being. Initial testing of the music pieces of RHYME was conducted at Haug School and resource centre in Bærum in 2011. Now scientists are working on developing the next generation of music furniture based on the experience gained. The plan is that this will be ready in March of this year. – We see that in order to captivate, the pillows must be easy to use while they work on many senses at once. One of the things we have seen for this target group is it is important they have even greater consistency between movement and sound,
SOFT FABRICS AND HARD TECHNOLOGIES By building sensors, LED lights and audio sources in textiles, many new opportunities open up. The project is funded by The Norwegian Research Council through the VERDIKT program. In a few years you might be able to download a new app for your iSofa?
E-Textiles In a RHYME workshop developed last winter the design students at AHO and art students at KHiO (National Academy of Art in Oslo) e-textiles were later used to make different installations. The installations attracted considerable attention and triggered the curiosity of the public.
with music pillows and so it must be possible to have individual customization of products, Stensæth says. Design and Technology The development panel consists of some of the foremost internationally recognised experts within music therapy, music and health, particularly with regard to combining music and technology with physical interaction. Birgitta Cappelen, AndersPetter Andersson and Fredrik Olofsson at AHO have worked with the interaction and technical challenges. The concept they have developed consist of 20 black pyramidshaped pillows in, 30, 60 and 90 cm sizes. Inside the pads there are different types of technology. Some have orange ‘wings’ that you can bend, twist, hold, turn or step on. When children touch the wings they get answers through various music, light and changeable video projection - a kind of living wallpaper on the wall. There is a separate cushion that switches between eight different music genres, everything from jazz and film music to music the children can make themselves by using their own voice.
In the largest of the pillows there are speakers that create exciting musical vibrations in the body when the children sit on them. – The sensors respond not only directly as a musical instrument, but differ - much like an improvising jazz musician would do. In this sense, this is much more advanced than the usual computer-based systems and other musical instruments because they respond back from musical and communicative principles, not only as buttons with fixed responses, explains designer Birgitta Cappelen. Computer pillow war All the pillows contain small computers and can talk wirelessly to each other through a wireless network. And all pillows have small loops on their corners so that they can be linked and built into larger chairs, sofas, toys, forming a landscapesoundscape. – Because we work with music, it is about musical movements in the broadest sense. It may be to jump, dance, shake, roll, rock, sing, respond, turn, stomp,
bend, swing ... But even the quieter musical activities such as listening or sleeping are also enjoyable. Severely disabled children can easily become over stimulated and need to calm down and rest. So, it has been important that these tools also offer this possibility. That’s the reasoning behind why the objects are made from soft yet robust fabric. They will be rolled over by wheelchairs, skipped on, shaken and thrown. But also slept on and listened to. There are very few laptops and smartphones that can withstand such treatment, says Cappelen, who believes that the project will also result in more unique ideas, prototypes and knowledge that could inspire and inform many products in the future, although it is not this project’s focus and objective at this stage.
Birgitta Cappelen, AHO
Karette Stensæth, Norwegian Academy of Music
CLIMATE MUNICIPALITIES A project with focus on adaptation to climate changes within the areas of drinking water, cultural heritage and natural resources. The project is a collaboration between NIVA, NILU, NIKU, Bioforsk NINA, NIBR and CICERO.
Photo: Magnus Reneflott/ NN/ Samfoto
s’ watery future
There will be warmer, wetter and more extreme weather. Research on climate change shows the Det blir varmere, våtere og mer ekstremvær. challenges and some solutions for politicians and Forskning på klimaendringer viser utfordringer bureaucrats. og løsninger for politikere og byråkrater.
