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and acitement of great cars and great racing. You1J foLlow the mtomobiJe's

AutorrzotiJR News is ceJebrating a century of automotive development worldwide with a mastuwork: The Centennial Celebration of the Car. This special collectors issue - a big 11 x 14~ inches - proudly travels through 100 years of automotive ~ tory to bring you a colorful. eye-filling look at the roots and the rise of a machine that has created one of the world's great industries...and embraced us In a passionate love affair. MQre than a year·and·a·haIf in the making, The Centennial Celebtation of the Car is a "must bave" (or anyone in the automotive industry. Or for any. one whos a real car enthusiast. Mini-histories on haw the industry started - and who was responslble- in Europe. North America and Asia will hold your interest from start to finish. You'lJ see dreams take shape. You1J examine the way the automobile has changedliYts. You11 shan In the /un

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The 'G ood 路 Ol d Days' of Mo tor ing

T HE

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FIRST MAN to drive across the United States in an autom obile was warne d of highwayme n. But the only robber he met was a gaso~ line vendo r who charge d him $1.05 a gallon. Expen sive fuel was just one of Colone l H. Nelson Jackso n's proble ms as he drove from San Franci sco to New York in a two-cy linder, chaindrive Winto n in May, June, and July, 1903. The trip took sixty-t hree days. Roads were rutted wagon trails which turned into morass es after rain. The stout little car jounce d over dry stream beds and splash ed across rivers. Bridge s were rare. Road maps and signs were unkno wn. One woma n misdir ected the travele r fifty miles down a road which came to a dead end at an isolate d farmho use where an elderly couple gaped at the strang e m~chine. The indign ant Jackso n retrace d his route and asked the woman why she had sent him there. "I wante d Maw and Paw to see you," she ex~ plained . "They 've never seen an autom obile." In the pionee r days of motor touring , even a little spin in the countr y was almost as adventurous as a cross~country trip. Some towns banned the "devil wagon s" from their streets . Farm~ ers buried saws and rakes in the dusty roads to sabota ge the "citl fellers " who were frighte ning their horses and killing their chickens. Even withou t booby traps, early motori sts averag ed at least one flat per trip. The flimsy tires leaked , collect ed nails, and explod ed on the slighte st provoc ation. Three or four spare tires and a portab le vulcanize r were standa rd equipm ent. Every man was his own mecha nic; cars invaria bly broke down miles from nowhe re. The foresig hted car~ ried a block and tackle, towing cable, hatche t, grease gun, assort ed wrenc hes and screw driver s, 14

severa l feet of insulat ed wire, spark plugs, gaskets, tire valves, and so on. Anoth er vital item was a food hampe r. Pionee r motori sts didn't stint themse lves. "A wicker basket the size of a small steame r trunk will do," one writer suggested. Many times all precau tions were useless. In an early motori ng magaz ine, a doctor related in dismal detail how he failed to repair his disabled steame r and was "again towed home in disgrace". To novices the physic ian prescri bed: "Neve r wear a silk hat, frock coat, and white linen on an auto trip; they don't look well after you've had an accide nt." Leathe r jackets and breech es compr ised a more practic al motori ng outfit. Kanga roo skin was favore d because it was pliable and shed water. Cloth dusters warde d off the huge clouds of dust the open cars stirred up. Convoys of路;~ars often banded togeth er for long-d istance tours.. New Hamps hire police were not impres sed by an elite auto carava n which invade d their state in 1905. Officers disguis ed as workm en were posted on both sides of the princi~ pal road. They held a rope to stop any car-o r garrot e the driver -excee ding the eight-mile-anhour speed limit. In Urban a, Illinois, an ordina nce limited speed to four miles an hour, and require d driver s to sound a bell within fifty feet of a crossin g and to contin ue ringing it until after the interse ction had been passed. Motor ing grew in spite of bad roads, mecha nical failure s, accidents, legal restric tions, and other obstac les. But there were forebodings. A Newpo rt dowag er punge ntly expres sed ~n early attitud e toward motor cars when she saId, after a pedest rian waS" run down: "The automo bile is dividin g the United States into two classe ,s-the quick and the dead!" ALABAM A ROADBUILDER


PROJECTS UNDER CON STR UCT ION AS OF NOV . 28,

1970

... (Co ntin ued from Pag e 13) Bonding Com pany

Cont racto r

Coun ty

Amt . of % Cont ract Com p.

% Time Elaps ed

JOR DAN PILE DRI VIN G CO.. INC. STA TE-1 207- Z_ _U SF& G__ Maco IL..-. ..15,55 7.20 100 80 j,.i\.I DLA W.C ONT RAC TING CO.; Il(C. FA.-S -0207 (l01) _.._. St. Pau1 __ Bald win __. 472.4 53.46 FA-E R-29 (4) 9 8 5t. pa uL ~~ g~ ~ 517,8 22.50 73 STA TE·7 12-E •._ _ St. Pau1 48 __.B aldw i.n.-. _ 102,7 18.94 20 22 McC ART NEY CON ST. CO. MS 58-025-01A, 58-025-0-3A & 58-053-03A.._ _.U SF& G ..._ St. C1a ir__ STA TE·9 15-M . 38.20 100 90 USF &G __ Etow ah._ __ 187,7 183,6 73.00 100 88 McD OWE LL-P URC ELL APL- 0217 ~003 ) & 5-480 1(101 ) "A"_ _Co nt. Cas .... Jack son & Mar shal l__ 1,514 ,441. 81 21 I·65-2(23)~47 "A" _ .. 19 Cont , Cas. . Jeffe rson _10,5 84,75 I1-U G-I0 4(l2) "A"_ .Con t. Cas._ 7.9() 3 4 .. Etow ah 2,190 ,918. 84 44 24 MCG HEE &< MER RILL CO. STAT E-lO O3-S __ Aetn a.__ .._C off¥ .._ . 407,7 26.40 STA TE-l r49-Z & 7 7 .l733 -A. ..._ _.A etna ....C ovin gton _ 119,0 82.50 100 STA TE·I 733- C, 93 0& E .. __._ _._A etna Covi ngto n.. 251,9 00.50 47 38 THE M &: A ELE CTR IC CO., INC . U-18(18) "A" & U-21 4(l3) "C". St. Pau1 . Jeffe rson _. 305,8 00.00 29 42 MEA DOR CON TRA CTIN G CO. I·65- 1(80) 0:"B".. Aetn a. ..Mo bile .._.. 417,0 00.00 90 72 FLO YD S; MIL FOR D. GEN . CON TR. F-20B(30) "A"_ _-A etna ..._ ... Calh oun ._ 1,686 ,271. 88 72 93 MILL ER &: BER RY. INC. F A-S-4801 (101) "B"__ USF &G ....._ J acks onMar shal l_.. 180,5 58.00 9 22 CLY DE 0, MIT CHE LL CON ST. CO .• INC. I-20.l(26)7~ "A"_ .__U SF& G _._C lebu rne .. _ 1,687,917.64 STA TE-H O-D ..C"__.US F&G 77 77 _.Tu sca1o osa.. 511,9 28.03 100 F-374(9).._.~. 98 USF &G. .. Jeffe rson .._ 939,280.0() 82 73 MOR RIS- SHE A BRID GE CO., INC . FA-S -3017 (l(}l) ...._.. ..US F&G ..._ Fran klin .__ 218,5 12.00 27 23 MOS S·TH ORN TON .-.-o ., INC. -.. .,. FA-S-0222(101) ...._.U SF& <1 Bal dwi n_ 3,356,011.74 43 F-FG -208( l6) .. 20 .. USF &G Calh oun . _ ,()33.26 49 [J-UG-372(9) 39 USF &G _. __Tu scalo osa.. 1,995 1,588,153.59 78 67 ti,,"S HVIL LE BRID GE CO. '-274 (7) ..__.._. USF &G ..._D allas .__ 897,5 90.50 95 'A-S- 3724 (101) .._.. ..Ar gona ut 94 . Jeffe rson . & Wal ker_ . 856,1 20.00 71 60 II. S. NEW ELL . INC. ·1O-1(21)3~ "A".._A etn a. . Bald win __ 6,742,126.20 64 :-59-1(32)65 "C", 38 1-59-1(4:;;)71 "B" & F -FG- 36i(7 ) Aetn a .. Tusc aloo sa. 5,889,908.20 ·85-1(27)5 "A" & 7 9 "B". ..•. -....A etna .._.._ .Mo ntgo m'y. 3.317 ,003.78 88 TA -.'nO-O ._. ... Aetn a ...._ 88 .. Cren shaw _ 223,5 59.22 92 101) ..__ Aetn a .. 65 .She 1by ._.. 315,926.05 100 111 BRO THE RS CON STR . CO. 101) "A". USF &G .__.L own des __ 241,561.71 36 37 CON CRE TE. INC. 6"F "& ..._ .. .Aet na _._M ontg om' y. 13,52 4.00 60 82 ROA D BUIL DER S. INC. "A" & ___ _...U SF& G._.. _Sum ter __ 1,527,329.05 26 40 LL CON TR. CO.. INC . "C"_ _U SF& G._. Cleb urne 172,046.80 87 ...... 63 .US F&G ._C lebu rne.__ _ 567,709.73 64 1(1) _ _U SF& G_.. Hen ry_ 60 _ 87,152.00 61 1(1) _ _U SF&G ._..... ..Lee ..._. 41 __ 122,250.15 4 15 AMA DIR T MOV ERS . INC. -E_ -.-H artf ord __T usca loos a. 537,786.93 99 125 CON STR . CO.• INC • .._.._._....._ .Hom e Ind ...Tu sca1 oosa l.__ _ Ind. Co... ._.C lebu rne__ 883,906.76 20 24 358,620.78 97 -F... ---H ome Ind.. . Calh oun107 Cle burn e_ 201,911.50 100 93 SAIN . INC. 6-A.. .._ ...US F&G _._ Wal ker._ _ 298,265.88 47 71 ltET T CON STR UCT ION CO. ·O_._ __U SF& G.__ Blou nt._ _ 288,178.34 58 45

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(Co ntin ued on Pag e 19)

Chevron

===

Chevron Asphalt Company

REFINERY & DIST RICT OFFI CE: POB ox 1069, Mobi le. Ala., 3660 1- PLAN TS: Birm ingp ort. Ala., Bain bridg e. Ga.; Bato n Rouge. La., Savannah, Ga.; Tamp a. Fla.- TER MIN ALS : Gree nville. MISS.; Jack sonv ille. Fla. TRAD EMAR KS:

, 1970

6lTUM ULS AND CHEV RON

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'!fr.'S' Fork, b~r left and cross bridge 50.3.

ur Turtl left at RR.

to POLLARD. depot and hotel. Follow left track. Turn left with poles. RR, leaves. Fork, be.ar left, poles leave. Fork, bear right, across bridge 53.6. Fork, bear right, passing white barn on left M,5; Take middle road, passing sign "Jack SpriD:~" 85.81i church on right 55.6 and school on left. TlJt'\t "ttl 56.5. 57.4 2.8 Fork, bear left. Ford creek 57.8. small creek 58.2. Cross bridge and pass under WIre 6004, fording creek 60.6. Enter co 61.4, following pel between church and cemetery 61.7; cros~ing bridge St.4 with poles over spur RR. Turn right t~ . Rlt, theft left ~ along same to 62.9 5.5 BREWTON. From garage go east to bridge and keep 8t at fork beyond. Pass cemetery 64.2 and church on righ~~•• 66.8 8.9 Fork, bear right. Up heavy sandy 66.9. Cross branch to 10.8 4.0 Fork. bear right. Cross bridge and go. up clay bill Cross branch. .I 16.3 &.4 Fork, hear right. Traverse clay hill, cross branch,. stOk. ing another clay hill. Cross sandy branch 77.9 andgv> up _y.. . . hill 78',4, cro~si~g bridge 16.9 and another bridge 8!Ut' 0.0." 6.8 !"orJc, ~ear nght thru gate Cleft goes to BrOOklyn). Cro Iron bndge 8.2.6 (Conecuh'River). 88.2 0.7 Fork, bear left Cross branch,heavy sand bottom 85.9 and go up grade. . , . 86.6 3.4 Fork, bear right past farmhotrse. 86.9 O.S Fork, bear left, passing saw-mill 89.2. 90.9 4.0 Fork, bear right, passing schoolhouse 91.5. 92.2 1.3 Fork, bear right and follow main road to . 109.9 17.7 ANDALUSIA, Court House Sq. 52.8 52.7 52.9 58.3 53.8 54.6

hm

For diverging routes see Index ~aPt l?aSe8' 6Il).6n.

Route IfOl-Montgomery to Blrmingham~ Ala.-112.2 m. N ot.",lwu, CDflttNy of Ff{J1Jk L.. Mayes and Dr. S. R. M. Kennedy. MIt."'Ulitt

Total IntermedIate

•'

0.0 o,t MONTGOMERY. Gay-Teague Hotel. East on Commtrte St. thru Court Sq. 0.5 0.15 Turn left one block. West of Capitol, croas two RRs. 1.8. • 1." 0.9 Ttlrn sharp right and cross RR, Again cross RR. at 1.0. Trolle, on right. Follow m~in road into 9.5 8.1 TALLAPOOSA RIVER ferry. 110

18.S 1.1 WETUMPKA. 14.0 6'.2 Turn sharp left across steel bridge, then sharp right.

0.6 0.4 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.8

I

(SSe). Leave ferry acr

Route 1001

gravel flat, curving left thru woods 9.7. Straight ahead at 11.6, avoiding right fork. t2.7 3.2 McCOY. Avoid roads to right, keeping on main road to

14.'tO~7:Fork,

i7.2

I

bear left past white church on right.

~.lS Fork, bear right, fording creek 18.2-18.6.

19.0 1.8 Fork, bear right, keeping right past white church (on left), thru Settlement 20.2. Cross RR. 20.'1. '. 21.7 2.7 Fork, bear right. M.e 8.1 Fork, bear left, right goes to Gray's Ferry. Thr.l1 small hiuttlet 25.2,. passing white church on left. Blacksmith shop 25.5. Pass mailboxes and church On left. 28.7 IUJFork, bear left, thru settlement 29.7, passing eotton gin on left. 3l.22.5 Turn sharp right around mail boxes. . 31.8 0.1 Turn left, kepping right to SUI 2.5 Sharp left turn. '";0 iO.2 Fork. bear right around fence and ford creek 34.3. Pass thru village of Marburg 36.2, lumber mills and RR. on right. RR. leaves 36.6. 37.0 !l.0 Fork, bear right. . . . 88.3 1.8 Fork, bear left. Right leads to Clanton. Cross RR. D&.5 and turn sharp right, keeping Rlt. on right. 88.1 0.4 Turn sharp left'. Forp. creek 89,7. 40.3 1.6 Fork, hear right, keeping right at next fork. Cross RR. 41.2 and steel bridge 41.3. 42.0 1.7 Fork, bear right, keeping left at next two forks. 48.0. 1.0 Fork, bear right. 48.8 0.8 Fork. bear left. Cross RR. 44.0, passing church and cemetery on right. 44.6 0.8 Turn left. Sign "Clanton 4¥. Miles". .Followp()l~s to Cooper's 45.0, turning left between stores, ke!ping rigb at first fork. Turn left with poles, hOtlseOn tight. 46.4 1.8 Fdtk, bear right, keeping left at next fork with poles. 47.8 1.4 Fork, Hear left; crossing bridge. Straight past cemetery on left 49.2. Keep RR. on left, crossing steel bridge 51.,6 into . 52.2 4.4 CLANTON. Cross RR. Avoid roads left and right. 53.8 1.6 Fork, bear right with poles. 54,6 0.8 Road to right, keeping left at next fork. Keep right past three mailboxes 55.2. 66,2 1.6 Take right-hand road, keeping right at forkb~yond. 5S.S 2.6 Fork, bear left. Pass school 59.0. 60.3 l.li Turn sharp left and immediately right into 61.0 0.7 THORSBY. Keep RR. on right I;ndcross same at 61.2. Recross RR. 62.0 and turn sharp right .into 64,6 U j:gMISON. Leaving depot turn left one block, th:n .right


Route 1007

.

' Souther,n Secti

~~;. block, again nght. one block; crossing RR.·tti~n 'llharp 64.8 66.2 76.8 77.7 78.5 87.7 88.0

0.2 Turn sharp right around barn. RR 1 C 'd' . . eaves. urve J avO! mg nght-hand road 6t ') 1.4 Tur~l sharp left, picking up poles 66.7. Pass schoolb on nght 67.2. Ford creek and pass under RR 685 . 10.6 church on left and cotton gin on left 70.3. Poies ie~~:;6 e. Fork, bear left, crossing RR. and avoiding road to left 71'0 Ford creek 77.2 into .• 0.9 MONTEVALLA. Run north and. turn right at first e~ • roads. 0.8 Fork, bear. right, crossing bridge at 79.7. Pass saw-'IIIiD 84.5. Straight on, schoolhouse on right.. Ford creek 81 9.2 Fork, bear right into . 0.3 SILURA. Straight thru, crossing RR 89.0 with I' RR. on left. . poes.

1.5 F~rk, b.ear left, passing church on left 90.6 and bndge IOtO crossjng 92.2 2.7 PELHAM T . h h ~rn ng t t en left around fence, keeping RR. on ri h . . g t, crosslOg. same 92.6. Immediately turn shar· ,left with poles, CrosslOg either bridge or ford T Ph ',', right with I S ' urn s arp po es up hade Mtn., summit 96.7. Cross bridlhO., over RR. 97.0 passing u d RR 98 . . ..h ' . n .er . .2, stnklOg macadam. 10fU 12 9 T ' 110.0 . urn s arp left, keep 109 nght at next fork. 4.9 Turn sharp left. ,,; 110.7 07 T h . T~;;d sA:r:. right. Turn left iJ\to 18th Ave. and right !~to 89.5

,

"

112.1 1.4 Turn right into 19th St. to 112.2 0.1 BIRMINGHAM. City Hall. For diverging routes see Index Map, pages fixo-6u.

Route 1007-Jackson to Selina ' Ala •-108•2 m.

MILEAGES

Total Intermediate

0.0

0.0

JAC~SON,

ALA. Hotel Jackson. Main street to bank' on ~Igh~ Run one block past bank, turning left on mai~' ro~. 0 thru gully and ascend grade, passing house on left, then house and barn on right, then church back from' road. Cross RR. 3.5, keeping same on right bearing' left "nextfur~ . ' 4.7 4.7 Fork, bear right. Wires cross road ma t' 5.2 15 Turn sh . h' ' ny Imes. '. arp T1g t, sIgn "Grove HiIlll~ M." Descend I ~dl, hea:y sand '1- t bottom., Pass house on right 84' t~~g ouse WIth outside chimney on left. . '. ' :en 9.2 4.0 Forks, bear right, crossing RR 93 and . h left and school on right. " passmg ou~e.?n; 11.8 2.1 Fork, bear right. /, ' 13.8 2.0 Fork, bear left (road to Whatley) P h' :'.,. with n . ass ouse On left f s~a ~toneyard, then school on left. Road comes'.in rodmhflght 15.0; Thru bad sandy strip, passing two lltOf Page 792 an ouse on nght, keeping left on main road at next fork;'

Southern Section

Route 1007

17.1 8.8 GROVE HILL, Court House. Straight thru, then turn right on main road. 19.3 2.2 Fork, bear left (road to Lower Peachtree). Pass two barns on t:ight and left. 20.l> 0.7 Forks, bear left, descending steep hill, then up and down grade. Ascend short steep hilI. 21.1 1.1 Fork, bear right (road to Fulton). Pass Peacock P.O., then school on left. Bad drops in road; hilly. ~2.5 1.4 Fork, keeping main road, crossing bridge and RR. 25.8 3.3 Pass two roads coming in from left close together. 26.0 0.2 Fork, keep main road, fording branch and ascending rocky hill, passing ,school on right and house on left. 27.0 1:0 Fork, bear right on heavy 'sand road. 27.8 0.8 Fork, bear right, descending bad rocky hill, clay at bottom. Pass house with silver ball lightning rod on right. Pass sign on road to right "Rural 1 Mil and gate. keeping main road past second sign "Rural". ' 29.9 2.1 Fork, bear right, sign "Thomasville 3~ M". Cross bridges, ascend hill and keep left at forks beyond. 30.0 0.1 Go thru gate straight ahead, then thru another gate and plantation. Go thru third gate and keep main road. 31.9 1.9 Fork, bear left, down and upgrade, passing thru settleQl¢nt and keeping right over hills at next fork. Pass large white buildin'g and large unpainted building on hill. 33.5 1.6 Fork. bear right on curve. , ' 33.9 0.4·THOMASVILLE P. O. Turn right, passing depot right and ascending grade, keeping left at first ro~d at top of hill. Keep to right at turn going thru gate 34.9 on main road and crossing small bridge 37.9. 38.3 4.4 Fork, bear left thru gate, passing log shack on right. Thru several bad places, road runs thru woods. Ascend grade to left and go thru gate, ~rossing RR 40.9; keeping right at next fork. Go thru gate and descend steep double hill, passing church on left in w90ds. At 'turn where, settlement is in sight take road to right passing Sunny South Sta. 44.1, coming on ~andy road, ·then clay. 44.8 6.5 Fork, bear left, pllssing sign "Pine Hill." _ Keep left at next fork, passing log cabin on right. Cross. bridge and turn left. 47.2 . 2.4 Fork, bear left, cross bridge and pass Pine Hill Sta. Pass hotel 47.9. . 48.2, 1.0 Fork, bear right keeping right at next fork 49.1. Cross RR, keeping left at fork beyond 'past church, keeping left , at fork beyond. Cross btidge 52.8. Pass several bad spots soft when wet and cross high 'pridge, crossing another bridge 54.1 and keeping left at next fork. At Second for~ turn sharp left passing old house with outside chimney 0 '

on

l~ft.

".:


Route 1008 8.4 Fork, bear left across bridge. 1.1 Fork, bear right. Sign "Cathe rine 16 M." Pass saw':!2liD on left 60.0. Cautio n-stum ps in center of road. further 62.4 4.7 Fork, bear right, keeping right at, for,k 100 yards h ion, plantat aId on, crossin g two bridges 63.7. Pass ign-. 64.8--e fork at road main on right 64.6, keeping Wea dry in rough usually Road m." "Cathe rine 3~ and heavy in wet weathe r. tank. 67.7 5.3 Fork, bear left, passing church on right and water left. Cross RR. maD 68.2 0.5 CATH ERINE , Sta. Up grade thru town. FollQW Road 69.4. right on house Pass road which is well posted. turns left descend ing, long hill to left. ,Then up, grade, keeping left. ding 71.1 2.9 GASTO NBUR G. Straigh t thru on main road, descen keep roads hill and crossin g RR 71.5. At fork of three center. yards b~ 72.2 1.1 Fork, bear left, keeping right at next fork 100 left. yond. At next fork bear forks,' 73.2 1.0 Fork, bear right, keeping main road thru several Road turns sharp left. 74.4 1.2 Fork, keep right. Church on hill to left. At 75.8 1.4 Fork, bear right at church shortly descend iJlg grade. next" fork keep right on curve. 76.2 0.4 Fork, bear left. 77.3 1.1 Fork, bear left. going 78.3 1.0 Fork, keep right, passing white church on I~ft and g crossin 80.0 woods' thru COvered bridge. Road runs thru left, Turn 86.0. road wide On iron bridge 84.0 and' coming straigh t on to road t~ 90.2 12.9 ORRV ILLE. Straigh t thru and continu e on, main 108.2 18.0 SELM A. /)6.6 7 57.

,

',\

For divergin g routes sec Index Map, pages 610-6u.

Route lO08-Mobile .to Jackson, AJa.- 7:t7 m.

MILEAG ES

Tl>taJ Intermed iate

Office of the "Regis ter." North on Royal St. to Beaure gard, west one block, then north to 1'e1egra l"h Road. Cross tracks, and One Mile Creek with poles. Cro~, car tracks 3.2. Over tracks 4.5, poles leave. Cross iron bridge 6.5 (Chicas abogue Creek) . Narrow road th, swamp , bad in wet weathe r. :Up grade past two howses , on left 8.7, descen ding grade and fording small branch . Cross iron bridge 9.4 (Bayon Sara) Sasalan d Sta. to right. Up heavy, sandy grade, crossin g RR 10.1 and 11.5. Ford creek below trestle 12.0. Cross RR. Cross wood bridge 13.7, keeping left .at two forks: beyond . Pass-sc hool on right 16.7. bridge 17.0 17.0 AXIS. Store on right. Cross RR and small wood crossin g bridge and fording stream 20.3. Cross wood 0.0

0.0 MOBI LE.

Page 794

~ltDlRI Settio n24..0 RR.

Qla~~

Route too8

Upgrad e past g trestleRO; k~e~ing left at forks CfOssm bridge saing d' d Sta. on right. Cros s, Church on right. Desce n. gra J~ c(o II b .d RR ke• • lett .• ,,' C n ge. sma bridge and ascend ing grade. D ross ~d(l: tT0S!!ing long :' " r' bt esce~,d first fork and right at next. ..: b 'd over swamp . Pass saw mllY on 19. ' , n ge to nght, pas.sl'ng store on RR.. VERN ON STA. Cross MT ng:ht. on schoof, at left sharp turns Road h't , . RR ng . . 10.0 1.5 Forks, bear left, crossin g 33.6

37.7 42.6

48 6 . 49.0

One is main road. Other is thru f h The second is dim and rough ere. Two roads out 0 '0 this route. propert y of land compan y. ' d , but is easily followed. It IS the one use t t fork Over cord.ut . RR. close on right. n road before reachf~g~e~ 3.4 Fork, bear right, keeping ;ight urn. roy road and thru gate. I it • saw-mt'11 . Cross RR to mam road. 109 e . t Malcol m Station , on into d . Swamp on d' ping roa pas Keep malD . Ip curve" 0.7 Fork, bear right. Long left 382 and taking left foad .' fair road. Cross bridge .. ore on right where na~e'st .lb 4.9 'turn right, crossin g w.oOden f d' d Pass turpent me Stl l an or right, on house o-stor beyon . to road curves left. ~ass tw de ;ass gate on left 45.3 . d o d hridge branch and ascend sort ,gra " . Milner 's place cro~sing log RR an wo ,... .) K . 6 0 Fork bear left. E (Road to right goes to Tomett e. . eep '.' . t on mileages, are apprOXimate, . GROV 0.4 OAK t h'IS pom From main road.

3.6 CALV ERT.

ns are slight.

51.8

ri ht

. but variatio house on 2.8 Fork, hear left, past k

I ft running -betwe en double

e ,

.

h l,On left b~ri~~ left 00row of large oa s ' . aution ot>d bridg 2.9' Fork, bear left, passlJ;lg scc 00 " ' main' road at fork beyo~d. Rio~7~ . ~cliool! 00 left 5~.9 next at l~ft ping 'Iy'-kee I g c~ossm 56.0, run slowly b for bridge -run s ow t" h . d hill very difficult to clim . b d t en CP.U Ion two forks. ~scend a i~an left ~t next fork at log road. kee~-. 61.1 6.4 Fork, bear ngh(t;o:~eio leroy comes in from ri~ht) . r oad , then to ngh.t mam RR. 64.3 Cross ing to left at next fork, on mam . . road at next fork. do 677. 66 LEROY . Store on left. . in foad. Kee~ infUt and h' h . ., '0"9 Fork bear left. Bad spots . ,try to break new ro~d. Keep, main. road, W lC IS 4$.6 not sa~dY and not heavily travele d to7U 4.0 TOM BIGBE E RIVER FERRY . . '. <l t . Flat boat. Leavin g ferry ascend grade on ~m l:p.. " Q ii,7 1.1 JACKS ON.

54.7

For divergin g routes see VoL 4-


Route 1009

Southern Section

Southern Section

" Route lOO9-Montgomery to Andalusia, Ala.-94.1 m. Notes thru Courtesy of Frank L. Mayes and Dr. S. R. M. Kennedy.',;

77.7

7.4

81.8

4.1

85.5 87.0

3.7 1.5

89.3

2.3

94.1

4.8

MILEAGES

Total Intermediate

0.0 0.0 MONTGOMERY. Exchange Hotel. 0.1 0.1 Turn right on S. Ferry St. 1.5 1.4 Turn left.

;-r;. " t

~'"

Up Dexter Ave.

1.9 0.4 Turn right. Cross bridge (Catoma Creek) 5.4. Cross two RRs 6.5-7.4. Thru Snowdoun, turning right, cross RR, lli~ , ',' 10.8 8.9 Turn left, crossing RRs 11.0 and 12.0, passing store on right 13.0 church on left 16.5, thru crossroads (Sprague Junction on left 18.7.) 20.6 9.8 ADA, straight thru, crossing RR 20.8. Itt 20.9 0.3 Turn right (left is via Troy). Cross bridge. 21.7 0.8 Turn right crossing RR 22.4. 24.7 3.0 Turn left thru Seller',s crossing RR. 26.2 1.5 Turn right, crossing RR and recrossing. Naftel to left 28.3. Lapine to left 30.6. 32.0 5.8 Turn left, cemetery and church to right. 32.9 0.9 HIGHLAND HOME, College on left, store on right. " ' , 313路5 0.6 Turn left, passing school and cemetery on left 36.4 and , store on right 40.8. School on right 42.0. Thru Fuller's Crossroads, store on right 43.1. 46.1 12.6 Turn left. Go thru Vernledge, 46.4, school and cemetery

on left. Turn right at cross-roads, coming into Rutledge road 49.2. Cross bridge (Big Patsaliga Creek) 49.7, fol' lowing hard road to 51.9 5.8 LUVERNE. South on Forest Ave, passing school on left descending long hill 52.0, keeping right 52.2. 52.4 0.5 Fork, bear left, keeping left 52:3. 52.8 0.4 Fork, bear: rif:rht up 10,ng grade 53.7. 54:3 1.5 Fork, bear right, up grade past house on left 55.0. Croas branch up long grade 55.3 passing ho~se on left 56.7 and turpentine still on right 57.5. Pass'saw..mill on right 60.0 ' and church and cemetery on left 60.6. Cross log road 61.5 going up grade. Bear left at ~ork, then ,straight illfo" . . 64.0 9.7 BRANTLEY, Henderson & HIll's Store. South on Main'路 , Street, crossing RR at depot. 65.0' 1.0 Fork, bear right, crossing bridge 65.3 (Conecuh River) keeping straight at fork beyond, up long g~ade. ' 65.8 0.8 Fork, bear right, past white house on left. Up long grade. Do":n sandy grade, heavy sand at bottom 66.9. Large gully on nght 67.5. Cross log roads 68.6 and 68.8, keeping right at fork, past farm house on right. 70.2 4.4 Fork, bear right into Three Notch Road. 70.3 0.1 ~ork, bear right, farm house on left, passing cemetery on, nght 70.4 up grade, farm hOUse on left 71.3. Store house on left 72.7, crossing County Line 73.5, keeping straight left Paie 106 74.2, up grade passing white house 75.3. Keep straight

. Route 1010_...

right at 76.0 and 76.4, passing Whit~hous~ 77.0 on left and store on right 77.6. . . ' , ' Fork, bear left past Rose Hill P. O. 78.7 and Ante-BelI~ House on left 78.8 keeping right 79.0 past church on' ,lett 79.4, and right 79.8 past farm house on right 80.2. School on right 80.3, keeping straight right 80.4 and left 81.1 passing farm house on right 81.2. Fork, bear left past saw-mill on left, keeping right 82.1 across bridge up grade 83.0 passing thru gate 83.4. Keep right 83.7. Fork, bear r!ght, passing school on left 85.8. . Fork, bear right past small house on left, keepmg left 87.2 past sma,ll house on left 88.1, RR. to right. Thru crossroads 89.0, keeping Heath in view "On left. Fork, bear left, crossing RR four times 90.8, 91.5, 92.3 'and 92.6. Straight road ino ANDALUSIA, Court House Sq. For diverging routes see In,dex Map, pages 6Io-6n.

Route lOlo-Andalusia~ Ala., to Pensacola,Fla.-llO.l m. Route Map, pages 6IO-ll.

Reverlle Route, No. 93.

Notes tTs"; courtesy of Frank L. Mayes and Dr. S. R. M. Kennedy. ; MILEAGES

, Total Intermediate

Court House Sq. Run south and take right-hand road 1.6, crossin~ bridge 6.0, ~ater ~ill and store on left. Old mill and gm to left 8.3. Keep nght 8.4 store on left. Cross steel bridg-e (Conecuh Itiver) 8.5, keeping left at all roads 路9.1. Cross wood bridg~ 10.3. 11.5 11.5 Take left-hand road keeping left at 12.1, passmg church on left and cemetery on right 13.9. Pass Lodge Hall on left

;. 0.0

14.9 21.5 22.7

31.7

46.2 47.2 47.3

48.7

0.0 ANDALUSIA.

14.1. 3.4 Take reft-hand road keeping right at 15.0.

Cross steel . ',' bridge 21.1 'and keep straight to , 6.6 BROOKLYN. ' ' ~"", '(';,jj , 1.2 Take left road at fence corner. Cross small bridge '22:9 passing thru turpentine settlement 25.7 to terminus of Mil, ler's- RR. Cross wood bridge., , 9.0 Turn sharp right. Go into lower Brooklyn-Bre~on road, . in bottom, crossing wood bt:idge 37.5 and passmg cemetery and church to right. 14.5 Take left-hand road into ' 1.0 BREWTON. Leave Williams House and go south along RR. 0.1 Turn right then left over -RR spur. Follow poles across bridge 47.7 into Aleo, passing between church and cemetery 48.4. 1.4 Fork, bear left, poles leave. Ford small creek 49.5 passing undet; wires 49.7. Caution-ford creek 52.3. Keeprigh.~ &.t,forkbeyond. Pass , , Pa'.''197


Route 1037

. ROute 1027 Soutbetn S e c t i o n . and 'U . .s.o. Fork, keep left, then right at next .fork..

small .settlem ent on left 53.4, school on Under W1res ' . ,fard cr.eek three times 32,3. StraIgh t mto church on lt~ft 54.0. M.7 6,0 Fonk, bear left,ke eping left at next fork. 5.8 BLOU NT SPRIN GS. . 05.2 Q.6 lfm-k, .bear right, passing white bam 55.5 on right. 0.5 Keep left at fork, fording stre~, RR on left. bridge 56.5 keeping left at fork beyond . At 57.2 3.0 Keep right at fork, RR on left, mto WIder wires ll!t1d follow to RR. 57.4, turning right to 0.5 BANG OR. 57.8 2.6 POLLA RD, depot and hotel. Keep to right of RR. o3 Fork bear left and right at next fork. kW 58.4 0.6 Turn right, RR leaves. Keep left at next fork. ".'.~-­ 2:7 Fork: bear left thru covered bridge (Branc h of Blac ar· bridge 59.8, keeping right at fork beyond passing sawrior River). on right 60.2 and crossin g RR 61.0. Under wires 68 1 7 1.2 Take r.ight fork, cross RR and crossin g bridge 63.9 with poles into 4. 0.1 Turn right to Garden City depot.. Cro.s5 RR. 64.8 6.4 FLOM ATON . Thornt on Hotel. . West one block, 41.8 0.7 Turn left along RR and crosS bndge .mto 42.5 across RR with poles. Cross log RR 66.5 and crosS road 66.9 2.1 CENT URY. Sta. on left. Cross road to 45.5 3iO HANC EVILL E. 'h 02 Turn right one block, t en 1e ft past saw mill . . 70.1 3.2 BLUF F SPRIN GS, Sta. on left. Cross creek 71.9. r::~~ 0'.3 Fork, bear left past cemete ry and church on nght 47.7, mail boxes on right 72.2 crossin g log boom 75.1 and RR. , crossin g RR 50.2. 75.6 5.5 McDA VID, Sta. on left. Pass school house 77.3. 51.0 5.0 Fork, bear right and ford creek 51.5. 82.4 6.5 PINE BARR EN, SOl. OD .left. Cross log sluice 82.2. . 52.0 1.0 Turn sharp right and 88.0 5.9 Fork, bear left. 54.0 2.0 Bear left at fork. 92.2 4.2 Turn left to RR then right along road to 5 3 1 3 Crossro ads. Straigh t into 93.0 0.8 COTT AGE HILL. South to , 5. 0:4 CULLM AN, depot. North.t hree blocks, left one block then 94.6 1.6 CANT ONME NT. Sta. and brick store on left. South 55.7 98.1 3.5 ROBE RT'S STA., on left. Pass store in angle of right, crossin g two RRs. WIth po1es. .. road ri ht2.2 Keep left at fork, passing cemete ry 59.5 and aVOIdmg g 98.4, mail boxes 99.8. Avoid road to left 103.(1 (toOU 57.9 Sta.). Bass store on left 104.8 and BrentwOGd 105:9. Enter hand road 60.0. city passing Confed erate Monum ent 109.6, followi ng trolley. 62.0 4.1 Fork, bear left. , 110.J. 12.0 PENSA COLA . 62.3 0.3 Keep right at fork. . h Fm- divenging routes see Index Map pages 610-6n 2.5 Fork, keep left and cross bridge, keeplt1g left at next tree 64.8 forks: . (Fl' C k) ltoute 1027- Birmi ngham to Decat ur, Ala.-9 5.2 m. lOt ree . 71.0 6. 2 Fork, keep right and crosS bndge , 0.3 Fork , bear right into Lacon 71.5. , Route 'Map, pages 610.n. 71.3 . 73.0 1.7 Fork, bear right and ford creek tnto Notes thru courtesy of Frank L. Mayes and Dr. S. R. M. Kenneqy. MILEAG ES 73.8 0.8 FALK VILLE , depot. Total Intermed iate '.' k· .' '. ht·one' 78.9. 0.1 Turri left one block, then right..o ne bloc • aga,n ng ,., ' ., . 0.0 0.0 BIRMI NGHA M, City Hall. West on 19th St. with troNey. block curving left. :0.8 0.8 Fork heyom:! cemete ry, 'bear right thru N. Binnin P 0.4 F~rk,~ bear right keeping right at fork across RR . Kee. gluan. 74.3 Ot'oss RR. 1.3 and bridge and two RRs. 2.0. Go th1'1l left at next f o r k . . Artesia Spring s, under RR 2.8, bearing l'i'ght at fork ber bridge . 6 5 2.2 Turn right across 'steel bndge and RR an d anothe d 798' yond. ''Cross two RRs. and follow poles. Under mine 'tram. 7'8 23 Fork bear ri~ht, avoidin g road to left 79.5 a~ . . bl k 5.2 4.~'Turnright over 'bridges with poles, thru Louisb urg 5.5. 78. 1:1 Tur~ left one block, right 'one block, then Ie t on: r~\~ 6.5 1.3 Fork, bear left, keeping right at fork 6.7. Cross steel bridge ' 79.9 0.2 HART SELLS , depot.. Turn lef.t one .block the g and RR thru. Garden dale 10.0, poles leave 13.2. 80.1 around red brick buildm g. StraIgh t thru 14.5 "8.0 Fork, bear left into 0.2 Crossro ads. Turn right ~t next fork. 16.7 2.2 MORR IS. Cross RR. and bear left at fork with poles. 1.5 Fork, .bear left, 2l.t1 4i3 KI~ERY. Ta~e right fork, RR On left. at at fork 82.9 1.1 Tum left around farm dou~lef~n e keep left next two 22,'5 1.5 Fork, bear left, cross steel bridge over creek2 S.0. forks, Q'l Turn sharp right aroun rat enc, 23.7 1.2 Bear left at fork, then right-h and road 'into '. . 'h t 81.6 0:7 Bear right at fork across steel bridge 85.5'. keep rig t~ a 23.8 \0.1 WARR IOR, depot, straigh t thru, RR on left. 84.8 • next fork. 24.7 0.9 Fork, bear left, keeping right at next fork. Cross ' . ' · f k iJrto ~f RR 26. SI.t 2.6 Tum left and cross HR. ~...rl~.t ..t·IP_' Of,. ..,::0 '&voiding I'~ to 'left 27.0. Pass saw mill.

:~::

~eepin~nght :~:;o;~~

beyond~


Route 1028

0.2 FLINT STA . Southern Secti first left. AV~~~~'h:~~nmg right in front of dep<;>t, thea 896 C . g. and road 87.6. Go thru crOSllrOa .. ross bridge 91.0 straight to 98.8 6.7 tNEWk .DECATUR. Turn left on first macadam Folio . RR . rae S Into 2nd Ave 95.2 1.4 DECATUR. . crossing and passing gas plant in 87.1

For diverging routes see Vol. 4.

Route l028-Decatur, Ala., t 0 c · Tenn -81 9 olumbia N otes

'

thr1~ COU'l"tesy of Prank L . M ayes and D ' • • DL, r. S. R. M. Kenned~'

MILEAGES

J'

Total Intermediate

n.o n.o DECATUR. Hotel Echols. North on Bank St t 0.1

0.1 TENNESSEE RIVER FERRY . F ' L . f errlage 50c . 0 eavlng erry turn right alon ri . towers 1.5 and turn left with p~es ve~ to steel telephone leave. . ross creek 2.5 polts

8.8 3.2 RR Fork,3.8. bear feft ' pickin g u P poIes at 3.6. Cross bridge over 7.6 4.3 Turn sharp left. Ford creek 8 0 . Ca t' 162 f u Ion . house ' into . . 86 . T urn I e t at yellow 16.3 0.1 ATfIENS, depot. Go one block block, north one block a d east, two north, east OD 16.8 0.5 Turn left. n east around Athens Seminary, 23.5 6.7 Fork, bear left, avoiding road to right 250 26.1 2.6 Fork, bear left, running straight to .. 29.5 3.4 HOLLANDS GIN SETTLEMENT B . Blowing Springs Hollow avoidin . ear .rlght tbnI Cross ~tate Line 82 () F d kg hl<:!ft and nght roads. 32.8 3.8 Fork, bear righ l a~oid' or crdee tree times 32.3. 33Jl 0 5 F k b ., Ing roa to left, 33.0. . ,or, ear left, and avoid road to right 35 4 35.9 2.6 Fork, bear left across steel bridge into .. 36.3 0,4 ELKMONT. Turn left at fir gate 37.9, toll 15c. st street dJen straight to toll 40.8 4.5 Fork, bear right. 4:0.9 0.1 Into ~ork, bear left. Follow main road (T wo toII s, 15c each) 50.8 9.: PULASKI, Court House Sq. Straight north. 51.5 0.1 Fork, bear right. 56.3 4.8 Fork, bear right. Steel bridge to left (wl'th' SIgn R'Iversburg). 57.8 1.5 Fork, bear left. Cross RR on bridge 58.8. 60.9 3.1 Fork, bear left. 63.9 3.0 Fork, bear left. Straight thru crossroads 640-67" PI'Y Ipe. toll 79.5. . .0. 81.1 17.2 Turn sharp right. U n der vIa . duet 81 3 St' h ~t.. crossroads 81.5 into . . ralg t u.rU 81.9 0.8 COLUMBIA. Court House. Page 800

For diverging routes see VoL 4.

SOUthern Section Routes lozt..,.1030 Route l029-Decatur to Tuscumbia, Ala.-....43.0m. A,6tmm of th6 Ohio Motor Company's trans-contlnental'tri;.' NO'61 ,..". by B. L. F6rguson, Glidden Tour Pathfinde,.. MILEAGE. 1'flai II:I\4Irm"late

'

0.0 0.0 DECATUR. Turn left on County Road whi"h parallels the RR. entire distance to Tuscumbia and is easily followed. ••0 6.0 TRINITY, 12;~ 6.0 HILLSBORO. 16.0 4.0 WHEELER. 19.0 8.0 COURTLAND. 25.0 6.0 TOWN CREEK. 32.0 7.0 LEHIGHTON. 43.0 11.0, TUSCUMBIA.

Note-At this point Route 1084 frotl'i NashviUe comes, i~, .«0,11lng a connection from LouisVille, Cblc:lnnatland otbe'r ,oirlf' 1. Volume. The trip from Tuscumbia to Ft. Worth i.from the 1910 Glidden Tour (see Index Map, Page lh6). For diverging routes see Index Map Pili'" 6xo-6:n

Route lOS6-Tuscumbia, Ala., to Memphis, Tenn.-159.5 m. Adapted from the

1910

Glidden Tour. Should be verified.,:

MILEAGE.

fotal Interm"la\41

0.0 0.0 TUSCUMBIA, ALA. Start west with trolley. (a right turn coming from Sheffield). Cross trolley at cross-r<ja,d (0.1 m). 0.2 Turn left (short plank walk onleft).f'Go 1bloek and tura left. 0.2 Fork; beal left over iron bridge at ~nce bearing right at fork. 0.1 Fork, keep right with main wires. 1.0 Fork, bear right with wires; cross RR. (2.0 m)andiron bridge (8.4 m); cross RR. (5.6 m); thru covered bridge (9.0 m). 11.7 10.2 BARTON, Sta. on right, straight on. CrossRR.. '(15.9.m). i 16.4 4:7 CHEROKEE, Williams House on right, turn leftcroalMB R.R. at station (on right-16.5 m). ' 17.0 0.6 Fork, bear right with wire jogging right and left (17.6 m). 18,11' 1.7 Bear left-leaving poles; thru covered bridge (19.5 m) and up steep hill (19.9 m). . 4.9 End of road, turn right; thru covered bridge (Bear Creek -24.1 m). Caution-sharp left curve' beyond. ..24.9 1.3 Fork, bear right (large stone slab on left) thru woods. ·'16.8 1.9 Fork, keep right and follow main road; cross wood bric:tge (27.8 m), joining wires (31.0 m). 3~.6 6.8 ,Fork (Shady Grove Stock Farn on right), ke~p left; ke~p right (34.0 m) past park (on right-34.3 m). 84.5 0.9 Cross-roads (Cottage Hotel on right), turn left and next riKht across RR. ' ~' .' tU 0.2 roKA, 'MISS., end of road, tu.m"le£t. 8U 0.4 Cross-road (house on right), turn right}";


. Route 1.030

Southerm.::ied~

,Route; lOBO .

~IMdIMm'&ictiOil 1M. 1.2 Fork, bear right with wires., ' .... 1,2 Fork, bear left with wires; ¢ro~Ra (sq~7 mo); thl'U crag, roads (88.0 m). '" . .. ' • .1 2.6 Fork, bear right with poles; thru· cross-roads (90.2 m-

"35.2 0.1 Turn·left and, next tight; thru.cr08s-rt)adiJ<~~!>.4'J1!'):.,;j 35.6, 0.4 p~ OU Grove Cemetery (on right);" and tut:l\<~. raM left road. ,. "t1 ."'; 36.5 0.9 Cross RR. and go right; thru gate (37.2 m). . " 31.9 1.4 Fork, keep right and keep left at' next fork> jn&!" ~'f ." 91.9 m). ." , ( 1 ft .OJ 3~Forlt; bear left with poles past Rogers' Sprmgs on e pass thru gates. (38.l m......38.8 m). 39;0' 1:.1 Fork, bear right; thru rail gate (39.3 m-). . 9&2m). 39.9 0.9 Cross creek near fence (on right) and at for«< beyond b~,. 01', uo·~~. bear left with poles. .... •1.8 1.3 Fork, bear right with poleS'. Descend rough hlllj '(9-i.2tm) right. Pass saw-mill (on left-40.Q m); go'tFittt·ctOn-roadt and thru swamps along hill. Caution-(99.0 m~", and thru B-bar gate (40.1 m); thru' 'P·4)1i'r' gate· ~41).4\m); .9.6 4.3 Fork, bear right thru heavy sand entering . cross hog-back wood bridge (41.3 41.9 2.0 Cross-roads, turn right and at next' forIC: (~:1' m) 'Wr . 100.1 . 1.1 SAULSBURY, at top of hill turn left; cross RR. at station left. Cross 2 bridges (42.7 m) and' bridg-es (4'9~6 in~3.8'rit). (100.9 m); at red brick church top of hill turn left and at 43,9 2.0 Cross-roads, turn right, . , end of road turn right 1 block to cross-road;, turn left and . then r~ght with wires. 44.3 0.4 BURNSVILLE; go thru cross-roads and' across RR. 6.3 At RR. turn left (don't cross]. "«:9 o.a Keep right .with wire.s and left at .next fork (45.1 m). 46.0' 1.1 Pass saw-mlll (on left) and bear left at fortt j;ust beyond. 0.6 GRAND JUN'CTION. Cross 2, RRs. a.nd, t~rn right a~ross 41.5 1.5 Pass sehoolhouse (PR rigJtt) and at onCe. bear right at another RR. (107.8 m). followinm main W1Ces (on right) . fork: CrOssiflig'l 2 sma:ll bridges (47.9! m)•. al<mg RR.; thr~ateway (108.lt m). . • 48.2 0.7 Fork, bear right; avoid right fork (49.7 m) and avoid left 109.2 1.6 End of road" turn rigl1t. fork' (51.4: nt)i . "lJ If)9.~ .. 0.7 End of road, top. of hill, turn left. 52.3 4.1 ForI(; bear rigllt', avoiding right fork (54:1 m'\ ., '. (~ .. : :111.1 1.2 LA GRANGE, cross-roads, turn right (1 block) ; then turn . 55.9 8.6 Fork, keep left with poles thru cross-roads (56:+ m')~. :.1GO left, with. main wires. . under RR. and across tracks. Caution (58.9 ' m). . . ;":'; . ·U.l.;$ (M Forie, .be,ar. right with poles. " . SilS 3.9 Cross-roads at steam laundry, turon right~l block); thep~ 111.8 0.3 Cross RR. and at once tUI!J)· l~fblcrosS. wood bridge and turn left at Courthouse. . RR. (112.8. m.). " . 59.9 0.1 CORINTH, Soldiers' Monument; 1 block beyond turn right 118.0 6.2 Prominent fork, bear left with wires. (3 bl0Cks).. , .., ;, ' ?l0 . J20.8 2.8 MOSeOW. Cross RR. and 2 long bridges in swamp fol60.1 0.2 Turn left, go 1 block and turn right on Jackson St. lowing wires. (1 block). . WUJ~ :10.1, F(!)rk ~ 'of grade, bear left with poles. eO.2 0.1 Turn left crossing RR. (60.4 m-60.9 m). Follow poles 123.11 l,a· Fork, keep right with ,poles. across long wood bridge (65.3 m); sharp right turn with wires (68.3 m). 124/1 US " .. 6&.'1 8.5 Fork, keep right passing between store andr.bacn.. , 130.3 5:6 Fork, bear right with wird-~ 'dtiU'PIpertoA' (1~.4~· )t7'1.0 2.3 Fork, keep right and at n~ fo,k-,(J-i 2;m)' keep· right. : Cross RR. (134.0 m), coming on pike (134.8' m-whi~h runs 71.6 0.6 Fork outskirts of woods, keep left and at next fork (72.0 m) afl the way to Memphis). . keep right. . 185:9 5~61 COLLIERVILLE. Pass Christian Church; (on. left); ,13.li 1.9 Prominent fork, bear right thm cross..roads (74.4 m). straight on past Bailey St•• (139.5 m), Forest HlIl Sta. 75.2 1.7 Fork, keep right; thru 5-bar gate (77.3 m). 77.6 lU Fork, keep left, joining wir.es (78.7 m). 'l.' (141.5 m) and Booth Sta; (144.0 m). Cross RR. (144.2 m). 78.8 1.2 Fork, bear left. 144.7 8.8 End of road, turn right into 79.1 0.3 Large tree in fork, bear left into 144.8 0.1 GERMANTOWN. Cross RR. at station (on left), beadn)1 80.4 1.3 ESSARY SPRINGS, TENN.., straight thru; cross wood , left at fork just beyond. Cr,oss RR. (145;.0-. m-H7,4m. ; bridge and keep right. thru Whites (149.9 m), crossing, RR.. 3. times at Aulon 81.8' 1.4 Fork, keep left with poles. Cross woad bridge (82.5 m) (1M.2 m). . • (wires cross to· right). Avoid right fork (82.9 m). Caution 155.2 10.4 Fork, bear left, joining trol1~ on Poplar ~ ve<. (155.8 m.;). -sharp right curve (83.6 m). 158.0 2.8 Fork, keep left at Pophlt ~ve. . '. 83.7 1.9 Fork, bear left with wires. 158.8, (J;lJ" Aft large atone church with; cdoole (on ·r.itJht} turn. right on 84.2 0.5 End of road, turn right crossing numerous wood bridges thru swamp. N. 2nd'St. (2 blocks). .

m'. '

.",.

',. , i

~:~:...~;:~ ::~t; t~~~RP?les. P,~I" r~ght~han~ :~~dl ~~on

'.

",.

t

Pap

8o~


SoUtbern'~~_"~'th~seetion

,Route 1041

15!J.O 0.2 Turn right on Adams Ave,., (1, blo,ck); .. ,:. ;~ 159.1 0.1. Turn 'le;ft ;On Main St~· ': 159.5 0.4 MEMPHIS. TENN. Gayo~oH~tel. ;;',:' ~:;'li;; ~,\ . For divergingrQlJt~s see Vol...· ,: t); ,.' ,'f t:;

Ro Cl1a ttanooga to Nashville, uteR l041M oute

ap, pages 6IO-II..

Adopt~d from notes taken

Tem:i.~247.1 " I,

'>.'.

I

Reverse RO\lto.:No.,IoSg.

by the White Comtowy. Qutl_dw,.,.

tmly, whJcn should be used un'ln care.

., '.

Tot::'l~~:;'~~:'.~ 0.0

. .;.~..

.. ,

0.0 CHATTANOOGA. TENN. Hotel ,across Rlt (0.3 m-0.4 m).

P~tten. 'Follq~ tr9iiey

Route t042

O~~8.0,(Left.haQd·f'oad; turn left joining trolley (from:.right' 128.7 m) into 1.4 HUNTSVILLE. ALA. ",'PufA rigbtleaving trolle¥. bearirig'l~ft(129.5 m). crossi"ng "R;'D's.: ~129.9 ·m~133.5 m) and iron bridge (137.1 m) into :.8.'1' MERIDIANVILLE. ALA. Sttai"'ht on across iron bridge . '" . : (1'39.9 ~):"~ro~sipg ~tate line from' Ahibamli into Tetmea8e«;' (14'1;6 m);past tofl-ga~e U~O.O m). Cross s~one brid&e (E-lk'River"::"'160.6m) and RR. (~61.0 m) ..

