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da Ma te rke on ts pa ge

A YEAR INTO THE P10 An in-depth look at the effort put forward in creating a national pooling agreement

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Vol. 97 No. 8

CONTENTS PUBLISHED BY DAIRY FARMERS OF ONTARIO 6780 Campobello Rd., Mississauga, Ont., L5N 2L8 EDITOR Jennifer Nevans

Editorial Editor’s column


Board column


OFA op-ed



Co-ordinated by Dairy Farmers of Ontario’s communications division, Sharon Laidlaw, Manager, Corporate Communications. Canada Post Publications Mail Sales Product Agreement No.40063866. Return postage guaranteed. Circulation: 8,000. ISSN 0030-3038. Printed in Canada. SUBSCRIPTIONS For subscription changes or to unsubscribe, contact: MILK PRODUCER 6780 Campobello Road, Mississauga, Ontario L5N 2L8 Phone: (905) 821-8970 Fax: (905) 821-3160 Email: Opinions expressed herein are those of the author and/or editor and do not necessarily reflect the opinion or policies of Dairy Farmers of Ontario. Publication of advertisements does not constitute endorsement or approval by Milk Producer or Dairy Farmers of Ontario of products or services advertised.

Dairy Research Dairy News DFC AGM coverage


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DFO research


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Dairy Research Cluster


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Processor Profile


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Featured products

DFO policy update


Markets Market demand




Milk Producer welcomes letters to the editor about magazine content. Websites: Facebook: /OntarioDairy Twitter: @OntarioDairy Instagram: @ontariodairy

Farm Management Bt resistance


Heat stress


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Mental health


Calf care


Cover photo courtesy of Caitlin MacLeod MILKPRODUCER | AUGUST 2021






ast month, I had the privilege of joining more than 325 dairy farmers and industry representatives from across the country at Dairy Farmers of Canada’s (DFC) annual general meeting (AGM)—perhaps one of the last few virtual events we’ll see as we emerge from this crisis. Even after nearly a year and a half into the pandemic, it continues to amaze me how technology can be used to unite a nation. For two days, industry leaders from across Canada joined together—from the comfort of their homes or provincial offices—to discuss key issues to advance the industry. You can read the full coverage of DFC’s AGM starting on page 8. Speaking about industry leaders coming together, this month’s cover story follows a similar theme of national unity. Freelance writer Trudy Kelly Forsythe caught up with key in-

dustry leaders who were involved in the national pooling agreement to get a snapshot of where we came from and where we’re at now—a year into the P10. Forsythe spoke to leaders across the country to document the extensive work that went into establishing a P10 pooling agreement. Similar to the trade situation we find ourselves in today, in the mid-1990s, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) took effect, opening Canadian borders to imports. “It was obvious Canada was not going to be able to control its borders as well as it had done in the past, and as borders became more porous, no one knew where product was going to come in,” says John Core, former chair of Dairy Farmers of Ontario (DFO) and former chief executive officer of the Canadian Dairy Commission (CDC). This led to a number of actions that resulted in what we know today as the P5 and Western Milk Pool—a way for producers to pool revenue, costs and markets and share in the risk of trade agreements. And on June 1, 2020, accelerated largely by the Canada-United States-Mexico Agreement (CUSMA), the industry formed

the P10, dubbed as a pool of pools. While there’s still work to be done to make it a true P10 pool—and some provinces maintain their reservations about national pooling—many leaders are optimistic it’s the right move for the industry. To read the cover story on P10 pooling, turn to page 28.

MILK PRODUCER RECEIVES TWO APEX AWARDS Milk Producer magazine has once again been recognized for publication excellence by APEX. The 33rd annual awards program recognizes excellence in publishing by professional communicators. APEX awards are offered for graphic design, editorial content and overall communications excellence. More than 1,200 entries were submitted from around the world in 100 categories. Milk Producer received Awards for Publication Excellence for Magazines, Journals and Tabloids for the one- to two-person produced category, as well as for the October 2020 cover story, entitled “Shining a spotlight on Canadian veterinarians,” under the Writing – Interviews and Personal Profiles category.




hen I was young, we used to milk 16 cows in a tiestall barn, and in the summer, the cows were always on pasture. I had to round up the cows on foot every month and I always enjoyed seeing them on pasture—one never forgets the sound of cows grazing. In fall 2020, we moved into our new robotic facility where we currently milk 65 cows. Throughout this past winter, we wondered if we would still be able to continue to graze cows 4


while milking with a robot. This spring, we opened the gates to let the cows go out to pasture—and we’ve never looked back. We continue to rotationally graze our cows on pastures close to the barn during the day, and the cows return frequently to the barn where they have full access to the total mixed ration, water and robot. Overall, they have transitioned well and are thriving. Though there are always challenges, we feel we’ve successfully balanced pasturing our cows while maximizing the dairy facility. Rotational, timely grazing on pastures balanced with alfalfa, grasses, clover and trefoil aid in pasture yield and regrowth while filling the bulk tank. I realize pasturing dairy cows isn’t for everyone. I’ve always felt there are several benefits to pasturing cows beyond cow health, lower feed

costs and reduced labour. Pasturing cows has created some excitement in the marketplace by providing grass-fed milk for butter and cheese. I’m very proud to supply milk for the grass-fed program and look forward to continued market expansion. Moving forward, we plan to expand the herd and continue pasturing our cows. Being part of the grass-fed program not only creates a niche market, it supports a growing demand for our products and is advantageous to our industry. As three generations continue to be part of our dairy farm, I take pride in our traditions, and though we now fetch the cows with a side-by-side, we will continue to incorporate technology into our business in order to remain progressive and push our industry forward. WWW.MILKPRODUCER.CA






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arming is often a family affair. As the saying goes “many hands make light work” and even the smallest of hands can lighten the workload. The farm is a place for life lessons, family time and the creation of memories that last a lifetime. However, the farm can also be a dangerous place with many hazards, such as large equipment, livestock and busy driveways. The Ontario Federation of Agriculture (OFA) wants to remind members to keep farm safety a top priority. With children spending more time on the farm, it is a great opportunity to emphasize farm safety and teach children how to take precautions and identify hazards. Educating and reinforcing safe farming practices will ensure the safety of current and future generations. Farm accidents can happen within seconds, but they are less likely to occur when appropriate safety measures are in place. Regardless of the time of year and busyness, safety on the farm should always be a top priority. Currently, my wife and I have been running our farm and seed business with two small girls at home. Our priority is to raise our children in

an environment where they can be comfortable around equipment and animals, while feeling safe playing in their backyard and experiencing all that farm life has to offer them. We hope to educate them on proper safety measures as they continue to grow and want them to internalize the importance of farm safety. One of our primary hazards is the large farm equipment entering and leaving the farmyard, especially during planting season. From the cab of the tractor, it can be difficult to have a clear view of small kids if they are too close. To mitigate the risk of any accidents, we remain very mindful of keeping an eye on the kids if they are outside or keep them inside for an afternoon if we know the laneway is going to be busy with traffic. Oftentimes, that’s the difference between keeping them safe and exposing them to danger. Additionally, children need to learn they should never approach running or moving equipment. We know kids get excited to see mom or dad pull in the driveway after planting with the big tractor, but keeping their distance is the best way to ensure their safety. As parents, looking out for our children’s safety is second nature, but it is also important to ensure your farm employees prioritize safety as well. All farm employees and equipment operators should be mindful of kids in the farmyard



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and drive slowly when entering and exiting. Before starting an ignition, circle checks should be performed on all equipment to ensure little ones are not hiding underneath or in a blind spot. For visitors that are not familiar with your farm, using “children playing” signage helps to communicate with input suppliers or maintenance workers to keep an eye out for kids when entering the property. It is also important to identify which farm jobs are safe for children to partake in and which ones put them in danger. We all want to spend time together in the barn, field, tractor and with the livestock, but some farm tasks require your full attention, which leaves children unattended. If we’re spending a full day riding through one field, without constant hopping in and out, the girls can ride in the buddy seat. If they are in the tractor, we make sure they are buckled up and know not to touch anything. Please remember if your farm equipment only has one seat, it is not safe for the kids to tag along. This rule also extends to lawn mowing equipment, which can be just as dangerous as a large tractor. Each rider needs their own seat belt to be safe. When the farm demands your full attention, it’s OK to lean on your family and friends for support. They can help alleviate stress, pressure and treat the kids to a special visit. It takes a committed team to make the family farm dream work. When accidents do occur that are tragic and unavoidable, it is important to have a response plan in place. Take advantage of farm safety signage, training programs and safety resources. Farm 911: The Emily Project provides 911 signs to second entrances, uninhabited land and farmland that otherwise would not be quickly located by first responders. Losing a child is every parent’s worst nightmare and when tragedy strikes, every second counts. Summer is best spent on the farm with your family watching the crops, animals and children grow. We wish all our farming families a relaxing, memorable and safe summer. For more farm safety resources, visit https://ofa.on. ca/issues/farm-labour-safety/. Drew Spoelstra is the vice-president of the Ontario Federation of Agriculture.

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Editor’s note: More than 325 dairy farmers from across Canada gathered for Dairy Farmers of Canada’s (DFC) virtual annual general meeting (AGM) on July 13 and 14, 2021, to discuss some of the challenges facing the sector, as well as identify future opportunities under the theme of Cultivating Sustainability in Dairy Excellence. By Dairy Farmers of Canada



ierre Lampron, Dairy Farmers of Canada’s (DFC) president, opened the 2021 annual general meeting (AGM) with a message of gratitude, thanking dairy farmers for their hard work during the pandemic. “With your help, we have carried out a range of awareness and education activities,” Lampron said. “We held the government to account on compensation for the Canada-European Union Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) and the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP), and we defended private bills related to trade deals and trespassing on farms.” Lampron also noted the challenges dairy faces in reaching Canadian consumers, people



uring the AGM, certain revisions to DFC’s bylaws were approved by the General Council that related to three categories: • Revising the structure of committees to make them consistent with best practices; • Addressing other minor modernization changes, for example, to allow for virtual meetings; • General maintenance of the bylaws.



with whom the dairy industry once had a privileged relationship. “Many of their decisions are based on their value system, and as such, they want to know dairy farmers share a common interest in protecting the planet for future generations,” he said. “The good news is we have a good story to tell, and we are doing that now thanks to our Blue Cow campaigns, which inform the public about issues, such as agricultural practices or the commitments of the proAction program.” In the last year and a half, DFC turned challenges into opportunities, including promoting dairy products for home cooking when restaurants were closed, as well as leveraging the “Buy Canadian” sentiment during COVID-19 and the Canada-United States-Mexico Agreement (CUSMA). The Blue Cow is now featured on more than 8,600 products, including with major restaurant chains, such as Tim Hortons and Pizza Pizza. While acknowledging dairy farmers would

have preferred no concessions under CETA and CPTPP, Lampron said compensation, formalized by the government last November to be delivered over a shortened timeframe of three years instead of eight, gives farmers a measure of predictability. He promised to continue holding “feet to the fire” to ensure there are no further concessions in future trade agreements. Lampron concluded with an overview of how DFC has an “integrated, organization-wide partnership strategy,” focusing on the industry’s collective commitment to sustainability. To this end, he announced the investment of $100,000 to plant 25,000 trees as part of Tree Canada’s National Greening Program. Turn to page 24 for more details on this initiative. “There is much to celebrate over the past year,” Lampron said. “As your president, my hat goes off to all of you for your resilience as our communities across the country dealt with the pandemic.”



FC wishes to thank outgoing board members Bart Rijke (Ontario) and Ed Friesen (Lactanet) and welcome new members Mark Hamel (Ontario) and Korb Whale (Lactanet). The 2021-22 board of directors includes: • Pierre Lampron, president; • Dave Taylor, British Columbia; • Gert Schrijver, Alberta; • Blaine McLeod, Saskatchewan; • David Wiens, Manitoba;

• Albert Fledderus, Ontario; • Bonnie den Haan, Ontario; • Mark Hamel, Ontario; • Marcel Blais, Quebec; • Daniel Gobeil, Quebec; • Peter Strebel, Quebec; • Denis Cyr, New Brunswick; • Gerrit Damsteegt, Nova Scotia; • Gordon MacBeath, Prince Edward Island; • Lucas Strong, Newfoundland and Labrador; • Korb Whale, Lactanet. W W W.MILK PRODUCER.CA

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P PIERRE LAMPRON, DFC’s president.



airy farmers have re-elected Pierre Lampron to a third term as president of DFC at the organization’s AGM. Lampron is a sixth-generation dairy farmer and a uniting voice of dairy farmers across Canada. “I would like to thank dairy farmers for putting their trust in me once again,” Lampron said. “It has been an honour and privilege to serve as president of DFC’s board for the last four years, and I look forward to continuing this important work on behalf of dairy farmers in my final term.” Lampron was first elected to the board of directors of the Producteurs de lait du Québec in 2000 and was initially appointed to DFC’s board in 2007. As a leader, Lampron believes by working together, dairy farmers can be more successful in reaching their goals and advancing their cause. Lampron will be surrounded on DFC’s board by an impressive, knowledgeable and experienced group of dairy sector leaders. “I want to recognize my colleague Bonnie den Haan for her campaign,” Lampron said. “All those who commit to representing the interests of our dairy farmers at the regional, provincial or national levels deserve our gratitude.” To read more, visit



edro Antunes, chief economist for the Conference Board of Canada, was confident in his presentation on Canada’s post-pandemic recovery outlook. “Most forecasts for the world economy are considering a recovery in 2021-22— so major growth ahead, very quickly,” Antunes said. Part of the growth in Canada will occur as a result of the $1.9 trillion United States relief plan directed primarily at American households. “When American households spend, they drive global economy, they drive global trade and they’ll drive the supply chain across Canada,” Antunes said. “Supply chain management is doing extremely well through this crisis.” However, though Canadian households saved a lot of money by staying home—

approximately $200 billion—and are itching to spend it, Antunes cautioned producers should not expect the path to COVID recovery to be entirely smooth. “There will be structural changes going forward, including the adoption of technology in terms of remote healthcare, remote work and remote education,” he said. Overall, Antunes predicts a solid rebound for the Canadian economy, driven by vaccines and stimulus measures at the federal and provincial levels. “There’s perhaps a silver lining, which is stronger productivity performance going forward, more adoption of technology and a more productive economy that will help lift our economic performance, our gross domestic product and our income, despite (our) challenges,” he said.



osée Chicoine, director of agrifood development at Coop Carbone, a non-profit with a mission to act on climate change through collaboration, spoke to delegates about agricultural biodigesters. Chicoine is also co-general manager of Coop Agri-Energie Warwick, a project in rural Quebec, which is making biomethanization technology more accessible by sharing the costs—and newfound revenues—among 12 local agricultural producers and one cheese processor. The project’s backers observed many farmers were interested in biomethanization but were unable to implement it on their farms. Not only does the Warwick project allow several smaller farmers to share in the cost, but it also generates a new revenue stream from energy production. Korb Whale, farmer and owner of Clovermead Farms in Alma, Ont., joined Chicoine to share his experience as an early adopter of biodigester technology. “I’ve always liked the concept of being able to produce power with a waste product on farm,” Whale said. “We’re reducing our greenhouse gas waste by almost 95 per cent.” He invested more than $2 million in capital on his anaerobic biodigester after the Ontario government announced its Green Energy Act in 2009 and was able to land a contract to sell energy back to the grid.