Climate Even if one were to succeed in cutting greenhouse gas emissions down to the recommended levels by 2020, research shows very clearly that there are going to be major changes in the climate in the future. For the NorHelga wegian municipalities it is therefore of Gunnarsdottir paramount importance for the political Water Area and administrative planners to find soluCommittee of Morsa tion oriented knowledge about the new challenges. In the Research Park in Oslo seven of the leading Norwegian research centres have joined forces on the project ‘Adaptation to Climate Change in Norwegian Municipalities.’ The main objective has been to design a practical Anne-Marie web portal that can help municipaliBomo, ties plan to encounter the challenges NIVA from climate-driven extreme weather in both the short and long term. “That no one has – We have been ever become sick focusing on science from drinking wa- that can be used by the management ter from here” is no and politicians, says project manalonger valid. ger Ilan Kelman who hopes that the results of the work will be useful. This project has since its inception shared practical advice on adaptation to climate change in the Norwegian municipalities through the site www. klimakommune.no. Here, municipal employees and politicians can find about 70 fact sheets that provide advice and guidance within the thematic areas of: adaptation strategies, drinking water, cultural heritage and natural environment. Featured articles on the site have also been
forwarded through the government portal www.klimatilpasning.no. Troublesome water With the warmer climate and more rainfall - especially in the winter - there are major challenges related to planning against floods, run-off from agriculture and protection of drinking water. In the period of 1900 - 2008 there has been an increase in precipitation of almost 20% for mainland Norway. The increase has been particularly evident in the last 20 years and the trend is strongest in the winter where the increase has been 24%. There are many challenges associated with increased precipitation. Not only the acute form of floods and landslides, but also in the longer-term, the security of drinking water sources and arable land. – Over 90% of the Norwegian population is supplied with drinking water from surface sources. In addition, the water table rises and comes up to the surface in numerous places. It is very vulnerable, says Anne-Marie Bomo from NIVA. An assessment in connection with the EU Water Framework Directive shows that 47% of drinking water is at risk of not being approved. In the regions water authorities are currently working on implementing measures to improve water quality and quantify costs of the measures. This work has a high priority and could lead to changes and restrictions on agriculture in the future. – Norwegian waterworks reports significant deterioration of water quality after heavy precipitation. An example is that the supply of intestinal bacteria from the catchment to the water source can be up to 20 000 times higher after heavy rain, compared with dry periods, explains Bomo. “That no one has ever been sick from drin-
DRINKING WATER Pure water from the tap is not to be taken for granted in the future. Many Norwegian water treatment plants lack the necessary treatment technology.
king water from here is no longer a valid statement”, claims the researchers, who at the web portal have published extensive information on measures and regulations. – Hygienic barriers in water treatment, including treatment that is also effective against chlorine-resistant parasites is important today, and is expected to become even more important in a future climate. It is also been observed that there is a significant increase in colour and dissolved organic matter in several Norwegian surface waters over the past 30 years. Several Norwegian water treatment plants will thus need to install processes for color removal in the water treatment, explains Bomo. Agriculture is struggling 2011 was not a good year for Norwegian farmers. The fear that this may be the normal situation has led many to consider whether they can bear to continue in agriculture. In fact, researchers have found that an increase in temperature will lead to more freeze and thaw periods. Combined with the snow-melt or precipitation this can lead to extreme runoff, erosion and loss of nutrients. In addition, the generally increasing rainfall will contribute to compounding this problem.
SOME FINDINGS • Legislative changes should be considered for changing production systems and agricultural activities. • Norwegian water treatment needs new and more stringent procedures for purification. • Local air pollution must be reduced to compensate for increased corrosion. • The development of a step-bystep method for detecting climate problems in relation to Norwegian cultural heritage. • Non-physical flood protection and new insurance and compensation schemes are important tools. • Where local authorities are required to tackle climate change, we see results. • There are few economic incentive programs to think ahead.
CORROSION NILU estimates that maintenance costs to facades will increase by 15% in this century. This can be countered if the local air pollution is limited.
However, increased knowledge improves the chances of preventing damage, which is central to the work ahead. Although only 3% of the total land area in Norway is agricultural land, run-off from agriculture are the largest source of the high levels of nutrients in Norwegian lakes and rivers. Today’s measures, such as improved soils, reduced fertilization, vegetation zones, constructed wetlands and control of surface water, become important and it’s probably necessary to act in these areas to a greater extent and in new areas. Particularly in Eastern Norway and Trøndelag, the reported increase in precipitation in the autumn causes problems with the harvest, tillage and sowing of crops. Climate change sets, among many things, new requirements for the dimensions of hydro-technical facilities; their processing and drainage systems, says Anne-Grete Buseth from Bioforsk. Cultural heritage and maintenance More rain and higher temperatures will also increase corrosion of building facades, infrastructure, vehicles and other structures. – We can expect increased maintenance costs and new challenges for both extreme weather and a general wetter climate, says Terje Grøntoft from NILU. Estimates NILU has undertaken shows that maintenance costs for building facades could this century increase by up to 15%. But this will also depend heavily on air pollution, and so for large cities it will be profitable to continue efforts to reduce local air pollution.