111.4 28.8 FA~E~EVi~·LE •.TENN~ t~f!t': rightar9und Court , liouse; bearing left at churchyard (161.6 m)., Cross 'RR. , ('162.1 in); t.uni sh'up left at toH-ga~e, no toll (162.3 m). Payl.\c at .tach, toll-gate, (162.9 m~i68.2 ~-173.4 m,) ." ':,-182;9 in-i"87.9 m ) . . . •. .~. .A.. ~ . IIt.J 27,8'-CtOIlS .'.small.iron bridget and turn-ngbt. int"o': i;,'; 18U 0.2 SHELB'Wi'O'IILLE,' square. Tutir"~fi"aFou1'ld hotel. payin.g ... '." J5c. at. "each toll-gate (190.5 01-194.1' rn~19'9-.8 m-207.1 ;)~:' m;"'2W6 nt) .. Cross RR. (212.2·m) into N·. Church St. bll.8· f2S!9 MURFREESBORO. red brick·.church ahead (on right); /', J;'; turn left, paying 15C at toll~gate (21~.6 m)~ Cross wood ,~ bridg~ (214'.8 m) and RR. '(215:6 m), paying ISC at each toU-gate 219.1-227.7. Cross ·RR. .atLa Vergne229.it. ,; 841.9; 28,'6 ·.~Right~hilDd road;. turn right off of pike. ':.. .242.2 0.3 Turn right to next JU.'1 6.5 Left-hand road; turn left. 248.3, 0.6 Turn left (right leads to the "Hermitage." 014 home ,~f "', ... , 'Andrew Jackson)., Cross RR.'(244.8 trt) nowotl' L-ebanon 'Pike. 2!5.'1 2.4 Turn left with trolley on Lindsley Ave. 246.1 0.4 At Peabody College, turn right int03rd Ave. 24.'1.0 0~9 Turn left ~n Church St., ' ' ..... ' .. 247.1 0.1 NASHVILLE. TENN.: : ' .. : .. ' . . i.; h;::: .i'F'OT.i1lv~'tgiAg.:route&-~6 ndex .PN."61~~h

. ";'.' urn '~ight in Montgomery Ave~ and next left., crossin, Iron bn.dge (1.901) and RRs. (2.0 tn-4..7'm-~-4L$·m-8.2 m). 9.3 8.8 Turn nght away from R R . ' , ., 9.7 0.4 Left-hand road; turn 1<~ft. Pike. e~.ds(~~.8 m). C;~~ , RRs;(13.1 'in-19.8 01). '. '" 20.1.10.4 RA~KINSFER~Y aCf?SS Tennessee Riv~r. fare 50C; r: ~tralght On ac~oss tron bndge (Seqt,latch,e '~iv,e-r-24.6 m): 25.7 a.6 Turn left at slgn-"Shelimont"info " I"",! rl.!. '.. ,i"! 26.5 O.R !ASPE~. straight on a~~oss RR. arlditon bridge' (31.b'·m) '. .:: ',r .l iU JIlto malO street of S. Pittsburg. 34.1 7.6 Turn right and next left. cTbssing:RR. (35.8 ni)] ., 36.8 2.7 Left-h~nd road ~ turn left:""';':leaving poles). Cro~$ ~k. ~8·8.l l . 01) mto"Brldgepott.' . "1, ':, .' ..... ,.".. .') f; I. V!' 39.1 2.3 Turn right, passing left-hand road (42.9' m).:' Cross RR. (47.2 m). . ' , . , .. , : ",,' i.,,(: . 48·l 9.0 Turn .left~l~avmg pike and .at once. 'right. " '!~' ,i,.: ~ 49.8 1.7 Turn right at smaii log cabin. . ' " ' . : .• ' . 58.0 8.2 Turn right afound log' cabin. joini.ng·,poJes.' .-cro&s~ RR llt.' Fackle~ (59.9 m). coming'Qn.pik~:w~i(lh'el1d~f'!{6.,(4 J1)\:;;: ' 64'.9 6.9 Turn nght. " I • '" oJ 67.4 . £ ', " " •. "1 ' I ,;;:. : 2.5. Turn Ie t and again left (67.6 m)~ ':', .. ~'::>,: J • 68.0 0.6 TlJrn :~ight ,witft P9l~,. . . .' ~~ ~ .. (~f 1t.~/,· ::~; <;,,,~i .. " 68.7 0.7 Turn leftj~tO ", .':. n " l " l i i d • 'i,'i ii,,; {'.Iil;} Route"ilo42--.-€hattanooga W~ NashviDe~ Tenn":.l·q:t3:1~.1Iia';;-.;!''':'~~ " . " . ......., .'. pl... e.. ..... (' " ,. '0.' . 70.9 2.2 Right-hand road ; turn right Cl1~;Sj~g RR . ~7~i MILIi.A~8·. r .. ,: ..... Total lntermedl"t.: .. 18.9 8.0 ~COTTSBORO~ Turn r.ight.and,~~It;f~!~.ith.IN~~.~~OIS:,j·i:fo:'·u.o-' CHA1'fANOOGA' " mg RR. (80.0 m). . ' ' '" ; " ',' ''or . .. Follow Route 1041 to , " .. ,., , . 85. 7 6.~ Turn left and next rigJlt witl! pik.~ ~'int~ ~ .! . t ' . ., 20~;l ·ZO.f~NKINS; FERRY. across. ~Tenne'ssee . Rivet, fare' !SOc. 86.0 0.3 LA~KINSVILLE. Turn.right ,aq4 qext ~~4 with .pike :: .,:: '" Straight On across iron .!:>ridge' ~4.6 (Sequat~hi.e River). passtn~ road (to !~fr-:-90.l m) .. '~'. ~~'5;~5.6Turiicleft 'at sign "ShethnotlJ1d'" into. . ' . ~. . 95.9 9.9 Cross-roads' turn left into . ' : . ,1.,trD );. :' .' 2~.5. .0.8 ,J.f\~PER. TUl'tlright:' (StraigJit'on ;lead~~6:~hel~)"'ilt~>. : 1.4 m). '1' ""'I':'~ '£Avbid right-hand road· 27.6; a~d {on~w turying road to' 2.2 !urn lef~, acros!! ~ma,' II brtdge. crOSSing ~R , (1.QO'.4 m, ),COltl- ".' , 80.4 . 3.9 SEQUATCHIE. Run nort1i';t(r-:bottorii;;~fl'€utnberl~d Ing on pl.ke.atPatn~t Rock (102.8 ~): 'Cr~ss ,R~. (105.1 m).: 'Mountain 30.6 ascendin~r' grade t(Jsu·mtnifi· '32.5. Avoid 106.0 6.5 At foot of mountain tum left off of pike.' ;,:- 1 1; '.':-1 . •1" .' ; . . ;, 'roads :to left and right 33.~:(f keep ~ nght' at' fork 107.7 1.7 Turn left. .. ' ' " , ,.. ' '.' , , ,'" ;.,3'4:t.· Avoid road to· left 35~:4.· ~ollow .main road crossing 110.0 2.3 GURLEY. ~urn right thrucross-roa~~a~! May,~d (Ua.lt! !i::h.,: <l .tt*~e RRs.44.5-46.1.....-4.6;7.into:· . ~ i:l 01). Cross bndge (118.7 m)and'RR (t'21.1';mj. '. 46.8 16.4 TRACY CITY. .. ....; "

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189 ;ion or section of this ct with the provis ions lder of the Act shall : and provis ion hereof lIe and indepe ndent of immed iately upon its

(S. 140. Beasle y. s of land, water, or land .igrator y-bird reserva tions 8, 1929.

e of Alabama: 'lma is given' to the acg-ift, devise, or lease of water, in the State of ecessa ry for the estab~ :cordan ce with the Ad :itled "An Act to more d _States under the Milesseni ng the danger s inage and oth~r causes rater to furnish in pertion of such birds; and lent of such areas, their :r purposes," reservi ng, lmplete jurisdi ction and lIe with the admin istrathereo f by the United ess. re upon its -passage and

(H.J.R . 57-Go odwyn . JTION 'USE, THE SENA TE Alabam a expres ses the Johnst on of Birming:. ~ in inaugu rating and

establi shing under great difficulties, and in being largely the guid-a ing spirit for the past thirty years of its existen ce, of the Alabam Boys' Indust rial School and also for her religio'us and educat ional ing work' among prison ers of Alabam a during the ten years preced John~ Mrs. . School rial Indust Boys' a the foundi ng of the Alabam kind ston has never received any compe nsation or payme nt of anyunforthe among work d devote sh, for her forty years of unselfi the tunate s, and as she is now approa ching her. eightie th year, to only not time riate approp an Legisl ature of Alabam a deems this congra tulate her and to wish her many years of health and happiof .ness but to assure her of the love and gratitu de of the people Alabam a. Appro ved March 9, 1931.

No. 124.)

(H.J.R . 66--,Goodwyn.

HOUS E JOIN'T RESO LUTIO N . WHER EAS, in the Fall of 1917 and throug h part of the winter. . of ised compr , Troops States United of n Divisio 37th the of 1918, an officer s and men from the State of Ohio, served in Camp Sherid ' and , Europe of ields battlef the to ding procee before tempo rarily WHER EAS, the people of Montg omery and of Alabam a, who' came in contac t with the splend id person nel of that organi zation, formed a high opinion of the charac ter and patriot ism of these' Ohio soldier s, who are remem bered by the people here with high路 . regard and affection, and WHER EAS; the surviv ing membe rs of said 37th Ohio Divi": ber sian will hold a re-unio n in the City of Montg omery on Novem 9th, 10th and 11th, 1931; THER EFOR E, BE IT RESO LVED : by the House of the to Alabam a Legisl ature, the Senate concur ring, that we are gladwill Ohio of people the of s ntative represe know that these fine the again spend a few days in our midst and we cordial ly invite said during a Alabam in us visit to Ohio of Legisl ature of the State Re-uni on. Appro ved March 9, 1931.

No. 125.)

(H.J.R . 69-So ssama n.

HOUS E JOINT RESO LUTIO N WHER EAS no man in Alabam a has done more for the cause more of Good Roads than Senato r John Craft, he having devote d in an than a quarte r of a: centur y and spent freely of his substa nce and Mud", the o'f Out a effort to "Take Alabam

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190 ren der hon or whe re hon or is WH ER EA S it is our des ire to orial to the mem ory of this mem due, and to crea te an eve rlas ting . gre at man. NA TE SE E TH E, U;;S HO E TH BE IT RE SO DV ED BY designow d Roa Aid and Fed eral CO NC UR RIN G, tha t the Sta te ent as No .5, be and her eby is nat ed by the Hig hw ay Dep artm nam ed "Jo hn Cra ft Hig hwa y". App rov ed Ma rch 9, 1931. (H. J.R . 74- Go odw yn. N HO US E JOI NT RE SO LU TIO inal musical sett ing by Mrs . To app rov e and ado pt the orig Ala bam a, of the wor ds of the m, Edn a Gockel-Gussen, of Bir min gha wil er, and mak e the sam e the Tut S. a Juli by " ma, aba poem "Al Sta te son g for Ala bam a. insp irin g wor 9s of the poe m WH ER EA S, the bea utif ul and Sta te from tha t dist ing uish ed the "Al aba ma" , a gift to the people of a S. Tut wil er, who se life wasy Juli er, lead l ona cati citi zen and edu anit y, has nev er bee n fitti ngl hum for ded icat ed to uns elfi sh service g wit h its bea uty ; and , set to orig inal mu sic in kee pin kel-Gussen, ano the r dist ing uish ed WH ER EA S, Mrs . Edn a Goc tten an orig inal composition fitn crea tive arti st of Ala bam a has wri lines of this poem, whi ch has bee .â&#x20AC;˘ ting ly ada pte d to the insp irin gAla bam a Fed era tion of Mu sic Clu bs app rov ed and ado pted by the ir ann ual Con ven tion at Gad sde n and was awa rde d its priz e at the n sun g and use d as the stat e son g. bee . in 1917, and for ten yea rs has of the Sta te; and , ns icia mus the of Ala bam a by ul arutif bea this of sen Gus . Mrs WH ER EA S, the gift by ch ds of this poem is a service whi es ran gem ent of mus ic to the worpeo erv des and te Sta our of ple is deeply app reci ated by the much more bea utif ul and insp irreco gni tion , and ren der s the poem ly composed for it: ing tha n wit h mus ic not special IT RE SO LV ED BY TH E BE E, NO W, TH ER EF OR ES OF TH E ST AT E OF AL AHO US E OF RE PR ES EN TA TIV RIN G, tha t this orig inal mu sic BA MA , TH E SE NA TE CO NC UR poem "Al aba ma" and as app rov ed wri tten by Mrs. Gus sen for theof Music Clubs of Ala bam a be, and and ado pted by the Fed era tion . the sam e her eby is, ado pte d; , Tha t said poem as set to BE IT FU RT HE R RE SO LV ED the sam e is her eby ado pted as the music by Mrs. Gussen, be, andbam a. Sta te son g for the Sta te of Ala App rov ed Ma rch 9, 1931.

",;.

No. 127.)

I BE 11 TIV ES , T Firs t, Sta te of f the Comrr Sen ate, V\ hav e rece pos tag e a Ele ctio n the condi Feb rua ry of suc h r, specifical Gen eral wh at pUl and its c

No. 126.)

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Alabam~

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ALABAMA A Guide to the Deep South. Compiled by Workers of the Writers' Program of the Work Projects Administration in the State of Alabama.

AMERICAN GUIDE SERIES II.LUSTRATED

..

Sponsored by the Alabama State Pla1wing Commission

RICHARD R. SMITH NEW

faa'"Olp

hi

N&IlB&&

SLiva

YORK

194

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FIRST PUBLISHED IN MAY, 1941

STATE OF ALABAMA EXECUTIVE: DE:PARTMENT

MONTGOMERY FRANK M. DIXON GOV."NC)R

ALABAMA STATE PLANNING COMMISSION State-wide Sponsor of the Alabama Writers' Project

FEDERAL WORKS AGENCY JOHN

M.

CARMODY,

Administrator

WORK PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION HOWARD

O.

HUNTER,

A ssistant

Commission~r

HENDERSON, Stat~

Administrator

FLORENCE KERR.

\V. G.

Acting Commission~r

....

'

If we in Alabama, in our striving to achieve all the good things of a modern state, forfeit the gentleness, the courtesy, the fineness of spirit of the past, then we will have failed to achieve a lasting satisfaction of real accomplishment. To us is given a happy blending of the old and the new. DeSoto found our land long before white men settled this new continent. The flags of France, Spain, England, the Republic of Alabama, the Confederacy, and the United States have waved over our people. Proud tribes of Indians trod our fertile valleys a little over a hundred years ago. War has devastated us. The past has contributed of its passions, its pains, and its beauties; its signs you will see with us still. In recent years has been heard the strong heart-beat of a new South, with its industry, modern agricUlture, striving for a balanced economy. We want the readers of this voluClle to realize that although we take pride in what it shows, we are not yet satisfied. When our land closely resembles Paradise we will rest content with Alabama.

,"

COPYRIGHT 1941 BY THE ALABAMA STATE PLANNING COMMISSION PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

All righls are reserved, including the rights to reproduce this book or parts thereof in any form

BRANI\: M. DIXON

Governor


84

A LAB A M A

are the Jefferson Count T k G 19 1 9, the Tennessee Valiey ;~~tilize~o~ers Ass~ciation, e~tabli~hed in with headquarters in Decatur and th ~operatIve, organIzed In 1937

:::7::: =: 2= :: 2=:: =:=:= :::=: ;:=:: =: 2::: :: :::= ::= :: ::::

~:thd~~a~~qyuartTerhseinASlelblna, s~FrVing ce~tra~n~~;b:~:~~::t~~i~~t;a;;:~~ . a ama armers Educ t' I d C Union has a membership of 6,000.

a lona

an

o-operative

The Alabama Agricultural Board works with the State department' ,comp?sed of seven members, cultural activities. At Auburn . In d~~p.ervlslng and regulating agriln agriculture at Alabama Pit' h . a I Itl?n to the regular courses in â&#x20AC;˘ . 0 y ec nlc nstItute the Stat . I I training camp, constructed with WPA Iu d' . e ag,r~c~ tura State-wide agricultur I t ' . . n s, provides faclhtles for a raining conventIOns. The future of farming in Alaba' I ing and mining industries are rowinrna IS. unsett ~d. T.he manufacturf g g rapidly, whIle agnculture, shaken from its one-crop dr . earn 0 cotton, gropes uncertainl I' 'II most Important industry and will robabl " y. . t IS .S~I the some years to come H . p y mamtaln this position for closely linked with¡ the o=:~~~, I:S ~utu~e will undoubtedly be more the establishment of the Tennes:~eu~:fie 1n1us~ie~-pa:tic~larlY since y of abundant, cheap electrical power for th ut orllt w Ith Its pro~ram o rura an d urban sectIOns.

?

Transportation N prehistoric times what is now Alabama was one of the most densely populated areas in North America, A maze of deeply marked forest trails connected the palisaded Indian towns and villages and formed links in the great foot highways which led to the eastern seaboard and the Great Lakes country. The Indians of historic times incorporated the old trails in their own system of trade and war paths. Among the more important were the Southern Trail, or the Great Trading Path, which led from the present site of Augusta, Georgia, west to the Creek towns on the Tallapoosa; and the Pensacola Trading Path. called by the early traders "The Wolf Trail," from the Alibamu towns south to Pensacola. Over these trails the French explorers and Jesuit missionaries reached the interior in the early years of the eighteenth century. However. as a rule, French fur traders chose the network of streams which made up the Alabama-Tombigbee system. Many of them were Canadian 'Voyageurs whose wandering life in the forests of Louisiana Province was much the same as it had been in the north-except that here were no snow-smothered months and the birchbark canoe was replaced by the pirogue, a light serviceable dugout of cypress. A few French traders, dissatisfied with the prices paid for furs in Mobile. began crossing the mountains to Charleston. Presently English traders and woods runners were following them westward along Indian trails from Georgia and the Carolinas. By 1720 the English had established posts in the very heart of the region claimed by France and its Creek and Choctaw allies. During the half century that traders and squatters filtered into Alabama from the English colonies, the main trails became horse paths; but not until the close of the eighteenth century, when immigration began in earnest, were they heavily traveled. From 1800 to 1805 a series of treaties with the Indians threw open to settlement vast tracts in the valley of the Tennessee River. The need for new routes was imperative. Although flatboats from the headwaters of the river brought many settlers, most of them came overland. From Kentucky and Tennessee they traveled by way of the great Natchez Trace, which the Federal Government purchased in 1801 from the Chickasaw and the Choctaw Indians. This road from

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Nashville crossed the Tennessee River at Colbert's Landing a few miles below Muscle Shoals, and struck southwest through the wilderness to ~atchez, capital of the Mississippi Territory. Ungraded and sown .wlth stumps and mudholes, it was for a decade the only wagon road IOto the Alabama region. ;Settlers from South Carolina and Georgia came over one of the ma~n Creek horse p~ths through the Tennessee and Alabama River basms. In 181 I thiS trail became the "Federal Road," sometimes called t?e "~hree Chopped Way," because the surveyors marked the route wlt.h tnple blazes on the tree trunks. Entering Alabama near the present site of Columbus, Georgia, it extended to MilOS' Ferry on the Alabama River, with branches to Natchez and down the Tombigbee to Fort Stoddert. In 1805 a post route from Knoxville to New Orleans by way of the Alabama-Tombigbee country followed several of the old roads. At the outset.of-the Creek War (ISI3), Andrew Jackson'f militiamen opened a thud :wagon road which led from Columbia, Tennessee, through Fort Deposit on the Tennessee River, about eight miles west of present Guntersville, into the Upper Creek country. First used for the. passage of troops a?d supplies into central Alabama, the road was an ~mportant route dunng the settlement of Indian lands in the Coosa regIOn. In winter, the immigrant roads became either rivers of bottomless mud or. systems of ruts and miniature hillocks, iron-hard and highly de~tructlve to wheel and axle. A serious problem encountered by the builders of these and- other early roads were numerous streams too deep to. be ~?rded. Sizable creeks could be crossed by means of "raccoon bndges -tall trees f.elled to span the stream-or by makeshift rafts. ~he Tennessee and ItS larger tributaries required more elaborate dev~ces. As earlY,as 1797 the Chickasaw were poling barges across the nver ~t Colbert s Ferry and by IS20 cable-ferries, powered by horse and windlass, operated regularly at Ditto's Landing and Fort Deposit on the Tennessee, and at Mims' Landing and other points on the Alabama River. . In the summer months the roads were thronged with settlers oxdra,:n wag?ns, and herds of livestock. A pioneer newspaper re~ords a fauly typical case of "a man, his wife, his son and his wife, with a cart but no horse. The man had a belt across his shoulders and drew the cart. The old woman was walking, carrying a rifle and driving a cow.". Other ~ettlers packed their household gear in hogsheads, "with trunmons put 10 the ends with shafts attached," and rolled them hundred~ of miles to the new homestead. There were even frock-coated da?dles o~ fine horses or driving sporty high-wheeled sulkies whose bnght pamt was spattered with red mud. With the settlers came

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traders and their plodding trains of pack mules, roistering flatboat men homeward bound from New Orleans, itinerant preachers and sellers of quack nostrums, slave traders, land agents, an~ all the motley drift of vagrants and outlaws who followed the frontIer. . . By 1820 farms and plantations along water,:a~s provI~mg flatboat transportation to downriver markets were flounshlOg, wIllie those 30 or 40 miles from navigable streams stagnated. As the need for good roads grew insistent, private companies secured charters for the construction of turnpikes with tollgates at intervals. The law allowed no toll charges for funeral processions, church-going folk, pers?ns going to vote or to the mill, blacksmiths, doctors, and men on their ~ay to military musters. Regular paying customers, h~wever, had. :he nght of way. County courts were empowered to supervise t.he repamn~ of t1~e~e roads and no tolls were collected when they were In bad repaIr. 1 hiS system continued in force, with few changes, until 1901. The plank road, a refinement of the log corduroy road long used in the East to traverse sloughs, was introduced into Alabama in 1849. Easily built in a region where virgin timber was plentiful, it consi~ted of parallel rows of squared oak "sleepers" covered with timbers eIght feet long and three inches thick. The heavy dust of summer travel and the hub-deep mire of winter were thus avoided. Important among the toll roads were the Central Plank Road, the Greensboro Plank Road, and the Montgomery South Plank Road, capitalized at $50,000 each. Although 24 plank roads were chartered by the Alabama.legi:latu:e in 1849-50, experience proved them unsatisfactory. Warpmg III wlll~er and attacks of boring insects and dry rot in summer made expensIve repairs too constantly necessary. Three stagecoach lines, carrying passengers and mail, were operating on the Federal Road before 1840: the Mail Line, the Telegraph Line, and the Peoples Line. Relay stations, where horses were changed, were established about 12 miles apart. As roads developed, stagecoach lines increased and were operated on regular schedules. The companies advertised the comforts of this form of travel, but contemporary records are full of complaints about the coaches, the drivers, and the inns along the routes. Little public effort was made to provide good all-weather roads for Alabama until 191 I. In that year the State Highway Department was established to supervise building and maintenance. The late Senator John H. Bankhead, Sr. (father of the present Senator John H. Bankhead and of the late William B. Bankhead, speaker of the House) was a pioneer supporter of highway development. On July 11, 1916 he procured the passage of an act whereby the Federal Government should aid the States in the construction of rural post-roads. The annual Federal appropriation of $5,000,000 to Alabama for this purpose was


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enlarged after 1921. In recognition of Senator Bankhead's services US 78 was named the Bankhead Highway. T~e firs~ modern ha.rd-surfaced road in the State was US 3 1, the Bee Lme HIghway runmng due south from the Tennessee Line through Athens, Decatur, Birmingham, and Montgomery to Mobile Seve 1 ra Fe~eral and State highways closely parallel the routes of the ~Id I d . trads. n Ian

T~e Alaba~a Highway Patrol was established in 1936 to regulate operat.lOn of hIghway traffic and is one of the chief factors in safe. g~ardlllg the trav~ling public. In October, 1939, Alabama had 993 mIles a! concrete hIghway a~d. 3,301 miles of asphalt roads. The entire ~tate .hlg~way system, conslstmg of approximately 6,500 miles of road IS ~amtamed by the ~tate, with the exception of 337 miles of road whIch has never ~een Improved. Within the State are poniOlfs of J.~ U.S. numb~red hIghways, supplemented by 96 State highways. Largescale road Improvements, in which the Federal and local governments co-operate, ar~ now. (1940) being made throughout the State. ~otor .frelght. Imes and passenger bus lines are increasingly impor. tant m the mdustnal an? social life of Alabama communities, particularly those not touc~ed by radroads or navigable rivers. Numerous interstate pa~sen~er bus hnes are operated, furnishing transportation between most pomts I? .the State and maintaining modern passenger terminals in the larger. CItIes. ~otor freight lines cover Alabama even more thoroughly handlm~ both I?~rastate and interstate shipments, with depots and ware: hous:s m the cItIes and larger towns. While the interstate volume is conSIderable, short.hauls of merchandise and farm products pred,ominate. N early all cottO? IS moved .to the mills by truck. Motor vehicles have also become a VItal factor m carrying milk and other perishable farm products to market. . From. the earliest days of settlement, waterways have played a lead. mg role. m Alabama's developm en t . M 0 b·l I e B ay was ch osen.m 1702 ~s the sIte ?~ ~he first French colony in th~ territory because of its good A~rbor fa<.:I~ltles and. the easy access to the interior provided by the . abama River and Its tributaries. Mobile was the capital of Louisiana and the seaport from which quantities of indigo and furs were ex.ported to France.. But after a great hurricane had choked'the harbor WIth san?,. the capItal ~as removed to Biloxi in 17 1 9. Under subsequent Bntlsh and Spamsh rule Mobile's importance as a port declined though ~he"advantages of the harbor were still recognized: "The Ba; o! Mobde, one E~glish writer said, "forms a most notable and spaCIOUS • h.arbor . • . It affords very good anchorage and is capable of contammg the whole British navy." The de.pendence on land routes lessened after the first decade of settlement m northern Alabama. Though several freight lines operated

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trains of Conestoga wagons over the mountains, farmers and especially cotton planters used the rivers more and more to transport their products to market. The Coosa-Alabama river route, extending from the northeastern corner of Alabama to Mobile, was navigable only during high water in late winter and spring. Even then only flatboats could travel over much of its length. Drained by these rivers, the Black Belt was only sparsely settled until the coming of the steamboat. In northern ~Iabama the rich cotton lands along the great bend of the Tennessee River were rapidly settled and were producing enormous crops by 1820. A lively river traflic sprang up. Imports from the East came downriver in flatboats to Alabama from Tennessee and cotton was shipped north along the river to the Ohio and down the Mississippi to New Orleans. These first carriers, the flatboats, were built on the upper reaches of the rivers. From 100 to 150 feet in length and IO to 18 feet wide, the flatboat was made of rough oak plank, caulked with pitch and crudely decked with pegged boards. In the larger ones was space for wagons, teams, and dozens of bales of cotton. Four men were required to manage the steering oar at the stern. These unwieldy craft, loading cotton at Fort Deposit, Triana (at the head of Muscle Shoals), Florence, and Cotton Port (a few miles from the present Decatur), required months to drift to New Orleans. There they were knocked down and sold for timber, and the boatmen returned overland. A development of the flatboat peculiar to Alabama was the "cotton box," a huge cumbersome craft whose high sides provided cargo space for hundreds of bales. The keelboat, widely used throughout the western territories, was smaller than the flatboat and tapered to sharp points at bow and stern. Its heavy oak keel-timbers were pro~f against the most vicious snags and its deck was well-roofed. Keelboats could be poled upriver as well as down. Where the water was swift, the crews went ashore and "warped" the craft against the current with strong ropes hitched around trees. If low-hanging branches were ,within reach the crew could stand on deck, grasp them, and pull the boat along, Known as "bush-whacking," this method was practiced only on the smaller streams. Occasionally keelboats made use of small sails. A river traveler of the time wrote: "In the whole journey from Florence to the Ohio we were at no time out of sight of at least three or four flatboats, or out of hearing of the shouts, curses, and drunken singing of the bully boys aboard them." Flatboatmen and keelboatmen were recruited from the wildest elements of the frontier and were notoriously reckless and tough. The river towns of Alabama were scenes of roaring brawls, hard drinking and gambling while the boats waited for cargo. A fight at Cotton

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90

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ALAB AMA

P~rt between keelboat and flatboat crews is said to have raged inter. mlttent ly for two weeks until the water rose enough for the river fleet to cast off for New Orleans . Immensely s.uperior though Alabam a's riverwa ys were to transpor t by land, t~ey stall left much to be desired. Only the smallest ftatboah could navigat e the Tennes see during low water stages. Planter s lost hu~dreds of thousan ds of dollars annuall y because of the delay in getting their cott?n to ma~ket. Natural ly, Alabam ians watche d with interest the expenm ents with steambo ats which took place on the Mississi ppi after. 1812. As early as 1818 upriver planters , who were especiall y handlca~ped by Muscle Shoals, began promot ing a steambo at service. HuntSVille and other towns in Alabam a and Tennes see joined in the effort. The first steambo at on Alabam a waters was the A iabama, built at St. Stephens. !t steamed down to Mobile in early 181.8, ~ut was not able to make Its way upstrea m again. On April 5, 1819 a steam· ~oat c~mpany. was formed at Huntsv ille, and in 1821 the Osage made Its malden triP from New Orlean s to Florenc e with a cargo of food staples, hardwa re, pig iron, and woolen cloth. A year later the light· draft steamer s Rocket, Courier, and Velocipede began a regular schedule between New Orleans and Florenc e, at the foot of the shoals. For several years steambo at passage over Muscle Shoals was not attempt ed, and planter s above the shoals were forced to dispatch their cotton downri ver by flatboat to Florenc e. Flatboa ts were also used as late as 1860 to freight cotton down small streams to the Tenness ee where it could be picked up by steamboats. .The pioneer river steamboats were, at best, risky devices. The deSigns were poorly adapted from those of sailing craft, and the experi· mental .b?ilers often exploded or the boats caught fire from other causes. In additIOn, steamboats collided frequen tly, ripped their bottoms out on snags and rocks, or capsized from overloa ding. Hence, the coming of the steamboat did not at once destroy flatboat and keelboa t traffic o.n the Tenness ee. In 1827 the A tias, a steambo at with an extreme ly ll~ht draft, was special~y built to pass the shoals. During the Februar y high water of 1828 thiS craft manage d to ascend the river from Florence to Knoxville, Tenness ee, in a little less than 30 days. There was fairly regular service between Florenc e and the upriver towns; the shoals, howe~er, prevent ed passage during low water. Engi· neer~ suggested connect mg the. Tennes see by canal with the waterw ays leadmg to the Gulf, but the Idea was abando ned in favor of a canal around the worst section of the shoals. In 1828 Congress authoriz ed the sale of 400,000 acres of public lands in the Huntsv ille district to finance the underta king. Excava tion started in 1831 and the canal was opened to traffic in 1836. It proved a failure because its termina l approaches could be used only during high water. Sufficient funds were

T RAN S P

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91

not availab le to correct the defects, and the canal was abando ned the next year. In 1873 aqd 1877 new Federal surveys were made. Actual work was begun in 1882 and the canal was reopened by U. S. Army Enginee rs in 1890. The steambo at opened the Black Belt to settlem ent. By 1835 freight and packet lines were operati ng out of Mobile along the Tombigbee, Alabam a, and Coosa. Cen~ral A~~bama .beca,~e the cottonproduci ng center of the State, and 10 the flush times that followe d planters grew almost incredibly wealthy . . With the coming of the railroad s, river traffic declllled on the Tennessee. By 1860 most of the cotton grown in the valley was shipped hy rail to Memph is, Charles ton, and Mobile : The sho~ter rout~s. of the Alabam a-Tomb igbee system, though sufferin g from rail competi tIOn, continu ed to operate profitably. Betwee n 1910 and 1940 the Federal governm ent spent large sums in deepening and widenin g channel s and removin g obstruc tions in Alahama rivers. Dams and locks were built to make them navigab le for river packets and barges. Today (1940) the Warrio r-Tomb igbeeMobile system is one of the leading canaliz ed river systems in the world. Since 1934 the Tennes see Valley Author ity has built or improve d three ~reat dams on the Tennes see which provide a nine-foot low water channel through its entire length, thus insurin g navigat ion the year around. Alabam a's river systems combine to give it adequat e water transpo rtation not only to its own excellen t port, 1\tlobile, but also to the Gulf ports of Pensaco la on the east and New Orlean s on the west. The Federal Govern ment has spent millions of dollars for improving Mobile harbor and has supplem ented State and city funds in modernizin g the docks and other port facilities. Today (1940) there is an almost continu ous series of wharve s and piers for about 30 ,800 feet along the western shore of Mobile River. The channel is 32 feet deep and has a minimu m width of 300 feet. In addition to wharfa ge owned by the city of Mobile , railroad s, and private interests, the Alabam a State Docks and Termin als occupy a sso-acr e site with three steel and concret e piers, wareho uses and other port facilities. Berthin g space is available for 22 vessels. This propert y and the port and harbor are under the jurisdic tion of the Alabam a Depart ment of State Docks and Termin als, established in 1939· Alabam a was a leader in pioneer railroad buildin g venture s. When steambo at transpo rtation over Muscle Shoals failed to justify early hopes, Tennes see Valley planter s organiz ed the Tuscumbi~ Railwa y connect ing Tuscum bia and the Tennes see River. This fiist railway west of the Appala chians and south of the Ohio River, charter ed in 1830, was only 2.2 miles long, but it had been built 44 miles around the shoals to Decatu r five years later. Rails were of strap iron laid

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92

ALA BAM A T RAN S P 0 R TAT rON

on wooden stringers. Financed with planters' money, the road (rt. named the Tuscumbia, Courtland, & Decatur Railway) eliminated the hazards of Muscle Shoals in transporting cotton to New Orleans. On December 15, 1834, the first run was made between Tuscumbia and Decatur by a wood-burnini locomotive towing a few cars. Lllter, mule-team. were sometime. the motive power, with relay stations every few miles. In 1847, after several years of uncertain operation, the road was reorganized as the Tennessee Valley Railroad. After the \Var between the States it became part of the I'vlemphis & Charleston Rail. road, which later became a unit in the present Southern Railway System.

i

II I

I

I I I

The excessive rates charged by steamboat lines for hauling cotton arid other products during the 1830'S stimulated interest in rajlroads. More than 25 charters were granted to promoters during the decade, but most of the plans were dropped during the depression following the panic of 1837. By this time, however, the railroad was accepted, as the successor to canal and stagecoach, as a means for linking Alabama with the Gulf Coast. Three or four of the proposed railroads were built, either completely or in part. By 1850 there were 150 miles of track in the State. None of the present railroads, except the Mobile & Ohio, entered Alabama under their present names, Chartered on February 3, 1848, the Mobile & Ohio was one of the first land-grant railroads in the United States. In addition to its right-of-way, in 1850 the road was deeded 4 19,528 acres of public lands in Mississippi and Alabama which were sold to raise funds for construction and rolling stock. Following the War between the States, railroad bonds were issued indiscriminately and the State endorsed bonds at the rate of $12,000 to $16,<x>o a mile. Most of these railroad bonds were later repudiated, In the 1870'S railroad building, halted during the war, was resumed with great vigor. The Louisville & Nashville entered Alabama in 1871 by purchase of several small lines, and in 1872 completed its line from Montgomery to Decatur. In the same year the present Alabama Great Southern was completed across the State from Chattanooga to Meridian, Mississippi. These two lines crossed at Birmingham, the new town which had been laid out in 187 I, in anticipation of their meeting. By absorbing several smaller lines in 1886, the East Tennessee, Virginia & Georgia Railway became Alabama's largest system; later it merged with the Southern Railway. Birmingham, with vast actual and potential freight tonnage from the rich mineral region surrounding it, was early accepted as the logical railroad center. All of the leading lines were routed through Birmingham or Mobile and, with the exceptions of the Atlantic Coast Line, Mobile & Ohio, and the Western of Alabama, passed through

.

93

h later the Mobile & Ohio built a branch the mineral bel~. MSo~~w. at. b way of Columbus through the Warrne from ArteSIa, ISSISSIPPI, y _ . I d C h b al fields to Montgomery. rior

;~e Il~n~isain]~~ntral RailSroad en.ter&ed S~~ab;r;:~c~~c: ~~9'1 ~~~, S:~~ 900 the t. L d A· I' &

OUIS

.

boar If lOe N I in 1906 and the Atlanta, BummgAlaba;a Tenn.essee~07 ~~~~~r~hat time'railroad building has been ham o~st 10 I • f der and connecting lines rather than the directed chIefly toward keel' Modern railroad facilities have done . I t ction of new trun meso 'I 'd th of the industrial sectIons. n 1939. cons ru much to st~mu ate rapI gro~ 2 miles of main line in Alabama, fourteen raIlroads were oPSeraun: 6,31' 3es operated 662 additional miles exclusive of yard tracks. econ ary 10

C

of tracks. .. b' 28 when the St. TamAir transportatIOn 10 the State egan 10 19 N Orleans to ew G If A' r Pened up a route f rom many and If lOes °A I ~ I b'l B' uingham and t anta. Thl's line, at first for mail , service d i" 0 I.e, Irm , D 1 Air Lines providing daily mall an pasonly, IS no,: part of the e ta t Atla~ta and from Birmingham to scngerwserv~ce ,pom C~~~es~~tio~al Air Lines operate from J aebonFort ort, exas. , M b'l E te n Air Lines from ville, Florida to New Orleans Via 0 I e.. ~s ,r ham and Mont-

O~~:psh~:~~s ~:~la~:::s:e~I~I~:rd~l~ra

Atlanta an to dNfew gomery, rom

Muscle Shoals,

y Birmingham, and Montgomehr . . fields in operation in Alabama; I 194 1 there are more t an 30 aIr l' f f d n d 'th the aid of Federal work re Ie un s. most of them constructe WI $ f this purpose 'd T h WPA which has spent more than 2,000,000 or. e State,'IS.asslst10g . . .10 t h e construe ' t'Ion of several new in the . ..airports an the improvement of existing fields.


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Tour

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::;; ;=;:?= :: 2::

I

(Pulaski, Tenn.) - Decatur-llirmingham-Montgomery-Mobile; US 31. Tennessee Line to Mobile, 431.1 711. Roadbed concrete- and asphalt-paved throughout. Louisville & Nashville R.R. parallels route. All types of accommodations.

US 31 bisects Alabama from the Tennessee Line to Mobile Bay. It crosses the Tennessee Valley, climbs the western part of the Sand Mountain plateau and traverses the more rugged region of the mineral belt through Birmingham to Calera. From there it runs through the fruit growing area of central Alabama, the fertile Black Belt, and the subtropical lowlands and pine forests to Mobile.

Section

Q.

TENNESSEE LINE to BIRMINGHAM,' 122.1 m.

Crossing the broadest section of the Tennessee Valley. which at this point forms a gentle, undulating plain, the route traverses one of the finest cotton-growing regions in the State. In carly summer th¢ fields are a sea of dark green, spotted with the red and white blooms of cotton. The only breaks are occasional clumps of tall timber and scrubby wood lots which supply fuel for the plantation tenants. As fall comes on fields shed their mantle of green and emerge in fleecy white, remaining thus until cotton pickers swarm through with their trailing gunny sacks to lift the blanket. A few wandering French trappers, coming down from the Ohio, entered northern Alabama in the early part of the eighteenth century and English traders, pushing westward from the Carolinas and Georgia to trade with the Chickasaw, followed the Tennessee River through the region. Then came settlers, who passed down the Tennessee on flatboats on their way to the west. Actual settlement of the area, however, did not begin until after the Indian wars of the early 1800'S. Then land-hungry pioneers poured in from the surrounding States in a mad scramble for the former Indian farms. The plantation system developed and flourished until the War between the States. US 31, the Bee Line Highway, crosses the TENNESSEE LINE o 11/. in ARDMORE (756 alt., 266 pop.), at a point 16 miles southeast of Pulaski, Tennessee. The town, which is half in Tennessee and 253


254

ALA BA M A

half in Alabama, is a trading place for farmers of northeastern Limestone County. The CEDARS (now an inn), 16.5 Tn.> sits back from the highway on rolling wooded lawns. Built in 1846 by Colonel James Malone, a wealthy Tennessee Valley planter, it is a fine example of an ante bellum manor. Pattie Malone, a Negro girl whose contralto voice received international acclaim, was born a slave on the Cedars plantation in the spring of J858. When Pattie was seven or eight years old the Malones sent her to a school for Negroes that had been opened at Athens by Miss Araminta W. Wells, a Northerner. From there she went to Fisk University, Nashville, Tennessee, where she studied piano and voice. As a member of the original Jubilee Singers, she toured Europe with the famous chorus. During the days of her success and travel her white friends back in Athens-especially the Malones-often received gifts and souvenirs from distant lands. Returning from Europe in 1896, Pattie was seriously injured aboard ship during a storm. Close upon this accident carne word of her fiance's death, and this blow,. coupled with her physically weakened state, caused her death. She is buried in the Negro cemetery at Athens. ATHENS COLLEGE, 17.2 Tn.> is a group (L) of stately old buildings standing on a level campus shaded by ancient oaks. The main building is massive FOUNDERS HALL, whose tall Ionic columns accentuate the Greek Revival design so much favored by the early builders of this valley. The walls, now covered with ivy, are of brick made by slave labor from local clay. The mortar which sealed the brick was of powdered limestone, allowed to stand for months before using. The structure was planned and built by General Hiram H. Higgins in 1843-4. t First called the Tennessee Conference Female Institute, then in succession the Athens Female Institute, Athens College for Young Women, and now Athens College, this coeducational institution has been operated without interruption since its charter was granted in 1843 by the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. During the War between the States, it remained open, directed by Mrs. Jane Hamilton Child, called Madame Child by her students. Bowered in the limbs of the largest water oak on the campus is THE CROW'S NEST, reached by steps' from the ground, where generations of Athens College bel1<~s and their lovers have kept their trysts. So popular is this spot that the girls of the college have named their newspaper the Crow's Nest. At 17.5 m. is the northern junction with US 72 (see Tour 6), which unites briefly southward with US 31. ATHENS, 18.7 m. ,(695 alt., 4,238 pop.), seat of Limestone County, gives the traveler a glimpse of the Old South such as he will not see again until he reaches the heart of the Black Belt some 200 miles to the south. In Athens, founded in 1816 as Athenson, are a number of well-preserved ante bellum houses, the family homes of the

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prewar planter aristocracy. It is a quiet town, with oak and elm lined streets radiating from the court square. The first Alabama city to buy its electrical current from TVA, Athens made its initial contract with the Authority in 1934路 Under the terms of the contract the municipality is able to sell current to its citizens for less than half the previous cost, and local consumption of electricity is reported to have more than doubled during the five-year period 1934-9. Energized by the TVA development, the city looks to the future, but many of its buildings and a few surviving former slaves are links with a romantic period now swiftly receding into memory. Limestone County was the first of Alabama's counties to be invaded by Union troops during the War between the States; and Athens, as county seat, was the first important town to be occupied in 1862. During much of the war Athens was under the control of Russian-born brigadier-general Ivan Vasilivitch Turchinov, who subjected the townspeople to many indignities. He burned homes on the slightest pretext, and refused to discipline the rowdy element among his troops. Protests from the citizens only made matters worse, and an abiding dislike for Yankees, inculcated in Athenians at this time, has persisted almost to the present day. The PRYOR HOUSE, North Jefferson St., two blocks north of the court square, is the former home of Luke Pryor, who served ih the State legislature 1855-6, as U. S. Senator 1879-80, and as Representative 1883-5. The large square house is Greek Revival in design, with square box columns and a second-floor balcony extending across the whole width of a fine arched portico. Brackets of cast iron are used in the corners of the column bases. There is a cast-iron balcony on the right side of the mansion and a cast-iron porch on the left. The slave kitchen in the rear is connected with the dining room by a covered passageway. On top of the mansion is a glass-enclosed cupola the siz.e of a small room that Pryor was said to have used for a watch tower. Here he sat with a telescope, watching his .slaves as they worked in distant fields. According to aged Negroes, former slaves on the place, if one of them, even in the most far-away field, loafed at his task there would be sharp questions from "Marster Luke" when they came in at night. The sight of the cupola and the thought that the master was there with his spy-glass kept the Negroes from idling even when they knew he was in Montgomery or Washington. HOUSTON HOUSE, Houston St., two blocks west of the court square, was the horne of George S. Houston, Governor of Alabama from J 874 to 1876. Governor Houston is remembered in the State for his careful administration after the excesses of the Reconstruction Period. This property was given to the city in 1937 by George Houston, J L, son of the former Governor, and it now houses the Houston Memorial Library. A garden dotted with fine old cedars and elms adjoins the yard. Houston, as a member of Congress from 1841 to 1849 and from 18'5 I to 1861, never wavered in his opposition to secession, but kept the respect of his neighbors and friends who were secessionists.


II

256 A LAB A M A ST. TIMOTHY'S EPISCOPAL CHURCH, Washington St., three blocks east of the court square, is a small brick ivy-covered chapel where the early valley planters attended services. The near-by churchyard is one of north Alabama's oldest burial grounds. Many of the markers, their inscriptions barely legible, bear dates of the period before Alabama became a State. On these oldest graves are the family names of many men active in the business life of Athens today. The gray brick, three-storied MASON HOUSE, 2 II South Beaty St., was designed with pioneer simplicity as a school house, but was used as a home. The brass knocker bears the inscription: "Robert Beaty 1826, John R. Mason 1845." Mr. Mason, who married the daughter of the builder, re-designed the front, adding a Greek Revival portico. The house was used to care for the wounded and as officers' quarters by Federal troops during the War between the States. The old carriage shed and slave kitchen of split logs are still standing on the grounds. In the main house are family treasures and early American furniture, including a calash (a bonnet introduced by the Duchess of Bedford 1845-50, and known as the "bashful bonnet"); a Lazy Susan table, which revolves for service; W edgewood pitchers, and other china a century and a half old. On near-by Coleman Hi1l, southwest of the court square, is TRINITY SCHOOL, a Negro institution supported by the Congregational church. Here General Nathan Bedford Forrest's cavalry dislodged a heavily entrenched Union force under Colonel Campbell in 1864. To give the impression of a much larger force than he actually had, the Confederate leader marched his men before the enemy, first as cavalry and then as infantry, the first horsemen dismounting and falling in on foot behind their own rear guard. Convinced that he was hopelessly outnumbered, Campbell surrendered, handing his sword to General Forrest just east of the court square. At 20.3 m. is the southern junction with US 72 (see Tour 6). At 31.1 m. is the northern junction with State 20, a gravel road. Left on State 20 to MOORESVILI.E 4.4 m. (580 alt., 114 pop.). This farming community, one of the oldest villages in north Alabama, was chartered in 1818. At the first street intersection is (R) a two-story frame structure called the OLD TAVERN. It was a stage station, and is now occupied by Negro tenants. One block farther along this street is a small new brick huilding (R) housing the ZEITLER COLLECTION (open by appointment), owned by A. B. Zeitler, a descendant of pioneer settlers. Among the exhibits are old rifles and swords, a war drum used by a detachment under General Sherman during his march, Indian relics, and many rare ante bellum household articles. In the yard is an old smokehouse where meats were cured more than 100 years ago. Ancient boxwood hedges surround the grounds. Left from Mooresville on a graveled road 1.2 m. to BELLE MINA (private), built in 1826 hy Thomas Bibb, Governor of Alabama 1820-2, member of the Convention of 1825 to amend the Constitution, and of the legislature of 1827 and 1828. The house (I.), still occupied by descendants of the builder, stands 200 feet from the highway in a grove of large oaks. It is square-built of brick with a projecting roof supported by massive Ionic columns, the centers of which are hewn poplar logs. The broad planks of the floors are an inch

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thick: and the spiral stairway in the rear of the main hall is of carved cherry ood Much of the interior work was done by slaves. w The brick kitchen has a fireplace eight feet ~!d~, with the; old iron ~ranes and a Dutch oven built in the wall. In an adJommg room IS a collectlon of old farm tools.

Spanning the Tennessee River at 31.7 m. IS KELLER MEMORIAl. BRIDGE (see Decatur). DECATUR, 32.2 m. (538-598 alt., 16,604 pop.) (see Decatur), In Decatur is a junction with State 20, paved road. Right on Stale 20 to WHEELER, 17 m. (592 al!., 250 pop). Left here through a vine-covered arch and gateway between white fence ralls that e.xtend on both sides; a long flower-bordered way passes through a gr?v~ of magnificent spreading oaks to the JOI! WHEELER HOUSE (open 8-5)路 ~hls IS ,acluall~ ~wo square-built, frame buildings, call~d !he east and west wl.ngs. rhe onglllal structure, the east wing, was bUIlt m 1818; the west wlllg was .added by General Wheeler in the late 1860'S. Entrance to the 16-room hou~e IS through a wide double door to a spacious hallway in which are old P?rtralts. and other paintings, rare books, newspapers, ~tate papers, and ?ther time-staIned. documents. Glass cases contain the ufllforms worn by Gener~1 Wheeler In two wars. In an old vine-clad barn near the house IS a carnage used by Mrs. Wheeler's mother during her girlhood days. __, General Wheeler was a lawyer, planter, author, member of. COlllfress, and Lieutenant General in the Confederate Arn?y. He. was a Major (>en~ral .of th U S Army volunteers in the War WIth Spam, and later, a Bngadler G:ner~1 in the United States Army. Services are conducted annually here on the anniversary of General Wheeler's bi rth. . . COURTLAND, 20.1 m. (alt. 566, pop. 359 L, IS a prosperous bus!ness c~nter for farmers with neat houses aud gardens. fhe loo-year-old hr~ck PRE I~Y颅 TERIAN CHU'RCH still uses its original bell. Whe;n Texas was .fightlllg ~exlco for its independence, Dr. Shackelford, a leader In t~e. c?mmull1~y, orgal~lzed a company of 100 young men from Courtland and vlclntty to aid the 1 exan~. Every man furnished his equipment and horse. Dr. Shackelfor~ and h,s Alabama Red Rovers as they called themselves, went to the Mexlc-an War, and all except the ddctor were killed. . ,. . In the SANDERSON GARAGE (opell), is a collect.lOn of military relics and an immense plaque made of Indian arrowheads found In and around Courtland. The collection includes a flintlock musket more than 200 ye.an old, an old Kentucky rille, and many other types. of guns. In the collectl.on are also old powder horns, bullet molds, percu~slOn caps, and other antiquated Illuz2leloading equipment, as well as modern overseas caps and trench helmets. . ROCKY HILL CASTLE (private), 23-5 m., at the end of a long entrance dnve (R) was built in 18 45 by James Saunders, later a colonel i.n the. Co~federate Army. Many noted Southern military leaders were enter~~lned In thIS house, and on one occasion the military court of the Army of. I enness.ee . met here. The imposing appearance, elaborate interior, .and expensive furmshlngs made it a show place during the latter p3r~ of the .nllleteenth century. Many legends and superstitions have become assocl~ted ":'Ith the old house. The ~tory g?es that money, jewels, and silverware, hidden In the tower from plunder!ng Union soldiers were left in their hiding place for more than 60 years. 1 he tower, slalldin~ apart from the residence and giving the place the appearaoc~ of ~n old-world castle, was built by Hugh Jones, a Welsh carpenter, who lived JI1 America during the War between the States. TOWN CREEK, 25.9 m. (545 alt., 427 pop.), was the scene of a sharp skirmish on April 27, 1863, when Confederate General Roddy attempted t,o hlock the advance of the Federal force under General Dodge. Forrest 5 cavalry rushed here to the aid of Roddy, and in the ensuing ~ght Dodge was beaten back. Meantime, Colonel A. D. Streight left the mam Federal force


258

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in a wild dash to cut the Confederate communication lines and destroy their supply depots at Rome, Georgia. Forrest guessed this plan and pursued with a much smaller force. Six days later the chase ended with Streight's surrender near Centre. (See Tour 13). In Town Creek is a junction with Wheeler Dam Road (ue Tour 6).

South of Decatur US 31 crosses the bottom lands of the Tennessee Valley, rising gradually over a series of terraces to the coves and hills of Sand Mountain. Corn grows tall in the river bottoms, cotton and hay flou rish on the red 'lnd brown soils of the fi rst elevation. As the route climbs the higher ridges, fruits and vegetables take the place of corn, and the wooded hills are checkered with small pastures. Careless farming methods in the past have done considerable damage to the soil, but fields of forage crops-Iespedeza and oats-show that the farmers are trying to check erosion. In this they are helped by the TVA. Farther south, as the soil changes to sand loam, strawberries are an important crop, and in April and May, hordes of pickers work feverishly to outwit fickle weather and shifty markets. Back from the highway stand a few large old plantation houses, reminders of the past; but newer, smaller houses indicate the general rehabilitation work in the section. CEDAR LAKE, 36.6 m. (577 alt., 250 pop.), is a Negro farm community founded by ]\,11 rs. Ray Nelson in 1 8 fJ7. The project, which has been operating for 42 years, holds 1,200 acres that afford "live at home" opportunities for members of the group. The Negroes use scientific farm methods; some own their farms and comfortable frame houses, while others own their homes and rent farm land. Approximately one member in each family works in industry in Decatur. Left from Cedar Lake on a graveled road 3 m. to a junction with another graveled road. Left on this road, 4.4 m., to CAVE SPRINGS (L), a picnic spot wilh a naturally arched cave entrance. Under路a rock-roofed portico large enough to cover 100 people is a small brook that flows from the cave interior. Local tradition has it that the cave ex.tends a mile or more into the mountain. Stalactite formations extend to the front of the main cave. One section is known as the "cold room" and is used by campers to preserve perishable foods. The cave is unlighted and torches of some kind are necessary when exploring it. On the main side tour, a group of unusual rock formations (R) on a ridge top, 5.9 m., is called FORT BLUFF. In the rock are trenches Wilh what appear to be breastworks and near the main fort are many rock piles resembling cairns. Arrowheads are plentiful in the neighborhood, indicating that the bluff was apparently used as a stronghold by Indians. During the War between the States army scouts used the point as a lookout station. At 7.7 m. is a junction with a graded road; R on this road to SOMERVILLE (7J6 alt., J50 pop.), 14.8 m., founded in 1819, and named for Lieutenant Robert M. Somerville, of Tennessee, who was killed at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. The structure now housing the public school is the oldest courthouse building in Alabama. It was built in J819 when Morgan County was organized with Somerville as cOllnty seat. During the following seven decades-a bustling period-this village was the home of a girls' academy, a boys' academy, a Presbyterian training school, an officers' training school for the Confederate Army, and a public grammar school. In ,89', the county seat was removed to Decatur and the town collapsed. The old brick Methodist Church, built in

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1836, still contains the original pews with a central partition to separate the men worshipers from the women. Distinguished native sons of Somerville include Samuel D. Weakley, Chief Justice of the Alabama Supreme Court, 1905-6; and Malcolm R. Patterson, "stormy petrel" of Tennessee politics, and Governor of that Slate, 1907-1I. General James Longstreet of the Confederate Army spent his boyhood here. Beyond Somerville on the graded road (poorly mamtained lure) is a junction with a graveled road, 23.2 m.; R. on this graveled road to VALHERMOSO SPRINGS, (100 pop.), 27.8 m., which was at the peak of its popularity as a health and pleasure resort in 1830. The ,natural surroundings of the village are still attractive, and it is easy to see that the resort merited its name, Valhermoso, Spanish for Vale of Beauty. The hills, dominated by Valhermoso Knob, a huge dome towering to the north, are covered with cedar, pine, and hardwood. Left from the village is the OLD CEDAR HOTEL, 28.2 m., center of local festivities in the 1820'S and J830'S and now, with half its rooms removed, used as a private dwelling. Notables from all over the southeast attended magnificent halls here in the days when Alahama was a young State. Now in need of repair, the strong whipsawed timbers of the old building still hold its three stories firmly erect. From its upper windows, Huntsville is visible in clear weather. Honeysuckle twines over the pillars of the portico, and, flowering trees and shruhs riot over the front lawn. Fifty yards away a narrow fringe of cedars borders the 3o-foot gorge through which tumble the waters of Jerry's Creek. Down a gentle slope 200 yards behind the hotel are the mineral springs that drew thousands of health seekers here. Three springs-white 'sulphur, h!ack sulphur, and chalyhcate-hubble up in a concrete bowl 12 feet in diameter. From a pipe in the hillside 20 feet away pours a stream of freestone water. Handsome beech trees around the springs are bark-scarred by initials and dates in great numbers. At 28.9 m. is a junction with an unimproved dirt road; L. on this road to a junction with another dirt road 33.4 m. About 125 yards (T.) is the entrance to KING'S CAVE, known to the Indians as Ittachooma. In recent years it has been called locally Bat Cave, since a fertilizer composed of bat droppings has been taken from it and distrihuted commercially. It is said Ihat a succession of caverns extend more than four miles to another entrance on the southwest side of King's Ridge, and that they resemble Mammoth Cave in Kentucky.