KORB WHALE, owner of Clovermead Farms in Alma, Ont.

In addition to about 10 tonnes of manure from his farm, Whale’s digester takes approximately 8,000 tonnes a year of food waste from local producers and processors. His farm generates additional revenue by taking in this food waste while lowering its own carbon footprint. “I think that’s one of the exciting things about anaerobic digestion in general—the circular nature of that economy,” Whale said. “We’re producing food for people, the waste from that food comes back to our digester, creates electricity, heat, fertilizer and bedding, so that loop gets completed. It’s a nice feeling as a farmer.” W W W.MILK PRODUCER.CA



n executive roundtable hosted by Jacques Lefebvre, DFC’s chief executive officer (CEO), answered questions from dairy farmers, opening lines of communication to address real concerns. Questions covered many topics, including proAction, DFC’s strategy for marketing to millennials, palm fat supplements and more. Pamela Nalewajek, vice-president of marketing, addressed how DFC is leveraging proAction and the Blue Cow logo with consumers. “We’re linking the pillars of proAction with direct messaging and communication with our target’s values,” Nalewajek said. She then related these pillars to the tone and content of how DFC is marketing to millennials. “Our young dairy members (are) perceived as relatable and authentic to young consumers because they share the same concerns about high standards, sustainability and animal care.” Bobby Matheson, vice-president of advocacy, updated attendees on the status of DFC’s expert working group on feed supplementation in dairy and the recent effects media coverage on palm fat supplementation has had on the industry. “Trust in dairy farmers has been maintained, as well as our butter sales,” Matheson said. The working group is reviewing existing literature, and additional analysis is being done on milk and butter. A final report is expected in early fall 2021. With a federal election looming, Paula Dunlop, chief operating officer, tackled a question related to compensation for CUSMA. “All parties with seats in the House of Commons have publicly supported full and fair compensation to dairy farmers,” Dunlop said. “It’s really important we continue engaging in discussions with government, but also remind them, especially in the context of a possible election, of (their) commitment to dairy producers. The executive team thanks dairy farmers for their engaging questions, and for joining DFC to learn more about the issues affecting the direction and future of the dairy industry.”



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acques Lefebvre, DFC’s CEO, sat down with Annette Verschuren, chair and CEO of NRStor Inc., for a fireside chat on how innovation and diversification will drive farming trends related to environmental, social and economic sustainability. “Sustainability and innovation are real themes in my life,” Verschuren told Lefebvre. Verschuren is former president and co-owner of Michaels Canada, former president of The Home Depot Canada and Asia, and is currently CEO of NRStor Inc., a leader in energy storage development. Among other organizations, she sits on the board of Saputo Inc. and is chair of Sustainable Development Technology Canada. Verschuren’s wealth of expertise across many fields has made her one of the most accomplished businesswomen in Canada. Verschuren brought more first-hand knowledge to dairy. Growing up on the family farm in Cape Breton, N.S., she saw how her father worked to increase productivity to reduce costs. “Understanding the benefits of the land really influenced my life,” she said. Urging dairy farmers to focus on innovation to meet the trends of sustainability and revenue diversification, Verschuren sees a lot of opportunity. “What’s really cool about Canadian farmers is they are some of the most innovative farmers in the world.” Verschuren told Lefebvre how she thinks Canadian dairy farmers could take advantage of new opportunities. “Canada is a leader in

PICTURED ARE Jacques Lefebvre, DFC’s chief executive officer (CEO), and Annette Verschuren, chair and CEO of NRStor Inc.

cleantech,” she said. “We have 10 of the top 100 cleantech companies in the world.” Verschuren sees a lot of promise in turning “what we see as waste into energy and new products.” Verschuren anticipates a future where rural landowners work together to expand renewable energy. “Clusters of farms building microgrids using solar or wind with battery technology to serve a group,” she said.

DIVERSIFICATION THROUGH INNOVATION The broader trend of diversifying will become necessary for dairy farms in the future, Verschuren said. “I would be really constantly looking at different revenue streams—ways to make your product more attractive to the marketplace,” she said. “A2 is an example of a milk product that is also very attractive.” Like all industries, Verschuren said dairy’s

success will be in its ability to respond to changes, listen to what the customer is saying and creatively diversify the business. “What I’ve seen in the last 25 years in terms of change happening, it’s happening faster. It’s the digitalization of the world,” she said. The biggest barrier is financial, and Verschuren offered some advice to DFC. “I hope Dairy Farmers of Canada finds ways to collaborate to test some of this innovation on a collective basis,” she said. “There are risks associated with a new technology, and until the markets developed, you can’t get those costs down easily.” Verschuren is very optimistic about the future of dairy farming. “If I were a young woman, I would be so excited about the opportunity I see in farming because I think there’s so much growth and opportunity in innovation.”



he AGM closed with an interactive strategic planning session led by Jacques Lefebvre, DFC’s CEO, where dairy farmers offered their input on a variety of issues. Dairy farmers recognized the need to do more to improve sustainability and communicated an openness to diversifying revenue streams as a part of that effort. The respondents were especially united on their desire for advancements to happen on their terms: 75 per cent agreed they need to educate people about their current and planned future



efforts to avoid having regulations imposed on them by the government. This result echoed the comments that farmers shared earlier in the conference. They noted farmers are best equipped to guide meaningful change in their practices themselves. The session is an important part of DFC’s annual strategic planning process since it gives dairy farmers an opportunity to provide feedback directly to the organization and their peers. As such, DFC will incorporate the insights gleaned from the session into its future planning.





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WOOD FIRE charcuterie skewers, featuring Ontario Gouda cheese.



airy Farmers of Ontario’s (DFO) culinary brand, Savour Ontario, has launched its summer campaign called Savour Ontario Outdoors. From July 19 to Aug. 19, Savour Ontario partnered with eight chefs to create elevated dairy-inspired versions of outdoor campfire classic recipes, paired with VQA Ontario wines, which can all be downloaded when consumers subscribe to the Savour Ontario newsletter. “The sights, sounds and smells of a meal prepared and cooked in the outdoors reminds us of where our food comes from,” says Kimberly Romany, DFO’s senior marketing manager of nutrition and culinary. “Cooking outdoors over a fire slows the process down, building anticipation and appreciation for the bounty of local foods, including the exquisite dairy products made by farm families across Ontario.”

Building on the success of past digital campaigns, Savour Ontario Outdoors will be promoted on social and digital platforms, and will leverage newsletters and partner platforms to drive consumers to download the Savour Ontario Outdoors Summer Cooking Guide. This guidebook of outdoor cooking recipes, tips and food ideas was curated for everyone—backyard foodies, provincial park campers and seasoned outlanders alike. “Featuring recipes and thoughtful content from some of Ontario’s most fascinating and beloved chefs, consumers can explore the cooking guide and take it with them on their next journey to the heart of Algonquin, the forests of northwestern Ontario or their backyard fire pit,” Romany says. For more information on Savour Ontario, visit

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• Chef Ricky Casipe – Wood fire charcuterie skewers, featuring Ontario Gouda cheese; • Chef Eva Chin – Campfire roasted whole Ontario trout, featuring Ontario 35 per cent cream, whole milk, crème fraîche and butter; • Chef Michael Hunter – Smoked Cheddar and buttermilk cornbread with sticky maple chili and birch syrup back ribs, featuring Ontario buttermilk, Cheddar cheese and butter; • Chef Joshna Maharaj – Orange-baked honey spelt buttermilk muffins, featuring Ontario buttermilk;

• Chef Bashir Munye – Cheese and egg “meatballs” with naan on a skillet, featuring Ontario butter, yogurt, ricotta cheese and Asiago cheese; • Chef Joseph Shawana – Seared pine ashed venison with creamy sunchokes and buttery ramps and mushrooms, featuring Ontario butter and cream; • Chef Tawfik Shehata – Cheesy campfire hot dog stick bread, featuring Ontario butter and Cheddar cheese; • Chef Olivia Simpson – Wood fire frittata, featuring Ontario Brie and sour cream. WWW.MILKPRODUCER.CA



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Meet the founders of

NEALE’S SWEET N’ NICE ICE CREAM BUSINESS Neale’s Sweet N’ Nice Ice Cream FOUNDERS Andrew McBarnett, Rosemarie Wilson and Stafford Attzs Toronto, Ont., with products sold in several provinces across Canada LOCATION PRODUCTS Trinidad-inspired ice cream flavours using 100 per cent Canadian dairy *Responses from Andrew McBarnett Q: Tell me a bit about yourself and your dairy background. A: We started Neale’s Sweet N’ Nice in Canada to honour Charles Neale, our grandfather, from Trinidad where he started making his own ice cream in the 1940s and selling it by bicycle to put his 12 kids through school. While he blended in local flavours from the island into his ice cream, we wanted to highlight our use of Canadian dairy in our products, mixed with tropical Caribbean fruit flavours to honour not only our Trinidadian roots but also our new home in Canada. Q: Tell me a bit about how your operation came together. A: One of Charles’ daughters (and subsequent co-founder of Neale’s Sweet N’ Nice Ice Cream) had learned the ice cream trade and his recipes before he died in the 1980s. After moving to Canada with her family, she continued the tradition of making ice cream for friends and at family gatherings. It always reminded us of the flavours back home, so in 2013, we decided to officially create Neale’s Sweet N’ Nice Ice Cream in Canada, using 100 per cent local dairy blended with tropical fruit. We

NEALE’S SWEET N’ NICE makes Trinidad-inspired ice cream flavours using 100 per cent Canadian dairy. 16


launched with two flavours: coconut and mango. It wasn’t until 2019 that we got a big break with Sobeys, which listed our product in its Ontario stores. Following this, we have been expanding across Canada through independent and major grocers, staying true to honouring local dairy with tropical flavours. Q: How has your operation evolved over the years? A: Over the past several years, we’ve grown our presence from smaller independent stores to being listed at a few major grocers, including Sobeys/ Foodland in 2018, FreshCo in 2019, No Frills and Metro in 2020 and Federated Co-operatives and Loblaws stores, including Your Independent, Provigo and Zehrs in 2021. We can be found regionally in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Quebec and Nova Scotia. Q: Who is involved in the business and what are their roles? A: We are a family-owned and operated business. I, along with Rosemarie Wilson and Stafford Attzs, co-founded the business. I’m the chief executive officer, responsible for vision, strategy, execution and investor relations. Rosemarie is the vice-president of product, overseeing product, recipes, manufacturing and inventory, and Stafford is an adviser. On our team, we also have: • Ted Bluesteen, chief operating officer, overseeing sales and vendor operations; • Liz Leason, manager of account management, overseeing grocery accounts and in-store merchandising; • Mike Bailey, director of sales; • Wes Hall, chairman, investor and adviser. Q: What are some of your accomplishments

ANDREW MCBARNETT is the chief executive officer of Neale’s Sweet N’ Nice Ice Cream.

with the business? A: We’re proud of launching at Sobeys in 2018, followed by our expansion beyond Ontario into B.C. and Quebec. We also launched a successful pop-up store last summer—the first of more to come. Q: What are some of the challenges you’ve faced over the years? A: We faced challenges raising capital via standard banks and were mostly self funded until Wes Hall came on board. Over the last year, COVID-19 presented many challenges—from navigating a broken supply chain to delays in rollout to vendors. We have learned a lot about the flexibility required in this business and adjusting plans. All that said, we have also focused a lot on public relations and digital marketing to engage with new audiences and create brand awareness. Q: What are your goals for the future of the business? A: Our goals are to continue to grow in Canada across all provinces, enter the United States and United Kingdom markets and relaunch in Trinidad (Caribbean market).

