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CONTENTS

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CONTENTS

Contents Foreword

6–7

Seven Deadly Sins

8–9

The Rainbow

28–29

No.7

30–31

Seven Seas

32–33

7/7 Attacks

34–35

Seven Days

58–59

007

60–61

7 ft.

62–63

Seven Continents

64–65

Seven Years

100–101

7up

102–103

+7

104–105

1907–2007

106–107

Lucky Seven

134–135

Playing Sevens

136–137

Neutral pH

138–139

Seven Wonders of the World

140–141

Seventh Son

188–189

Seven Dwarfs

190–191

Seven Inch

192–193

Seven Songs

194–195

Se7en

210–211

Seventh Leader

212–213

Days of the week

214–215

Seven Heavenly Virtues

216–217

Seven Pillars

248–249

Seven Dials

250–251

Bibliography

252–253

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FOREWORD

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FOREWORD

Foreword During the research period of this project I constantly found myself noticing references to the number seven in day to day life. It would crop up in books, films, in conversation with friends, etc. I began considering what this might be, as it seemed more than merely a coincidence. What I was experiencing was the Baader-Meinhof Phenomenon. This phenomenon bears some similarity to synchronicity which is the experience of having a highly meaningful coincidence, such as having someone telephone you while you are thinking about them. The reason for this is our brains’ prejudice towards patterns. Our brains are fantastic pattern recognition engines, a characteristic which is highly useful for learning, but it does cause the brain to lend excessive importance to unremarkable events. Named for a militant West German terrorist group, active in the 1970s. The St. Paul Minnesota Pioneer Press online commenting board was the unlikely source of the name. In 1994, a commenter dubbed the frequency illusion “the Baader-Meinhof phenomenon� after randomly hearing two references to Baader-Meinhof within 24 hours.

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SEVEN DEADLY SINS

The Seven Deadly Sins, also known as the capital vices or cardinal sins, is a grouping and classification of vices within Christian teachings.

Behaviours or habits are classified under this category if they directly give birth to other immoralities. According to the standard list, they are pride, greed, lust, envy, gluttony, wrath and sloth, which are also contrary to the seven virtues. These sins are often thought to be abuses or excessive versions of one’s natural faculties or passions.

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SEVEN DEADLY SINS

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SEVEN DEADLY SINS

DAVID R. SLAVITT

In The Seven Deadly Sins and Other Poems, veteran poet David R. Slavitt touches on topics from the mundane to the mysterious with his signature wit and intelligence. Slavitt explores the range of the human condition and like the collection’s title poem, Slavitt gives a voice to the Seven Deadly Sins, each of which claims, persuasively, to possess a value to humans that is seldom noticed or appreciated. Slavitt has a unique ability to examine an idea– be it virtue or vice, dark or blithe– and offer perspective and wisdom about the conundrums of our existence.

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DAVID R. SLAVITT

SEVEN DEADLY SINS

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SEVEN DEADLY SINS

Pride

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PRIDE Pride is considered, on almost every list, the original and most serious of the seven deadly sins: the perversion of the faculties that make humans more like God—dignity and holiness. It is also thought to be the

source of the other capital sins. Also known as hubris , or futility, it is identified as dangerously corrupt selfishness, the putting of one’s own desires, urges, wants, and whims before the welfare of people.


PRIDE

SEVEN DEADLY SINS

Pride, c.1558 – Pieter Bruegel the Elder All Is Vanity, 1892 – Charles Allan Gilbert

Surely there must be some mistake. I admit at once that my name is there with the other six, but, after all, if you look at what I am and what I do, as you should not only for my sake but your own, and examine in however perfunctory a fashion before passing judgment, you will realize that I have about me a certain dignity, even a moral weight, and that my contribution over the generations has been by no means negligible. Only call me self‐respect, or, avoiding false modesty, honor, and where are we then?

In what way are my promptings sinful? Pride gives men a reason for doing the right thing even when the world has gone mad. Without any self-regard I suggest that a man is helpless, very likely depressed, and could at any moment go native. In this light you must concede that I am one of the bulwarks of decency: I embody not only ethical norms but also standards of good taste in dress and deportment in art and music as well without which civilisation would long ago have toppled. A sin? No, I’m a virtue and have my pride.

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SEVEN DEADLY SINS

Anger

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ANGER Wrath can be defined as uncontrolled feelings of anger, rage, and even hatred. Wrath often reveals itself in the wish to seek vengeance. In its purest form, wrath presents with injury, violence, and hate that may

provoke feuds that can go on for centuries. Feelings of wrath can manifest in different ways, including impatience, hateful misanthropy, revenge, and self-destructive behaviour.


ANGER

SEVEN DEADLY SINS

Kill Bill: Volume 1, 2003 – Quentin Tarantino, Uma Thurman The Great Day of His Wrath, 1789-1854 – John Martin

This is, to say the very least, annoying, but, as you see, I am calm, I am in control. I should like to point out, however, that the capacity for anger is morally neutral, and even, sometimes, a good thing. Does injustice make you angry? Do cruelty and suffering not engage your emotions? Intellectual disapproval is never enough. What you want is your blood to boil, to seethe with fury at the outrageousness of what you cannot tolerate and mankind ought not to permit. Anger, or call it instead righteous wrath, is an aspect of the divine, and if we partake to any degree in that perfection, then we also feel rage at what goes on around us.

For me to be classed as one of the seven deadly sins is enough to make anyone angry, but what’s wrong with that, as long as I maintain proper decorum? The mental state, the mere idea of anger, cannot be sinful. Any random thought that crosses your mind . . . Are you held accountable for that? Then you are all eternally damned—that is if you still believe in damnation and those scary Italian pictures of the last judgment with the shrieking souls falling on one side of the canvas, and, on the other, beatific wimps ascending, smiling, full of the gas of gentle piety. Do you want to be one of those? Do you? I ask you. Grow up, accept who you are, and accept me.

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SEVEN DEADLY SINS

Avarice

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AVARICE Greed also known as avarice, cupidity, or covetousness, is, like lust and gluttony, a sin of desire. However, greed (as seen by the Church) is applied to an artificial, rapacious desire and pursuit of material possessions.

Thomas Aquinas wrote, “Greed is a sin against God, just as all mortal sins, in as much as man condemns things eternal for the sake of temporal things.� Like pride, it can lead to not just some, but all evil.


AVARICE

SEVEN DEADLY SINS

Der Sinn Des Hitlergrusses, 1932 – John Heartfield The Worship of Mammon, 1909 – Evelyn De Morgan.

I know what you’re about to say: radix malorum est cupiditas. I admit that, in Latin, it has a nice ring to it, but let us be frank with each other and try to imagine a world in which there wasn’t at least some degree of cupiditas. The industrial revolution is erased, the capitalist system in which mankind is better off, at least in a material way, than it ever has been since man rooted about for acorns. Ambition? The desire for betterment, for one’s self and family too, the eagerness for respect the society shows, it cannot be denied, in financial terms, is the only language universally understood... You want to chuck all that? What are you, some kind of leftwing dreamer?

Greed can get out of hand (but then what can’t?) and be carried sometimes to grotesque excess. And if that is the case, then greed isn’t the sin but excess—which oddly does not appear on the list. A roof over your head, a decent bed, a nice house, or maybe even a little more than that? A car that’s fun to drive and you’re on the road to hell? Does that make sense? Who’s left? You want to go and live on a commune? Or maybe some simple place in the third world? Well, maybe you do, but only because it’s cheaper, you can get good servants for next to nothing, and live remarkably well on what your portfolio yields.

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SEVEN DEADLY SINS

Envy

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ENVY Envy like greed and lust, is characterised by an insatiable desire. It can be described as a sad or resentful covetousness towards the traits or possessions of someone else. It arises from vainglory, and severs

a man from his neighbour. Malicious envy is similar to jealousy in that they both feel discontent towards someone’s traits, status, abilities, or rewards. Envy and gloating have parallel structures as emotions.


ENVY

SEVEN DEADLY SINS

Cain killing Abel, c.1600 – Bartolomeo Manfredi

The rest of them envy me, and I admit that I am pleased by this. It’s always nice when someone looks at your ring, your stick-pin, your wife, the emeralds at her neck and on her bosom, and smiles to hide the grinding of his teeth as he admits to himself (but you know, too) that you are the alpha male. The other six are on the list, but I am the only one who appears as well in the Ten Commandments, which galls them. Not that this makes me especially heinous or different, for who does not feel envy when window-shopping on Madison in the sixties? He’s blind or dead, or he has so much himself that he only knows envy from the receiving end, for it is a two-way street. You crave what this man has, or how much he knows, or how good he looks, or his youth or health, or his success, or his children’s...Of course you do, and this is a goad to work harder.

Take a longer view, and all the improvements of the past five hundred years, you must admit, resulted from my prompting. The labour movement? Universal suffrage? The fundamental belief in equal justice? They’re all my doing, and answers to the envy that first informed those men and women that they were being treated like beasts, like dirt. Why then does my name appear on lists of prohibitions and taboos? Precisely for that reason—that I disturb the social order and make the nobles quake in their huge dining rooms with the centrepieces of silver and gold, the crystal chandeliers, the flatware, the fine china, and all those footmen. They count on it that wealth arouses envy and hope that the peasants, believing what they’ve been told, won’t riot (at least not yet), for that would be sinful.

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SEVEN DEADLY SINS

Lust

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LUST Lust, or lechery, is intense longing. It is usually thought of as intense or unbridled sexual desire, which leads to fornication, adultery, rape, bestiality, and other immoral sexual acts. However, lust could also mean

simply desire in general; thus, lust for money, power, and other things are sinful. In accordance with the words of Henry Edward Manning, the impurity of lust transforms one into “a slave of the devil�.


LUST

SEVEN DEADLY SINS

Marilyn Monroe, 1956 – Milton H. Greene Lust, c.1558 – Pieter Bruegel the Elder

I have an affirmative defense. I am not only not a sin but the subject of Jehovah’s first commandment: Be fruitful and multiply. How else does that happen, do you suppose, and what demented church father loathing the body, loathing himself, dreamed up the perverse idea that lust was, in itself, a bad thing? The Greeks, who were civilized—at least for a while— thought of me as a god and accorded me respect. What man or woman can look at a painting or sculpture, never mind of a nude but even a pot of flowers,

a landscape, a still life, without lust, or, say, an appreciation of the sensuous forms the painter has on offer, and not respond at all? I should not have been put here on this ridiculous list, and whoever thinks I deserve such a calumny ought to see a shrink. People can, I concede, misuse my gift, but that’s their business. Love, children,the survival of the species have their costs. I invite you to take a walk with me in the springtime when the girls first reappear in their summer dresses and tell me it is not good to be alive.

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SEVEN DEADLY SINS

Greed

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GREED Gluttony, or greed, is the overindulgence and overconsumption of anything to the point of waste. The word derives from the Latin gluttire, meaning to gulp down or swallow. In Christianity, it is considered a sin if the excessive

desire for food causes it to be withheld from the needy. Devils, Demons, and Witchcraft says those who commit the Sin of Gluttony are punished in Hell by being forced to eat rats, toads, and snakes.


GREED

SEVEN DEADLY SINS

Harrodsburg, 2017 – Dougie Wallace Gluttony, 2012 – Kurt Wenner

What, I ask you, distinguishes me from hunger that can’t be a sin, except in the mind of some self-abusing monk in his cell, despising whatever is not pure spirit? Men are bodies, and bodies need to be fed. But, to answer the question, gluttony is excess, some unattractive fat rich man whom it’s easy to laugh at. There are, nevertheless, a few words of explanation (not perhaps a defense but at least an extenuation), for the deeper question is the nature of his hunger that he knows is unhealthy. His doctor, at every visit, talks of his sleep apnea, his arthritis, and his A1C haemoglobin that’s high, and the poor fellow would cut back if he could.

He resolves to do better, and tries, and fails. That hunger of his isn’t for food but for love. He is sad, or beyond sad, and in his heartbreak he needs to be consoled, and he dimly remembers— or cannot quite remember what his body keeps, still, in its deepest recesses— lying on his mother’s breast, snug, warm, loved, and being suckled, and he would give the world to go back to that, but he can’t, and instead he gorges, stuffs himself, and never is satis ed. But is that a moral defect? Or is it the world, perilous and unfriendly as it is, that deserves reproof? Show him a little compassion, the understanding and love that he hungers for.

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SEVEN DEADLY SINS

Sloth

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SLOTH Sloth refers to a peculiar jumble of notions, dating from antiquity and including mental, spiritual, pathological, and physical states. It may be defined as absence of interest or habitual disinclination to exertion.

Sloth not only subverts the livelihood of the body, taking no care for its day-to-day provisions, but also slows down the mind, halting its attention to matters of great importance.


SLOTH

SEVEN DEADLY SINS

Benidorm, Spain 1997 – Martin Parr from the book ‘Common Sense’ Parable of the Wheat and the Tares, 1624 – Abraham Bloemaert

Not laziness, no, it’s bigger than that. The older name was better, Accidie, which suggests a larger fatigue, not only of flesh but of spirit, a failure, at last, of faith, and that indeed would be a sin, that is if you believed in sin. But my people don’t. Perhaps they used to, but now they get by on pills, the Lexapro and maybe a little Wellbutrin. And their despair may not indicate madness but sanity, for they have seen through to

the dismal truth of things—that nothing lasts, that the dreams of their youth were merely dreams. They grow up and age, and the body betrays, and the mind, as it starts to consider the emptiness that beckons, resigns itself. The childhood faith they used to have seems quaint, or a bad joke. There is no afterlife. There is no life.