Along US 31 backwaters of the Tennessee River provide easily accessible vantage points for bass, bream, and crappie fishing, and the surrounding country affords good small game shooting. In FLINT, 38.7 m. (570 alt.. 134 pop.), so n~med because of numerous flint rocks in the vicinity, is (R) the MOR(;AN COUNTY TUBERCULOSIS SANATORIV:\I, a modern fireproof brick structure with a capacity of 50 to 60 beds. It was built in 1934 with CWA funds, a?d equipped by contributions from clubs, school child ren, and indi".lduals. Only cases of pulmonary tuberculosis are admitted, and patJents must. be able to show 12 months' residence in l\1organ County. 'Vhen It was founded in 1870, HARTSELLE, 4.5 711. ,( 672 alt., 2,2(~+ pop.), was one-half mile north of its present site. Upon com~lct1on of the South and North Alabama Railroad (now the L. & N.) 10 1872 this site was chosen for a depot and the town was moved. It was incorporated :March I, 1875. In the center of a large cotton district, Hartselle does a great part of the cotton ginning of Morgan County. It is also a shipping point

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260 A LABAM A for lumber. The MORGAN COUNTY HIGH SCHOOL, originally called the Male and Female Academy, is on land donated by Dr. S. L. Rountree. A manual training building and a domestic science building supplement the main unit. The route south of Hartselle is through gently rolling country, gradually rising to the foothills of Sand Mountain. Cotton is the predominant crop in this section, but corn, potatoes, and vegetables thrive in the sandy soil and are being grown in increasingly large quantities. CULLMAN, 68 m. (802 alt., 2,786 pop.), is the center of a large strawberry growing region. Berry picking is a race against the elements.' If rain wets the berries and scatters sand over them, the crop must be disposed of at reduced prices at near-by markets, as wet, sanded berries mold in a few hours and northern markets refuse to buy them. In order to grade, crate, and ship strawberries the day they are picked, almost every able-bodied member of farm families, including small children, works from daylight until dark. Usually the cash value of the crop brings reasonable recompense for the back-breaking labor. During the short shipping season, the necessity for speed makes the streets of the town almost impassable, with marketers moving feverishly among equally feverish buyers who inspect each truckload of the luscious berries. Sold to the highest bidder, the crates are transferred from trucks to refrigerated cars and moved at express speed to distant markets. Cullman was settled by industrious German immigrants from the Rhine Valley, whose desire was to build a self-sustaining colony. In this they have been remarkably successful. John Cullman, who planned the community and for whom it was named, came to America after the War between the States, and acquired the tract of land in 1872. I n the following year he brought his first settlers to the region, and a town was'laid out. Five years later, the Alabama legislature created the county, also named for him, and made the town the county seat. The development of timber and coal resources gave the community its start toward prosperity. As its fame spread, foreign investors became interested. The Cullman Coal and Coke Company was organized by a group of Hollanders, with the backing of Queen Wilhelmina, but the W orId War prevented full realizarion of the company's plans, which included colonization schemes. The community is now (1940) an important shipping point for the Sand Mountain section. Left from Cullman on State 31, an asphalt-paved road, to a junction with another asphalt-paved road 1.5 m.; R. here to AVE MARIA GROTTO (open lJ-S; adm. 1O~'), 2 m., a rocky woodland glade, ornamented with Talladega marble, slag, crystal, and other rock formations. Stone steps descend from the iron entrance gate to a clearing in the oak and pine woods. Here are 40 miniature reproductions of shrine ruins, mosques, temples, monasteries, noted churches, statues, and scenes in the Holy Land. Left of the main unit are Vatican miniatures. The grounds a re landscaped with small rock plants, little lagoons, fountains and streams. Near the entrance gate is a bronze tablet stating that the undertaking was initiated in 1932 by the Right Reverend Bernard Menges,

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O.S,B. second abbot of St. Bernard College, who di.ed in 1933. He was 8UCceeded by Abbot Ambrose Reger, O.S.B., who contlOued the work along the original plan until his death in 1938. . . Across the road from the grotto are the re~ brick butldmgs o.f ST. BERNARD COLLEGE, a Roman Catholic School founded Ill. 1892 by the RIght Reverend Abbot Benedict Menges and chartered the followlllg year.

South of Cullman, US 31 passes the low rolling foothills of the . , Arkadelphia Mountains. HANCEVILLE, 77 m. (541 alt., 780 pop.), IS. an agncult~ral shipping point and a trading center for the ~urroundlOg cO~lntryslde. Founded in 1876, the village was first called Gilmer, and ,":as 111 Blount County until the legislature added it to Cullman County ~n 1899, and designated the Mulberry River as the county boundary Ime. Left from Hanceville on a graded dirt road to BLOUNTSVILLE, 11 m.

(426 alt., 486 pop.), a Iypical farm trading center. It was op~ned to settlement after the Creek War, 1813-14, and was the seat of Blount County rrom 1820 until 1899. In that year the seat was removed to Onecnta. . Caleb Friley, the tirst settler, moved h~re, soon afte.r .1815 and, occupIed the

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deserted cabin of a Creek chief. BlountSVIlle s tirst .reltglous serVice, conduct~d by Reverend Ebenezer Hearn, a Metho~i~t, frontier preacl~er, was he.ld III Friley's cabin. Indian mounds in the VICIOlty of Ilioulllsvtlie have, yIelded many relics, such as chipped implements, c,?pper artl~acts, .bark mattlOg, and pottery. On May 2, 1863, Colonel A. D, StreIght and IllS (~01on Cavalry pas1?ed through here with Forrest's "critter company" close behmd. In llioulltsvdle Streight set tire to his supply wagons and abandoned them, b~lt 'the Co~足 federates arrived in time to put out the tire and save the suppltes for theIr own use.

US 31 crosses the Mulberry Fork of the Blac~ Warrior Riv.er, 83 m., winding through low densely wooded mountains and follow~ng small streams overhung by maples, beeches, and undergrowth. 1 he highway here is laid on the old roadbed of the Louisville & ~ashville Railroad. It leads through deep cuts between walls of soltd rock, where in summer overhanging limbs of oak, elm, beech, and hickory trees form a shady corridor. In autumn the vistas blaze with color, the crimson hues of oaks, dogwood, maples, and gums merging with the yellow of hickories and the mottled browns of beeches and elms. lJntil 1914, when the railroad was re-routed, BLOUNT SPRINGS, 88.1 111. (426 alt., 150 pop.), was a popular ht;alth and summer resort. Many Birmingham residents had summer homes here and visitors from other sections came to drink the sulphur and arsenic waters. Now, like many once popular resorts in the State, its only patrons are excursionists from near-by towns, and few of the summer homes remain. The vicinity offers excellent quail, rabbit, and squirrel hunting. At WARRIOR, 99 m. ,(549 alt., 646 pop.), a coal mi1liing community, the highway is bordered with great oak and elm trees whose limbs often meet to form a shady arch. There are attractive homes in the environs, and new structures in the town proper indicate growing business activity. The route between Wanior and Birmingham is

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through the coal belt, with typical mining villages along the way. These usually consist of a general store, a filling station and a church, with the miners' dilapidated, weather-beaten houses straggling along the road. Frequently unpainted board shacks are surrounded by small garden plots, from which the miners try to eke out a livelihood when the mines are closed. . US 3 I crosses the Locust Fork of the Black Warrior River, 101 m. At GARDENDALE, 112 m. (400 pop.), is a junction with an asphalt-paved road. Right on this TOad to MT. OLIVE HOMESTEADS, 3 m. a Federal subsistence homestead project begun by the Resettlement Administration and now (19'!-0) under the management of the Farm Security Administration. Its objective is to provide livable homes for low-income industrial workers of the section. Earthen houses designed by Thomas Hibben, consultant engineer of the Resettlement Administration, have been built here (see Ilrchitecture).

BIRMINGHAM, 122.1 11l. (382-608 alt., 267,583 pop.) (see Birmingham) . In Birmingham are junctions with US I I (see Tour 3), US 78 (see Tour 4), and State 91 (see Tour 1B).

Section b.

BIRMINGHAM to MONTGOMERY; 101.4 m.

South of Birmingham the route passes through the southern part of the mineral belt. It crosses rough timbered ridges and winds through deep cuts where ore-bearing rock is visible. Ncar Calera this rugged region gives way to gently rolling land which becomes almost level as US 31 nears Montgomery. Leaving BIRMINGHAM, 0 Tn., the highway crosses the wooded ridge of RED MOUNTAIN, 2.4 111. (800 alt.), a residential section at the southern limits of the city; it passes through a wide gap that cuts a great vein of the red iron ore, easily distinguishable in its course through the bordering shale. Immediately above the gap, on the brow (R) is the great iron STATUE OF VULCAN (see Birmingham). From Vulcan Park (partly outside the city limits) there is a splendid view of Birmingham spread out along the tree-covered slope of Red Mountain and across the valley below. As night settles, soft-coal smoke frequently drifts over the downtown area like a dark blanket. The skyscrapers become blurred silhouettes, a murky background for electric lights and myriads of flashing, colored neon signs, while along the distant edges of the city the glow from the iron furnaces flares redly against the sky. HOMEWOOD, 3.2 m. (800 alt., 6,103 pop.), is a comparatively new suburb of Birmingham. At 3.6 m. is the northern junction (L) of the trailer bypass, 8.7 miles long, over Shades Mountain. JEFFERSON COUNTY TUBERCUl.OSIS SANATORIUM, 4.5 m., is owned jointly by the city of Birmingham and Jefferson County. A winding driveway through an arched entrance (R) leads to the sanatorium

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buildings. The three-story structure, built of native pink sandstone, has been supplemented by a children's building, a nurses' building, a Negro building, and a superintendent's resid~nce. The institution has a capacity of 100 beds, and represents an IOvestment of $300,000.. The route now becomes a series of steep, hairpin curves ascending the northern slope of Shades Mountain. The roadside to the county line is bordered with climbing scarlet roses planted by the 'VPA Beautification Project and the slope is heavily wooded with pines, redbud and flowering dogwood. In the spring the dogwood and redbud blossoms add great splashes of white and red to the green background of the pines. On the crest of the mountain, 6.2 m. (1,000 alt.), is a junction with the asphalt-paved Shades Crest Road. Left on this road, which affords expansive views of Shades Valley, to VESTAVIA (private), 1.2 m., home of the late George B. Ward, former Mayor of Birmingham. Vestavia (R) is a copy. of th~ temple of Vesta. in Rome, and the little observatory across the road directly Ifi front of the mam entrance is a miniature of the temple of Sibyl in Tivoli. The circular red sandstone house, two-storied and with a basement for garage space, kitchen, and dining room, is 60 feet in diameter. A '4-foot pillared portico surrounds it. In early summer red roses climb over the tall metal supports that enclose the 2 s-acre grounds; later there are roses of other varieties and peonies and chrysanthemums. Graceful peafowls strut about the lawns, preening themselves. F"om this vantage point a panorama of rugged hills and green-clad valleys stretches away to the distant horizon, making the view one of the finest in the region.

From the crest of Shades Mountain, US 31 descends southward over rolling valleys and low wooded mountain spurs. At 16.7 m. is a junction with a graded road. Left on this winding mountain road to OAK MOUNTAIN STATE PARK, 6 m.; here a spacious stone lodge and severa t cahins provide facilities for picnic parties and vacationists. Oak Mountain rears its stony, scrub-covered head nearly 1,000 feet to overlook a panorama o~ rugged, tim~ered valley~. \Vithin the park's 94-0 acres are footpalhs that wmd among pomts of sce.flIc beauty. One of the loveliest is Peavine Falls, a "wet w.eather branch" ~roppmg over a 40-foot wall; only a trickle in dry season, ramy wealher swells It to a small cataract. '

ALABASTER, 23 Tn. (432 alt., 155 pop.), is a small village with a few lime mills. SAGINAW, 25.5 TIl. ;(428 alt., 750 pop.), is known chiefly as a lime center. The Longview Saginaw Company employs most: of the labor in the community, shipping tonnage over the 1... & N.,: a spur of which enters the factory. The plant (L) and trees are white from dust rising continually from the kilns. Primarily an agricultural town, CALERA, 34.3 m. (502 alt., 975 pop.), in the south central part of Shelby County, has lime kilns, some of which were worked by the early Spaniards. John R. Gamble, who fought under Jackson in the Creek War, was the first settler, and because of the abundance of lime, named the place Calera, Spanish for lime.


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Right from Calera on asphalt-paved State 25 to MONTEVALLO, 6.7 m. (418 alt., 1,245 pop.). It was settled in 1815 by James Wilson, another of General Jackson's veterans, who first called the town Wilson's Hill. Montevallo is the seat of ALABAMA COLLEGE, a State-controlled institution for women, founded in 1895. The KING MANSION on the campus was built by Edmund King, an early settler, and was the firsl brick house erected in central Alabama. The original structure, still standing, is a two-story rectangular building with two large rooms, a central hall, and chimneys on both ends. The bricks, made by slaves from clay on the banks of a near-by creek, are now covered with grey stucco. When the house was first built, settlers came from miles a round to see the small-paned glass windows, the like of which had never been seen before in the backwoods country. A tablet on the front porch, placed by descendants of the builder in co-operation with some Alabama writers, states that the house was built in 1823, "first brick house and first with glass windows built in this section of the State, formerly known as the Mansion House." REYNOLDS HALL, built on land donated by King, was erected in 1851 to house students of the Montevallo Male Institute. Lack of funds caused the Institute to be closed after the War between the States. After serving some 20 years as the one building of a school for women, Reynolds Hall was finally turned over to Alabama College, the State college for women, when that institution was founded. During an extensive building program, made possible by grants from the Public Works Administration in 1939, the college converted "Old Reynolds" into a College Union Building, housing offices of student organizations and publications, a tearoom, a men's lounge, and an experimental workshop for the college theater. The building program added new buildings and other improvements" valued at $750,000, to the physical plant of the college. Among the new buildings are Comer Hall, a classroom and radio building, named for the first governor to show an active interest in public education i and TUTWILER HALL, named for Julia Strudwick Tutwiler, whose pioneering in the field of education for women made possible the founding of Alabama College. A little-known footnote to Miss Tutwiler's career is that she was elected the first president of this institution, but resigned before actually taking up the work. In the center of a recreational field near by, surrounded by a broad expanse of close-cropped grass, is the family burying plot of the Kings and Shortridges. The little cemetery, overgrown with honeysuckle and climbing vines, is enclosed by a stone fence. One of the stone markers commemorates Frank Forrester Shortridge, "killed in battle, Atlanta, Ga., Aug. 24, 1864." He is a comparatively recent interment; there are others dating back to the ea r1y years of Alabama. At the end of Main Street on the eastern edge of the town once stood Hangman's Tree, where it is said that more public executions were held than at any other spot in Shelby County. Old residents stoutly insist that Montevallo never had a lynching, but admit that the people did sometimes "anticipate'the sheriff in his duties." A mural by William Sherrill McCall, executed under the Federal Arts Project, occupies the entire north wall of the post office lobby. Its front.ier scene, which depicts the cultural heritage of the deep South, has only one lDcongruous note-the Jersey cattle which were unknown in frontier Alabama.

South of Calera US 31 passes over gently rolling sandy land, the beginning of the open farming country that characterizes the route between this point and Montgomery. Large crops of watermelons are grown and, in season, long lines of trucks roll along the highway loaded almost to overflowing with melons for markets in Birmingham and points north. At 46.7 m. is a junction with an unimproved dirt road.

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Left on this road to a junction with another unimproved dirt road 4 m.; R. on this second road across a small creek where gold is sometimes, panned. At the fording place occasional tiny /lakes of gold may be seen in the creek bottom sand. The JIM COBB HOUSE, 4.5 m., is a three-room, frame structure (L) built in the early 1800'S. The original whipsawed boards are. still in place in the inner walls. When the War between the States began, Jim Cobb and his brother organized a group of men, unofficially, whose avowed purpose was to kill deserters from the Confederate Army. The families of some of the men that were killed retaliated by organizing a group of their own. They attacked the Cobb house and, after a three-day battle, broke into the barricaded room, took Cobb and hanged him to a crab-apple tree. The tree is not standing, but the bullet holes are still visible in the walls of the house. In the rear of the structure is the old Cobb family burying ground with the red brick vault, grass-grown and weathered, where Jim Cobb is buried. The Cobb family meet in this cemetery each Fourth of July for a family reunion and barbecue.

The unincorporated town of JEMISON, 47 m. (710 alt., 459pop.), is chiefly an accommodation point on the highway, but also has some lumbering activities. THORSBY, 50.6 m. (771 pop.), settled mainly by Scandinavians, is a well-groomed -farming community where peaches, strawberries, and watermelons share the cash crop market with cotton. Small roadside stands sell these products and figs, pecans, and tomatoes to passing motorists. At 50.7 m. is THORSBY INSTITUTE (R), vocational and secondary school sponsored hy the Education Society of the Congregational Church. Founded in 1906, this coeducational school gives practical and theoretical training and helps indigent students earn part of their expenses. Many of the students are adults who were prevented from obtaining an education in their youth. CLANTON, 58.3 m. (571 alt., 3,363 pop.), the county seat of Chilton County, was incorporated in 1873 and named for the Confederate general, James H. Clanton. Prior to 1900 lumbering and turpentining were the principal occupations, but as the lands were cleared, cotton and other crops and poultry raising developed. The community is now I( 1940) a farming center with a cotton gin, sawmills, and a graphite plant. The Chiltoll COl/llty News> published weekly, is the only newspaper in the county. In Clanton are junctions with an unnumbered asphalt-paved road and with black-top State 22. Left from Clanton on the unnumbered road to LAY DAM, 13.2 m., a hydroelectric development of the Alabama Power Company on the Coosa River. The Plant's six turbines are capable of developing 110,000 horsepower. In the vicinity are good fishing and hunting.

The highway south of Clanton runs in long billows through farming country to the valley of the Alahama River. At 66.6 m. is the southern junction with State 22, here a graveled road.


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Left on this road to MtTCHELL DAM, 7 m., another hydroelectric development of the Alabama Power Company on the Coosa River, approximately 14 miles downstream from Lay Dam. This plant is equipped with three turbines generating 24,000 horsepower of electric energy. There is good fishing in the lake above the dam.

VERBENA, 68 m. (590 alt., 500 pop.), was founded by settlers from Montgomery who came here to escape the recurring epidemics of yellow fever in the 1860'S. The town was first called Summerfield, but since there was a village near Selma by that name, it was renamed for the abundant wild verbena that grew in the vicinity. Right from Verbena on a footpath along Chestnut Creek to the SITE OF SIDLANIER'S CAMP, 0.5 m. Here Sidney Lanier, the Georgia poet, lived in a tent in the grove of pine trees for almost a year, seeking to regain his health. NEY

At 90.1 m., is a junction with State 14, an asphalt-paved road. Right on this road to PRATTVILLE, 1.4 m. (162 alt., 2,331 pop.), seat of Autauga County, tirst settled in 1816. It is known for the tine artesian wells within the city limits. The COTrON GINNING MACHINERY PLANT is the outgrowth of a. factory founded in 1833 by Daniel Pratt, for whom the town is named. Pratt was born July 20, 1799, at Temple, New Hampshire, and worked with Samuel Griswold, a gin builder at Clinton, Georgia, in the 1830'S. While the ginning machinery business was in its infancy, Pratt invented many improvements in methods of delinting cotton seeds, cleaning cotton, and handling the product in the ginhouse. The business grew and he became the leading industrialist of Alabama. In his later years he associated himself with the group that developed the Birmingham district's minerals. His work was recognized in 18+7 by the University of Alabama with an honorary degree of Master of Mechanical and Useful Arts, and by a similar degree in 1867 from the University of Georgia. The PRATHOMA PARK DEER RANCH (open by permission), was started by Judge C. E. Thomas as a hobby. liS 15 acres of hills and park-like meadows, where Ihe deer graze, are enclosed by a high wire fence. The herds include two European species-the fallow deer and red deer-and the common American variety, the Virginia or white-tail deer. They are sold chiefly to parks and 'laos. The Thomas home, PRATHOMA, a two-story concrete structure 'with a turreted roof garden and a broad gallery, is on top of a hill (R) overlooking the park. It is surrounded by live oaks, pines and sycamores. Here the State Department of Conservation has established a game farm and the State Forest Nursery as a part of its program for the restoration of wild-life resources.

The U. S. Army Air Corps Squadron School (L), MAXWELL FIELD, 94.8 m., is an institute for advanced aviation officers, the first one of its kind in the country. On its 2,000 acres are landing fields, immense hangars, an administration building, officers' quarters, and barracks. A large white stone (R), 96 m., bears the dates, 1540-1814, and the inscription: "This stone Marks the Site of the Indian Town, Tawasa, visited by De Soto September 13, 1540; also by Bienville, 1715." The marker was erected in 1930 by the National Society of Colonial Dames in Alabama. MONTGOMERY, 101.4 m. (160-222 alt., 78,084 pop.) (see Montgomery) .

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In Montgomery are junctions with State 9 (see Tour ~A), US 23 1 (see Tour 11) and US 80 (see Tour 2), which unites briefly with US3I. Section c.

MONTGOMERY to MOBILE; 207.6 m.

The route south of MONTGOMERY, 0 m., passes through. the undulating Black Belt country, a region once devoted ~l~ost excluslve.ly to cotton and corn, but now turning to large-scale datryll1g, stock raIs. ing, and diversified farming. . Early spring brings a thick carpet of pnmroses to the fields and roadsides. Their blossoms change the green acres to. an expanse. of pale pink that appears to roll in waves before the. wll1d. In haymg time, the air is filled with the sweet perfume of mehlotus,. a p.l<lnt tl.lat yields honey of a peculiar and del~cious. flavor. Bee kee~mg IS carned on to a considerable extent, espeCIally m Montgomery County, At 6.2 7Il. is the southern junction with US 80 (see Tour 2). Six years before Alabama was admitted to the Union, FORT DEPOSIT, 39 m. (445 alt., J ,0<)2 pop.), was established as a fort and supply base by General Jackson during the Indian wars. S,ettlers gathered here for protection, and gradually the fort develo~ed.10 to a ~o:":n. Farming and pecan growing are now (1940) the pnnClpal actlvltles of the community.. The seat of Butler County, GREENVILLE, 51.9 m. (4 2 3 alt., 3,985 pop.), settled in 181<) by a partf from Greenville, Soutll. Car?lina, was incorporated in 1820 and given the name of Buttsville In honor of a Georgia Indian fighter in the Creek War. The name was changed shortly thereafter to the present 9ree~ville, to ~ommemo:ate the home settlement of most of the early inhabitants. 'I he town IS a trading center for a widespread cotton growing area and a shipping point for pecans of excellent variety. Like most old Alabama towns, it has broad oak-lined streets and many stately homes whose deep shady lawns are studded with magnolias, japonicas, and other plants .in keeping with their old-fashioned elegance. Greenville was the home of Hilary A. Herbert, Secretary of the Navy under Cleveland. On the lawn of the OAKS HOTEL, a converted ante bellu!TI house (L) on Commerce St., a wisteria vine of great size and, beauty climbs into the tops of four large trees. In l\1arch, grape-like cluster.s of Howers cover tlte trees in a blanket of lavender and send out a delightful perfume. Left from Greenville on Main Street, which becomes a black-topped roa:}, LOMAX-HARMON HIGH AND INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOR NEGROESâ&#x20AC;˘. 2.1 .m, Its SIX huildings are set on a 2JO-acre tract, a large portion of wlllch IS used for farming. In addilion to high school courses, the main trades are taugh:!. There are q teachers and a student body of b~tween 300 a!1d 400. Tht; seho?1 was fnunded in 1907 by Bishop J. W, Alstook, of the Afrtcan MethodIst EpIscopal Church.

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In a clearing (R) among the pine trees, 64.6 m., is an old woodburning locomotive of the type formerly used in the lumber woods of


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the region. It now serves as an advertisement for a lumber company in near-by Chapman. John Shepherd, who came from Georgia in 1824, was the first settler in GEORGIANA, 67.5 m. (264 alt., 1,480 pop.). Following him came Pitt S. Milner, a Baptist minister, also from Georgia; the town was named in honor of his little daughter, Anna, and his home State. It is a progressive and prosperous country town with many modern facilities, among which is the municipally-owned water system that is supplied by two deep wells of pure water. Local industries include a sawmill, cotton ginnery, lumber yard and planing mill, wagon repair shop, grist and feed mill. The red soil is fertile and the town is a trucking center for strawberries and beans. Noted for its strawberries, McKENZIE, 75.1 m. (pop. 396), also specializes in beans and cucumbers, shipments of which are made by car lots. In McKenzie is a junction with US 84, which unites southwest with US 31 for 22 miles (see Tour 8). The widespread custom of using sprigs of green for decorations brings to EVERGREEN, 94.9 m.(2S8 alt., 2,007 pop.), a large portion of its income. The commercial exploitation of evergreen shrubs in this locality began, so the story goes, when an unemployed man wandered into a St. Louis Aorist's shop looking for a job. The Aorist was telling a customer about the cost or evergreens and the difficulty of obtaining them. The customer remarked that she had seen these evergreens growing in great abundance while walking along the railroad track near Evergreen, Alabama, when her train had been blocked by a wreck. The unemployed man listened, asked some questions, boarded a freight train, and made his way to Evergreen where he started a business of gathering and shipping smilax, holly, and mistletoe. Each year, carloads of material for decoration are shipped from here. Evergreen is the seat of Conecuh County. In frontier days it was called "Cosey's Old Field" because it had been a part of the farm cleared by John Cosey, a Revolutionary soldier, who settled here about 1820. Upon becoming a small town, the settlement was given its present name because of the nature of the surrounding lowlands. William Barrett Travis, whose family had a plantation near by attended school here. In the turbulent days of the Texas Rebellion, Travis, then a young lawyer, turned soldier of fortune, casting his lot with Sam Houston, Davy Crockett, and other Texas leaders. He lost his life at the Battle of the Alamo (see Tour 8). Right from Evergreen on an unimproved dirt road to TOMLINSON'S MILL, 5.3 m. On the edge of a pond, standing today as it was built more than 100 years ago, is the old mill, one of the landmarks of the county.

One of the largest strawberry growing areas in the State ships from CASTLEBERRY, 106.3 m. (174 alt., 427 pop.). When the harvest is at its height, the placid little village becomes choked with dust as trucks, piled high with crates of scarlet berries, rush through

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the streets day and night. In a season of bumper crops 30 carloads of strawberries have been loaded within 24 hours. In Castleberry is a junction with an improved dirt road. Left on this road 0.8 m. to a junction with a graded dirt road. Left on thiS' second road 3.3 m. to junction with an unimproved dirt road. Left here 4.4 m. to StTI! OF OLD SPARTA. During the "hook and jam" lIatboat day on the Conecuh River, this was a thriving frontier town. While the seat of 'Conecuh County it had its town square, general stores, bars, numerous law offlces, and two h;tels. Religious services, balls, and community sings were held in the Masonic Hall. An academy was built and teachers came from far-off Nonhern States to instruct the students. Yellow fever and destructive raids by Union forces under Colonel A. B. Spurling are given as the main causes for the desertion of the town. Nothing remained but weeds and underbrush a few years after the war.

The first settlement of BREWTON, 121.3 m. (85 alt., 2,818 pop.), seat of Escambia County, was on the SITE OF FORT CRAWFORD. The fort was established by the United States Government in 1818 on a high bluff in what is now East Brewton, as a supply base and defense against I ndians. It was on the old "Three Notch Road" (see Tour 10), the post road from Fort Mitchell on the Chattahoochee River to Fort Mims, and originally consisted of five structures of hewn logs and weatherboards faced with timbers. Today no trace of the old frontier stronghold remains. Murder Creek (see Tour 10), which winds along the foot of the bluff at Fort Crawford, was so-named because of the white traders slain on its banks by marauding Indians. Following the Fort Mims massacre (see below), a small force commanded by Lieutenant Crawford, of Andrew Jackson's Army, was Aood-bound on the west side of the stream. Crawford learned that his force was being trailed by a large war party of Creek. When night came he pretended to make camp, suspecting that the Indians would surround his detachment and attack when the soldiers went to sleep. Half of his men were put to work making dummies of brush and leaves, which were laid around the camp rolled up in blankets and coats, with hats covering the "faces." Campfires were then lighted, and the soldiers concealed themselves in the surrounding underbrush. Night came and the war party began to close in. In the Aickering firelight the Indians saw what they thought were the forms of the sleeping white men. They rus/lcd into Ihe circle of light to kill the "sleepers," and made a perfect target for the soldiers. A roar of musketry shattered the night, and the fire, deadly at such close range, all but annihilated the war party. Following the Indian wars Brewton progressed from a settlement to a flourishing village and subsequently to a large lumbering center. C:ivic pride started a movcment which resulted in bringing the county s<'at from near-by Pollard to this thriving town. It is said that citizens of Pollard, incensed at losing the seat, gathered a great number of cats, loaded them into a box car, hauled them to Brewton, and turned them loose to become pests in the town for years. The town has two


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weekly papers, th~ Bre~ton Standard established in 1887 and the Pine Belt News established m 1894, and a municipally owned electric light plant erected in 1897. Brewton is at the northern junction with US 29 (see Tour 10). . I~ FL<?MATON, 136.9 m. (100 alt., 915 pop.), is the southern JunctIOn with US 29 (see Tour 10). . The route traverses land that flattens out gradually from rolling hills to the nearly level country of the coastal plain, laced with a network of deep, clear streams, well stocked with largemouthed bass and other freshwater ga~e fis~. In many of the lower valleys are great wooded swamps which still afford shelter for black bear white-tail deer, wildcats, and many smaller animals. The high gro~nd is good cover for quail, doves, and rabbits. Hunters, however, should beware of cottonm~uth moccasins and rattlesnakes when tramping through the wooded regIOns. AT~ORE, 151.4.m. (281 alt., 3,035 pop.), is a shipping center for a wide truck farmmg area. Products include large crops of potatoes, cabbage, green beans, and other vegetables. At Atmore is a junction with State I I, a black top road. Righi o~ this. road is ATMORE STATE PRIS~.lN FARM, 9.3 m., an 8,ooo-acre t;act of which more than 6,500 acres are cultivated by convicts. The institution operates a large dairy and a canning plant, and produces potatoes cabba~e, other vegetables, and orchard fruits. Cattle and hogs are raise'd for prison use. . LI!TLE RIVER STATE ~ARK,. 17.4 m. (Cabins $1.00 up; fishing; boatmg), IS a 2,.120-~cre tract on Little ~Jver; the area was once thickly settled by Indians, as IS eVidenced by the remains of their village sites.

BJ\Y MINETTE, 171.6 m. ,(278 alt., 1,545 pop.), is the seat of B.al?wl~ County. At the dawn of the twentieth century, however, that d.ls.tlnctlon was merely the unfulfilled desire of its politically influential CItizens, for th.e courth~use was at Daphne, a pleasant village on the western Baldwin County. Because of its shore of M?blle Bay cent.ral 1.0~atlOn, Bay Mmette was regarded as the logical county seat by ItS citizens; the plan of changing the seat was presented to the people of Daphne, who rejected it. After two years of argument betw~en th~ two towns, the State Supreme Court ruled in favor of Bay Minette In 1900. But Daphne refused to release the court records and move' the pri?oner~ from the jail.. A second decision of the courts upheld Bay MI?ette s cause, but still the s~ubborn Daphne folk refused to yield. ThiS was too much for Bay Mmette. An army of citizens mobilized ~nd proceeded in buggies and on horseback to Daphne to bring the Judge as well as the court records to Bay Minette. To conceal the :eal purpose o! the visit, they: ~rought along a Negro, presumably for Impnsonment In the Daphne Jail; but when the Negro was inside the ~roup overpowered the sheriff and made him a prisoner. Then' the Invaders from Bay Minette ripped the jail apart, and took keys, locks,

II:

gratings, records, and also the judge bac~ home with the~. Bay Minette has been the county seat of BaldWin County ever since. Like other Alabama cities of French and Spanish origin, Bay Minette follows a tranquil way of living and much of the flavor of the old Gulf Coast lingers here. Many of the houses, gray with age, reflect the architectural taste of early French builders and contain fine specimens of old furniture. Huge live oaks draped with Spanish moss shade the narrow white streets of crushed shell, and broad lawns are colorful with radiant japonicas, azaleas, and other semitropical flowers. West of Bay Minette in the Mobile Delta region lies the Tensa~ Swamp and the Tensaw River, an area that affords some of the best hunting and fishing in the State. Bear, deer, and wild turkey roam the semitropical jungles, which are criss-crossed by creeks and bayous and arms of rivers. Veteran swamp men, familiar with the region, may be procured as guides (apply at hotels at Bay Millette; rates reasonable) . There are numerous large aboriginal Indian nlounds on the islands and higher ground of the Mobile Delta, marks left by long 'vanished tribes. Earthworks which have been explored have yielded many relics. Right from Bay Minette on State 59, a graveled road, to TENSAW, 22.6 m. (100 pop.), the home of the first Alabama school. of which th~re is.record. John Pierce taught a small group of student. here In 1799 (see Educatlol1). Left at Tensaw on an unimproved road (bad in wet weather) to the SITE OF FORT MIMS. 3.9 m. On August 30, 1813, the people of Fort Mims, 'the stockade built around the log house of Sam Mims, were preparing for the midday meal. The palisade gates stood open, for Major Beasley, in command of some 200 militiamen quartered in the fort, held the Indians in contempt and refused to take precautions. News that the Creek were preparing 10 strike the frontier had trickled into Fort Mims, and a¡ large number of settlers from the adjacent region had moved into the stockade for safety. Many of them were halfbreeds who had lied the Indian villages when the "Red Sticks," as the war party was called, came to power. They told of councils and war dances. They said that High Head Jim, Peter MacQueen, and Bill Weatherford, half-white leaders. of the Creek, were "taking up the war ax"; but the commandant of Fort Mlms dismissed it all as rumor. It is stated that on the very morning of the attack, Negro slaves, reporting the presence of Indians in the outlying forest, were whipped for spreading "falsehoods." When the mess call sounded at noon, the Creek, who had completely surrounded the fort, leaped from their hiding places and raced for the palisade. The guards tried frantically to close the gates, but the huge doors, long unused and clogged with sand, would not swing shut. Yelping their wat cry, the painted Indians swarmed into the stockade. The militiamen fought bravely, but in vain. Beasley was killed and the battle became a massacre. \\leatherford tried to stop the killing but he could not control his warriors. The Creek were particularly cruel in this attack because they considered the Fort Mims half-breeds traitors to the Creek Confederacy. They spared neither women nor children. Of the several hundred persons in the fort only a mere handful escaped the slaughter. An accurate estimate of the victims was never made, for the Indians burned the fort over the bodies of the slain, and took what few prisoners they had back to their own fortified towns. "Remember Fort Mims" became the watchword of the frontier during the remainder of the Creek War, and Andrew Jacksons's militia took bloody revenge for the war raid of MacQueen and Weatherford. A monument erected by the United Daughters of the Confederacy, marks the approximate site of Fort Mims.

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On the main route is a camp (L) of the N ational Youth Admini stration, 174.1 m. At 183.3 m. is a junctio n with an unimproved dirt road (bad in wet weathe r). Right on this road to FORT BLAKELY, 8.8 m., the Confede rate earthwo rks built in 1865 to protect the artillery positions on the Tensaw River islands. It was named for the town of Blakely, which once occupied the site. The lines of the old fortificat ion remain, and war relics are still found. The town of Blakely had been hewn out of the wilderne ss and incorpor ated ( in 1815. Three yean later, its populati on started an energeti c developm ent that brought the followin g commen t from the Blakely Sun on Februar y 22, 18 19: "What a wonderf ul country is ours I How like enchantm ent towns and villages rise up I Blakely eighteen months ago was a wilderne ss of impenet rable woods, and inhabite d by the ruthless savage, but now by the happy and undaunted America n. Nothing is now seen or heard but the din of business and the stroke of the axe resoundi ng through the distant woods. Building s raising their heads in almost every quarter of the town, and the constant departur e of vessels presents a scene both interesti ng and beautifu arrival and l to the contemplati ve mind and the man of business . We find no hesitatio n in saying that Blakely, before many years, will be the chief seaport in the Alabam a Territory." Blakely' s populati on grew to more than 3,000 by 1828, and it began to rival Mobile as a commerc ial center. Its continue d growth and importan ce seemed assured. But a yellow fever epidemic had scourged the town two years later, a second epidemic sent the populati on scurryinin 1826; and g to a more healthfu l climate. A financial depressi on followed , then a period of wild speculat ion in land and commod ities which turned away prospect ive settlers and drove the last inhabita nts to Mobile across the bay. The along Washing ton Avenue, its main street, were empty, their building s strung curtainle ss windows staring like sightless eyes upon the deserted streets. Unlocke d doors creaked on rusty hinges. Underbr ush grew over the crystal clear had supplied water through a hollowed log pipe. Only crumblinspring, which g ruins now mark the site of thriving , optimist ic Blakely. On the shore, a short distance south of the old town, aborigin al shell mounds cover several acres. (The mounds are the accumul ation of centurie s about the Indian camps and village sites where oysters were shucked and eaten.) Artifact s and skeleton s have been unearthe d here by archeolo gists. The SITE OF THE OLD SPANISH FORT, built by Galvez in 1799, on the south. It was a fortress that served in three wars adjoins Blakely and, with Fort Blakely, was the last fort to stand against the invading Union troops in this region.

At 192.9 m. is a junctio n with US 90 (see Tour 12) which unites with US 31 to Mobile . West of the j unction, the route descends steeply from the high bluffs and crosses Cochra ne Bridge, the 10.4 mile stretch of filled-in roadwa y and bridges that spans the upper reaches of Mobile Bay. The shimmering waters of the bay spread southw ard to the Gulf of Mexico , reflecting the yellow bluffs of the eastern shore with their dark green fringe of moss-festooned live oaks silhouetted against the sky. The western shore is a low, dark streak along the horizon, broken by the skyline of Mobile, and fading into a soft haze to the south. The air is tangy with brine from the Gulf and the salt marshes that spread in a green expanse to the north. Terns, gulls, and other shorebi rds continu ally circle overhead, making shrill noises. Winter brings thou-

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sands of wild ducks flocking into the bay where they remain until spring. MOBI LE, 207.6 m. (8-57 alt., 78,720 pop.) (see Mobil'f ). In Mobile are junctio ns with US 43 (see Tour 7), US 45 (see Tour 9), and the western junctio n with US go (see Tour 12).

Tou r fA Decatu r-Mou lton-B lack Warrio r Nationa l Forest -Jaspe r; 79.8 m., State 24, State 36 (Cheath am Highw ay), State 5. State 2+ and 36 are asphalt- paved; State 5, concrete -paved; forest roads, graded rock and dirt.

The route crosses the valley oJ the Tennes see River, traversi ng the region where large plantati ons flourished until the War between States left it devastated. Recovery was slow until the TVA began the its program of reclaiming the area's vast natural resources and assistin g the inhabitants to make better use of them. Andrew Jackson 's militiamen returne d to this section after the Creek War as settlers, bringin g with them their families, farm implements, and herds of cattle, sheep, and hogs. South of the farming section are the heavily timbered hills of the Black Warrio r Nationa l Forest, which covers an area of 560,000 acres of wild land and contain s a game refuge. DECA TUR, 0 m. (538-598 alt., 16,604 pop.) (see Decatu r). In Decatu r is a junctio n with US 31 (see Tour 1). Southwest of Decatu r, State 24 traverses a high flat tablelan d much of w~ich is under cultivat ion. Cotton is the principal crop. ' Farm d\l'elllllgs range from neat frame houses to weathe red log cabins. At 14.9 111., is a junctio n with a graded dirt road. I.;eft on thi.s road to OAKVIL LE, 2.6 tn. (100 pop.), Ilea r earhest ~eposlts of asphalt in the United States was discoverwhich one of the ed. A letter by J~hn Pn,?ce c.oncerni ng the deposit was publishe d by State Geologi st: Michael I ~omey III hIS Second Biennial Report on the Geology of Alabama (1858). Pnnce stated that the tar-like substanc e was used for various hunters. and traders of t~e vicinity and that they had first learned ailments by of its healing rropertle s from t~e Indians. The asphalt outcrop, known as Tar Spring, had 'cen shown to Pnnce when he bought the property in 184-0. The spring ceased to flow s.everal years ago, and no effort has been made to develop the deposit commerCIally. .

The seat of Lawren ce County , MOUL TON, 22.9 m. (639 pop.), one of the first towns in the State to be incorporated, was establis hed

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SERIES

No. 4

XX

JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY STUDIES IN.

HISTORICAL

AND

(Edited

j. H. HOLLANDER

POLITICAL SCIENCE

1882-19<>1

by H. B. Adams.)

j. M. VINCENT W. W. WILLOUGHBY Editors

V---'.

INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS IN ALABAMA, ~.ARTIN

By WILLIAM ELEjlUS

Proftssor of History in Emory and H",ry Coll'gl

BALTIMORE ~.

v::

THE JOHNS HOPKINS PRESS PUBLISHED MONTHLY

APRIL,

1902'


-

PREFACE

COPYRIGHT, 1901,

av

JOHNS HOPKINS PRESS

This paper is an effort to trace the development of the public highways of Alabama, and to point' out their influence upon immigration and settlement. It indicates briefly what has been done within the state by the Federal Government in improving rivers and harbors and in aiding the construction of railroads; and discusses finally the policy of Alabama respecting public aid to such works. I wish to acknowledge my indebtedness to the late Professor Herbert B. Adams and to Professor J. M. Vincent, from both of whom I received helpful instruction in the methods of historical study; also to Dr. ]. C. Ballagh for the suggestion of this topic and for his continued interest during the progress of the work. JOHN8 HOPKIN8 UNl1'IlR8ITT,

JUDe, 1001.

ltet .eot~ ~4ftimott (ptUl> THE FRIEOENWALD COMPANY BALTIMORE, MO.


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CONTENTS CHAPTER I.-DEVELOPMENT OF HIGHWAYS.

Indian Paths . Trading Roads . . . . . . Federal Roads . . • . • . Stage and Express Lines • Road System of Alabama •

PAGE

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IS 27 2l)

CHAPTER Il.-RIVER AND HARBOR IMPROVEMENTS.

State Aid . . • . . . . . . . Improvements by the Federal Government. I. The Tennessee. . . 2. The Chattahoochee. . 3. The Tallapoosa. • . . 4. The Choctawhatchee . 5. The Coosa. • • • . . 6. The Cahaba . . . • . 7. The Conecuh and Escambia 8. The Alabama . 9. Mobile Harbor . 10. The Tombigbee 1 I. The Warrior. . 12. The Black Warrior

33 42 42

48 48 49

So 52 52

53 54 57

60

61

CHAPTER IlL-CONSTRUCTION OF RAILROADS.

Federal Land Grants . The Two and Three Per Cent Funds State Aid: Policy Prior to the Civil War State Aid Since the Civil War .

64 68

72 79


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INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS IN ALABAMA CHAPTER I THE DEVELOPMENT OF HIGHWAYS INDIAN PATHS.

From Indian trails to trade routes, from trade routes to pioneer roads has been the line of evolution along which the public highways of Alabama have developed. When the curtain of Alabama's history first rises the Cherokee Indians were dwelling in their' mountain homes in the northeastern portion of the state. West and southwest of the Cherokees were the Chicasas whose territory included the greater part of the Tennessee Valley, embracing the northwestern tier of the present counties of Alabama, reaching westward as far as the headwaters of the Yazoo River in the state of Mississippi. The western and southwestern portions of the state were occupied by the Choctaws, "The Maubilians with whom De 50to came in collision on the lower Alabama and the Tuskaloosa, and partly exterminated." Their territory, reaching westward from the Tombigbee River, covered all that part of the present state of Mississippi which lies south of latitude 33째 30'. East of the Choctaws were the Muscogees or Creeks. "When first known to the white colonists," says Brewer, .. this domain stretched from the Tombigbee to the Atlantic, but they were gradually driven west of the Ocmulgee and Flint. Their principal towns were on the Talla1

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Internal Improvements in Alabama.

[128

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The Development of Highways.

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poosa and Chattahoochee. Their war trail extended to the Mobile Bay and the Florida Everglades." "The Hillabees," the same author continues, " Autaugas, Cusset~s, Eufaulas, Ocfuskees, Uchees, etc., were names which attached to the Muscogees residing in those towns."· We thus have a general line of Confederated Creek' towns, dotting the territory of Alabama and Georgia, the most easterly of them being located on the site of the present city of Augusta: Each town had its own " Micco " or King, but there was a Grand Chief of the Confederation, who presid«:d over the National Councils and led them to battle. The capital of the nation was Tookabatcha, on the Tallapoosa River, a few miles above its confluence with the Coosa, and here the chiefs and representatives of all the towns gathered annually, in May, to consult on matters of general interest. The towns were brought in touch also by social features, it being a regular custom, for example, for warriors of one town to challenge those of another for a game of ball, their national amusement. The challenge having been accepted, the contestants would repair to the appointed spot, followed by throngs of their respective townsmen, and the battle would be fought amid the shouts of their enthusiastic spectators. This constant contact, town with town, not only resulted in a network of paths running from village to village, uniting the " Upper Creeks" on the Coosa and the Tallapoosa rivers with the" Lower Creeks" on the Chattahoochee, but also produced a well beaten, clearly marked line of communication from the eastern boundaries of Georgia to the west-

ern portions of Alabama. This main path, known as the "Southern Trail" led in early times probably from the site of the present Augusta, crossing the Oconee River just below Milledgeville, striking the Ocmulgee at the foot of the Ocmulgee fields: proceeding westward to Coweta (near Columbus) where the Chattahoochee was crossed, thence across the Tallapoosa at Tookabatcha, then almost due west to the Coosa, then up the river to " Coosa Old Town" (in the fork of the Talladega and Kiamulgee Creeks) and from here moving westward across the Cahaba River near Cahaba Old Town and thence into the settlements along the Tombigbee, and running still fUlfther to the northwest reaching the Chicasas in northwest Alabama and northeast Mississippi. From Coosa there was also a trail running southwestwardly into the Mobile Country.' Another route leading from the Georgia Country, called the" High Town Path," "started from High Shoals on Apolachi River, which is the southern branch of the Okone River, and went almost due west to 'Shallow Ford' of Chattahuchi River, about twelve miles north of Atlanta, Georgia, in the river bend.'" Continuing, the trail led to High Town or Etowah, and the other towns bordering on the Cherokee district and finally reached the Chicasa Country. There were many other similar paths but for our purpose these are the two most important, as the traders from the Carolinas and Georgia followed this general system of paths in penetrating the interior of Alabama and reaching the various Indian tribes with their wares.

'To gather in village communities was characteristic of the Creek Indians. Thus, Bartram in his Travels (p. 462), tells us that there were in 1777 .. Fifty-five towns, beside many villages not enumerated." ~ The Muscogee Indians were all called" Creeks" by the English explorers. and traders on account of the many beautiful rivers and streams which flowed through their extensive domain. Pickett, vol. i, p. 29. • Pickett, vol i, p. 81.

• Bartram, Travels, p. 52. These fields were about 70 or 80 miles above the confluence of the Oconee and Ocmulgee rivers. • See map in American Gazetteer, vol i, London, 1762. Reproduced in Winsor's Westward Movement, p. 31. , Gatschet, Migration Legend of the Creek Indians, p. 151. Here the -path is called" High Tower Path," but should be as above, as is shown in Carey's American Atlas (Philadelphia, 1795). Reproduced in Winsor's Westward Movement, p. 383. The path was so called from the village" High Town," the most northerly town of the Creeks.


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Internal Improvements in Alabama.

[130

TRADING ROADS.

In 1702 the French established on the Mobile Bay, at the mouth of Dog River, "Fort St. Louis de la Mobile," the. first white settlement ever made in what is now Alabama. These French Colonists, anxious to gain the friendshi~ of all the Indians on the Mobile River and its tribut.anes, proceeded at once to send out emissari~s th~t treattes. o~ peace and trade might be made. This. pomt, ~oblle, early became the capital of French-Amenca. T~el~ ~la~ was to form a strong line of forts: along the MIssIssiPPi Valley, from the Gulf to the Great Lakes, and thus p~e­ pare themselves to resist the pressure of the expansive English, and to control the trade of the Indian.s.. But the colonists of Carolina, as is charactensttc of the English stock, had already heard "the voice of duty," had already taken up the" white man's burden" and were carrying some of the "blessings of civilization" to these Indian tribes. These pioneer traders had two paths, one leading from Charleston by the Indian town Keowee (~ear the source of the Savannah River and where Fort Prmce George was built in 1755) thence westward along the ridge dividing the tributaries of the Tennessee and ~avan­ nah Rivers, thus practically following the boundanes between the Creek and Cherokee towns, and then following at will the" High Town Path," already described, and leading ultimately into the Chicasa Country. Another route, and the one most formidable to French interests, was the old Indian trail mentioned above as the • In 1711 the fort was moved further up the. bay to th.e mouth of Mobile river, thus establishing the present site of MobIle.. • Among others may be mentioned Fort Toulouse, estabhshed in 1714, at the confluence of the Coos~ and ~allapoosa; F0C! Tombecbe, in 1735 on the Little Tomblgbee .rlver, at what IS now Jones' Bluff; Fort Assumption, on t?e Chlcasa Bluff, now Memphis, here a trading post was established by LaSalle as early as 1673; Fort Duquesne, at the mouth of the Monongahela," near Pittsburg, in 1754·

. The Development of Highways.

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"Southern Trail" and which Bartram in his "Travels" calls the" Great Trading Path." At a very early date the Carolinians had established Fort Moore, near where the .present Augusta, Georgia, is situated, as a frontier trading post. Hard by, on the same river, was Silver Bluff, " A pleasant villa, the property and seat of G. Golphen, Esquire, a gentleman of very distinguished talents and great liberality, who possessed the most extensive trade, connections and influence, amongst the south and south-. west Indian tribes, particularlyt"-Y' the Creeks and Choctaws." 10 This being the site Of an old Creek town, as already mentioned, and being the terminal point of the old Creek trail, accounts in a measure for the location of these three points. Along this trail the traders and emissaries from Carolina pushed their way into the Creek Country, and the Georgians after the founding of their colony in 1 732, at once proceeded to add to their numbers in pushing the Red Man westward and following him with their wares. The French usually carried on their trade from Mobile by river; there was, however, a land route to Fort Toulouse." There was also a good road running through the Choctaw Country west of, and not far from the Tombigbee and Mobile rivers by which the Choctaws traded with the French. Another road ran from Mobile to the Chicasa towns. There were, likewise, routes by which the traders from Pensacola reached the Choctaws and Creeks. These main routes, intersected as they were by many hunting paths, were not easily followed by any but a "good UI

,. Bartram, p. 312. 11 Fort Toulouse was built by Bienville in 1714. near the junction of the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers, a strategic position for controlling the Indian trade. Upon its abandoned site was erected Fort Jackson a century later. To checkmate this French move the Georgia colonists built a stockade about forty miles further up on the Tallapoosa, and this fort, Ocfuskee. for several years served as the rendezvous of the British traders. Pickett, Alabama. Adair, American Indians. 11 Dow's Life and Works, p. 101.


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woodsman" as the pioneer Methodist preacher, Lorenzo Dow, notes of his trip in 1803 from the Oconee River to the Natchez Country. Although he had provided himself with a map and with a compass he frequently lost his way, the one on whom he " depended as guide knowing nothing about the roads." The distance of four hundred miles from the Oconee to the Alabama Rivers he made in thirteen and a half days. In 1776 the English botanist, Bartram, joined a company of traders in Georgia, and with them made the trip through the Creek Country. to Mobile. Of this he gives us an interesting sketch," from which we may gather some idea as to the modes of travel along these roads. The band, consisting of twenty men and sixty horses, fording the Oconee, the Ocmulgee, and the Flint, pushed westward to the Chattahoochee at Uchee Town (near the present Columbus) where the Indians carried their goods across in canoes. Then the traders dispersed among the Indian towns while Bartram wended his way' to Mobile. Passing Coolome, a trading .center near the junction of the Coosa and Tallapoosa, he moved along parallel with the Alabama near the present site of Montgomery. Here the trail bears away to the south, leaving the Alabama at some distance, crossing the head waters of the "Schambe" (Escambia) River and finally reaching Taensa about thirty miles above" Fort Conde" or " City of Mobile." He returned in November, 1777, by practically the same route, with another trading band consisting of the "chief trader," two packhorsemen, with twenty to thirty horses, sixteen of which were alternately loaded with packs of one hundred and fifty pounds each. "They seldom decamp," the author declares, " until the sun is high and hot; each one having a whip of the toughest cow skin, they start all at once, the horses having ranged themselves in regular Indian file,-then the chief drives with the crack .. Bartram's Travelsâ&#x20AC;˘. pp. 372-461.

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of his whip and a whoop or shriek, which rings through the fore~ts and plains-when we start all at once, keeping up a bn~k and constant trot, which is incessantly urged and contmued as long as the miserable creatures are able to move forward,--every horse has a bell on which being stopped when we start in the morning with a twist of grass or leaves, soon shakes out and they are never stopped again during the day. The constant ringing of the ~ells, smac~ing of whips, whooping, and too frequent cursmg these miserable quadrupeds cause an incessant uproar and confusion inexpressibly disagreeable." The merchandise was conveyed across the swollen streams on rude rafts made of trunks of trees and bundles of cane bound together by vines and withes. A narrower stream they would cross by a "sapling felled across it, which is called a raccoon bridge." Over this the traders could lightly trip with a load of a hundred pounds, while Bartram " was scarcely able to shuffle himself along over it astride." .. A portable leather boat about eight feet long, of thick sole-leather, folded up and carried" on their horses was another device these traders employed in crossing streams. These boats with the help of a few saplings for .. keels and gunwhales " could be rigged up in half an hour and would carry" ten horse loads" according to Adair. The latter tells us that "few take the trouble to paddle the canoe, for as they are commonly hardy and also of an amphibious nature, they usually jump into the river and thrust it through the deep part of the water to the opposite shore." U FEDERAL ROADS.

The clauses in the Constitution of the United States which empower the Federaf Congress "To provide for the Common Defense and general Welfare" of the nation .. Adair, American Indians, London, 177S. Adair was an English trader who resided for forty years among the Creeks and long held them to the English side in spite of the efforts of the French.


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Internal ltnpro'l/ements in Alabama.

[13-1

and" To establi sh Post Offices and Post Roads, " subject as they have been to very elastic interpret~tions, form t.he basis upon which have been founde d the poltcy and practic e of interna l improv ements by the Federa l Govern ment. We find that James Madiso n in 17¢ advoca ted the examinat ion and survey of a " genera l route most proper for the transpo rtation of the mail from Maine to Georg ia."" By act of :May 17, I7¢, it was declare d that "three tracts of land, not exceed ing one mile. square each" should be grante d to Ebenez er Zane for openin g a road from Wheel ing to Limest one (Maysville, Kent~cky) and for .the establi shment of ferries over the Muskm gum, Hockm g, and Scioto Rivers ." This road, as will be seen, lay throug hout its entire length in territorial'lan~s, a~d was the first item of interna l improv ement to receive aid from the Federa l Govern ment. "From that day to the presen t" ( 1824), says Benton , "Cong ress has. be~n making thes.e roads withou t referen ce to the Consti tution, becaus e un~­ versall y held that the Consti tution did not ex~end to te~rt­ tories. In my thirty- two years of congressIOnal service I can well say, I never heard a questio n raised about the right of Congre ss to make in the territor ies the local improvem ents which it pleased. I have seen mem~ers of all political schools constan tly voting for such object s-the strict constru ctionis t genera lly inquiri ng if the road was limited to the territor y, and voting for the bill if it was." .. The theory was that no state sovere ignty would thus be infring ed upon. Territo ries are the "prope rty of Congress, subject only to the conditi ons upon which they were ceded by the states or foreign nations , and Congre ss acted with them withou t referen ce to the Consti tution of the United States, " 11 but accord ing to the Territo rial ordiU U

n U

Benton, Debates of Congres s, vol. i, p. 637· United States Statutes at Large. Benton, Debates of Congres s, vol. vii, p. 617. Ibid.

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nance of July 13, 1787, which had been given them by Congre ss and which the latter could modify. Under Act of May I, 1802, the Secreta ry of the Treasu ry was empow ered to have" viewed, marked and opened such roads within the territo ry northw est of the Ohio as, in his opinion, will best serve to promo te the sale of the public lands in the future. "" For this purpos e six thousa nd dollars were approp riated from the money s receive d from the sale of public lands. . Now if it is good for the" Nation al welfare ," to provid e roads within a territo ry why is it not also advant agepus to constru ct roads leading from the states into the terri~ories? Immig ration would thus be encour aged, values of ~public lands enhanc ed, and close comme rcial relatio ns would develop a strong feeling of nationa l unity. The step was easily made; and on March 29, I&l6, came the Act authorizing the openin g of a road from Cumbe rland, in Maryland, to the Ohio River in Ohio. For the openin g of the road thirty thousa nd dollars were approp riated from the procee ds of public land sales. If the funds derived from the sale of public lands could thus. be constit utional ly applied why not any other funds in the treasur y? Thus was driven the enterin g wedge. The preced ent was establi shed, and gradua lly the strict constru ctionis ts surren dered their positio n as stickle rs for the Consti tution and joined the pellme n rush, the game of grab. This, of course , develo ped at a much later period than the one with which we are now dealing ; but we see that the idea was already in the public mind. By 1800 the Spanis h govern ment had at last (in 1795) acceded to the claims of the United States to all the territory north of the thirty-f irst degree , Colone l Ellicot t had marked this southe rn bounda ry line (in 1798-9), the Spanish garriso ns had evacua ted Fort St. Stephe ns· and Fort United States Statutes at Large. • Establis hed by the Spanish about 1786.

U

2


18

Internal Improvements in

41abMtUl.