IN 2013, Neale’s Sweet N’ Nice launched in Canada with two flavours: coconut and mango. WWW.MILKPRODUCER.CA



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he Canadian and Ontario governments are investing $7.3 million through the Canadian Agricultural Partnership to help support farmers and agri-food businesses. The investment will fund projects in priority areas that increase food safety, accelerate sector innovation and help farmers bring new products to market to grow their businesses. The funding will support more than 600 cost-shared projects that strengthen Ontario’s agri-food sector by helping eligible farmers in more than 270 communities across the province to continue producing safe, high-quality food in Ontario. “It isn’t an accident Ontario’s farmers have built an international reputation for producing the best quality food products. It is made possible through their hard work and govern-

ment investment that keep them on the cutting edge of innovation and competitiveness,” says Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food Marie-Claude Bibeau. “Through this investment, we continue to support the growth and sustainability of this bedrock sector in Ontario.” Projects funded under this intake could include (but are not limited to): • Improvement of food safety systems on farms to meet or exceed national and international certification standards; • Development of products that will open new sales markets for farm businesses, for example, to develop maple butter as a new, value-added farm product; • Planting cover crops to improve soil health and reduce soil erosion losses over winter; • Upgrades to animal-handling equipment

to improve animal welfare and reduce disease transmission on livestock farms. “Supporting Ontario’s farmers and agrifood businesses by increasing their ability to innovate is key to strengthening the agrifood sector,” says Ontario Minister of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs Lisa Thompson. “Building resiliency within our agri-food sector will help keep our province’s food supply strong and more able to adapt to challenges in the future.” Since June 2018, both the federal and provincial governments have committed more than $100 million in cost-share support to more than 5,000 projects through the Canadian Agricultural Partnership to help eligible Ontario farmers, processors, businesses and sector organizations innovate and grow.

CANADA JOINS INTERNATIONAL EFFORT TO HARMONIZE SOMATIC CELL ANALYSIS IN RAW MILK Starting mid-August 2021, equipment used for somatic cell count testing across Canada will be calibrated using local standards that are traceable to the international certified reference material


he level of somatic cells in raw milk is a well-recognized indicator of milk quality and udder health. Milk recording samples and bulk tank samples used for determining the commercial value of raw milk are systematically tested for somatic cell count. Testing is carried out using automated equipment, which provides rapid and reproducible results. This equipment, however, requires regular calibration and verification using known standards. Lactanet-Valacta is the supplier of calibration standards for all Canadian laboratories. Until recently, the concentration of somatic cells in the calibration standards used in each country has been determined manually by counting the cells using a microscope. Recognizing the challenge, the International Committee for Animal Recording



(ICAR) and the International Dairy Federation (IDF) joined forces in 2010 to develop a new stable reference material and certify its concentration using a large number of recognized reference laboratories. The goal was to work together in consensus to create an anchor point that could be used to prepare national standards. This would ensure equivalence between laboratories, despite their country of origin. This project led to the release of a new certified reference material in February 2020, and the publication in March 2021 of guidelines by ICAR/IDF on how the material should be used. Lactanet-Valacta participated in both activities and evaluated the potential impact on Canadian results. Starting mid-August 2021, equipment used for somatic cell count testing across Canada will be calibrated using local standards that

are traceable to the international certified reference material. For more information on this initiative, visit

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o ensure Ontario dairy farmers stay top of mind with consumers throughout the summer, Dairy Farmers of Ontario (DFO) ran a digitally-based summer equity campaign from July 5 to Aug. 15. “Through consumer research, we know Ontarians have a heightened interest in all things local so we will share creative assets that reinforce Ontario dairy farming families are local, too,” says Rosa Checchia, DFO’s chief marketing officer. “This digital media buy supports our continued work to reinforce a positive image of the

Ontario dairy farming industry while building trust and support for Ontario dairy farmers.” As the province continues to open up after months of lockdown, people are eager to get outside, which means their main consumption of media will be through digital platforms. DFO’s media buy strategically reaches Ontarians, mainly the millennial mom target, through video on demand, online video, Spotify audio and social media. DFO’s mix of creative assets includes “The Letter” video, “One Day” radio spot sharing the perspective of a young dairy farmer

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he federal government has announced investments for six projects that will help boost production for Quebec dairy processors. • Fromagerie Médard in Saint-Gédéon, Que., will receive up to $969,000 through the Dairy Processing Investment Fund (DPIF) and up to $1,000,000 through Canada Economic Development for Quebec Regions (CED) for new equipment to increase productivity and reduce production costs. By 2025, it’s expected this funding will create an additional two jobs and increase the milk used in the production process by 74 per cent; • Nutrinor Co-operative in Saint-Bruno, Que., will receive up to $395,000 through DPIF to purchase an ultra filtration system. The project will allow the co-operative to increase its production of liquid dairy protein concentrate, increase its quantity of processed milk and increase the yield of the cheese factories they supply. By 2023, it’s expected the funding will create an additional five jobs and increase the milk used in the production process by 48 per cent; • Fromagerie Boivin in La Baie, Que., will receive up to $1,340,000 through DPIF for new equipment to increase production, and up to $800,000 through CED to expand its building and acquire strategic equipment to optimize the production of processed cheese and modernize the packaging line. The project will provide more space for employees to practice physical distancing; • Les Fromages Latino Inc. in Val-des-Sourc-

es, Que., will receive up to $222,975 through DPIF to support the installation of a new refrigerator system, a cream separator, cheesemaking equipment and a packaging line. This investment is expected to create up to four new jobs and help the company increase production to meet demand in its unique market, decrease costs and triple its milk use by 2024; • La Fromagerie du Presbytère in Ste-Elizabeth-de-Warwick, Que., will receive up to $230,440 through DPIF to purchase new production and packaging equipment, along with cold room equipment. The project will lower production costs while increasing efficiency and enhance the site’s agritourism offerings. By 2023, it’s expected this funding will allow the business to double the amount of milk used for cheese production; • Fromagerie La Station Inc. in Compton, Que., will receive up to $83,552 through DPIF to purchase and install an automated cutting system, a packaging machine and a cold room for cheese preservation. This investment will reduce production costs and enable the company to quintuple its milk use by 2024. “These investments will help dairy processors meet the growing demand for local cheese and milk products,” says Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food Marie-Claude Bibeau. “By helping our processors increase their productivity, we are keeping our local rural communities strong and ensuring a sustainable future for the next generation of Canadian dairy producers.”



s previously announced, the rollout of the proAction environment module is scheduled to start in September 2021. One of the five requirements of the module is to have an environmental farm plan (EFP) completed before the validation. Dairy Farmers of Ontario (DFO) is aware that due to COVID-19 restrictions, the Ontario Soil and Crop Improvement Association (OSCIA), which is providing training on how to complete an EFP, has suspended EFP workshops across the province. In June 2021, the proAction committee WWW.MILKPRODUCER.CA

approved DFO’s request that in situations where the producer was not able to attend a workshop to complete his or her EFP due to COVID-19 restrictions, the question should be scored as “not applicable” instead of “major,” with the expectation that the exemption will be phased out when workshops start up again in Ontario. In the meantime, producers are encouraged to contact OSCIA at 1-800-2659751 or email for information regarding options to complete or update their EFP online.






n a virtual event with stakeholders earlier this summer, the federal government launched its consultation process for the next agricultural policy framework. The framework is a wide-ranging federal-provincial-territorial agreement that will replace the current five-year, $3 billion Canadian Agricultural Partnership, which expires on March 31, 2023. “Under the Canadian Agricultural Partnership, Canadian agricultural producers benefit from a wide range of development and risk management programs that are largely funded by the federal government,” says Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food Marie-Claude Bibeau. “I encourage all representatives of the agriculture and agri-food sector to participate

in the consultations.” The current Canadian Agricultural Partnership provides key financial support for agriculture programs and services that are tailored to meet regional needs. This includes several federal programs, as well as programs that are costshared between the federal and provincial-territorial governments on a 60-40 basis. The consultations will help shape the direction of the next agricultural policy framework by gathering the experience and ideas from stakeholders. Consultations will continue through to spring 2022. For updates on the consultations, summaries of the feedback received and opportunities to contribute to the discussion, visit



t Dairy Farmers of Ontario’s (DFO) June 2021 board meeting, the board approved changes to the Quota and Milk Transportation Policies book, effective July 1, 2021. The changes relate to: • Producers wanting to sell their quota; • Producers who cease shipping milk for a period and wish to recommence. All updates are documented at the back of the English policy book. Updated policy books are posted on DFO’s industry site under Programs & Policies in the left navigation, or by visiting Industry/Programs-and-Policies.

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ntario farmers can’t wait any longer for improvements to the AgriStability Program, so the Ontario government is taking action and also calling on the federal government and other provinces to step up as well,” says Lisa Thompson, Ontario Minister of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. Ontario supported the federal government’s proposal in November 2020 to enhance the AgriStability Program by removing the reference margin limit (RML) and increasing the compensation rate from 70 per cent to 80 per cent. In March 2021, federal, provincial and territorial ministers agreed to the RML removal but have not reached agreement on the compensation rate.

“Ontario farmers can’t wait any longer for improvements to the AgriStability Program, so the Ontario government is taking action and also calling on the federal government and other provinces to step up as well.” —Lisa Thompson In a proactive move to support Ontario farmers, the province has made the decision to move ahead with providing the provincial portion of the compensation rate increase, retroactive to the 2020 growing season. “By enhancing the AgriStability program, we can better help those Ontario farmers who have been impacted by large income losses from factors outside of their control,” Thompson says Over the last year, risk management support for Ontario farmers has increased by approximately $75 million. The provincial increase to the compensation rate and the combined federal and provincial support annually through the removal of the RML will result in approximately $25 million in increased support for Ontario farmers. This is in addition to the $50 million in additional annual funding for the Risk Management Program that was announced in July 2020. WWW.MILKPRODUCER.CA

“As Minister of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, I’m committed to supporting our farmers and helping to grow our agri-food sector. We’re demonstrating that by increasing the protection for our farmers and calling on the federal government to do the same,” Thompson says.

Enhancements to the AgriStability Program will help ensure farmers can access additional support when they need it in a severe or disaster event. Farm business risk management programs play a vital role in the long-term competitiveness of Ontario’s agricultural sector and its capacity to maintain the food supply.

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airy Farmers of Canada (DFC) has announced a $100,000 investment in Tree Canada’s National Greening Program (NGP), which will support the planting of 25,000 trees in various locations throughout Canada. NGP is supported in part by the federal government’s Two Billion Trees Program. “Over the years, dairy farmers have made great strides in cutting emissions, land use and water use associated with milk production,” says Pierre Lampron, DFC’s president. “We are thrilled to support Tree Canada’s National Greening Program, which will contribute to our collective future.” Canadian dairy farmers are dedicated to preserving natural resources for future generations and taking concrete steps to fight climate change. Trees play an important role in diversifying and restoring native vegetation, stabilizing soil, creating habitat and corridors for wildlife and promoting carbon sequestration and clean air for all. Thanks to advances in agricultural technology and the sector’s ongoing commitment to continuous improvement, producing one litre of milk in Canada emits less than half the greenhouse gas emissions than

the global average. The Canadian dairy industry’s carbon footprint decreased by 23 per cent from 1990 to 2016 alone, according to data from Environment and Climate Change Canada. Still, the dairy sector is constantly striving to identify new innovations and efficiencies. This fall, the sector will take its stewardship of the environment to the next level when proAction’s environment module is fully phased in. Under proAction, dairy farmers demonstrate stewardship of their animals and the environment and produce high-quality milk under some of the world’s most stringent standards and practices. Through investments in research, the adoption of new practices and creative partnerships, the dairy sector will continue to find innovative ways to support a greener future for all Canadians. “Tree Canada is grateful to work with and receive the generous support of Dairy Famers of Canada,” says Danielle St-Aubin, chief executive officer of Tree Canada. “We applaud their commitment to sustainable practices and for planting trees as a way to preserve our country’s green spaces and mitigate the effects of climate change.”



uring the past year, the Ontario dairy industry has experienced unprecedented demand for fluid milk and dairy products, the likes of which have not been seen in many years. Not only have dairy product retail sales increased significantly, but fluid milk consumption has grown by nearly 10 per cent since the pandemic began. Consumers were increasingly turning to dairy as they stayed home and baked and cooked more often. “This is a very historic time, and I think future generations will look back with great interest on what happened to dairy sales in the year of the pandemic,” says Murray Sherk, DFO’s chair, adding producers are to be commended for continuing to provide high-quality milk to consumers despite facing many challenges during the pandemic. DFO created a uniquely designed graphic to share with producers and industry stakeholders as a way to recognize this extraordinary success. Producers and stakeholders are encouraged to download the file and print a copy to display in their office or home. To view and download the graphic, visit

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UNEXPECTED SHORT-TERM MARKET CHANGES LEAD TO REDUCTION IN INCENTIVE DAYS ing an increase in demand in the long term, but we’re seeing too much milk in the system in the immediate short term,” says Patrice Dubé, Dairy Farmers of Ontario’s (DFO) chief economics and policy development officer. Last month, the Canadian Dairy Commission provided its forecast for the 2021-22 dairy year, projecting butter stocks to reach 25,000 by July 2022—10,000 tonnes shy of its 35,000-tonne target. “This means the industry should technically be in the position to issue an additional production signal but because of the unexpected shortterm market changes, P5 provinces are not currently in the position to issue that additional production signal,” Dubé says. Dubé calls the situation a paradox because while the forecast shows strong demand for domestic milk production, the bottlenecks at the processing level and other unexpected shortterm market changes make it difficult to fill demand with domestic milk. In June 2021, butter stocks reached 32,100 tonnes—a steady increase from 30,400 in