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SEVEN DEADLY SINS

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CLEON PETERSON


CLEON PETERSON

SEVEN DEADLY SINS

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2 7/7 ATTACKS

The 7 July 2005 London bombings, often referred to as 7/7, were a series of coordinated terrorist suicide attacks in London, United Kingdom, which targeted commuters travelling on the city’s public transport system during the morning rush hour.

Fifty-two people, all UK residents but of 18 different nationalities, were killed and more than 700 were injured in the attacks.

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7/7 ATTACKS

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7/7 ATTACKS

THE 52

The 52

Philip Beer, Rachelle Chung For Yuen, Michael Stanley Brewster, Jonathan Downey, David Foulkes, Jennifer Nicholson, Colin Morely, Marie Hartley, Miriam Hyman, Shahara Islam, Neetu Jain, Anat Rosenberg, Sam Ly, Elizabeth Daplyn, Karolina Gluck, Gamze Gunoral, Ojara Ikeagwu, Emily Jenkins, Susan Levy, Helen Jones, Shelley Mather, Anne Moffat, Fiona Stevenson, James Mayes, Anna Brandt, Benedetta Ciaccia, Ciaran Cassidy, Monika Suchocka,

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Christian Small. Laura Webb, Richard Gray, Carrie Taylor, Richard Ellery, Jamie Gordon, Giles Hart, Philip Russell, William Wise, Gladys Wundowa, James Adams, Lee Harris, Shyanuja Niroshini Parathasangary, Arthur Frederick, Mike Minh Matsushita, Behnaz Mozakka, Mihaela Otto, Atique Sharifi, Ihab Slimane, Adrian Johnson, Lee Baisden, Anthony Fatayi-Williams, Mala Trivedi, Samantha Badham.


THE 52

7/7 ATTACKS

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38 Hasib Hussain Germaine Lindsay

Shehzad Tanweer

Mohammad Sidique Khan

7/7 ATTACKS TIMELINE OF EVENTS


TIMELINE OF EVENTS

7/7 ATTACKS

04:00

06:51– 07:24

Khan, Tanweer & Hussain leave Leeds in rented car

Trio meet fourth bomber Lindsay and catch train to London

08:23

08:38– 08:48

Bombers arrive at King’s Cross

Three men enter the Underground

08:49

09:47

Tanweer, Khan and Lindsay detonate their devices at Aldgate, Edgware Road and Russell Square

Hussain triggers his device on a doubledecker bus

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7/7 ATTACKS

1 8:51am – 7 dead Explosion in tunnel between Aldgate and Liverpool Street

2 8:56am – 26 dead Explosion in tunnel between King’s Cross and Russel Square

3 9:17am – 6 dead Train explosion close to Edgware Road Station

4 9:47am – 13 dead Bus explosion at Tavistock Square

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LOCATION OF ATTACKS


LOCATION OF ATTACKS

3

4

7/7 ATTACKS

2 1

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Tavistock Square, central London after the attack

A wounded woman is led away from Edgware Road station after the 7/7 attacks

7/7 ATTACKS

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GALLERY


Evidence bags full of scraps from the blown-up Piccadilly Line carriage

An officer logs bags of debris collected from the bomb scene

A damaged train in the London subway, between Liverpool Street and Aldgate stations

GALLERY 7/7 ATTACKS

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Roof photograph of the bus on Tavistock Square

Emergency services outside King’s Cross station

7/7 ATTACKS

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GALLERY


Fire engine outside Edgware Road Station after the explosion

Flowers laid at the memorial in Hyde Park

GALLERY 7/7 ATTACKS

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7/7 ATTACKS

SURVIVOR INTERVIEWS

It is now over a decade since four bombs were detonated in London during rush hour, killing fifty two and injuring more than seven hundred. Seven who survived tell Megan Conner their memories of that terrible day and how they have coped in the years since.

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SURVIVOR INTERVIEWS

7/7 ATTACKS

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7/7 ATTACKS

SURVIVOR INTERVIEWS

Mark Margolis: on the Piccadilly line between King’s Cross and Russell Square We ended up using the site in its original form until 2013, when the technology was decommissioned. At that point I asked my employers, Microsoft, if we could switch to some software we used at work called Yammer. I was just moving us over when I was sat down reading a sci-fi the Boston marathon bombing novel. By complete coincidence happened. I picked up the phone there was an explosion in the on an impulse and rang around story. The real sound was masBoston. Eventually someone got sive. It was like two bits of metal in touch from the Boston Medical colliding and there was this imHelp Service and we set up an mediate feeling of being outside, online network for the Boston as if I was on a rollercoaster. survivors. I remember sitting in total darkSince then I have written a white ness for 25 minutes, helplessly paper on how to generate and listening to horrendous things use a survivor network anyaround me, then the driver where in the world. Last year opened his door and said we I presented it at the White were going to walk out. Those of House. For us it was kind of obvius that could, did. I count myself ous: you want to be able to share really lucky because on the conlegally and emotionally sensitive course I was able to get through information in one secure place. to my wife, Sarah, and she came to meet me. I feel like we shared Our site is still a bit of a safety blanket. Although I was back to the experience of that day. work and on the tube the next In hospital, they cleaned up day – I felt defiant about that my head wounds. They were – there are milestones to get throwing away the tissues and through. Last year I went to work I remember the banging of the for the first time on 7/7. This year metal bin lid made me jump out I will go to the memorial service. of my skin. After that, I was in Next year, maybe not. I’ll always denial for a bit. I didn’t want to take time out to think about believe a bomb went off in my those that died, but I also feel I carriage, but I felt a huge sense owe it them to get on with my life. of relief when I realised the bombers were dead. I can still remember the trip to the train station: walking there, the weather, what I was wearing. There was a blue dot on the platform at Finsbury Park and that day I stood there, exactly where the doors would open.

“” I’ll always take time out to think about those that died, but I also feel I owe it them to get on with my life. 48

A few of us on the Piccadilly line train created a website called Kings Cross United, where we could talk and share information, such as how to fill out complicated medical forms.


SURVIVOR INTERVIEWS

7/7 ATTACKS

John Tulloch: on the Circle line between Edgware Road and Paddington It took a while for my memories to come back. At first, I just remembered waking up in all the debris. I must have only been unconscious for an instant, and then I woke thinking something had happened, but only to me. It was when I rolled over that I saw everyone else was covered in blood. I’d been on my way to Paddington. From there, I was catching a train home to Cardiff. I’d flown in from Australia the previous day and was told later that it was my luggage – a suitcase, a laptop bag and a cabin bag – that saved me. I don’t know why I had this obsession with getting my bag back. I’d been writing a report on risk, of all things, and in that moment finding my laptop was of paramount importance. My glasses had been blown away, so I couldn’t see much. Now I’m grateful for that, because of all the horror that was around me. Next to me there was a huge crater in the floor of the train, and there was a man stuck in it. Before the bomb went off, I remember two American women talking about shopping in Kensington – one of those women lost her leg.

At the coroner’s inquest, it emerged that everyone around me had either died or lost limbs. I was only four to six feet away from the bomber, sitting opposite him, and yet came away with no significant physical injuries. The next day my picture was on the front of the newspaper next to Tony Blair’s and, for me, that was like trauma number two – I still believe it was because of British foreign policy that we ended up with 7/7. By the end of the year, I was feeling very angry politically, so I wrote a book called Icons of War and Terror. My next book involves 7/7. I think my response has been to get some control of what’s going on around me through my work. I still suffer from PTSD – when something comes into my peripheral view quite suddenly I can have flashbacks, and vertigo can make me vomit in the street. Sometimes I can just break down. There’s something about being blown up in a terrorist attack that can bring you to tears at the most unexpected of times.

“” The next day my picture was on the front of the newspaper next to Tony Blair’s and, for me, that was like trauma number two

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7/7 ATTACKS

SURVIVOR INTERVIEWS

Martine Wright: on the Circle line between Liverpool Street and Aldgate My last working memory before 7/7 was jumping up and down in the office in front of a big screen. On 6 July, London had won its bid to host the Olympics and we went out to celebrate. The next day I was late; I’d hit the snooze button and when I got to the tube I was unable to take my usual route because of signal failure on the Northern line. I’ve always hated Circle line trains – every Londoner knows you wait ages for one. But I remember rushing down the escalator at Moorgate just as one pulled in and thinking, “What a result.” I jumped on the first carriage I got to and found my usual seat by the door. I opened my newspaper and was reading about the Olympics, thinking: “I’ve got to get tickets to this,” just as the bomb went off. It was a big white flash in front of my eyes – I didn’t hear any sound. But I felt like I was in a Tom and Jerry cartoon and I’d been hit by a frying pan. I could see that there weren’t any seats any more. We were in this black environment with screams and smells. When I looked up one of my Adidas trainers was on the ceiling. When I looked down, the end of the train had crumbled into my legs. It’s amazing how the body deals with things. I don’t recall the pain – I thought I had passed out by that stage. But later a fireman told me: “Martine, you were conscious the whole time we were cutting you out of the train. You were screaming.”

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At the memorial service a year later, a policeman showed me scars in his hand where I’d been digging into the skin. Now I think about the people who weren’t injured that had to walk past our carriage that day and the look of horror on their faces. It must have affected them psychologically. In hospital, I was put into a coma for 10 days. My body was so swollen my family didn’t recognise me. When I woke up, there was someone stroking my head saying: “Martine, you’ve been in an accident and we’ve had to take your legs away.”

A few months later, my physio took me to a sports try-out day and it was there that I fell in love with sitting volleyball. There wasn’t a national team at that point, but in 2012 we competed in the Paralympics and came eighth. The fact I competed in London tells me that maybe it was meant to be. But it’s easier to say that 10 years on. If someone had told me that nine years ago, I wouldn’t have seen it that way.

I remember looking at other victims in hospital and thinking: “Why me? Why am I one of the worst injured? Why I have I lost both my legs, and above the knee?” The “Why me” was a big thing in the first year. But 10 years on, I truly believe I was destined to get on that carriage and sustain those injuries. I’m strong and I have a wonderful, supportive family. I’ve always been a glass-half-full person, so maybe I was chosen because I can deal with it. In 2007, my boyfriend Nick proposed and in 2008 we got married. In 2009 we had our son Oscar – he was due on 7 July, can you believe it.

“”

When I looked down, the end of the train had crumbled into my legs.


SURVIVOR INTERVIEWS

7/7 ATTACKS

Sajda Mughal: on the Piccadilly line between King’s Cross and Russell Square I was a year out of university when 7/7 happened. If you’d asked me back then if I enjoyed my job, I would have said yes. I worked in recruitment and was earning well, enjoying myself. I was a normal 22-year-old. I remember running late that day. Wood Green station was closed, so I got on at Turnpike Lane. Back then I had a ritual of travelling in the first carriage – it was like an obsessive thing – but that day I couldn’t get down to the end of the platform. We must have been out of Kings’ Cross 10 seconds when the explosion happened. You felt the train shake – I thought we had crashed and derailed. It was quiet at first and then gradually there was screaming. My reaction was to be very still – being a Muslim, we have a belief that when a person dies it was written to happen that day. I remember thinking: “I haven’t seen the world or had kids, I haven’t done anything,” and preparing myself for death. We’d been down there for about 50 minutes when we heard distant cries saying: “It’s the police.” I can’t even describe the relief when we were led down the tracks to safety. At King’s Cross, I ran over the road to McDonald’s. I tried to ring my mum, but the mobile networks had gone down, so I stayed and watched the live news on the TV. After a while, I started walking home.

After that day, it emerged that the attacks were carried out by four guys who were Muslim. That’s what hit me more. Being a Muslim myself, I thought: “Well, why? Why would you do that? What ideology did you possess?” If they’d known their religion, it clearly states that to kill one innocent life is killing all humanity. From then on, questions played on my mind. Why didn’t the families of the bombers pick up on any signs that they were being brainwashed? Could they have been helped if something had been detected within the home? So, in 2007, I quit my job and started working for the JAN Trust. My work there started to focus on counter-terrorism: working with at-risk and radicalised individuals, and their families. This was an attack on my faith. I wanted to understand that mindset and change it. Before 7/7 I wasn’t thinking about getting married or having kids until at least my mid-30s, but my perspective changed. Not long afterwards I got married and became a mum to two daughters. Just earlier this year, my eldest daughter came to Buckingham Palace with me to receive my OBE and that was a really proud moment.

“”

This was an attack on my faith. I wanted to understand that mindset and change it.

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7/7 ATTACKS

SURVIVOR INTERVIEWS

Gill Hicks: on the Piccadilly line between King’s Cross and Russell Square I will always remember running up the escalators at King’s Cross to make that next train, probably because it was the last time I would ever run. That sense of striding up and the determination. It was such a busy day. We were squeezed into the carriage and it was one of those times where you just can’t believe more people are getting on. Now I know that I was standing next to the bomber – we had boarded together.

