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E� Portafolio

English IV Mileydi Brenes

Content Unit One. The Internet and Other Addictions .......................................................... 2 Speaking Number One ...................................................................................................... 5  Unit Two. Honesty Is the Best Policy .......................................................................... 6  Unit Three. The Bold and the Bashful ......................................................................... 7  Unit Four. Feng Shui ...................................................................................................... 11  Week Number Ten. Expose Khmer Rouge ............................................................. 14  Essay Number One ........................................................................................................ 16  Essay Number Two ........................................................................................................ 18  Unit 6. Spiritual Renewal ............................................................................................... 20  Unit 7. Workplace Privacy ............................................................................................ 22  Vocabulary ......................................................................................................................... 22  Unit 9. Boosting brain power through the arts ..................................................... 24  References ......................................................................................................................... 25 

Unit One. The Internet and Other Addictions Vocabulary  Surf: look for information on Internet Engaging in: taking part in or becoming involve in.  Turning each other in: telling, denounce betrayal.  Devoting: giving or using something for a purpose like time or effort  Compulsiveness: inability to control certain behavior.  Therapy: treatment of problems by talking about them.  Putting together: organizing.  Support groups: people who meet to help each other with a problem they all share.  Present with: show signs of an illness by having a type or behavior or condition.  Coming out: becoming publicly known.  Fulfillment: personal satisfaction.  Turn into: become (something different).  Shaping: influencing in a particular way.  Overwhelmed: upset or strongly affected.  Went through: experienced.  Going on: happening.  Went on a binge: began to overdo something.  Clean slate: fresh happening.

Grammar Present and future 1. We use wish + past simple to express that we want a situation in the present (or future) to be different.  I wish I spoke Italian. (I don't speak Italian.)  I wish I had a big car. (I don't have a big car.)  I











Future: I wish it were the weekend tomorrow. (It's only Thursday tomorrow.)

2. We use wish + past continuous to express that we want to be doing a different action in the present (or future).  I wish I were lying on a beach now. (I'm sitting in the office.)  I wish it wasn't raining. (It is raining.)  I wish you weren't leaving tomorrow. (You are leaving tomorrow.)

Past 1. We use wish + past perfect to express a regret, or that we want a situation in the past to be different. 

I wish I hadn't eaten so much. (I ate a lot.)

I wish they'd come on holiday with us. (They didn't come on holiday with us.)

I wish I had studied harder at school. (I was lazy at school.)

Wish + would 1. We use wish + would + bare infinitive to express impatience, annoyance or dissatisfaction with a present action.  I wish you would stop smoking. (You are smoking at the moment and it is annoying me.)  I wish it would stop raining. (I'm impatient because it is raining and I want to go outside.)  I wish she'd be quiet. (I am annoyed because she is speaking.)

Wish and hope 1. To simply express that you want something to happen in the future (not talking about wanting an action or situation to be different, and not talking about impatience or annoyance) we use hope, not wish.  I hope it's sunny tomorrow. NOT I wish it was sunny tomorrow.  I hope she passes her exam next week. NOT I wish she were passing her exam next week.  I hope the plane doesn't crash tomorrow. NOT I wish the plane wouldn't crash tomorrow.

Wish and want 1. We can use wish + infinitive or wish + object + infinitive to mean want in a formal situation.  I wish to leave now. (+ Infinitive)  I wish to speak to your supervisor please. (+ Infinitive)  I do not wish my name to appear on the list. (+ Object + infinitive)

Speaking Number One Work addiction Dialogue Hi I’m Mileidy and people said I’m a work addict. I don’t really know when this became into a problem I’m exposed to a lot of stress, and have a compulsion to be always connected to the work My family is worried for me and sometimes they fill frustrated because I don’t dedicate enough time for them. This week I needed to deliver an important project, the best effort was required from me and I spent a lot of time working in the final presentation. I slept only three hours and had to deliver the presentation to the executive board. Later my family wanted to go to the bowling with me but I was so tired to join them. My husband recommended looking for a support group because he said that I’m a workaholic. I think that is not that serious so this is temporal because we are in the Fiscal Year end process. When I finish this I will have my work-life balance back. Anyway my social life is affected and my family is demanding time, I think I will look for therapy with a professional.