[136

Tombecbeu (called by the Spanish Fort Confederation) and Congress (in 1798) had organized the Mississippi Territo~. The white population of that part of the Mississippi Terntory which afterwards became Alabama were confined to the settlements around Tensaw (near Nannahubba Island), St. Stephen~, and Tombecbee." It consisted of those who had been stranded from the French colonies (who held the region till 1763), of those who remained from the Spanish colonies (who claimed and held these districts Trom 178 3 to 1798) and of the few Americans who had filtered through the wilds from Georgia.- To protect these isolated colonists from the surrounding Indians and from the intriguing Spaniards just below them, and to encourage immigration into the territory the Federal Government soon proceeded to construct two roads, one leading into the Natchez settlement on the Mississippi River, and another leading into the settlement along the lower Alabama. On October 24, 1801, a treaty was made with the Chickasaw Indians (approved by the United States Senate May I, 1&>2) by which a "wagon road" was allowed through their lands from "The Mero District in the State of Tennessee" to the Natchez settlements. For this privilege " The Commissioners of the United States give to the Mingco of the Chicasaws and the deputation of that nation goods to the value of seven hundred dollars."" On the U Established by the French in 1735. Near the present Jones' Bluff, Sumter County. -The population of the whole county of Washington, then .extending from the Pearl to the Chattahoochee, was only 733 whites and 517 negroes. The population of what is now Mobile and Baldwin counties, then Spanish territory, was proba6ly as large. Brewer's Alabama, p. 26. • Bartram in 1777 speaks of meeting" A company of Immigrants from Georgia; a man, his wife, a young woman, several young children and three stout young men, with about a dozen horses loaded with their property." He was, informed that they were " to settle on the Alabama a few miles above the confluence of the Tombigbee." These were among the earliest immigrants to Alabama. Bartram's Travels, p. 441. "United States Statutes at Large, vol. vii, p. 65·

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17th of the following December a treaty was likewise secured by the same commissioners granting the right to continue this road through the lands of the Choctaws. For this concession the Choctaws were paid" thb value of two thousand dollars in goods and merchandise, nett cost of Philadelphia," • and" three sets of blacksmith's tools." This road called the" Nashville to Natchez" road had been the line of an old Indian trail,· crossing the Tennessee River at Muscle Shoals where the United States by treaty of January 10, 1]'86, had obtained a grant of land for a trading post.- A treaty of November 14, 1805, granted the United States "the right to a. horse path through the Creek Country from the Ocmulgee to the Mobile--and to clear out the same and lay logs' over the creeks." The Indians were to provide boats at the several rivers for conveyance of men and horses, and also houses of entertainment for the accommodation of travelers; for all these accommodations the prices should be regulated by "the present Agent, Colonel Hawkins,- or by his successor in office," By act of April 21, 1806, appropriations were made for the opening of these two roads; six thousand dollars for the one from Nashville to Natchez, and six thousand four hundred dollars for the one from frontier of Georgia on the route to New Orleans to the intersection with 31° of north latitude.- Both were duly opened up .. Ibid., p. 66. .. History of Tennessee, Phelan, pp. 171, 1i'9, 2'/7. If United States Statutes at Large, vol. vii, p. 24• Colonel Benjamin Hawkins was appointed by President Jefferson a~ agent to the Creeks. He established what became known as the " Old Agency" at the point where the trade route crossed the Flint river. Around this settlement grew up the town Francisville, so called from Francis Bacon, who married the daughter of Colonel Hawkins, and who infused new life into the little settlement. After the completion of the railway from Columbus to Macon the business of Francisville was absorbed by other points, and the little town soon passed into oblivion. "Dead' Towns of Georgia," in vol. iv of " Collections of Georgia Historical Society," P·24I. • United States Statutes at Large.


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Internal Improvements in Alabama.

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and the former long continued the post road into the Natchez district, while the ratter became the great thoroughfare of early Alabama. • Fort Stoddard was a post which had been built in 179</" by the Federal Government as a port of entry just above Ellicott's line (31°) and this became the terminal point of the Georgia-Alabama Road. From Fort Stoddard (the site of the present Mt. Vernon) the road crossed Mim's Ferry." Nannahubba Island and Hollinger's Ferry, then following, in general, the ridge which divides the tributaries of the Alabama from those of the Gulf (thus practically the line of the old trade route) to Columbus on the Chattahoochee. With these small appropriations the roads were merely blazed through the woods, though at once honored with the dignified title of " Federal Roads." For the extension and improvement of these roads appropriations were made, from time to time, as follows: D For the Nashville-Natchez route;D Act Act Act Act

of of of of

April 21, 1806 $6,000 April 27, 1816.............................. 5.000 March 27,' 1818 , 5.000 March 3. 1823 ·......•........ 7.920

For the Georgia-Alabama route; Act of April 21, 1806.............................. 6,400 Act of February 17, 1809 ·................ 5.000" Act of April 27, 1816...... . , 5.000 • .. Pickett, vol. ii. p. 179. u Established in 1797. Pickett. ii, p. 179; also Publications of Alabama Historical Society, vol. ii, p. 167. D Statutes at Large. D This road was of more importance to Mississippi. Its influence upon the settlement of the northwest portions of Alabama will, however, warrant the above summary. .. The President, empowered by an Act of March 3. 1807, had obtained permission from Spain to continue the road from Fort Stoddard to New Orleans. For this purpose the above appropriation was made. II The importance of a better road. affording better military connections with this section had been impressed on Congress by the recent events in the southwest during the closing days of the War of 1812. House Report 61. 13th Congress, 3rd session.

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The Development of Highways.

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1~: ~: ~ar~h 27, 1818

$ 5.000 pnl 14. 1820.............................. 3.300 ct of May 20, 1826............................... 6,000 Act of February 20. 1833 { 2,000 A

Act of July 7, 1838........

.

~:;:;.50

The Act of February 20, 1833, authorized the opening of a new post road through the Indian Country from Line Creek in Alabama to the Chattahoochee opposite Columbus. The three thousand dollars were to repair the old road (which had become well-nigh impassable, especially through the swampy lowlands during the winter season) for use till the new one could be put through. The President was authorized to employ a superintendent, upon an annual salary. of a th~usand dollars, who should supervise the constructton of thiS new road. " To close the accounts for laying out and construction of this ' Mail Route' and to pay the 'balance due the contractor and workmen'" the appropriation of July 7, 1838, was made. The new road, called "The Upper Federal Road" was to the north of the old route, was on higher ground. and was generally used during the rainy season; the old road continued in use during open weather. These amounts, together with three thousand dollars appropriated" " for the completion and improvement of the military road" from Pensacola by Blakely to Mobile, and ?ne thousand one hundred and thirty-eight dollars for milItary road from Pensacola to Fort Mitchell, opened in 182 4, sum up the federal aid to road building in Alabama. . Lieutenant McLeary, in 1799, had opened a rough milItary road from Natchez to St. Stephens when he marched across to take charge of the latter place after the evacuation of the Spaniards."' At an early date a road was cut from St. Stephens, crossing the Alabama at Claiborne, and .. Act March 2, 1829. Statutes At Large. Pickett. vol. xi. p. 179; Publications of Alabama Historical Society, vol. xi, p. 166. IT


22

1 1

II,J

il

II

II

",.'

:~

," ",

II .

" i" ,'.

illl .J'

Internal Improvements in Alabama.

[140

joining the Federal road to the east. A horse path had been opened through the Chickasaw territory, intersecting the Nashville-Natchez ~oad at Colbert's Ferry (Muscle Shoals);11 the road from Georgia had been extended from Fort Stoddard to Natchez.· In 1805 was obtained the right to a road from " Tellico to Tombigbee" inasmuch as the "mail of the United States from Knoxille to New Orleans" had been" ordered to be carried through the Cherokee, Creek, and Choctaw countries."" On this road the little village of Huntsville began in 1&>6. It was known as the "Knoxville Road ., and was of much importance in the settlement of the northern part of Alabama. Thus by 18IO the ~t. Stephens District was fairly well connected with the older states by rough, pioneer roads and immigrants began to flock in from all quarters. The principal immigrant route, however, was that from Georgia, through the Creek Country to Fort Stoddard. Along this route came settlers from Virginia, the Carolinas and Georgia; some on horse-back, their effects on pack-saddles, and others used the rolling hogshead." An idea of the difficulties under which immigrants labored along these pioneer roads may be gathered from descriptions in books of early travel. In 18IO Peggy Dow gives us a description of her trip from the Natchez Country" into Georgia. As she passed the last house oI Natchez and entered the "vast wilderness" she tells us "my heart trembled at the thought of sleeping out in this place with no companion but my husband." Coming to a place • Pickett, vol. xi, p. 234. • By Act of the Legislature of the Mississippi Territory. Hamilton: Colonial Mobile. 348. .. Treaty with Cherokees, October 27. 1805. .. Goods were packed in a hogshead, trunnions, or the equivalent, put in the ends, and to them were attached shafts by which an ox or horse would draw it along. P. J. Hamilton; Publication of the .Alabama Historical Society, vol. xi, p. So. .. Dow's Life and Works, pp. 221-223.

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where were found, water and plenty of cane for the horses they struck camp for the night, built a fire, ate a supper of coffee and hard biscuit, then rested for the night on their blankets, "the wide extended concave of Heaven bespangled with stars" affording a majestic scene; while the "lonely desert uninhabited by any creature but wild beasts and savages" made her feel very much alarmed. Proceeding the next day forty miles they crossed the Pearl in a ferry-boat and slept" in a house, such as it was, that belonged to a half-breed." Passing by" Hell Hole, a dreadful slough," they crossed a creek (probably Leaf River) and becoming involved by the many little divisions of the road secured the services of an Indian guide and late at night reached the home of one Noles on the Ch~ckasowha River about "thirty miles from the settlement on the Tombigbee." The next day, proceeding" through some delightful country" they reached " the first house tllat was inhabited by white people." The Tombigbee was crossed by ferry-boat at St. Stephens, the Alabama was ~rossed at a " ferry" kept by a man who was a mixture," where they stayed that night, and the next day they'" struck the road that had been cut out by the order of the President." "This made it more pleasant for traveling" the author continues, " and then we frequently met people removing from the states to the Tombigbee and other parts of the Mississippi Territory." Following as guide the "fresh marked trees" they crossed Murder Creek, the Chattahoochee "and reached Colonel Hawkins'" where the writer" felt grateful to the God of all grace for his tender care over us while in this dreary part of the land where our ears had been saluted by the hideous yells of the wolf, and had been surrounded by the savages more wild and fierce than they." In 1818 Rev. John Owen moved with his family and effects, by wagon, from near Norfolk in Virginia to Tus.. At Fort Claiborne.


.. ltJternal Improvements in Alabama.

24

[142

caloosa, Alabama. Passing through Beauford's Gap of the Alleghanies, down the Holston Valley, by Knoxville, tl1ence to the Tennessee River, crossing possibly at Nickajack, by Jones' Valley (near Birmingham of our day) he reached his destination after H nine weeks traveling, over Droken roads, and exposed to every danger." He thought the roads in old Virginia were baa, but even his experience tFiere had not prepared him for the shocks and jostles fo be endured along the "infernal roads" of this new territory." The Federal Road from Georgia to Alabama soon became the continuation of the stage line which connected Washington with the Southern States. In 1820 Adam Hodgson, an Englishman, traveled along this line from Washington to Mobile and in his" Letters from North America" (London, 1824) gives us a good idea of those days of westward movement. He left Washington on January 20th, 1820, in the" Mail stage, a mere covered wagon, open at the front" to which were attached four horses. Passing through Richmond and Petersburg (Virginia), Raleigh, Fayetteville and Lumberton (North Carolina), Georgetown and Charleston (South Carolina), he reached Savannah, Georgia, the stage having made an average on the trip of three and three quarter miles per hour. This," he complains, is wretchedly poor traveling in the only public conveyance between Washington and the Southern States, yet this vehicle is dignified by the title of the 'United States Mail,' although it is only an open wagon and four, with curtains which unfurl; and the mail bags lie lumbering about your feet, among the trunks and packages which the passengers smuggle into the carriage" to obviate the danger of their falling off or being stolen, all baggage usually being merely "thrown on beH

H

.. The Journal of Rev. John Owen, published by Thos. M. Owen in the " Publications of the Southern History Association," April, 1897, vol. i, p. 89. Quoted in "Publications of the Alabama Historical Society," vol. xi, p. 53.

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hind." From Savannah Hodgson passed up the river by boat to Augusta and from here proceeded to Mobile on horseback. Milledgeville, then the Capital of Georgia, Fort Hawkins on the Ocmulgee, the Indian Agency on the Flint, Coseta on the Chattahoochee (modern Columbus), Fort Bainbridge, Caleebe and Cubahatchee swamps, Line Creek, Point Comfort, Pine Barren Springs, Fort Dale, Murder Creek, Burnt Corn, and Blakely are all successively mentioned, some of which may be seen on the map of Alabama to-day, and enable us to trace the route of the old Federal road along which the early settlers moved from Virginia, Georgia and the Carolinas into the Gulf States. H The road, though tolerable for horses," he thought , would be regarded in England as utterly impassable for wheels. Lonely stretches undotted for forty or fifty miles by a single house, often came into the experience of our traveler, the occasional inns were rude in structure, furnished in no very pretentious manner. As an example of the hotel facilities to be enjoyed, Hodgson describes the inn at Coweta as having only one bed room H with three beds such as they were," a log building, with clay floor and no windows. The proprietor of the inn, an adventurer from 1-':111adelphia, arranged his prices so as to carry the conviction that he was not in the business merely for amusement but had come to exploit the necessities of the traveler. To avoid wounding the feelings of the kind hearted hosts and hostesses he would sleep in these rather crowded and camp-like apartments when often he really envied his servant who had been compelled to seek his night's repose in .the hay loft." In January, 1835, Featherstonhaugh, another English tourist, passed along the same route from Montgomery, Alabama, to Richmond, Virginia. At Montgomery he learned that the mail stages, owing to bad roads, were .. A. Hodgson: Letters from North America.

London (1824).


26

Internal Improvements in Alabama .

[14-1

una ble to run and mails wer e, ther efor e, sen t on horseback. Unw illin g to wai t unti l late ,in the spri ng to secure pas sag e, "~fter. a goo d dea l of cha ffer ing " he finally agr eed to give sixty-five doll ars, as hire , for a " miserable vehickle and a pair of wre tche d hor ses " to cond\lct him to Col umb us, Geo rgia , a dist anc e of nine ty miles. The road was fou nd "qu ite ans wer ing to the des crip tion " Which had bee n given, "be ing so frightfu lly cut up as to render it muc h mor e pref erab le to wal k whe reve r the road was sufficiently dry . The . blac k fello w who dro ve seemed to take it quit e philosophically, obs erv ing not hin g unusual in the kind of roc kin g and bou ncin g mot ion " and seemed to thin k the trav eler not quit e in his sen ses for preferring to wal k whe n he had paid so muc h for riding. By the close, of the first day 's trav el he was reconciled to the live rym an's high cha rge of fou r shillings per mile, for they wer e only able to mak e fou rtee n miles during the day and he was per sua ded tha t " suc h a performance cou ld not be got ten up for less mon ey in any par t of the wor ld." Alm ost unb rok en lines of imm igra nts were daily pas sed , brin gin g with them thei r neg ro slaves. The wome~ an~ chil dren wer e dra wn slowly alon g in hea vy wagons while the hardy¡ and dus ky men , on foot, trud ged wearily ove r the hea vy roa d to thei r new and mor e sou ther n hom es. A tho usa nd slav es mov ing thu s, on foot, would be pas sed in a sing le day ." The dist anc e to Col umb us, ninety miles, was mad e only afte r fou r day s of tedi ous travel. The gre ater por tion of the roa d thu s trav erse d lay within the land s yet occ upie d by the Cre ek Ind ians and ove r which the stat e of Ala bam a, ther efor e, had no juri sdic tion ; from the des crip tion give n of this roa d we see tha t the appropria tion s from the Fed eral Gov ern men t in 1833 and 1838 were mad e non e too soon. .. Feat hers tonh augh : The Slave Stat es,

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27

STA GE AND EXP RES S LIN ES.

Fro m 1832 to 1838 the Ind ian trib es of Ala bam a wer e being pus hed to thei r mor e wes tern hom es and by 1839 the last of thes e abo rigi nal trib es had pas sed bey ond the Mis sissippi:' We hav e alre ady see n the tide s of imm jgra tion flowing in, anti cipa ting the thro win g ope n of thes e vac ated lands. The pop ulat ion had now bec ome sufficiently den se, and the trav el and traffic sufficie ntly gre at, to just ify the conduct of thre e sep arat e line s of stag es alon g the old Federal roa d from Col umb us to Mo ntg ome ry, the " Mai l Line," the "Te leg rap h Lin e" and the " Peo ple' s Lin e."" The coaches, usually buil t ope n for sum mer use , wer e, during the win ter, clos ed in with pain ted can vas , or oil cloth, "bu t so loos ely as to let in the cold air in eve ry part ," and were mad e as hea vy and stro ng as the unio n of wood and iron cou ld mak e them . The se coa che s usually con tain ed thre e seat s, the middle ofte n pro vide d with a bro ad leat her stra p to lean bac k upo n and which was gen eral ly rese rved for the ladies. To this vehicle two, four, or on the wor st roa ds six hor ses would be attached. The driv er and team wer e cha nge d at the suc cessive stag es recu rrin g at dist anc es of from twelve to fifteen miles. The pas sen gers , at the call of the driv er, would sway thei r bodies to righ t or left, and eve n lean far out of the windows as the nec essi ty aro se, to kee p in balance the coach as it was abo ut to be ups et. Del ays at the ,mall pos t offices and occ asio nal .. bre ak- dow ns" kep t the speed down to abo ut fou r or five miles an hou r. To the com plai nts of the pas sen ger s the pati ent driv er would often reply tha t eve n the loco mot ive (which was already beg inn ing to thre aten his futu re) cou ld do no bett er if put on thes e swa mps and tha t 'the mos t tha t can be said is " tha t eac h kind of vehicle run s fast est on its own line of road ." For thes e com fort s and con ven ienc es the â&#x20AC;˘ Brewer: Alabama, pp. 50-54.. Buc king ham : Slave Stat es.


28

Internal Improvements in Alabama.

[146

passengers usually paid a dollar for eight or ten miles with no extra charge for delays, bumps, and occasional injuries. The fare often varied, however, according to the sharpness of rivalry between competing lines. For example, while the" Mail Line" was the only one in operation the charge from Macon to Columbus, Georgia, a distance of ninety miles, was twenty dollars. A second line reduced it to ten dollars. A third line followed and reduced it to five dollars. The two former lines then reduced their rates to one dollar. The latest company then carried their passengers for nothing, while the hotels furnished them with dinner and champagne at the expense of the coach proprietors. The three lines soon tired of this "cut throat" rate, and forming a "combine'" ~dopted a uniform schedule of ten dollars per ninety miles." Along this old Federal Road was established the "Express Mail," a device for rapid transmission of news and of market reports of sufficient importance to warrant the extra expense in their conveyance between the different towns and cities. The terminal points of this line were New York and New Orleans. Between these two points five hundred horses and two hundred boys, as riders, were employed. Each boy rode a distance of twelve miles out and twelve miles back. By thus placing a relay of horses at each of these successive intervals an average speed was maintained of about fourteen miles per hour." Both the expensive" Express Mail" and the stage-coach system which had spread its network of lines throughout the state were soon destined to succumb to the railroad, which had already made its appearance in Alabama." .. Buckingham: Slave States, 1839. .. Buckingham: Slave States. "' The first railway laid in Alabama was completed in 1833. Brewer's Alabama, p. 98.

147]

The Development of Highways.

29

ROAD SYSTEM OF ALABAMA.

By act of Congress approved May 10, 1798, the land between the Chattahoochee and the Mississippi rivers and lying between 310 and 32째 28' north latitude was created into the Mississippi Territory. At an early date n the territorial legislature enacted a road law. This system was inherited by the territory, and later by the state, of Alabama, and remains in vogue to-day, practically without change." The Courts of County Commissioners have original jurisdiction over the establishment, discontinuance, change, and repair of roads, bridges, causeways and ferries within the county. Four Commissioners, elected by the qualified voters of the county every four years, with the Probate Judge constitute the court. This court selects apportioners for each election precinct and these apportioners divide the roads within their precincts into sections designating a certain number of hands and appointing an overseer for each section. Not more than ten days labor may be required annually of every able-bodied man betwee~ the ages of eighteen and forty-five, for keeping roads in repair, and in some counties special acts allow this service to be commuted in money. It is hardly necessary to state that this system has not produced any earnestness olpurpose for the improvement of highways, and the economy of good roads has been unappreciated and certainly has never , been realized in Alabama. ,// During the early years of the state many companies were incorporated for the purpose of constructing turnpike roads. They were chartered for a limited number of years (often twenty), toll-gates were authorized at Intervals of five miles, and the charges were fixed by the act of incorporation. An estimate of tolls charged may be .. Act of March I, 1805. Turner's Digest of the laws of the Mississippi Territory. II Acts of Alabama Territory, 1818. Code Alabama, 1896.


80

Internal Improvements in Alabama.

[148

gathered from an act of January 13, 1826, authorizing W. H. Ragsdale and his associates to build a turnpike road in Franklin County. Rates were stipulated as follows:" Each loaded wagon and team Each empty wagon and team...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Each cart, wagon and team.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Each pleasure four-wheel carriage................ Each pleasure two-wheel carriage................ . Man and horse For each led horse............................... Cattle per head Goats, sheep and hogs per head..................

$1.00

.75 .50 1.00

.50 .12~ .06~

.04 .01

" The Blakely and Greenville T~rnpike Company" incorporated in 1824, was authorized to charge for every five miles." ' For each pleasure four-wheel carriage Each horse or ox wagon Man and horse LO,ose horses, cattle, hogs and sheep per head

. $ 路50 . .25 . .12~ . .o:a

By terms of this charter the Legislature was empowered at any time it might see fit, to examine the books of the company; the tolls received were never to exceed twentyfive per cent (annually) on the capital actually invested, nor should they fall below twelve and a half per cent of the same. The County Courts were to supervise the repairs of the roads, no tolls were to be allowed when the roads were out of repair, and the tolls should be raised or lowered as found necessary to keep the profits within the stated limits. The mails, express messengers, troops of State and Federal governments, all footmen, persons going to and from public worship, laborers going to and from their fields were usually exempted by the charters from all tolls. From 1847 to 1853 may be called the ~ra of plank-road Acts of Legislature. 1825-26. II Acts of Legislature, 1824II

149]

The Development of Highways.

81

building in Alabama. Twenty-four companies, for example, were incorporated by the Legislature during the session 1849-50 for the purpose of constructing plankroads." Some of these projected plans were put into execution," but the same session of the Legislature incorporated several new railroad companies thus indicating that the active railroad spirit was already present before which the impulse to plank-road building was soon to decline. in fact to disappear. The people of Alabama during the thirties and forties, manifested a spirit of nervousness, feeling that they were being outstripped by the sister states, many of whom were lending substantial aid to works of internal improvement. Pressure was, therefore, repeatedly brought to bear upon Legislature and Governors to induce them to embark in a policy of state aid to river and canal improvements, turnpike and plank-road building. That this enthusiastic spirit was held in check is due largely to the fact that the state was in great financial straights, resulting from the failure of the Bank of Alabama.An approximate loss of seven million dollars was entailed upon the state by the collapse of this institution, all of the debts of the (Bank having been assumed by the state." In Alabama during the decade 1845-55 a high rate of taxation was necessary to meet the interest on the public debt. A depleted State Treasury, a high tax rate and the permanent impression that the state, judged either as to efficiency or integrity, was not the best manager and promoter of financial enterprises,-all served as influences Acts of the Legislature, 1849-50. .. Governor CoIlier's Message, November, 1851. M Alabama's State Bank: Article by J. H. Fitts in Bankers' Law Journal for June, 1895. Brewer: Alabama, p. 53. Messages of Governors. December 3. 1838. and December 16. 1845路 J. L.M. Curry: Tract on "Hon.' Francis M. Lyon as Commissioner and Trustee of Alabama." Garrett's Reminiscences, pp. 43. 63, 212, 217, 255, 258, 267. 275. 278, 670. 17

.,'"


32

Internal Improvements in Alabama.

[150

to discourage the policy of public aid throughout the entire period ending with the Civil War. State aid to internal improvements was thus regarded as infeasible in Alabama during the very period when othOer states were most active in such work. Only small appropriations and loans were made to plank-road companies from the "two and three per cent funds" and these will be discussed at a later point. -------- In recent years several counties of Alabama have been empowered by the Legislature to issue bonds for the improvement of roads, and powers of taxation granted by which these bonds are to be retired. In other counties power has been granted of assessing a road-tax, which must be paid out of the general levy. The counties of Montgomery, Jefferson, Madison, Colbert, and Lauderdale many miles of macadam road have thus been built and the manifest advantages bid fair to increase the spirit and further the work of improvement.

CHAPTER II RIVER AND HARBOR IMPROVEMENT STATE

AID

Alabama ranks am(;mg the first states of the Union in the number, extent, and value of her magnificent water lines. Every section, and nearly every county, of the state is watered, and afforded commercial facilities by some one or more of its navigable rivers. Professor Tuomey, the first State Geologist of Alabama, said in one of his reports: "There is scarcely an extensive and really valuable agricultural tract in the State that has not its navigable stream." This region is traversed by two great systems of waterways, (1) the Tennessee with its tributaries, connecting North Alabama with the Mississippi; and (2) that group of rivers which drain much the largest part of Alabama together with considerable portions of Georgia and Mississippi also, and find a common outlet into the Gulf of Mexico through the waters of the Mobile Bay. 'Illis latter system, converging at Mobile, spreading out, fan-shaped over magnificent timber regions, over fertile agricultural districts, and reaching into the center of the inexhaustible coal and iron deposits of North Alabama, affords a field for improvement the merits of which are probably unsurpassed by any water system within the United States. The improvements which have been made upon these waters have been due almost exclusively to the Federal Government, the state of Alabama having done practically nothing along this line. Rivalries between the different sections of the state caused hitches in legislation which for a long time prevented application even of the three and two per cent funds to the purpose 3

".

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SOUTIIERN HISTORICAL PUBLICATIONS No.8

I:

The Formative Period in Alabama;, 1815-1828

.

BY I

Thomas Perkins ..Abernethy -

'"

Emeritus Professor of History. University of Virginia

o '"

6. ,

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Alabama Dtpartmtnt tif Archives and History

UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA PRESS University, AUtboma


Blst. ] (\7<0.\ ~ \ "\ (.;,

Contents

1 2, 3 4

5

6

7

8 9 10 11 12.

13 14 15

Copyright Š 1965 by tbe UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA PRESS

Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 65- 11245 Manufactured in the United States of America

Ii

List of Maps and Charts Preface Preface to the Second Edition The Mississippi Territory The New Country The Immigrants The Division of the Territory Alabama Becomes a State The Public Lands Agriculture Rivers and Roads The Commercial Situation The Bank Question Politics and the election of 182,~ Politics and Federal Relations, 18:Z4-18:z8 Religion, Education, and the Press Social Conditions and Slavery Conclusion Notes Bibliography Index

7

9 13 17

18 34 44 52 64 71 91 103 111 l2.0 135 152, 161 170 180 2,00 2.13


35

THE IMMIGRANTS

inspection of tobacco, like Petersburg, were abandoned because their facilities were no longer necessary.2 Many inhabitants moved to Madison County. That the spread of cotton culture into the Southwest was inevitable is indicated by its early introduction into the Mississippi Territory. This natural movement was interrupted by the War of 1812, but its pent-up force was precipitated by conditions following the end of the struggle. In England, where the source of supply was cut off during the War, the price of the staple rose to an abnormal level, while in America the price fell off sharply because the usual market was gone. When peace was made and normal trade relations were resumed with the lifting of the blockade of our coast, England again obtained her supply of American cotton and the price in this country rose immediately, the average for 1815 being almost thirty cents a pound.s To the favorable price was added the inducement of new lands cleared of the Indian title during the War and the innate restlessness of the population. Sales of newly surveyed land were opened at St. Stephens during the latter part of 1815, and the following year over 100,000 acres were disposed of by the government.· No sales were made in the new Creek cession until 1817, but in that year $750,000 worth of these lands were sold.1I The old Georgia-South Carolina piedmont region had two distinct disadvantages from the cotton planter's point of view. Its soil was not considered as fertile as that of the Alabama river bottoms and prairies; and it lacked transportation facilities, being cut off from the tidewater by the broad pine barrens and being without navigable rivers. Thus, before the culture of upland cotton had reached anything like a mature development in these regions, it began to be transferred to the new Southwest. Population flowed from the older states into the pioneer country until the drain was keenly felt in the deserted communities. Though the statement cannot be backed by statistics, it appears that the majority of the planters who moved westward with their slaves came from the piedmont rather than from the tidewater regions of the South Atlantic states.a The tidewater

CHAPTER THREE

The Immigrants

DUllING THE LATTER HALF OF THE SEVENTEENTH

century, England was developing the spin~ing .an~ weaving machinery which played such a large part m bnngmg about the Industrial Revolution. The increased demand for raw cotton which resulted from this development was answered in 1793 by Eli Whitney's invention of the cott~n gin. Until this time, it was necessary to separate the lint from the seed by ha~d or by mea~s of a pair of simple rollers. The black-seeded sea-Island, or long staple, cotton was the only variety amenable to such processes, for its long fibre did not cling closely to the seed and co~ld be removed easily. The short staple of the green-seeded vanety clung so closely to the seed that it could not be removed profitably by the simple processes in use. Long staple cotton could be raise~ only along the c~ast and on the bordering sea-islands of Georgia and South Carolina. The short staple cotton, on the other hand, could b~ raised in the uplands, and when the invention of the c~tton gm -rendered ~he culture of this variety profitable, the Georgia and South Carohna piedmont supplanted the tidewater as the principal cotton-producing area. 1 . . . This region has been settled largely by men from Vlrgama and Pennsylvania. The culture of tobacco was the main industry for some years, but when upland cotton was introduced it .quickly came to predominate. Towns founded for the warehousmg and

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THE FORMATIVE PERIOD IN ALABAMA,

1815-18z8

had its staple crops of tobacco, rice, and sea-island cotton, which were not disturbed by the new developments. The planters here were usually well established, their investment was heavy, and their land had a certain monopoly value. 111eir slaves could still be employed more or less profitably, and their social position tended to hold them where they were. Thus few people of extensive wealth moved into the Alabama region during the period . of early settlement. Only the man who needed to better his fortune had an inducement to make the necessary sacrifice. Any who owned slaves usually had only a small number, and many who later became planters had no slaves at all to begin with. In other words, the small farmer of the piedmont region became the pioneer planter of the Southwest. When a man prepared to transplan\ his establishment, he usually sold the land he held and retained the proceeds for the purchase of his new domain. His household goods and farm implements were packed on wagons and started the trek over the rough road toward the new home. The slaves drove the herds of cattle and hogs, while the planter's family brought up the rear in a carriage.7 It was a tedious journey, the roads being merely clearings though the forest without bridges. The smaller streams were forded, and crude ferries were established at the larger ones. Yet there were compensations; hunting along the way afforded diversions for the men, and the campfire about which the wayfarers gathered at night shed a romantic glow upon the faces of those who were traveling into a strange land. Having reached the place where he was to make his home, the planter constructed a log cabin after the usual manner. Two rooms were built opposite each other and joined by a passage-way. Chimneys built of stones or clay-daubed sticks were put up at opposite ends of the structure and great open fireplaces served for both heating and cooking. A lean-to might be attached behind one or both of the rooms, and there was an attic above. Before the introduction of saw mills, the floors were made of puncheons -logs split in halves with the flat side upward. The chinks between the logs were filled with clay, the doors and shutters were

THE IMMIGRANTS

37

?f crude boards, and the shingles were hand-split. In such a dwell109, t?e pla~ter who brought his household furnishings could estabhsh a kmd of rude comfort which sufficed even the wealthiest immigrants during the first few years of their sojourn. The first and only governor of the Alabama Territory lived in such a log cabin during the years of his administration and until his premature death. 8 But not all the newcomers were even thus fortunately situated. No very extensive tracts of the new land were offered for sale before 1818, and men who had homes to sell in the old states would natu~ally wish to purchase a location in the new country before movmg. Yet, from 1815 onward, men poured into the ceded lands and "squatted" upon them in spite of the law and the government.ll It was the policy of the United States to prevent intrusion until surveys could be made and the lands offered for sale at auction..Attempts were made to remove the squatters; troops were called 10 and ordered to burn the cabins of those who refused to leave, but it was all of no avai1. 10 Men of this class, being improvident by nature, did not come to seek wealth but merely to gain a subsistence or to enjoy ,the fre~dom of the forest. They built their simple cabins and planted thel~ crops of ~orn ~tween trees which they killed by girdling. Their greatest Immediate problem was to live until the first crop was made, and here there was much difficulty.ll The i~flux of immigrants was so great in 1816 and 1817 that the Indians and scattered pioneers were not able to furnish enough corn to meet the needs of the newcomers. In 1816 com brought $4.00 a bushel along the road from Huntsville to Tuscalo.osa,12 and so scarce did the grain become among the local ~ndlans that the government had to come to their rescue in 181 7 10 order to relieve actual distress. 18 Where did the various immigrants who entered the Alabama c?untry c~me from? By what routes did they reach their destination.; ~nd 10 what part of the Territory did they settle? Although statistics.cannot be produced, a fairly reliable idea may be gained from vanous accounts which, in the main, agree.


38

THE FORMATIVE PERIOD IN ALABAMA,

1815-1818

The two roads through the Mississippi Territory for which Congress made appropriations in 1806 were continuations. of established routes of travel, H (See figure l) That from Nashvtlle to Natchez, the Natchez Trace, was a continuation of the Kentucky Trace which passed hom Nashville through Lexington, to Maysville, and thence by the Old National Road through Columbus, Zanesville, and Wheeling to Pittsburgh. The Natchez Trace was the principal highway for the region it traversed, but it was hardly more than a bridle path through the woods. The route from Athens to New Orleans, the Federal Road, followed the direction of the Alabama River and passed through the Tombigbee settlements. ill Beyond Athens, the route passed northeastward through Greenville, Salisbury, Charlotte, and Fredericksburg, to Washington, Baltimore, and Philadelphia.

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3: Road map, 1818

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THE IMMIGRANTS

39

Thus it traversed the piedmont region of the South Atlantic states and connected the Southwest with the commercial centers of the East. Diverging from this route just beyond the Georgia line, another highway passed eastward of it and connected the southern capitals which stood at the fall line of the rivers Howing into the Atlantic. Extending through Milledgeville, Augusta, Columbia, Raleigh, and Richmond, this again united with the piedmont route just before reaching Washington. But there was still another means of access to the Ala1lama country which was of great importance. A road which branched off from the Pittsburgh-Philadelphia highway passed southwestward through the Valley of Virginia and then followed the course of the Holston River to Knoxville. From Knoxville the original highway passed westward to Nashville, but with the formation of Madison County, a spur was extended southward to Huntsville, and this soon came to be an important route of travel, Now a man coming into Alabama from the piedmont region of Georgia would have the choice of two routes. He could go by the Federal Road into the Alabama-Tombigbee basin, ÂŤ?r he could take a road which passed from Augusta to Athens, crossed the Tennessee River where Chattanooga now stands, and led on to NashvilleYI The highway crossed the road from Knoxville to Huntsville and gave access to the fertile Tennessee Valley region. The Georgia men who helped to settle Madison County in 1809 took this route,17 but the later emigration of Georgia planters was mostly into the southern part of Alabama, and they passed along the Federal Road. The first lands of the Creek cession which were put on sale were disposed of at Milledgeville, Georgia, and they lay along the upper course of the Alabama River in the neighborho<>d of what was to be Montgomery County.IS It is easy to understand, therefore, how it was that the Georgia planters established a predominance in this region from the first. With this group as a nucleus, the immigrants from Georgia, apparently following the route of the Federal Road, came to form perhaps the strongest element in the population of all the southeastern counties of Alabama. 111 (See figure 4. )

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PREDOMINANT ELEMENT

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41

THE IMMIGRANTS

Men from the piedmont region of South Carolina had two routes open to them. They could take the fall-line road through Columbia or the piedmont road through Greenville and reach the Alabama basin by the Federal Road. But if they wished to reach the Tennessee Valley, they could pass northward from Greenville, through Saluda Gap in the Blue Ridge where it borders North and South Carolina, then to the site of Asheville, and along the course of the French Broad to Knoxville, and thence to Huntsville.20 Immigrants came by both of these routes, and, appearing to have avoided the settlements of those who had preceded them in the Tennessee Valley and in the Alabama River basin, the majority passed on from both directions into the central hilly region or the basin of the Black Warrior and upper Tombigbee rivers. Migrants from North Carolina could have taken the route along the French Broad to Knoxville and thence to Huntsville, but since this road traversed only the mountainous western region of the state, it is probable that most of them thought the highway from Raleigh through Columbus and Augusta to the Federal Road more convenient. These men, like those from South Carolina, found the central region of Alabama most attractive. The Virginians who came from the Valley followed their highway through Cumberland Gap and down the Holston to Knoxville, thence gaining access to the Tennessee Valley. Some of these passed on down to the Black Warrior and Tombigbee valleys. For Virginians from the piedmont region, it was more convenient to take one of the eastern roads leading to southern Alabama, whence they could make their way into the Tombigbee-Warrior region if they so desired. Of course the Tennessee Valley was most easily accessible to the men just over the line, and consequently Tennesseeans had a predominance in this section. Some bought lands in the Valley, while others passed beyond into the hilly region and ~me squatters upon the National Domain, for the greater part oUhe lands in the Valley were put upon the market in 1818 but those south of it were not sold for some years afterward. Here back-

-

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42

THE FORMATIVE PERIOD IN ALABAMA,

1815-1828

woods communities were established in the isolated valleys, and frontier conditions of life prevailed for a long time. The principal route of travel connecting the Tennessee Valley with the Alabama-Tombigbee region was a road passing southwestward from Huntsville through Jones Valley to the town of Tuscaloosa, which grew up at the head of boat navigation upon the Black Warrior. It was along this route that the principal settlements were made in the central hilly region. At first the Tennesseeans predominated here, but South Carolinians soon came in such numbers as to exceed the Tennesseeans in some localities. The struggle for supremacy between these elements in Blount and Jefferson counties provoked open hostilities before it was settled. In the end, the Tennesseans came to predominate in Blount, while the South Carolinians had the majority in Jefferson County.ln Most communities had their local color, and the state one came from was always a matter of significance. In the TombigbeeWarrior region, North Carolinians, South Carolinians, and Virginians mingled in varying proportions, but together formed a predominating population element which had its own characteristics. As late as 1856, Greene County, at the conjunction of the Black Warrior with the Tombigbee, had a population of 43 8 native South Carolinians, 357 Alabamians, 348 North Carolinians, 92 Georgians, 45 Tennesseeans, 24 Kentuckians, 12 men from Connecticut, 37 from Ireland, and 10 from Germany.22 The presence of a small number of foreigners is characteristic of the early period, and so is the presence of New Englanders. The cosmopolitan population was confined to the trading towns where the merchants were largely Yankees. 2s This was especially true of Mobile, founded by the French in 1702 and plagued with a transient population that was turbulent and varied. In 1714 Jean Baptiste de Bienville, the leader of this settlement, had founded Fort Toulouse near the present site of Wetumpka and in 1736 Fort Tombecbe near the confluence of the Warrior and Tombigbee rivers. These strongholds were for protection against the red man and to further Indian trade as well as for a buffer

THE IMMIGRANTS

43

against the English. However, the Mobile settlers hugged the coast for decade after decade and never penetrated the vast north~ard sweep of the forest. A community of Germans was estabbshed at Dutch Bend on the Alabama River;ll<l and Dem~polis, on the Tombigbee, was founded by a band of Napoleomc refugees, but such segregated community-building was not characteristic. Final.ly, i~ spi~e ~f the mixture which was produced by the flow of m~m~~ratlon mto Alabama, three areas were distinguisbed for pecubantles caused partly by the predominant element in the population. In the Tennessee Valley the preponderance of !ennesseeans gave a strongly democratic flavor to political ideas' m t~e Tombigbee-Warrior region, the Carolina-Virginia pre: dommance seems to have encouraged a flavor of conservatism in things political; while the influence of Georgia politics is clearly discernible in Montgomery County. Nevertheless other fac~o~s played.a more important part in shaping opinions and pobtl~s th~n did the geographical origin of the people, the effect of which, mdeed, was often entirely obliterated.

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CHAPTER EIGHT

Rivers and Roads

THERE

IS NO WAY OF REALIZING MOR.E nENLY

the difference between past and present than to look upon the untroubled waters of a navigable river and recall that it once shaped the history of a section. Though the turbid stream of the Alabama now rarely floats a vessel, it is fitting that it gave its name to the state that it traverses. It was their separate waterway which gave the settlers along the Tombigbee interests which were disinct from those of settlers upon the lower Mississippi. It was down the streams that the early planters intended to float their cotton to market, and so they chose their lands near the rivers. (See figure 16.) Mobile was a struggling community of 300 inhabitants, mostly Creoles, when it was taken over by the Americans in 1813. A few years later, when population began to spread along its tributary rivers, it began to grow and in 1819 numbered 800 inhabitants" In 1823 this number had increased to nearly 3,000. 1 Most of the higher class of Creoles had left when Spanish rule ended, and the new population was made up of Americans from every walk of life. Merchants came largely from the north, adventurers gath. ered from every quarter, and the mixture, according to some visitors at least, was not attractive. 2 In place of the one wharf of Creole days, there were a dozen by 1823. Markets were built and brick structures began to replace wooden buildings. Because of obstruction in the harbor, ,I

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16: River map

HUNTSVILLE

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93 large ships entered with difficulty. This fact made it necessary for the town to confine its shipping largely to coastwise traffic. Fruits from Cuba were to be found in the markets and a regular trade with New York was established at an early date, but most of the cotton destined for Europe had to be sent to New Orleans for shipment. s The cotton region along the rivers gave birth to several towns between 1815 and 1818. St. Stephens already stood at the head of schooner navigation on the Tombigbee. It had been a flourishing little community when Mobile was still in the hands of. Spain, but now the trade passed it by and went down to the larger town on the Bay. It still held a local trade, however, and some of its glory lingered. With its bank, its academy, its press, its land office, and its steamboat company, it maintained its place for a while; but its well-built houses were destined to sink into ruins which have now all but disappeared from view.¡ Far above St. Stephens was Tuscaloosa, located at the head of boat navigation on the Black Warrior, and from here such overland trade as there was between the two sections of the state passed through Jones Valley to the Valley of the Tennessee.lI On the Alabama River, Claiborne grew up at the head of schooner navigation and. came to be the center of a cottonplanting community. The capital of the state was established at Cahawba, where the river of that name flows into the Alabama; and Selma was founded a few miles above. On a bluff not far. from the head of navigation, two towns were built by land speculatorsin 1817 and 1818. One of these was founded by Andrew Dexter from Massachusetts, and was christened New Philadelphia; the other was founded by the Bibb Company and named East Alabama. In 1819 the two settlements were combined and incorporated as the town of Montgomery.6 From these places, the cotton passed down the rivers to Mobile. Flat-bottomed boats-crudely constructed affairs with. pitched seams-could carry from fifty to a hundred bales and were broken up at the end of the journey.7 Keel boats, though not used as frequently as flat-bottomed boats on the Alabama

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and Tombigbee, were employed where the requirements were more severe. They were frequently about fifty feet in length and were more durable and sea-worthy than the flat-bottomed type. But the greater expense of construction discouraged their use except where a return trip was to be made. Nor were return trips very frequent. A boat which would float down from Montgomery to Mobile in about two weeks required a month or six weeks to be poled or warped back up the river; and the freight rate prevailing at that time was $5.00 a barrel.8 Merchants generally preferred to bring their wares over the Federal Road from Georgia,l' or down from the upper country. Whisky, pork, and flour were the most generally desired commodities in the cotton section. These articles, which could be obtained in East Tennessee and in western Virginia, were loaded on a keel boat near the place of production and floated down the Holston to the Tennessee River. By ascending a small tributary of the Tennessee, the Hiwassee, the boat could be navigated to within twelve miles of the headwaters of the Coosa. There was a portage across this stretch of land over which about 12,000 gallons of whisky were said to have been carried in 1821. 10 Boat houses were constructed at either end of it, and arrangements were made for hauling the boats in wagons from one stream to the other. This route was traversed at a very early period in Alabama history. Tennessee produce reached Montgomery by this course. Transportation conditions in the Tennessee Valley were rendered peculiar by the obstruction in the channel of the river at Muscle Shoals. During the dry summer months the shoals could not be passed, but the river rose in the fall, and by February, boats could go over the rapids. The water began to go down again in the spring, so that only two or three months elapsed during which shipments could be made from above the shoals. 11 Warehouses were built at landing places on the river and here cotton was accumulated by merchants and shippers. As soon as the water rose, the bales were loaded on keel boats which were dispatched in fleets under the charge of experienced pilots who saw

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them safely past the shoals. The pilots would then return, and the boats would proceed to New Orleans under the direction of forwarding agents. The freight rate for cotton shipped in this manner was from $4.00 to $5.00 a bale. 12 But difficult as it was to get cotton to market, it was still more difficult to bring back the needed supplies. There were several possible routes and all of them seem to have been used at times. Until 1816 the usual method was to ship goods from New York and Philadelphia to Charleston or Savannah; transport them to Augusta, and thence carry them by the Georgia Road through the Cherokee country to Ross's landing, opposite the spot where Chattanooga now stands on the Tennessee. From this point they were floated down to Ditto's Landing near Huntsville, or to other points along the river. In 1816 a merchant named Crump was the first to bring goods from Mobile to Huntsville by poling them up the river in a boat to Tuscaloosa, and from there hauling them in wagons. The road was found to be fairly good, and the overland trip required only eight days.ls Supplies might also be brought through the Valley of Virginia by way of Knoxville; but the favorite route during the 'twenties seems to have been that down the Ohio to the Cumberland, up the Cumberland to Nashville, and across country from that place. Flour, pork, and whisky could be brought from Kentucky and the Northwest in this way, as could manufactures which went overland from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh and then down the Ohio. 14 \Vith the advent of the steamboat, conditions were radically changed. Goods could now be carried up stream as easily as they could be brought down, and the overland trade rapidly decreased. Central and southern Alabama became dependent upon Mobile for supplies while North Alabama began to obtain most of hers from New Orleans. The planter thus came in time to buy his goods at the same market in which he sold his cotton. The first appearance of the steamboat on the rivers of Alabama cannot be fixed with absolute precision, but it seems clear that steam navigation on the Tombigbee was established in 181 9. Morse's Universal Geography of that year states that steamers

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THE FORMATIVE PERIOD IN ALABAMA,

1815-1828

were then plying between Mobile and St. Stephens;lli and Hamilton asserts in his Colonial Mobile that the first trip up to Demopolis was made in 1819 by either the Tensa or the Mobile. I6 There is a record of the launching of the Tensa on the Bay during this year, and the citizens of Mobile were a little later congratulated in the local press on another attempt to navigate the river. I7 During the same season the steamboat Mobile, which had been brought from Boston, was advertised to ascend to Tuscaloosa.I 8 It was not long before the Harriett and the Cotton Plant were brought to Mobile for service in the river trade, and in 18:w the Tombeckbee was launched at St. Stephens. This last boat was of seventy tons burden, had an eighty-five foot deck, and drew only fifteen inches of water when unloaded. 11I The others were about the same size, but little larger than the average keel boat then in use. But these four small craft were pioneers; they established steam communication on the waters of southern Alabama. In 182.1 the Harriett ascended the Alabama to Montgomery; in 1824 the Cotton Plant made her way up the Tombigbee to the head of navigation at Cotton Gin Port, Mississippi;20 and in 1828 the first trip was made up the Chattahoochee to the falls at Columbus, Georgia. 21 It was during the fall and winter months only that the stage of the water was high enough to permit navigation of these rivers. Dread of yellow fever all but cleared Mobile of population during the summer; but in November the merchants began to return and collect their wares. The cotton trade commenced in this month and continued briskly until the following Mayor June; then it fell off suddenly and remained at a standstill until the waters rose in the falJ.22 The number of boats on the rivers increased from year to year. In 1823 there were eleven,23 and by 1826 the number had risen to eighteen.24 All of these were vessels of light draft, the lightest being used in the Tuscaloosa trade. Cotton was piled high on the decks and passengers confined closely to the cabins, which were not commodious. Before reaching a town, a gun was fired from

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97 the deck in order to warn inhabitants of the vessel's approach. The banks of the rivers were generally steep and high, and cotton was loaded by sliding it down an inclined plane. The boats frequently lay to in order to take on wood, and they always stopped over night because of the many dangers which were to be encountered in the tortuous streams. Striking a snag and sinking was no infrequent occurrence.25 Twice within the same season the Cotton Plant succumbed to that fate, but each time she was raised and sent on her way. In the Tennessee Valley the transportation problem was peculiar. Huntsville, the largest town in the region, was built around a great spring some ten miles from the river, and a considerable distance above the shoals. Florence and Tuscumbia grew up where the Natchez Trace crossed the shoals. They had some forwarding business in connection with shipping down the Tennessee, but there was little return trade in the early years. The first steamboat to reach Florence, as far as records show, came in 182.1.26 From that time forward development was rapid. It was only the next year that a small vessel, the Rocket, W:\S commissioned to run regularly between Florence and the mouth of the river, depositing its cargo at Trinity to be forwarded up the Ohio or down the Mississippi in larger vessels. 27 Regular lines were later established to connect Tuscumbia with New Orleans and the towns along the Ohio.28 Commercial conditions in the Tennessee Valley were changed by these improvements in communication. The shippers above the shoals continued to send their cotton down in keel boats, but after the passage over the rapids, they were often towed to New Orleans by the steamers, or their cargoes were transferred to th;e larger vessels. Freight rates to New Orleans fell from more than $1.00 a hundred-weight to 80 cents in 1822 and to 50 cents in 1828.211 Keel boats still came to Florence from the upper waters of the Ohio, and merchants in the vicinity of Huntsville still brought goods down from Nashville; but the steamboats which came up to Florence brought large quantities of produce from New Or-

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THE FORMATIVE PERIOD IN ALABAMA,

1815-1828

directly from East Tennessee instead of having to bring it around by New Orleans and Mobile. This plan did not look unreasonable, for the route of the canal was to be the portage between the Hiwassee and the Coosa, which covered a distance of only twelve miles of moderately elevated land. The legislature, in or~er to enli~t the .support of both sections of the state, made a practIce of dealmg With both canal projects at the same time. A company was incorporated and empowered to co-operate with any company which Tennessee should establish for the construction of the Coosa-Hiwassee canal, the reason for this being that the site of the proposed work lay within the lands of the Cherokee Indians above the Tennessee line.slI Calhoun considered the Coosa-Hiwassee canal in his report of 1824, but classed it as being of less national importance than the canel suggested for Muscle Shoals. Though a government su~ey was made and a report presented,s6 the scheme for connectlilg the waters of the Alabama and Tennessee never recovered from this setback, while the Muscle Shoals project forged ahead. During this period commerce was largely confined to the waterways, but most travelers were forced to use the primitive roads. They had to content themselves with log cabin accommodations as they passed through the forests, and the town inns were not attractive. It was a frequent occurrence for vehicles to be upset at some danger to life and limb, and consequently most journeys were made on horseback. The construction of a road consisted merely of cutting a passage through the woods, the stumps being left several inches above the ground. Bogs were traversed by causeways made of small logs placed close together across the road with dirt thrown on top. Bridges were not ordinarily built across the fordable streams, but ferries were established at river crossings. Instead of going through the southern capitals, the mail from Washington to New Orleans went through the Valley of Virginia and by Huntsville until 1827. From Huntsville it was carried to Tuscumbia and thence followed the Natchez Trace.81 As

leans, and this came to be the main source of supply for the entire Valley region. One further advance in transportation facilities was made when, in 1828, the little steamer Atlas ascended the shoals and began to ply the Tennessee between the rapids and the town of Knoxville. so The introduction of steam navigation made more evident than ever the desirability of overcoming the obstruction at Muscle Sh~als by ~leans of a canal. The question was taken up by the legislature 10 1823 and was under discussion for several years. Two successive companies were incorporated by the state for the construction of the desired canal, but the proposition did not prove sufficiently attractive to private investors and nothing was accomplished. S} Hope was aroused in 1824 by an act of Congress which appropnated money for the survey of an extensive system of internal improvements. John C. Calhoun, then Secretary of War, was called upon to submit a report on the subject, and the Muscle Shoals canal was among the works which he classed as of national importance. s2 A government survey was made and a ~eport su?mitted. s3 But Congress was not acknowledged as hav109 the nght to appropriate funds for the construction of such works, and it seemed that. the matter would be dropped. Yet there was no objection to the donation of land to states for the purpose of internal improvements. In 1828 Congress granted to Alabama 400,000 acres of relinquished lands in the Huntsville district, proceeds from the sale of which were to be applied to the construction of a steamboat canal around the shoals.s4 While the people of the northern section of the state were interesting themselves in this project, those of South Alabama were working for a canal to connect the waters of the Tennessee with the Alabama River. Such a canal would enable the inhabitants of East Tennessee and western Virginia to ship their produce to Mobile, which was a much closer market than New Orleans. But the main consideration was that the people of South Alabama would be able to purchase their flour, whisky, and pork

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far as Huntsville, there was something that could be called a road, but the Natchez Trace was reported to be nothing more than a broad grass path.s8 The route was circuitous, and in 1816 Congress made an appropriation to enable Andrew Jackson to cut a direct road from Tennessee to New Orleans.Sll Troops were employed on this work, which was begun in 1817 and completed in 1820. It diverged from the old Trace at Muscle Shoals, and, pas~ing Columbus, Mississippi, on the Tombigbee River, took a straight course to Madisonville, opposite New Orleans on Lake Ponchartrain.·o !his Military Road, as it was called, was forty feet wide, had bndges over the smaller streams, and well-constructed causeways ?v~r the ~arshy places. But no provisions were made for keeping It m repan, and since the Trace passed through the settlements on the Mississippi while the Military Road lay through a region largely uninhabited, the latter was allowed to fall into disrepair. By 1824 the bridges had mostly been washed away and a growth ?f young trees was flourishing in the road itself. Though it was mtended that the mad should have passed this way to New Orleans, it became necessary to cross over below Columbus and continue to take it along the old Trace route." The road to Huntsville was at first a mere branch of the main thoroughfare between Knoxville and Nashville but it afforded ~ more.direct route to New Orleans and was us~d for transportJOg mall after 1822. In 1820 Huntsville was made the terminus of the first stage line in Alabama. It connected with the main line betwee~ K~oxvi~le and .Nashville,. and at first provided only weekly service. This was mcreased m 1823 to two trips each way every week.· a In 1825 an increase to three trips a week was made, and the line was extended to Tuscumbia." Stages also connected Tuscumbia with Kentucky and Ohio by the route through Zanesville, Lexington, and Nashville.· 11 But below Tuscumbia, the river did not permit continuous navigation and the Natchez ~race did not accommodate stages. Consequently, from Tuscumbia to New Orleans the mails were still carried in saddlebags.