“” Now I know that I was standing next to the bomber – we had boarded together.

My very first understanding of the moment was “I’m having a heart attack.” So it was strangely reassuring to hear other people upset. Someone picked me up and put me on what remained of a bench seat, and I remember looking down and seeing I’d lost both my legs. I was very aware that I needed to act, so I took off my scarf and tied a tourniquet around each one. I felt this extraordinary experience then, of being given a choice as to whether I wanted to live or die. There was one voice saying: “Do you really want to live like that?” and it was so beautiful I just wanted to go to sleep. The other one was telling me it was going to be challenging but I could live. After that, nothing was the same again: 7 July 2005 is an absolute demarcation line in a split life. I look at everything before as life number one, and everything after that as a second chance.

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Going back to work was interesting. I was a workaholic before, but I remember being there in my wheelchair, listening to the meetings about the meetings they had and I thought: “Oh my God, I’ve been blown up and you’re still talking about that?” It felt like the definition of insanity. So in 2007 I set up a charity, MAD for Peace. I liked the idea of having “mad” as an acronym for Making a Difference, but also my anger. I do feel angry. I’m not bitter, but I absolutely believe it is not OK for people to killed and maimed at the hands of such senselessness. In 2013 I moved back to Australia and had a little girl, Amelie. We didn’t know if I’d be able to conceive or carry a baby standing up, but she’s a little miracle and a testament to all the people that saved me. I have to keep challenging myself, so this year, for the 10th anniversary of 7/7, I’m undertaking 10 physical challenges that scare me witless – everything from walking on hot coals to abseiling down one of London’s tallest buildings. I wrote in the book of condolences on the first anniversary that there are 26 lives we lost on my train that I would like to enhance my life for, and I want to show that the tactics of terrorism will never win.


SURVIVOR INTERVIEWS

7/7 ATTACKS

Sudhesh Dahad: on the Piccadilly line between King’s Cross and Russell Square Within minutes of me being on the platform it was ridiculously crowded. On the tube, I stood with my arms sandwiched to my sides and didn’t need to hold on to anything. It was a flash, then a sense of being plunged into darkness and a popping sound. I remember because for the days and weeks afterwards, I had nightmares about it. Suddenly there was space around me and I was on the ground.

“” therapists would throw statistics at me to show my fears were unfounded, but I just became more paranoid

On the station concourse they started bringing up people who were visibly injured, with severed arms and legs. There were fragments of glass in my body, but I didn’t need the same kind of medical attention so I left. Out on the street, everyone was running. I realised later that a fourth bomb had gone off on a bus nearby. A local police officer came to the house to pick up some of the clothes I had been wearing for forensics. I thought: “Great. I’m in the system.” But after that, I was left to rely on the BBC to find out what happened. A few weeks later, Scotland Yard realised I was in the bombed carriage. They wanted to interview me at my office on 21 July. My neighbour persuaded me to take the tube with him that morning. But to my horror, during the interview the detective got a call about another terrorist attack on the tube, attempted that day by a further four suicide bombers.

After that I wanted to get away from London. I tried to relocate my job to the US. I felt the psychological treatment I was receiving wasn’t working; therapists would throw statistics at me to show my fears were unfounded, but I just became more paranoid. I worried about everything from a potential pile-up on the motorway to light bulbs exploding. A busy period at work during the 2008 financial crisis eased things temporarily. It’s wellknown that one way to endure pain is to subject oneself to something worse for a short period. But it’s also ironic that a constant state of hypervigilance is likely to shorten your life anyway. My health became more problematic when, eight years after 7/7, I was diagnosed with spinal injuries from the bombing and had to have surgery. More recently, my fears aren’t caused by a fear of death itself, but the emotional impact on those closest to me. I know we owe it to those who died to make the most of our lives, but this can lead to added pressure or guilt if we don’t accomplish something with our second chance. I don’t want to sound like a doommonger among friends. I’m grateful for life, so I hope to overcome a difficult episode I’m currently experiencing.

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7/7 ATTACKS

SURVIVOR INTERVIEWS

Thelma Stober: on the Circle line between Liverpool Street and Aldgate I had the best job in the world. I was the director of law at the London Development Agency. The mayor of London had decided he was going to bid to host the 2012 Olympics and I was fortunate to be the person responsible for the land acquisition of the Olympic Park. You can imagine the pandemonium and excitement when, on 6 July, we won. I got home late and had been working so much in the build-up that on 7 July I decided to take the day off. My plan was to take my son, who was six at the time, to school and pick him up. I told my husband I wasn’t going to work, but after dropping Lewis off, I changed my mind. There was lots of paperwork for the bid still to be done. The carriage I usually sat in was the end coach because it was closest to the exit at Tower Hill where I got off. This particular day I was running for the train, so I ended up sitting in the first one. Afterwards they said to me: “Did you notice anything?” No, I did not. I was still in Olympic world – someone could have been standing on their head and I wouldn’t have noticed. But in the photos produced afterwards, I was standing next to the bomber.

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Weirdly there were a few things that passed through my mind just before he detonated. The first thing was to pay attention to unattended luggage. The other was that you shouldn’t use your mobile phone on the underground. I remembered seeing a poster about that in the days of the IRA, and I thought about that as I pulled out my Blackberry to send an email to my PA. At the exact moment I pressed send, the bomb detonated. There was this bright, white light. I felt as if I had been lifted up and circled around. And there was a siren: a continuous long sound. When I woke up, I was on the tracks. The tube door had come off and part of it was stuck to my right thigh. I could see people on the train screaming, and there was part of a foot laying over me. The first thing that came back into my head was the poster: I had caused this. The second was that they would save the people they thought were alive first. I needed to move, so I tried to stand on one foot. That’s when I noticed the other foot was turned backwards. A man called Colin Pettet came. He was a passenger on the train. He held me and put his jacket over me and started asking me questions: where I worked, where I lived. I said to him, “What’s with all the questions?” Now I call him my guardian angel because he saved me.


SURVIVOR INTERVIEWS

In the ambulance my brain was so alert. The driver didn’t know where he was going; somebody explained that all the ambulances in London were in use, so he’d come from Essex. There is nothing that can prepare you for losing a leg. I remember being offered counselling in hospital and telling them: “The problem’s my foot, not my head.” I was very determined. All I wanted to do was walk again and when I found out I’d been in a terrorist attack, it almost strengthened my resolve. I saw the bombers as victims themselves. Whatever had happened, they weren’t going to stop me getting on with my life. First of all, I had to fight a legal battle with the NHS – I wanted an artificial limb that matched the colour of my skin and the one I was being offered didn’t. There have been a lot of battles since – surgery to counteract the pain of walking and another legal fight that I helped with, for a public inquiry into what happened. I returned to work in May 2006, and we realised our dream for the Olympics. I’m in a different job now. I still don’t take the tube to work. I did try, but I just can’t, so I use taxis.

Around that time, a lot of the survivors were invited to visit the bombed carriages in a hangar in Ealing. I have a picture of ours behind my desk. It sounds morbid, but it’s a positive motivator for me because it shows how far I’ve come. Of course I have sad days. At my worst, I have anxiety and panic attacks – the 10-year anniversary coming up is a big thing. I suppose what makes me sad is that 10 years is a very long time and I thought I would have gotten to the position where I wouldn’t need more surgery and could take part in more sports with my son. But it’s not like that. Every day I’m thankful. Whatever your situation, I believe there is hope if you have courage and you can make good out of bad things. I come from Sierra Leone and during the war there, children had their legs deliberately amputated because they refused to join the rebels. There are kids dragging in the street because they don’t have crutches, so one of the things I do is collect secondhand limbs for them. I try to do what I can to help, and I try to go about my business smiling.

7/7 ATTACKS

“” Of course I have sad days. At my worst, I have anxiety and panic attacks– the 10-year anniversary coming up is a big thing.

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7/7 ATTACKS

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MEMORIAL


MEMORIAL

7/7 ATTACKS

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3 SEVEN CONTINENTS

Planet Earth is home to 7.3 billion people and over 1.5 million different species of animals, insects, and plants spread across seven continents. But, the continents are not at rest. They are always moving and over time will move and drift into entirely new continents over the next several hundred million years.

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SEVEN CONTINENTS

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SEVEN CONTINENTS

PANGAEA

Planet Earth is home to 7.3 billion people and over 1.5 million different species of animals, insects, and plants spread across 7 continents. Earth was not always comprised on seven continents. 175 million years ago the 7 continents were all connected into one supercontinent surrounded by a very large ocean.

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PANGAEA

SEVEN CONTINENTS

This supercontinent is known as Pangaea. It slowly began to break apart into 7 different pieces and drift into the positions we find them in the present. However, the continents are always moving and over time will drift into entirely new continents over the next several hundred million years.

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SEVEN CONTINENTS

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WHAT IS A CONTINENT?


WHAT IS A CONTINENT?

SEVEN CONTINENTS

What is a continent? Though there are many definitions of the term “continent,” it is generally used to identify large distinct land masses that make up planet Earth’s surface. What we know as land are actually the areas which happen to be at a high enough elevation to not be flooded by the lakes, rivers, and oceans of the world which surround them. The continents shapes and boundaries are ever-changing as the water surrounding them defines the land that makes up the continent. It is important to remember the five oceans of the world, as the continents make up just 1/3rd of Earth’s surface.

How many continents are there? Some consider the North and South American continent to be just one landmass referred to as the “American Continent.” Europe and Asia continent are also combined at times and referred to as “Eurasia.” The continent of Australia is often confused with the country of Australia. The Australian Continent includes Australia (country), Tasmania, New Guinea and others. This region is also referred to as “Oceania,” which includes the previously listed countries as well as New Zealand, Micronesian, and Polynesian islands. Oceania is generally not considered a continent as it does not make up “a single continuous landmass.” 5 Continents

Depending on when you went through school and the country you were educated, you may have learned that there were just 5 continents. Africa, America, Asia, Australia, and Europe. Interestingly, this is why we have five rings to symbolize the Olympic Games

6 Continents

In certain countries it is common for students to learn about just 6 continents. America, Antarctica, Asia, Africa, Australia (Oceania), and Europe. There are some geography experts that acknowledge just 6 continents where the continent of Asia and Europe are combined into a new continent called “Eurasia” as these two continents are one single land mass.

7 Continents

The most commonly accepted number of continents is 7. North America, South America, Africa, Antarctica, Australia (Oceania), Europe, and Asia.

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SEVEN CONTINENTS

AFRICA

Africa Land Area: 11,670,000 (sq mi)/28,489,869 (sq km) Population: 1,119,307,147 Largest City: Lagos, Nigeria (15,118,780) 2016

2014

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AFRICA

SEVEN CONTINENTS

Wodaabe (Mbororo) People - Gerewol Festival

With such a rich diversity of cultures there are well over a thousand languages recognized on the African continent. Because of this, it has the highest level of multilingualism in the world.

While Africa is first alphabetically, it is second in both population and size among the Earth’s seven continents. Over 1 billion people can call Africa home. The people of Africa are spread across 54 different countries in Africa. This continent is home to 15% of the world’s population and the continent makes up 20% of the total land area on planet earth. The equator passes through the center of the continent which provides for largely warm and/or tropical climates.

The northern and the southern portion of Africa have more temperate conditions. Of the continents of the world, Africa is unique in that it stretches between the northern and southern temperate zones. Africa is also attributed with being the birthplace of mankind. The oldest fossil evidence of Homo sapiens was found in the eastern part of the continent.

Africa’s large size and varying climates make it host to many of the most interesting species of plants and animals on Earth. There are currently more than 7,000 different species of mammals, fish, and birds in Africa. There are more than 100,000 species of insects as well. Here you can find both the largest (African Elephant) and tallest (Giraffe) animal.

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Makoko, Lagos - Nigeria

Cultivated hillsides in southwest Uganda

SEVEN CONTINENTS

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AFRICA


Market hall at Praia -Cape Verde

Harare international Carnival - Zimbabwe

Ethiopian children playing football

AFRICA SEVEN CONTINENTS

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SEVEN CONTINENTS

ANTARCTICA

Antarctica Land Area: 5,405,000 (sq mi)/12,949,940 (sq km) Population: 4,912 Largest City: McMurdo Station (1,258) 2015

2013

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ANTARCTICA

SEVEN CONTINENTS

Ross Ice Shelf

98% of the continent is covered in ice, and about 70% of the world’s total supply of fresh water is frozen in Antarctica. No other continent is colder, drier or windier than Antarctica.

The continent of Antarctica is positioned as the southernmost land mass on Earth. The South Pole can be found here among its large permanent glaciers and frigid weather. Even though Antarctica has one of the harshest climates and most unwelcoming terrains on planet Earth, there are still nearly five thousand people that temporarily call this continent home every year. This makes Antarctica the least populated continent on Earth.

Antarctica is known as the coldest landmass and has few native plants or animals because most of the continent is covered in sheets of ice that can be more than a mile thick which forms permanent glaciers. You can find penguins, seals, plants, and fungi in Antarctica. Interestingly, this continent is the only one which has no reptiles on its land mass.