By Jennifer Nevans



ue to a recent and unexpected decrease in market requirements, P5 boards have agreed to reduce the incentive days by two days in August and one day in September for a total of one day in August and two days in September (Table 1). In addition, effective Aug. 1, 2021, there will be an over-quota penalty of $20 per hectolitre (Table 2). This decision is a result of a slowdown in retail markets, a slower than expected recovery in the food service sector and unanticipated reduction in plant orders caused by various constraints at the processor level. At this time, no change is being made to the incentive days for the other subsequent months. However, given these uncertain times, P5 boards will continue to assess the situation and adapt production signals to address market changes as required. “It’s almost like a paradox because we’re see-

% Butterfat


% Solids non-fat

For May 2021 (kg of butterfat/kg of solids non-fat) 11.74%

1a1 1b



*2.35% *2.26% *0.85%


3.99% 5.27%


*4.89% 14.42% 13.48%



0.81% 1.04% 2.18% 2.67%

3c2 3c4

*0.83% *2.67% 6.26%




0.36% 0.33%


*0.32% 3.07% 4.50%


*3.16% 18.49% 16.81%




*13.17% *2.06%

6.36% 3.15% 3.50%


1.72% 1.53% 0.43%

5c 0% 26

*7.87% *5.06%



0.18% 0.74% 0.81%







% Revenue






*2.05% 7.46%

*2.26% *0.55%








Table 1: Summary of incentive days Conventional Organic June 2021



July 2021



August 2021



September 2021



October 2021



November 2021



May 2021. Meanwhile, cheese stocks reached 108,600 tonnes in June 2021—a decrease from the month earlier when cheese stocks were at 109,600 tonnes. In terms of national dairy product sales at the retail level, for the 52-weeks ending June 19, 2021, sales for fluid milk, fluid cream, yogurt, ice cream, cheese and butter increased by 1.3, 7.6, 3.5, 1.6, 5.2 and 2.7 per cent, respectively, compared with the previous 52-weeks. As for national butterfat requirements, for Class 1a1 (includes Classes 1a2, 1a3, 1c and 1d for confidentiality reasons) Fluid milk and beverages Class 1b Fluid creams Class 2a Yogurt, yogurt beverages, kefir and lassi Class 2b4 (includes Classes 2b1, 2b2 and 2b3 for confidentiality reasons) Fresh dairy desserts, sour cream, milkshakes and sports nutrition drinks Class 2b5 Ice cream and frozen yogurt Class 3a1 Specialty cheese Class 3a2 Cheese curds and fresh cheeses Class 3b2 (includes Class 3b1 for confidentiality reasons) Cheddar cheese and aged cheddar Class 3c1 Feta Class 3c2 Asiago, Gouda, Havarti, Parmesan and Swiss Class 3c4 (includes Classes 3c3 and 3c5 for confidentiality reasons) Brick, Colby, farmer’s, jack, Monterey jack, muenster, pizza cheese, pizza mozzarella and mozzarella other than what falls within 3d. Class 3c6 Paneer Class 3d Mozzarella used strictly on fresh pizzas by establishments registered with the Canadian Dairy Commission Class 4a Butter and powders Class 4d (includes Classes 4b1, 4b2, 4c and 4m for confidentiality reasons) Concentrated milk for retail, losses and animal feed Class 5a Cheese for further processing Class 5b Non-cheese products for further processing Class 5c Confectionery products WWW.MILKPRODUCER.CA

Table 2: Over-quota penalty rate ($/kg) Effective Aug. 1, 2021, the following penalty rates will be charged for milk marketed by a producer that exceeds 100 per cent of available quota and credits: Over-quota penalty rate ($/kg)

80.00 0.33 56.96 260.02






Quebec New Brunswick Nova Scotia Prince Edward Island

$24,000 $24,000 $24,000 $24,000

20,532.63 547.60 998.70 411.20

465.63 4.00 3.00 16.97

464.54 4.00 3.00 16.97

*Newfoundland does not operate a monthly quota exchange. Quota is traded between producers. **Quota cap price of $24,000 in effect in Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Ontario, Nova Scotia and Quebec.


Within quota



DFO administration DFO research CanWest DHI Transportation Market expansion

$0.625 $0.050 $0.060 $2.680 $1.400

$0.625 $0.050 $0.060 $2.680 $1.400


Total deductions Average total net

$4.815 $71.192

$4.815 -$4.815

$75 $76.01

*These figures are based on Ontario’s average composition for June 2021 of 4.04 kg butterfat, 3.14 kg protein and 5.94 kg other solids, rounded to the nearest cent.

June 2021

May 2021

Apr. 2021

Mar. 2021

July 2020

$70 Feb. 2021


213.36 97.00 2,354.37 114.60

Alberta Saskatchewan British Columbia Manitoba

Jan. 2021


$48,005 $42,200 $36,500 $34,600.10

AMOUNT PURCHASED/ kg 79.00 0.33 56.96 58.00

Dec. 2020

Other solids


Nov. 2020



Oct. 2020



Sept. 2020



Aug 2020




the 12-months ending May 2021, total requirements reached 1.1 million kilograms compared with 1.06 million kg the year before. Meanwhile, total P10 milk production for the 12-months ending May 2021 reached 1.08 million kg compared with 1.04 million kg the year before.

A total 3,339 producers sold milk to DFO in June compared with 3,367 a year earlier.



82 P5 blend price WMP blend price

80 78 76

WMP $79.06

Apr 2021

May 2021

Mar 2021

Jan 2021

Feb 2021

Dec 2020

Oct 2020

Nov 2020

Aug 2020


Sept 2020

74 July 2020

Source: USDA

*There is a three-month lag reporting these figures.

June 2020

The June 2021 Class III Price, US$17.21 per hundredweight, is equivalent to C$48.33 per hectolitre. This equivalent is based on the exchange rate US$1 = C$1.23699 the exchange rate when the USDA announced the Class III Price. The Class III Price is in $ US per hundredweight at 3.5 per cent butterfat. One hundredweight equals 0.44 hectolitres. Canadian Class 5a and Class 5b prices track U.S. prices set by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

The graph below shows the 12-month blend price for the P5 provinces and Western Milk Pool (WMP).

Blend price in $/hL


P5 $77.44




A YEAR INTO THE P10 An in-depth look at the effort put forward in creating a national pooling agreement




We have to focus on what brings us together rather than what divides us while remembering the objective is still for Canadian dairy producers, as well as the entire dairy industry, to come out as winners as a result of this work. —Daniel Gobeil

By Trudy Kelly Forsythe



rior to the 1990s, dairy pooling fell under provincial jurisdiction with each province creating pools to fit their needs. John Core, a former chair of Dairy Farmers of Ontario (DFO) and former chief executive officer of the Canadian Dairy Commission (CDC) who was instrumental in establishing the P5 pool, says there were different pools within Ontario, including separate ones for fluid milk and industrial milk. It was during the late 1980s and early 1990s, when trade policies really began to impact the dairy sector, that a national pooling system was brought up for the first time in the recommendations of the National Task Force on Dairy Policy, created by former minister of agriculture Don Mazankowski in 1989 and led by CDC’s vice-chair at the time, Ken McKinnon. In 1992, Dairy Farmers of Canada (DFC) undertook another study to build on the National Task Force on Dairy Policy’s work. This second group was multifaceted and included dairy producers, processors and representatives from the CDC. Again, the recommendation came back for a national pool for fluid and industrial milk. Core says many of the provinces still weren’t interested after the government’s task force released its recommendation, but took notice when the second group, with its inclusion of representatives from the dairy sector, came back with similar recommendations. Soon after, in 1994, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) came into effect. “We were heading into a world where there would be no tariffs,” Core recalls, adding the dairy industry

knew if that happened, there were going to have to be changes. Otherwise, they might not be able to operate supply management. “It was obvious Canada was not going to be able to control its borders as well as it had done in the past, and as borders became more porous, no one knew where product was going to come in,” he says. “The big city markets would be targeted since they would be the most profitable. It made sense to enter into a national pool so all markets and all revenues could be shared equally among Canadian dairy producers.” The first step toward national pooling began on Aug. 1, 1995, when the Comprehensive Agreement on Special Class Pooling (P9) took effect for nine provinces: Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. “It was an amazing achievement,” Core says, adding the Canadian dairy industry had to find a way to make domestic dairy products competitive to potential dairy product imports from other parts of the world. “(The agreement) didn’t deal with fluid milk at that time because some provinces did not want to share fluid market profits even though all committees recommended an entire pool for fluid and industrial milk.” Later, fluid milk was included in revenue sharing through the All Milk Pooling Agreement (P6) between Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island beginning on Aug. 1, 1996, and the Western Milk Pooling Agreement (WMP) between Manitoba, British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan beginning on March 1, 1997. Continued on page 30 MILKPRODUCER | AUGUST 2021



A year into the P10, cont’d from page 29 The P6 also began transportation cost sharing (excluding Manitoba) on March 1, 1998. Manitoba stayed involved with both pools for several years, hoping to convince the other western provinces to join with the P6 because it felt the P6 provided the greatest protection. However, that didn’t happen and Manitoba withdrew from the P6 in 2003. While the trade situation didn’t turn out to be as bad for the dairy industry as expected in the medium term, provinces knew it was just a matter of time before a true national pool was needed to protect

supply management as other trade agreements were negotiated into the 2000s. Negotiations continued and on June 1, 2020, accelerated largely by the Canada-United States-Mexico Agreement (CUSMA), the P10 pool was implemented to allow Manitoba, British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland and Labrador to share revenues.

A POOL OF POOLS The P10 is a pool of pools with the WMP, P5 and Newfoundland, which has not been part of either pool because of its unique markets and higher cost of production, now pooling revenues monthly. The end result, following a four-year transition period to allow for the higher WMP revenues to be gradually shared with the P5 and an adjustment made for Newfoundland, will see the producers will see producers across the country receive the same gross revenue for components shipped. “The pooling of revenue from all 10 Canadian provinces is good news,” says Les Producteurs de lait du Quebec chair Daniel Gobeil. “It will not only contribute to creating equity among all producers, but also to making sure that risk is more evenly

shared. Canadian dairy producers will have the advantage of greater unity during discussions with industry partners.” Dairy Farmers of Ontario chair Murray Sherk points out that 50 years ago when the system was formed, there were farmers and processors in all communities and provinces across the country. However, as processing has consolidated, the industry needed to pool together. “Now, consolidation continues, integration of markets continues, processing is often done in one location that supplies across the country,” he says. “The more integrated it gets, the more sense it makes to pool revenue, costs and markets.” Another positive that provinces see is sharing in the risk of trade agreements. “We don’t have much control over or know what products will be imported to fulfil obligations,” Sherk says. “To share those risks effectively, it makes sense we share them nationally.” That said, not all provinces are 100 per cent on board. “The P10 revenue sharing pool is something that was forced on B.C. and the WMP,” says former B.C. Milk Marketing Board chair Ben Janzen, adding it is very costly to B.C. producers. “The inequity in the P10 agreement is that all revenue is shared, but there is no provision to consider the different costs in the WMP compared with the P5. There are differences in transportation and handling of surplus milk, to name a few. These are not recognized in the revenue sharing agreement.” Janzen explains the inequity in revenue sharing results from the different ratio of fluid to industrial milk in B.C. compared with the P5. “This results in a higher blend price for B.C. producers, which is then shared with the P5,” Janzen says. “To achieve equity in a pooling WWW.MILKPRODUCER.CA

agreement, there has to be recognition of costs, different product mixes, processing capabilities, as well as revenue.” Gerrit Damsteegt, chair of Dairy Farmers of Nova Scotia, understands B.C.’s concerns because Nova Scotia had similar concerns prior to the P5. “It was a tough pill for Nova Scotia when we entered into the agreement,” he recalls, explaining 68 per cent of their product was fluid milk at the time. “There were concerns about diluting the milk price, but, for us in the Maritimes, the industry would look a lot different if it wasn’t for P5.” In hindsight, the move was a good one for Nova Scotia, as fluid markets shrunk over the years. Plus, what they gave up in price, they gained in markets because of the market growth in some other provinces. “It is easy to look at today and not want to give something up because we don’t know what the future holds, but we need to be united prior to having a crisis,” Damsteegt says. “We need to get everybody onside, we need to work together to find solutions and we need to get this done—not just for us now but for the next generation.” So, while Damsteegt concedes B.C. is not quite ready for this, he says the dairy industry needs to do this to make sure dairy farming is maintained across the country. “If one province is affected, it will have a devastating effect on the industry,” he says. “We need to share the risk. We can’t lose any provinces. When you lose provinces, you lose supply management. We need every provincial government to be on side to maintain this system that has worked well for producers, processors and consumers. To maintain that system, we need to bring everyone along. If we WWW.MILKPRODUCER.CA

can work together as producers, it will help the industry tremendously.” Sherk agrees that for supply management to work in Canada, and to be accepted politically, production is needed in every province. “Therefore, we need a mechanism in place so production can be supported in every province,” he says.