Unit Two. Honesty Is the Best Policy Vocabulary  Pervasive: existing or spreading everywhere  Trivial: unimportant or with little value  Tattling on each other: tell something bad that another person has done  Mislead: make someone believe something that is not true  Veneer: a cover that hides the way someone or something really is  Relentless: continuing without stopping or losing strength  Finely honed: sharpened or perfected  Conceal: hide something carefully  Intrusive: affecting someone’s private life in an annoying way  Inflated: exaggerated, overly important  Fudge: manipulate something  Bluffing: to lie  Slippery slope: like a snowball  Fess up: admit it or face the true  Whopper: lie  Deceptive: person with double face  Mull over: think carefully  Put over: deceive

Unit Three. The Bold and the Bashful Vocabulary  Reticent: unwilling to talk  Phobia: very strong fear  Merit: value  Extroverted: very sociable  Adverse: negative  Syndrome: condition  Chronic: continual (medical term)  Kindred souls: people having similar traits  Misattributions: false assumptions  Handicap: disadvantage  Aloof: distant  Condescending: treating others as inferior  Go through the roof: become upset  Open the floodgate: to make it happen  Turn the tide: change the course  Reluctant: reject  Grouchy: morose  Killjoy: party pooper  Bashful: shy

Grammar Adjective clauses

Adjective clauses begin with one of the relative pronouns such as who, whom, whose, when, that, which

Who: Refers to people, used as subject in the clause

Whom: Refers to people, used as object or object of preposition

Which or that: Refers to things, animals

Whose: Refers to possession/ownership

When: Refers to a time (in + year, in + month, on + day). It cannot be a subject.

Unit Four.The Tipping Point Vocabulary  Mavens: people who know a lot and talk a lot about something  Word of mouth: related to people telling people  Epidemic: large number of cases of an infectious disease occurring at the same time  Got a hold of: contacted, communicated with  Consumed by: totally involve in  Win over: persuade someone to do something  Profiled: described  Goes a long way toward: success in  Holds: is true  Make a splash: get attention  A ripple effect: domino effect

Grammar Advert clauses of result

So that, In order that Both, so that and in order that are used to talk about purpose.

In order that is more formal.


Speak clearly so that we can all hear you.

He spoke loudly in order that everybody would hear him.

He remained still so that people thought he had died.

We started in the morning so that we would reach our destination in time.

She lived in England for six months so that she could perfect her English.

The same idea can often be expressed using the structure too‌to.

It was too hot to go out.

She was too weak to walk.

It was too cold to play.

Such‌that Such can be followed by a that-clause.


She spoke in such a low voice that nobody could hear her.

It was such a hot afternoon that we stopped playing.

Such were his words and gestures that the audiences were mesmerized.

His rudeness was such that his parents were shocked

Unit Five. Feng Shui Vocabulary  Frowned upon: disapprove of  Hard bitten: tough or experienced  Transcendent: beyond the limits of ordinary experience  Digression: idea that is unrelated to the topic  Aligning: properly positioning  Caught off guard: surprised, startled  Abundance: a large quantity of something  Circulates: moves, flows  Quote: repeat what someone else has said or written  Skeptically: with doubt  Get into: become interested in  Sharp: smart, quick  Work around: compensate for  Rise or fall: success or fai Grammar Connectors

and Transitional Expressions. Connectors, often called

conjunctive adverbs, are used to connect basic sentence patterns to make compound sentences. The principal connectors are: However, furthermore, consequently, else, hence, likewise, therefore, otherwise, moreover, also, then, meanwhile

Transitional Expressions. Transitional expressions serve as bridges between spaces of time and help organize events in chronological order or time sequence. Addition: additionally, as well, moreover, further, furthermore, besides, and, and then, likewise, also, nor, too, again, in addition, equally important, next, first, second, third, in the first place, in the second place, finally, last. Comparison and Similarity: similarly, likewise, in like a manner, in the same manner, in the same way. Contrast or Opposition: but, yet, and yet, however, still, nevertheless, on the other hand, on the contrary, after all, notwithstanding, for all that, in contrast to this, although this may be true, otherwise, in contrast, in spite of this, else. Purpose: to this end, for this purpose, with this object. Result: hence, therefore, accordingly, consequently, thus, thereupon, as a result, then, thereby, for this reason, that’s why on this account. Summary and Conclusion: to sum up, in brief, on the whole, in sum, in short, as I have said, in other words, that is, to be sure, as has been noted, for example, for instance, in fact, indeed, to tell the truth, in any event, in conclusion, to conclude, to summarize. Passing of Time: meanwhile, at length, immediately, soon, after a few days, in the meantime, afterward, later, henceforth, eventually, lately, after a while, at last, presently, recently, since then, since..., after that, temporarily, thereafter. Concession or Admission of Facts: after all, although, and yet, at the same time, granted, naturally, of course, perhaps, maybe, to tell the truth. Exemplification: for example, e.g., for instance, namely, incidentally, indeed, in fact, in other words, in particular, particularly, specifically, that is (to say), i.e., as