Antarctica is the 5th in terms of size compared to the other 7 continents. Both Australia and Europe could fit in the same area that Antarctica covers. The continent is known for being extremely dry which qualifies it as the largest desert region in the world. Antarctica has one of the windiest and coldest climates of the world’s continents. Temperatures can reach -90°C (-130 °F) in some regions of the continent.

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A Wandering albatross on South Georgia

The ‘ceremonial’ South Pole, at Amundsen–Scott Station

The abandoned British base at Port Lockroy, 1962 - now a museum

SEVEN CONTINENTS

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ANTARCTICA


SEVEN CONTINENTS

Leopard seal

Diving penguins

ANTARCTICA

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SEVEN CONTINENTS

ASIA

Asia Land Area: 17,210,000 (sq mi)/44,029,797 (sq km) Population: 4,494,302,221 Largest City: Tokyo, Japan (37,126,000) 2016

2012

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ASIA

SEVEN CONTINENTS

Karla Caves in Maharashtra

There are 48 countries in Asia. Most people of Asia are Chinese, Japanese, Indian, or Arab. The main religions include Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Jainism and Christianity.

Asia covers nearly 9 percent of the earth’s surface making it the largest of the continents. It is also the home to the most people with an estimated population of 4.3 billion as of 2015 which represents nearly 60% of the world’s population. With this many people, Asia is attributed with being a vital part of the world’s economy. Asia covers nearly 10% of the planet’s surface area and is loosely defined as the eastern portion of the Eurasia continent with the border following a line north from the Aegean Sea to

the Black Sea to the NW corner of the Caspian Sea to the Ural River into the Arctic Ocean. The continent is primarily positioned within the northern hemisphere along the eastern portion. On the eastern border, you will find the Pacific Ocean, along the southern border you will find the Indian Ocean, and you can find the Arctic Ocean along the northernmost border.

Asia contains some of the oldest civilizations among the 7 continents including the countries of China and Japan. Asia includes the Saudi Arabia peninsula with the oil-rich countries including the United Arab Emirates and Kuwait. The continent also includes the manufacturing centers of India and Japan and Hong Kong, which is a leading banking and corporate center.

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Back alley, Tokyo - Japan

Street food market, Bangkok - Thailand

SEVEN CONTINENTS

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ASIA


Children play cricket on the railway tracks in Bangladesh

Holi Festival, India

Bengal Tiger, India

ASIA SEVEN CONTINENTS

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SEVEN CONTINENTS

AUSTRALIA

Australia Land Area: 2,970,000 (sq mi)/5,179,976 (sq km) Population: 39,901,000 Largest City: Sydney, Australia (4,921,000) 2016

2015

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AUSTRALIA

SEVEN CONTINENTS

Men and boys playing a game of gorri, 1922

Aboriginal Australians are descendents of the first people to leave Africa up to 75,000 years ago, a genetic study has found, confirming they may have the oldest continuous culture on the planet.

The continent of Australia includes the mainland of the country Australia and the island regions of New Guinea, Tasmania, and Seram. Australia is the smallest of the 7 continents but is home to the sixth largest country which is known by the same name, Australia. The continent gets its name from the latin word ‘australis’ which translates to mean southern. As a result of the continent’s geography and size, it is often referred to as an “island” continent. Australia is surrounded by two oceans.

Australia is the most isolated and remote continent of the 7 continents and has been least influenced by migrations of people, plants, and animals. This had led to Australia having a wide variety of animals and plants which are unique in the world such as the kangaroo, koala, dingo, wallaby, and wombat. Of the 5,700 hundred species of animals on the continent of Australia, more than 80% are unique and cannot be found anywhere else in the world.

The continent is also home to the world’s largest reef and one of the greatest natural wonders, The Great Barrier Reef. The continent first was inhabited by man nearly 45,000 years ago. European inhabitants came onto the Australian landmass in the 1700’s. Australia is one of the least populated continents yet the country of Australia is the 12th largest economy in the world.

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Aoraki / Mount Cook - New Zealand

Great Barrier Reef - Australia

SEVEN CONTINENTS

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AUSTRALIA


Sydney Opera House

Tarkine Rainforest - Tasmania

Laura Dance Festival - Cape York

AUSTRALIA SEVEN CONTINENTS

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SEVEN CONTINENTS

EUROPE

Europe Land Area: 3,931,000 (sq mi)/7,769,964 (sq km) Population: 738,849,000 Largest City: Istanbul, Turkey (14,657,434) 2016

2016

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EUROPE

SEVEN CONTINENTS

Glencoe, Scottish Highlands

The geology of Europe is hugely varied and complex, and gives rise to the wide variety of landscapes found across the continent, from the Scottish Highlands to the rolling plains of Hungary.

The western portion of the Eurasian landmass is known as Europe. It is noted as one of the smallest of the 7 continents after Australia, with 7 percent of the world’s landmass. However, Europe is home to about 11% of Earth’s population and is the second most densely populated continent, with 134 people per square mile, behind Asia’s 203 people per square mile.

Europe is comprised of approximately 50 countries and several other territories. The country of Russia is the largest country and the area that is occupied by Vatican City in Italy is the smallest. However, Russia has portions of its territory in both the continent of Europe and Asia with forty percent falling in the continent of Europe.

Europe also includes islands such as Iceland, Sicily, and the British Isles. The British Isles consist of the large island that is home to England, Scotland, and Wales, and is called Great Britain; the British Isles also include the small island that contains Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, and several much smaller surrounding islands.

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Aurora Borealis - Reykjavik, Iceland

Laiki Agora farmers market - Athens

Church of the Savior on Blood - St. Petersburg, Russia

SEVEN CONTINENTS

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EUROPE


Neue Nationalgalerie - Berlin

Neist Point - Isle of Skye, Scotland

EUROPE SEVEN CONTINENTS

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SEVEN CONTINENTS

NORTH AMERICA

North America Land Area: 9,540,000 (sq mi)/23,309,892 (sq km) Population: 579,024,000 Largest City: Mexico City, Mexico (19,411,000) 2016

2012

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NORTH AMERICA

SEVEN CONTINENTS

Lake Superior, Ontario/Minnesota

The only continent in the world that has all climatic types. It has savanna and tropical rainforest in Central America, tundra in northern Canada and Alaska, and permanent ice cap in Greenland.

The North American continent is the 3rd largest continent. It includes the countries of Canada, United States, Greenland, Mexico and the Latin American regions that serve as a connection between North and South America. North America makes up about 17 percent of the world’s landmass and is home to about 8 percent of the people. The continent is found entirely in the northern hemisphere and surrounded by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Pacific Ocean to the West, and Atlantic Ocean to the east.

The population of about 565 million people are situated in about 23 independent countries. The earliest human inhabitants in North America were from Asia and crossed into Alaska over the Bering land bridge during an ice age. The arrival of Europeans occurred in the mid-1600s. This population is now dominant in North America. North America has a very diverse climate, wildlife, and geography. From extreme desert temperatures in

Death Valley to the snow-covered mountains of Mount McKinley to the largest freshwater lake in the U.S. (2nd largest in the world), Lake Superior The continent is also an economic juggernaut with the largest GDP per capita of the 7 continents. You can also find the busiest airport in all of the 7 continents on the North American continent at Atlanta International Airport, in Atlanta, Georgia.

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Diamond Head - Hawaii

Central Park from above - NYC

SEVEN CONTINENTS

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NORTH AMERICA


Mexican street food vendor

Yosemite National Park - California

Canadian Pacific Railway

NORTH AMERICA SEVEN CONTINENTS

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SEVEN CONTINENTS

SOUTH AMERICA

South America Land Area: 6,888,000 (sq mi)/15,539,928 (sq km) Population: 414,332,000 Largest City: São Paulo, Brazil (21,090,791) 2015

2014

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SOUTH AMERICA

SEVEN CONTINENTS

Jaguar - Pantanal, Brazil

The biodiversity of South America contains many unique and fascinating species of animals on the planet, including the anaconda, llama, jaguar, tapir, vicuna, and piranha.

The South American continent is the southern portion of the larger American continent and located in the southern hemisphere. The equator passes through the continent offering a tropical climate for much of the landmass with temperate conditions possible in the south. This continent is the fourth largest of the 7 continents and is made up of twelve countries with Brazil being the largest in terms of both land mass and population.

South America is home to incredible biodiversity. South America includes the Andes Mountains which comprise the longest range of peaks in the world. It is home to the Amazon River, which passes the largest volume of water of any river in the world. You can also find the Amazon rainforest which is the world’s largest rainforest and is host to some of the most unique plants and animals on Earth. The continent is home to llamas and alpacas that originally were wild but became domesticated nearly 5,000 years ago.

The indigenous people of South America may have migrated south from North America although the majority of its current 371 million residents are of European descent. The population is largely along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts with large portions of the inland regions hosting small and widely spread populations. Colonization efforts by Spanish and Portuguese explorers ultimately lead to the prevalence of those languages on the South American continent.

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Machu Picchu - Peru

Coffee farmers - Colombia

SEVEN CONTINENTS

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SOUTH AMERICA


Hammerhead shark - Malpelo Island

Rio de Janeiro Carnival

Amazon Rainforest - Brazil

SOUTH AMERICA SEVEN CONTINENTS

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SEVEN CONTINENTS

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WORLD MAP


WORLD MAP

SEVEN CONTINENTS

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4 1907–2007

A lot happened in the hundred years between 1907 and 2007.

There were two world wars, a race to the moon, the Berlin Wall fell, the first computer was made… All of which have lead to forming the society we live in today.

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1907–2007

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1907–2007

INTRODUCTION

A lot happened in the hundred years between 1907 and 2007. There were two world wars, a race to the moon, the Berlin Wall fell, the first computer was made‌ All of which have lead to forming the society we live in today. We’ve seen radical advances in technology and have welcomed in a new, digital era. There has been staggering progress in the ever progressive social change movement ensuring fairer lives for all. Art and design has developed and changed but still remains massively significant within culture and there are no signs in this progression slowing down in 2018.

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The Steerage,1907 – Alfred Stieglitz

INTRODUCTION 1907–2007

109


1907–2007

ARCHITECTURE

The Trinity Building New York City, 1907 110


ARCHITECTURE

1907–2007

New Museum of Contemporary Art New York City, 2007 111


1907–2007

ARCHITECTURE

The Trinity Building, at 111 Broadway, was designed, along with the U.S. Realty Building, by Francis H. Kimball between 1904-1907. The Gothic design was intended to work in harmony with the neighbouring Trinity Church. Their construction necessitated the relocation of Thames Street and the construction of caissons 80 feet into the marshy subsoil The limestone-faced buildings are carefully detailed with towers, gables, and fanciful carved ornament.

Architect: Francis H. Kimball Built: 1904 –1907 Height: 22 floors, 94 meters

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ARCHITECTURE

1907–2007

The museum, which is the only New York exhibit devoted exclusively to contemporary art, was founded in West Village in 1977 by Marcia Tucker the police station with a mission to promote the new art and new ideas.Three decades later, reopened its doors in the area, in the district of Bowery, in order to remain a place of continuous experimentation, which is question what is art and what is the role of museums in the 21st century.

Architects: Kazuyo Sejima and Ryue Nishizawa Built: 2007 Height: 7 floors, 54 meters

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1907–2007

BORN

Frida Kahlo 6 July 1907 114


DIED

1907–2007

Luciano Pavarotti 6 September 2007 115


1907–2007

BIRTH

Frida Kahlo de Rivera, (July 6, 1907 – July 13, 1954) was a Mexican artist who painted many portraits, self-portraits, and works inspired by the nature and artifacts of Mexico. Inspired by the country’s popular culture, she employed a naïve folk art style to explore questions of identity, post-colonialism, gender, class, and race in Mexican society. Her paintings often had strong autobiographical elements and mixed realism with fantasy.

Profession: Artist Notable Work: Henry Ford Hospital My Birth Spouse: Diego Rivera

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DEATH

1907–2007

Luciano Pavarotti, (12 October 1935 – 6 September 2007) was an Italian operatic tenor who also crossed over into popular music, eventually becoming one of the most commercially successful tenors of all time. He made numerous recordings of complete operas and individual arias, gaining worldwide fame for the quality of his tone, and eventually established himself as one of the finest tenors of the 20th century.

Profession: Operatic Singer Notable Work: O Sole Mio Passione Spouse: Nicoletta Mantovani

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1907–2007

TECHNOLOGY

Wall Telephone, 1907 118


TECHNOLOGY

1907–2007

iPhone, 2007 119


1907–2007

TECHNOLOGY

By 1907, the introduction of dry cell batteries led to a design change for local battery magneto telephones. Gone were the two and three box sets of the 1890s and in their place was a rugged and efficient one box “1317” telephone. Although common battery systems were being installed in most urban centres, the local battery magneto wall sets continued to provide dependable service in rural areas up to the 1960s.

Designer: Alexander Graham Bell Dimensions: 22” L x 12” W x 19” H Weight: 6.8 kg

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TECHNOLOGY

1907–2007

In 2005, Apple CEO Steve Jobs conceived an idea of using a multi-touch touchscreen to interact with a computer in a way in which he could type directly onto the display. He decided that it needed to have a triple layered touch screen, a very new technology at the time. The iPhone is the first smartphone model designed and marketed by Apple Inc, announced on January 9, 2007, after years of rumors and speculation.