MOVING FORWARD While the P10 ultimately puts all provinces at the same price for revenue sharing, there are still outstanding issues to be addressed, such as market sharing and transportation sharing. “Markets are not evolving at the same pace for both pools,” Gobeil says. “We have to see how we can respond to projects that will encourage profitable growth and ensure those who are creating that growth also have access to the milk required to continue. We also have to work to harmonize our different costs and programs in each pool to better work together, have credible policies for our milk buyers and, of course, come up with a long-term vision for our industry.” There are challenges to overcome in order to get there, including creating solidarity and alliances between provinces. Gobeil points out that production realities are very different in each province, as are the organization of the industry and history of production. “Trade agreements are still hitting us hard with the access that has been granted, but also the export limits and a first trade panel ruling Americans have already demanded,” he says. “We also have the collective challenge of meeting consumer demand, which is constantly changing, and making sure to combat the decline of certain markets and the advent of plant-based alternatives.” Sherk sees working together in the provin-

cially mandated and regulated dairy industry as one of the major challenges to overcome as the P10 pool system moves forward. “We are not federally legislated,” Sherk says, adding provinces will want to preserve their provincial rights and markets. “We have to be able to manage that in the face of increased consolidation and decreased localization with many products moving across the country more freely.” Environmental sustainability and what will be required in the future of the dairy industry to make improvements in that area will also need to be addressed. “We need national solutions so it makes sense we not operate in provincial environments in that discussion,” Sherk says. Gobeil says ultimately, the dairy industry needs to take on these challenges together, with government support, by sharing the risks and making sure there is equitable treatment among producers. “That is at the core of collective marketing and supply management,” Gobeil says. “We have to focus on what brings us together rather than what divides us while remembering the objective is still for Canadian dairy producers, as well as the entire dairy industry, to come out as winners as a result of this work. Patience, transparency and honesty among the different dairy sector stakeholders are values that will guarantee the right conditions for finding sustainable solutions.”

Trudy Kelly Forsythe is an award-winning contributor to many publications in Canada and beyond, specializing in business and technology issues in the sectors of agriculture, food, manufacturing and more.




WHEN CROPPING factors require a rotation away from corn, it’s still possible to feed cereal grainbased rations to support good milk production and desirable components. Photo courtesy of Dr. Tim Mutsvangwa

[ FEEDING CONSIDERATIONS FOR CORN ALTERNATIVES Editor’s note: In 2020, certain Ontario regions experienced high corn rootworm pressure that challenged current Bt rootworm hybrids. In regions where Bt rootworm corn hybrids have been used for more than three consecutive years, resistance among corn rootworm populations is suspected. To assist producers in addressing this issue and rotating away from silage corn, Milk Producer is publishing a series of articles provided by the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. This is the fourth article in the four-part series. Look in the May, June and July 2021 issues for the other articles. By Mario Mongeon and Tom Wright



revious articles in this series related to resistant corn rootworm (CRW) have covered information about this pest, options for small grains and alternatives to corn silage when fields must be rotated out of corn. The focus of this article is to discuss some of the key considerations when implementing changes to the feeding program that results from cropping and feed changes. Many dairy farmers and nutritionists have a comfort level when it comes to corn grain, corn silage and alfalfa-grass silage-based rations for dairy cows, but it’s possible to utilize small grains effectively and productively in dairy rations. Barley-based feeding programs, for example, are common in the Prairies and parts of Ontario and Quebec. There are nutrient content differences from corn grain and different fermentation characteristics in the rumen as well. Grain type, grain moisture level and the degree of grain processing are some of the factors that will determine the risk of acidosis that producers need to be aware of when a feeding program changes. First, when agronomic and cropping decisions factor into a necessary change, produc-



ers should speak with their nutritionist sooner rather than later. They will be able to help with herd-specific advice on how to transition onto a different ration, help with inventory calculations to estimate remaining inventory and advise on allocating ingredients to certain animals. Letting advisers know changes are coming is an important first step.

The most common difference with a switch from corn grain to cereal grain concentrates as the main energy source is the difference in starch degradation rate in the rumen. Nutrient differences, such as crude protein, starch levels and degradation rates and mineral differences, will require feed sampling and laboratory analysis to be done, rather than relying on book values. Differences in nutrient contents will require proper ration balancing be done to ensure nutrients are within proper allowance ranges to meet requirements. Minerals and buffer changes should be anticipated in the new rations.

The most common difference with a switch from corn grain to cereal grain concentrates as the main energy source is the difference in starch degradation rate in the rumen, which is based on the different starch sources, but also depends on the grain processing method and degree of processing. Slower rates of starch degradation in the rumen are seen with dry, whole corn and dry whole barley or dry rolled corn. But when cereal grains are processed to open up the grain, using processing methods, such as dry-rolling or steamrolling, the rumen microbes are able to degrade the starch and produce volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in large quantities that can quickly reduce the rumen’s pH, creating acidosis. Introducing cereal grains gradually and with regard to the method and degree of processing minimizes the chance for digestive upset and the subsequent risk of acidosis. Like all feeding programs, the cows’ environment plays a significant role in how the diet will perform. Barns or pens that have limited feed bunk space that promotes competition when eating or leaves subordinate animals to feed later and-or consume a sorted ration can negatively affect feed intake. As well, not all the cows may be eating the ration that was formulated. Robot herds and herds with automated feeders will want to consult with their nutritionist about the grain-pellet formulation and feeding tables programmed if the partial mixed ration (PMR) is switched to a cereal grain diet, as concentrate allowances must be reconsidered to synchronize with the starch and energy digestion rate changes. This will ensure robot visits are not negatively impacted, and rumen health is maintained. Ration changes should be monitored closely. There are several ways to do this using available data and in-barn observation. Reduction W W W.MILK PRODUCER.CA

in milk fat content is a good indication ration changes need fine-tuning or are being introduced too fast without enough time for the rumen to adapt to the change. Similarly, milk urea nitrogen (MUN) is a convenient marker for dietary protein content and proper rumen availability of carbohydrates and protein. Manure appearance and consistency is also a good indication of proper digestion, and subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) often has characteristic changes to manure. Data from a Quebec study by Ferland et al., 2018, examined records from Holstein tiestall farms that had different grain feeding programs. Barley diets lead to lower milk pro-

duction when compared with corn grain and high-moisture corn diets, but the authors noted the limitations of the study did not allow for data on feeding frequency or genetic potential to be included in their analysis that could have affected the results. With proper planning and preparation, it’s possible to manage feeding cereal grainbased rations to support good milk production and desirable components when cropping factors require a rotation away from corn. Resist the temptation to simply replace a kilogram of corn with a kilogram of something else since it could be a shortcut that could lead to disasters.


Reference: M.-C. Ferland et al. Effect of feeding system and grain source on lactation characteristics and milk components in dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 2018. 101:(9) 8572-8585. Mario Mongeon is a livestock specialist at the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA)

Tom Wright is a dairy cattle specialist at OMAFRA.

This article is prepared by the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs field crop specialists to provide information producers can use on their farm.


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t’s that time of year again—for backyard barbeques and family picnics. Along with warm weather comes longer days in the field and more time in the barn managing health events and tackling decreases in fertility and production. While we might enjoy a few hot and sunny summer days, our cows do not.

HIGHER MILK PRODUCTION EQUALS HIGHER METABOLIC HEAT Heat stress in dairy cows has become more apparent over time. Producing milk is a metabolic process that results in internal heat being generated by the animal. As we select for higher producing cows, we also select for cows that have greater metabolic heat. While this is economically beneficial, increasing the cow’s internal heat production over time means she is less able to deal with the heat outside. Outside of a comfortable temperature range—either too hot or too cold—a cow will struggle to maintain its optimal health and production. Cows are most comfortable between five degrees Celsius and 20 C, but this can vary depending on the humidity. The tem-

perature-humidity index (THI) combines both factors that determine heat conditions into a single number. A THI of 70 could be 27 C at 15 per cent humidity or 23 C at 70 per cent humidity. For dairy cows, we start to see a decrease in production, fertility and health at a THI of 60, or 17 C at 52 per cent humidity. We can’t control the weather, so we need to make sure we are doing everything possible to make the environment better for the cows. For strategies to prepare for heat management, visit

ADDING BREEDING TO THE HEAT MANAGEMENT TOOLKIT Breeding values for heat tolerance are already available in some parts the world, especially in areas that experience extreme heat year-round. In 2018, Australia released the heat tolerance breeding values that allow farmers to identify animals with a greater ability to tolerate hot conditions with less of an impact on milk production. To do this, they matched weather station data with individual cow production records and measured the change in milk, fat and protein around the time of heat events. In Australia, selecting for heat tolerance has led to higher summer milk production, improved animal health and welfare, increased conception rates, reduced embryo loss and higher calf birth weights.

BREEDING IN CANADA Research is already underway to determine breeding values for heat tolerance in Canada. We are also matching weather station and production data to measure the impact of heat stress on-farm. Although we think of Canada as a cold country, studies in Quebec have shown the country might not be as cold as we think—at least not from the cow’s point of view. In Canada, the average number of days exceeding the comfort zone for cows is 117 days—almost oneONE OF Lactanet’s goals for the future is to breed for a more resilient dairy cow with heat tolerance characteristics.

third of the year. Economic losses for the Canadian dairy industry arising solely from reduced production due to heat stress were estimated at $42.4 million per year. This doesn’t account for decreases in fertility or health. We also know some production traits are affected at different THI. Milk production begins to decrease at a THI of 64, but milk components are impacted at much lower THI. Protein yields begin to drop at a THI of 58, while fat yield is impacted at a THI as low as 50. Researchers are still looking at thresholds for other traits, such as fertility, and in other stages of the animal’s life as a calf and dry cow. While our housing system allows for more management tools to be implemented compared with pastoral systems, the temperature inside the barn is commonly 10 C warmer than the conditions outside, especially if stocking density is at its maximum. This increases the number of days those cows are experiencing heat stress. One of our goals for the future is to breed for a more resilient dairy cow, and heat tolerance may be one characteristic of that resilient cow. We want cows that can bounce back from any stressful event—health, reproduction or environment. “When heat waves hit, heat tolerance can take two forms—cows that can recover more quickly from heat stress or cows that can cope better with high temperatures,” says Ivan Campos, a PhD candidate at the University of Guelph, who is exploring climate resilience as a compelling strategy to prepare our industry for changing environments.

BREEDING FOR MORE CLIMATE RESILIENT COWS Looking further into the genetic mechanisms behind heat tolerance and climate resilience is one way we’re ensuring Lactanet delivers the most innovative genetic tools to Canadian dairy farmers. As world leaders in dairy genetics, we continue to develop new strategies and products that farmers can use to tackle future industry challenges—in a world that keeps getting warmer. Caeli Richardson is the genetics expert of the innovation and development team. She is bridging communication across the genetic services team, industry partners and producers.


At Boehr i nger Ingel hei m, our trusted family of brands continue to provide Canadian dairy producers with a complete line-up of innovative products to support dairy cow health and dairy cow welfare. From prevention to management, we’ve got you covered each step of the way. Meet our family at O u r F a m i l y o f B r a n d s . c a or talk to your veterinarian to learn more.

Lockout®, Metacam®, Anafen® Injection, Cefa-Lak®, Cefa-Dri®, Dry-Clox® and the Cattlehead logo are registered trademarks of Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica GmbH, used under license. J-VAC TM is a trademark of Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica GmbH, used under license. All other trademarks are property of their respective owners. ©2021 Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health Canada Inc. All Rights Reserved. MILKPRODUCER | AUGUST 2021 WWW.MILKPRODUCER.CA






well-known Perth County dairy farm will host the North American Manure Expo this year—even though the event itself will be held virtually. The annual conference had originally been scheduled for summer 2020 to be hosted by the Johnston Family at Maplevue Farms near Listowel, Ont., but was postponed by a year due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The fifth-generation family farm, which will be the hub for the field demonstration portion of the event this year, is owned and operated by Doug and Dave Johnston and their families. The Johnstons milk 75 cows and crop 1,500 acres and are well known for their proactive approaches to soil health and management, with integration of livestock manure playing a key role in their system. “Our theme this year is Professionalism in Nutrient Management, and we’ll be featuring a great combination of the latest innovations, as well as presentations from some of the leading voices from Canada and the United States in the manure and nutrient management space,” says Christine Brown, field crop sustainability spe-

cialist with the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA). Brown is one of the event’s co-chairs, along with Andrew Barrie and Dave Bray. The 2021 edition of the North American Manure Expo will take place on Aug. 25 and 26, with a virtual trade show opening on Aug. 23. Along with field demonstrations, the event will feature tours of area farms, panel discussions and pre-recorded presentations featuring some of the industry’s leading experts. Presentation topics not scheduled for Aug. 25 and 26 will become part of a weekly webinar series with live question and answer opportunities between speakers and participants. The farm tours will feature in-storage aeration systems, dairy compost pack barns, managing water for beef barns near watercourses, compost facility, biosolids utilization and the University of Guelph’s (U of G) dairy, beef and soil facilities. Dr. Claudia Wagner-Riddle from U of G will discuss ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through manure management. Custom manure applicator Adrian Guntensperger from Seaforth, Ont., John Molenhuis, cost of production specialist at OMAFRA, and Rick Martens, executive director of the Minnesota Custom Applicators’ Association, will talk about how to determine the real cost of han-

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dling manure and when hiring a custom applicator makes sense. Glen Arnold from Ohio State University and Larry Bearinger from Ontario will address how to maximize a growing season and in-crop manure application using drag hose systems. The University of Wisconsin-Madison’s Rebecca Larson, along with John Deere’s Frank Weber and Julia Romagnoli, will look at how tracking and adjusting the nutrients on-the-go in manure can lead to more uniform application. Merrin Macrae from the University of Waterloo will lead a session on phosphorus and manure with other agenda topics covering compaction and safe manure transportation. Field demos will take place at the Johnston Farm featuring the latest equipment and technology and will be made available in video format on Aug. 25 and 26. “Although we can’t offer Ontario hospitality and gather in person this year because of the pandemic, we’ve worked hard to put together a well-rounded manure expo experience that will still offer a quality educational experience to participants,” Brown says. “We are looking forward to hosting and touring some of the newest innovations virtually from the Johnston farm.” The North American Manure Expo is an annual event that marks its 20th anniversary this year. It has previously been hosted in Wisconsin, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, Indiana, Iowa, Nebraska and Pennsylvania. It was first held outside of the United States in 2013, when the event came to Ontario and was hosted at U of G’s research station at Arkell, just outside of Guelph, Ont. To register for this year’s event, visit www. For information about manure stewardship and long-term nutrient management options, visit Lilian Schaer

For agriculture-related webinars visit



is a freelance agricultural journalist, writer and communications professional based in Guelph, Ont. She was born in Switzerland and raised on a dairy farm in Grey County. Follow her on Twitter @foodandfarming.