- A reduction of 20-50%, depending on where you are, will be able to compensate for the effect of climate change, explains Grøntoft. In addition, Norway’s cultural monuments will be exposed. There is an increased risk of rot and insect attack, salt weathering and frost damage on the masonry – and we can add damage caused by large snow loads. – The main challenge to protect the cultural heritage from the coming climate change is to inform and provide practical instructions at the local level. Training and production of both general and specific plans are important to prevent the negative effects of climate change, says Annika Haugen from NIKU. In order to help with this process the project has published a vulnerability assessment on the web portal. Here the local municipalities can analyse their own cultural heritage and plan what needs to be done. The human factor The research program also looked at how Norwegian municipalities are managed in relation to climate change. The main sources of information for the mayors is research, the County Department of Environment and the environmental consultants, but the danger is that climate change is just one of many factors included in the political and economic assessments. Therefore, it is important to have skilled and dedicated environmental consultants in the municipalities. – Committed employees appear to be important for planning and communication across departments in the municipa-
More rain and higher temperatures will increase the corrosion of building facades, infrastructure, transport and other structures. lities, says Trude Rauken from CICERO. The research has also included a reference group. – Until now, the focus of the municipalities has been targeted towards how they can reduce CO2 emissions, but little towards what will be necessary for the adjustments ahead, explains Helga Gunnarsdóttir, Managing Director of the Water Area Committee of Morsa. Gunnarsdóttir points out the necessity to disseminate knowledge through lectures and seminars, and she honours www.klimakommune.no for having a reasonable level of communication. - They have been quick to bring out the important things and convey them in an understandable way, so now we hope that local authorities put this knowledge to use, she says. Trude Rauken is clear about the importance of how local authorities are already strongly considering the new challenges that will be faced in the future. - If we wait until it becomes critical, we have chosen the most expensive solution, emphasizes Rauken. n
Ilan Kelman, CICERO
Terje Grøntoft, NILU
Trude Rauken, CICERO
Caroline Olsson (28) is one of ten Norwegian design students who received the prize Jury Award 2011 at the Designers Open in Leipzig last year. She is currently studying an MA Degree in Product Design at HiOA.
Prize Winner n Congratulations, what happens now? – Thank you! In mid-January, I exhibited at D3 Contest in Cologne, before the trip went to Paris and the Meet My Project. I also worked on preparations for the Milan Furniture Fair (the world’s largest furniture and interior exhibition) in April, where I will exhibit for the first time with my own stand together with Anneli Hoel Fjærli Grass and Sara Berg. n Why did you choose to study at HiOA? – I became interested in HiOA because of the good workshop capabilities and the practical approach to the subject. By paying a slightly higher tuition than is usual in other studies, we can express ourselves more freely with the wood, plastic, concrete, ceramic and metal materials. I also saw that former students had achieved a lot. n What is the best aspect you have experienced in your studies? – A class trip to New York. There we visited several well-known design agencies and had a lot of fun. It was also great to end the bachelor’s degree with a graduation exhibition at DogA, the Oslo Design and Architecture centre. Otherwise, I have been lucky to have a very good class environment in both the bachelor and now on the masters. n What is the best aspect of being a student in Oslo? – Now I spend most of my time in the school at Lillestrøm, but I live in Oslo and try to experience as much of the city as I can. Oslo has a wide range of concerts and festivals, but if I don’t have the money it’s nice to meet fellow students in one of Oslo’s beautiful parks. What I like best is these great contrasts, city, forest and sea. n Where do you see yourself in three years? – I’ll be fully trained, and my dream is to have a design office along with others.