Designer: Steve Jobs Dimensions: 115mm H x 61mm W x 11.6mm D Weight: 135 g

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1907–2007

POLITICS

Theodore Roosevelt, 1907 122


POLITICS

1907–2007

George W. Bush, 2007 123


1907–2007

POLITICS

As a leader of the Progressive movement, he championed his “Square Deal” domestic policies, promising the average citizen fairness, breaking of trusts, regulation of railroads, and pure food and drugs. Making conservation a top priority, he established many new national parks, forests, and monuments intended to preserve the nation’s natural resources. His successful efforts to broker the end of the Russo-Japanese War won him the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize.

Term: 14 September 1901 – 4 March 1909 Vice President: Charles W. Fairbanks Governorship: Governor of New York

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POLITICS

1907–2007

Nationally, Bush was both one of the most popular and unpopular U.S. Presidents in history, having received the highest recorded presidential approval ratings in the wake of the 9/11 attacks, as well as one of the lowest approval ratings during the 2008 financial crisis. Bush responded to the attacks with what became known as the Bush Doctrine: launching a “War on Terror”, an international military campaign that included the Afghanistan and Iraq War.

Term Dates: 20 January 2001 – 20 January 2009 Vice President: Dick Cheney Governorship: Governor of Texas

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1907–2007

MOTOR RACING

Peking to Paris, 1907

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MOTOR RACING

1907–2007

Peking to Paris, 2007

127


1907–2007

MOTOR RACING

The Peking to Paris motor race was an automobile race, originally held in 1907, between Peking (now Beijing), then Qing China and Paris, France, a distance of 9,317 miles or 14,994 km. There were no rules in the race, except that the first car to Paris would win the prize of a magnum of Mumm champagne. The race went without any assistance through countryside where there were no roads or roadmaps.

Distance: 14,994 km Winner: Prince Scipione Borghese Participants: 5

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MOTOR RACING

1907–2007

In 2007 the Endurance Rally Association staged a rally to celebrate the centenary of the original 1907 race. Unlike the 1997 event, also staged by Philip Young, which took a southerly route, this event followed more faithfully the route taken by Prince Borghese in 1907 in the winning Itala. The major challenge of the rally proved to be Mongolia and the Gobi desert with no conventional roads, merely rutted tracks at best. Despite this 106 crossed the finishing line.

Distance: 16,000 km Winner: Hans Peter Lindner / Frank Wiest Participants: 126

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1907–2007

FILM

Ben Hur, 1907

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Ben Hur is a 1907 silent drama film, the first film version of Lew Wallace’s novel Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ, one of the best-selling books at that time. The film was directed by Canadian director Sidney Olcott and Frank Oakes Rose. At fifteen minutes long, only a small portion of the story was put on screen. The focus of the piece was the chariot race, which was filmed on a beach in New Jersey with local firemen playing the charioteers.

Release Date: 7 December 1907 Budget: $500 Runtime: 15 minutes

(USA)

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No Country for Old Men is a 2007 American neo-western, neo-noir thriller film written and directed by Joel and Ethan Coen, based on Cormac McCarthy’s novel. It follows a Texas welder and Vietnam veteran in the desert landscape of 1980 West Texas. The film revisits the themes of fate, conscience, and circumstance that the Coen brothers often explore. Many regard it as the Coen brothers’ best film with it winning the Academy Award for best picture in 2008.

Release Date: 21 November 2007 Budget: $25,000,000 Runtime: 122 minutes

(USA)

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The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World is the ďŹ rst known list of the most remarkable creations of classical antiquity; it was based on guidebooks popular among Hellenic sightseers and only includes works located around the Mediterranean rim and in Mesopotamia.

The number seven was chosen because the Greeks believed it represented perfection and plenty, and because it was the number of the ďŹ ve planets known anciently, plus the sun and moon. Many similar lists have been made.

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INTRODUCTION

The historian Herodotus (484–425 BC), and the scholar Callimachus of Cyrene (305–240 BC) at the Museum of Alexandria, made early lists of Seven wonders but their writings have not survived, except as references. The seven wonders included: the Great Pyramids of Giza, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, the Statue of Zeus at Olympia, the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, the Mausoleum of Maussollos at Halicarnassus, the Colossus of Rhodes and the Lighthouse of Alexandria.

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In the 19th and early 20th centuries, some writers wrote their own lists with names such as Wonders of the Middle Ages, Seven Wonders of the Medieval Mind, and Architectural Wonders of the Middle Ages. Following in the tradition of the classical list, modern people and organisations have made their own lists of wonderful things, ancient and modern.

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Seven Wonders of the Ancient World 144


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The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World is the first known list of the most remarkable man-made creations of classical antiquity, and was based on guide-books popular among Hellenic sight-seers and only includes works located around the Mediterranean rim.

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Great Pyramids of Giza Hanging Gardens of Babylon Statue of Zeus at Olympia Temple of Artemis at Ephesus Mausoleum of Maussollos Colossus of Rhodes Lighthouse of Alexandria

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The Great Pyramid at Giza was constructed between 2584 and 2561 BCE for the Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu (known in Greek as `Cheops’) and was the tallest man-made structure in the world for almost 4,000 years. Excavations of the interior of the pyramid were only initiated in earnest in the late 18th and early 19th centuries CE and so the intricacies of the interior which so intrigue modern people were unknown to the ancient writers. It was the structure itself with its perfect symmetry and imposing height which impressed ancient visitors.

The Statue of Zeus at Olympia was a giant seated figure, about 13 m (43 ft) tall, made by the Greek sculptor Phidias around 435 BC at the sanctuary of Olympia, Greece, and erected in the Temple of Zeus there. A sculpture of ivory plates and gold panels over a wooden framework, it represented the god Zeus sitting on an elaborate cedar wood throne ornamented with ebony, ivory, gold and precious stones. One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, w it was lost and destroyed during the 5th century AD with no copy ever being found, and details of its form are known only from ancient Greek descriptions and representations on coins.

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The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World as listed by Hellenic culture, described as a remarkable feat of engineering with an ascending series of tiered gardens containing a wide variety of trees, shrubs, and vines, resembling a large green mountain constructed of mud bricks, and said to have been built in the ancient city of Babylon, near present-day Hillah, Babil province, in Iraq. According to one legend, the Neo-Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar II, who ruled between 605 and 562 BC, built the Hanging Gardens, alongside a grand palace that came to be known as The Marvel of the Mankind.

The Colossus of Rhodes was a statue of the Greek titan-god of the sun Helios, erected in the city of Rhodes, on the Greek island of the same name, by Chares of Lindos in 280 BC. It was constructed to celebrate Rhodes’ victory over the ruler of Cyprus, Antigonus I Monophthalmus. According to most contemporary descriptions, the Colossus stood approximately 70 cubits, or 33 metres (108 feet) high—the approximate height of the modern Statue of Liberty from feet to crown—making it the tallest statue of the ancient world. It collapsed during the earthquake of 226 BC; although parts of it were preserved, it was never rebuilt.


THE ANCIENT WORLD

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The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus was a tomb built between 353 and 350 BC at Halicarnassus (present Bodrum, Turkey) for Mausolus, a satrap in the Persian Empire, and his sister-wife Artemisia II of Caria. The structure was designed by the Greek architects Satyros and Pythius of Priene. The Mausoleum was approximately 148 ft in height, and the four sides were adorned with sculptural reliefs, each created by one of four Greek sculptors—Leochares, Bryaxis, Scopas of Paros and Timotheus. It was destroyed by successive earthquakes from the 12th to the 15th century, the last surviving of the six destroyed wonders.

The Lighthouse of Alexandria, was a lighthouse built by the Ptolemaic Kingdom between 280 and 247 BC which has been estimated to be 100 metres in overall height. One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, for many centuries it was one of the tallest man-made structures in the world. Badly damaged by three earthquakes between AD 956 and 1323, it then became an abandoned ruin. It was the third longest surviving ancient wonder (after the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus and the extant Great Pyramid of Giza), surviving in part until 1480, when the last of its remnant stones were used to build the Citadel of Qaitbay on the site.

The Temple of Artemis or Artemision was a Greek temple dedicated to an ancient, local form of the goddess Artemis. It was located in Ephesus (near the modern town of Selçuk in present-day Turkey). It was completely rebuilt three times, and in its final form was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. By 401 AD it had been ruined or destroyed. Only foundations and fragments of the last temple remain at the site. The site of the temple was rediscovered in 1869 by an expedition led by John Turtle Wood. Today the site of the temple is marked by a single column constructed of dissociated fragments discovered on the site. 149


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THE MEDIEVAL WORLD

Seven Wonders of the Medieval World 150


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It is unlikely that these lists originated at that time of the medieval era because the word medieval was not even invented until the Enlightenment-era. Many of the structures were built much earlier than the Medieval Ages, but were still well known.

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Stonehenge Colosseum Catacombs of Kom el Shoqafa Great Wall of China Porcelain Tower of Nanjing Hagia Sophia Leaning Tower of Pisa

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Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument in Wiltshire, England, 2 miles west of Amesbury. It consists of a ring of standing stones, with each standing stone around 13 feet high, 7 feet wide and weighing around 25 tons. The stones are set within earthworks in the middle of the most dense complex of Neolithic and Bronze Age monuments in England, including several hundred burial mounds. Archaeologists believe it was constructed from 3000 BC to 2000 BC. The surrounding circular earth bank and ditch, which constitute the earliest phase of the monument, have been dated to about 3100 BC.

THE MEDIEVAL WORLD

The Colosseum or Coliseum, also known as the Flavian Amphitheatre, is an oval amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy. Built of travertine, tuff, and brick-faced concrete, it is the largest amphitheatre ever built. The Colosseum could hold, it is estimated, between 50,000 and 80,000 spectators; it was used for gladiatorial contests and public spectacles such as, animal hunts, executions, re-enactments of famous battles and dramas based on Classical mythology. The building ceased to be used for entertainment in the early medieval era. It was later reused for such purposes as housing, workshops, a fortress, a quarry, and a Christian shrine.

The catacombs of Kom El Shoqafa (meaning “Mound of Shards�) is a historical archaeological site located in Alexandria, Egypt and is considered one of the Seven Wonders of the Middle Ages. The necropolis consists of a series of Alexandrian tombs, statues and archaeological objects of the Pharaonic funeral cult with Hellenistic and early Imperial Roman influences. Due to the time period, many of the features of the catacombs of Kom El Shoqafa merge Roman, Greek and Egyptian cultural points; some statues are Egyptian in style, yet bear Roman clothes and hair style whilst other features share a similar style. 154


THE MEDIEVAL WORLD

The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-towest line across the historical northern borders of China to protect the Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of the various nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe. Several walls were being built as early as the 7th century BC; these, later joined together and made bigger and stronger, are collectively referred to as the Great Wall. The Great Wall stretches from Dandong in the east to Lop Lake in the west, along an arc that roughly delineates the southern edge of Inner Mongolia, roughly 21,196 km (13,171 mi).

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The Porcelain Tower of Nanjing, part of the former Bao’en Temple, is a historical site located on the south bank of external Qinhuai River in Nanjing, China. It was a pagoda constructed in the 15th century during the Ming Dynasty, but was mostly destroyed in the 19th century during the course of the Taiping Rebellion. A modern life size replica of it now exists in Nanjing. The tower was octagonal with a base of about 97 feet in diameter. When it was built, the tower was one of the largest buildings in China, rising up to a height of 260 feet) with nine stories and a staircase in the middle of the pagoda. The top of the roof was marked by a golden pineapple.

Hagia Sophia is a former Greek Orthodox Christian patriarchal basilica (church), later an Ottoman imperial mosque and now a museum (Ayasofya Müzesi) in Istanbul, Turkey. From the date of its construction in 537 AD until 1453, it served primarily as an Eastern Orthodox cathedral and the seat of the Patriarch of Constantinople. It secularised and opened as a museum on 1 February 1935.Famous in particular for its massive dome, it is considered the epitome of Byzantine architecture and is said to have “changed the history of architecture”. It remained the world’s largest cathedral for nearly a thousand years, until Seville Cathedral was completed in 1520.

The Leaning Tower of Pisa is the campanile, or freestanding bell tower, of the cathedral of the Italian city of Pisa, known worldwide for its unintended tilt. The tower is situated behind the Pisa Cathedral and is the third oldest structure in the city’s Cathedral Square, after the cathedral and the Pisa Baptistry. The tower’s tilt began during construction in the 12th century, caused by an inadequate foundation on ground too soft on one side to properly support the structure’s weight. The tilt increased in the decades before the structure was completed in the 14th century. It gradually increased but was stabilized by efforts in the late 20th century. 155


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New Seven Wonders of the World 156


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In 2000 a Swiss foundation launched a campaign to determine the New Seven Wonders of the World. Given that the original list was compiled in the 2nd century BCE—it seemed time for an update. More than 100 million votes were cast on the Internet or by text messaging.

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Great Wall of China Petra Christ the Redeemer Machu Picchu Chichen Itza Roman Colosseum Taj Mahal Great Pyramid

(HONORARY CANDIDATE)

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The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-towest line across the historical northern borders of China to protect the Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of the various nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe. Several walls were being built as early as the 7th century BC; these, later joined together and made bigger and stronger, are collectively referred to as the Great Wall. The Great Wall stretches from Dandong in the east to Lop Lake in the west, along an arc that roughly delineates the southern edge of Inner Mongolia, roughly 21,196 km (13,171 mi).