This article is provided by Farm & Food Care Ontario as part of the Timing Matters project. The project is funded by the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs.


CELEBRATING MENTAL RESILIENCE By Workplace Safety & Prevention Services



here are many benefits of farm life and because of this, regardless of how life unfolds, many people who grew up on a farm are quite positive about their way of life. However, farming life can also present mental and emotional challenges. These challenges can test the limits of the best of us, especially when circumstances unfold as they have in 2020. While those of us who have been around a while can point back to years when extremely bad weather or economic downturns wreaked havoc, nothing has ever quite unfolded like this year with COVID-19. Along with the usual hurdles, farm operations have had to deal with a host of other challenges triggered by the pandemic that have resulted in a rapid escalation of stressors.

STRESS AFFECTS OWNERS AND WORKERS EQUALLY When we think of the mental and emotional stress of farming, our thoughts may initially go to the plight of owners and managers given their responsibilities. The fact is stress can burden anyone across the farming sector. Seasonal workers, both foreign and domes-


tic, have felt the effects of COVID-19 as much as anyone. Shutdowns have had devastating financial ramifications for these workers who do not have ongoing benefits or any kind of safety net. This also affects their families who are depending on them for food and shelter. In many instances, foreign workers had to endure extreme isolation because of the pandemic without the support of family and friends. It’s important for owners and managers to check in regularly with foreign workers regarding their mental state and offer assistance wherever possible starting with an empathetic attitude, something that in itself goes a long way to ease stress. It’s remarkable what you may find out. It was discovered for one group of foreign workers, the sight of black masks was particularly traumatic because it brought to mind uncomfortable associations in their home country.


brighten up our days. There is support available to anyone who is concerned about their own mental well-being or that of a family member or co-worker. Along with other frontline workers, the role you play in putting food on Canadian tables is also an essential service and very much appreciated. Workplace Safety & Prevention Services has developed a wide range of workplace mental health solutions. These tools and resources can be applied within the Ontario farming community. The Progressive Ag Daily Learning Drop Series also provides useful resources for children and farm families, including a video on mental well-being and stress. To view the videos, visit This article was prepared by Workplace Safety & Prevention Services (WSPS). For more information, visit or contact WSPS at

While social connections in the past may have come together organically, this is a time where we may need to seek them out. This could be increasing participation via local service clubs, such as 4-H, or starting up or increasing engagement in social media. Virtual coffee breaks are not the real thing but can still







iarrhea remains one of the most commonly diagnosed diseases among calves within the veal and dairy industries. Its occurrence on farms is associated with higher rates of antibiotic treatment and increased mortality, where five per cent of calves that require treatment for diarrhea end up dying. Even in calves that survive the initial onset of disease, long-term impacts may occur, such as reduced growth, increased age at first



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calving and reduced first lactation milk production for dairy animals. A recent study found the longer calves had diarrhea, the greater the impact on weight gain. For example, calves that spent more than 10 of their first 28 days with diarrhea weighed 16 kilograms less compared with calves that had seven of their first 28 days with diarrhea (Figure 1). It’s estimated each case of diarrhea costs at least $150. Diarrhea is clearly a significant challenge to calves. An important consideration to minimize short- and long-term consequences of diarrhea is to identify calves early in the disease process. To do this, fecal consistency scoring can be used to ensure accuracy and consistency.

WHAT IS FECAL CONSISTENCY SCORING? Fecal consistency scoring is the visual assessment of feces that’s scored on a scale of 0 to 3: • 0 = normal – firm but not hard, original form is distorted slightly after dropping to the floor and settling; • 1 = soft – does not hold form, piles but spreads slightly; • 2 = runny – spreads readily; • 3 = watery – liquid consistency, splatters. A fecal score of 2 or 3 indicates the presence of diarrhea since these consistency scores describe feces with high water content. Examples of each score are depicted in Figure 2. Continued on page 40

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Figure 1: Impact of diarrhea (fecal score 2 or 3) in the first 28 days on body weight gain

Figure 2: Visual depiction of fecal consistency scoring from 0 to 3

Evaluating fecal consistency scoring, cont’d from page 38

Figure 3: Age range when calf diarrhea is most likely to occur

(NSAID). Calves treated with an NSAID at the onset of diarrhea are more likely to consume their daily milk allowance, consume starter ration earlier and at a greater rate and consume more water compared with untreated calves, which translates into better gains when they are treated. Therefore, using an NSAID at the onset of diarrhea can contribute to improved recovery and reduce the impact of the disease. Beyond the benefits of using fecal consistency scoring to identify calves early during diarrhea, it’s a simple and easy tool to train other personnel responsible for managing calves. It has been shown to be repeatable between individuals, meaning it can help calves with diarrhea be identified early and allow for consistent treatment between staff members.

HOW TO USE FECAL CONSISTENCY SCORING? Although fecal consistency scoring may seem like an academic exercise, it can be useful when used routinely. Fecal scoring calves when feeding or handling them helps to identify calves at the onset of diarrhea. It also acts as a consistent guide on when to intervene. When calves are identified with a fecal score of 2 or 3, which indicates diarrhea, feeding additional electrolytes can be beneficial. Providing oral fluid therapy (electrolytes) at the onset of diarrhea will help prevent dehydration, which is ultimately responsible for calf death. An additional therapy that could be provided when calves are identified with a fecal score of 2 or 3 is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug


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TAKE HOME MESSAGES Diarrhea is very common in calves and can be costly. Ensuring intervention early in the disease process can be helpful to reduce the impact of diarrhea. Using fecal consistency scoring routinely can help identify early signs of diarrhea, where an electrolyte and-or NSAID can be provided to improve recovery. Monitoring dehydration, including eye recession and attitude, is also critical to determine when intravenous fluid therapy is needed. Producers should work with their veterinarian to develop diarrhea identification and treatment protocols to help improve calf health on their farms.

Dave Renaud

Phases of normal fermentation Phase 1 Day 1

Special attention should be paid from birth to 14 days old since that is when the majority of diarrhea occurs, as highlighted in Figure 3. This project was funded by the Canadian Agricultural Partnership, a five-year federal-provincial-territorial initiative.

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is an associate consultant with ACER Consulting Ltd. and a veterinary epidemiologist in the department of population medicine at the University of Guelph.

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[ A FREESTALL REIMAGINED By Annabelle Beaver, Emma Strazhnik, Marina von Keyserlingk and Daniel Weary CONTRIBUTORS

Figure 1: The alternative stall design used in the University of British Columbia study. Drawing by Ann Sanderson


pen space is an important feature of a lying environment for dairy cattle since this allows them to lie and stand more easily, as well as adopt different lying postures. However, more open lying areas make it more difficult to control where cows defecate and urinate. To reduce contamination of lying areas and improve cow cleanliness, many dairy farms use freestalls that index the lying areas with stall partitions and neck rails. This creates a dilemma for dairy farmers since the features that help keep the lying area clean also reduce cow comfort in the stall. For this reason, researchers at the University of British Columbia’s (UBC) Dairy and Education Research Centre have, over the course of many studies, worked to develop solutions that seek to maintain a clean lying area while minimizing behavioural restrictions for the cows. In one recent study at UBC, researchers investigated the lying behaviour of 48 dairy cows (eight groups of six) under three housing conditions: • Conventional freestalls; • An open pack created by removing all partitions and neck rails; • Alternative stalls, a novel housing system composed of hanging partitions (Figure 1). Using cameras, lying behaviour, such as head position and level of limb extension, and perching behaviour, such as standing with just the front feet in the stall, were recorded. Cows were housed under each housing condition for a one-week period, and stall cleanliness was scored as the total stall area that was soiled. Cows spent more time lying in the two less restrictive housing options—open pack and alternative freestalls—compared with a tradition-



al freestall. Cows in the less restrictive housing options were also found to adopt more extended lying positions, such as lying with hind legs extended and with the neck curled back. In the less restrictive housing, larger cows— greater than or equal to 820 kilograms— showed reduced perching time, likely because these larger cows have difficulties fitting into freestalls. Perching is linked to increased lameness and hoof lesions in dairy cattle. Together, these findings indicate more open lying areas provide better cow comfort than a standard freestall, and the alternative stalls tested in this study provide a similar level of cow comfort as is provided by an open pack. Unsurprisingly, traditional freestalls were found to have improved stall cleanliness compared with the open pack and alternative freestalls. However, the alternative freestalls had improved cleanliness over the open pack, suggesting this novel design could offer improvements to cow comfort while helping keep stalls clean. Researchers concluded alternative stall design can provide the cow comfort benefits of an open pack but with improvements in stall cleanliness. The alternative design tested in this study was completed as a proof of concept and is not commercially available, but the hope is this research will help inform the development of new barn

designs that improve cow comfort and work well for the farmers who care for them.

Annabelle Beaver is an interdisciplinary animal welfare scientist. After obtaining her PhD in animal science from Cornell University, she completed a postdoctoral research fellowship at the University of British Columbia’s animal welfare program. She is currently an assistant professor of animal welfare and behaviour at Harper Adams University in Shropshire, England.

Emma Strazhnik graduated from the applied animal biology program in 2013 and completed an M.Sc. in animal welfare science, ethics and law at the University of Glasgow. After returning to British Columbia, she worked as a research assistant at the University of British Columbia’s Dairy Education and Research Centre.

Marina von Keyserlingk is a professor in the animal welfare program in the faculty of land and food systems at the University of British Columbia and a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada Industrial Research Chair in animal welfare.

Daniel Weary is a professor in the animal welfare program in the faculty of land and food systems at the University of British Columbia and a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada Industrial Research Chair in animal welfare.







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ROLLING OUT A NEW TOOL FOR DAIRY HERD MANAGEMENT A national system for bulk tank milk fatty acid monitoring is in development By Lilian Schaer CONTRIBUTOR


or more than a year, Quebec’s dairy industry has been using a new tool to gain a better understanding of cow health performance and predict changes in milk component levels. Lactanet’s PROFILab tool uses mid-infrared analysis to quickly and easily monitor the fatty acid profile of bulk milk tank samples. This offers key insights into cows’ ruminal function, rumen health and body reserve mobilization and can give producers early warning of possible feeding or metabolism problems. A three-year project led by Lactanet is expanding the usefulness of the tool and setting up a Canada-wide bulk tank milk fatty analysis pipeline and reporting system. Dairy Farmers of Ontario (DFO) is contributing $50,000 to the project. “We think this is an exciting idea,” says Guy

Séguin, DFO’s systems engineer. “Fatty acid is what partly defines the characteristics of the milk, and we see a lot of potential value that information monitoring can offer for both producers and processors, who may in the future be looking for certain profiles depending on what their needs are.” The information is extracted from the same bulk tank milk samples that are already collected on-farm every other day, and after first being made available to all Quebec producers free of charge, the information is now offered on a feefor-service basis. To date, more than 1,300 farms in Quebec are subscribers, receiving their own farm data, as well as benchmarks for their specific breed and the provincial industry. Dr. Débora Santschi, Lactanet’s director of innovation and development, says the milk fatty acid profile contains a wealth of information that can be used to maximize ration utilization and herd potential. Milk contains approximately 400 different fatty acids, but there are three main ones that make up total fat content in milk. They include:

• De novo fatty acids: these short-chain fatty acids are the ones most correlated to the main milk components and a clear indicator of rumen health; • Mixed fatty acids: half are synthesized in the mammary gland and the other half comes from feed or body fat reserves; • Pre-formed fatty acids: long-chain fatty acids that reflect fat intake from forages, corn, soybeans or concentrates or from the mobilization of body fat reserves—particularly high in cows in early lactation. According to Santschi, one of the biggest learnings since PROFILab became available to Quebec producers in February 2020 has been the high variability between herds. This is caused by breed, as well as differences in ration composition, feeding behaviour and herd management. “The fatty acid profile helps to better understand the current status of the herd because changes in fatty acids might occur even if main components seem stable,” she explains. Changes in the fatty acid level data can help pinpoint problems caused by even slight changes in nutrition or environmental factors, such as heat stress that can impact feeding behaviour, she adds. In addition to setting up the national system, her team is also working on more indicators for rumen efficiency and implementing alerts for producers that are combined with possible solutions. Individual cow reports are also in the works, which will let producers pinpoint problems to specific animals or groups of animals, such as early lactation cows. For Tom Wright, dairy cattle nutritionist with the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, PROFILab offers exciting new potential for the province’s dairy industry. “Fatty acid analysis has been expensive, so we haven’t done it routinely and this is a great tool with information that we haven’t had access to previously,” he says. “It will give you a really good snapshot of how fat is being made by the cow and whether you’re making that fat in a cost-effective way so you can adjust feed or management accordingly.”