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The route through the southern capitals, instead of paralleling the streams as did the one through Huntsville, crossed them and hence was more subject to interruption from swollen waters. Though it lay through more populous communities than did the western route, the through mail between Washington and New Orleans was not carried along it until the latter part of 1827 ••• For this reason stage facilities on the road between Milledgeville, Montgomery, and Mobile developed later. The first stage route from Montgomery eastward was established in 1821. At first only one trip a week was made, but this was increased ~n 1823 t~two trips weekly. Not until 1826 was there a regular line established between Montgomery and Milledgeville providing for three ~ips weekly.• 7 It was during the next year that the through mail to New Orleans began to take this route. Mail was carried from Montgomery to Mobile in two-horse wagons, from Mobile to Pascagoula by sulkey, and from Pascagoula to New Orleans by steam packet.· 8 . Though transportation actually developed only to thiS extent in early Alabama, a great deal of futile discussion was aroused by the Congressional Act of 1824 which provided for the survey of a system of internal improvements. Calhoun, in his report on the subject, stated that a highway from Washington to New Orleans would be best calculated to further the interests of the region through which it passed, and the survey of three separate routes was planned. The first of these was to cross the eastward-flowing rivers at their fall lines; the second was to lie between this. and the Appalachian Mountains; and the third was to pass down the Great Valley beyond the mountains.·" TIle surveys were accordingly made. The first two routes recommended were already followed by lines of travel. One lay through the southern capitals, passing on to Mobile; the second diverged from this in northern Virginia and passed through the piedmont towns of Petersburg, Salisbury, Greenville, and Athens, rejoining the other routes 'near the point at which it entered Alabama. But the third route differed from that already established. After passing through the Great Valley to Knoxville, instead of proceeding to Huntsville,

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101

it followed the valley of the Tennessee to where Chattanooga now stands, then, paralleling Lookout Mountain, passed into the valley of the Cahawba. From Centerville, at the falls of the Cahawba, it turned westward, leaving the state at Demopolis.lSo This route followed the course of the rivers and valleys, and, theoretically, was perhaps the best. But it had the same disadvantage as Jackson's Military Road in that it did not follow an established route of travel. The Huntsville people proclaimed loudly that the route through their town should be surveyed, and they had their way.lSl The mail then took the Huntsville course to New Orleans, with the approval of the postmaster general. After the survey was made, no further action was ever taken. The Old South stood opposed to the policy of internal improvements, and shortly, with Jackson's aid, it was able to restrain the desires of those who would have the federal government construct a system of communication for the country. Commercially distant as the two sections of Alabama were, there was necessarily some communication between them. The first route traveled from north to south seems to have been the portage between Muscle Shoals and the head of navigation on the Tombigbee at Cotton Gin Port. Pioneers floating down the Tennessee took this trail in order to reach the settlements in the neighborhood of St. Stephens.1I2 Jackson, during the Creek War, cut a road from Huntsville southward through the country east of the Coosa River to the place where Fort Jackson was established at the confluence of the Coosa with the Tallapoosa.1S8 By this route travelers were able to reach the Federal Road in the neighborhood of Montgomery. Yet there was but one passage between North and South Alabama which came to be traveled with frequency, and that was the one which led from Huntsville through Jones Valley to Tuscaloosa at the head of navigation on the Black Warrior.1S4 The road through the Valley was good, and much produce came down from Tennessee and reached central and southern Alabama by this route. ISIS

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THE FORMATIVE PERIOD IN ALABAMA,

NOTES

1815-182.8

15· ~t .seems that this. road was not actually opened until 1811. . See PhilliPS, .Transportatlon, 69, and T. H. Ball, C14rke County and Its Surroundmgs, 134. 16. Phillips, Transportation, 68-&J. 17. Betts, 21. 18. Land Office, R~cord of Proc14mations, May, 24, 1807. 19· The accou!lt given here. of the distribution of population in ~lab~ma agrees, 10 general, with the available statements concern~ng dl~~rent localities and with the general statements to be found ID ~l1ham Garrett, Reminiscences of Public Men in Alabatna for Thirty Years, ?5; Meek MS., "Early Settlement of Alabama." See also P. J. ~amll~on, Colonial Mobile, 1519-1821, 456-457 and Nelson F. Sm.'t~, HIstory of Pickens County, 37-39. 20. Philhps, Transportation, 63. 21. Me~k MS., "Early Settlement of Alabama" and George Powell, HlStory of Blount County, 37. 2"J.. V. Gayle Snedecor, A Direct?ry of Greene County for 18 55-6. 23· Extract of a.letter to the editor of the Newburyport (Mass.) Herald, dated Clalborn~ (A), March, 1823; Alabama Republican, Aug. 15, 182 3; Col. Will Kmg to Jackson, Nov. 23 1821 Jackson Papers. ' , 24· M .. P. Blue MS., I, "Autauga County," 4; Albert Burton Moore, HlStory of A14bama and Her People, 72 -74.

3. See H. F. Cleland, "The Black Belt of Alabama:' Geographical Review, X, 375-387. 4. Letter from Dr. J. W. Heustis of Cahawba, Apr. 1, 1821, in the Cahawba Press and Aldbama State Intelligencer, June 2, 1821. 5. Based upon maps made from the tract books in the office of the Secretary of State, Montgomery, Ala.; Weymouth T. Jordan, Ante-Bellum Alabama, Town and Country (Florida State Vniv. Stud., No. "J.7 [Tallahassee, 1957]), "J.2-25· 6. See R. M. Harper in South Atlantic Quarterly, XIX, 201. CHAPTER 3 AtUts of American Agriculture, Cotton Section, 16, 18. V. B. Phillips, A History of Transportation in the Eastern Cotton Belt to 1860,46-56. 3. AtUts of American Agriculture, Cotton Section, 18. 4. American State Papers, Misc., II, 417. 5. Ibid., Lands, V, 384-385; T. P. Abernethy, The South in the New Nation, chap. XVI. 6. This statement is strongly supported by the cases where the writer has been able to ascertain the origin of the immigrants. 7. A. Hodgson, Letters from North America, I, 138; Savannah Republican, Feb. 25, Mar. 8, 1818; see Abernethy, "The Great Migration:' The South in the New Nation. 8. John D. Bibb, Sketch of William Bibb, A. J. Pickett Papers. 9. R. J. Meigs to Louis.Winston, June 12, 1815, Indian Office files. 10. Instructions from William H. Crawford, Jan. 27, 1816, Jackson Papers; Jackson to William H. Crawford, July 4, 1816, and R. J. Meigs to Louis Winston, June 12, 1815, Indian Office files. 11. An interesting letter from Clabon Harris to General Jackson, Fort Claiborne, Jan. 12, 1816, gives an account of the conditions of some of the squatters. See Jackson Papers. 12. A. B. Meek MS., "Early Settlement of Alabama." 13. Cherokee Chiefs to R. J. Meigs, Mar. 20, 1817, and Samuel Riley to R. J. Meigs, Indian Office files; E. P. Gaines to Jackson, Mar. 6, 1817, Jackson Papers. 11' The map, given here is based upon that prepared by John Mehsh for 1818, but it has been compared with all those in the Library of Congress for the period covered. Information as to principal routes of communication is based also upon accounts of travel available to the writer. 1.

2.

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CHAPTER 4

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1.

A~nals of Congress, 8 Cong.,

2.

IbId.,

1 Sess., 62 4. Cong., Pt. 1, 695; Abernethy, 455-456, 473-474. 3· McM~ster, III, 371 et seq. Amencan ~tate Papers, Misc., II, 155; Clarence E. Carter (e ,.), The Temtory of A14bama (The Territorial Papers of the United Sta~es), XVIII, 279, 293. 5· Amencan State Papers, Misc., II, 16 3- 164. . 6.. J. W. ~alker to George Poindexter, Dec. 23 1812 MissisSippi Transcnpts. ' , 7· J. F. H. Claiborne, Mississippi as a Province, Territory and ~ta!e, >50; Cow.les Mead to George Poindexter, Dec. 23 1812' MisSISSIPJP TranSCripts. ' , 8. ayson Jackson Treat, The National Land System, 17 85'1820 (New York~ 19 10 ), 355-364. 9· Washmgton Republican, Sept. 9, 1815, Mar. 13 and Apr. 17 1816, Apr. 9, 1817. . ' 11

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THE FORMATIVE PERIOD IN ALABAMA,

1815-1828

23. AUJbaTlUJ Republican, Feb. 15 and Mar. 21, 18:l.2. 24. Mobile Register, Mar. 26, 182 4' 25. Cahawba Press, Jan. ::u, 1822; American Farmer, IV, 38038226. . AUJbaTTUJ Republican, Sept. 7, and Nov. 23, 18::u, Sept. 27, 1821; Cahawba Press, Dec. 13, 1821, Jan. 28, 1821. 27. Saxe-Weimar, I, 33; Southern Advocate, July 2.1, 1826; Southern Agriculturist, 11, 254-262; Royall, Letters (quotmg letter

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from Col. Pope), 162. 28. American Farmer, II, 116; Southern Advocate, Sept. 8 and 29,1826; Huntsville Democrat, Sept. 8,1826. 29. Southern Advocate, Nov. 17, 1826. . . 30. For yearly average of prices for m.iddling upla.nd cotton ,.n New York and Liverpool, see J. L. Watkms, Production and Pnce of Cotton for a Hundred Years, 6-9. 31 . For chart of slave prices, see Phillips, Slavery, 37°· 32. Alabama Republican, Nov. 2, 1821 .. 33. Mobile Argus, Oct. 31, 1823; Huntsville Democrat, Oct. 28, . . . 182 3; Alabama Republican, Oct. 24, 182 3. 34. Samuel Hazard, U.S. Commercial and StatistICal RegISter (Philadelphia, 1840-12), III, 27 2. 35. Tuscumbian, une 27, 182 5. 36. Alabama Tournai, Sept. 29, 1826; Southern Advocate, Sept. 15, 1826, Dec. 1, 1827; Huntsville Democrat, Mar. 9, 1827. 37. Tournai of the Senate of AUJbaTlUJ, 1819-1828 (hereafter Senate Journal), 1826,9· . 38. Statistics for Madison County for 1819 gIVe 825 pounds as the average for a full hand. See AlabaTlUJ Republican, Aug. 25, 1820. James G. Birney is said to have produced 1,85° pounds to the hand in 1820. See James Jackson to Andrew Jackson, May 28, 1821, Jackson Papers. But a thousand pounds to the hand is mentioned in most estimates as the average. 39. A. Hodgson, Letters, I, 124; Riley, Conecuh County, 52; Southern Advocate, Sept. 7, 182 7. 40. Tefferson County a~d Bi~mingham, 59; Riley, Conecuh County, 21-25,92-111; Smith, PICkens County, 46-48; W. E. W. Yerby, History of Greensboro, Alabama, 3; Carter, V, 7 24-7 2 5, 743· 41. Based on statements published in the Southern Advocate, Dec. 1, 1826. 42. See Chapter 9· 43. "Documentary History of Industrial Society" from the Georgia Courier, Oct. 11, 1827, 28 3- 29 8 . 44. Mobile Register, Jan. 6, 182 3.

18<)

NOTES

45. Alabama Republican, Mar. 1, 1821; Huntsville Democrat, Jan. 19, 182 7; Jordan, 34-36. 46 . W. G. Robertson, Recollections of the Early Settlers of Montgomery County, 11-13, 15-16, 36-38, 125, 139-14°. 47· Mobile Register, Mar. 2, 1824. 4 8 . Riley, Conecuh County, 19, 28-3 2, 43-54, 55-65. 49· See Frank L. Owsley, Plain Folk of the Old South (Baton Rouge, 1949). CHAPTER 8

1. Niles' Register, XXII, 96; Mobile Register, Feb. 7, 1822. 2. A. Hodgson, Letters, I, 152. 3· Saxe-Weimar, I, 39-41; P. J. Hamilton, Colonial Mobile 1519-1821,473; Mobile Argus, Oct. 28, 1823; Mobile Advertiser: Feb. 26, 1824,

4· St. Stephens Halcyon, Mar. 30, 1822. . 5· Alabama Republican, May 4, 1821; Hamilton, Colonial Mobile, 463. 6. Th.omas S. Woodward, Reminiscences of the Creek or Muscog~e Indians, 130; M. P. Blue, History of Montgomery, 6-8. See Pickett, Alabama, 592. Pickett states that the County of Montgomery was named for Major Lemuel Montgomery, who was first to faU ~~ the breastworks at Horseshoe Bend, but that the town was named m memory of his relation who feU at Quebec." 7· Saxe-Weimar, I, 35. 8. ,A. L~vasseur, Lafayette en Amerique en 1824 et 18:~5, II, 345; NIles Re~lster, XXI, 215;. E. P. Gaines t~ Jackson, Mar. 15, 1816, Jackson Papers. See Phllhps, TransportatIOn, 71, for a description of the flat-bottomed and pole boats. 9· Hines Holt to B. Han, July 4, Sept. 20, and Nov. 14 1820 HaU Papers. ' , 10. Niles' Register, XX, 63, House Executive Documents, No. IS, 20 Cong., 2 Sess., Vol. 1. 11. Alabama Republican, Feb. 8, 1822. 12. Betts, 61-62; Alabama Republican, Jan. 18, 1822. . 1.3· Was~i~gton Repu~lican, Jan. 1, 1817; D. B. Warden, A Sta-

tistical, POII~ICal, and HIStorical Account of the United States of

No~th AmeTlca, III, 39; S. D. Hutchings to R. J. Meigs, Dec. 3 1816 ' , Indian Office files. 14· Ala~~ma Republican, Jan. 18, 1821. 15· Jedldlah Morse, Universal Geography, I, 55 8 .


1<)0

THE FORMATIVE PERIOD IN ALABAMA, 1815-1828

16. Hamilton, Colonial Mobile, 447-41 8, 171-472. 17. Mobile Gazette, Aug. 4,1819, copIed tn the Alabama Republican, Aug. 21, 1819. 18. Ibid., Apr. 3, 1819. 19. St. Stephens Halcyon, May 15, 1820. 20. Hamilton, Colonial Mobile, 172; J. S. Walker to J. W. Walker, Nov. 23, 1821, Walker Papers. In 1822, the Elizabeth, the Harriett, the Cotton Plant, and the Tensa were navigating the Alabama, while the Tombeckbee was plying the Tombigbee River. Mobile Register, June 10, 1822. 21. Cahawba Press, Apr. 24, 1824. 22. Statistics on the trade for the seasons 1826-1827 and 18271828 collected from the Mobile Register. 23. Mobile Argus, Oct. 28, 1823. 24. Mobile Register, Dec. 19, 1826. 25. Saxe-Weimar, I, 32-38. 26. Alabama Republican, Mar. 16, 1821. 27. Ibid., Jan. 18 and Mar. 15, 1822. 28. Ibid., May 17, 1822; Tuscumbian, Aug. 22, 1825, May 8, 1826. 29. Alabama Republican, Jan. 18, 1822; Southern Advocate, Mar. 14, 1828. 30. Ibid., Feb. 15 and Mar. 14, 1828. 31. Acts of the General Assembly of Alabama, 1819"1828 (hereafter Alabama Acts), 1823, 66-69; ibid., 1828, 79-86; Southern Advocate, Mar. 2, 1827' American State Papers, Military, II, 698-701. 33. Ibid., Military, IV, 13; Huntsville Democrat, July 11, 1828. 34. U.S. Statutes at Large, IV, 290. 35. Alabama Acts, 1823, 62-66. 36. House Executive Documents, No. 15, 20 Cong., 2 Sess., Vol. I. 37. House Reports, No. 48,20 Cong., 1 Sess., I, 176. 38. A. Hodgson, Letters, I, 273. 39. U.S. Statutes at Large, III, 315; American State Papers, Military, IV, 627. 40. Ibid., Misc., II, 537; Alabama Republican, Dec. 17, 1819, June 9, 1820; William H. Crawford to Jackson, Mar. 8, 1816 and W. Young to Jackson, Mar. 14, 1817, Jackson Papers. 41. American State Papers, Post Office Dept., 119-120; Tuscumbian, Nov. 12, 182442. Alabama Republican, May 6, 1820. 43. Ibid., Aug. 16 and Sept. 13, 1822.

rz.

NOTES

19 1

44· Tuscumbian, Apr. 11, 1825. 45· American State Papers, Post Office Dept., 241; Southern Advocate, Sept. 4, 1827. 46 . House Reports, No. 48, 20 Cong., 1 Sess., 176 . 47· Blue, History of Montgomery, ll-U; Alabama Journal, June 23 and 30, 1826. 48. Mobi~e Register, Nov. 24, 1827.