Christ the Redeemer is an Art Deco statue of Jesus Christ in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, created by French sculptor Paul Landowski and built by the Brazilian engineer Heitor da Silva Costa, in collaboration with the French engineer Albert Caquot. Romanian sculptor Gheorghe Leonida fashioned the face. Constructed between 1922 and 1931, the statue is 98 ft tall, excluding its 26 ft pedestal. The arms stretch 92 ft wide. The statue is located at the peak of the Corcovado mountain in the Tijuca Forest National Park overlooking the city of Rio. A symbol of Christianity across the world, the statue has also become a cultural icon of both Rio de Janeiro and Brazil.

NEW SEVEN WONDERS

Petra, is a historical and archaeological city in southern Jordan. Petra lies on the slope of Jabal Al-Madbah in a basin among the mountains which form the eastern flank of Arabah valley that run from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba. Petra is believed to have been settled as early as 9,000 BC, and it was possibly established in the 4th century BC. The Nabataeans were nomadic Arabs who invested in Petra’s proximity to the trade routes by establishing it as a major regional trading hub. The city is famous for its rock-cut architecture and water conduit system. Another name for Petra is the Rose City due to the colour of the stone out of which it is carved.

Machu Picchu is a 15th-century Inca citadel situated on a mountain ridge 7,970 ft above sea level. It is located in the Cusco Region, Urubamba Province, Machupicchu District in Peru, above the Sacred Valley, which is 80 kilometres (50 mi) northwest of Cuzco and through which the Urubamba River flows. Most archaeologists believe that Machu Picchu was constructed as an estate for the Inca emperor Pachacuti. Often mistakenly referred to as the “Lost City of the Incas”, it is the most familiar icon of Inca civilization. It was built in the classical Inca style, with polished dry-stone walls. By 1976 thirty percent of Machu Picchu had been restored.

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Chichen Itza was a large pre-Columbian city built by the Maya people of the Terminal Classic period. The archaeological site is located in Tinúm Municipality, Yucatán State, Mexico. It was one of the largest Maya cities and it was likely to have been one of the mythical great cities, or Tollans, referred to in later Mesoamerican literature. The city may have had the most diverse population in the Maya world, a factor that could have contributed to the variety of architectural styles at the site. It’s also one of the most visited archaeological sites in Mexico with over 2.6 million tourists in 2017

The Colosseum or Coliseum, also known as the Flavian Amphitheatre, is an oval amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy. Built of travertine, tuff, and brick-faced concrete, it is the largest amphitheatre ever built. The Colosseum could hold, it is estimated, between 50,000 and 80,000 spectators; it was used for gladiatorial contests and public spectacles such as, animal hunts, executions, re-enactments of famous battles and dramas based on Classical mythology. The building ceased to be used for entertainment in the early medieval era. It was later reused for such purposes as housing, workshops, a fortress, a quarry, and a Christian shrine.

The Taj Mahal meaning “Crown of the Palace” is an ivory-white marble mausoleum on the south bank of the Yamuna river in the Indian city of Agra. It was commissioned in 1632 by the Mughal emperor, Shah Jahan, to house the tomb of his favourite wife, Mumtaz Mahal. The tomb is the centrepiece of a 42-acre complex, which includes a mosque and a guest house, and is set in formal gardens bounded on three sides by a crenellated wall. The Taj Mahal complex is believed to have been completed in its entirety in 1653 at a cost estimated at the time to be around 32 million rupees, which in 2015 would be approximately 52.8 billion rupees (U.S. $827 million).

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THE INDUSTRIAL WORLD

Seven Wonders of the Industrial World 162


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British author Deborah Cadbury wrote Seven Wonders of the Industrial World, a book telling the stories of seven great feats of engineering of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In 2003 the BBC made a seven-part documentary series on the book.

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SS Great Eastern Bell Rock Lighthouse Brooklyn Bridge London sewerage systems First Transcontinental Railroad Panama Canal Hoover Dam

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SS Great Eastern was an iron sailing steamship designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, and built by J. Scott Russell & Co. at Millwall Iron Works on the River Thames, London. She was by far the largest ship ever built at the time of her 1858 launch, and had the capacity to carry 4,000 passengers from England to Australia without refuelling. Her length of 692 ft was only surpassed in 1899 by the 705 ft, 17,274-gross-ton RMS Oceanic, and her gross tonnage of 18,915 was only surpassed in 1901 by the 701-foot 21,035-gross-ton RMS Celtic. The ship’s five funnels were rare. These were later reduced to four.

THE INDUSTRIAL WORLD

The Bell Rock Lighthouse, off the coast of Angus, Scotland, is the world’s oldest surviving seawashed lighthouse. It was built between 1807 and 1810 by Robert Stevenson on the Bell Rock (also known as Inchcape) in the North Sea, 11 miles (18 km) east of the Firth of Tay. Standing 115 ft tall, its light is visible from 35 statute miles (56 km) inland. The masonry work on which the lighthouse rests was constructed to such a high standard that it has not been replaced or adapted in 200 years. The lamps and reflectors were replaced in 1843 and used in the lighthouse at Cape Bonavista, Newfoundland, where they are currently on display.

The Brooklyn Bridge is a hybrid cable-stayed/ suspension bridge in New York City and is one of the oldest roadway bridges in the United States. Started in 1869 and completed fourteen years later in 1883, it connects the boroughs of Manhattan and Brooklyn, spanning the East River. It has a main span of 1,595.5 ft and was the first steel-wire suspension bridge constructed. It was originally called the New York and Brooklyn Bridge and the East River Bridge, but it was later dubbed the Brooklyn Bridge, a name coming from an earlier January 25, 1867, letter to the editor of the Brooklyn Daily Eagle and formally so named by the city government in 1915.

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The London sewerage system is part of the water infrastructure serving London, England. The modern system was developed during the late 19th century, and as London has grown the system has been expanded. It is currently owned and operated by Thames Water and serves almost all of Greater London. Joseph Bazalgette, a civil engineer and Chief Engineer of the Metropolitan Board of Works, was given responsibility for the work. He designed an extensive underground sewerage system that diverted waste to the Thames Estuary, downstream of the main centre of population. The Embankment also allowed new roads, new public gardens, and the Circle line of the London Underground.


THE INDUSTRIAL WORLD

The First Transcontinental Railroad was a 1,912-mile (3,077 km) continuous railroad line constructed between 1863 and 1869 that connected the existing eastern U.S. rail network at Omaha, Nebraska/Council Bluffs, Iowa with the Pacific coast at the Oakland Long Wharf on San Francisco Bay.The rail line was built by three private companies over public lands provided by extensive US land grants.

SEVEN WONDERS

The Panama Canal is an artificial 77 km (48 mile) waterway in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean. The canal cuts across the Isthmus of Panama and is a conduit for maritime trade. France began work on the canal in 1881, but stopped due to engineering problems and a high worker mortality rate. The United States took over the project in 1904 and opened the canal on August 15, 1914. Canal locks are at each end to lift ships up to Gatun Lake, an artificial lake created to reduce the amount of excavation work required for the canal, 85 ft above sea level, and then lower the ships at the other end.

It brought the western states and territories into alignment with the northern Union states and made transporting passengers and goods coastto-coast considerably quicker and less expensive.

Hoover Dam is a concrete arch-gravity dam in the Black Canyon of the Colorado River, on the border between the U.S. states of Nevada and Arizona. It was constructed between 1931 and 1936 during the Great Depression and was dedicated on September 30, 1935, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Originally known as Boulder Dam from 1933, it was officially renamed Hoover Dam by a joint resolution of Congress in 1947. Its construction was the result of a massive effort involving thousands of workers, and cost over one hundred lives. The dam was named after President Herbert Hoover. 167


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CIVIL ENGINEERING

Seven Wonders of Civil Engineering 168


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British author Deborah Cadbury wrote Seven Wonders of the Industrial World, a book telling the stories of seven great feats of engineering of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In 2003 the BBC made a seven-part documentary series on the book.

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Channel Tunnel CN Tower Empire State Building Golden Gate Bridge Itaipu Dam Delta Works/Zuiderzee Works Panama Canal

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he Channel Tunnel is a 50.45-kilometre (31.35 mi) rail tunnel linking Folkestone, Kent, in the United Kingdom, with Coquelles, Pas-de-Calais, near Calais in northern France, beneath the English Channel at the Strait of Dover. At its lowest point, it is 380 ft below sea level. At 37.9 kilometres (23.5 mi), the tunnel has the longest undersea portion of any tunnel in the world. The tunnel carries high-speed Eurostar passenger trains, the Eurotunnel Shuttle for road vehicles—the largest such transport in the world—and international goods trains. The tunnel connects end-to-end with the LGV Nord and High Speed 1 high-speed railway lines.

The CN Tower is a 1,815.3 ft high concrete communications and observation tower in downtown Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Built on the former Railway Lands, it was completed in 1976, and held the record for the world’s tallest free-standing structure for 32 years from 1975–2007 and was the world’s tallest tower until 2009 being overtaken by Burj Khalifa and Canton Tower, respectively. It is now the ninth tallest tower in the world and remains the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, a signature icon of Toronto’s skyline, attracting more than two million international visitors annually. 172

The Empire State Building is a 102-story Art Deco skyscraper in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Designed by Shreve, Lamb & Harmon and completed in 1931, the building has a roof height of 1,250 ft and stands a total of 1,454 ft tall. Its name is derived from “Empire State”, the nickname of New York. As of 2017 the building is the 5th-tallest completed skyscraper in the United States. Construction on the building itself started on March 17, 1930, with an average construction rate of one floor per day. A well-coordinated schedule meant that the 86 stories were topped out on September 19, six months after construction started.


CIVIL ENGINEERING

The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate, the one-mile-wide (1.6 km), 8,981 ft long, strait connecting San Francisco Bay and the Pacific Ocean. The structure links the American city of San Francisco, California – the northern tip of the San Francisco Peninsula – to Marin County, carrying both U.S. Route 101 and California State Route 1 across the strait. The bridge is one of the most internationally recognized symbols of San Francisco, California, and the United States. At the time of its opening in 1937, it was both the longest and the tallest suspension bridge in the world

SEVEN WONDERS

The Itaipu Dam is a hydroelectric dam on the Paraná River located on the border between Brazil and Paraguay. The construction of the dam was first contested by Argentina, but the negotiations and resolution of the dispute ended up setting the basis for Argentine-Brazilian integration later on. The Itaipu Dam’s hydroelectric power plant produced the most energy of any in the world as of 2016, setting a new world record of 103,098,366 megawatt hours (MWh), and surpassed the Three Gorges Dam plant in 2016 and 2015 in energy production. Completed in 1984, it is a binational undertaking run by Brazil and Paraguay.

The Delta Works is a series of construction projects in the southwest of the Netherlands to protect a large area of land around the RhineMeuse-Scheldt delta from the sea. The works consist of dams, sluices, locks, dykes, levees, and storm surge barriers located in the provinces of South Holland and Zeeland. The aim of the dams, sluices, and storm surge barriers was to shorten the Dutch coastline, thus reducing the number of dikes that had to be raised. Along with the Zuiderzee Works, the Delta Works have been declared one of the Seven Wonders of modern Civic Engineering.

The Panama Canal is an artificial 77 km (48 mile) waterway in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean. The canal cuts across the Isthmus of Panama and is a conduit for maritime trade. France began work on the canal in 1881, but stopped due to engineering problems and a high worker mortality rate. The United States took over the project in 1904 and opened the canal on August 15, 1914. Canal locks are at each end to lift ships up to Gatun Lake, an artificial lake created to reduce the amount of excavation work required for the canal, 85 ft above sea level, and then lower the ships at the other end. 173


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THE UNDERWATER WORLD

Seven Wonders of the Underwater World 174


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The Seven Underwater Wonders of the World was a list drawn up by CEDAM International, an American-based non-profit group for divers, dedicated to ocean preservation and research to help pick underwater areas which they considered to be worthy of protection.

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Palau Belize Barrier Reef Great Barrier Reef Deep-Sea Vents Galรกpagos Islands Lake Baikal Red Sea

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Palau, officially the Republic of Palau, is an island country located in the western Pacific Ocean. The country contains approximately 340 islands, forming the western chain of the Caroline Islands in Micronesia, and has an area of 466 square kilometres (180 sq miles). While much of Palau remains free of environmental degradation, areas of concern include illegal dynamite fishing, inadequate solid waste disposal facilities and extensive sand and coral dredging. As with other Pacific island nations, rising sea level presents a major environmental threat. Inundation of low-lying areas threatens coastal vegetation, agriculture, and water supply.

The Belize Barrier Reef is a series of coral reefs straddling the coast of Belize, roughly 980 ft offshore in the north and 40 kilometres (25 miles) in the south. The Reef is a 300-kilometer (190 miles) long section of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, which is continuous from Cancún on the north-eastern tip of the Yucatán Peninsula to Honduras, making it the second largest coral reef system in the world after the Great Barrier Reef in Australia. It is Belize’s top tourist destination, attracting almost half of its 260,000 visitors. It is also vital to the country’s fishing industry. Charles Darwin described it as “the most remarkable reef in the West Indies” in 1842.