An airbag embedded pyjamas – When I grow old and in need of care I would rather have a robot arm that showers me than a care worker, says researcher Markus M. Bugge. Welfare Bugge is an economic geo-
grapher at NIFU, the Nordic Institute for Studies of Innovation, Research and Education. After a PhD at Uppsala University, he is working on his post doctorate on welfare as a growth sector, a three-year project funded by Knowledge Oslo. n Why do we need robots to give us a shower? – This is not about replacing the human touch with technology, but to exploit the technological opportunities that exist. The public could fail to meet the growing challenges of nursing that come with an aging population without innovation and technological development. n Tell me more about this. – Today we have a centralized model where those who need help are coming to the health system and get the services they need. But as the age wave washes over us, we will have increased pressure on public health care - and more chronic disorders. To maintain a good health service we have to think again. As the Hagen committee has outlined in the report ‘Innovation in Care’, we can instead of looking at the aging popula-
tion as a threat turn it to an opportunity to develop business and create a decentralized model where the users and their relatives are included to a greater extent. n More economic than ideological reasons? – The starting point for rethinking are the economic challenges of the public health services in the future. But it is as Innovation and Welfare The study is about how one can design an innovation system about welfare that includes private, public and voluntary sectors. I would also like to look at how this may challenge the initiative of the industrial clusters in Oslo and to what extent we can construct a broader perspective on business development. The challenge is to create a balance between supporting something that has strengths without limiting the future opportunities for business development.
Involving the users At SINTEF efforts are being made with sensors that send heart rate, activity, posture and body temperature to a smart phone, which could pass information along to an emergency centre or relatives. Research manager at Biomedical Instrumentation, Ingrid Svagård, demonstrates to Markus M.Bugge that the new technology can get his heart to beat a little faster. - Welfare Technology activates and involves users in the monitoring of their own health condition. In addition to gaining better understanding and overview over their own health, this could be effective for society, says Bugge.
The starting point is to rethink the economic challenges ahead in the public health services.
much about maintaining high quality services. The elderly that need care will be able to get better services and a better quality of life from living at home longer. But we need new and effective technological solutions.. n A concrete example, please? – An airbag embedded in the pyjamas, for example, then you don’t
hurt yourself when you fall. The automotive industry knows how to protect people hitting hard objects. Or a robotic shower arm based on knowledge developed within oil and gas. There are many examples of technology developed in one place that can be used in other places, such as in the welfare sector.
n And how do we bring out the good solutions? – There are already many simple solutions, such as health related apps, gps (tracking technology), fall alarms, sensors that alert when you go out, get home, how long you’ve been lying in bed etc. But some of the challenge is to integrate these into well-functioning systems that also handle informa-
tion flow. There are four hundred municipalities scratching their heads and wondering how they will attack this. It lacks a national coordination of efforts on welfare technology. Public procurement can potentially be a powerful tool for developing innovative solutions in welfare technology
why i chose oslo Sangeeta Singh is one of numerous top foreign researchers in Oslo. After an international education in marketing, she chose the Norwegian School of Marketing BI and has not regretted the decision. ■■ What background do you have? – I have an MBA from the University of Allahabad in India. Then I followed on with an MBA from Kent State University in the United States, where I eventually also took a doctorate in marketing.
Sangeeta Singh, BI
■■ When did you come to Oslo? – I came here in 1997. ■■ You currently work at the Norwegian School of Management, BI. What are you doing there? – I’m an associate professor of marketing, an associate dean for bachelor degrees in international marketing and in addition, I’m an academic coordinator for BI’s international summer program. ■■ What are you working on right now? – Currently, I work with several research projects. One is about self-service technology in banking, another about branding in social media, there’s one about price fixing and also one about what we call ‘cause-related marketing’, ie. how a commercial company and a nonprofit organisation can co-operate to produce mutual profit. ■■ What do you think about the level of the students? – As everywhere else, of course, the students here at BI are a diverse group. I would say that there are some very talented students – especially on the master’s pro-
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gram. In addition, I like very much that there are many non-Norwegian students, ie. students with an international background. This means that the dynamics of teaching becomes very interesting. ■■ Why did you choose Oslo? – While I was doing the last year of my doctoral degree at Kent University, I looked for an academic position in Western Europe. BI was one of the four possibilities I had, and it was BI that looked best in relation to the career I wanted. ■■ What is the best thing about working in Oslo? – I get a lot of independent control, and there are many opportunities to do what you want. In addition, there is very good support for research and great flexibility when it comes to how I want to structure my working hours and free time. ■■ What is the best aspect of living in Oslo? – Oslo is a small, very affordable and it’s a safe city. It has an incredible supply of goods, and I find everything I need to create all kinds of food. In addition, it has wonderful access to nature. ■■ Finally, would you recommend an academic career in Oslo to others? – Yes!
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