Lilian Schaer is a freelance agricultural journalist, writer and communications professional based in Guelph, Ont. She was born in Switzerland and raised on a dairy farm in Grey County. Follow her on Twitter @foodandfarming.






anaging body condition score (BCS) in dairy cattle is important to ensure cows are neither too fat nor too thin. Body condition scoring in dairy cattle is done on a five-point scale, where one is severely underconditioned, five is severely overconditioned, and three is generally regarded as good condition. Years ago, it was typically recommended to have cows dry off at scores of 3.5 to 3.75, but modern recommendations advise producers to target between three and 3.25 at dry-off and maintain that condition until calving. The impact of BCS on feeding behaviour has been studied, with research indicating cows with heavier condition (≥3.5) have lower dry matter intake (DMI) close to calving compared with cows below 3.5. Higher DMI, particularly in the weeks leading up to calving, can potentially improve transition cow health. However, there has been little data to help understand if

BCS can influence feeding behaviour throughout the entire dry cow period. A recently published study addressed this information gap and provided insights on the role of BCS on feeding behaviour across the entire dry period. The study used data from 100 cows collected from three prior studies, including five different diets, conducted at the University of Guelph’s Elora Dairy Research Centre.

The statistical methods for this study used the data from the prior studies and allowed for a calculation of the role BCS played in affecting three measures of feeding behaviour commonly assessed, including DMI, DMI as a percentage of body weight and feeding time (in minutes per day). Continued on page 46

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Body condition score affects feeding behaviour in the dry period, cont’d from page 45 Each of the five different diets were formulated to meet the energy needs of the cows, and by having different diets in the dataset, the authors proposed the results can be applied more broadly than if a specific study had been done. This is the first study to assess feeding behaviour and BCS in the early and late dry periods. The study used the terms early and late dry periods instead of the more common terms far-off and close-up because those often imply that there are changes in diet or pen (or both) for dry cows as they get closer to calving, but all the cows in the studies were kept in the same environment and fed the diet assigned to them during the whole dry period. For the 100 cows used in this analysis, the BCS at dry-off ranged from 2.75 to 4.25, with a median of 3.25. For statistical modelling, researchers assigned the cows that had a score ≥3.5 as overconditioned and <3.5 as not overconditioned, which resulted in 39 cows being in the overconditioned group and 61 in the not overconditioned group. It’s worth noting only six cows had a BCS of ≥4 because the literature would suggest obese cattle are at the highest risk of lower DMI and there were few cows in that category. A cow’s BCS at dry-off was shown to have an effect on her potential to gain or lose body condition during the dry period. For each one-

Current recommendations for BCS at calving in the range of three to 3.25 should ensure animals do not lose excess BCS and avoid the need to take corrective feeding action. Table 1: Feeding behaviour data for overconditioned cows compared with not overconditioned cows

Feeding measure

BCS ≥3.5

BCS <3.5


Early dry period DMI (kg/d)




DMI % of body weight




Feeding time (min/d)




DMI (kg/d)




DMI % of body weight




Feeding time (min/d)




Late dry period

point increase in BCS at dry-off, it was determined to be a loss of 0.31 BCS points during the dry period. This would support the concept overconditioned cows have a higher risk of not being able to consume enough of an energetically balanced diet during the dry period to maintain condition than their not overconditioned herdmates. In support of that, overconditioned (BCS ≥3.5) cows had lower daily DMI as a percentage of their body weight during both the early and late dry periods compared with cows in good condition (not overconditioned; BCS

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<3.5), as shown in Table 1, along with the other feeding behaviour data. The findings support current recommendations to avoid having obese cattle at the end of their lactation to promote greater DMI throughout the entire dry period and potentially support health as cows transition into lactation. Current recommendations for BCS at calving in the range of three to 3.25 should ensure animals do not lose excess BCS and avoid the need to take corrective feeding action if scores approach two. In addition, targeting a BCS between three and 3.25 should ensure most group-housed cows will have a BCS of <3.5 and help avoid having overconditioned cows. Monitoring BCS throughout the lactating and dry periods allows for desired BCS targets to be achieved and will support healthy transitions. While there will always be outliers from desired BCS in any management system, setting a target will help promoting desirable feeding behaviour during the entire dry period. Tom Wright is a dairy cattle specialist with the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs.

Trevor DeVries is a professor and Canada research chair at the University of Guelph.

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This article is prepared by the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs livestock technology specialists to provide information producers can use on their farm.



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airy Farmers of Canada’s (DFC) 2020 Dairy Research Highlights is now available for download on DFC’s website in the Dairy Research section at The publication contains important information on DFC’s investments in dairy production and human nutrition and health research, its research funding partners, a list of research projects in progress, as well as some of the main outcomes resulting from research and knowledge translation and transfer activities in 2020. A new section of the document includes a list of the institutions in Canada where DFC-funded research is being carried out, as well as short biographies from four individuals who describe how and why they chose careers in scientific research in the Canadian dairy sector.

EXCERPTS FROM THE 2020 REPORT Investments in research • In 2020, DFC invested $1.7 million in dairy

production and human nutrition and health research, which was boosted to $9 million by leveraging its investments through grant programs and partnerships. DFC and 30 partners support scientific research to drive innovation in the Canadian dairy sector; • More than half of the research investments (58 per cent) target priorities associated with the role of dairy products in human nutrition and health; • 23 per cent of investments target priorities in animal health and welfare, 15 per cent on farm efficiency and sustainability and another four per cent on milk composition and quality; • 39 research projects are in progress at 35 institutions, including research centres and universities across Canada; • 124 scientists and 113 students are conducting studies in dairy production and human nutrition and health; • 3,023 dairy farmers from coast to coast are investing their time as part of several research projects to help drive innovation in the Canadian dairy sector; • More than 200 communications and knowledge translation and transfer products in both languages were developed and disseminated to targeted user audiences, including Canadian dairy farmers, stakeholders, health professionals and Canadians.



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Dairy farm efficiency and sustainability • In April 2021, Lactanet Canada was the first organization to introduce feed efficiency genetic evaluations for the Holstein breed in Canada and among the first globally to provide feed efficiency evaluations. Many partners domestically and internationally, including DFC, contributed to this five-year project that received $10.3 million in funding; • Three fact sheets were developed and distributed to more than 5,000 Canadian dairy farmers as part of the proAction environment module roll-out for which farm environmental assessments will begin this September 2021. The content promotes best practices to mitigate greenhouse gases through livestock, manure, and crop management for better farm sustainability;

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Dairy Farmers of Canada’s 2020 Dairy Research Highlights, cont’d from page 48 • Preliminary research results suggest a slag filter (iron with a gravel pit) can be a low cost, highly effective method for collecting and treating nutrient-rich runoff from bunker silos. Researchers found the collection and treatment of runoff with a slag filter could be more effective and durable than other commercially available filters. Animal health and welfare • Increasing evidence is being published under the industrial research chair in sustainable life of dairy cattle and a Dairy Research Cluster 3 project on the opportunity for dairy cattle movement, suggesting increased dairy cow mobility benefits the animal’s health, behaviour and welfare. Studies have shown animals are motivated to be outside, and when they had more outdoor access, they had fewer incidences of lameness and injury; • A fact sheet was developed to support farmers’ decision-making when drying off cull dairy cattle at high production and emergency situations. Following the procedures can also help farmers comply with the new revised federal regulations (2020) for dairy cattle transport. • Recent key findings from the industrial re-

search chair in dairy cattle welfare at the University of British Columbia included recommendations and practices for feeding and housing calves, helping heifers adapt to new situations like housing, transition cow health and care, outdoor access for dairy cattle, comfort for cows when calving, and the effectiveness of benchmarking reports to help farmers improve calf management. Milk composition, quality and safety • Preliminary research results have shown an increasing number of farmers are adopting best management practices for selective dry cow therapy (35 per cent in 2019 compared with 11 per cent in 2015) and selective treatment of clinical mastitis (59 per cent of farmers), which has the potential to reduce antibiotic use and resistance; • New resources and tools, such as fact sheets, reports and services, have been developed to assist farmers, in consultation with their veterinarians, to apply protocols for the adoption of selective dry cow therapy. Milk products and their components in human nutrition and health • Research results from a randomized controlled trial found dairy products consumed as part of a weight management and exercise program for over-weight/obese adolescent females

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airy farmers are encouraged to come together to explore advanced technology, equipment and products in the unique outdoor setting at Outdoor Dairy Days, presented by Canada’s Outdoor Farm Show. The new show is set to take place on Sept. 21 and 22. The event came together after discussions with dairy representatives about the need for farmers to be together in person at a focused event that creates high value for them and industry partners. “We are most looking forward to bringing the industry back together to network. The outdoor site at Canada’s Outdoor Farm Show

provides an excellent place for that to happen safely as pandemic restrictions ease,” says Doug Wagner, president of Canada’s Outdoor Farm Show. “Canada’s Outdoor Farm Show has a history of hosting interactive demonstrations that mimic the use of technology on farms. We’re excited to bring that unique value to the dairy sector at Outdoor Dairy Days.” The in-person, outdoor event is in partnership with Progressive Dairy Operators and will be located on the Discovery Farm site in Woodstock, Ont, home of Canada’s Outdoor Farm Show. Over the course of two days, industry partners will offer hands-on tips and ideas while demonstrating dairy farm technology in action. “Outdoor Dairy Days in 2021 will be unlike anything that we’ve seen before—it will feature

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he Canadian Dairy XPO has announced a new themed hall for the live 2022 XPO called “Discover Poultry Production Hall.” It will feature live robotic demonstrations, a poultry-specific seminar in the classroom and a new hospitality area serving this commodity. There’s an interesting cross-connection between dairy and poultry industries here in Canada. According to surveys conducted at previous CDX shows, 31 per cent of attending dairy producers are interested in learning more about poultry production and 18 per cent of attendees reported already owning poultry quota. This represents a significant number of CDX total attendance, at 49 per cent. “This is a real opportunity for our exhibitors to meet the new entrants coming into the poultry sector. These producers are already in attendance at the dairy XPO,” says Kate Mehlenbacher, programming and exhibits co-ordinator. “We have redirected our focus from launching a poultry specific tradeshow—Canadian Poultry XPO—to

encompassing this poultry-themed hall in the already successful CDX. The new Discover Poultry Production Hall will showcase the latest in poultry innovations to Canadian dairy producers who either already have poultry quota or who are looking to diversify their dairy operation.” As the dairy XPO utilizes all onsite buildings at the Stratford Rotary Complex, two existing tradeshow halls will be amalgamated to make this all happen. The amalgamation of the TMR and Forage Hall with the Milking Mall will create an independent space for the Discover Poultry Production Hall at CDX 2022. There are approximately 4,200 poultry producers across Canada. Similar to the dairy industry in Canada, the majority of commercial poultry production is based in Ontario, with the main concentration being a two-hour radius around Stratford. In a typical year, there are more than 16,000 dairy producers who travel from across the country to take part in the largest dairy-focused event in Canada. The centralized location in a rural community makes it easy and efficient for producers to get in and out of CDX annually. “Keeping CDX fresh year-over-year is what team CDX does,” says Jordon Underhill, found-

er and general manager. “Given the pandemic and two cancelled live shows, we expect record crowds for CDX 2022. That will be the year to drive change and boost the value proposition for exhibitors, sponsors and attending producers.” This year, the Dairy Classroom will be live and virtually streamed featuring world-class dairy and poultry professionals, as well as interactive producer panels “Producers are eager to reconnect as a community and have access to the innovation we need on-farm,” says Alanna Coneybeare from Conlee Farms Inc. in Listowel, Ont. Coneybeare’s family is invested in both dairy and poultry production, which is a growing trend. “CDX adding a new poultry production element makes it the place to be in April 2022.” The Canadian Dairy XPO has created a significant impact over the years, building a strong profile for the Canadian dairy industry on an international scale. CDX will continue to feature 300 focused dairy exhibitors from more than 32 countries, spread out across seven major trade show halls. Several new virtual components will be added to CDX 2022 to compliment the live event. Stay tuned for more details.