The Great Barrier Reef is the world’s largest coral reef system composed of over 2,900 individual reefs and 900 islands stretching for over 2,300 kilometres (1,400 miles) The reef is located in the Coral Sea, off the coast of Queensland, Australia. The Great Barrier Reef can be seen from outer space and is the world’s biggest single structure made by living organisms. This reef structure is composed of and built by billions of tiny organisms, known as coral polyps. It supports a wide diversity of life and was selected as a World Heritage Site in 1981. The reef is protected by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park to help to limit the impact of human use, such as fishing and tourism. 178


THE UNDERWATER WORLD

A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet’s surface from which geothermal heated water issues. Hydrothermal vents are commonly found near volcanically active places, areas where tectonic plates are moving apart. They exist because the earth is both geologically active and has large amounts of water on its surface and within its crust. Common land types include hot springs, fumaroles and geysers. Under the sea, hydrothermal vents may form features called black smokers. Relative to the majority of the deep sea, the areas around submarine hydrothermal vents are biologically more productive, often hosting complex communities fuelled by the chemicals dissolved in the vent fluids.

SEVEN WONDERS

The Galápagos Islands, part of the Republic of Ecuador, are an archipelago of volcanic islands distributed on either side of the Equator in the Pacific Ocean surrounding the centre of the Western Hemisphere, 906 km (563 miles) west of continental Ecuador. The principal language on the islands is Spanish. The islands have a population of slightly over 25,000. The islands are known for their vast number of endemic species and were studied by Charles Darwin during the second voyage of HMS Beagle, as his observations and collections contributed to the inception of Darwin’s theory of evolution by means of natural selection.

Lake Baikal is a rift lake in Russia, located in southern Siberia, between Irkutsk Oblast to the northwest and the Buryat Republic to the southeast. Lake Baikal is the largest freshwater lake by volume in the world, containing 22–23% of the world’s fresh surface water. It is also considered among the world’s clearest lakes and the world’s oldest lake at 25–30 million years. Baikal is home to thousands of species of plants and animals, many of which exist nowhere else in the world. The lake was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1996. It is also home to Buryat tribes who reside on the eastern side of the lake.

The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia. The connection to the ocean is in the south through the Bab el Mandeb strait and the Gulf of Aden. To the north lie the Sinai Peninsula, the Gulf of Aqaba, and the Gulf of Suez). The Red Sea has a surface area of roughly 438,000 km sq (169,100 miles sq) It has a maximum depth of 9,970 ft in the central Suakin Trough. However, there are also extensive shallow shelves, noted for their marine life and corals. The sea is the habitat of over 1,000 invertebrate species, and 200 soft and hard corals. It is the world’s northernmost tropical sea. 179


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THE NATURAL WORLD

Seven Wonders of the Natural World 180


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Seven Natural Wonders is an organization created with the mission of protecting and promoting the natural wonders of the world. The project was launched in 2008 in response to the New 7 Wonders’ efforts to change the natural wonders of the world.

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Grand Canyon Great Barrier Reef Harbour of Rio de Janeiro Mount Everest Aurora Parícutin Volcano Victoria Falls

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THE NATURAL WORLD

The Grand Canyon is a steep-sided canyon carved by the Colorado River in Arizona, United States. The Grand Canyon is 277 miles (446 km) long, up to 18 miles (29 km) wide and attains a depth of over a mile (6,093 ft). Nearly two billion years of Earth’s geological history have been exposed as the Colorado River and its tributaries cut their channels through layer after layer of rock while the Colorado Plateau was uplifted. While some aspects about the history of incision of the canyon are debated by geologists, several recent studies support the hypothesis that the Colorado River established its course through the area about 5 to 6 million years ago.

The Great Barrier Reef is the world’s largest coral reef system composed of over 2,900 individual reefs and 900 islands stretching for over 2,300 kilometres (1,400 miles) The reef is located in the Coral Sea, off the coast of Queensland, Australia. The Great Barrier Reef can be seen from outer space and is the world’s biggest single structure made by living organisms. This reef structure is composed of and built by billions of tiny organisms, known as coral polyps. It supports a wide diversity of life and was selected as a World Heritage Site in 1981. The reef is protected by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park to help to limit the impact of human use, such as fishing and tourism.

The bay at Rio de Janeiro is world famous for being the world’s largest bay, having mountains that come down almost to the water’s edge and for an enormous statue that looks down on the city and harbour from one the mountain peaks. It was discovered by the Portuguese seafarer, Concalo Coelho on January 1, 1502. The harbour has the largest volume of water in the world at 49,470,899 cubic gallons (187,000,000 cubic meters) of water and covers a surface area of 238.6 square miles (384 square km). The surrounding mountains are made of hard Granite rocks and softer rock called Gneiss which is more easily eroded.

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Mount Everest, is Earth’s highest mountain above sea level, located in the Mahalangur Himal sub-range of the Himalayas. The international border between China and Nepal runs across its summit point. The current official elevation of the mountain is 29,029 ft. It attracts many climbers, some of them highly experienced mountaineers. The first to ever reach the summit were the New Zealander Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay, a Nepali sherpa climber from Darjeeling, India. As of 2017, nearly 300 people have died on Everest, many of whose bodies remain on the mountain.


THE NATURAL WORLD

An aurora, sometimes referred to as polar lights, northern lights (aurora borealis) or southern lights (aurora australis), is a natural light display in the Earth’s sky, predominantly seen in the high-latitude regions (around the Arctic and Antarctic). Aurora came from the Latin word for “dawn, morning light”.

SEVEN WONDERS

Parícutin is a cinder cone volcano located in the Mexican state of Michoacán, near the city of Uruapan and about 322 kilometers (200 miles) west of Mexico City. The volcano surged suddenly from the cornfield of local farmer Dionisio Pulido in 1943, attracting both popular and scientific attention. During the volcano’s nine years of activity, scientists sketched and mapped it and took thousands of samples and photographs. Although the larger region still remains highly active volcanically, Parícutin is now dormant and has become a tourist attraction with people climbing the volcano and visiting the hardened lava-covered ruins of the San Juan Parangaricutiro Church.

Auroras are produced when the magnetosphere is sufficiently disturbed by the solar wind that the trajectories of charged particles in both solar wind and magnetospheric plasma, mainly in the form of electrons and protons, precipitate them into the upper atmosphere due to Earth’s magnetic field, where their energy is lost.

Victoria Falls is a waterfall in southern Africa on the Zambezi River at the border between Zambia and Zimbabwe. While it is neither the highest nor the widest waterfall in the world, Victoria Falls is classified as the largest, based on its combined width and height resulting in the world’s largest sheet of falling water. The national parks contain abundant wildlife including sizable populations of elephant, buffalo, giraffe, Grant’s zebra, and a variety of antelope. The river is home to 39 species of fish below the falls and 89 species above it. This illustrates the effectiveness of the falls as a dividing barrier between the upper and lower Zambezi.

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MACHU PICCHU


MACHU PICCHU

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6 SEVEN SONGS

The number seven features often in popular culture, ďŹ lm titles, literature and song titles. This collection of seven songs is a collection of some songs which feature reference to the number 7. From garage rock to soul, this is a short yet eclectic playlist.

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SEVEN SONGS

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SEVEN SONGS

SEVEN NATION ARMY

Seven Nation Army The White Stripes

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SEVEN NATION ARMY

I’m gonna fight ‘em all A seven nation army couldn’t hold me back They’re gonna rip it off Taking their time right behind my back And I’m talking to myself at night Because I can’t forget Back and forth through my mind Behind a cigarette And the message coming from my eyes Says leave it alone Don’t want to hear about it Every single one’s got a story to tell Everyone knows about it From the Queen of England to the hounds of hell And if I catch it coming back my way I’m gonna serve it to you And that ain’t what you want to hear But that’s what I’ll do And the feeling coming from my bones Says find a home I’m going to Wichita Far from this opera for evermore I’m gonna work the straw Make the sweat drip out of every pore And I’m bleeding, and I’m bleeding, and I’m bleeding Right before the lord All the words are gonna bleed from me And I will sing no more And the stains coming from my blood Tell me go back home

SEVEN SONGS

“Seven Nation Army” is a song by American rock duo the White Stripes. It was released as the lead single from their fourth studio album, Elephant, in March 2003, and reached number one on the Alternative Songs chart —maintaining that position for three weeks. It was well received commercially as well, and won the Grammy Award for Best Rock Song. The song is known for its underlying riff, which plays throughout most of the song. Although it sounds like a bass guitar, the sound is actually created by running Jack White’s semi-acoustic, 1950s-style Kay Hollowbody guitar through a DigiTech Whammy pedal set down an octave. A combination of the song’s popularity, recognizable riff, and defiant lyrics led to it becoming the band’s signature song. It has been used widely at sporting events and political protests internationally.

Album: Elephant Released: 2003 Run Time: 3:52

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SEVEN DAYS IN THE SUN

Seven Days in the Sun Feeder

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SEVEN DAYS IN THE SUN

SEVEN SONGS

I’ve got a friend, her name is Laura We took a holiday, seven sweet days in Majorca We took a plane, through to southern Spain To see the ocean wave’s blue We sat and watched the moon As crickets sung back cover tunes Way back in May Seven days in the sun, yeah She’s my heaven She’s a spark Feels like heaven So light me up She’s got this friend, his name is Paula He likes to cross dress every Friday night in clothes from Prada We took a train, left behind the rain To see the summer sunset glow But now she’s not around I’m hanging on with broken hands Way for the clouds Seven days in the sun Seven days in the sun, sun She’s my heaven She’s a spark Feels like heaven So light me up You really light me up x4 You really Staring through the crowd It’s pulling me underground And who’s gonna dig me out? We used to take a walk on velvet sands across the beach We used to build a fire, and stare into the rising heat You used to set me free, lift me from the concrete sea Seven days in the sun She’s my heaven She’s a spark Feels like heaven So light me up You really light me up x8 You blow my mind

“Seven Days in the Sun” is a song by Feeder, released as the second single from their Echo Park album. It was released in April 2001 and reached #14 in the UK Singles Chart. The music video for the song featured band members Grant Nicholas, Taka Hirose, and the late Jon Lee on a beach shot in Cape Town, South Africa, implementing various methods of reeling in some girls. Grant dresses up as a bike salesman, and gets the girls’ passports in exchange for bicycles, Taka, a waiter in order to “demonstrate” his cooking skills, and Jon, in drag, possibly to show them his feminine side. However, it is only Taka that succeeds to impress. Lyrically, the song also matches the theme in its video with that being holiday romances. Nine years since the video was shot, Feeder released via their Facebook page previously unreleased behind-the-scenes footage.

Album: Echo Park Released: 2001 Run Time: 3:39

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SEVEN DEVILS

Seven Devils Florence + the Machine

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SEVEN DEVILS

SEVEN SONGS

Holy water cannot help you down Hours and armies couldn’t keep me out I don’t want your money I don’t want your crowd See I have to burn Your kingdom down Holy water cannot help you now See I’ve had to burn your kingdom down And no rivers and no lakes can put the fire out I’m gonna raise the stakes, I’m gonna smoke you out Seven devils all around you Seven devils in my house See they were there when I woke up this morning I’ll be dead before the day is done Seven devils all around you Seven devils in your house See I was dead when I woke up this morning I’ll be dead before the day is done Before the day is done And now all your love will be exorcised And we will find you saying it’s to be better now And it’s an even sum It’s a melody It’s a battle cry It’s a symphony Seven devils all around you Seven devils in my house See they were there when I woke up this morning I’ll be dead before the day is done Seven devils all around you Seven devils in your house See I was dead when I woke up this morningAnd I’ll be dead before the day is done Before the day is done x3 They can keep me high ‘Til I tear the walls ‘Til I save your heart And I take your soul And what have we done? Can I be undone? In the evil heart In the evil soul Seven devils all around you Seven devils in your house See I was dead when I woke up this morning I’ll be dead before the day is done Before the day is done

Ceremonials is the second studio album by English indie rock band Florence and the Machine, released on 28 October 2011 by Island Records. Ceremonials received generally positive reviews from music critics, who drew comparisons to artists such as Kate Bush, while also praising the instrumentation, Florence Welch’s vocals and the production of the songs. At the 55th Annual Grammy Awards, the album received a nomination for Best Pop Vocal Album, while “Shake It Out” was nominated for Best Pop Duo/Group Performance. Ceremonials debuted at number one on the UK Albums Chart, becoming the band’s second consecutive number-one album. It also debuted at number one in Australia, Ireland and New Zealand, and peaked at number six on the US Billboard 200, becoming the band’s first top-10 album in the United States. It has sold 2.5 million copies worldwide.

Album: Ceremonials Released: 2011 Run Time: 5:03

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SEVEN SEAS OF RHYE

Seven Seas of Rhye Queen

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SEVEN SEAS OF RHYE

SEVEN SONGS

Fear me you lords and lady preachers I descend upon your earth from the skies I command your very souls you unbelievers Bring before me what is mine The Seven Seas of Rhye

“Seven Seas of Rhye” is a song by the British rock band Queen. It was primarily written by Freddie Mercury, with Brian May contributing the second middle-eight. The song is officially credited to Mercury only. The completed version served as the band’s third single, the earliest-released song to appear on their Greatest Hits album.