I have said, as has been noted. Sequence or numerical order: first, firstly, in the first place, first off, second, secondly, in the second place, third, thirdly, then, next, last, lastly, finally. Figurative language Metaphor. A metaphor is a comparison used to add descriptive meaning to a phrase (without using the words "like" or "as"). Metaphors are generally not meant literally, and may have little connotative similarity to the concepts they are meant to portray. Simile. The easiest stylistic device to find is a simile, because you only have to look for the words "as" or "like". A simile is a comparison used to attract the reader's attention and describe something in descriptive terms. Synecdoche. Synecdoche occurs when a part of something is used to refer to the whole. Many examples of synecdoche are idioms, common to the language. Metonymy. Metonymy is similar to synecdoche, but instead of a part representing the whole, a related object or part of a related object is used to represent the whole. Often it is used to represent the whole of an abstract idea. Personification. Permitting a non-human thing to perform as if it were human. Apostrophe. Similar to 'personification' but indirect. The speaker addresses someone absent or dead, or addresses an inanimate or abstract object as if it were human.


Week Number Ten. Expose Khmer Rouge Khmer Rouge Khmer Rouge was a notable group of people. That was originally based out of Cambodia. The group consisted of people who followed the Communist Party of Kampuchea in the 1970s. The regime was very strong but was noted predominantly for its violence in that the regime was responsible for the deaths of nearly two million people from executions, forced labor and starvation.

Khmer Rouge was created in the 1960s by Pol Pot in the jungles of Cambodia. The name is French for "Red Khmer" and was named by Norodom Sihanouk, the former King and Prime Minister of Cambodia. The group was devoted to the creation of a radical Communist regime. This regime was formed as a means of working to destroy all influences on Cambodia by the Western world. An agrarian society was the target of Khmer Rouge.

The United States became involved in this insurgency in 1973 by secretly bombing various areas of Cambodia that had been controlled by Vietnamese Communists. This was used to force Vietnam out of Cambodia. However, this ended up creating an open space for Pol Pot to use to control this newly freed up space in the country.

It is estimated that between 1975 and 1978 about two million people died. These people were killed due to executions, dying from exhaustion from forced labor or dying from malnutrition and famine.

The main thing that can be seen about Khmer Rouge is that it was one of the most violent and deadliest regimes in the history of the world. This is due to how millions of people had been killed during the rule of the Khmer Rouge. Today the remnants of Khmer Rouge are inactive and the control that the company once had has been killed off, thus ensuring that genocide like this can never happen in Cambodia again.

Essay Number One TECHNOLOGY As we know, we live in a world immersed in a constant and accelerated changing. Technology has become an essential part of our lives. For this reason, people have become more depending of it. But, what are some implications of it in our society? Definitely, this generate us more stress, because we created a total dependency to e-mails, cellphones, iPads, computers, internet and networks, that in some cases if we have any in our hands we could become crazy.

Families are also affected in this constant process, because every time is less the time that we dedicate to our loved ones and more concerned about the last technological breakthrough in the market. On the working field, technology gives us a lot of advantages but at the same time it causes more stress on us because it ties up in many occasions to bring the work at home; dedicating our full time to work and work without any time to ourselves.

Our health can be damage of having a technology addiction, for example some symptoms of this could be depression, anxiety, mood change or insolation. According to statistics from the Sant Joan BÊu Barcelona´s Hospital (2010) one in four people present’s some symptoms


addiction to

technology. In the other hand, some experts do not considered this as an addiction, on their investigations say that this is cause of living how we live and people will learn to handle it.

Other important aspect, which we must have to stand out, is that technology is making people lazier. Children do not make any kind of exercise, the majority after school just think in arriving home just to play video games or begin to surf in internet. Another important point, is in school, now internet bring us whatever we want it, just with a click and copy paste.

In the case of networks and chat, they allow that shy people can relate more easily, so they can lie about themselves and overcome their fear of meeting new people. That’s why we have to be aware of this, because we really do not know with who we are really talking. To the best recommendation is be aware and do not trust in everything they said, but more important, do not give personal information of any kind.

It’s really important to maintain a kind of margin when we talk about technology. According to some investigations mention before, a hospital in Barcelona-Spain, created a group therapy for people who have a kind of addiction to technology and they do not know how to handle. This consists in a support groups meeting with a psychologist that help them to control this problem. People must be careful and be aware that at any moment we will fall into this vicious circle. Some recommendations to leave a little of technology are: doing exercise, go the movie theater, share with our friends and family, turn off all the technology appliances. It is inevitable to stop technology, but is in us if we use it in a uncontrolled way.

Essay Number Two Do You Know What Your Children Are Doing? Today, the Internet is considered an indispensable tool in Costa Rican homes the last decade was a world revolution on this means. Hence the explosion of the Internet in recent years may not be so useful, and generate benefits for the population that uses it. Especially children under 14.