49· Amencan State Papers, Military, III, 137- 138. 5°· House Executive Documents, No. 156, 19 Cong., 1 Sess., Vol. IX; House. ~eports, No. 48, 20 Cong., 1 Sess., 1; American State Papers, MIlItary, III, 109; Huntsville Democrat, Sept. 7, 1827. 51. House Executi~e Documents, No. 125,20 Cong., 1 Sess., Vol. III; letter from Gabnel Moore in the Southern Advocate Jan. 13 1826. ' , 52. Pickett, Alabama, 466-479. 53· O. D. Street, Marshall County One Hundred Years Ago, 8. 54· Warden, III, 39. ". Alabama Republican, Mar. 1, 1822. CHAPTER 9 1. Riley, Conecuh County, 22-25. ~. See Chapter 6 for a discussion of the Second Bank of the Umted States. 3· Ameri~an State Papers, Finance, III, 76 5-766 . 4· AdvertIse~ent of P. Yea~m.an & Co. tn. Alabama Republican, Sept. 22, 1820, Oct. 6, 1820, Ibid.; also statIstics on bank note exchange co.ll~cted from newspapers. 5· StatIstIcs on bank note exchange in Huntsville and Tuscumbia collected from newspapers. ' 6. Mobile Register, Oct. 5, 1824. Exports for the year 1824 included 14,990 ~ales of cotton to New York, 13,094 to New Orleans and 8,778 to LIVerpool. ' 7· Mobile Register, Nov. 7, 1822; Feb. 17, 1824. 8. John Hunter to Nicholas Biddle, Jan. 6, 1827 Nicholas Biddle

~~~

,

9· See Alfred H. Stone, "The Cotton Factorage System of the Southern States," American HistC?rical Review, XX, 557-5 6 5. This

system came to be the usual practtce, but whether it was completely developed during the 'twenties cannot be stated definitely Merchants frequently advertised that they would advance on ~otton turned over to them for shipment, but a committee of the legisla-

,

r


The Story of the U. S. Numbered Highway System F YOU travel by automobile for more than an occasional trip to the grocery ; store, the chances are that you will travel at least part of the distance on a numbered route, the route may have a State number and so indicated by a distinctive marker, or, if you travel between cities or towns, the chances are that you will travel along a U. S. Route, a route marked by the familiar U. S. shield with the name of the State indicated across the top and large numeral telling you that you are on a U. S. Route Number.

I

How did these numbered routes get started, for certainly they were not here in colonial days? The Indians had no numbered trails to hunt upon. The colonial stage riders probably could have used them, but other matters were more important. In the establishment of the U. S. Numbered System lies one of the most interesting stories of its kind in history. It is as American as the Stars and Stripes. It is· purely a voluntary arrangement between the several State highway departmeflts. As in the cas~ of most important things, there were many circumstances and conditions that influenced the establishment of this commonplace network of numbered highways. Maybe it is regimentation, but people like to use a marked route. As above mentioned, it may be a State number or it may be a U. S. number. They are separate and distinct networks, one supplementing the other; but this story is about the U. S. numbers. At the outset, however, let it be clearly understood that the does NOT mean that it is a secondary or existence of a State number on a route tertiary route. It can well have a higher type of surface and carry greater volumes of traffic than a U. S. number and still be a Str.te number. The U. S. Numbered System was initially planned to aid the Interstate traveler. The system was laid out with that in mind. In 1916, Congre~s passed the first Federal Aid Road Act (39 Stat. 355). In 1921, another act was passed, known as the Federal Highway Act of 1921. In these two acts are the basic foundations of the so-called Federal-aid network of today'. The Act of 1921 provided for the establishment of an integrated of roads in order to be eligible to receive Federal aid in the respective States. This had a limiting factor of 7 per cent the public road of that State. Naturally, it was upon connecting cities and State line connections in agreement the adjoining States. This is still identified in highway circles today as the 7 per cent system, for all practical purposes is also the Federal-aid primary system. It now totals some ..:34.000 miles.

Work had progressed but a few years before it became very apparent that there was a positive need for a uniform system of marking a portion of roads for the benefit of Interstate traffic. Accordingly, the American Association of State H ;ghway Officials at the time of its 1924 Annual Meeting, and, incidentally, this was the Tenth Annual Meeting of the Association, adopted the following report from a subcommittee on Traffic and Control of Traffic. This report is in the form of a and is as follows: (Attention is drawn to the fact that this letter was signed by E. W. James, who only recently retired from many years of service with the U. S. Bureau of Public Roads. As this article continues, it will be increasingly evident that Mr. James did yeomen service in the early work of developing the U. S. Numbered System.) November 18, 1924 Mr. Charles M. Babcock, Chairman, Committee on Administration A. A. S. H. O. Subject: Report of Committee on Traffic Control and Safety, 1924. Dear Sir: Your sub·committee on Traffic Control and Safety having had under consideration the general question of the safe use of our highways and the instructions given by the Association in 1923, is prepared to make certain recom· mendations. As these are the first recommendations of the kind to be specifically made by this organ· ization, it is the opinion of your Committtee that general principles involved rather than final working details should be covered at the present time, and that in making recommendations of this sort there will result increased emphasis on the importance both of taking definite action and of expediting that action sufficiently to put this organization in the fore· front of the group of agencies which have for a considerable period been likewise reviewing the whole subject of the safe use of highways and control of traffic. There has long been a more or less coherent expression of public opinion in favor of the designation of certain routes across our country in different directions by ~a single well-known name or designation. and it is recognized that the organizations which have done much to "and crystallize opinion have drawn wide and support from almost every section of the United States. The Federal Aid Highway system, provided for in law. has been designated and approved for all of the States, and consequently conditions are such at the time that your Committee strongly that this Association should take a definite stand for a general designation of routes. action will involve administrative coop<~ration on the of all States and problegislative the part of a number, it is obvious. that any action to and must be had the direction ~ of some one properly eqtlip!)ed agency rather than under anyone ACCOI·Olllg1y. your Committee makes first the following It is that this Association reo quest the Secretary Agriculture, in cooperation with the se\'eral undertake imthe selection of a cornpl'eh,ensive system of interstate routes to de~ise a and uni·

form scheme for designating such routes in such a manner as to give them a conspicuous place among the highways of the country as roads of interstate and national significance. The mapping and field marking of this sys· tem will doubtless constitute the principal means through which it will become generally known to the public. and it is believed that the value of the system will be emphasized by the use of considerable uniformity in the mark· ing devices used. and your Committee accord· ingly makes a further recommendation. It is recommended that this Association go on record as advocating the adoption of a uni· form method of marking the interstate roads to be designated and recommends that each State through its proper officials undertake tc secure any necessary changes in State laws to permit of such uniform marking and such changes in existing schemes for numbering or designating roads as may appear necessary; and that each State highway department undertake as rapidly as its program of work will permit the actual field marking of the designated routes. It is obvious that a system of highways so selected and designated will carry rapidly in· creasing traffic and that it will be desirable therefore to provide a scheme for giving such traffic the additional directions necessary to insure so far as possible the safe use of such highways. On this detail considerable work has been done by a number of representative organizations. Your Committee feels prepared to make further recommendation of a general nature covering the use of precautionary and directional signs. It is recommended that this Association go on record as approving the fOllowing:' A. For luminous signs or signals( 1) Red to indicate danger or stop. (2) Yellow to indicate caution or slow. (3) Green to indicate look or attention. This...recommendation obviously carries with it the use of green tail lights on automobiles and the use of red parking lights, and further the use of red signal lights to indicate only where a stop is intended or where a fixed point of danger exists. B. For non-luminous signsIn view of the fact that the effectiveness of non· luminous signs depends upon visibility at night under automobile headlights. we recom· mend the use of a light background, preferably lemon yellow, with black lettering as a color scheme for these signs. The present knowledge of other color combinations does not justify a further recommendation at this time. C. Shapes of non-luminous signs( 1) Railroad wuning sign-Round ( 2) Danger or Stop sign-Octagonal (3) Caution or Slow sign - Diamond shaped (4) Look or Attention slgll-::>qUtare (5) Road - Scme or conventional shape different from the above. (6) Directional and Informational Sign-

1 These recommendations were modified very shortly after this report was filed.


Caution sign should be used where it is neces· sary that the driver reduce spee~ on account ~f a condition existing inherently m the road It· self, such as steep grade, sharp curve, re~erse curve, narrow bridge, rough or loose condItIOn of surface, road under construction, etc. The Danger sign should be developed. to Impress the driver with the need of bnngmg hIS car in complete control and be prepared to operate his car to meet an emergency. The Danger sign should be used as a .Stop where ~ full stop is for any reason requtred. The Ratlroad sign will be confined, of course to use at grade crossings and mayor may no~ be combmed with a second Danger or Stop SIgn. Respectfully submitted, Committee on Traffic Control and Safety, E. W. James, Temporary Chairman

It can be noted from the foregoing that another problem was being studied at ~he same time that these steps were bemg taken to develop the U. S. Numbered System. That was the matter .of uniform signs and traffic control deVICes. These signs are very common nowadays, and everybody now realizes for example, that the octagon sign is the Stop sign,. and. the round sign is the Railroad Crossmg sJgn, but these standards, as the foregoing let· ter indicates, were the result of much study and deliberation. The above report on the part of the special committee resulted in the Asso· ciation adopting the following res~luti~n at that, their Tenth Annual Meetmg 10 San Francisco, California, November 1924: Trail Marking Whereas, this Association has adopted the report of the Sub·committee on Traffic Control and Safety, recommending the immediate selec· tion of transcontinental and interstate routes from the Federal Aid Road system, said roads to be continuously designated by means of standard highway marking signs and protected by standard traffic warning signs; and Whereas, this system of highways when es· tablished and marked will satisfy the demand for marked routes on the part of transconti· nental and interstate traffic, thus meeting the need which has been met in the past in a meas· ure by the marked trails established by the reputable trails associations; and Whereas, many individuals have sought to capitalize the popular demand for interstate or cross·country routes by organizing trails, col· lecting large sums of money from our citizens and giving practically no service in retu~n, with resulting discredit to the reputable traIls associations which have heretofore rendered distinct public service by stimulating highway improvement, maintenance and marking; Now, therefore, be it resolved, that this Association hereby recommends to the several States that the reputable trails associations now existing be permitted to continue their mark· ings during their period of usefulness, pending the establishing of the proposed marking system. unless such action shall conflict with the marking systems and policies now in force in the several States; and Be it further resolved, that no trail associa· tion be permitted to establish further routes on State or Federal aid routes; and Be it further resolved, that we hereby warn the citizens of this nation to investigate care· fully the ..esponsi~i1ity {)f trails organizers and Jemand convincing evidence insuring proper expendirure of funds before contributing to or otherwise supporting such agencies.

It is thus obvious that the development of the Numbered System was substantially launched. There had been mention made in many papers and addresses at prior sessions, and, as the years went on, there

continued to be such articles. This magazine AMERICAN HIGHWAYS, has thro~gh the years c~rried the.s: articles. In order to give offiCIal recognltlO.n to the development of this road numbenng pro· posal, the Secretary of Agriculture, under whose offices the Bureau of Public Roads operated at that time, was requested to name an official Committee from the member Highway Departments to continue with the study toward the develop· ment of a U. S. Numbered System of Highways. The following article appeared in the April 1925 issue of AMERICAN HIGHWAYS: Almost the last official act of Me. Howard M. Gore, who retired as Secretary of Agricul. ture on March 4 to become Governor of West Virginia, was to appoint a commission of o~. ficials from the United States Bureau of Publ!c Roads and the various State highway depart· ments to prepare a general plan of numbering and marking the highways of interstate character. This came about by unanimous request from the State highway dcpartme~t~ .as a cul~ina. tion of their study and actIVItIes covenng a period of several years. Speaking of this work an.d the ~aluable reo suits which it is expected wIll obtam from ~he work of this joint board, Me. Gore saId: "There have been a number of safety council meetings and gatherings of various groups i~. terested not only in highway safety but 10 highway convenience, which h~ve from ti.me to time published their suggestlOns. but It has been found that there have been so many diver· gent views and conflicting ideas that t.he gen· eral public in traveling over the hIghways through the several States encounters co~sider. able confusion because of the great vanety of direction signs and danger signals." "This move to coordinate the work of the various States through this governmental agency is just another proof that. the Federal ~ove.rn-_ ment in its cooperatlOn With the States IS domg a vital work which would not otherwise be accomplished if entire dependence were placed upon the States themselves. "This joint board will not only adopt unt· form signs and danger signals to be approv~d by the States but will also number the malO highways throughout the country. The purpose of this is to simplify traveling directions for the public so that a person traveling from New York through Chicago to San Francisco may be able to do so by following a certain number all the way. Then, also, every danger sign will mean the same in every State. It is believed that these measures will add much to the s:lfety of the traveling public as well as to its convenience and personal comfort. You would be surprised if you knew the additional expense met by the public in the unnecessary mileage traveled because of misdirection or no direc· tion at aiL" "Thirty-eight State legislatures are now in session. and while a few States have no legislation ~n their statute books to provide-for this coordinating work, a vast majority already have that authority, and it is expected that the reo maining States will gladly fall in line." "This board is being formed at the unanimous request of State Highway departments that have been studyi rl & the qUC;SJiPll for several years. and I am only too glad to cooperate with them in bringing about this much-needed national consideration of the great traffic de· mands for uniform traffic regulations through. out the country:' The members of the commission follow: Thomas H. MacDonald, Chief of the Bureau of Public Roads, Washington, D. c., Chairman; E. W. James, Chief of Design, Bureau of Public Roads, Washington, D. c.; A. B. Flet·

cher, consulting highway traffic engineer, Bureau of Public Roads, Washington, D. C.; Frank F. Rogers, State Highway Commissioner, Lansing, Michigan; C. M. Babcock, CommIs, sioner of Highways, 51. Paul, Minnesota; A. H. Hinkle, Superintendent of Maintenance, Indianapolis, Indiana; James Allen, State High· way Engineer, Olympia, Washington; Cyrus S. Avery, Chairman, State Highway Commission, Tulsa Oklahoma; L. A. Boulay, Director of High~ays and Public Works, Columbus, Ohio; O. A. Brown, State Highway CemmlsslOner, Bismarck, North Dakota; James A. French, State Highway Engineer, Santa Fe, New Mexico; C. P. Fortney, State Highway Engi. neer, Charleston, West Virginia; Fredenck Stuart Greene, Director of Public 'V{forks, AI· bany, New York; W. O. Hotchkiss, Chairman State Highway Commission, .r.~adison, Wiscon· sin; John A. Macdonald, HIghway Comnussioner, Hartford, Connecticut; C. H. Moore· field, State Highway Engineer, Columbia, South Carolina; Robert M. Morton, State Highway Engineer, Sacramento, California;. B. H. Piepmeier, Chief Engineer, Jefferson CIty, Missouri; Henry G. Shirley, Chairman State Highway Commission, Richmond, VirtFinia; William G. Sloan, State HIghway EnglOeer, Trenton, New Jersey; and William F. Williams, Director of Public Works, Boston, Massachusetts.

In January 1926, AMERICAN HIGH· WAYS carried a report from E. W. James, who was Secretary of the Joint Board in charge of the Study, which is as follows: General Goethals, then in charge of the con· struction of the Panama Canal, is credited with an epigram reflecting on the operation of official boards. He said that in his experience he had found boards long, narrow, and wooden. In presenting an account of the activities of the Joint Board on Interstate Highways, I must first of all take a moment to call attention to the fact it was only a year ago that this body passed a resol ution asking the Secre· tary of Agriculture to appoint the Joint Board on Interstate Highways; the appointments were maoeon March 2, 1925, and today the work of the Board as a separate agency is practically complete. This celerity of action, in view especially of the magnitude of the task undertaken, and the difficulties present and potential at al· most every step, clearly absolves this particular Board of being dilatory, indecisive or fainthearted in attacking the particular problem it had to deal with. The conflicting demands of the 48 States have been met on a broad gauge basis. The Middle Western States have secured the larger mileage, which undoubtedly is required in that region. The Eastern States, which strongly favored a skeleton s)'stem of roads of comparatively limited mileage, have been satisfied to accept the soundness of the reasons for an amplified system in the Mississippi Valley. The Western Land States have recognized the difficulties that would be raised and the weak· nesses that would characterize a system of paper roads where construction coulJ not be effected for financial reasons until relatively far in the fuNre. All groups have viewed the general situation with vision and tolerance and have given their suggestions and advice in a fullness of comprehension and harmony of purpose that leave no room for a charge of narrowness or lack of vision. The conditions of the problem required open· handed treat· ment. and the Board's whole actil:m has been consistent with that idea. That the undertaking was charged with dangerous possibilities to the road sentiment and to the road construction program of the coun· try was recognized in the discussion of the resolution at San Francisco in 1924. I recall the expression of Mr. White, of Iowa, then president of the Association that as soon as the purpose and work of the Board should become known the Infernal Regions would begin pop·


ping. To approach such a task and carry it through demanded intelligent and thoughtful handling at every turn. The information already possessed personally by the members of the Board regarding their own and adjacent States; the procedure adopted, which calle~ to the assistance of the Board all the State hIghway departments not represented by !Dembership in the Board; and the maps and l!1form~­ rion available through the Bureau of Public Roads insured as intelligent, unbiased, and sane decisions as could have been secured through any agency. I submit that the Board stands absolved of all evidence of woude.n. headedness that may be implied in the dIStinguished General's epigram. To support this point, there may be mentioned the fact that a difference of opinion .regarding a Maryland-Pennsylvania connectIon was settled by reference to definite traffic data available from three sources. Another adjust· ment was made between Maryland and Delaware on the basis of the changing den:and of seasonal traffic conditions. A connectIOn be· tween Philadelphia and Trenton was made on thl: basis of the future type of traffic and the definite purpose of the State Highway ~epart. mem of the Keystone State to throw truck traffic to one road and light through traffic to the other. In New York a definite policy was followed of avoiding the large cities so far as possible and at the same time providing conv~nient and direct access to them. Belt routes have been introduced in many urban areas conspicuously at Cleveland, Toledo, Det~oit and Chicago. New England worked practically as a unie and has secured a well-devised layout rh:it reaches not only the important centers but also all the popular resort areas. Diagonal routes have been introduced which follow the prevailing flow of traffic ar.d recognize actually existing demands of the traveling pubhe. These routes are conspicuous from the Chicago, Detroit and Cleveland areas to the Southeast as well as from Kansas City, St. LoUIS and Memphis. The Mississippi Valley presented its own peculiar problem in a widely distributed choice of routes and a correspond. Ingly less dearly define.d. concen~ration of t~af­ fie. To meet this condItIOn an Increased mileage in this region was imperative. In the West the routes were more obvious, and so far as possible the future has been anticipated to as great a degree as financial limitations appear to warrant. Probably the Board has erred, if at all, on the side of liberality in this respect. It is hoped, however, that the danger of the whole scheme being seriously weakened by the existence of paper roads has been avoided. If any other result does obtain the responsibility rests squarely with those States that may be found .to have misinterpreted public traffic demands and their own ability to construct. At the request of the Secretary of Agriculture, the president of the Association was reo quested to make suggestions of the personnel and a plan was worked out by which a definite weight was given to States and groups of States, based on their road-building program, and a member assigned to each such group. The secretary accepted the recommendations of the Association president and the Board was org:lOized with Mr. MacDonald as chairman. The first meeting of the Board was hc:ld at Washington on April 20-21, 1925. The principal action had to do with policies and procedure. It was clearly apparent that the importance and difficulties that were inherent in the task before them macle the Boardre;dize how much depended on doing exactly the right things in the right way. Every member under appointment at that time was present except one, and all action was practically unanimous as finally formulated. The largest matter of policy was that relative to public hearings, and although from some quarters the Board ha.~ been criticised, the de· cision not to hold hearings is believed to be entirely sound. In fact, it has been demon· strated by the voluminous correspondence of

the Board that no other course would have been practicable. There were kn?wn to be at leat 100 trail organizations, and It was reason· ably assumed that in addition to these there would be an indefinite but probably large number of local civic organizations that would at once have developed an acute interest in the work of the Board if the opportunity for hearings were given. A desire to be heard has come from a large number of trails organizations, boards of trade, chambers of commerce, automobile clubs, and various other civic organizations and even from individuals, as well as from' county and municipal officials. Had a policy of holding open me:tings been. adopted by the Board, being a public. an~ o!fioal body, must have issued a general inVItatIOn to such hearings. It could not have discriminated among those interested individuals and organizations that desired to be heard. From the correspondence, I should say that that number would have run into the hundreds. Under such conditions the work of the Board would have been protracted and delayed beyond all reasons, and it is not too much to assume that the work might have been made impossible. The Board knew that all of the 250 marked trails could not be included in the system, and it was imperative that it avoid being plac~d in the position of an arbiter among the traIls organizations and marked routes. Its real task was to select transcontinental and major interstate routes on their merits; this task would have been distorted into one of making a choice among the various marked trails. A policy of holding no hearings was the only one that could be safely adopted. Another policy of the Board that needs no explanation was the decision .to carry out .all activities in the closest pOSSible cooperatIOn with the several State highway departments. In line with this policy the States were divided into groups, group meetings were held to which all States were urged to send representatives with authority to act, and in the event they could not do this to send maps and let· ters fully outlining their suggestions. We even furnished the States with uniform blank State maps on which to make their suggestions. All States were promptly furnished with a transcript of the action of the Board. The marker design first suggested was submitted to the States with request for their ideas and comments for changes. After the routes were laid out at the group meetings the Board made such adjustments as it believed necessary, and the whole matter was referred back to the States, through the group chairmen, for confirmation, in order that there might be no question that the adjustments made by the Board were satisfactory to the several States. The final draftings of the United States map and the submission of the report to the Seqetary of Agriculture were withheld until confirmation had been received from every State. There were certain policies of the Board which were largely determined by the auspices under which it operated. The only authority of the secretary for acceding to the request of this Association in (lea.ting such a Joint Board is in Section 18 of the Federal Highway Act. This act gives the Government, through the Secretary, certain cooperative authority over the roads of the Federal-aid system only; and it was necessary, therefore, that the work of the Board be confined to routes comprised within the Federal·aid highway system or to roads which could be included in such system under the terms of the act. This has been done, and where the routes selected by the Board and confirmed by the States include mileage not al· ready approved as part of the Federal·aid sys· tern of the several States, those States will be asked to apply at once for approval of all such sections of road. Some States have already done this on their own initiative. At the first meeting the Board agreed that the question of nomenclature must be post· poned. as any attempt to assign numbers to the routes could not be final until all routes were selected and definitely known.

The Board appointed a Committee on SIgns to work during the summer and report at the next meeti.ng. Following the April meeting, and as soon thereafter as possible, a schedule of group meetings was arranged and the respective States were invited to send representatives to San Francisco, Kansas City, Chicago, Atlanta, New York, and Boston according to the group they were in. Some States sent representatIves to the group meetings of adjacent groups as well as to their own group meeting, and in the end all but one State of the 48 were found to have been represented or to have sent their sugges· tions of routes to be selected. When the work of the six group meetings was put on a map and the mileage studied it was found th'lt in SGme details the system was too elaborate. The mileage amounted to 81,096 miles, or 2.8 percent of the certified p'Jblic· road mileage. Accordingly at the meeting of the Board on August 3·4, the mileage wa~ reduced by eliminations to 50,137 miles and the arrangement made to refer the adjusted system back to the States through a series of group chairmen in order that the States might have a final opportunity to review and discuss the system. In some groups second meetings were held, in others the work of confirmation was done by correspondence. By this time in the history of the Board's operations the public seemed to have been aroused to the possibilities of the situation, and the work of the group chairmen in some sections was not of an enviable sort. The reo suits were forthcoming, however, in due time, and every State indicated its approval of the selections made, or so adjusted them as to make them satisfactory. The States had this matter of interstate routes before them for practically five months, and it is interesting to note that since the confirmations were received three States have had afterthoughts and one State has written to inquire if it could have such a thought. The mileage of the system as it appears in the report to the Secretarv is 75,884 miles, or 2.65 percent of the public roads of the country. _A.;..the August meeting the question of nomenclature had to be finally decided and was soon disposed of in favor of numbering. A numbering committee was appointed without instructions to assign the designating numbers to the several routes, and this work was com· pleted at St. louis on September 25, after all confirmations were in. It could not be done before. The numbering scheme deserves some explanation. It was the result of a long seri~s of trials and adjustments begun by Mr. HlOkle of Indiana and the secretary of the Board in August, 1924. Jt wa~ then suggested that a prearranged scheme for assigning numbers could be worked out, and this suggestion was finally applied by the committee, with thl: reo SUll shown in the present system of routes adopted by the Board. The principal details of the system are as follows: Routes of prevailing east and west traffic are given even numbers, and routes of prevailing north and south traffic are odd. The principal east and west routes are given the multiple of 10 and, of course, end in zero. The only exception to this is Route 2, which was used to avoid the use of zero alone. The prinicpal north and south routes end in I, and are given the numbers I, 11, 21, 31, ete. As there were more north and south through rOuteS than could be numbered in this scheme, numbers ending in 5 were assigned, so far as possible, to the routes of second impor· tance. The adoption of this orderly scheme of numbering produced a condition wherein there were found between some of the main through routes more shorter routes than there were intervening numbers available. For instance. hetween Route J 0 and Route 20 only four routes could receive numbers in consecutive, numerical order. namely, 12, 14, 16, anci II'


In many cases, due to alternates, cut·off routes and connecting routes, there were more than four such intermediate routes to be numbered. To meet this condition the scheme was adopted of assigning the principal route number ~o the alternate route or cross·over, and prefi:cmg to it the figure 1, 2, 3, 4, etc., as mIght be necessary. So far as possible, all routes were numbered consecutively from north to south and from east to west and the alternates and cross-overs follow this' system. For instance, the first branch to Route 50 in the east is 150, the next one going westward is 250, the third is 550, etc. Similarly the first branch of Route 41 near the Canada line is 141, the next one farther south is 241, etc. This scheme also, to some degree, provides flexibility for number· ing future possible additions to the routes. at present selected. In general, the consecutive numbers were used where they could be fairly applled and the three digit numbe:s only where it was necessary, or appeared desuable. Between the time of the two full Board meetings, the Committee on Signs was at ,,:,ork on its report. The report of the commIttee was ready for the August meeting and the reo suits are familiar to all of you. The committee had a large amount of material to work with and did all it could to adhere to prevailing designs and at the same time produce uniformity, boldness, and visibility. Thought was given to the materials of which the signs and markers would likelv be constructed and designs were finally adopted which lend themselves readily to commercial production or: a large scale in wood, pressed metal, cast Iron, cast ;teel, or cast aluminum. No action was recommended or taken toward standardizing any particular design or type of reflecting, illuminated, or automatic signal, because it was considered best to leave the development of such devices to the manufacturers. The color code for such signs was already established by action of the ASSOCiation and by the American Engineering Standards Committee, and if the various sign producers will adopt the color code described for illuminating signs and the shape of head recommended by the Board adequate uniformIty will be secured. As secretary of the Board, and as acting chairman during the absence of Mr. MacDonald, I have had much of the administrative work to handle, and I wish to take this occasion to thank the members for the time they have so freely given to the work, the promptness with which they have acted, and the willingness, the hearty cooperation, the har· mony and the careful thought they have displayed continually. I especially wish to thank those of the Board who have accepted committee work of various kinds, and given it such expeditious and satisfactory attention. The task has been full of pitfalls and might very easily at a number of points have been seriously embarrassed had we had any other than the most unselfish and broad attitude of mind among the members. It is not appropriate that I should claim success for the work, because its application remains to be made. Uu! I am confident that no start could have been made by any group engineers or administrators in the country. I have here a letter from the Se,~ret:arv A/'triculture regarding the ciation and that rately to you permission, I Washington, D. C, November 18, 1925. Me. Thomas H. MacDonald, Chief, Bureau of Public Roads and Chairman, Joint Board on Interstate Highways, Washington, D. C Dear Mr. MacDonald: i have received under date of October 30 the report of the Joint Board on Interstate Highways and have carefully considered its recommendations. In the I have been much im· pressed the and nature of the task which the State highway officials asked the

Joint Board to undertake and, realizing the difficulties that must have been constantly pres· ent in work of this character, I am equally impressed with. the bro~d line~, orderliness, and conspicuous fauness WIth WhICh the work has been done. I wish to congratulate the members of the Board on the results which they have secured. With the recommendations made I am in accord, and request that you transmit the report to the Association of State Highway Of· ficials as a body, and to the separate State highway departments, expressing my concurrence with the system of routes proposec'. and with the plan to mark these routes uniformly for the promotion of greater safety and convenience in connection with interstate traffic. I should be glad also if you would call ~he attention of all the States to a request whICh has been officially received from the War Department, and which has a direct connectIOn with the plan covered by the report of the Board. The War Department has adopted a system of marking localities on map.s for de· fense purposes, and the system reqUIres eventually a corresponding marking of locations on the ground, as at cross roads, forks, and other points where directional signs might properly be installed. The designation of such local points by the method of marking adopted by the War Department appears to me as thoroughly worthy of consideration by the States. Such a course would no doubt greatly increase the value of the general highway system to the Government. This adoption of the proposals of the Board will accomplish a marked advance in the highway system and building program of the country as a whole. The dear designation of important routes of travel will be a distinct ad· vantage not only in eliminating confusion, but also in furthering systematic and continuous construction. Uniform marking through the .;ystem of danger signs provided should promote safety of travel, especially if it can be associated with uniform traffic regulations. The directness of the through routes will doubtless serve a very large number of our population that travel from one general section of our country to another and will facilitate that freedom of communication which more than any· thing else binds our States and our country in one united nation. There have been many agencies at work, both in connection with the Federal Government and through civic organizations, on matters dosely allied with the work of the Joint Board on Interstate Highways, and much of the work done and many of the suggestions made will find a practit:al application through the work of the Joint Board which is for this reason, I believe, very timely and adequate. There appears to be ample authority in the law for promulgating the plans outlined by the report of the Board, and the interests of the Federal Government in the highway system of the nation eventually have produced action like that originated by the States in the present case. It is gratifying to have the States their own initiative originate a plan of such national aspect and value. It appears to me that the work of the Board as original1y outlined has been satisfactorily c~:~~~~tl~~~edand from this the results a will rest in the hands of the several States under direct supervision the recommendations the Board will be carried and the appointments under which has operated may, therefore, terminated. express to the Board appreciation of the time and effort they devoted to this matter, and for the breadth of view they have taken in working out the details. Very truly yours, W. M. Jardine.

The final report of the Joint Committee was given by E, W. James and was printed in the January 1927 issue of AMERICAN HIGHWAYS, as follows: At the meeting in Detroit in 1925 the Joint

Board on Interstate Highways presented its final report and was discharged by the Secretary of Agriculture, The report was accepted by the Association and at the same time authority was delegated to the Executive Committee to make such minor changes as appeared necessary or, desirable in the routes proposed for uniform marking as United States Highways. It becomes my duty to report the operations during the year that have resulted from the action of the Association referred to. Between the adjournment at Detroit and January 14, 1926, there was an accumulation of changes requested by the several States, most of which were of minor nature. These were acted upon at a meeting of the Executive Committee at Chicago on that date. Following and at the meeting, several other changes were requested, some of which were by no means of a minor character. At first an effort was made to handle all such requests by letter ballot of the Executive Committee, but when it developed that some requests involved alterations of numbers through several States, the letter ballot had ro be confined to changes affecting only a single State, and from that time all interstate questions were held for action at the next meeting of the Committee. Practically all of the minor changes involved only shifting of numbers, and several of the most troublesome major changes have been of the same sort. I think all the requests which h:rve required difficult and extensive changes to meet them have been inspired by trail organ· izations. At the Chicago meeting of the Executive Committee a total of 79 cases were acted on formally and since that meeting 63 cases have been favorably considered. At a meeting of the Committee held here Monday, November 8, 1926, the few remaining cases of an interstate character that could not be satisfactorily handled by letter ballot were dIsposed of and nine requests were favorably adjusted. At the time of the adoption of the report of the Joint Board last year the Association adopted certain recommendations for standard signs and markers. SketChes of the proposed standards were presented as a part of those recommendations. It was necessary that the Committee on Traffic Control and Safety of the Association continue to develop the detailed designs for signs and markers, to prepare specifications for manufacturing, and to draft a Manual to guide the States in the uniform use and erection of the signs. With respect to that work I wish to say that the industry has been fully consulted and that the specifications are so drafted as to produce a firstclass quality of work, based closely on prevailing shop practice, at reasonable prices. The specifications are in accord with the latest, best, and most economical practice so far developed. Each State Highway Department has been furnished with complete sets of the sign de· signs and specific requests for designs from manufacturers, safety committees, railroads, State and Government agencies, and foreign governments have led to the distribution to Jate of 10.034 separate designs. While I have no authority from the Execu· tive Committee to recommend the adoption of the made in the system of United States I wish to state my personal opinion. urge the immediate adoption of the as now laid out. It is not perfect. After months almost continuous experience with work I am that to leave the CaSe further will not improve it. So far as it contains errors of arrangement or selection, the worst ones are due to efforts to meet local viewpoints, and this condi· tion has more and more pronounced as tne requests changes have come from the Srates. Tne Joint Board started out with a broad general conception of the country as a whole and the Nation·wide significance of a great system of routes. We should not an-


nounce an opportunity for further revision but adopt the system nearly as possible as it now comes from the Executive Committee. This attitude is supported by the fact that it is becoming more and more difficult to make changes. I have canvassed the States and have received the following significant report; Twenty-two States announce that the mark路 ing is practically complete. Ten States announce that the work is partly done. Fourteen States have not started actual mark路 ing, but of these 14, six announce that signs are ordered. or that they plan to mark next season. Two States have not been heard from directly. This means that the system is rapidly being crystallized. Changes can not be made satisfactorily without altering signs now in place, and in fairness to the States such changes should not be asked. The fact that 32 States have the work far advanced indicates the reception which the plan has had and argues well fur its ultimate complete success.

As can be well imagined, it was necessary for the Executive Committee of the AASHO to keep in very close touch with the operations and deliberations of this activity. Many meetings were devoted exclusively to reconciling the many differences that were always present. However, on November 11, 1926 the final report was officially approved and accepted. The initial network totaled some 96,626 miles. During the intervening years there has been no tabulation maintained of the total mileage from year to year but in 1951 a recompilation of the records was made and at that time, the total of all US numbered routes was 163,850 miles. It should be noted that there are many miles that of necessity carry two or more route numbers, especially in mountainous areas where routes must converge in order to go through the pass and then separate on the other side. The total of these overlaps in 1951 was 18,707 miles which means, then that the mileage of roads involved was 145,143. From the mileage in the so-called Federal Aid primary system, then it can be seen that there are many miles that do not carry US numbers. It is almost impossible to explain in a short article the difference between the several systems that highway engineers discuss with fluency, but for all practical purposes, as mentioned at the outset, the number system that we all identify with the US shield is now approximately some 150,000 miles of the 234,000 miles of Federal Aid primary highways. There are cases, however, where a U.S. number is for a short distance over a section of secondary route. In mentioning this substantial increase in mileage from 1926 to it dearly 19?6 of some 50,000 pomts up the often observed circumstances that the U. S. Numbered System needs perfecting, not extension. To contmue to expand this mileage is to dilute the value of the system. It has worked :narvel~u~ly well through the years. It IS admInIstered by the Executive Committee of the American Association of State Highway Officials.

In the mechanics of the operation of changing or adding ,to the U. S. Route Numbered System, for many years the Executive Committee has assigned this responsibility to a subcommittee of their own number, the Route Numbering Committee, which screen all petitions and recommend action to the full committee. Appreciating the fact that continued extension of the system is extremely dangerous, the Committee has from time to time adopted certain policies to govern. Recently, they approved the use of a specific form upon which all petitions must be submitted. It should be mentioned here that only the petitions from the member departments are considered. This is entirely proper as it is the responsibility of the highway department to sign and maintain this system and it must be their prerogative to suggest changes and not be required to operate on changes submitted by other agencies. To aid the Route Numbering Committee in their deliberations, the new application form provides for an accurate listing of the physical conditions of the proposed change or extension. The petition must include a comparative evaluation of the highway relative to currently approved standards for the primary highway system; in other words, if the proposed extension does not have adequate pavement width, adequate shoulders, or sufficiently flat curves to meet the current primary highway standards, then this information immediately becomes conspicuous on the application form by the requirement that it must be so indicated in red. It can be easily seen from the foregoing articles that, in order to complete the initial system, it was necessary to extend the routes over sections of highways that were not improved to any reasonable degree. The situation has vastly changed now, and, even though many miles of the initially established routes are not improved to proper or desirable standards, it is mandatory now that all extensions must be improved to the standards as above mentioned. In this manner, it is possible for the Route Numbering Committee in their consideration to realistically appraise the proposal and not to be swayed by commercial or political promotion as being the motivating factor for any change or addition. A promiscuous practice of constantly adding to the U. S. Numbered System brings no benefit to that system, but rather rapidly depreciates its value. The Route Numbering Subcommittee of the Executive Committee also frowns upon the establishment of alternate routes. It is too easy to designate an old location of a highway as an alternate route and to carry the basic route on the newlf improved location. Certainly, pressure IS. al:ways brought .upon the Highway CommISSIoner to retam the designation as a alternate route on the old location.

While there is merit from the point of view of the local commercial establishments to keep that number there, it is contrary to the basic policy of seeking to serve interstate traffic and not local commercial enterprise. The approved manner in dealing with situations of that nature is to designate the old location through the business portion of the community as a Business Route, and carrying the basic number around by way of a by-pass. In this manner it is readily apparent to the traveler just what lies upon the route ahead. The use of the Alternate Route marking can be most unsatisfactory. Mention should be made here of the development through the years of the companion study in the matter of uniform methods of marking and signing. It will b~ recalled that. this problem came up slmult~neously WIth that of providing the co-ordmated system. In the mid-20'S, this Association through Committee action ?eveloped the uniform signs and markmg procedure. It was produced in manual form and achieved considerable recognition. It became soon apparent, however, that the use of a stand-ard sign had a great value on roads and streets other than those under the control of the State highway dep~rtment, and, accordingly, very earlr theIr use was expanded to include pnmary county roads and major city streets. In recognition of the fact that these were not necessarily the responsibil.ity of the highway department, the InstItute of Traffic Engineers became a ~artner in the development and productIon of the commonly known "Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streers and Highways." They were also aided by the National Conference on Street and Highway Safety, which recently evolved into the National Committee on Uniform Traffic Laws and Ordinance~. These three organizations now functIOn through a Joint Committee made up of membersh~p from all three groups. Any undertakmg or plan as extensive as the U. S. Numbered Highway System ~s very strongly influenced by the changmg scene through the decades. Since the inception of the Federal-aid system and after World War II, there came into exis~ence a certain portion of the primary hIghway network of a limited mileage identified as the Interstate System. Current legislative proposals before the Congress identify this as the National System of Interstate Highways. This is the most important portion of the primary roads of the Nation and is limited by statute to 40,000 miles. The ,Association has been cognizant for 'sO~,e .tJme of the necessity and the desirablltty for providing distinguished markings for this priority limited mileage netw~rk. The Association, through its Comnuttees, was able to bring about the basic ~ystem, a.nd studies now underway promIse to brmg forth a satisfactory method of marking the National System of Inter,tate Highways.


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b~-,::~' for this isO URsueEDITORIAL is Peter A. Brannon's story of. an indian trail of 1813 carried in the April 1929 issue of Alabama Highways and we quote: "Before the echoes of the war whoops of the infuriated savages at Fort Mims had died away, Col. George S. Gaines had started Edmondson, the express rider from St. Stephens, through the Choctaw and Chickasaw nations to ask Andrew Jackson to come to the relief of the new settlers in the Alabama country. In less than five weeks' time, for he needed little urging, Jackson was on his way south with a force which destiny ruled was to enable him to win not only the war against the Indians, but to force the Spanish governor's recognition of the rights of the young American government and to shatter the hopes of Britain's ambitions to rule this western Mississippi valley. Fifteen months later, Packenham was dead at New Orleans and the flower of the British army had faded. Ten years later, Spain had given us West Florida, and Andrew Jackson, its first American governor, had gotten into politics and but a few months later had attained that position to which many aspire but which few reach-he was president of these United States, having been an all powerful factor in preserving that Union. Thus had its inception路 that trail, the forerunner of the much talked of road, which a few years ago we were wont to call 'the Jackson Highway'. The 'Jackson Trace' has been a familiar route in our past hundred

years of history, and along that . old Iridian path have been enacted many of the episodes of our development. Students of our aboriginal history refer to the route as the Great Cumberland River war trail of the American Indians. It led from the Alibamo towns at the mouth of the Coosa, up the east bank of that stream to Turkey town (in the present Cherokee County) and thence northwest out to the Mississippi. It was along this already mapped path practically all the way, that General Jackson came in 1813, and because of his intimate association with our subsequent affairs, this march stands out in our memories. For several years prior to the beginning of the World War, and in the early days of highway development in Alabama, an improved highway which would split the state from the northern vale to that section where 'the perfumed southwind whispers the magnolia groves among,' was sought, and they argued strongly for the Nashville to New Orleans roadway to cross our Tennessee River at Decatur and go by Birmingham, Montgomery and Mobile. J ackson went from Nashville to New Orleans down through Alabama, why could not the J ackson Highway also follow that route? Old Hickory followed the Indian trail and came from Fayette-ville in Tennessee to Huntsville, thence southeast to Ten Island Shoals on the Coosa (now Lock Three, where the S. A. L. R. R. crosses) , down through Talladega County and to the mouth o"f' th~ Coosa River. He

was not making a straight march, for the Upper Creek Indians engaged his attention daily for six months and there were byways into which he went. The J ac)cson . Trace, as thepa,triQtic societies have named it, follows sixty miles of the old trail in one county alone--Talladega. but it passes through ten more and by many points interesting and historical alike. Take your map and look yonder in Lauderdale County, so called for the colonel killed at New Orleans, for Big Shoal Creek, then leave the old military Road there and travel east through Athens to Huntsville, southeast to cross the river near Guntersville, over the mountain to Attalla, then to Greensport and drop down four miles to the ferry where you will find the remains of old Fort Strother. History does not record it, but Major John Strother was Jackson's personal friend and who knows but that the fort was so called to honor him? This point, too, has another interesting association. General L. H. ROllsseau, the Federal officer who destroyed the West Point and Montgomery Railroad on July 17, 1863, crossed the Coosa on his raid down from Decatur, at the place where he says in his official report to General W. T. Sherman's Chief of Staff, '1 learned from guides that the ford we crossed was the one by which General Jackson effected the passage of the Coosa on his march to Talladega during his campaign against the Creek Indians in 1813.' Now, cross the ford here into Calhoun County, go south and east by Lincoln to old Tallassehatchee on to Talladega, south to Sylacauga, southwest by the village of Fayetteville, to the mouth of Cedar Creek, known by the Indians as Atchinahatchee. Here is where Howell Tatum, that three score and five year old engineer of the Tennessee volunteers, who, thirty-five years before then, had commanded North Carolinians in America's struggle for Independence, built the post which they (Continued on Pagel8) ALABAMA ROADBUILDER


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(Continued from Page 6) called Fort Williams, for the commanding officer of the 39th U. S. Infantry. From Fort Williams down through our Coosa County the general passed Weogufka and over that hill where later those South Carolina Huguenots settled and called it Buyckeville, by Jordan Dam and Wetumpka of today to old Fort Toulouse of French times. The D. A. R. Chapters in Calhoun and Talladega Counties h a v e placed commemorative markers of granite every three miles along this old way, in their respective counties, and there is a special one of white marble at Sylacauga, placed by the Joseph McDonald Chapter as a gift from the three great grandsons of the Revo~utionary Patriot whose name It bears. General Jackson fought the battle of Talladega November 9, 1813 was later at Emuckfau and in 11arch he directed Major Tatum to fortify a supply base at Cedar Creek. Here at Fort Williams site, three miles from the old Wilsonville ferry crossing, more than half-a-hundred Ten ness e e Volunteers have found eternal rest. These men were killed or died of wounds at Horse Shoe Bend when the backbone of the Creek Confederacy was broken and the eastern half of the Mississippi Territory opened to white settlement. The Fort Williams Memorial Association of Talladega County has pledged itself to keep alive the memory of the deeds of these men who made possible Alabama's initial development. After Horse Shoe Bend battle March 27 1814, Jackson proceeded so~th along the old trail to the junction of the two rivers '. intending to prepare for the next attack on the natives. Here William Weatherford surrendered and asked protection for his few remaining warriors' and the women and children. Weatherford was born not two miles, as the crow flies, west of this place.

His mother and his grandmother, Sehoys both, maids of the clan of the Wind-the ruling tribe , were born at the river's mouth and he came home to lay down his arms when the hopes of his people were shattered. Promoted now to Commanderin-Chief of the Southern division of the U. S. Army, Andrew Jackson came again in August to Fort Jackson, (the old French post havi;ng been renamed and christened by General Thomas Pinckney, in his honor) this time as U. S. Commissioner, with Colonel Return J. Meigs and the Agent for Indian affairs, Colonel Benjamin Hawkins. They met here to fix the terms of that land cession known in history as 'The Treaty of Fort Jackson' of August 9, 1814. He came down that same old path and was joined by the force which followed him to Pensacola and New Orleans. Thomas H. Benton, later for thirty years a Senator from Missouri, but now a Colonel in the Tennessee Volunteer Army, was with him. but John Strother and John Ma~hesney had 'gone on'. Their bones lay at Fort Jackson alongside :those of Isaac Ross, the early settler, until they took Jackson's soldiers to Mobile cemetery in 1897. The 'Jackson Trace' con tin u e s on down through Montgomery County. The flat-boats which brought Russell's men from Alabama Heights to Fort Jackson, waited and carried the 'old 3rd U. S.' back, this time to be accompanied by the General and some of his Tennesseeans, while John Coffee marched overland with the 39th U. S. Infantry and his own Tennessee troops. While Major Tatum was surveying the Alabama River, which by the way is the first actual topographical survey' which we have of any of our southern streams, Colonel Benton. was erecting that post at the "trail crossing two miles east of Fort Mims that he called to honor Major Lemuel P. Montgomery of his regiment, killed at Horse Shoe Bend. Thus, this one like some other roads in the State, should be the

'Coffee trace' and not the J ack- ~j son Trace. 1 l John Hutchings, who came asl a soldier in 1813, shortly afterward returned as a settler, and if the traveler will stop out there a few miles northwest of Athens he will find his resting place on the side of that trail which he helped to blaze. Sixteen young men, four of them officers, gave their lives at Talladega. A monument in the city cemetery will tell you their names, for the Andrew Jackson Chapter D. A.R. of Talladega, has seen that their memories shall ever be kept fresh. General Jackson's line of march in that day was not along our present day main high~ay route, but that road through Talladega County which perpetuates it in part, is in scenic beauty and historic interest second to none in America. On your way to the Land of Flowers, for you are on the 'Florida Short Route,' just look to your right and then to your left and the sky line which pictures the mountain ranges before you can be improved by no artist's brush. The perfumed air of the valley when the jasmine and . the laurel bloom in the springtime and the autumn leaves which tint the stream banks in the fall, too lend that attraction which makes it unnecessary to ~urther. . From old Deposit fort on the Tennessee, south through the hustling industrial section of the Gadsden district, by Sylacauga where Italy's marble is surpassed, we would think .only of the stern realities of hfe, but that pathway leads to the si~e of the beginning of Romance m the Gulf Country. It was on the Coosa, at Taskigi town that Marchand, the Frenchman, met Sehoy, the Indian girl, where Sehoy Marchand met Lachlan McGillivray, the Scotch boy, and Sehoy McGillivray met the British Colonel John Tate. Here it was that Andrew Jackson came in 1814 and met Weatherford, in whom flowed all these bloods, and there was the end of the Jackson Trace."


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SOU THE RN t;OO D ROADS

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The Jackson Memorial Highway

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of d•• AIA"."'A o....l>tcr. of 1812 naa of tI... JKUoIl Hi,,,. .., ColD«ftitta. By MISS ALMA ftITT£.NBERRY. ClWn e two livin g. h~s f"nn rept"' ClI. Thes nal t>' lIf l'uite ,1 SlatP.II the I·it>· "f the sons of Tp. nu~ , warm perso opted It is fitting that tlie ~lItio1l1l1 &,cie s.•,I id"nt (li't's liS t ..rel' ld l\ma, llhou .Ieat h, The Daughters of 11112. ~tlltP. of .\lI.b II t"I\IIS" IIltillt'lItal frien d" in life, sleep almo st t"~l,tht'r in fami liar Wl're ,,"n they h .rat·k ",hie re\\' .\IIIl with to life uf meut cls ""nll II monu K"nel'l\tinns l till the IIllrth to :'111' silo\'hts allll Th!' Ink"l the rcst. uf frlllll pillee hillg rl'lIt· their ar. t abou highw fllflow JII"klltlll'lI t rllila ure still ar:llllltl them who l,,,,k upon their toml ", alld bile and on to ::-:..w Orl.. ,Uls. to otie llOcietiell hllve risin g lip tbem to 1I,ld histnrip.!! may he 'Illie kene d by wherev·p.r pral'tiellbl!l. Othe r Jlatri ... ttl hou"e relic s 8ud read their d and whi,~h hun, ""r\'e \· th.. ltr\' cUtll the tu spent millilllls in ,-red inll' huildillj.. n< Itll. hut thill .1l1Cksoll Itt'\\' III'nn with ita high .. t·ol;Il,lenep.. the like, h01lltlers 1111,1 IIlll1lUlIll'l tillus . bllt ia the nllJ"t fired thf'm lOn Hia-hwa.\· pll!fllP.S thp.Dce un down "Th e highway is not nil I>' the 'ItOat ambi a (llItrintie orga niza. The .Jackl h>' ted "Tb ..rp. is .teat h in e...• nseful memorilll ,'\','r l'r~~ . ' Pike "f Battl .... " tn Fran klin, a hllul egro und of the ,I,'a,1 the rillg hnntl ' whill l', wa.. It ." pike this nf tion, It b"u" lit" th,· livi\ll milp. er>' ill grad e ,ultl dir", ·t in ry. It WlL, un It is to be a broll d rnllt!. ;'" Illw c>'. a hlMl ing puin t ill its bisb c:llmt>·, atate to stllte . "('llfedera run" als" frum route as possible. huilt ""ul ltr to throu gh this migh ty this pike IIn,1 the :'It. Pleall8nt pike. that the worl d." each totio g its own "kill et. down 1I11tl the HOt'k>' moun- Cuill mbia thronl!'h "the gar,) "n spot of t's IIrm>' empire b..twep.n the" Bille Will i"til ei ...ilization by his that Bllell mll,le up the hUIIl'S that sa\'~1 Gran un Apri l 6, tains. whic h .Jaek son Illid "pen be a aource or plea.s. at Pitta hnrg Land ing that ~lIl1day lIigh t ad of a pri", ronquest of the India na. It h made Grlln t a. Pres iden t in"te ous nati: m, uot :ml)' to the d"sep.n· IS62, whie tWI) "ecli uns intu one glori ed ere. finan dal and cultu rlll gain w..ld and liner this into ns way d the l'l do thp. dedi ny of men alltl natio y dants of BOline lind Clar k. who hlaze e\'cr from ~cr~s.. the On what little thinl 1I1111 OUl'll is. of it l'rs es hroth hattl of those to pike but "A ! l'tgion, hlue and ted lalat the adv" 'I. seem to hang seas, who hope to liud in thl'ir .utorworltl. Ttl (lrnl~.r1y mile a hattlp.grolln,l. It"re f"r f"ur IUllg ,lays pture d r""lI old allll thp. in uretl g..t "apt not l ...1. llr~ eoult rel'll they tages aid grlly ehar ged IIl1d "n. Buell, Wil" . th~.\'mIL't hll\'p.II11 pn"sihle . nn"t them l'ler. lIf s Whl' ril'an est, Aml' Jo'orr make -"a n Dorn. art·h ing on ' O\'E'r so 'Dluch soonE'r. fr~m u.. whose fathp.l'll camE Thom as. mllrl 'hing llnd coun ter-m t h... t fateway abou llds in his- ~ehotield. WlIS tin it U"rP. . d"ath of road The routE' of this Jaek son High e l'nsh rllud ed ill l~gends n long, whit r day ere II i~ht ba.1 ,Irop ped her eurta in tory. Th.. lakes --thp .y too are ful :-.'o\'embe ·k," the road arou nd them made down . that f.'lehnrne. ~trahl. ('.nlnhur>'. Adam s lind 0: "The neat en TflIc the in ons lrati rals, la>~xpll thp.ir mlltchles., Iluin t,·tte nf bra\' e Il'en.. e thJUby the Pr~nch ('aua dian a in ('hie agl. Oil Lake Gist. that , whil e&rly part of the tilth eE'ntur~'; wlIn-s ladeu with <lead aron nd the hr..a stw" rks of }o'ranklin ,la~' IIlung "tl. that Michigan, wherE' thE' whit e capp aud frll to ever y land !landa of the boy" in Il'ra.\' who IIIllrehed those in blue. thnu sand s of and e. \·p.lIu a <l commercP. ue\'p.r tire of gnin g to shade this their livcs ." the" )Ib:i ng Bow l" of fp.II ba,'k bp.fore thp.Jn. {:a\'e lip and dimp.. a cit>· that i~ I'alled igran t ill well sE''1-8oned who .Jllekson High '\'a>' pa. _ throu gh Coln mbia . a the natio n. and wher e the imm ded Road s" to the The down to Pula ,ki, and is SE'nt o...er the ":'lli in Trav . lIr pres.,p.d into the I!'em /If't in the muP. Gra" " s~tion, on "f thp. nllti on," wheat liplda of the grea t north west The high way will the hJllte of [-lam DlIvis. "the hoy hero r>'. thenl'p. ov· e\'er inl'rea.~ing trade of the ci~.~·, of u,te rn llIinoia, rull\ ...ki. the note d in KII Klux Klan histo grou ud of Davy pllS8 thrnu gh the hlaek Illamy !tOil, it pa\'l a tribu te to ,-r bean tiful Elk rh'pr . the hunt ing red Athe ns, eroSSe>l and huilt on the atatE'S right s plan famo ';' Altg eld. It Croc kett, It paasea throu gh pultn Deea· ee-the river of the nig Bp.n d-to line of the state 's grea t soos, the road or trail the TennP.AA rvl'll the name of Step hen Deca tur, to ric hiato lin O\'er na lodia gh 'Il'hich prese will go thruu lP.rllon. "Wh en Knig ht- tur. an. wher e our hroth ers from O\'er the sea foun d trod hy a Roge r Clar k or Ilenc drieks, and "Th e Cullm am. the ")Ia gic HeD of hlme the wer." [-"lo in fathp.rJand. and on to Birm ingh hood was .James W'hitcombe a new the Sout h." in the grP.at eoun ty of .Jl-fI'el'llOn. of and ana" Indi from n of Gent lema "Th at Old Swim ming City d in hono r of one whos e nam e ill inllE'parahly link· Rile>·... \\'ho UlIed to pa.'UI by 's," It will go over name tl1'·, . histor~'. )Iary Auut to t "Ou ~ a-lIin " Hole I'd with the greatnE'S8 of our conn lon ~nunt>· WllS the JelteM illE' turnp ike. fllmous in of ~aahv nue and Reve of lVifle d Louil Boar old The the "the right of ucky , "the dark and to ~rant to the Dau( l'hte " of 1812 of Thol'llb~·. histo ry amI stor~·. throull'h Kent town to a Clay . a Linc oln lil'ltt bbod y grou nd." that gave hirth 'rican hiator~' had but way ." It goes thr'lu ll'h the little from Indi ana. " "eek · and a .Jelf..rson Davi s, "ad AmEa ghrin ua page. But pp.opled most ly b>·. "jten tlem en llOmE'r~·. the" City of throu gh )Iont e; clim r softe a inathese three name s. it wHuld fill of thi." C ,"fe, lerae y Kentnl'k~' Hum e." the KE'ntu('k,\' hall I{iven ":'l~' OI.l tnr Knnt t. It will go )Iem ories ." wher e the flaA' counto the hrl-p.Zp.; thrtlu gh the flung Ill'llt ., Kent ucky Card inal" lind Proc WM Anthe er>·. . wher e ll'0m tll~e lloot r nermi thp. )Jajo by of . r namell in huno on thrnUj!h Tennes.,ee Thf' nermitllg~ lind ty 28 >·i,·I<led his life Ilrel\' .Jack snn lin-a an.1 ,lie,1. like Wash ingto n all,1 hrav e Virg inilln . wh.J lit tbP. 8jre of le of Hon;eshoe .Ial'kg,," are a",~ocia.ted term a, . sbul d be. It will in defp.nse of his coun tr\' at the Batt ,on stnod over tl Jack)Iou ot Vern on. man and his homefor situa tinn -it rises Bend . Whe n the hatti e \\'1\.' <,ntle pa'iS throu gh ~ash\'ille, heau tiful ri\'er to be er3w ned his hody IIntl Wl'pt. Hp. excla imet ': y!" the graeefull,v, abov e the bluff's of "I hll\'e lost the flowt'f of my arm fell lit Quebec, is nd ri\'er with its blult s Thl! mpm ory of his rt'lnt ion. who The hi~hw8Y will with its ...apit ol. The Cum h"rla hanks. swee p by it. d rved in the nllme of the city, IInll prom oturi ea IIlul \'ariaa-Ilte prl'se AI. ery. scen l ~htfu by cotto n tieilis Ileli while far and wide stret ches 3n down . ovcr srark linfl strea ma. negr o-w ho in flO Herthe is away the milea mo"t in "i~ht uf the eity IIn,1 12 •Jllmes K, Polk , the <lotted with the cotto n piek ers- tena ot an the old luita ge an,1 the grav e of .JlIcka!ln. a, lie>l hurie d in the l,(reat num ber ia still serv ant and habi tatio n and J lIh Pre" iden t 'If the t!nite<1 State of the <lead, but in plan tatio ns that Ill'ltt gave him a toeal capit ol grou nds. ~ot in the city