Can you hear me you peers and privvy counsellors I stand before you naked to the eyes I will destroy any man who dares abuse my trust I swear that you’ll be mine The Seven Seas of Rhye

Initially “Seven Seas of Rhye” was simply an “instrumental musical sketch closing their first album”. An expanded rendition, planned for inclusion on the album Queen II, was publicly premiered when Queen was offered a sudden chance to appear on Top of the Pops in February 1974, and was rushed to vinyl two days later on 23 February. It became their first chart entry after gaining airtime on BBC Radio 1, peaking at number 10 on the UK Singles Chart, which in turn persuaded Freddie Mercury to take up Queen as his full-time career.

Sister I live and lie for you Mister do and I’ll die You are mine I possess you I belong to you forever Storm the master marathon I’ll fly through By flash and thunder fire I’ll survive Then I’ll defy the laws of nature and come out alive Then I’ll get you Be gone with you, you shod and shady senators Give out the good, leave out the bad evil cries I challenge the mighty titan and his troubadours And with a smile I’ll take you to The Seven Seas of Rhye

Album: Queen II Released: 1974 Run Time: 2:47

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SEVEN WONDERS

Seven Wonders Fleetwood Mac

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SEVEN WONDERS

SEVEN SONGS

So long ago Certain place Certain time You touched my hand All the way All the way down to Emmiline But if our paths never cross Well you know I’m sorry but

“Seven Wonders” is a song by Fleetwood Mac. It was released as the second single from the band’s 1987 album Tango in the Night. The British-American rock band, formed in London in 1967. The band has sold more than 100 million records worldwide, making them one of the world’s best-selling bands. In 1998, select members of Fleetwood Mac were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, and received the Brit Award for Outstanding Contribution to Music.

If I live to see the seven wonders I’ll make a path to the rainbow’s end I’ll never live to match the beauty again The rainbow’s end

Stevie Nicks performed the lead vocals on this song, which was written by Sandy Stewart, with contributed lyrics by Nicks.The song was also released as a 12-inch single, which included an extended remix, a dub mix, and an instrumental, “Book of Miracles”, which later became the track “Juliet” on Nicks’ 1989 album The Other Side of the Mirror.

So it’s hard to find Someone with that kind of intensity You touched my hand I played it cool And you reached out your hand for me But if our paths never cross Well you know I’m sorry but If I live to see the seven wonders I’ll make a path to the rainbow’s end I’ll never live to match the beauty again The rainbow’s end So long ago It’s a certain time It’s a certain place You touched my hand and you smiled All the way back you held out your hand If I hope and I pray Ooh it might work out someday If I live to see the seven wonders I’ll make a path to the rainbow’s end I’ll never live to match the beauty again x2 If I live to see the seven wonders I’ll make a path to the rainbow’s end I’ll never live to match the beauty again

Album: Tango in the Night Released: 1987 Run Time: 3:42

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SEVEN WORDS

Seven Words Weyes Blood

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SEVEN WORDS

These seven words I say to you, one by one I love you and you have to know If I could change how I’m insane If I could learn to leave my troubles behind It’s starting to hurt and I know you moved on Telling everyone how I done you so wrong Cat scratch a beast My words that made you bleed Now I face tomorrow Now I face tomorrow In time we’ll both be free from this ball and chain Hanging on to things I want you mostly in the morning When my soul is weak from dreaming When the dust has cleared And you forget that I’m here Hanging on I’ve been hanging Who had the last word I’m telling you first Who had the last word I’m telling you first These seven words are no longer mine Who am I but a stranger who took you down It’s starting to burn and I wanna go home Only home I’ve known Lost in the storm It had to be seven words to set us free Now I face tomorrow x3

SEVEN SONGS

Over the last decade, Natalie Mering’s music under the Weyes Blood moniker has evolved gracefully from lo-fi mood-pieces to minimalist folk ballads. On “Seven Words,” though, she conjures a kaleidoscopic vision of the 1970s’ best kept secrets. Over a slow-building foundation of subtle, psychedelic keyboards and muted slide guitars, Mering’s vocals are as precise and effortless as ever, conveying a sad desperation. The first taste from her upcoming album Front Row Seat to Earth, is an ode to communication: an elegy for words left unsaid at the end of a relationship. Each verse plays like a love letter never sent, sung with increasing urgency as the memories fade and the future becomes clearer. “I want you mostly in the morning,” she sings, “When my soul is weak from dreaming.” By the time the song reaches its conclusion, with a Judee Sill-invoking choir of layered harmonies, Mering has transported the listener to that same pre-verbal, lovesick mindset.

Album: Front Row Seat to Earth Released: 2016 Run Time: 4:37

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SEVEN YEARS

Seven Years Norah Jones

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SEVEN YEARS

Spinning, laughing, dancing to her favourite song A little girl with nothing wrong Is all alone Eyes wide open Always hoping for the sun And she’ll sing her song to anyone That comes along Fragile as a leaf in autumn Just fallin’ to the ground Without a sound Crooked little smile on her face Tells a tale of grace That’s all her own Fragile as a leaf in autumn Just fallin’ to the ground Without a sound Spinning, laughing, dancing to her favourite song Well, she’s a little girl with nothing wrong And she’s all alone A little girl with nothing wrong And she’s all alone

SEVEN SONGS

Seven Years is the second track on Jones’ 2002 album, Come Away with Me. It is the first full-length album by vocalist Norah Jones, released by Blue Note Records. The album received Grammy Awards for Album of the Year and Best Pop Vocal Album and was certified Diamond by the Recording Industry Association of America on February 15, 2005, having shipped over 10 million copies in the U.S. As of October 2016, the album has sold more than 27 million copies worldwide. Come Away with Me reached the top of the Billboard 200 chart and several jazz charts. In this album, it is not just the timbre of Norah Jones’s voice that is mature beyond her years. Her assured phrasing and precise time are more often found in older singers as well. She is instantly recognisable, blending intimations of Billie Holiday and Nina Simone without sounding like anyone but herself.

Album: Come Away with Me Released: 2002 Run Time: 2:25

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7 HEAVENLY VIRTUES

The Catechism of the Catholic Church defines virtue as “a habitual and firm disposition to do the good.

Traditionally, the Seven Heavenly Virtues or Christian virtues or combine the four classical cardinal virtues of prudence, justice, temperance and courage (or fortitude) with the three theological virtues of faith, hope and charity. These were adopted by the Church Fathers as the seven virtues.

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HEAVENLY VIRTUES

INTRODUCTION

The Catechism of the Catholic Church defines virtue as “a habitual and firm disposition to do the good.� Traditionally, the seven Christian virtues or heavenly virtues combine the four classical cardinal virtues of prudence, justice, temperance and courage (or fortitude) with the three theological virtues of faith, hope and charity. These were adopted by the Church Fathers as the seven virtues. Throughout this section I will showcase examples of the Heavenly Virtues within classical and contemporary art, looking at how the themes have been adopted throughout history to inspire artworks.

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Female Fig Leaf, 1950, cast 1961– Marchel Duchamp

INTRODUCTION HEAVENLY VIRTUES

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Female Fig Leaf, 1950, cast 1961– Marchel Duchamp

HEAVENLY VIRTUES

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CHASTITY


CHASTITY

HEAVENLY VIRTUES

Chastity is the counter-virtue to the sin of lust. Chastity embraces moral wholesomeness and purity, and in both thought and action treats God’s gift of sexuality with due reverence and respect. 221


Pallas and the Vices, c. 1499–1502 – Andrea Mantegna

Allegory of chastity, 1475 – Hans Memling

HEAVENLY VIRTUES

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CHASTITY


Wedge of Chastity, 1954, cast 1963 – Marcel Duchamp

Tropicália, Penetrables PN 2 ‘Purity is a myth’, 1966–7 – Hélio Oiticica

CHASTITY HEAVENLY VIRTUES

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Truisms, 1989 – Jenny Holzer

HEAVENLY VIRTUES

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TEMPERANCE


TEMPERANCE

HEAVENLY VIRTUES

The virtue of temperance or abstinence counters the sin of gluttony. To be gluttonous is to over-indulge. On the opposite hand, the virtue of temperance is centred on self-control and moderation. 225


Allegory of Temperance, 1681 – Luca Giordano

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TEMPERANCE


People, 1968 – Richard Hamilton

Hate and Power Can be a Terrible Thing, 2004 – Tracey Emin

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Cimon and Pero: “Roman Charity”, 1767 – Jean-Baptiste Greuze

HEAVENLY VIRTUES

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CHARITY


CHARITY

HEAVENLY VIRTUES

Charity, or generosity, is the virtue that is counter to greed. The virtue of charity is focused on generosity and a willingness to give, freely and without request for commendation. 229


Charity, 1627-28 – Anthony van Dyck

Allegory of Caritas, 1561 – Monogrammist HP

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CHARITY


Conversion, 1986 – Peter Kennard

The Foster Mother, c.1930, printed 1990 – August Sander

CHARITY HEAVENLY VIRTUES

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Paris Diligence, 1810 – Thomas Rowlandson

HEAVENLY VIRTUES

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DILIGENCE


DILIGENCE

HEAVENLY VIRTUES

Diligence, or persistence, is the virtue which acts as a counter to the sin of sloth. This virtue is manifested in appropriately zealous attitudes toward living and sharing the Faith. 233


The glorification of Art and Diligence, c.1580 – Jeremias van Winghe

Three virtues. Plate 1: Diligence, 1615 – Jan Saenredam

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DILIGENCE


The Bible from Memory, 1997– Emma Kay

Number 14, 1951– Jackson Pollock

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Patience (Cocoons Are Temporary), 2015 – Laura Pritchett

HEAVENLY VIRTUES

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PATIENCE


PATIENCE

HEAVENLY VIRTUES

Patience, is the virtue that counters the sin of unjust anger, also called wrath or rage. The virtue of patience focuses on seeking appropriate resolution to conflicts, and on the ability to forgive and show mercy. 237


Pacientia, 1540 – Hans Sebald Beham

Claude Monet Painting by the Edge of a Wood, 1885 – John Singer Sargent

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PATIENCE


Patience, 1984 – Richard Serra

Girl, 1998 – Lisa Milroy

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The Art of Unqualified Kindness, 2012 – Sabrynne McLain

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KINDNESS


KINDNESS

HEAVENLY VIRTUES

Kindness, or brotherly love or love for one’s neighbour, is the virtue which counters the sin of envy. Kindness and brotherly love is manifested in the unprejudiced, compassionate and charitable concern for others. 241


A Pet, 1853 – Walter Howell Deverell

Portrait of Sir Francis Ford’s Children Giving a Coin to a Beggar Boy, 1793 – Sir William Beechey

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KINDNESS


Jesus Speaks to the Women of Jerusalem, 1917 – Eric Gill

Work No. 890: DON’T WORRY, 2008 – Martin Creed

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Animal Spirit, 2016 – Grayson Perry

HEAVENLY VIRTUES

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HUMILITY


HUMILITY

HEAVENLY VIRTUES

Humility is the virtue that counters pride. As pride leads to other sin, true humility clears a path for holiness. Pride is a sin based on undue and inappropriate appreciation of one’s self worth. 245


Representation of Humility in a stained-glass window – Edward Burne-Jones

Madonna of Humility, 1433 – Domenico di Bartolo

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HUMILITY


An Image of Gregory, 1984–5 – David Hockney

Behold, 2009 – Sheela Gowda

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bibliography Motor Racing

Foreword Baader-Meinhof phenomenon info from howstuffworks.com

Photographs from endurorally.com Film

Seven Deadly Sins Poems written by David R. Slavitt Illustration by Cleon Peterson “There is a War”

Content from 7wondersoftheworld. wordpress.com Photographs primarily from Google Images with a range of sources

Timeline and obituary list from BBC.co.uk Seven Songs

Content from Genuis.com, NME and Wikipedia

Interviews from TheGuardian.com Conducted by Megan Conner

Photographs primarily from Google Images with a range of sources

Seven Continents Photographs from National Geographic and Wikipedia Content from Wikipedia and whatarethe7continents.com

Seven Heavenly Virtues

Content from Emporis.com Photographs from NY Times

Born/Died

Content from spiritualray.com Artworks from Tate

1907–2007 Architecture

Content and photographs from IMDb.com

Seven Wonders of the World

7/7 Attacks

Photographs from DailyMail.co.uk

Content from Wikipedia and endurorally.com

Content from Wikipedia.com Photographs from Tate and Classic FM

Technology

Content and photographs from Apple.com, Wikipedia and Bell Homestead.ca

Politics

Content and photographs from Wikipedia

Tip-Ins Primary content collected from Wikipedia.com Additional information for: Seven Years from WebMD Seventh Son from ancient-origins.net Se7en from IMDb

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Seven  

A publication created to meet the brief to show 'everything about one thing' in a book format. I researched the vast range of occurrences of...

Seven  

A publication created to meet the brief to show 'everything about one thing' in a book format. I researched the vast range of occurrences of...

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