Although the internet is a versatile means of access to information, there are sites used for child pornography, trafficking or violent content. It is important to control or monitor the sites visited by on the Internet, to avoid being victims of cyber cheating.

A method that allows us to protect children is setting the computer to block access to content that may be problematic. This by appropriate software. Similarly, libraries were used to differentiate between adult and children rooms that offer relevant content to them, you can also use filters to block those pages with content that is illegal or harmful for example, with words, images, movies or sounds.

They should explain to children the contents that consist of web pages, not simply install a program that filters the information, not a question of children restrict certain content available anywhere on the web, but also education. Here comes the father role is essential; as they are educated about the dangers of the street, they should also be advised for other things. They should be told because some Internet sites are not suitable

for them. For example, child pornography often begins with a seemingly innocent encounter in chat rooms.

To finish, maintaining a relationship based on dialogue, will communicate fluently with their children so they can explain the advantages and disadvantages of internet for example, buy, get information, meet people from other countries. But it is a tool that can be dangerous if you do not have adequate controls.

Unit Six. Spiritual Renewal 1) Prophets : holy men 2) Ascetic : living without any physical pleasures or comforts, especially for religious reasons 3) Fasting: eating little or no food for a special reason 4) Divine : coming from god or a god 5) Enacted a law: made a new official rule 6) Vibrant : full of energy and life 7) Hectic : very busy: full of activity 8) Replenish : renew and refill 9) Well- being : a feeling of being happy, healthy, or satisfied 10)Refrain from: not do something you want to do 11)Will :determination 12)Fosters : develops 13)Gratitude: thankfulness 14)Humility: not being too proud 15)Eastern religions: asceticism 16)All religions: anti materialism

Grammar Quantifiers before count nouns

Quantifiers before non-count

Many /a great many

A great deal of

Quite a few

Quite a bit of

A (large) number of certain

A large a bit of

Not many

Not much

Very few ( just a few/only a few)

Very little(just a little/only a little)

Few / little

A few / a little

Negative meaning

Positive meaning

Similar to not much and not many

Similar to some ( when talking about a small quantity



Few people can fast more than three days in a row

Unit Seven. Workplace Privacy Vocabulary

1) Employees: people who work for a company or organization 2) Employer: person or organization that you work for 3) Keep an eyes on :watch closely and continuously 4) Surveillance : the act of watching carefully 5) Safeguards: range 6) Eavesdropping: listen to secretly 7) Legitimate: lawful; reasonable 8) A log: an official written record 9) Scope: protections 10) Willy nilly : unpredictably; without our choosing 11) Dignity: respectability, seriousness 12) Demeaned : insulted 13) Driving : causing 14) Sinister: evil 15) Deter : prevent 16) Racial slurs : insulting comments about a person`s race

Grammar Verb+ gerund or infinitive – two forms, two meanings

Some verbs always be followed by a gerund (base form of +ing) other verbs must be followed by an infinitive (to + base of verb) others can be followed by either a gerund or an infinitive with no change in meaning.

Verbs +followed by the gerund or Verbs

Infinitive whit a change in meaning

Forget + gerund He will never forget having his calls monitored. the experience was so demeaning Forget + infinitive The manager was fired because he forget to write a report about his staff`s phone calls Stop + gerund She stopped calling her friends during office hours Stop +infinitive When she realized how late she was working she stopped to call home

To forget an experience usually one that is particularly good or bad


Mean, quit regret , remember and try

some other verb like this are :

To forget to do something

To stop doing something for an extended time To stop doing something for a moment in order to do something

Unit Nine. Boosting brain power through the arts 1) Enhance : improve 2) Proficiency : ability and skill 3) Abstract

reasoning :ability to understand general concepts that cannot be

immediately seen or felt 4) Self esteem : confidence 5) Underscoring : emphasizing 6) Neurological : related to nerves 7) Hallmark : outstanding feature 8) Sequential : in a particular order 9) Interventions : special activities to prevent bad results 10) Curriculum : list of subjects taught 11) Well- rounded : complete and varied 12) Building blocks :parts ; pieces


Boosting brain power through the arts How to form the passive voice. The passive voice is formed by using a form of the verb to be plus the pas participle of the main verb. Subject

past participle


The students

form of the verb to be Are


His self- esteem




Wiil be


A well rounded education By the new arts curriculum if things don’t improve

The curriculum The pieces The neurons Spatial reasoning

is going to be Must be Might have been Is being

improve Practiced Stimulated Improved

Before the Performance

References Hospital, S. J. (2010). "Causes and Consequences of technology". Retrieved from‐y‐consecuencias‐de‐la‐adiccion‐a‐las‐nuevas‐ tecnologias/ 


Mileydi Brenes

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