Dairy Farmers of Ontario SCHOLARSHIPS Dairy Farmers of Ontario (DFO) has an annual scholarship program, which offers up to four $3,000 scholarships to students entering a degree or diploma program in agriculture. To be eligible for these scholarships, an applicant must: • Be a son or daughter of a DFO licensed dairy producer (sons or daughters of current board members are not eligible); • Be entering semester one of an agricultural degree program or a diploma program in agriculture; • Have achieved an average of 80 per cent or greater in Grade 12 credits (best six to be averaged). Selection criteria will be based on: • Academic achievement;



• Future career plans; • Demonstrated leadership in secondary school and/or community activities. Payment if selected: The scholarships will be payable in two installments, one in semester one and one following semester two, based on satisfactory achievement. Application forms are available behind the password on DFO’s website at, in the Documents section under Forms. Complete application forms must be sent to DFO by Aug. 31, 2021. For more information, please contact Ashley Wannamaker at


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omme annoncé précédemment, le déploiement du module environnemental de proAction est prévu au début du mois de septembre 2021. Une des cinq exigences du module est d’avoir terminé un plan environnemental de ferme (PEF) avant la validation. Dairy Farmers of Ontario (DFO) est conscient que l’Association pour l’amélioration des sols et des récoltes de l’Ontario (AASRO), qui offre la formation sur l’élaboration d’un PEF, a dû suspendre les ateliers PEF dans la province en raison des restrictions liées à la COVID-19. En juin 2021, le comité proAction a ap-

prouvé la demande de DFO selon laquelle, dans les cas où le producteur n’a pas pu assister à un atelier pour terminer son PEF en raison des restrictions relatives à la COVID-19, la question devrait être notée comme « sans objet » au lieu de « majeure », en espérant que l’exemption sera éliminée progressivement lorsque les ateliers reprendront en Ontario. Entre-temps, les producteurs sont invités à communiquer avec l’AASRO au 1 800 2659751 ou à envoyer un courriel à pour obtenir des renseignements sur les options permettant d’élaborer ou de mettre à jour leur PEF en ligne.



la réunion du conseil d’administration de Dairy Farmers of Ontario (DFO) en juin 2021, le conseil a approuvé des modifications au livre de Politiques de transport de produits laitiers et quota, qui sont en vigueur depuis le 1er juillet 2021. Ces modifications portent sur : • les producteurs qui désirent vendre leur quota; • les producteurs qui ont cessé de livrer du lait pour une certaine période et qui désirent recommencer. Toutes les mises à jour sont consignées à l’annexe située au verso du livre de politiques en anglais. Les livres de politiques mis à jour sont publiés sur le site Web de l’industrie sous Programmes et Politiques dans le menu de gauche, ou sur



uand j’étais jeune, nous trayions 16 vaches dans une étable à stalles entravées, et l’été, les vaches étaient toujours au pâturage. Je devais rassembler les vaches à pied tous les mois et j’ai toujours aimé les voir au pâturage – on n’oublie jamais le bruit des vaches qui paissent. À l’automne 2020, nous avons emménagé dans notre nouvelle installation robotisée où nous trayons actuellement 65 vaches. Tout au long de l’hiver dernier, nous nous sommes demandé si nous pourrions continuer à faire paître les vaches tout en les trayant avec un robot. Ce printemps, nous avons ouvert les portes WWW.MILKPRODUCER.CA

pour laisser les vaches aller au pâturage – et nous n’avons jamais regardé en arrière. Nous continuons à faire paître nos vaches en rotation dans des pâturages proches de l’étable pendant la journée, et les vaches reviennent fréquemment à l’étable où elles ont libre accès à leur ration composée, à l’eau et au robot. Dans l’ensemble, la transition s’est bien passée et les vaches se portent bien. Sans dire que tout est parfait, selon nous, nous avons réussi à équilibrer le pâturage de nos vaches et optimisé notre laiterie. Le pâturage en rotation et en temps opportun sur des pâturages composés avec de la luzerne, des graminées, du trèfle et du lotier favorise le rendement et la repousse des pâturages tout en remplissant le réservoir. Je sais bien que le pâturage des vaches laitières n’est pas pour tout le monde. Or, j’ai toujours pensé que cette façon de faire présentait plusieurs avantages, notamment la santé des vaches, la réduction des coûts d’alimentation et la

diminution de la main-d’œuvre. Le pâturage des vaches a suscité un certain engouement sur le marché en fournissant du lait provenant de vaches nourries à l’herbe pour le beurre et le fromage. Je suis très fier de fournir du lait pour le programme de lait provenant de vaches nourries à l’herbe et je me réjouis de l’expansion continue du marché. À l’avenir, nous prévoyons d’agrandir le troupeau et de continuer à faire paître nos vaches. Faire partie de ce programme ne crée pas seulement un marché de niche, mais soutient une demande croissante pour nos produits, en plus d’être avantageux pour notre industrie. Alors que trois générations continuent de faire partie de notre exploitation laitière, je suis fier de nos traditions et, même si nous allons maintenant chercher les vaches avec un VTT, nous continuerons d’intégrer la technologie dans notre activité afin de rester progressistes et de faire avancer notre secteur. MILKPRODUCER | AUGUST 2021



DES CHANGEMENTS INATTENDUS DU MARCHÉ À COURT TERME ENTRAÎNENT UNE RÉDUCTION DES JOURS D’INCITATIF traintes au niveau des transformateurs. Pour l’instant, aucune autre modification n’est apportée aux jours d’incitatif pour les mois suivants. Toutefois, en cette période d’incertitude, les offices du P5 continueront à évaluer la situation et à adapter les signaux de production pour faire face aux changements du marché, le cas échéant. « Il s’agit presque d’un paradoxe, car nous constatons une augmentation de la demande à long terme, mais il y a également trop de lait dans le système à très court terme », explique Patrice Dubé, responsable de l’économie et de l’élaboration des politiques de Dairy Farmers of Ontario (DFO). Le mois dernier, la Commission canadienne du lait a fourni ses prévisions pour la campagne laitière 2021-2022, prévoyant que les

Par Jennifer Nevans



n raison d’une baisse récente et inattendue de la demande du marché, les offices du P5 ont accepté de réduire les jours d’incitatif de deux jours en août et d’un jour en septembre, pour un total d’un jour en août et de deux jours en septembre (tableau 1). De plus, il y aura une pénalité de dépassement du quota de 20 $ par hectolitre à partir du 1er août 2021 (tableau 2). Cette décision est le résultat d’un ralentissement des marchés de détail, d’une reprise plus lente que prévu dans le secteur de la restauration et d’une réduction imprévue des commandes d’usines causée par diverses con-

PRIX PONDÉRÉS DU P5 ET DU POOL DE L’OUEST* Le graphique ci-dessous montre le prix pondéré de 12 mois pour les provinces du P5 et le pool de lait de l’Ouest (PLO). *Ces chiffres sont fournis avec un décalage de trois mois

Juin 2021



Juillet 2021



Août 2021



Septembre 2021



Octobre 2021



Novembre 2021



stocks de beurre atteindraient 25 000 tonnes en juillet 2022, soit 10 000 tonnes de moins que l’objectif de 35 000 tonnes. « Cela signifie que l’industrie devrait techniquement être en mesure d’émettre un signal de pro-

Proportion de M.S.D.-M.G. en Ontario Proportion ciblée de M.S.D.-M.G. en Ontario


juin 2021

mai 2021

avril 2021

fév. 2021

mars 2021

déc. 2020


janv. 2021

2,2 oct. 2020

mai 2021

avril 2021

fév. 2021

mars 2021

déc. 2020


janv. 2021

oct. 2020

nov. 2020

sept. 2020

juil. 2020

août 2020

juin 2020



nov. 2020




août 2020

P5 77,44 $


sept. 2020


juil. 2020

PLO 79,06 $

Proportion de M.S.D.-M.G.


80 Prix pondéré à l’hectolitre


Ce graphique montre la proportion de M.S.D.-M.G. en Ontario pour les 12 derniers mois par rapport à sa proportion ciblée de 2,1722.





Prix pondéré du P5 Prix pondéré du PLO


Tableau 1 : Sommaire des jours d’incitatif


duction supplémentaire, mais qu’en raison des changements inattendus du marché à court terme, les provinces du P5 ne sont pas actuellement en mesure d’émettre ce signal », explique M. Dubé. M. Dubé qualifie la situation de paradoxale, car si les prévisions indiquent une forte demande pour la production laitière nationale, les goulots d’étranglement au niveau de la transformation et d’autres changements inattendus du marché à court terme font en sorte qu’il est difficile de répondre à la demande avec du lait national. En juin 2021, les stocks de beurre ont atteint 32 100 tonnes, soit une augmentation constante par rapport aux 30 400 tonnes de mai 2021. Entre-temps, les stocks de fromage ont atteint 108 600 tonnes en juin 2021, soit une baisse par rapport au mois précédent où

ils étaient de 109 600 tonnes. En matière de ventes de produits laitiers nationaux, pour les 52 semaines se terminant le 19 juin 2021, les ventes au détail de lait, de crème liquide, de yogourt, de crème glacée, de fromage et de beurre ont augmenté de 1,3 %, 7,6 %, 3,5 %, 1,6 %, 5,2 % et 2,7 %, respectivement, par rapport à la même période de 52 semaines l’an dernier. Quant à la demande nationale de matière grasse pour la période de 12 mois se terminant en mai 2021, elle a atteint 1,1 million de kilogrammes, contre 1,06 million l’année précédente. Entre-temps, la production totale de lait du P10 pour la période de 12 mois se terminant en mai 2021 a atteint 1,08 million de kilogrammes, contre 1,04 million l’année précédente.

Tableau 2 : Pénalité de dépassement du quota ($/kg) À compter du 1er août 2021, la pénalité pour la quantité de lait commercialisée par un producteur qui dépasse 100 % du quota et des crédits disponibles sera facturée aux taux suivants : Pénalité de dépassement du quota ($/kg) Matière grasse

2,7327 $


1,9107 $

Autres solides

0,3917 $





Montant voulait/kg

Quantité à vendre/kg

Quantité achetée/kg


48 005 $





42 200 $





36 500 $




34 600,10 $




24 000 $

20 135,79




24 000 $

20 532,63




24 000 $





24 000 $





24,000 $




Manitoba Ontario

*Terre-Neuve n’utilise pas d’échange mensuel de quotas **Plafond de 24 000 $ en vigueur en Île-du-Prince-Édouard Nouveau-Brunswick Ontario Nouvelle-Écosse et le Québec






Retenues en Ontario

Retenues brutes moyennes par hL, basé sur la composition mensuelle provinciale kg-par-hL.

Pour juin 2021

*Ces équivalents par hl sont calculés d’après la composition moyenne ontarienne pour juin 2021 de 4,04 pour la M.G., de 3,14 pour la protéine et de 5,94 pour les A.M.S., et arrondis au centième près. Le prix réel du transport pour juin 2021 était de 2,680 $ l’hectolitre.

Prix intérieur-quota Excédent de quota

M.G. par kg

Protéin par kg

A.M.S par kg

REVENU par kg de M.G.

REVENU *par hL

11,08 $

9,48 $

0,90 $

18,81 $

76,01 $

0,00 $

0,00 $

0,00 $

0,00 $

0,00 $

En juin, 3339 producteurs ont livré du lait au DFO compara­tivement à 3367 l’an dernier.

% M.G. % Extrait sec degrasse



3,12 %



6,11 %

*2,35 % *2,26 % *0,85 %

3,99 % 5,27 %


*4,89 % 14,42 % 13,48 %


*14,38 %

0,81 % 1,04 % 2,18 % 2,67 %

3c2 3c4

*0,83 % *2,67 % 6,26 %


*7,96 %

9,13 %

0,36 % 0,33 %


*0,32 % 3,07 % 4,50 %


*3,16 % 18,49 % 16,81 %


0,64 %


*13,17 % *2,06 %

6,36 %

3,15 % 3,50 %


1,72 % 1,53 % 0,43 %

5c 0%


*7,87 % *5,06 %

4,53 %

0,18 % 0,74 % 0,81 %


*27,31 %

24,33 %

3,98 %

0,80 %


% Revenu

13,53 %

2,54 %



*2,05 % 7,46 %

*2,26 % *0,55 %





juin 2021

Pour juin 2021

Pour mai 2020 (kg de M.G./kg d’extrait sec dégraissé)

11,74 %

mai 2021


*Utilisation par classe dans le P10


avril 2021

4,815 $ -4,815 $

$70 mars 2021

4,815 $ 71,192 $

76,01 $ fév. 2021

Total de retenues Total net moyen

$75 janv. 2021

0,625 $ 0,050 $ 0,060 $ 2,680 $ 1,400 $

déc. 2020

0,625 $ 0,050 $ 0,060 $ 2,680 $ 1,400 $

nov. 2020

Administration DFO Recherche DFO CanWest DHI Transport Expansion de marché


oct. 2020

*par hL

sept. 2020

*par hL


août 2020

Excédent de quota

juil. 2020

Intérieur quota




Classe 1a1 (comprend les classes 1a2, 1a3, 1c et 1d pour des raisons de confidentialité) Lait et boissons Classe 1b Crèmes liquides Classe 2a Yogourt, boissons à base de yogourt, kéfir et lassi Classe 2b4 (comprend les classes 2b1, 2b2 et 2b3 pour des raisons de confidentialité) Desserts laitiers frais, crème sure, milk shakes, et boissons nutritionnelles pour sportifs Classe 2b5 Crème glacée et yogourt glacé Classe 3a1 Fromages de spécialité Classe 3a2 Fromages en grains et fromages frais Classe 3b2 (comprend la classe 3b1 pour des raisons de confidentialité) Cheddar et cheddar vieilli Classe 3c1 Feta Classe 3c2 Asiago, gouda, havarti, parmesan et suisse Classe 3c4 (comprend les classes 3c3 et 3c5 pour des raisons de confidentialité) Brick, Colby, fermier, jack, Monterey jack, munster, fromage pour pizza, mozzarella pour pizza, et autres mozzarellas non couvertes dans la classe 3d. Classe 3c6 Panir Classe 3d Mozzarella utilisée strictement sur les pizzas fraîches par les établissements enregistrés auprès de la Commission canadienne du lait Classe 4a Beurre et poudres Classe 4d (comprend les classes 4b1, 4b2, 4c et 4m pour des raisons de confidentialité) Lait concentré pour la vente au détail, les pertes et l’alimentation animale Classe 5a Fromages destinés à la transformation Classe 5b Produits non fromagers destinés à la transformation Classe 5c Produits de confiserie


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