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Octo!>cr, 191 I

SOUTHERN GOOD ROADS a IIllme. The n,,~ro hll.~. to ~IIY the least, a pictunaq ue Iwaring in th" :",·w lo;.,nth and i~ a rnmanCll and a poem on the Old :-;ollth that will assert itself in history .., .Ii,l the "B..rlll'r Tail'S" of &otland aud the "King ,\rthur I<llgen<l~" .. f En!rlaod, With all hi,. fllnlt~ he i.. the remnant n,,'olleet i,," of the south's palmiest JAYS ..f pr,'spl'l'it;" 1\11<1 of her Ilarkcst daYll of a,h'ersity, Thrntl!?h lll11jwifi"I'llt forests of oak ami pine, alteruat· ill': with lOll!? sfrekhl's of ttel'lp"S prairie at10med \',i,h hri~ht I111WI' TS and W:\I'ir1p: grass, the heauty of whidl arrpstcd for a nunlt'nt the !raze of De Soto in I,is haples., mareh in search of ~old in 1~1. It is a ,in!llliar coiol'idenee that while the Alabama Daugh. tl'TS of IS I~ lire working for the Jal'kson IIigh,..ay in l'ommpmoration of his conC]llest of the Creek ~lltion and his gi,"in!" to the world the great middle b...sin west of the Allcghan ies to eivilizati Jn, T,mnessef.; at Iol'r Tri,~tate p~position held at )[emphis in St.>ptem. first I,l'r. cell'hratl'<! the :1;Oth anninrs an' of De!';oto's "iI'\\' of the )fissis.~ippi from ahout ihat point, the de'l'l'n.lant s of thpse ("rpl'k Indians. who fountl a restin·g plal'e in Arkansas . rid in!" at the hearl of the parade. On to the heantiful city of )[obile, on htolll1tiful :lbbile hay, a l'ity fonnded on and made jllorioull hy hi.-.torie l'I"l'nts. )[ohile has just recently c€'lebrated bel' bi-cen· tl'nnia!. ,,·hen at a joint Ragraisin!!, the colors of five nations whosp Ra~s ha,'e /loatl'o 0\"1'1' the l'itv \Tere flung to the hrc€'ze. FraneI', ~pain, Englantl "'nit€'t! Sfates, anrl th€' Conf€'deracy. It was fOl11}d by D'lber· I'ille an,l B/l'n\'ill€,. oropn/let! a!!,ainst the Ilritish duro

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ing the war of 1812 by Jaekson, who in 1821, took pos. session of the territory l'etlet! to thp. United. States by a trt'aty with gpain made in 1819. It was the home of l"ather H)·an, the poet,pril'st, !Int! of the hero of the ;\Iabama., Admiral Semmes. On, on, the ,Jackson lIighll'ay will go, by Scrant:>n, of ~Iiss., aero"" ha."ou~ darI,ened hy the long shado\Ts trees draped in the soft grass mo"s, that weird parasite that had no root or be~inning and no perceptible end. It evinl'es no proc€'''S of growth, bnt surel.'·, silentl.'· \\'eal'eJ<, t!l'calles after t!e,'ade~, its strauge fabric, ami enlists the gentle night winds t~ arrange its graeef111 fl'stoona with no apparent l'are or design. On, fright, ened with the perfume of the jassamin e and magnolia, to New Orleans, where Jal'kson, in command of the .\meriean foreca, fought the memorable battle of New Orleans, .TanuaT:" 8, 1815, whieh settled for all time EngIish domination and interfere nee in Ameriean af· fairs. The first Sl'tt!l'rs of New Orleans ""ere the no, l,iIit)' antI gentry :>f :r'rance. It is often !'a1leJ the "Pari.. of Ameril'a ," "Old Creole Days" have bcen immortalized hy the pen of Cahle and King. ~ew Or, I('ans is the largest eotton market in America, the see· . ond in the world. Tennessee has "The Hermita ge," which wa.~ pre· sernd by an organiza tion of patriotic Tl'nllessee woo men, and there is in the l'apitol grounds an C'ques!rian "tatue, a gift of the state. But there is not a monu· ment in Alahama to hill mpm,ry, nor a road or trail marl,etl thnt .Jaeksnn ,rent O\'pr e~I'Ppt the one he

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marked himself when hI! ]814, upon Fort Touh.lll" lowel'll Fort Jal'kson. T Alahama are planning tll il' a .Jackson county In , ago Congressman Heflin ' in congress a.sking for III ereet a RlllnUment to th,' fell at IIorseshoe Henll. " has donateJ 'five acres r· Bancroft 'lll)'S of J:u:k .. Him~l'lf the witll ." life, he planned th,l' r,'n. j'ond the limits of the .., result of fris determinetl the l[;"',is.~ippi has "".',. possession of cultivate ,l I "A pupil of the wild pioneers of .\meriean Ii i, Ameriean statesma n h " [l'etions a sl'heme so iii.. of Jaek!lOn. Ill' longed tion rights onl)', hut RIM. I,'nged to invite labor t" pied fields witbout JIlon·· ebligatio n elCl'ept the I" allegianc e to its eoun II', t'nee of bis opinions. th, dren of adventur e, fin"

Is the N From Washington', thl aId of Octohl'r 1st. (',,"; partanee to the eaUSt' . in terest to every man MyS:

, Dedarin g that hi~ " : that his motives are al'! that whatever funds he . pockets, officials of the . Departm ent of Agril'uJ' ideot Arthur J&l'kson. ,. lIOciation, following th, that the latter had star 000. The charges made ;' like a homhshell to tho is stated that post,om· trail and are making down, This adion \Y complain t of the puhl ciations, If the allegatbn s ,. true, he is responsihl. wholesale fraud altl:'llI: sissippi Bubble." 1[,: tion of raising a fund ing of road and a,·. legislation, Director Lagan W,,: Roads of the AgrieultL that there was nothik centered and purely il


#I.

ROADS SO UT HE RN GOOD

the thic k wil der nes s gla de, or in west. The re in some plain, or wh ere the pra irie s moat 17. ril Ap . ors col ile his the fert sets. he pla nte d his fol. for est "f h flowers. the y. like the wil d bee whieh e, marked himself when hom e wit se ant! it waa named by 1814 upon Fo rt Toulou Tud ay the Colonial Dames of spa rklthe exa mp le of ind ust ry, ma y choose the ir kes The re lhe m sessions, b)' t!ri vin g sta ghs lowe~ For t Jac kso n. rest.Jre For t Toulouse. the ute nt of tht' ir pos bou :\Janama are pla nni ng toAla bam a. and sume two )'cal'!l ma rk zin g trees, she lter the ir log t'abin wit h the to the in a bill 01' bla soil to )'ie ld itse lf ~ a Jackson cou nty of Ala bam a intr odu ced.OOO to and tur f, and tea ch the vir!;in the soil, tbe irs the I,,~au· be ago Congressman Heflin ~lO ll of sha ion irs riat The rop re. app sha the who r.lough to he pro duc tive . His in congress ask ing for me mo ry of lh:>se heroesrou nd lifu l farm s wh ich the y teach his pol iey e\'e r fav ore d the to ent num mo a t r, erec nee The ow ner of the bat tleg t the was eve r wit h the pio fell at Horseshoe Hend. for al par k for this mo num ent . hea rt usion of ind epe nde nt freeholtla thr oug hou lhe diff d." has donated five acr es ses of :llIr lan n: \ of 18t:? sa \'age h:b ori ng ela" Bancroft says of Jac kso Ilf t'lli ted Da ugh ters of t~e ruthlessness of es be· The Xatiollal ~'>l'iet)· lan thr opi c and his tari c wo rk. "Hi mse lf the wit nes s trib ian phi edu cat iou al. za. o\'al af the Intl it is the !<tantls for a Da ugh ters of 1812 is a j'ou ng org ani of life he pla nne d the l'em bam organizet! sta tes ; and g yo; d the limits of the d policy tha t thl' I'('gion eas t of The Ala has tak en as its first wo rk, the bui ldin An · result of his det erm ine n trau sfe rre d to the exc lus ive t :00 aud sco ntin ent al hig hw ay a.s a mo num ent of and this tran a's gre ate st gen era ls tes , the JIississippi has bee man. Sta Jac kso n, one of Am eric possession of eul th'a tedderness, his hea rt was wit h the dre w en, the sev ent h pre sid ent of the Un ited stat esm e and ten der nes s lov se "A pupil of the wil SUD : No who ~ng. n sett ma the the s y." life tow ard hIS af· •• Old Hiekor Rachel, "a bei ng so gen tle and j'et so pioneers ·of American has · eve r em bra ced wlthlD as tha t for his wife,nde r mig ht wound, hut cou ld not dis honn s A.merican stat esm an ant igr em the for ral pre ·em p· virt uou s, sla Jse chi val rou s atti tud e tow ard all wome fections a scheme so libe not m, the to ure sec wh to rld. of Jackson. He lon ged re tha n pre-emption righ ts. He or, " and him the adm irat ion and pla udi ts of the wog itt tion righ ts only. but mo tak e posess ion of the una ccu · '~on for a man so lac kin g in ehi val r)·. 80 wa ntin of to ht I,'nged to inv ite lab or ney and wit hou t pri ce; wit h no J~ the re , tha t will den y one ineh of ··th e rig b.)pied fields wit hou t mo per pet ual devotion of itse lf by pat riot ismed for the rflute of the .Ta<'ksfll1 Highwa)ask 1 cbligation exc ept the y. Fn der the beneficent influ· wa y" a Da ugh ters of ttl!: ! allegiance to its cou ntr sons of misfortune. the ehi l. the Ala bam the ns. ulti vat ed ence of his opinio the ir way to the unc dren of adv ent ure , find

October 1911

Association s d a o R d o o G cJ n io at Is the N a Fraud?

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d on for l<OUle tim e." ..ai 'e knn wn "f J{l'. •Ja,·k" mo tive s pHreet1~·. Hi~ ha\ "I r· He The "ntHI r kno w his oug h the clliumns of Fro m Wa.shington, thr a "to r)' tha t is of vita l im· ;1[1'. Pag e, nde d to benefit 110 one hut himself, and th'e es inte himself. I ean ass ert ald of Octoner 1st. comof goot! roa ds ant! of un usu al pla n is to go to no one but not portance' to the cause inte res ted in it. The He rald funul< are tha t :111'. Jac kso n's pla n of ope rati on is id-ab law pos itiv ely any of al rov interest to eve ry ma n app et wit h the ize d, une tha t will me ~ys : ani zat ion is not aut hor " Declaring tha t his org ed -by his OW'll inte res ts. and in g ci tizen. ng eha rge s aga ins t :Ill'. Jac kso n came fol. uat The sta rtli in Chicago, wh ere tha t his motives are aet obt ain ed would go into his own ann oun cem ent , issu ed g tha t wh ate ver fun ds he Office of Pub lic Ro ads of the low ing theal Go od Raa ds Con gre ss has been hol din · far pockets. officials of the e las t nig ht den oun ced Pre s· the Xat ions, tha t a cam pai gn am ong the rail roa ds, to ltur Dep artm ent of Ag ricu of the Nat ion al Good Roads As· its sessionom obi le companies, and ma nuf act nre rs was Chicago mers. aut imm edi ate ly. ident Art hur Jac kso n, ann oun cem ent fro m d for !IOeiation, following the a cam pai gn to raise $1.000,. he sta rte "en t ion has been in session in Chieago the rted Th is con e jus t as eam ent cem tha t the latt er had sta oun ann l The fina n came some time. was aho ut to adj Jur n_ 000. ins t Pre sid ent Jac kso ted tha t The cha rge s made agaaut om obi list s of this city. It cODYention Pre sid ent Jae kso n sta org ani Am ong oth er thin gs his for like a bombshell to the ins pee tors are alre ady on his ces offi al ion e open nat is sta ted tha t post·officedet erm ine d efforts to run him he would at ouc and tha t the sub scr ipti ons for the by the zat ion in this eity uld be ree ei"e tl him trai l and are ma kin g t ins sga t ugh bro imp rov em ent fun d wo ers of the 3SS O· down. This act ion was roa ds bur eau and oth er asso· $1,000,000 ruacl mb me the ore bef ani za. her e. In an alldres.s complaint of the pub lic fut ure pla ns of the org eia tion he out line d the pla nne d to ele et a vice pre si. ciations. are n kso Jac . :lIr was tha t it de aga ins t eommittee to rep reIf the alle gat ion s mafor one of the mo st gig ant ic tion. say ing gn a me mb er of the finance trne, he is responsible ted since the day s of the " :lIis- ,len t and eac h sta te. He dec lare d tha t the cam pai [ ill ss" lines, an,, ine bus ne wholesale fra ud atte mp pub licl y ann oun ced his in ten · sen t it "sa ng alo S0>be con duc ted sissippi Bu bbl e." He $1,000.000 to aid in the bui ld· wo uld fun d wo uld bc hel d at the disposal of the d of more tha t the for ~lon of rais ing a fun ss gre con in . pai gn aga ins t cie ty as II whole mg of roa d and a cam d Wa shi ngt on. eha rge s Wh en this new s rea che fer red by ;1[1'. Pag... It ,~a... Pub lic It'gislatioD. . of ce offi pre e the Ollc of at e. Pag we re Office (}f Public Roa ns Dir ect or Log an Wa ller·De par tme nt. stat lld IlMtOnight ,Tackson e tba t the Ag ricu ltur al pla int to the ins pec tors Roads of the Ag ricu ltnr in this plan tha t was not self · lea rne d com de ma e tim g has before this tha t the re was =nothin the inte res ts of Mr. Jac kso n. centered and pur ely in

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• f reb 19 12

SOUTH ERN GOO)) ROADS

d! y vote of th~ people of the state.. 'I'he int?l·l\!il. I l 'ok'tll'" fnml ot the bonds WCI'!) pald out of thl' n 1 t'> . tl ' "" uues of the tate: At t h e l?resen~ ~illle IS Ill' r. -lax'iltiijii, .an<1lt may be m~crestJllg to.. lere. note t!1l 1l lrC 'u<Jirect e. tlmatcd revenue s £0;: the state of New ~. r~ for 1911 amount to over $31,500,OOO-over $!),. from excise tax, over $8,000,000 from eorporli·.

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t:ioll lax, $!),OOO,OOO from inherita nce tax, $4,500,000 lrum Mlm'k transfe r tax, ne~rly $2,000,000 from mort~~HKI~ fax nat! nearly $i,OOO,OOO :D:om motor vehicle tax. 1 h"I'1\ hns bcell constru cted in the state of New York ahollt 2iiOO mil,s of state and cOlmty roads' 2300 miles or tOWIl rOllll!:! have heen maeadami~ed and' 8000 miles hn vo bUlm gmvele d,

The Jackson Highway

LMA RITTEN BERRY , Chairm an of Commi ttee on Jnekilon Highwa y of the Nationa l Society of United . States Daught ers of 1812. Stute of Alabam a

"\ u \,,; h to know ab.ou.t the Jack~on Highwa y, how 'J'hill pike runs from Columb ia by St. John's Episcoorigiuat ed, and how It IS progres smg. . . W 0, to begin with, I was born on the SIde of ~ wI;I\) pal (:hm'(II!, built by the Polk family, and one of the , i n a big road in an old gray farm ~ouse, wIth Its ll:lllli. h"llllt.ifni of the many beautif ul spots along this r roof stained by time. When a chIld, my fatlwl' plkl', f,f) !\It. Pleasan t, in later years famed for its phosd to take us-my older brother s, John a,nd Bob:- l,lll:ttn h('t.!:>, and it is a good road, with a hard surface ~Ol' NI\VI't'al further on. I believe the direct route t \' 1'y summer down into Lawren ce and ~ewls c0un.~I(:~ If; Lo Clifton,miles on the Tenness ee River, a distance of sev(01'.11 .few weeks. There you find the Nat?hez TUel. enty milos. Ahout seven miles from 1ft. Pleasan t to at!.. Distanc e is measur ed by the Trace- m .fact, ev.ry goou road is called the Natche z .Trac~ m LeWIS Ih(~ Idl:, a road over an almost level stretch leads to the , unt)-, and they are good roads, especI~lly m the sum· prel.l.,}' lil.l:le to,vn of Lawren ceburg. It is down grade mer lime. """hen one road gets worn mtD ruts, ~ome ahllOHI. all the way to Florenc e. They are talking of a bIn k' jacks are cut do,\'ll and the road curves a .lIttle, IJ:l.l'h \\'n,v alone that rJute which should be rightful ly I d Ulere you are still on the Trace. How we, chIldrCll liS a to enjoy going through "the Barrens ," a~ the lit ands of acres in Lewis county covered WIth 111 n . growth of black jacks is called. Somehow. tIle bo' seemed to trot with less effort and the carrIag e 4yheels made less noise on th~ white dirt. roads thatl n the blue Limesto ne turnpik es. We dId no~ havl) ruLb l' tires on our buggy wheels then, and bIcycles I\ud automobiles were not ill use. Often I have passed by :lleriwe ther Lewis' grave by the roadsid e. You know he was the voun a friend of Thomas Jefferso n ''I llod after attendin~ to ;ome busines s pertain ing to tlw \'ernme nt he w~s returni n a to 'Washin gton under the orders ~f Jefferso n. when, 7>ne night, he was either JlI1U'dered or committe~l suicide at a wayside inn. ~e \1"11 . buried amid a cluster of black jaeks by the SIde of the Trace and after many years a monum ent wa>; Ul' cted ther~ to mark the spot. Lewis county is named f r him. Then my school girl days were spent at Ashwo U. six miles west of Columb ia on the 1\lt. PI~asant i'ike that runs "throuO 'h God's Countr y." ThIS secPoplar Springs Road, Meridian. Mississipp i, Before Improvem ent tion of Maury county, the home of the Polk and Pillow fnmilies was famous for its beautif ul trees, blue called the Columb ian Hiahwa v as the long stretch 'rn ; and palatial residences. This pike is famous in was called years ago. '" v, h.i tory. It was along this pike that Buell marche d " I ha~e often gone from Columhia to my birthpla ce, wilh Iii soldiers and helped Grant at Shiloh to win one .the Wide place in the big road," over the Campbellsthe bloodie st battles of the civi.l war. It was along thi pike durin'" the war that Antoin ette Polk, a beau- VJllc Pike, along this pike which then had been negirul girl in her"'teen , raced for six miles just ahead of lected for years. There are miles of it that are pern half dozen federal soldiers. who demand ed of her her ~eet as to grade and surface , 'with the blue grass growp oy which she was riding; having ridden horseba ck ll1g c10lic to its side, passing by well kept farms and iuto Columbia. She defied them to take it. 'rhe race through stretche s of woodla nd. It still remains a. pic- . of beauty in mv mind which I have not words to b gan, with the girl fal' in the lead. She beat them to ture describ e. • her home. She was the daught er of Col. Andrew Polk Autl I lmow well that portion of the old Louisville lind a niece of Bishop PJlk, who was killed at Mis ionttry Ridge. During the last year of the war, she went and Nashvil le Turnpik e. called the Pulaski and Elkuroad with her family. where she became famous for ton pike. I have gone over it when my heart was bub11 r daring horsemansh'ip, often going fox hunting with bJing with joy and happine ss, and when my heart was King Emman uel, then Oll the throne of Italy. She mar· heavy with sorrow -that" wide place in the big road" ried Baron de Charett e. who made a recClrd for bravery is our hurying grJtwd . The old Pulaski and Elkton lind gallantt ·y in the :b~raneo-German war. They live turnpik e is assured as a link in thp, Jackson Highwa y. Why should it not be 1 My grandfa ther, Hamilton in an old chateau in the Provinc e of Brittain y. Crocke tt Campb ell-nam ed for two kinsmen, Alexan'I

t "11


SOUTHERN GOOD ROADS . 11\"' Crockett-of Campbellsville, d r Uamlltoo an D;"." one of t.be Tennessee vohm.iI unty 'fenD., A~' drew Jackson into Alabama to ,.t wbo llow1\Iiml11s d..<:>Jl, ' o f0 ' Tlc', ugus -- " 't 30 1'13 OJ f Ft 1\Iassaere ,~ g ~ -iIi be with me, if not from a sense of paO~ t' :o~ 'c~~se everybody ill Giles county loves me trio nn, 'G'l t tl . and 110ve everybodY 111 1 es C01ll:Y- Ie same m :'.'[nury county. So you see I was raIsed on roads. - Th re is an illcxlwustable supply of romance and legend in the old roads ana trails in America. I read sometime ago in Touring, the magazine that is doing a great good work in aiding and helping to spread the highway spirit, of a man and hi family from Kansas who "ent in an automobile over the old post road in New York and who said that if the state of Kansas had the old post road it would pave it with dollars and charge people to ride over it. That Kansas man did not stop to think that the old Santa Fe Trail runs through the state of Kansas, and its pioneer bistory,

n':r

March,

lin all appropriation of $10,000 has been askeJ for :0 IJuild a monument eOllllllell1ol'ating the battle, and five ilcr{'s ba:> been secured as a park itlr the m:mumellt. 'ViI ell the Sims Kelly Chapter wm; urganized, early in i\Iay with l\Irs. :J[orris Chll·k Seals as regent, af~tiYE; work was begUlJ. I was chosen chairman of the .J:'j(~k­ Ron IIigln,uy committee. A the purpose of the Danghtel'S of 18]2 is hisbrieal and philanthropic, it was up to me to get to \\ork Hon. Thomas III. O,yen, an hon, orary member, was consulted as to onr course '(If stu~y. He gave us a prospectns, coyering the" 1812" period178:3-1815. The subject of a maunrnent to Andrew Jackson was gem'rall~- discllssed in the chapter am::mg the members. The Highway project had been discussed by me prior to the time of the meeting of the Alabama Good Road A.ssociation which met in Birmingham, i~,; October, 1909. In June, 1910, a bill in congress to build a highway from Washington to Gett,\'sburg as a monument to ]jincoln was generally commented on by the leading papers of the country. The Birmingham Ledger at that time, said, in its comment on "Roads for Monuments :" "The proposition to build a 'big road' from 'Vasllington to Gettysburg as a monument to 1'11'. LineJl1l is rather to be c:munended than disproved, "_\lready many thousands of dollars have been ex· pended in monuments to Lincoln and the sculptors and marblemell haYe had their share of it. Why not give iabor and the public a whack at the money 1 "A great highway is always a good thing, It will give C'mployment to hundreds of mcn. Their feed will giye business to many dealers. The right of way money will benefit lllany peop!e abng the line. Then there "in he the engineers and sllperintwdents and all these incidentals. The cost will be immense and it will be scattered along the lines, altogetlwr different frolll the statue money. That is good. "For generations, the great highways benefit the general public as only a good road can benefit. True, all the nation cannot be directly benefitted. Keither can all the nation see a lllonument or other public work. "It rather strikes us that a great highway as a public mJllUment if; about the best idea sprung rectntly. ~'1.t­ tel' we get one we may get more. "Alabama is interested in highwa~rs right now, and l:'he may dedicate them to her famous sons as lllunuments, one to King, one to Dixon Lewis, one to Camp. bell, o11eto Powell, one to Yancey, one to Hilliard, one to Clanton, lllany to the confederate heroes. manv to her other famous sons." . • This was exactl~· in aecord with my ideas. The bin asking for the appropriation failed entirelY. 'The Alabama Daughters of 1812 do ll~t claim to ha,e given the llame Jackson tJ anv ]'oad or trail in Alabama, .Taeksoll named them wh'en he went oycr them-with the exception of the highway, The~' d0 claim the honor of planning, naming', and launching" this transeon tinClltal highway; the J ackf;oll IliglnyaY. Last 2\fi1Y, the daughters of 18]2 \rCrl~ il'sited by theNational Good Roads Congress to snhmit mrv rc.~olu­ tions they wished bf.fore that ]nd\'. They (,f]'(:red their resollltiow:; and gaye their plan" and p;lrpose of the .Jacksoll IIi gh\yay, and invit.ed otller palriotie socie1ies to join in with them in memoriuliziJlg' allY spot or link ~lOllg the !"Oute that helongcd to t:h(~r pcriod :If history. (Jur plan \\'as unanimously endorsed and "'C \YO"e so f'J1I'ourag-ed that we started immediat(']y on onr cam. paign of creating an interest a]] along' the line, ,n,d

,,,ill

Preparing Foundation for First CourEe of Macadam, Poplar Springs , Road, Meridian, Mississippi

its r'omltnces and legends, are just as important and interesting as is the colonial and rcyolutionary history of the Old Post Road. My story is long, yes, it is as long as the Jackson Highway, which reaches from Chicago to i\Iobile, on to New Orleans. The Alabama Daughters of lS12 are behind the movement to building this transcontinental highway c:mnecting the Lakes and the Gulf-a connection needed-in honor of Andrew Jackson, a monument to the man who did much for this great section traversed by the Jackson Highway hut who ]1as yery few monuments huilt in his honor, The Daughters of 1812 is a Yonn" ontanization ill Alabama, strong in effJrt and iJIa,,; in ceuC:.ollra<tement. l\liss ?lIaud i\IcLnre Kelly orrranized the soti~ty in this state and is the state prcsid~nt. She is a yon~g girl, an .AlabaIUia~ by bir.th and (;(lucation, who comes of a long rcvolnllonary hneage, if: a gradllate of the state ullivcrsit~', amI !s, a student of and loves her state's history. Hcr ambItIOn was ~o secure the ground where the hattIe of Horseshoe Bend was fOlluht. i\farch 27, ]814, and make a public park of it as'3, rlwlluJJJcnt in commemoration of this eYent, hut she has 1)(:':11 lllJahle to gct the o\\-ner of the land to gi re lJer an (,pthn. She c0lTcsponded with, C?ngressrnan IJdJin in r(~gard to getting an approprwtJOn from (~ollg)' :ss to 1m}'it. Throngh 'Congressman 11e1'-

1912


March,

J9I2

SOUTHERN GOOD ROADS

we have bccn most successful. Commercial bodics. muyors, boards of tradc .. IJUsiucss men' league;;, <laugh: tel'S ot 1812. in the differcn t stutes. eounb' and state officiaL'!, and Uluny public spirited mcn in 'cvery walk of life, have cnuol'sed our work and given us their he3,'ty co-opcration. . Much of the highwa y is already built. There aee many miles of good roads. In fact, you can go all the way from Indiana polis to Chicago, spinnin g in an au·

to Louisville, to Kashvil le to Athens. N';)W the _-Ha· bama Dangh tersof 1812 'cannot jump the Tennessee River. It is too dcep to wade ami all of them eannot swim. Our state preside nt is a lawyer, so she has drafted a bill which has been sent to Congt'cssman Cnderwoo d, and a eopy of it to e\'ery oth'r Alabama (:,)11gressma n 'and to both of hel' senator s, asking for an appropria tion sufficient to build a COllcret<, or steel bridge across the Tenness ee River, at Decatu r. and if congress wou't give it to the state of Alabam a through her daught ers of 1"12, ,,,hy, the daughte rs will just stretch a point in their states rights and let Unde Sum be tollgate keep'er until the bridge pays for itself, which it will do ill ten years, with the cost of mainten ance added. Then it will be the propert y of the state. Im't that a fair proposi tion V We know that the buildin g of the Ja~kson Highwa y means work, hard work, long persiste nt work, with no let-up in the interes t and agitatio n. Don't you get tired of hearing so much about the good roads and splendi d highwa ys ,)! Europe 1 Of course, they have fine roads over there, and the cost of hauling a ton is about one third r;f what is paid here, but they do not tell that the roads of Europe cost more to build that ours and the cost of maintenance is about two-thi rds more there than here. The .Appian Way was built ahout sixteen centurie s ago ancI ::\<1poleon' s Pass through the Alps was cut at great expense of both life and revenue. As for the south's being so far behin;l in road-building, I think she is doing well. For many years after the war, the souther n people were busy re-building their fences, patchin g their house roofs, and trying to raise someth ing to feed the hordes of ex·slaves left £,)1' them to care for. By hard work and saving, matters

Constructi on \Vork on Poplar SPt."ings Road t Meridian. ~fjssi&sipp i

t:Hnobile. The old Louisville and Kashville pike has been given as a link by Mr. H. A. Somers, chairma n of the Lincoln wav-a nd this has been endorse d bv Louisville Mayor a~d Commercial Club. You k~ow the pike from Louisvi lle to Elizabe th, Li:Jcoln's home, is to be called thc Lincoln wav. That is iust as we asked, so it is a link in the J~ckson Higl;way. Suppos e the people between l\bbile and 'Montgomery wish to name a certain spot or link for Father Ryan or Admir ral Semmes, we would not object, so it is a link in the Jackson Highwa y. The main work of our committee is to arouse sentime nt and b get the countie s to issne bonds to build in the missing links. Some of the counties have not built their roads, spme have. Our plun is feasible, practic al and sensible, county to county, state to state, all the people to share in the in~crest aud good work. Of course we know that to deSign a route which will fit the topogra phy in a long stretch satisfac torily, there must bc capable engine ers-Ala hama has hers, so has 'fenness ee and Kentuc ky. Indiana hns not a highwa y commission, hut l'lhc has skill('(1 enginee rs amI surveyo rs of roads. The Jackson Highwa y as planned is from Chicago to Indiana polis,

I-I

Poplar Springs Road, Meridian, Mississipp i, After lmprovemex:.t

have adjuste d themselves and the people of the south 8.re buildin g roads and highways, miles of them. :J1illions of dollars have been aathere rl in afl a result of bond issues. The south's all right. One more word as to the Jackson High,\·ay. 311'. .Joseph B. Babb, Secreta ry of the Chambel' of CO!11mcrce. writes me that he is in hearty sympat hy wlth the J~ckson Highwa y project of the Alabam a DaughtN'S of 1812, "and I am going to serve on your comlnittee and assist in every way p o s s i b l e . " . Comin'" down through Indiana . Kentuc ky andTen~. nessec. the Jackson Highwa y will pass through so~e of the' finest farming land in the country . .All along


·. 18

SOUTHERN GOOD ROADS

the route are beautiful country homes and the building of this transcontinental. highway means that country life will be more attractIve to the country men and women that farm life will be pleasant and profitable rather than a forced and tiresome drudgery. Country h6mes will have the com:f'orts of the homesiri the cities without the discomforts of the crowds and the smoke. 1'he multiplication of rural mail routes and telephones will bring the world to the fr01Jt gates, and all that is "wanted into the homes. Just thinK for a moment what this Jackson Highway means. Besides the great benefit to rural life, it means the co:mection of the Lakes and the Gulf. We know that Alabama is with us. Her Highway Commi sion l.-nows that· a high war should go throngh H!e middle of the state and by the trade centers, and we know that the Jackson Highway from Decatur to Mobile is going to be low grade and a broad road. fll:: Senator Bankhead, .Alabama's most enthusiastic good roads man, is a big broad mUD. .\nd "\Ye Imow Montgomery is with us, because we are with Montgomery, and woe know that l\Iobile is with us because the 1\-1:0bile Register and Hon. J. D. Bloch, president of the Commercial Club said so, and Hon. John Craft, president of Alabama's Good Roads Association. lives there, aud he knows that when the Panama CanaJ is finished and the craft come sailing in over the billowy \raves of :Uobile Bay, unloading their cargo"" on the front steps of the United States" that there will be Ii

Through the Everla.ting HilIs- A Mountain Road Built by Competent Engineer

a:

great need for the Jackson Highway, and who is it who ever visited Mobile and breathed' the fragrance of the jessamine and magnolias \'\"110 did not want to go 'on to Xew Orleans? Officers of the Qu.ebec-IYliami International Highway Association. The fonowing is a list of the officers of the Quebec· )Iiami International Highway Association: President, Howard D. Hadley, Plattsburg, X. Y.; Vi en-Presi dent, George A_ Simard, Montreal, Canada, care :b'rancoAmerican Chemical Co.; Secretary, N. l\f. Parrot, 765 Calvert Builtling, Baltimore, :n1d. Board .of Directors: George A. Simard, l\[ontre'll. representmg Quebec' Howard D Hadlev PlattslmrD' N. Y., representing. 'New York;' Isaac SImonin, Ge;: "ma;ntown, representJ~g P:nn. ylvRnia; Fred F. Smith} BrIdgeton, ~'ep~esentlDg New Jersey; Gen. 'r. ColemalJ DnP .Dt; "VvllmlD.gton, representing De1:nnl.re; Charles lI',J>.lcl~ey, Baltnnol·e,. :\farylalld; Leslie T. McCleary, I lIrd Hot J, Washmgton, representing District of

March,

1912

Oolumbia; Preston Belvin, Sr., Richmond, representing Virginia; Colonel Benuehan Cameron, StagvilJe, North Carolina j E. J". "Watson, Columllia, representing South Carolina; Joseph F. Gray, Savannah, representing Georgia; E. B. Douglas, Miami, Florida. Vice-Presidents: 1". H. Ansoll, OgilYieFlour Mills Co., :l\fontreal, Cannda, representing (.!uebec; A. G. Batchelder, American .A.utol11011ile Ass:lciatioJl, N. Y. C. 437, 5th Ave., New York; Joseph II. Wood, Newark, N. J.; Joseph II. Weeks, 310rris Apartments, 933 San· son St., Philadelphi.a, Pennsylvania; John Bancroft, Wilmington, representing Delaware; IT. 1\1. Luzius, Secretary, Automobile Club, Baltimore, representing l\1'arylandj W. D. Brown, Editor, uR. F. D. News," 14th St. & N. Y. Ave. N: W., Washington, representing District of Colmubia; John Stewart Bryan, Richmond, representjng Virginia; H. B. Varner, Lexington, representing North Carolina; Ambrose Gonzales, Editor "The State," Columbia, representing South Carolina E. E. Hancock, Editor, "Savannah News," Savannah, representing Georgia; H. B. Race, J acbonville, representing Florida. Committee to represent the President to draw up a eon titution to be submitted later to the officers of the association for approval as follows: H. M. Luzius, Preston Belvin, H. B. Varner, E. B. Douglas, N . .M. Parrott . Oregon Good Roads League Organized. The Oregon Good Roads League was organized at the Oregon Agriclutural Conege, Corvallis, Oregon, last month. The following officers were elected: President-Victor P. "1\1oses, comlty judge, Benton county jIst Viee-President-C. C. Lemmon, Hood River county; 2nd Yice-President-B. W. Short, Klamath county; Secretary-Ernest F. Ayres, Prof. Highway Engineering, O. A. C.; Treasurer-R. H. Gellatly, Benton county. Directors-Term expires in 1915: II. 1\1. Parks, Benton county; J. R. Edwards, Lincoln county; B. P. Cator, Benton county. Directors-'I'erm expires in 1914: C. W. LeVee, Benton county; C. D. Schell, Jackson county; S. W. I:aythe, Harney county. Directors-Term expires in 1913: V. R. Allen, :Marion county; Harry Ebson, Clatsop county; Phil Streib, ~fr., Multnomah county. The league starts with a good sized charter meml.\t·Iship, and bright prospects for growth in 1912 Its )11jects are to promote both educational and legislative measures tending to the improvement of the public highways of the state. There are two sets of bills bebre the people of Oregon for initiative action at the next general election, both providing for the appointment of a State Highway Commissioner. The league will not take sides for either bill, each member being free to vote according to his better judgment. It will, however, try to create it sentiment for good roads ,yhieh will insure the passage of Olle of the measures. The official headquarters are located at Corvallis, Oregon. .A J"('cent ruling of [~:e atLJ~"uey-general of Pennsylvania will lum ::lver to the r-;tate highway cummission 1 he lJ)O!Il'V that has been accumulating- in the trt\;lSnry sinr:e l!JO~J fr'om autmllohile reg-istrati"Ons and licenses. The sun <lllWUllts to a litle on:;' half a million doHan. <.n<1 \'iIl aid the ('omm:ssioll materially in the prosecu· tiolJ of its work.


September,

1012

SOUTHERN GOOD ROADS

27

l\fiss .,:Uuw; Rittenberry, of Birmingham, Ala., who ill the 1812, a period rich in heroism, self-sacrifice and represents Southern Good Roads in several southern glorious achievement: The Alabama Daughters of 1812 ::;tate~, continues to be much in demand at good roads have undertaken to build the largest monument ever meetJUgs, women's club meetings, and like gatherings'. undertaken by a patriotic society or organization. They all over her territory. She is chairman of the Jackson origina 'ed, planned and launched the Jackson highMemorial Highway Committee of the Alabama Daugh- way, a trans-continental highway, splitting. the middlo tel'S of 1812. and has the hiO'h honor of having ori"i- basin connecting the lakes and gulf, as a monument to lJated the m~!llorial highway idea. She it was who fu':'st Andrew Jackson. The right-of-way is from Chicago thought out and planned a trans-continental highway, down tl1rough Eastern Illinois, through Vincennes and, from Chicago to .Mobile, splitting the great middle Terre Haute, Ind., to L01.usville by Lincoln's home by basin, and naming it in honor of Andrew Jackson, the Hermitage, Jackson's old home, where he lived and When the Alabama Daughters of 1812 took the project died, to Nashville; down the old Louisville and Nashup Miss Rittenberry was put at the head of the work ville turnpike, across the Tennessee riyer on down to and she has done valiant service. Birmingham; thence to Montgomery, Selma and MoRecently she was invited by the Alabama Highway bile, on to New Orleans. It L'l a grand road and goes Commission to attend a good roads convention in through the grandest country on the face of the globe. Clarke county to tell of the work of the Jackson High- 'fhe Jackson highway is named in honor of Andrew way Committee. She had also appeared recently be- Jackson, who at the battle of Horseshoe Bend, won' fore the Mobile Chamber of Commerce and at Kew Or·· white supremacy for all time for America, and opened leans was called on to make an address at one of the up to civilization the widest and longest stretch of terProgressive Union lunches. She was later called to ritory in the world, and Andrew Jackson, by his miliNashville to lay before the ladies of the Hermitage tary achievements in the war of 1812 made the EuroAssociation the plans for the Jackson Memorial High- pean countries respect America as a nation. way, and was received with no little enthusiasm. ""'When the Daughters of 1812 were organized in AIThe Clarke county meeting, officially designated as abama they started to work immediately on this prothe mid-summer meeting of the Mobile-Selma High- jeet. The plan and scope is practical and feasibleway Association, was held at Pine Hill and it was well something on the state rights plan; COlmty to county attended. There were more than 2500 delegates and and state to state, connecting at the county and state. 'visitors present, according to the Mobile Daily Item, lines. The width and grade are to meet the requirewhich especially features Miss Rittenberry and her speech. Capt. John Craft, president of the Alabama Good Roads Association, State Highway Engineer W. S. Keller, Mr. H. K. ::Uilner, v. 13. ~-\.tkins and other prominent speakers were on the program. Miss Rittenberry's address was listened to with deep interest and aroused a great deal of enthusiasm. It was, in . part, as follows: ":ThIr: Craft and Mr. Milner think the women are doing a great work. I cbn't think lUI'. Keller should make fun of the women who are interested and are striving to carry forward this great 1YOrk. There is no one. nor should there be aln- one more interested in goo~l roads and historic high;mys than the WJmen of any community. If the men of her family are market gardeners, it is to her interest to have the vegetables sent to town over a good road. for often she has a basket of eggs in the market wagon. If they are farmers on a small or large scale, th<>y need gJod roads to haul their produce to the railroad station and in the city, and to haul what they need back fro111 the city. The women in the city need and want good roads whether thev own automobiles or Hot. When we lived inside ~ the eity limits of BirmiMrham I baked cakes for the Wommi's Exchange. That~was one way I had of making a little money. \YhCll we moved out one mile from thc citv I lost out bec1tn.-c the road between mv homc and t~wn was so rough and steep that the icing on my cakes was cracked in passing over it. The road is a fairly gooJ one 110W, but not what lt should he. "As to the historic roads and tmils of America, it is np to the womcn's patriotic o['gallizations to pre.'crv€' them, and they are at work. Alabama is rich in coloniaL 1812 and confederate history. She hltS little or MR. CHARLES P. LIGHT 110 re~olutio11aI'Y history. The period of history which Field Representative, American A~sociation for Highway 1 am connected with ill the official capacity of chairmau Improvement


SOUTHERN GOOD ROADS

~eplemiJeJ',

1~J2

and the average daily run will be about 135 miles. Much work has been done and is now being done on no object to federal aid, bu~ we do not the roads, and the route this year will average better I D·. . Tlle quickest way to get any kmd of road -xp' ti It.forach county ~o .1ssue . b on ds an d b W'ld 1. 't roads than on any of the last six annual tours. Roads Please bui4d the Jackson Ingltway ~rst; then everybody which caused trouble on the 1910 tour have been much improved, the day's runs have been shortened, and the jll wallt to build a good road to 1t.. , • IiCcoiiClusionr",ill say that T w1sh there was a wo- speed required over them will be less than that on the tour of that year. nlllfl '8 good roads club in every county in Alabama, and Never in the history of the National tours has so had I the time and money to travel on I would take up the work 61. organizing them, but each onc can do a mueh enthusiasm been shown by the cities and villages great work indi,idually. If we can do nothing else we through which the tour will pass as that which fell to can try to help the farmer overcome his prejudice the Flanders electric pathfinder. Governors, mayors, against the automobile. The automobile is here. It and the chief officers of villages have greeted Pathfindhas come to stay. The automobilist wants good er W. O. h Westgard and have given him personal asroads and is willing to help build them. On the other surance that the roads will be put in good condition hand we can help regulate the peed of the automobil- and the welcomes which await the tourists will be of the highest class. No tour has ever traveled a route so ist who disregards the rights of the farmer. "I appreciate this 0pportunity to tell you of the work replete with historic· interest and natural wonders, as of the _·Uabama Daughters of 1812, and assure you that this road from the Great Lakes to the Gulf. New OrIrwin Rideway was not the only one that threw his leans, destined to be the great water gateway of the arms around the old mule's neck and cried when he left West and South, will greet the tourists in that carnival farm, and I have cried many a time to go back to it." spirit for which the city is world famous. The short dav's run to :l\fammoth Cave will enable Appearing before the directors of the Mobile Chamber of Commerce and Business League Miss Rittenberry the tourists to have a long visit in the caverns. Judge made ·arrangements for a big mass-meeting in Novem- Albert C. Janin, the trustee for the estate which owns ber in the interests of the Jackson Highway. In her the cave, has taken personal charge of the arrangespeech to the directors she featured the following ap- ments, and states that the tour of the caves which he peal written by l\'Irs. Walter W. Watt of Charlotte, N. plans, will permit of the visitors seeing the greatest of C., one of the leading club women of North Carolina, . the beauties of this wonderful cave. Dinner, the night and read before the recent good,roads congress in Bal- of arrival will be served in the cave, and a visit and timore: ride on Echo Lake, 360 feet below the surface, will Ladies and Gentlemen-In behalf of the Jackson follow. At Vicksburg, the tourists will visit the $2,000,000 high\lay committee, in my own behalf as state president, and in behalf of the North Carolina Daughters National Park which commemorates the siege and deof 1812, as well as in behalf of the patriotic citizenship fense of that city in 1863. Jackson, l\:fiss. has planned of North Carolina, the birthplace of Andrew Jackson, an immense barbecue, which will be attended by the I file my earnest plea for the great, practical and use- tourists, the governor of the state, and the notables of ful monument, in the form of a public highway from that city. lake to gulf, which was lawlChed under the auspices of the Alabama Daughters of 1812, in honor of the Hero Woman Drags Roads. of New Orleans. Andrew Jackson was a man of action In Callaway county, Kansas, there is a woman who and one in whose veins blood ran warm and quick; regularly drags a stretch of road for which she feels therefore no monument of unfeeling stone to him. no responsible. She is Miss Betty Galwith, and she is the statues of cold metal-but better yet, a great utility owner of a 1.200 acre farm six miles east of Fulton. to honor a great utilitarian, a pulsating, life-given thorMiss Galw'ith is one of t1).e most enthusiastic advooughfare, devoted to the needs and pleasures of those cates of good roads in the state. ,For nine years, she whose prosperity and happiness were largely made pos- says, she has been dragging the roads in front of her sible by the tenacity of pnrpose and temerity of pa- land regularly.. These roads are dragged after every triotism of this great North Carolinian. Call it the rain. Unless she is ill or away she does the work her Jackson highway, build it better than Appius Claudius self. The cross-state highway runs in front of her built the Appian Way, and as near as possible along house and aJl along her property it shows exceptional the routes of the doughty old warrior's military roads, care. and a monument ,nil have been built t:> General An"I drag the roads because I believe in good highdrew Jackson, patriot, soldier and statesman, that will ways," 1liss Galwith said. "My father always bok survi,e longer than the Coliseum of ancient Rome, and good care of the roads in front of his land and I am reflect honor for the pride of posterity. just continuing the work since his death. So many people around here think it is queer that I should get Arrangements for Glidden Tour Completed. ont and work on the roads, but I don't. You see I Arrangements for the National Reliability Tour, bet- have been doing it so lonl; now." ter known as the Glidden Tour, for 1912, have been completed. Entries began to pour into .A. A. A. headDistrict No.3, Covington county, Mississippi is.med quarters long befo.re the "Pathfinder" had completed honds and bnilt 42 miles of sand-clay roads during 1911 the task of mapping out the highway from Detroit to nnder the directions of R. E. Snowden, Civil and HighNew Orleans and the indications are that tllere will be way Engineer, of Snowden, North Carolina, in the a larger number of contestants in the tonI' this veal' face of a strong" good roads opposition." After passthan e,er before. • ing through the past winter season the same district The tour will start from Detroit. Mondav morning has issued the same amount of bonds and is now enOct. 7th, and finish in New Orle:~;ls. Satn;'dav eve~: gagcd in relocating and building sand-clay roads' ing, Oct. 19th. The distance is a little oyer 1,660 milel'l through the entire district. .

'.'.' n

;,i1t

law8 of each state's highway conunis-

f th

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0


UTHE

o

'. CoDni.~t :91.2 By South.-a Coed Ro.$. h~t04' Co~

Lexing ton,

C .• March . 191:} ._--_._. --= ==; -== ===N. === === === === ===

And rew Jackson. Me~orial HighwCl:Y Association By MISS ALMA RITTENBERRY

,

Chairma n of the Andrew Jackson Memoria l Highway Committ ee of the Alabama Daughter s of 1812 ~ snh",ittin~ the s~e"IIIl anuual repnrt of the Jack· sene until the work ~-as complete d, or rather antil "'n Ilighwa.\ · WMk \\.., ~hall ha.e to a.;k you t,) ex· Ihe presiden t's term :>f office e~pired. B~· that timp. ~u~e us for nM rel)ll~6l1g it when due at the last rpgu· we hoped to ha"e the hi",hway built, or the sentimen t lar m~~tin.; nr 1111' R,\ar,1 of Directnrs . in its favor"" cryslalize d that the building of thi.~ me· morial to "'"drew Jackson would be one of the iDstances wherp th..re CIlUltl h", "Xo such word OL~ filiI. ., The ~econd ,·ear's work has be",n ~"tinu€'tl on the same line a.~ that of tbe Ii.."t with the e:t<..-ptio" Ibat it has been carried ·m wilh the e:tpendit ure of much more time and ~1'Sunal e:tpell~ 011 tbe part ..r the cbairman . This second J<'ear's work wa., start....l with only lifteen dollars in the treasll~·. Ten dollars siDe.. has been sent by the Daughter s or New York and fh'p dollars by the Daughte rs of Teus to the p1'P'<i<1ent and by her tUl'Iled o~er to the' chairman . kl the work of the Jackson Highway committe e is purely educatifl nal f:>r the porpo~e of creating sentimen t-the money h~ beeli spent for postage, stationer y, telegrams , night letters. typewrit ing and other e:tpellSeS necessary to carry on tbis education al work. Your chairman W&3 invitcd to attend the meeting ot the D1iDois Woman'~ Good Roads .\ssociati on. which held it.s lirst se!lSion in the Auditoriu m Rotel, Chieag:>. April 3-4. to tell of the work of Ihe Jack'lOn Hi~hway. but an empty trea~ury prevente d her from going. She was al~o e~tended Ihe courtesy of an invitation to thc Good Roads Con!1.'res.~ which met June 19th in Baltimore but was diterred from aUendinjr by the IQ1UC tbing that kept her fr:>m Chicago. but :UI'1 Walter W. Watt. Presid~ot Daughte rs of 1912, ~ortb CaroliDa represent ed tbe chainilan in Raltimor e in tbe rollolV. in.'!' bellutitul words, .. Larii~ anff gentleme n: tn hI'· half of the .Jack~on hi~hway r'lRlmittee. in m.'· own ~­ half a.~ state pr..si<lpot. anri in h..halt of the ;o.r"rth Car. l'lina Daughter s of lS12. as \\'rll as in behalf of the patriotic dtizensh ip of ~flrth C'arolina. tb.. hirth.pla~ cf Andrew .Jacksnn. r iiII' m~· .. arne~t plpll for the l"l?at. practi~al and useful monllmpnt. in·th.. f.1Mn of a pnhlie highwa)' from lake to ~lIlr. which was lalln..her llln· der tbe all"Pic~ of Ih.. Alahllma Dllullnters of 1812. in MISS AUlA RITT!:S BERR T .a great utilit~· 10 bnnor a /trcat utilitaria n. a pnlsatinll · Wi.. Rltt"nt.I"T)' I' t:hlol/"mu; (If t~. And,. .. Jacx.o" !II~nwl', .. t Hit,h"~.' Commiu.... ot U':. Jrda.bam.a O.U.~tft'1 of 1!1Z•• ,.d h_ doft. Iife.gi....n thorough fare. devotcd to Ihe needs anti ftc • ...1.-n (ot' the Kich...,.aH afO-GK the hn4 tru'!'. t-!'la La.. " en the Cu.!t, Shl! i. on. I!')( the !t>ulh. pleasure of those whose prosperit y and happines s were .rn COOtJ 1l0000,u' rlrprf'll·nt.tn · ... In :~ • .,uth.rn ftaid and .. very v,hableone largely m'\de possible by the tenacity of purpose and Whcn the r p p'1rt of Oo:toh~r 30. 1911 WI~' suhlOltted temerity of patrioti~m of Ihis grellt North Cl1rolinilUl. i: ,,,as m:,st gratif~·ing thnt so much ~entim~ot ao"",,r,· Can it the Jackson Hilfhway . build it better than Apthnsiasm had b~~o crr:ltcd in behalf of thp .Tad'S"n pins ClandiWl built the Appian Way. and lIS ncar a.s pos.,ible along the roales of the dou~hty old ,..amor'. lli~bway that thp ~lIm,' ,·h"irmllll w.... rp.Ilpp..intpd to militar~· roada, and a monumen t will have been bnilt

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March,

6 .\nolr.·", ,la.·bOIl. patriot., IlthH 'Ill,t .tates· yellr in thue"working the road" ahe was also working "'''I 'un i"e IUIIg,'r lhull the L·.. lis~1I1ll of an· her wa1 over the route of the Jllckson Highway anti "i"111 H.. ,,,,·, ""d n,ried hlllloe for the pride of pasleri· while.doinK this the work of the Jackson IIilfhway W1l.'" lJ·,·· thoroughly explained. .As a reSUlt, 11 good road advo· Ilull. Yi.·tM O. .\tkins. member IIf Alabawa Uigh. eate 'iYI.lI gained and the nloney gotten tu pay the ex· WilY CUlI1mi.'si"ll. II/Ill Il"ll. Kc\' ~lilnee. \·i"e·PresiJenl pensea of the chairman• At Pille Hill the chairman told of the work to SOaLe ..f .~i\hli/lla I; ,0,1 Hoad, .\s~"ciati'H\ !Ill" l'''mmis.",iont'r fur ('luke '·'lIlIIt.... '\'rote to .'·nur rhairmllll. iU"iting three thouaand people aSsembled. two·thirds of whom h,'r r.. ato"lld th,· ~! .. hile till" ~elmll ~li,1.,":nmer (j..o<! were wOIIIen. At )luhile Hon. ,John Craft and Han. J. R..ad,; "Hoeliull "" lh.! 24th' "f .Tlli-· 'tl Pint' IIiII. Ala· D. ilIock called a m"..tinll' of the Directors of tbe Board halllil. illld rell "f the "")~k of ri'e ""Ciollal ~1l'iet\· of Trade. The chairman read )[N. Watt's speech. An rllite.l ~Iares lJ"ullhters "f 1';12. slale .If .\Iahallla. o~. in\'itation was eJ:tended to tbe chairman 1:1 visit lIo.Jat'k.,,," IIi!!hwa". Thi~ was a dis~illl'l re"o'!"ilioo of '. bile in ~ov"mber. At :-:ew Orleans tbe chairman wa.~ thE' "'urk ,;r th': .\Iahama [)allghr~rs "f 1~12 and a invited by }[r. Truevant, Secretary of the ProlfTl'SSi\"P t'nionto atteud a factot')· luucheon, and was gi"en the privHere of the floor, dividinll' bonors with some prom· • ineut speabrs. A lrip to :-:ashville was made by wa" of Yic.bburg and }[emphis. These two citi,,~ are nJl on the roote of the Jackson lIighwa.", but much inter· est 'II'1lS taken io our work. .fust here wish to >Ill\" that we are moch indebled to }Ir. Lee Richardson IIf Vick.",. burg who sent his automobile aroun,l to the hotel where the chairman was stopping. placing it at her dispJsal fur going through the :-:atiooal Park. which she did. Al :-:ashville the Laaies' Hermitage .!.'lsociation had appoi.nted llrs, Willis J. Hilzing chairman for Teune:osee, aDd through ber :'our chairman W<IS invited to gil before the Board of Directors of the .\."sMialbn and t'J:plain 001' work. The directors pledged their murnl support. Your chairman worked her.·ay on du"'D tbrough Franklin, Columbia and Pula:ski, Tennesst'e. to Athens and Decatur, .Alabama, aDd met with cordial SUppJrt and enJ.orsemeut of the work. On the night of September the 15th she left Binnmg· bam hI' Chicago. the northern terminll5 of the Jackson High....ay and Bowling Green. Kentuck:'. was re>Cched on the momin,r of the 16th, The trip through Kentucky W'IlI a ra.,toral delight as well as a sucressful on.. in the interest of the Jackson Highway. Kentucky i3 beautiful in September. Stops were made at th.. tOWll" aud villages along the old Louisville.nd :-:n.",hvill.. Turnpike. At each place the visit and object was heralded ahead. Visits were made to Smith Gro\"e, Cav.: City, Horse Cave, }IWlfords\'iIle ElizabethtoW'n and Louisville. 00 leaving Louis\'i1le, the chairman was invited to attend the Auto Salesmen's Convention byone of the puhlicity men, and was given the privilege of the lboI'. Our work was there endorsed. A Cole car was placed at the dis{Y.lsal of the chairman and two ot the Indiana Dau~hters of 1812. We took in the city !'d'isS KATE :VI,.'CLCR£ KELL.Y and the Speedway. The courtesy was eJ:tended by }[l'. M;u i\~;;)1 :•.:~.a~~ ?,:'uh~f'nt of th,. A:.o.ma Oau1thtifn of :H% 'nd "~r7 :lIcKee. Advertising )[aDager of the Cole Car COal· bnili.r.l Y<1~nfl ""maI'L 5b .. 1. {h~OIl17 _trr.&l:I ;._yff p,.~t''::l'lr 1ft th. ¢Owu pany. lDdiaoapolia, There ia no concerted action ot Alab.a-r:-..a.. $~.:. dH1)t, 'ctn.... ~-i ,n ft'• • l.d...oQ Wt'm""'tal H:ah ••,.. IImong the Daughters of 1812 or IndianA in. ngard to the WJrk or the Jackaon Highway. but thl'l'I' is llaLOI1/l: .'IJIJ!j';I!!W:I! :.~ :ll.· ,·hairlJlan. ilf1tl \\!tholit ":11' p,'uuy in tht" rr·".t .. qr.1" :h,.. "fja:rm:lU a,·t·t:"pt~ll :ht'o i::\'::atillfl. .:\:1 vrJminl'Jlt good roads men a .entiment in behalf of a North and South Road with the L",ertiol1 thst the a "luid :0 i'·ml. h till' ,lact' whl':-~ .\:ldr,·w .1;4,ck~nn li"t>d lCI,i ·!I.·.~. t:l:'" ehairman hall iftt'H h··ard when Dame. "Jackson Highway•. ll"l\S most appropriate. An one 'W~h ~r"Hkt!lj{ uf a pi.'r~Hn that hafl. nHt rhl' where- invitation was extended to meet with the- Daugbterll withal ..\-::~~ wh~t"h [I' pay h:~ tr,.t\· ... lio)l t!:'tp"'U'itl!'l. thL"'I or 1812 or Dlinois a.t their O(:toher Board }{eelinll. which was held at the La Salle tht,,!. but awing to hom . . i.\- ~;t~ :.':l:. -- !II' tt'<fk hi..; f IIH it: hi~ hand Silt! \\'ent the Illteues., of the hour, aad II I'revialL~ engagemeut over th ... !H!:.·· :,,, ~ht: p:~kt'\i up ~.,uthenr t;'\HtI Road.... tbe meeting did not materialze, IIIinoi.. hlt., two "latp )ra)o!'aZJn~ au,1 w ... nr over tht" t'ntjr~ prnp;):'"oo!tl route :ll Good Hoade AasoeiatiooL A Woman's Good Road Asthl" .lal·;.z"p;'l [l:llh\\';LV. lIIlciatioll with m.any prominent club women a.~ memheN ~[r II B \·~rna. r'h,' ~tlitor IJf ~ulIlhern l100d ~Js. lind Chicago is the headquarters ror the :Sational Good had J:t\'i'~ HlU<'l1 ·... n:tl·l· illld dh.·nurail~m('nt !u thi" .Ja\·k- Roads Association. They have taken up as tbeir work SHU fLll:,·X:lY. 'ill ':!w dt;1lrman ft'it' that io ;:lkinJ,f up the Linl!Oln Hijtbway, bat that does Dot in tbe leL1t the !f1:t~al:n.· a;l,i ,'-.IH~i[iog tJrde~ at ~o.e ltollar per interfere witb tbe ....ork of the Jackson HighWlLy. Hon.

I ..

19 1J

';"",'ral

1111111. Ihlfl

I;

...

Mrs. Watt ia CharltHte. Shfl

P,..,..,tt..

';I

one.,(

R. ud t!. 0 C. (11'('" at ta. oil' Coo-i Ro..b t;.

.n

~

The Oilll"hr""" L"<lger" i:,dtill

Inn. Theo ,·itl/.I·I1~ It:

Willing t .. h,·lp ;. ery cnuntv has ~ ..

inul'blt'J

io

~ho,vn h~r

II.."

whil .. to the C'HlIll ,. "n mobile riff,} '1)\',": road". That a r.akes :

T


~br<:h,

:-;OUTIlERN GOOD ROADS

1913

!.lltS WAI.T£ll

w,

IlATT

)in. Vi _a i. Pr..ide::H at the SOf'th (.&l'Oiin.a D-u.Jll.... 'Vl hl% u4 U'u.. in Chul'llu# Shr a QQ. of :!u t<X'1&t 1_-.4__ of hft' ~it:l aad it Ortm'linut in D, A. R.a.tId t',.o C,cu'c!ft, Sli..... • po••~ lor th.J.dl.-nl »~f)1"1.1 ili.h ••,. at Ut. oil C'J'"j tto-d'~"'f_.tb.t.l'ft«ttn 8aiti~. JVA.- f9.1tlZ.

T!l~

ll"n!!l\lprs of 1~1:: w..re II.'! in"hllh',l in th" l..tfth:,·r',.. lHYltatl1)!: list to tht~ r~t'f~ptllin :11 Thor3by, IllG,

Tht' <,it :/I'tiS nf

'"'t"'rrwua wattt and ar?

huiit! ~ht' lluutgODt.. ery has h...,Hnifu! ruadSt Tiltis much indebt.!'!' ll"ll Tnn~, )L Owen ['r 11l311V I,nllrlesies ~ho\'~:n !:It'!" whitt) itl th~ eit\~ If ... anti ;ibn to tn,· '·"lIll' ,'nl/';o,,~r, )1;', SllIk"llhll!'ll', all <luto· wiUil11!

t" C~'!H:t\

mobile ride "H'U' ,,,me or :\(olltgomer:", h.. alltiiul rnalls That" L,kes to the Gulf Hi,:hwll." is ~m'1St impor.

tuUot OU", hillturj aut! statillties prove. 'Die trelll1 o£ trille aut! commerce in the lJllitet!l3tat5 ial!iiartlt &Ill!' Sotith.Tlill.tthe name ofthilillorth lilldml1thlUghwll.y shoult! he ..Jacksun Highway," ant! th4t it mould connect Chicago with :-lew Orleaus, splitting til.: l£it.ltlle nMiu, coming t!own tllruugll the stat5 uf IUinuiol. In,liana, Kentucky, Tenlll!Sll<!e, Alabama, llils5issippi and Louisiaua lI.lI the mUlit fewsihte route, is eon~. On the 7th of August a tri..tate lim ruat15 m~4g' WlI.S held at Huntsville, Alabama. llr. p~, ~litll!:' of the :-lashville Democrat, wltll t!le leat1iug spirit. A s0ciability run WM mat!" from :-IltlIh..iUe. this route Wltll from ~Mhville by Ivay of l(ur!ree:lboru-Fa,rettl!ville tu Uuntsville with a general disc_on that in selecting a route for tourists that it be _tinUi:!u t.: Chattauuoga, .~tlallta and 3n to Jaebunville. Till.. tri·state meetiug did not endor:se the work Ilf the A.labama Daughters. Another tri·state meeting Wltll aeld On the ,*·5 of October at }[ammoth Cave, where a. Lakes to the GuU llSIlodation Wl1ll formed. The route of thi,. llSIlociation'll highway hltll not been praetieall)' defined. The seeretar)', )[1', H. L. Ramsey, of the Lakes to th" Gulf _~ociation, in an article in the Louisville TimC!i of :-Iovember 16th, prillts a map ahowing the rnutes of the eight national highwa>'s prupoaed in COUgl'e5ll, ll.llt! calli attention to the fact that LouisvilU was left olr of the liue of the propoaed highway. It is a.'itoniahing t3 the chairnlan that a man of lIr, Ra.msey'll ability and aeeming fairnt's.~ would ignore and try to t!iscredit. a patriutic organiUitiull like the :-Ialiunal Society (juited Statt'll ll'Ullt!tters of 1$12, l!:<peelall)' when th.. chairman ahuwet! hltu tit.. artidt!5 pril.ltet! in the Birnt ingham Age·Herahl ur September ;;I and 10, 1911, an,1 editorials in the }lubile Register of July'13, 1911, ealt, ing attention to the fact that not one of the eight )fa· tional Highways was namet! far Andrew Jackson. lI. man wholle nallle is identified with more roads and trails than any other in .\merican histor;y, no!:' was one , proposed to connect the lakes with the gulf, coming through the cities of Louisville, N~viIIe, Decatur, Birmingham, }(ontgome.r;y, liobile and :s'ew Orleans.. a., the Alabama Daughtel'll of 1812, have in their monument to .\ndrew Jackson. The .Jackson Highway was plaun~l and launched b>' the Daughters of 1l:l12 of .\labamA as a :s'atinnaI HighwaJo', and more wark in an ed1ilcational way ha... been done for this highway than any prupolll!d, with the exception of the highwa,. planned oy the ~ew Yori: Herald aud Atlanta .Journal from :s'ew Yori: to Jack· son ville, Florida. In an article published in the Birmingham .~e·Her· aid of S..ptember :J, 1911 your chairman 5U1rltt'Sted that ret!eral ai,l he asked tn construct • }Iemorial Brit!ge to Andrew .lat'bon acro&'I the Tennes.<oee River at De· catur, Alalllllna. II bridge that will meet the requirements of all traffic. and requested }tiss }(aut!e lIcClul'l' Kelley, President of the Daughters of 1812 of Alahama. to draw up a bill t3 be prt'llente,l tn .,.n~'I. The- bill IlJl drawn by her is hert' appended. A:-I ACT TO PRO\'lDE FOR THE ERECTIOX Ot-' .\ RR!DOE ACROSS TIlE TE:-I:XESSEE RiVER AT DECATl:R, .HJA, Rt' it t'nacted. Ptc,: That fh'e hundred thoul!lIud ($300,OOO) dollars i" hereby appropriated, uut of an>' money in tlte treuut:' not otb.. r,vl~e appropriated. for the e-reetion of lI. me· morial hridge aero",.. the Tennt'll...ee river at DHatur Alabama 8.'1 a mOlmment to .\ndrew Jackson the sam.. to be approved by and under tbe direeti:>ll of the Chief Engineer of tbe war department. 1.&...t "pring YOllr chairman wr'llte to Pre!oident H.>op-


8

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March, 19 t J

SOUTHERN GOOD ROADS,:' .

er ortlle .\:wtirieaI1Autllm"bfre Aasociationaskinghim tured~refi.ned;·pAtrioti~ wllmen,wefe-eHbattllisIl1011UoIn sl'lIfl ''111' of tlll'ir fnurs ,,\'er til...J"CksJII Highway. ment to Andrew JacklIon, "The Jaelt.'IQCl Highwa..r.'" )Ir. IIo 'Jler l'cplieu that at that time they bad not de· will ~olln be a vitalized reality. cided 00 the route of the tours, but cordially expressed his sinct're wishes for the snccess of the Jaekl!"n High· The American Righway AssociaUon P1edpl \0 :leder. al Aid. way, anu suggested that tllt daughters of 1812 Call in line with the American Autumobile Association in ita !:o'ormal approval of the policy of federal co-opera"IIort to get state and fe(ler~1 aid for the construction tion with the statea in highwa,r c:lnlltruc:tiOll ud mainlIf higpway and r:lads, tenllDce characterized the annual meeting oj the Board In conclusion will say that e"ery dollar of the Chair· of Directors of the American Highway A.oci.&tion man's espeuse over the Jacks"n Highway. a distance held in Washington wt month. The deeisioD of the of over 1200 miles, was met by her individually, with association is of vi,tal impurtauc~ to every ODe interestthe e:s:ception of Ii.. e dollars contributed b~' the South· ed ill the improvement of ita public ro..a. ..m Ritulithic C,'mpanJ'. auo t\\"o parties not caring for Until the present time the Ameriean Highway A.!fh,' magazine insist... l on Irivin~ to fhe cause :loe J'lnar S9ciation baa not through ita board takm a detinita :mtl tift~· cent", ~Ir, fl, rI. \'~rner gave $li.5Q heside" stand in the matter of federal aid e:s:cept by resolution ll.t the annual 1'oa<1 congress in which it pledged ita association to the Congressional Joint Coll1lDi~. Its effortll ha\'e been confined principally to eduea.tional and advisory work in all the states, aiding in the fOrmation of road iJDpro\'ement associations in the varioa... states and municipalities and assisting in the drafting of uniIorm laws for hi~hl\'ay building, maintenance and super\;sion. .An invitation to confer \\;th the joint coll1lDittee or congress in..estigating the subject of federal aid with Ii. view to determining ,~hether or not such & system. would be practicable and, if so, what form the federal aid should take, undoubtedly led the 1MIart! oC dir ctors of the American Highway Assoeiation to take 11. definite stand in the matter, and immediately following the meeting of the board the membersc:ouferred with Senator Bourne of Oregon, Chairman of the 10int Congressiooal Committee, and his fellow IlWllbers oC that cOlIllllittee, in response. to the invitation utended some time ago. The members of the board of directors 1rho were present at the anoual meetiog '''ere: Logan Waller Page, President of the association, who is also director of the t:nited States Office of Public Row. W. W. Finley, president of,. the Southern Railway, who ia Chairman of the asSociatbn's e:s:ecutiTe committee; Alfred Noble, the eminent Past President of the Amer· ican Society of chi} engineers; J. ::u. Goodell, former tditor of Engintering Rec:>rd; George C. Diehl,. chairman of the Good Roads Board of the Ameriean 4Ut~ mobile .Association; A. G, Batchelder, ChainDan oC theE:s:ecutive Committee of the Ameriean Automobile As-sodation; George W, Cooley, State Bigh~ay Engineer of :\!innesota; J. p, Nelson, representing the C. & O. ;..;"jI1:;;_....;:I~lo:L..-:;=- • Ra.ilway Compan)'; Jesse Taylor, president, Ohio Good Roads Federation, and 4. H. HU!lt:l1l of COlumMRS. FREDRIC'" IUCBELSOll bus, Ohio, The toncensus of their opinioa wa.s that Mr". 3fich.lJon i. on_ of lb. l-.db .. -om«," olThotlb,•."I.bam.&,. • titUthere should be federal co-operation ill highway conto.." Oft til. ri.. bt~t.w.J' 0' the And","" J~"OQ Hith••,. Sh i • • n'\«,m.. lNr ot the ""dre .. JaciuOQ KId' ••, c.",,,nitt_ of th. Alabama O."c~tu- of struction and that the best resulta could be obtained 1112 and. an ."t~uul.tlie "'orkt'T. b)' improving those main highways which euTY the greatest volume of tonnage and sel:'\'e the largest llUlll· a geuer 'us per een t of the subscription price or S ,uth· ber of people with an equitable distribution of such ern Gu.)d R"aJs. )[any pr'lm;uent ne\~spapu al'Jo~ the high'uy improvement among the states. At the two route sent a rep.,rter to the horel to interview the hour conference with the joint t"QOlgression.al com· chairman, au.l the notices gi"pn rhe work hal'e been mittee the views of prominent members of the boArd preser"eJ ono iiiI'd, . of directors of the' association were made DO,,"" Ami It ill csppciall.\' l1ru1iiyilllo: lhat "ur ~uti >IIa: Presi· will probably have much influence on the liDaI juclg. dent. ~rrs, William G~rr:' ";lade and the :"utional Ex· lIIpnt of congress. eeuth'e n"artl have heen so impresse,l with thp work "f riir...-tot5 p~ a resThe member:'l of the hOllrd ~'our '·oflllllirt'·,· that they wi"h to> take it up a. a nil· nlution confirming the action of I"resident Pace 1Il "ptional wark. ,u,,1 when we consider \VhAt the [)anl:h. I'rnvin~ the employment of .J, E. Pennybaelter, Secre· ters !If. 1"12 of ,\iaba.ma ha"e a<'c"mplished in askinJ( tnry of the aaaociation.aa statistician of the congresfor and h-inlC A'iwn "the ri>;ht (If way" bJ' prominent ~ionll.l joint committee. Il.nd expressing appreciation of men in :lIlth',rilY. ami in crpatin!: sentiment "I,mA' lh.' flIP- honor done the L'I..ocill.tion in this appnintment. entire r .ute f,'r the ,Ja,.k"on I1isrhway "ith thp proffer."' I'd aid and "upport lif the :-ratiooal Sociely rnit~.1 Sewton o.ounty..\ rkan~L" will 9p1!nd $2.';.9'iO in- the DaughteM oC 11l1:!. ~ompo~~rl of .•evera! thol1un,l cui. "on~truction nf two steel bridges.

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12

SOUTHERN GOOD ROADS

September, 1915

rrhe Jackson Highway By MISS ALMA RITTENBERRY, Birmingham, Ala. IS USE.'LESS to gi.H' a detailed statellJ.ent of how Jackson Highway originat.ed. It rccord-d Ithatf the tlle Alabama Daughters of 1 12 were the first to IS

take the initiative in planning, launching and building a Transcontinental High way from Chicago to :Mobile, and on to New Orleans; co:tmecting the Lakes and the Gulf; a big broad road splitting the l\Eddle Basin and traYersing the states of Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, llIi iS8ippi and Louisiana; as a monument to Andrew Jack on in commemoration of his military triumph and ciyic achievement. The committee of ,yhich I have been chairman for four years has been untiring in it efforts to create 8entin;ent and aronse interest in the building of this highway, connecting the Lakes and the Gulf, as a monument to Andrew Jackson. The best factor of aid has been the press. The purpose of the eommittee has been to stimulate interest in the Jackson Highway as a monument to ~-\ndrew Jackson. to connect the Lakes and . the Gulf in a commercial way, bringing the North and the South into more neighborly relations, to advocate and by example push a policy of "road education," to arouse interest in the citi-es and country, to particularly show the coming generation the yalue of "roads .'ts monuments," to keep an"ay from politics and sectiollalism, and the plan of bnilding was from county :;0 county, state to state, to arouse enough interest along the selected route to get the counties to issue bonds and repair the old Xorth and South turnpikes and build in the missing links. In our work we are in perfect accord with the ideas of the Director of Public Roads who says that" it is not only my hope but belief that every state will eventually adopt a system, the most important essential of which will be the Trunk Line Road supplemented by intercommunicating roads, in which a graduated system of state control will be exercised and which will receive state aid according to their importance." The Jackson Highway is tIre Trunk Road through the states from Chicago to :n-fobile on to New Orleans and the committee in its earnest efforts in the behalf of the Jackson Highway were -equally pledged to get the convicts out of the mine and placed on the public )'oads, especially in _Uabama. The women of the different patri tic organizations, the Colonial Dames, Daughters of the American Revolution, Daughters of 1812, and Daughters of the COIlfederacy, have in the last 8 or 10 years become ariH1sed to the importance of presening the historic points of interest and marking the old ro~tds and trails, The Daughters or the American Revolution have given valuable aid in their work or research in helping to compile the war reeords of the war or the Rev3lutioll. The Xational Society of the rnited States Daughters of 1812, State of Alabama, are alert to the importance of the work that belongs to their period. Their organization is one of the youngest but their field of \\'Ork i~ fertile as nothing had been done to mark one of the most important perious ill _-\mericall history, so the Alabama Daughters e,f 18] 2 have unuertakcn the m :);;t ambitious interprise of allY patriotic organization, 'l'lwy launched the pruject of this 'fl'anseontilJenta J JIig'hway rrom Chicago to ::\'ew Orleatls, splitting' the :;\licldle Bilsin, the Highway to follow tht, old historic I'oalls alit! trails of that period as nearly as was practieal hnt it is

