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LISTENING • One of the main reasons for getting students to listen to spoken English is to let them hear different varieties and accents –rather than just the voice of their teacher.

• In today´s world, they need to be exposed not only to one variety of English, but also to varieties of English.

PRINCIPLES 1. The tape recorder is just as important as the tape. ď ś However good your tape is, it will be useless if the tape recorder has a poor speaker. ď ś You need to be sure that the tape recorder can be heard all round the classroom.

2. Preparation is vital ď śTeachers need to listen to the tape all the way through before they take it into class.

ď śStudents need to be made ready to listen.

3. Once will not be enough ď ś The first listening is often used just to give students an idea of what the listening material sounds like so that subsequent listenings are easier for students.

4. Students should be encouraged to respond to the content of a listening, not just to the language 5. Different listening stages demand different listening tasks.

6. Good teachers exploit listening texts to the full. ď ś If teachers ask students to invest time and emotional energy in a listening task, then it makes sense to use the tape for as many different applications as possible.

Helpful Web sites • University of Oregon American English Institute Intensive English Program-Study Resources for Students • Randall´s Cyber Listening Lab • University of Illinois Intensive English Institute Interactive Listening Comprehension Practice Page

SPEAKING • Speaking a second or foreign language is far from simple. • In fact, speaking -especially in a language other than our own- is quite a complex undertaking which involves using all the different levels of language.

Helpful Web sites • TESOL • English Language Teaching Journal

• Amerispeak

READING PRINCIPLES Reading is not a passive skill. Students need to be engaged with what they are reading. Students should be encouraged to respond to the content of a reading text, not just to the language.

I said to the almond tree, "Sister, speak to me of God,“ and the almond tree blossomed. Nikos Kazantzakis

Prediction is a major factor in reading. Match the task to the topic. Good teachers exploit reading texts to the full.

Helpful Web sites • The Reading Matrix •

WRITING • The reasons for teaching writing to students of English as a foreign language include reinforcement, language development, and learning style.

Helpful Web site • ewriting.htm XV1pPbiw&index=3&feature=plpp_video

Language Skills  

Four main skills

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