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u,fvqd,rf

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u,fvAif a*s

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u,fvAif a*s

u,fvAif 'AsL/wd

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uif;AJ trf

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upfcsem tdyf/tdyf jyefvnfz\GJ pnf;a7;wGif ulnaD qmif&u G cf o hJ nf? 1892 ckEpS w f iG f tD*sppf pfwyfrsm;. aoemywdjzpfvmjyD;onfh aemufwiG f Akv d rf ;ΠcsKyfa*:'Gew f \dktm; cgwGr;f Y wyfv;Hk jyKwfatmifwkdufckdufcJhaom rm'DapmfbGm;.tquf tEG,f olyek rf sm;ukEd rdS ef if;7ef aocsmpGm tpDtpOfrsm; jyKvkycf o hJ nf? 1896 ckEpS rf pS I xko d yl ek rf sm;ESihf wku d f cku d cf 7hJ m/ atmifyrGJ sm; quf umqufum7cJI h 1898 ck pufwifbmvwGif cgwGr;f jrKd \udk jyefvnford ;f yku d Ef idk cf hJ onf? xkad -umifu h pfcsemtm; jAdwo d ~tpk;d 7u cgwGr;f pm;bJG\jzifh AJ&Geftqifhtwef;ay;tyfcsD;jr|ifhcJhonfhjyif qkawmfaiGaygif; 30000 ukv d nf;ay;cJ. h ? 1899 ckEpS w f iG f Ak;d 0g;ppfyjGJ zpfymG ;aomtcg upfcsem rSm aoemywdavmha7mAwf.OD;pD;csKyftjzpfaqmif&u G f 7ef apvFwfjcif;cH7jyefonf? avmhupfcsem. tcsuu f susEiS hf aphpyfu'rf;usipf mG aqmif&u G af y;Ekid f r=a-umifh/ 1900 jynfhESpfcef\wGif Akd;0g;vlrsKd;wkd\.jrdK\ awmf 2 jrdK\v;Hk ukd jAdwo d ~wyfrsm;u odr;f yku d Ef idk cf o hJ nf? xkad emufr-umrD avmha7mAwf.7mxl;ukd upfcsemquf cH7avonf? qkcd o hJ nft h wkid ;f Ak;d 0g;wk\d. jrdK\awmfrsm; uko d rd ;f yku d f Ekid cf ahJ omfvnf; Ak;d 0g;wk\donf ajymufusm; pHepfjzifh qufvuf ckcaH evsuyf if&adS o;I/ xkpd pfyrGJ sm;ukd atmifjrifpmG qk;H cef;wkid f wku d cf u dk 7f efrmS upfcsemtzd\k -uD;av;aomwm0ef-uD; jzpfavonf? okd\aomf upf csemonf txl;-udK;pm;jyD;v~if ta7;ygaomjrdK\-uD;rsm;/ a'orsm;ukdvnf;aumif;/ o,f,lykd\aqmifa7;rsm;ukd vnf;aumif;/ Ak;d 0g;ajymufusm;wk\d xda7mufpmG raESmifh ,Suef idk af tmif trsK;d rsK;d tzkzH Hk pDraH qmif&u G cf o hJ nf? xkd a-umifh Ak;d 0g;wk\d.ajymufusm;pHepfrmS t7mra7mufawmh bJ/ 1902ckEpS w f iG f Ak;d 0g;ppfyjGJ yD;qk;H oGm;avonf? upf csemonf Akdif;aumifhtqifhtwef;okd\ wkd;jr|ifhjcif; cH7onfjh yif qkawmf aiGaygif; 50000 ukv d nf; ay;o em;jcif;cHc7hJ avonf? Ak;d 0g;ppfyjGJ yD;qk;H onfah emuf r-umrDyif/ avmhupfcs emrSm tdNd,jynfppfwyfrsm;. aoemywdtjzpf cef\ xm;jcif;cH7.? xk7d mxl;wGif 190^ ckEpS w f idk x f rf;&Gucf hJ I tdNd,jynfppfwyfrsm;ukd jyKjyifzJG\pnf;ay;cJhonf?

xdkaemuf 7mxl;oufwrf;aphonfhtcg -opa-w;vD; ,m;/e,l;ZDvefpaom jAdwdo~'kdrDeD,efEkdifiHrsm;rSppf wyfrsm;ukd vSnv hf nf-unf&h c= I hJ / 'krd eD , D efEidk if rH sm;. umuG,af 7; tpDtpOfrsm;ukd a7;qJaG y;cJah vonf? 1911 ckESpfrSpI ukdif&kdjrdK\wGif jAdwdo~tpkd;7.ukd,fpm; vS,af wmftjzpf 3 ESprf ~aqmif&u G 7f jyefonf? 1914 ckEpS w f iG f yxruBmppfjzpfymG ;aomtcg avmh upfcsemrSm ppf0ef-uD;tjzpf cef\xm;jcif;cH7.? ppf0ef -uD;tjzpf xrf;aqmif7onfhwm0ef 0W7m;rSm ao; i,fvo S nfr[kwaf y? xkpd OfujAw d o d ~w\d. k ppftiftm; rSm rsm;pGmcsnfheJ\aeao;7m/ *smrefuJhokd\ tiftm; aumif;I ppfr=u`rf;usifvSaom7efolrsKd;ESifhzufjydKif Ekid 7f ef upfcsemrSm txl;-uKd ;pm;cJ7h .? wkid ;f jynfvx l u k vnf; upfcsemtay:wGif -unfndKav;pm;-uonfh tavsmuf wku d cf u dk 7f eftoif&h o dS nfh ppfonfawmftif tm; 160000rS wyfom; 5000000 &Sdatmif upfcsemonf twku d t f cHr&Sv d b S J ESpt f enf;i,ft wGi;f cs\JxiG Ef idk cf ahJ vonf? &k&t S pk;d 7ESihf wkid yf ifaqG;aEG;7eftwGuf 1916 ckZeG v f 5 7ufae\wiG f [$&di= , f mtrnf&dS u&lZmppfoab‡mjzifh yufx&k*d 7ufjrKd \o\dk xGucf mG cJ7h m/ xkad e\n 8 em7Dcef\tcsed f Y atmhueD;u`ef;pktvGefwGif *smrefa7jrK|yfAkH;xdI oab‡m epfjrKyfoGm;avonf? oab‡may:wGifygor~ vlrsm;xJrS oab‡mom; 12 a,mufom touf&SifI avmhupfcsem. tavmif;ukyd if &SmrawG\7awmhacs? avmhupfcsemrSm wpfpw Hk pfcu k dk rjzpfraejyKvyk w f wfI eufeJpGmcsifhcsdef pOf;pm;wwfoljzpf.? xkdjyif tvGef pnf;urf;-uD;oljzpf7m tcsK\dvufatmufi,fom;rsm;u ol\tm;oabmrus-uay? okd\aomf upfcsemonf xkdpnf;pepfrsm;ukd woa0rwdrf;vkdufemjcif;rSm ppf atmifjrifa7;ta-umif;wpf7yfyif jzpfonf[k ,k-H unf avonf? xko d \dk pnf;urf;ESihf tnDjyKwwfojzifv h nf; ol.-u;D av;vSaom ppfrufa7;7m wm0efrsm;ukd atmif jrifpmG xrf;aqmifEidk cf o hJ nf[k qk7d ayrnf? upfcsem onf ol\tm;ay;tyfor~aom wm0ef0W7m;rsm;ukd jyD;jywfatmifjrifpmG aqmif&u G jf rJjzpfavonf?

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437

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