impracticable to leaYe llUt trade centers in building a national highwa~-. In all patriotic organization work of this kind, with no financial backing. it is a long drawn out persistent work, you alway me<'t with more or l1'sS indifference und more or Jess upposition, As chairman I have tried from the yery beginning to interest the various COlllmercial bodies in the different cities thruugh which the .Jackson Highwa~' passes. They all endorsed the proposition and assnred me of their hearty support and cooperation" But, oh, they seem so long in giving it. The main line of the Dixie Highway is going through Eastern Kentucky, East Nashville, on to Atlanta and down to l\1iami. _-\.s chairman of the Jackson Highway Committee I was asked by Col. Shook, the Nashville, Tenn., delegate of the Dixie Highway COllferenee, to join with him ill his effort to get the Dixie Highway through Xashville and connect the Jackson Highway with the prop)sed Dixie Highway at :t\ashville. I refused to go ,\"ith him. but a delegation from the Birmingham Chamber of Commerce went to Chattanooga to bring the Dixie Highway to Birmingham. They hea~d the air of Dixie played by the band through the streets of Chattanooga. This delegation has become strong and ardent supporters of the Jack: son Higln-my coming through Birmingham and they do not care ,\"11ether the northern terminus is Kalamazoo, Michigan, or Ishkoota, Ala., or through what cities it passes just so it passes through Birmingham. As all of you must know there is no monument to Andrew Jad:sol1 in the state of Alabama. the state he redeemed rrum saYages and gave to civilization. There is ollly the equestrian statue in the eapital grounds at Xashyille ana the Hermitage between Chicago and New Orleans. So it was suggested by the Alabama Daughters of 1812 that a monument he erected to the memory of Andrew Jackson and that the most suitable monument would be a beautirul road stretching down through the }fiddle Basin from Chicago to New Orleans connecting the Lakes and the Gulf. There cannot be built a greater or finer monument to the memory of man than a ~ational Highway. a monument that benefits the living while honoring the elead. Ei"ht National High,,"ays were proposed in 'congress, not ~ne to the memory of _-\.nclrew .Jacksoll nor was one propos" cd to traverse the }fiddle Basin between till< Blue "'Valls and the Rockies, connecting the Lakes and the Gulf, TIle huilding of this monument is not the work of any good roads assotiation or the coumJereial bodies. along the route, it is the work or the Alabama DalPhtel'S uf 1812. '" Nelson ~age says that" the Southern man wept for the 10sH of IllS wealth, the Southel'll womaJl wept for her' dea.u." The rehabiliation or the South is due in a gre,at pal:t. to the spirit, the .indolll inatable e:mrage, the self saenfiee. anu the fortltnele of the Southern \\"0mall. 'I'lle Daughters of the Cunfederat\路 built the moplllllent to Jefferson Davis in IIollywood~ Hiclllnoud, bnilt the 11l0nmrH~Jlt to the Confederate d(\ad ilJ Arlingtoll, JJUt t.he greatest IIJOJll1nWJlt uf all is the ,Taekson IJighway hOlll Chic:ag-o 10 )iew Or] e\ilJJs. e(JllJ]'eetill~ Ih(' Lakes aBd 111/' Gulf ill 11 eOllI1lJr,I'eiaI wa'y aJlcl brilJ';~ iJlg tlip 1'\ortll and the ;-';"uUt ilJ a )1I(ln~ llt:j"li lwrlv r'~' ]utiolJi.;}lip allli illto e/l,s(', bonds of frielld::;hip" HIl.] hr'other-ly Jove',


SOUTHERN GOOD ROADS

September, 19 J 5

Meeting 01

13

Jaekson ig-hway Association

By WILLIAM C. RADCLIFFE, Temporary Secretary

A2

i': AD.JOl'RNED :;V[EETI?\,G of the ,Jackson High,\'av Association was hel<l on Fridav..July 30th. at p. n;. at Birmingham, Ala., for the p~lrpos~ of re: ceiving the report of the cOlUmittee on temporary organization, }\Ii"s Alma Rittenberry, chairman. The meeting was called to order by Chairman, an(l it developed that ::\Iiss Rittenberry had not arrived. Owing to the fact that several members of the conference were obliged to leave on early afternoon trains, the report of the temporary organization committee was made by temporary secretary, "Ym. C. Radcliffe, as follows: "It is the nnanimous recommendation of the committee on temporary organization that this associatiJn be known as the Jackson Highway Association: to promote a highway from Chicago on the northwest and from Buffalo on the northeast. to Xew Orleans. . "It is the unanimous recommendation of the committee on temporary organization that the following temporary officers be chosen at this meeting: President, two vice-presidents from each of the following states: Kentucky, Tennessee, Indiana. Alabama and Louisiana. Two honorary vice-presidents from Alabama. Secretary (to be named by the temporary president.) "The committee recommends the eledion of the following temporary officers of the Jackson Highwa~- Association: President-Po L. Atherton, Louisyille, Kentucky. Vice PresidentsFor Kentucky-Emer~- C. Dent. Allen cOllnt~·, and E. L. Quarles, Lexington. For Indian a-'Walter H. Crim, Salem. Second mem· bel' to be named later. For Alabama-"Y. S. Keller, Montgomery and John Craft. ::\Iobile. For :iHississippi-F. E. Cottrell, Gulfport, and 'Valter Gex. Bav St. Loui;;. For Tennessee-J. G. Creveling, Xashville and Ben Childers. Pulaski. For L'ouisiana-Leon Schwars and c. H. Ellis, Xelv Orleans. "The committee recommends that the temporary president be empowered to select it temporary secre: tarv. for the reason that it seems almost necessary that the" secretarv be in the same town with the president. "Tile conl'mittee recommends the elertion of the two followina honorarv vice presidents-:iTiss Alma Ritten· belTv aned 1\Irs. J. "l\forgan Smith, both of Birmingl1il11l. "it is the unanimolls' recommendation of tilE' <'.0111mittee on temporary organization that this meeting go on reeOl'd as giving full recognition to the Xational Societv euited States Daughters of 1812, state of AI'lhaJ~a, as having taken tlie initintive in planning awl launching the highway from the Lakes to the Gulf. naming it in honor of Andrew ,Jackson. "And further. that the minutes of thi" meeting shall record the fad' that Miss Alma Rittenbl'r1'y. of Birmingham. origillatc(l in H)O!) tIm .idea of tJ~is tnlllsl'.onti!len tal highway and was apPolllted chaIrman of the work hv thc dang-bters of 1812, state Alabama, OIl l\[ay 25th, l!lll, and has diligently worked in the interest of its pians and purpOS8S. ,. :\ntl f1l1·t!1l'I'. that in the minntes of this first meet-

corded the first annual report made by the chairman of the Jackson Highway, l\liss Alma Rittenherr~·. :m October 31st, 1911, to the president and board of clirectors of the Alabama Daughters of 1812." The report of the committee ras unanimousl:: adopted and Chairman Milner called Temporary President Atherton to the chair amidst applause. 311'. Atherton stated that he did not desire to make an address, but felt that the thing to do was to discuss the plan of work. Mr. Kenned.y moved that the temporary officers be made the temporary executive committee and that thHY be empowered to fix the time and place for the next meeting and that at that meeting a constitution and bylaws be offered for adoption. The motion was carried. President Atherton asked if anyone had thought or plans for raising funds. A general dis(mssion follon-ed, wherein lUI'. Halle sugested that an effort be made to interest antomobile manufacturers and dealers in the Jackson Highway. Mr. Manier, speaking for Nashville, invited the Jackson Highway _-\ssociation to h::>ld the next mreting in that city; 2\Ir. Craft thought the meeting should be held in Birmingham. Mr. Kenned~' suggested th~t New Orleans should not be overlooked in considering the next place of meeting. l\ll'. Kennedy snggrsted that the matter be handled bv the executive committee. Mr. Radcliffe stated that Birmingham would be happy to ha VI' the next meeting, but that there ,ns Ihl di5po"ition to press the matter lUlduly. l\-fr. Kennedy, who was leaving to take the train hOlM, pledged the supart of Montgomery to the further work of the highway, and stated that the ::\[ontgomery Cham· bel' of Commerce has heen actiye in a Il10yelllent which will bring the scout men of the automobile Blue Book into Alabama in the fall for the purpJse of making road notes of the various highways. Mr. :Manier suggested that a strong errort be made to obtain a large attendance at the next meeting and suggested that invitations be sent out by the go...-ernor of the state in which the meeting might be held. Judge Skeggs of Decatur and ~lr. King of Pulaski, expressed themselves as favoring Nashville far the next meeting. In Ii. further discussion of methods of providing funds for construction work. NIl'. :Manie1' urged that no consideration be given az{y route unless a valid guarant"e of the connty or of responsible indiyidnals is gi...-en the Jackson Highway Association. ~Ir. ~.\.thertoll sug"'ested that this be discussed at the next meeting. '" Mr. Atherton was asked to give e timate of the annual expense of maintaining the organizatiou, He expressed the belief that it could be done for $6,000 to ,h7,_ 500 per year, which ,yould include the salary of a capable secretary and the services of a steJ?-0grapher. It was suggested that some antomoblle company might be ,villing b fUJ'nish an automobile for field work Informal discussion was had of a plan for lllilrking the .Jackson Highway. It was suggested that a white hand be put around telephone. telegraph and trolley poles along the road, with the letters" J. H." pl'inteJ in black on the whit() bank. The matter II-as left to the executive committee.


January. 1916

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"IS

SOUTHERN GOOD ROADS

21

Convicts on Colorado Row. Incorpor ate J&(:kson Highway. miles of perfect roadway have I"'en thollsand AssoOne 'fhe officers of the Jackson ~[ilitary Highway con"icts in the past sevell dation have inllugura ted plaus for ill"orpur atiug the eOllstructed by ColJrado to emplo)' convicts un tllt· r.lads a,slleiatio n and the papers are now b..illg executed and years. Colorado heg-an armed guards were used, hut during after having been publishe d us required by law will in 1908. At first the honor system was introduce d, summer second After . the approval f:>r be filed with the attornt')--geuf'I'al vOl{ue. in still is be it will alld charter a es authoriti the appro\-al by the ~tate IVarden Tynan statvs that the cllnvil'ls arc wlJl'king grauted the assoeiation. five separate lind distinct roads, and will !'t'main at on its and stock The ('orporat ion will have no eapital all wint"r, as in C.>lorado they can lJjlt'/'atc the work charter for oll purpose as enumeratEitI in the applieati durinlC the whole twel\'e mouths of the .,'car. eamps pubus eontinuo a for "to select llnd establi~1 the route of the 'most wonderfu l roads 'e"er "oll,truc te,l "Onc Jack"The as ed lic highway to be kno"'n and desiguat has just been complete d," Warden Tynan America in in Nashville of eity the s:>n )filitary Highway " from two years of blasting solid granite for "after says, in Orleans New of city the the State of Tennesse e to along the Arkansa s ri--er. This opens miles eighteen of counties the through pass to a. the state of Louisian ile highway from Kansas, np the automob splendid a lip the in e Lawrene and )[aury on, Dayidson. Williams to its s:Juree, over the "Contine ntal ri"er s Arkansa Colle. Lauderda of eounties the e. state of Tennesse and to the l:tah line. bert. Frllnklin . )[arion and Lamar in the State of Al- Divide" ,. IVe ha\'e still another gang of men working in the Kemper. , Naxnbee , Lowndes of connties the abama, River cauon on this same route. and they have Lauderda le. Clark, .Jasper, Forest, Jones, Lamar, Pearl Eagle work ahead of them. lYe are operatin g River and Hancock in the state of ~[issisippi, and cer- four ~'ears drills and steam shovels in 0111' mountain tain parishes in Louisian a; and to encourag e and pro- large powerheav)' gasoline tmctors and "ther machinmote the construc tion of a permane nt public highway work and establish and er~' in our prairie e,amps." 011 and along the said route selected amI Colorado con viets, in a<ldition to the w\lrk. form h encourag e and prol1lOte the prJper maintena nee three lal'ge ranches, and next year a fOllrth ranch is thereof, etc." to be added. From 50 to 60 per cent of the ahle bodied The Dames of the incorpur ators are Uessrs. R. T. prisoners are employed out of doors. and \Varden TySimpson and .J. )L )[cBeath . of )[eridian , and )[1'. W. nan sets forth that the success with them is hctler than H. Carter and )[1'. Thos. Thos. J. Locke. Jr., of this ever. ' cit~·. The purpose of the incorpor ation is to perfect an 01'Road Organization. ganizatb n in a legal way in order to adequate ly manThe question of -road improvem ent calls for organiage the affairs and interests of the proposed route. zation. Organiza tion that will produee efficieney can be' had and should be had in e\'CIT eounty. The w:lrk Reckless Driving Fatal should be under one head and that person should being There were fifteen fatal aecidents on Iowa roads know dail~' what is being done, how much is numduring the period from 'Oet. 25 to );ov. 23, accordin g expended , where the work is being executed . the amount to the highway eommission. Eleven persons met death in ber of laborers and teams employed and the of each. cost autpmobile accidents , one person was crushed when a aOlI kind of material nsed as well as the It is one thing to get an accounti ng f::lr funds exwagon on which he was riding upset. and three were whieh killed by engines going through bridges. The fatal pended and another to get the maximum results should be the aim of every person intereste d in the accidents follow: CounOct. 25--Ance l Eskew of Riverton . car oyer em- betterme nt of the roads of the state. The Ohioaud the . ty, IV. Va., Road Departm ent is ,'ery effieient bankment. lllO\-ement. Oct. 26-Wal ter Roehik of Ida Gron. car turned tur- results in that county show the value of such E"ery morning a rep:>rt fl'om eaeh persou having anytle. is placOct. 28-}Iiss Irma Phillips of Angona. car tllmed thing to do with any road work in the coullty A e,l in the hands of the Board of Commissioners. turtle near Led\·ard. balOct, 29-Cari Doerman n, of Hartley, car missed tahulated list of the auwunt expended and the allCc in "al'h fund is kept befo\'(' tilt' "ommissiollf'rs, bridge. stateXJY. I-AilS berry of, Guthrie Center, car skidded Each memher of the Board has in his jWl'kd athe enment sh:>wing the condition of ever)' fund in through bridge railing. <'al·h piel'e Xov. 1-0sear Addy. of Cleghorn, struck by loug rod tire county and the amount appropri ated to of work. ;)[eDowell cOlin ty has a good ol'gauizat iUlI. on hayrack he was passing, work Nov. 3-:\[rs, Albert Winters, of Humbold t, ear ran and a few other counties have placed their road law. lIllller modern husiness systems. l'nder a neW off temporar y bridge. that are following the Nov. 3-:\[nl. )[eCallab , of West Liberty, victim of West Virginia, officials orders alld letting the giving of way rd haphaza old car. learning to driYe are taking a yery drift, county the of business road upset. Nov. 3-Carro ll :\lartin, of Afton, wagan offieials should read that Act and road All risk, great Nov. 4--Leo Bohounc k, of Chelaes, no lights, car in- get Bulletin 17. of the State Road Bureau. which preto ditch. scribes forms for a road system. Nov, 16-Edw ard )litchell, of )[arengo , car plunged oil' bridge. The Ohio registrar of vehicles has filed a report 15, Xov. 23-)Irs. Roy Hoskins, of Harlan, driver blind. covering the past year from January 1 to Octobertotal showing the financial side of the bllSines.~, The cd by glaring headligh ts of approach ing car. office amounte d to $120.750. ,Oct, 28-,John "'Lund, engineer ; Nelson cii':':ady; Ed- expense of eondueti ng the day turned oyer to the ~tate Win Canad5". aged 8, all of Creston, tractor plunged The receipts are each Auditor' s offiee. through small culYert.

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18

SOUTITERN GOOD R01U)S

Decemhel', 1!)] (i

Jackson Highway to Mississippi Decision of Pathfinders After Warm Session---Another Meeting in . Interest otHarmony

A

FTBR a spirited and lengthy dt'hate the trail leading directly to New Orleans from Nashville was designated as the permanent Jac·kson Highway south of ::-.la:;hville by directors of the Jasksoll-llighway Asiloeiation at the Seelbach Hotel in'.:N'ashvill8;.November 20. '-------The trail chosen is known as the Jlississippi route in contradistinction to the Alabama route which was a eandidate for the name. The Mississippi route includes Florence, ColuIDlbus, :M:eridian and Hattiesburg. The Alabama route branches from the l\fississippi route at Columbia, Tenn., and includes Cullman, Birmingham, :Jlontgomery, Selma and :Jfobile on to New Orleans.· Another way of reaehing the Alabama route proper is by leaving the Mississippi route at Nashville. and swinging· to the southea.<;t to Shelbyville and'from there due south to Huntsville and from Huntsville to Decatur. where the main Alabama line touches. The ilississippi route was recommended to the directors by the Pathfinding Committee which; traversed hoth routes and the Nashville-Decatur wav to the Alabama route. • Following the association's decision to accept the )Iississippi route, Peter Lee Atherton, chairman of tIle Board of Directors, offered two resolutions, one to extend an arm of the Jackson Highway to Montgomery and the other to place the sense af the board as opposed to any loop route on the Highway. 1Ir. Atherton's first resolution ,"as met with a storm of protest by" directors who championed the Mississippi route. Insinuations that ., It was a one-man conyention" and that the "eards were stacked" were made. The heated controversy that ensued was extended to such a late hour that directors voiced apprehension of missing their trains and as the breach bet,yeen Alabama and }\1ississippi factions was broadening Yisibly, the board voted to adjourn "to think it over" f:)l' a period not longer than ninety days and to meet at Birmingham to pass on the resolution. A fight by the Alabama delegation to table the motion was lost by a vote of thirteen to eleven. Louisville, Fairfort, Xashville, Birmingham and Xew Orleans were suggested for the next meeting place.)liss Alma Rittenbel'lT, of Birmingham, who conceived the idea of estahlishing the llighway as a memorial to Andrew Jackson, invited the board, in be. half of the Birmingham Chamber of Commerce, to meet in that city. Capt. .John Craft, of Mohile, llOJding the proxy of E. 13. Dunten, of l\{ississippi, pr:Jposed that aJl three routes traversed by the Pathfinding Committee he ilesignatetl as the .Jaekson High,Yay. .J. B. :JfcBeath, of .Meridian, }liss. Road Commissioner, urged the board to adopt the .:\fississippi route, the one recommended by the PathfincJing Committee as the only .Tackson Highway south of Nashville. 1\11'. :JIcBeath, }fr. Spraggins and Capt. Craft offeretl the routes they fa,vol'ed to the hoard in thl' fOl'm of motions.· :VII'. Craft's motion was (,onsiderr,tl first and was lost hy a vote of thirtren to p.levelJ. l\fr. Spraggins motion was lost hy a yate of fourteen to ten. }<'oJlowing l

the announcement of this vote, Mr. Spraggins Rajtl that a "yes and no" vote on the }\fississippi route was not needed and by acclamation this route was designated as the .Jaekson Highway. The Alabama delegation asked that the loop route he ehosen on the grounds that the hard work done on Alabama roads deserved some recognition and reward. The :l\11ssissippi delegation opposed this stand on thc ground that t,&e two factions were given one year in which to put the two large competitive routes in order with the understanding that the one reeommended by the Pathfinding Committee was to be given the name, Jackson Highway, that the Mississipip route had received this recommendation and that it deserved sole title to the n8:m.~ and rather than share it with anotber route 'would relinquish all. This delegation emphasized the point that if all routes south of Nashville were to be known as the Jackson Highway there would be no Jackson Highway. l\Essissippi directors indicated they would join the Dixie Highway or some other highway. The Alabama delegation answered that if it did not share in the name it would have no other incentive than to join S3me other highway. This point, also, wa.., mentioned by l\lr. Atherton in his resolution to extend an arm of the highway to Montgomery. Directors were given an "Old Hickory" luncheon at the Seelbach rathskeller by the LouSsville Board of Trade. Thomas Floyd Smith, president of the board, presided at the luncheon. Addresses were made by 1\11'. Atherton, :.\<fiss Rittenberr:r- and several directors. The talks divulged the information that more road building was accomplished in the South last year than in the ten years preceding. Some Coming Road Meetings. Deeember 11-13-Portland 'Cement Association-Annual meeting, New York, N. Y. Assistant to General 1\fanuger, A. H. Ogle, Chicaga, Ill. January 16-18, 1917-Virginia Road Builders' Association-Sixth a.nnual meeting, Norfolk, Va. Secretary, C. B. Scott, Richmond, Va. January 20, 1917-Western Brick Manufacturers' ~-\ssociation-l\feeting,Kansa.<; City, 1\10. Secretary G. W. Thurston, 416 Dwight Buildulg, Kansas City, Mo. February 5-9, 1917-Ameriean Road Builders' Association-Fourteenth Annual COllvention; Seventh American Good Roads Congress under the auspices of the A. R. B. A., and Eighth National Good Roads Show of :Jfachinery and 1\fatcrillls. l\fechanics' Hall, Boston, Mass. Se~retary, E. L. Powers, 150 Nassau street, New York. N. Y. .February 7-]5, 1!J17-Tenth Chicago GNllent ShowColiseul11, Cllieago, 111. Secretary. Blaine S. Smith, 210 South La Salle street, eh ieago, J1I. Den to]) countY,'l'exas, will vote December 24th 011 a bontl issue for .& million dollars. A ]'eecnt proposed issne WIlS defeated. The state of New .Tpl'sey will have a\'nilable for j';tate highway 1m i1<1ing seven million dollars as the r('snlt of' tlw action of the vot(~rs in the ref'cnf; g-cnel'l1] el('etioll.


SOI.TIIfmN 11001> lW.\ 1>8

Federal Aid for Rebuilding. 'I'ltc Fedl't'i11 GOye,·nlllclIt iH coopcrating with the road authoritici'i of till' c;)UnticH ill the flood district of ·We;:.· ter·l1 No.dh C:arolin<l and the state .h.ighway departmcnt in tlto l'c('onstruetioll )'011(1s and br-idgcs destr-oyed by the l'oecut floods on tho Catawba, Yadkin, Broad and Prench Broad rivcl's. '1'ho North Carolina highway department has had a large foree of men in this sectiolJ ft·Olll the time the waters suhsided and these rcp)t'te<1 that at least a llliJl.ioJl amI half do11al'H damage hall been donc to bridges and roads, the larger- amount being caused by bridge destruction. Congress appropriated $540,000 for relief work in the states worst hit, the larger amount of which goes to North Carolina. A g:Jodly amolmt of this is expected to be expended in assisting the counties to rebuild at once the fine roads that opened the mountain country to extensive traffic. In this way work will be provided for those who lost their possessions in the high waters and will enable them to tide over the winter. The first road t:J be opened was the SpartanburgAsheville highway by way of Saluda mountain, South Carolina counties furnishing valuable aid in the work of repairing the damage. It will be some time next spring before the Charlotte-Asheville highway is again in good condition, although a limited amount of traffic will be dime over this road in the late falL TIle Central Highway over the Blue Ridge at Old Fort will also likely be done next spring and the mountain sections opened in all directions with the coming of another resort season. The road fro111 Hickory to Blo\villg R)ck was the first to be placed in condition and full tl'avel was resumed shortly after the floods. This is the route of the Boone Highway and by next sprillg and summer it will open the" land of the sky" frJlll the Tennessee side. The Outlay for Virginia. The report on roadways in iVrginia by State Highway Commissioner George P. Coleman is as fo11o\\"8 : "The State Highway Commission of Virginia wa5 formed just ten years ago, and constructed during til," first two years some twenty-two miles of imlwoved road. Since that time, ho\vever, the work of the de· partment has increased by leaps and bounds. During the last fiscal veal' we constructed a total of 846 miles ;)f all classes of road, and since the organization of the department we had constructed up to the 1st of Octobcr, 1915, a total of 3:762 miles. this mileage scattered through the 100 counties of the state. During this year we expect to construct approximately SOO miles of road. 'Ihe short sections of road which have been con· structed in the various counties are gradually bt'ing connected up, giving us a thorough system of state roads. "TIre last legislature appropl·iated for road pUrp~)8eS approximately $650,000. In addition to thi". eoullties and distriets have voted bond issue'S for the present year's \vol'k of $2,500,000. making a little over *:).000,000 available for roatl com;truetioll pnrposes dUl'iug this scasoll. In additioll to this, we l'x-pel·t to have availahlc from tire );'cllel"H1 govl'l"llnlt>nt Virginia's (ll'OpOl·tion of the Federal appropriation fol' road purpose'S. 'Phis bill, which was draftee1 by th(> exeeutiw committee of the .American Highway Officials' ASi'iociation, was passed by this present Congress. Ihlllds from this source will he available during this season. "Thle Virginia Legislature has recently realized the importance of the maintenance of its high ways after their construction, and has set aside the funds derived from

10

!he illit.utllobile ].iecllSl)S fOl' maintenance Jlurposes. rIH'S(' lJCl'J1~(,S WIll amount to approximately $250,000 for th.e COllllJ1g year, and, as the law requit·cs that the e()uHhe~ shaH, put up an l'ffualam:JUJlt, thiH wiIIgivi~ us, avmlable for lIlal!ltelllUH,f~ purpo~e~, approximately $500,000. "\Ve are at the Jll'escnt time at work on severnl t.hrough routes, North alit! South ana East and ·West. \Vc a l"C just cOllllecting up a link in the Richmond\VashingtOll IIiglnvay, alltI expect to IHlve thi· 1'0<1.(1 open for traffic in the latter part of the fall. We ha ve already cOllstrneted a r:Jad fl"om Richmond yia Petersburg aud Clarksville to the North Carolina line; a1.·o a branch from this road going down into Eastern North Carolina. In addition to this. ,re have about 100 miles of good turnpike from "Winchester, s:mth from Harrisonburg and Staunton, and are extending this road towards Natural Bridge, anel hope ultimately to carry it on south to the North Carolina line, connecting it up with the lines east and west. We are also building in a number· of places on it thraugh road from Norfolk, Va., to Bristol, on the edge of Tennessee. and from Bristol we are building north to a road from Graham, Va., to Cmnberland Gap, in Kentucky. This; with a number of short lines connecting up the important towns, will give the state a most satisfact::Jry system of state roads. Unfortunately, on the lines east and west there are a great many missing links. but for fully eight months of the yeal" tourists \rill find the roads of the state in fairly good shape, even on the unimpro\'ed cOllnections. " "Safety First" on Highways. Safety on highways ought to recein~ more attention. Speed fiends and drunken drinrs are alI·ead:,' attf'nded· to by laws, but there are many Ye1':' real dangers which have received no attention. One of these is the road intersection where the thick shrnbbel"Y or trees make it impossible for the driver on. :me street to see an ap· proaching vehicle on the other until the t\\'o are ready to collide. Slow driving is of little anlil in such place,;. The only remedy is to clear away the obstructions to sight, as is required by regulation in some places. Anot.her danger spot i.s the narr~)\\- road with sharp curves where it is impossible to see ahead 011 account of shrubs and trees. Automobiles haTe considerable trou- . hIe at times when they meet on such curves, but the danger to them is by no means so great as it is to th" young man who is holding his best girl ill a buggy and neglecting his horse. Such an obstruction in the center of a narrow; \vinding road is not quickly guided to the side where it belongs. l'nderbrush ought to be cleareel awav on the inner- sides of such curves. at least so the "driver CUll deted another vehide ou' the road ahead hefore it is nearer than seventy..five feet. Thi"l does not require the destrlli:tion of ;;;hrnbbery 01' trees, but merely enough thinning out of the growth to enable a carriage or motot· car to be seen. Still auother llanger point is (:1Ie junctiolJ of iL road with another at right l1ngle~. coneea1ed by an intern>ning rise "I' curve so tllitt the jnlll'tion p,lint is Hot seeu tilltil jnst hcfol"(~ the Jllllltlent when tltl' dri\'er on the joining road J1llL.,t turn into the main ruad. Suell placl's lare extrcmely d~Ulgerous, and signposts ;;;huultl be erected to warn the traveler of their proximity. Ocmulgee county, Okla., joined the progressi\'es fit thc recent general election by voting $800,000 in good roads bonds.


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tl... r.1Jllis,'il:.· CulI)·i.,,· .11011"""1. \'''''. :!1. 1:1 IIi, th" ill tht.· rHH·\wiu!.! writ,· Itfl (tl' lIillh\fil\' Ilirt·t"t Jf'. in LlIlli:,~ \'ill". :'\0", :!t.ith. !!lili, " .. )Ii..., .\lma Hitt~llh,>r~', who it ,Iaught"r uf 11l1:: ill Birrllin\!hall1 h,-lpe,1 t" .'rigillate the .]al·ks"11 pro· j,·,·t tWt • ."~ar>- a)Cu. also "xl'r('ss",1 hersplf b~' tledaring that ~he wa" w:llin)! I'. [,-rlOit Ihe ~[i,si:<sippi mute tn di"orl'~ itsdf fr"l11 tl} ...Lt.·ksHn l'rojed llsin;c the .Ja.:k· il,ll"wlfl~ pal'a~raph i~ tht' uH,.. rill~ (}f th,· *riH·k..~tJJl

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Gulf h," tht" WH\' ,,1' .\"laha!ua.· .\s tilt' ll1eetir;~ .:1.., .. 01 an adjuurn..<l meeting the fill'ht was "uutillued f.. r th .. Decalur anti Ike Line rout.. as '

•Irigilwlly plallni'tl, .HIl"h n·gr..t hilS h,'en ":tpresse" throughout tit" "ollatrr, hy ;!',ol! ..oatl, t'llthllsiilstS that the '.-ork as ,.riginally plaulh'd h," ~[iss I<ittt'nberr was lWt parrie,1 thrltl1lCh "umplet..ly, [t i~ the Ii",t time in fTlHhl Ruafl histf'ry Iff a wlJman uri;.rinaling the itl~a of a "ati.mal \lillhwa,' 3.- ~ :tI0UI1'\l!'lIl.· .\s the "iIi"ial d\airman fJf hi:tI1rif: !'oatls anti hig-hwa.'·.... in th~ '1rgani7.atilllJ .• f ,\lill><l1113 ,1alljl:hl~rS of ),,12. slw lallul'heil the IH·ffj~l·t of a ~;i~illl1al H~!!h·,V'a,\·. Lake~otil·GlIlf Highway, whi"h W<\s II ".'nh 'Ind S ,uth lIili!hwa \', as 3 monument tu _\lIl11'l'W orat"k3i,Hl. undt::" tht! ~lIi·sl'il"~~ Hi th~ _\labama ,1<llIght~rs .. 1' I"I:!, at a ):aliollal ("'tlli R,)a,l~ (·"lI'·en· litlll heM ill Hirll1i":rltalll )1<1" :!:). 1!1J l. an,l has ,lili· ?C'utly wurk,·d IJi an t'-dlkatij)~al wav tu l't"... att.' thfl ;.;.-.. tinH'r;t f.,r . iIi, Im.at! lIi,,!!1 way. ,<pliltill~ th,' JE,loll.· Basin ""Iuiu;! tlll'lHl;dl tit.· ~tates olf [u.liana. K,·ntlll'ky. T,'nll>,·,,(-e, .\1ahamll to )[..hi!p, skirring th .. Gulf ti' :""w Orleaus, \'ort!t alt;( 8"mh Hij!'hwa." had been plaun,·,j or .<lIj1:jr,·st ..d thr"lIgh this sri',~ial terril.)r~·, III the :'\ationa! ni~h\I'iI"'s pr'/po,,'" III CHugr.. ,,~ in 1910 not one '\'lIS in h,juor ;of .\ndr.. w .Ta"ks,'n. utlr "'as on", prop,,,,,,1 tra ..... rsiall tit .. llIi,ldl .. sl'di"u. from (,hi"R~o to the l'itil's ..f [u,li,'nap"lis. !,nuisdlle. "ash,·ille. De, ,'atllr. BirlllinKham. '[nUI!!"nkr~·. )l<.,bile to \'ew Or·

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)[iss Rit"'IlIt.·.·y i~ ,t Wtlman "f >uperinr inl ..lligPllee. her tlr1'i.·I,·s 'HI no, ..1 !loads aud Highwa~'s have been pnhlishpll ill all tlte IpauiulC GrlO<I Roads )[agaziues ami is re",'guizt!t! as ha du~ nuup :i:JnJe goot! (Oonstrtll~ti·)ll work :tlltl whil .. tllt· ,Jaekstlu lIi~hway rrtlp,.~ition wa~ 1I0t "arried "lit a. "rilrin'llI.,' plaunetl. th.. "redit is abo s..lntt'ly ,1110' hl'r f•• r the .Jaek._ .•n Highway heing gi"~n a pla,'c ou lite map "f the l'llitctI States. The uffieial rollte of the .Jack"'111 Highwa.v goes from Chicago thr"lI~h [lldiltllal'"Ii.~. \'ash.-iIl,~. r-1or,·uce. Ctlill/ultus. J[er'idiall, UattitslJllrg to Xcw OI'h'aIlS, The T~lI11"ss'le, .\Ialoalua hraneh <Jf the .Jacksou IJiI.dlwa~· goes thr(JlI~h {o'a~'dte\'ille, 1I11nbvill~..\In.. to Gadsden ant! tUnts tn ,·r..~" to Birmingham. ~[.>tltgltm.. I'Y sttlrpin~ at ~e1ma. Thl' \'ash,'ill,,·Ihwt~,·ille·na"stien .Jaekson Highwa)' is l'nn'ing a l!=""tl fe"l!.·r to the Dixie. tOllrists Iwing rOllt· l·d ",','r tlwt r>atl through Rome. Ga.. 'lD to the Dixi", Birmingham. hy th .. ~UPPOTt ,)f [ntliauna and Keutucky anti T ..nnesspc. thrHwing Iheir votes to tht' Hunts,'ill", route got .. a pial'" in the Sun I I hilt the D~catllr Rpe Line rollt .. that kppt the work alive tor four yeal'll. forming in .July :ltl, 1915. a Jackson IIigh,~a~' Associa. tion. making 3!r, Peter tee .~therton. Jf Louisville, pre3ident... wu left out in the cold." .~t the meeting of the Jackson Higbway AS3ociation,

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lll'. II. !" ~I Club l)f \'.•,,!t',;11 half tJf •he Ilix Sash\Oil~('_

'whieh H'l:'l h,·~d iu Bil'ln~II:!!lam ~J;IIl. ! I, 1~'1j :l( lht· Tntwij"r I11)[d .tilt· :illal th'~';'!,'l1 Wa~ Y;:ldl~ Whl,·h }.{tlVt·

[hlll',,·;lh· anti li."l~tl~1l th~\labllln" r"t\t". jIr. \V. T, ;';allt!l'N of .\:ilo'us.•\!a...1 O;rPI'tnr iii the .JacksHu lIi"!!IW;•..- .\sso,·;"tivn auol a I"raI Hee Liltt'r. resignetl fr.)1ll lhe lbSf).';ation an,1 alln"ulJ/·t'.1 frllm the !I,l'lr that he was ,!,,'illl!' 10 'lrgan:z,- irllm",liau-!.v a \'orth and ~ot\th IJigh"'ay ;\ssnc:at;..n. \[i"s .\1m3 Ri:t/·nha.1f ;11s() r .. ",ignt"o,l hut \\"a~ innn...di~tel.\' ~It"'h'tl hot\nrar:' lllt'mh~r of t!It' [tnartl ,.f Dire"t..'" •.1 Illi' .ra,'kson Hi~h· way As-,.::,)·:iati·", nt the 'H1~.?r:.. :i'~F! flf t!lf' prt>.o:itlent. ~{r Pf'ter Let': .\th t 'r1tlD. .:\ "all ",e.-t;n\! was .;.:( ·.·tt I.·; )[r, W. T, ~an..Il·rs of .\tf.h~HS...\ia. tf, nri!allize a Xflt;h aJl,l Suu!h B,~e Lin~ lIillhw;!," t.. m~el fn BirrnilHrham 011 th~ :!:lrd, of .Jan. 1~Ji7. The .fpfft'NUU CUIHlf: ·RI>thl", .\-;,..,t)l·icuilllt, hnpin~ to tak- the iniriatin-. iSSll"'! a '~'111 f ,r tlte :!:! of .Jall. to form a Lakt'~·r(l·(;ulf .\ss~h'ietri'Hl. ~Ir. ~iln(t~r~ srra('e· filII.,' :"i~ltl.',1 t .. th.' dar- ,,1' tltp .J,'lfer~oa G...."I Roads .\sslh'iati,·n ,'all hut w!;"11 lit.. ·Ide!!:ale~ arri"e,l in l3irmin~haIll th,' S.. ntlt awl \'.. rth B.~~ Linp ,1,,1.-g-ates olltnnm!>i'r..d ·th€' Gulf in' :lll r" I MId S"lIrh and ~ ..rth B ...~ l.iut' ,;\:-;sfwiatit'iJ1 w~~ 'Illidd.\· ·.~~at!iZt·tl. with :\[r. W'. T. ~an,lers presil!ill~ ,,""r til.. IHeelillg dn,1 ~fr, r.. )r. flllell, of ('lIl1man, .\liI .. :IS <e"retar.". TIIt"re was sn1ll~ ltis~·ussi'lll at rh.' iltj{OI'.!ih~ :h~ WOI°<1 \' ATIO\' .\L. :\[i~s Ritteni"·r." ~Il!!';!"sr inS? 'an,l eou· t.·ut!iu(l that th .. rHul", h" ,·all,·.l rh.· ""l'ril 'llI,1 :"",th \"Itioual nt't' Lin.. Hio:!lw;lr. '[r il. K.·,· )liilt,"r, tilk· in~ th. :-ill!lgl:'-itlofl .f ~(L...... Ritrl·uho·ry. ;H:1I1~ a Olfltioll ~hat it ht" ....alled that. whi:oh Wils nnanimt'u:"ly ,·arrlNl. )fr. F .•J, '-'rampton, "f '1"IlI)Cou,~ry .\Ia, was elect· ~tl Pr,'~irl~nt of th~ !l"W 'l"~,,,'iati·'n, Other offh'er,' d ... ·t... l \\',~rt' . • rlltl~" W. f., ::<Kl'lt!."', "I' [)e";lltlr. Ala. ,'iet' prl'sident f.,r .\I«bama. \[r,-3;ewton D, Whitt'. ·.f Pulaski, "ice I"'esideut r"r T'''lIh''';~... ~[ay.Jl' )fartin Behr",all. \,.. w Orl ..alls. ,';,... i"·~Si'!dlt (.r r."uisiaua, The P1ect,"n f"r ,'i.!.. p.c... idp'll .,! )[issj,,<ippi, flllli,,"a nn,l Tllin'lis was .leferred p :1:.> n~xt 1lll'~tillZ 'If the Board l.f [)il'~.'!r·rs, Hr, L. ,[ H,lt·11. nf ('ulh;ian. sce· retar~' anJ )Ir. IT. K.·y '[i\lll~r .• ,1' Bil'lllill.rham. tr·~as· urer. The B..ar,] .. i Dir..,·tn", is •." >rI1I'",.. <1 ,·.f F. H, 3[as, ~~y. Pulaski. T.·tllI,; W. T, s.tllllers.•\th.on.'..\L.,; W, jf. Dreuuen. Uirllliu!1halll; I•. D. ~tl'phl'n_. ~[IlIlI::"IlI~ry, :U'lrj!'an Ridlarl!s. st'lru". Johll Craft. )["hil,' anll .\, L. HehalIcnberg. Xl'w Orleltns. 3Ir. •J. A. \·an!Iouse. IIf Dangor. Ala.. wa., elected Fip[.l .\l:cnt. )[is.~ .\!rna Ritt..nhery. )frs, ~atllu~l Lt'lll'l·!tel· '1ll,1 .\[rs. Cllapd COI'~' ..f Hirluill)Cllillll. thl"'l' 'prolnilll·"t ()atlghJI'~ 'Jf tht'" f'ul)ft~llt:'l-:h·.", W4.'rl..' t'ledt:"d hll'hH":lry life 1111'011...1'" of till' .\<.s,;,·iatinn. with the 1>I·i"il.·):,· nf th.· II ,or. TIr,· mntion tu mal, .. thl' thl'i',· ladic,", 111"11I' ht.'~ IIC th ... ;lssot<iatioll WtlS tlllHte f,y :\fr. tV. T. ~aI111. ~rs. it wa.'" uuanim·,usly foarrj.f~tI.. ~lis.i Hith1IdH'ry. .)r~S.. hlnh,1s L.. dh~th~·r tIIltl t ·'.ry. Wt'I·f~ o't(lpoiu(pd it ,·utlt· lIlitt~e tu $uhmil th~ .I~si/.'tl f ,r m'll'!;'''''' for "utl ,ta, ti(>n.. r~', On m.ltioll "f )Ii"" Ritt ..llbcry, I; •.'uera[ t'•• h'lllan On· P'lOt. Wilmingt.>D, D..1.. ,~b:> i~ .·hair.man of t h.. noar<l of ('ollnriltJr~ of thc \'ati...nal Hi.~h\\'Ii."s ,h~ociatioll and 3[r, Henry Ford. Detroit. J!il!h.. Pre~ident Ford )[otor Car Co.. were made hfJoorary life pre3ident3. On motbn of J[r. W. F. Drennen, Jtr. J X. Willy~. Toledo,

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..;t I'tll'dH'~ shn1dl ~;lnh~ nfllin 1t1:.rh part~ :rf tll(,<,lt~

:hem \'1:1 i,.. -n' road ..•. ,~~ !;,~ "lOt" lIWl"l'.!f ;';.;1 is. "lissh':n ;It·~;U1 ! .·ilH)rl' r ad r!'l}n

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Wjll'y~,lh,·rj"u.l. ,\IIlOIll"I, il,· {'ll .. Wil~ alslI Irl;p II' htIIllJl'ill'.\ ' I if,.. pl·,·~ifl,"n L ~ft· f I. f.. ~!"i frUt'!' J"·IH,,·..,(~t1tin!-! tilt" f ·lIltHllt·"f" ial t 'hth .• 1' ~a"'iil \' int'. pn~ in ""Unit' l·tf,~d i\'~ talkin~ in hp.· half Itf th.· i .ix!.. Br.". Lint' H"ut." ~ltil-11 rnu~ fr.,m

\',hhdlJ.. . i l;r·,"d, :'pri'I\tt!(' I,1. T"llo., Ifnpkin~"ill<" Kt·rH11l"k ..... 1->,:,Ji! ... ril;I'. '.'ill.,,·tU1I·s. ;.wd 'I\·rrto (lautfl. rOlL. alld ();IIJ\'jltt', Ill.. iii ~"i:tll ( rdf'all J. with !hr· RntUr ~·x·

tdHhnu dlf'II11~h f\o··!,ford. III. )t.Hli~f)ll. \\"is.. )Iinn~­ "(I"li-. )li,",. :[(1 "', lllllmh, 'I' S:Jllle ;.ro',,1 "'rlllillll~. ~rr. (;I·nrl.!t· IIt'll"l', n'prl":"\~lIlil1g' the R,.tary l'h.1i nf /) ,thall, .\"1., II'lI.- 1'1''''''111 "r rh,' !II.... till~ to Pllt in t!o~ ,-I" illl "f ~ h.- .\1 'ill '!O II ,,-r.". O"than. Tall .. hass.. e_ Ta"'!,II. [.... )(".",-1' 1~·'lIt.. ror !h~ !-'ori,la ..xI..rlsion , hnt

1'.

frJr tilt· ~al;;t' uf harllltill \- dll' Flof"itla R.lllte wa~ h~lll nVf'r tuaH thl' fll~X[ llle.:t'jTJ.\l'. Buth ~xtt"nsi 'Il!i north to f'hi!';l~fl ,{utl ht'~'/,nfl. :lnd -:h~ Ftorilla .:xt.. n:f.inn had

.Ii..... ·n...;'Oct'd alld phlllllFtl hy )tis:l Ritt~lthfor~\' and \\", T. ~alhtH"'i a~ a rt'tltt~ wnl,thy llr t}:I' ":drk u1' all g'(pd I·II.HI.... !.·II~It~l .... :a..,;ts. T!If. n.awt', ~'nrrlt OIlId ~ .IlTh IIhthw;!"\', t'llllid o.r hi' I)tll .. ,' than a ll.aJUt"' w.·ll ·mite,{ r:, th.- ~·nlltt·. tn t!tt· 1 ·rrir"r.\' throu}!f1 wllil'!l it \l"iU "';Il'd. 'ktlU

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1

it

i~

The Travel on Main Highways.

_, dim·-nIt th;n~ to th·tt·rllline what typ,· nf l'flU, :--trlldilltl ... 11:t.1I.1 hi· adol.!t·tl far :h~ ifUl'n,\·PI Ut'ut "lJml~ !!wi" hitdl'say: ". rf fry au~' :·hil!We rltro,Y ;H')C\jUlP part", "f i:U·:.H:!h ilflltt'i f ,r UF.t.·rist~, tilt' :ri1\'f~1 un"r ~helll ",ill ;!II·r,·tt:-l' f'I1~.rtIlOlb.l~ aud il m()~ ~xp~flsi\· I. I'oad \,":11 hi' :l .. ,"dl'd fhan if tftt·\- .lrp 11~"'" l)uh' ;,L'S main Olilrk,') I' 1ad~. \\'heft rh,' )ras.':;;I:hll,'I·rt~ f(i!rh~\"ay COIHmis....iHIl h···!;tll in l!)lt!J t~l i:I\·.· .. ri)!ate th£'" tra\'~l flU tht· .-11i,r,- /'"",1 fl"'lll [\,,,t"ll t l Ih.. Whit .. ~I"illlrains, th,'."

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fjfu·)O RO,\-DS

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that ;It. [(owlt',\' thi" f 1';1\"('1 wa..'i Hlattp 111' nf all ;lVI>J'aJ.!l· uf !'7 autlJ)ttl}hih·~ :lful )!t!) IHh.·, \"t·hi(·It,~ it ,III\', whil.' ill 1!) j,. ir. had in..r.'a,,<,d to t;;jO alll"lIIohilc~ ;11I;1 lO!) "t!!t'r ,·,-hid..s. On all 'l!.\ tllrlll'ik,' frl\lll ton to ~l".... hHrpnrt tht· a\"'ra}lt:' IHUlJf,..I' Iff a!'WI')( Hr tilt> rn.ul ill 'l!H)!) ;li,. 1-\ p:,int :!O lUilt,,,,, 1rtJn\ rill' t(lrUh'I' "ity Wil.-e It, Ilf whi.·h 4 \,",.!"" autotHoh ik.. . , 111 1!t1:; llu't'l' WI'n' :;-1 t antllfwJhifJ'~ ;;Utt " tPUIIIS lIS!I,}! tht' rn.ltt ,lail.'·. 011 tit,· .101 )[ohawk Tr:lil ill 1!11::. th,-re w,'r,. :!:, t"am, awl -; ant,lflt1lh ilt's pas.... lllf:.( Plorida ~l'ltlfltaiu, whilt' in 1!)J;j. when nlll!'.'· parts .. r th.· rHlll,- wprt' "till :1"'1',,1." dirt rna.l., there weI''' :!fir. alll"m·.h iles an;1 21 t,'ams passing daily. ,In an anragl'. I In the SIIIll!a,Y Iwfure L"b"r Dar of that ."par. :{,:!ti~ a!ltnm"hi l.,s pa.sse,1 ",'er the monntain . fUHIl ••

n".

How The Sentimen t Grows,

The gro\>:h of l!'Hld r"a,ls ",'ntiml.'n t in ('alif,'rlli a is _ih twn in a strikin:;! tna:t:le-r hy th~ nltt' \10 tht' r£'l'rnt .~I,j,O(JO,oon state I.nll;( is-!!lle. Therp ar~ ;;~ ,·f1Hntit,.'l in tlit'" statp tlUll III 1!110 oul\' a sli,.;ht rnajurit,\' \\iL" It:,t:1ined for iln :i'l~,lIfJtl.OUd hOfl~l !<sne, Funrh,.'ll ""ullti,'. in that :;"ar "ott',l against the h'ln.1 measlln' an,! it nnl\' I!arrie,1 h\' the ,-Ill"" mar· !!in ,·,f !l:1.:!!1; fnr fllld "U.,)j·JU a~ajHst. ~ In the tt1cpnt :'It;.diolJ e\'~r,\' ('l)11Jlty gU\'llo il l1Iaj'Irity f,r tht" UH.'(1!"url' "II.! in no \,ollnty was th~ plurality i~,., than ~ tr. 1. In "flt· ,'uunt" it WaS fh';Ir!V :!o tn 1. 1'\\'0 t·lllllJti .... s \\'hi.~h in !!IIO ",;rd + t" 1 lll>!~li",.t honds ,·"tP" p,'adi,';ll ly :\ I.. I in faml' of th .. W IH ;ssue,

Li,inJr:"it.lu. Cliut/J1l an~l Linn art~ thre t.~ ~!JC U1fl~t rpt"t'nt I·Jltmt·," t,utri,°"C into thl' :H;.).da\~ eel'lil 1:,Jatis Cluh,_ ill tl,,' ~tat" ,f )(i~."ul'i. .

Road Near S~lm•• Al.bama

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Good Roads Everywhere Paper Read by MISS ALMA RITTENBERRY Before Southern Commercial Congress

E路

i;El{Y dollar that is Spl'llt fOl' thc illlpron~iIlcllt I)l puhl it: I'oads is applicd to a t:l/'II'art! stcp ill thc mark of progl'css, "~c (lOll 't beIien~ that mone\' llscd for grading or in ;lJ1Y way impmdllg our system of public ro.llls is evel' spent ill nlin, Xeitlwl' do we think that it is a tax IIp:ln the P,'ol)le hut only a facto I' used in bl'inging ahout e:.lllditions that will help the people to pay their tax, The wear and tear of wagons and teams llll(l the loss of time in hauling small loads over IJIHI roads amounts to mueh more than the small "UIll that is necessary to keep roads in fil'st class c::llltlition, to "ay nothing of the satisfacti:>u to he derh-ed from g:>:ltl public highways. In the movement fur more and better roath it is n:'lt alone the motorist amI the llllltorc\'clist who is to he congratulated on the progre;;;; lllr~ady made, hut the individual h:>oster in the yarions loeillities who sees ill this modern lllO\'ement "'hat he has long heell baking forward to, fIuieker and more intimate c3nnedioll he, tween the to"'11 and the eountn', a hig-Innl}" <:Iosel." ,lP, proaching a houleYanl to en'ry ;;[';1001 h )l\;:;e and an ac:e-ompanyiug 'Hh'an.:e in eh'ilizatinn, The higlnnty booster, whom we ha \'e in his fulle;:;t LlI:velopment to,lay, is the forerunllel' of a nel, era which will mark a cOlllmel'l:ial as Iyell a..; a s:lcial Llen~lopmeot. The motJI'l'yclist, ,,'hile he has not in the past figured in the good roads mOYelllent ilS prominently as the autoist. is zratlually C~lI11in!! into his own anti the s\\'ift speeding~little m~chines ~yhi(;h annihilate tIi"tance an,l pl':nide a new SOlU'ce of health anLl pleasure are noll' heiug rel'ogJii7.etl h:' all <:lasses, From colonial da,l";; up tJ the time of tht> wal', the highway;; of the l'ountry, were theu more than now the chief arterie;; of trade and social intel'course, had becn sadly neglected, FI'Olll the time of the war lip to a fell' years ago, despite man'elous progress in other lines )f nat ional acti \'i ty, roaLl im pl'O \'emen thad lll'cn pi' I'm it, ted to lag to all extent almost nnhelievahle, III 111<111,1' great and popnlous states extreme necessity only ha:l rl'snltetl in rerai!' I"nrk ill pikes an.l highway,.; Il'hirll wonltl pt'rl1lit odinary traffil.' (lilly tJ he Ill'lptiatell. III the last fcw ycars, thongh, great and powerful agentie,.; IU1\'e heen at \\'ol'k an,l il transformation gl'adnally is heing wrought, A Movement to Conjure With, In facL the gool] roads mOI'emellt'is Olle b l'Olljlll'l' with these Ilays. EI'en th., orgalli7.ati:lIls of WO:ll('n 01'CI' the eoulltl'." h;I\'e aligllt't! tlw!IIseh'cs with tilr pio, IIt'crs ill this eallSP, The pendulum .If puIllie Opillioll is swing-illg' t!llnll'ds ('10.';('1' Hlld lIure plCHsallt C:llllllllllli, ,'a t inlls ht't II'C,'II spdiollS, wit hout I'clying exclllsi \'(~I,\' Oil st"illllllllat. t 1''' 11 1'1' lill" 01' stl'alll tl'aill sen'in', [II fad, the tillli' ""t'lll~ 1I11'aslll'ahh' ('lnser Ht halltl- \I'hell all ill'ollSI't! ,lIltl illI ilw.lkelled p;lhli,' "l'lItil1lellt will ill' sist that a lllOdt'1'lI pllhlil' hig-hwa,I', it hOlllt'Yal'd whl'l'CI'el' pllssihl,', alld a gond, fl'p,' pik., wh,,!'l' th(' h.lltl(', val'd is 1101 pl'i1di,';I1, Shillll'ollll,'d th,' extl'l'lllt' sediolls of.t h,' vill'iollS sta tes Il'i th thl! tUlnlS all'] tlw cil i,'s: tha t Sllt'll highways a 1'(' thl' most "lllllll'illg- alld l1l'lpflll mlllllI11a'1l1 whid, th,' Ih',I!,l" t';111 eOllsll'lle! atd whl'lI In' god thl'sl' ('Oll II I I'," hi::hwil.l路s llllill. lif'<~ will h,' 111:11'" aarin', til'" to Ih" yOllllg' 111.'11 alld th,' ~'011l1g' II' '1lI.'Il. Fal'!II

. lifL' will he a p1tI<lSilllt ,llld pl'ufital,lc life I'athcr thall ;l forcetl alld tirt>;,;onw '!l'Udg-el'y, COlllltry homes will hal'e tlll' co:nforb of the t'ih' ,,'ithollt the dis('omfol'ls of the dty. The nlnltiplic:ati:~ll of rural mail routes, th.' teleph:mc illl,1 the aut:llllohile will bring the ',"orld alld it..; llcti,'itit'S illto thl' ('ollntr." h:lme, Throngh this new alld (;ollstrueti\'e program of 15:)\(>I'IIl11ent we atlnmcc to a higlter social life ; 'n~ hec'lll\" more p;lll'erful to encourage 1i1rgcr plall;; and, feal'illi: to ohsclIl'(' thp truth that ttl(路 futnre :Jf our g'0\'l:t'll1l1l'1l1

Hauling Peanuts to SulIolk, Va.

rests Ull the establishmcnt of free allil eas" e,)llI III II II I cation, bt'tween districts, open to the po:n:est as \1... 11 as the greatest of its eiti7.ens, The pl'osperit,r of e\'CI'Y Ilatioll rests 011 it..; a~ri"111 tural pr:ltluction_ Each and e,'en' enli::rhteucd ",'0\'1'1'11 ment is e:Jl1sideril1g t0tlar the pt'ohlcl1I ~)f l;:eepiI~g 01,,'11 the lilies of communicatioll hetweell protlneer llUll ""11 sn,ll1~r, If \:'c Americans, therefol'c, ill'" 10 keep p;l"" With the strHlt' of the \I'nrld, we lllust look to our r" spollsihilitil's, fOl' with the I,,;t'lailliltiow; projl'ds of lit,. 'Vest alld the \I';Hlderfultll'\'eloplllClJt of the Sonth. th:11 challengl's the illb:irati-rm of thc world, go,lOtl ro.hl;; ;In' ll1nre a nc':cssity thal-I eWI' 'hl'flll'e, ill (;\"(Iel' that fltit 11('11- p:'lpnlatioll may keep apacl' witlI its ncig-hboi's II'h,' arc <lhn'ast of the times 1lI1'1'e!y thl'ollgll the ,ll'cid,'rll "I' easy il'~"PSS to til<' l'Cutl'l'S of Jill' popnla/inn. , Thl'!'~' will a!ll-llys ,:clI1i1in 11I<111,1' lInallsll','I'ahle qll'''' tWIIS It Wl' stop ta thmk of tilt' gTeat P:ltclltialitil's 1.\ ing dtH'Ulall1 ill hoth city ;lnd .;0 1111 try, ill hoth IW.II'I,' .111.1 lilll:l. thilt wOllld Ilt' lItili7.I',1 if tllt'se <)I','lIlleS ;11'" k,:,pt Opt'll to I"ssell the jlllll1'.'l!.';(' II'a..;tl' and iltl'Op:1Y 1'1')1111 d I,;l;se, dll" tn th., bwk :)f opportllllit\, for illtpreh;lIn:" of i,lcas ()(路t'IISi:lIl"tl hy p:lllr I'oad.s. ,\s it is t:ld;ll', lit,' amhitious bill eSi'lllll'S to tIlt' (,it.." alld tht'rl' hl'I'n;lh's ,I !Patll'I', \\'irh ~llo.f l'O;Id's h,' 1'1'111;1 illS at hOllll', hl"':III:'" thel'!' is IIll n"I',1 10 widt'll his hori7. Ill. GOOf) I~n.\ II: I ill"'lIll1pli"hl's thi_.; hy ':lmking "it," alit! N'lllltry 'lIl''. Production Not Keeping Pace, rll lillI' g-r":It e:lllllllt'l'eial d('I'l'lnpll\ellt. pl'(lt!ndioll hll' 11M "I'pt pa,'" with j~ l1ISlllliptioll. ftll' thl' l'ea~tlll thai \1" hill'l~ Il"t hat! a 11,1' g"llel'al tlistl'ihlltillg' hig-hwil,\'S. III


f 18

SOGTHERN GOOD ROADS

our building uf GOOD l\OADS ll't us follow the plaul)f the railroads IYhith hayc ~part'd no eXJlt'IHe where they ('onld deyelop effieiel1('~' alld pl'en~llt waste, If the;> P!lOpIe are to grow sO'ollger in the;> faith illld the. future of om: ~OlUl try \l"C lllJ,st ;S<:!! t.1 .it tlw t it {.Ioe,s lllOr{l to p.romote the stlt"i;ll w('lfill'e of th(' puhlil', irrcspeetiye of l'arc or ('J'('ell. The mOl',,1 intllH'lH'C of good roads is so great it is /liffil'ult to l'stinlilte, This factor is llOt 11 mere inridentill one lllll' .llle of lllan~' illtlU('IlN'S, It is t,he one uni-

way of ,,"hidl I'residellt JOY of thc Packard AutoD1{;J-hile Coi'npau,)' is Prcsident, Or'lIo11, Cbarles Henry Da:viit, President of the ~,ltiollal Highway Assoeiation,JEr; ....t . G, Batchelder Editor and General :\Ianagcr (Jf' tlH~ :Ameriean illo-t .)r,<111d wlw has do-ue exeeptiooally g<1'(}lt \\'ork in fUl'thel'ing 1he in tel'est .of national higli w:ays. :\1r. II. B. Ylll'llCr, Editor of the Southern Good R:oalTs )1agazine. It \1"11" thl'ough the untiring efrort of :\k. Varner that the Sonthem Commercial Cltngrcss gil\'C Good R:lIHls a promillrnt place in its departm~n.ts, .:\1111 there is .Judge . . \lJiSOll of Chattanooga, president of the Dixie Ililrh\nlY. Carl Fisher of Detroit and Indiall<l.p-, olis who launt:lied thl.' Lincoln Higlmay in In~lianap")­ lis in Oehl!Jer, 1!l1:l. anti who has in a \"fay spons()rclT ~he Dixie Hizh\I'a\', Peter Lee Altherton 1)£ L;,lUis\~j]le of the J'lleks~u Ili~dmay, President T, S. Plo\"m}/n of Talledega of the Ballkhelld Bighway, President Henry Roberts of Bristol. Tennessee. of the .'\ppalaelhan: Wa)~. President F. J, Cramton of )Iontgoll1er:,', of the Xorth & South Bee Line Higlnray, and there are others· ::>t prominence not forgetting Senutor John H, Bankh.ead of Alabama \\'ho b~' his indefatiga ble energy and per· severance got the much amended Feder-al bill through Congress, giving aid to the building' of Xational lIi:gh\yays, which makes the public feel that in no distant day our country will be spider webbed mth naJi:mal higll\vays and lateral liues, bringing all parts of the

A Road in Florida Where Trees are Draped in Gray Moss

yprsal fihre inter\ro\'ell with ever\' otlwr fibre of the social 'fabril', lOU caullot llientinn' a single acth'ity ou the public high1\,a~' but has its Yel'Y definite and per, ceptible moral inflEent"e, Iu the P:I,;t \re have been in· clined to think of ;n:oral" iB s:llllt'thing separate and apart from ~omlllercialisl1l, hut t:)day we 'are a\rakening t::> the fa<::t that they are hl1nd in hal)(1. In fact, com· mercialism is the pioneer, the real aggl'e,;;sor who opens the way. . We should nut be unmillllflli of what the press has done for good rOI1(h;, The faet that \'arious publications ha"e giYen OYeI' to the suhject of gOJU roads a new, speeial department and the attelltion \,'hieh the entire press pays to the subject uf r;Jad illlpru\'ement is p::>inted out as a sure indicatioll that the canse of good roads is and is to be the" pal'mlltltlnt" issue, This is takcn as a sign that the pe:lple are ali"e to thc unmeasured importance of road impron~:t:rnt, hecause the press reflects public opinion and all.~\H'rs puhlic demands. It might be said here that the suhjrct of al!rienlturc is likewise rceei\'ing attcution fr:JlI1 pnblinltillns thilt for1lI(,I'I~' t'Ollsidcn'd Sl1ch thinj!s PJJtircl,v ont of their lilH'. ,\'hcl1r\'cr 11 strictly ni"L;-J,!i,'inl,( jJ11I'lWI steps asidl' fl'Olll its daily 'Il' \\'(·('kl~' lmsiness Ilf pnillishinl; t"tllTcnt c\'cnts, ane! Jlnbli,;IJ('s thr lal"st fads i1h'lIlt snch spl'l'ial hl'nnchcs as thilt of I'oad huildinJ,! allIl fal'llling". it is certain that pnillie illtpl'e;t ill lhe,;c snhjcl'ts is \'('1'," kCl'n: that thl' IlllIU,')' is "I' th,' Illllwst pnhli,' C,'II"cl'}1. Xowadays r;\'cry livc H"'I'spa 1"'1' is a J,!llo,l l'oads j!llll'lIal all,l a farlll papcr of 1111 IIl<'al1 S,'I'I'i"", ,Vith the Cllr'lll1ragc'J1lr'llt r,f the: PI'C'S", and 1l~'1 iug UIl' mell of nalion:" I'f'plltlllinll likf', nell. ,J. COlf'll1all »11 Pont. who has h"Cll 1'''1' y"llI'S ;I g'1l0l1 l'oads ad "Ol'att'. I'l'c!;i,!t-1I1 '[11\' "f till' Lilll'olll Ili!!hll"il\', HI', 11.:'11. H()\\'(" I'l'f'si,h'nl Ill" Ihe: ,\lIlcl'i('all .\ ;1t'J11I;,hile .\lis"eial ill) I. whil'h has hf'1'1l Ihl' hi!!!.'f'st ha,'k"l' nf tJli~ Lill""ln ni~h-

Good Road Between Asheville and Waynesville, N. Co

I

<'ountry into close comnlltllitatiou, If we cau speuil ~360,OOO,OOO in hnihling the Panama Canal for COlllll1rl'eial gain and to i1ullihilate distances, there are some of ns who ean s(~e the ,'alue of spending at least that mueh if not more on systematic r:>ad·building fnr the COJll' mercial, social and educational gain of all its pt'opJ.e, Jt is a fact conceded bv all that the fnture of tlH' cOlUl· tr'~- is soon to rrst in "thr hands of the women, They iII'e lint lor,king' hr 11<:\\- ideas bnt hope to be-ttcI' thril' old ones. 1'''1' years woman has hren yearning. aHlwlIgh lIncolJsdollsly at timc,s, fOl' heltcr things to add, to the Iwppinf'ss of the Itllillan faillil,\', Thr~ enrly ii'<1dlill~ of ,,"Olllall W;IS csph'ially ill the SOIlI h 1!I:l.t it ,,'as ;t bkf'n' or )'l'finc,l/lr'1I1 tn III; idle, hnt lhc dlanl!in:r ,II II I inler"hallg-illl! I'/,Ial iOllship hdwC('ll city ,lilt! farm is Ill'O,!tll·iuit a \'ilal f"r"I' I'nl' hctt"l'ulellt alld lIO lnng'cl' l'an wc tolC'I'al f' I!Jr' vifll .. Ii'"1 of It IIman Ja IVS for propel't,\' la\"s lhat iu :IIJY wa.,· sland hdwf'C:II Jah~I' an,l illtlns· lrial SIIl'f'I;SS, III l!1I' ,·,·olll'lId,· 1\'I>!'ld 1nday \\'flnwlI's lI"ork is :J p",,'.

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SOU'l'HI';U;': OOOD ROADS erful factor and the moral infh:ellcc of roads is ;;0 failurc to de,eJ.\Jp the waterways and lllGtorways of th,~ f o r f r ( J m Buffitlif areat that it is difficult toestnuate. world lUust COllUli:r". The be moved by modern method;;; the public demand;; prf~or to Xew York An in these ncW ideas of advanccment and we mu;;t budd inland ' paralleling the Atlantic shore thc foundation with national roads far the mas;;- be one of the nation '8 greatest assets. It wotllrl be so es, whel'e wealth cannot undermine or destro,Y. regardcd if it were now ready for traffie. Yet we have The ,,-omans' patriotic have all over the only the little Oape Cod canal! The waterwa;'s of the preserving the old roads central West should also have been developed so that country taken an interest and trails of America. They have placed markers Qn the,}' would no\\' be crowded with barges and river er-aft the old Santa Fe Trail, the Old Post Road and the old ladeu with tllat is now congesting' onr railroa(ls. Natchez Trace, the "Boone HighWay" and right herc The trouble we are having is due t& the fact that in we must not forget :\fr. ,James :\faret who by hL'! indi- transportation America has been a nation with a vidual effort has aroused m'twh interest over the con- track mind. For a half century, throngh:;mt our perstruction of the "Boone Wa,}'," which is destined to be iod of great"st land and industrial expansion, we ha.w the scenic hIghway that leads from the East to the built an empire on the slender foundation of a pair of steel rails. Our Congress has given n& heed to appeah West. The idea of the Jackson Highway as a monument to for developing comprehensive water\\'ay systems, bankAndre"- Jackson connecting the Lakes and the Gulf, ers have turned a deaf ear to appeals f(}r financing sucll Chicago and Kew Orleans, originated with a \voman and enterprises, and in vestors generally ha,e preferred to a \\'omitfi was chairman of the work for four years anJ risk their money in over-railroading certain sections by her individual effort kept the work alive until it rather than in developing real competition \\"ith existgrew and was turned into the Jackson Highway Asso- ing lines by establishing water amI motor routes. Policiation, and it was a woman that originated the Xorth ticians have been permitted 'b;' Congress to squander and South Beeline Highway, \,hich runs from the Lakes hundreds ;)f millions on isolated and impossible riwrs to Kew Orleans as one terminus and Tampa, Fla., as and harbors, but not a dollar has g'oue f()l' intelligent water development. another. Xew York state has been spending :fIO!),OOO,1Vumen motorists are increasing in numbers and thi~ fact is said to be stimulating lll'anufacturers to build 000 or more leisurely-much too leisurely-in rebuild· cars with special reference to feminine abilities and ing the Erie eanal so as to carry great fl:eigllt barges limitations. "Cranking up" has heretofore certainly from the great lakes to New York. The canal is now been a man's work,and the chauffeur's fracture. occas· open for traffic as far north as Oswego ~nd Whitehall, sioned by this maneuver, has not been rare. 'Vhen the but it is said that another ,year will be l"etluired to finish self-starter has been perfecte:l, however, as it now the job as far west as Buffalo. Private enterprise would pl'omises to he, and becomes simple, inexpensh'e and re- have finished it two or three years ago, ancl we W()11M liable, ahout the last mechanical impediment tJ a wo· be reaping now some benefit from our heavy investment. man's handling her own car will be removed. E\'en The Cape Cod canal, built by August Belmont, makes now the clutch, which used to require a:nan 's muscular pOSSIble water freight from Boston to Kew York wholl:' power to disengage generally needs onl~' the strength independen t of railroads and of tlle fogs so perilous to ,,-hich the average woman can easily exert. and new de- steamers that were formerly compelled to go outsii:1e vices make it possible for women to adjust tires. 1Vo, Cape Cod, In that enterprise we have an object lesson men are naturally quick of eye and deft of wrist. two in miniature of what the government and our bankers qualifications, aside from sufficient strength which are should have been engaged in doing the,past twentynceded. Women are in general considered more ex- live years. The traffic gorge on our railroads at this time of citable and of less steady judgment than men,but it's to her credit that fewer accidents are recorded ag-ainst greatest need onght to stir Congress to develop both. hcr than there are men. lIotoring to women offers waterways and motorwa;rs, By that means alone can much pleasure and benefit, oppJrtunity for plent:r of the industrial prosperity of the country be mainta.ined. fresh air with improved appetite and increased zest of \Ve have outgrown railroad transportation as our onl:r life. 'fhe everchanging scenes may soothe and satisfy reliance in the large sense. We should ha\'e a systeul t~e emotions and hereto unfamiliar aspects of civiliza- of national motor highwa)'s connecting all of our induiltIon may interest antl divert from introspcction. 'With trial centers and leading to Our great ocean ports. Tiley Good R:latls Everywhere we will be a !lettp!" a brighter, cannot be built t;)O quickl,}', and should be built wh.:tller they can he completed in time for war llSe 01" not. 'From a cleaner and a 1'1<:her c:mntr,Y. present outlooking. America is to be a bns;- plaee, industrially, for many years after the war. And we canWaterways and Motorways Are the Only Relief, if we :l.re [,ll"Cnot with a rehabilitated ,Ilig!ler rates will not increase the speed or volnme etI to on railroads to !!'et our g-ODI1S or freIght carricd by the railroads. Rail and terminal to the markets the world. -"apaeity is the test of that service. Both are now tax1Ve cannot build three thousand mile !ligh,vuys (I,'H' :':1 !lIT>l1,1 capacit.r. comparatively little freight night, but we can build scctions of them mnnth by H outsi(le of war essentials. Such a condition nwnth, thus affording gradual relief. !f the lmildlllt:! I;allllll t Ion'.:' eOlltinue without hardship. of such a system of couM go hand il: hand rOt· the intlustries of cnulltrv must he mo,'- with the den:lopment of om' inland \vat;'rwan the in· pd. They Call!wt live in isolatioll. Tl;ere must be a dustria! futul'l' of our counb'y w:mld outstrip its mal'llllll'e 01' Il'ss fl'ec fhw of traffic in and out of our facto- \'elous past. l'i;'s aside from the carrying of war material:>. Other. WIse the factories mnst close flown. I'Bankhe:ul Xational Highway Assoeilltitlll \,ill meet En'!'Y that pnSSl]s. !tOWl"'(!!·. 1rSSNI>l the volulllc in Litt/I' RlH:k. Arkansas. Apt'il 18 and J!lls., T, S. o.f f!'''hdti· r,arrif',l for t)tlwr than "'al' Jlnrpox(·s. anti Ploll'man. I't('sidI'IIL ,1'. .\. Ro!mtn','. ::.i,>,'rHill"'. 111::1 'I"hl"lls tl,,· SII';llIcr1"·h,,l,) 011 "Ill' indllsll'il's ,)n" tn fill I' J:I'own- ~l;ll'x r Bil'lll ill crh;oll ..\ la.·' .

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• SOUTHER:-l GOOD ROADS

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Publisbed Monthly by SOUTllElllf

ROADS PuSLlSIl1NG LEXlNGTON. No..,.., CUOLmI.

Lo.

fl S. V AIINER, Edl"'" and a.·I!llanqw

FIlED O. SlNK.s... and Troo. DR. JOSEPH BYDE PRATT. Stat.! G001t>lr!st of N. C. _ Editor E. 'It. WI'I'RER!lPOON. V ••• l1:di.....

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Sooth..... lIep_talln: CEO. Iol. !tORN 100< Candlt SIda.. A1'L.,..,.I.. GI.. Adverttsing 1tepl'*'Se'btativu

LORENZEN. GREEN'" KORN. 225 Fifth AvenufL 606 Adverthdu& :81d... N~ YORIt

SUbscription !'riC'! • . • .

CBICAOO

. . $1.00 Per y ....r in Advance

August, 1919

eommunities m"ans of adequate. improved roadl! of eommerc,ial imptlri;wee Over these roads an imrneashe d-one urahle amount of llllg~diEtanef' hauling with the additional advantage of direct deliveries without the burdening of terminal lwuses of storage. Just n{)w. in great eities, one of the most perplexing prob· lems is the question of relieving freight warehouses of eongestion. The mobr truek with its delivery feature, serves the douhle purpose of relieving the freight ear shortage and terminal congestion as well as saving mileage through the.. use of more direct routes· The establishment of a real highway would be hoth a war lind a peace measure. It would speed up our deliveries of raw materials to manufacturing plants and would release a huge am{)unt of freight car space for the transportation of supplics to the seaboard. The extent to which it may be developed in times of peace is limited only by the growth of loeal and interstate commerce. Its eost would be amply justified by its vaInI', and its ramifications would reaeh the most remote bcalities lind hasten the development of resources that now lie idle through lllck of transportation.

Jackson Highway to Be Revived. The original Jaekson Military Highway, as organ· Official 0J,r... Southo"" Appalachia.. G<>od Roatb Auod._ ized at :Florence, Ala., three years ago, is to be revived and meetings for this purpose are to he held at I,awrenceburg, Tennessee. and. Columbus, Mississippi, as soon a.<; practieable. OHielal Ora"" of tho South Caroli_ Good Road. AuocianoD F. H. HY An. Pnbldent, Columbia, S. C. After with Jackson enthusiasts FINGAL C. BLACK. ~. Cc!"mbla, It C. ;)f Tennessee, and III. Rogers, of launched this the F'lorence >"OL. XVrH. JULY.l!lHI. l"n. l. Chamber Commerce. and a committee from that body, lleaded by R. T.· Simpson, former president of the Jackson Highway. has been appointed to eonfer NATIONAL IDGHWAY SYSTEM. Th~ or inadequacy;:,f our railway and aet with similar committees along the route, from Nashville to New Orleans. ::'\ashville, Columbia, 'WIt. Niuipruent task of hauling our enonuous war Pleasant and other points along the line in Tennessee traffie has hr;mght forms of transportation int{) are expected to send delegations to the Lawreneeburg Among these one of the most im· meeting. Reviewing the necessity for this action, l\1r. the of thc use of the motor Rogers said; "Three years ago the ,Jackson Highway was organ~ t1'1lek for short hanls. )cInch freight congestion is he· ized at a meeting held in Florenee, with delegates Ing relined in way and the truck is entering a preseut from Nashville, New Orleans lind points sphere {)f limited only by the amount of hetween. At that time a eomplete was good road over whieh they may travel. In fact it affected. though the nam" of it later was changed to lind would seem that !!reatest to much !!reater 'The ,Jaekson Military to divert method of hauling is poor r{)arls. Huntsville got into the expansicm the original and historic road. as Jackson's Therefore. the dHelopment of public highways as~ engiIwers, so that it would run hy Hard sumeR greater importance and becomes all the were wated at Louisville and XashYille, as a urgent time unprecedented m'Vi'men! result of whieh a compromise was affected, our r'oute the name 'Jaekson J',Iilita:ry ffi",hw"v freight. iug' the BiMriingh'anJ·1Iu,tll,;ville Although Braneh of the Hig!r'~'a;\" national aid, WHe ahsorbed bv the Systi'ill. son frt'lli "Siuee cOlls.)l!,rll1tioll, well supplied with good I'Oflds lead to arbitrary political worK done that pr:)gri'8sive communities may be the Chamher Commeri>e and to be off from caeh otll"r by 8tret~11es of impassable hig'l.l.. will he with ihe duty way. This e(luntry 'il, state and a national sys~ tion the lines, and the ereation that tern comprehend the joining by enthusiastiIJ spirit alone ean bring success the Official Orp" of th" Nett!> Carol!... G<>od Road. Aaaociane" RENRY B VARNER. _ent.~.N. C. DR. JOSEPH lIYDE PRAT'I'.~.Cha...IRill. N. C.

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August, 1911

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1<', Bcckwilch, lIfi1tS Darby, Kri<,sman .•

tion !llust on. the traetor }Iore used. It would h~ fire and sJ:..o-uld taXi cultivated hurdens. 'fb the can take so do roads, Busim"", meet the ta ke to the r

en must

or in soved and ntili ed,and used and When will he an idN road ditches the in

wheels a. road to tra\'· nects and duc,,!' thl' AIl!'O'll.d"


August, 1918

!'lOUTHEn~

GOOD ROADS

plan. )Ir. SiJnl,"on. who did sueh effective work in the from the farm to the city mus1. be kept Ilpen find clellr lrigillill organiza tion is fully qualified to lead this or~ for traffic, so th,' crops clIn !DOV". I have seen apple. ganizatio n. rot on the groun,1 and hread·lill l's in the eity both a' ~ The committe e named on the part of the Florenee t.he ~me tillle her:H1se railways and highway s were m;t Chamber of Commere e is composed of R. T. Simpson , of commission. Chairma n; B. A. Rogers, J. F. Koonce, James :\Iilner, W. H. Mitchell, Jas. L, Titus, S. W· Frierson , M. M. HighWll.YS Economi c Necessity. Striplin, W. I,. Reeder, R. W. Drane, J. H. Nathan, J. With the railroads of the country already taxed to P., Beekwith , H. p. Lucas, S. C. Ha:l~n, A)len jlcRae,. jllies Darby. R. P-edd. H. ,J. WIllingh am and I. the limit, so that frequent embargo es against additional freight are necessary , other means of transp()r tatiJn Kriesman . , must be utilized and dewlope d to the utmost.. Secretar y -'---_._-Redficld of tbe Departm ent 'lf Commerc e in a recent Good Roads and Producti on. public statemeu t p()iut~d out the patriotie duty of com· By Federal Enginee r D. H. Winsbw , Durham, X. C. munities beatI'd 011 navigabl e inland waterwa ys to diOur able Governo r has called attention t.o the neceSsity of stopping nOD-productive cnterpris!'S, sueh as vert as much shipping as possible t) such waterwa ys. haseball. pool playing and useless amuseme nts. Atten· as otherwis e the cIHning demands of the Governm ent tion mnst he given to producti ve lines. The farm work upon the railroads will inevitahl y produce a shipping must go on, and scarcity of labor simply means that situation from which the ':ountry will Buffer. Puller nse of the highway system of the Nation in the tractor and other impr:r\,(~'lDents must replace labor. More farming and better methods of farming must be addition to the waterwa ys JlIers the only relief, with record-b reaking farm products to be moved this fall used. It would be folly to try to save by reducing health, and'grea tly increased output by mills and factories the fire and police departme nts, sehools and roads: idle land highway s will be called upon to carry a great deal sl:.ould be taxed heavy enough to f-orce it into me, and more of the commerc e of the Xation than ever before. cultivate d lunds should be as free as possible from Xot .jnly will the volume of hauling to market Oy€r short roads be mueh hea \'ier. but there is certain to he bnrdens. The roads must be improved in order that the crops cau be hauled 'Over them to t.lle market. This a big de;-elopm ent in the use of motor trueks for lo',al can be v'-:Jne, not by taking labor from the farm, hut by distribut ion and for freightin g over through routes for iutroduc ing the tract{ll" and other improved means to distances of 100 mil",s and m3re. "It must be evident." says R. D. Chapin, Chairm'<I1 take the place of laoor. Strict vagrancy laws "ill also do much to provide labor for the farms and the of the G,lod Roads COillwiUee of the Xational ant'jlllo, bile Chamher or-Comm erce, '·that the highway s ,\I',: a roads. Business must go on at full speed if businP.S8 men are greilter eeonomic uel"essity in time of war than 'lIvler to meet the taxes th'at the wal" will dCiI'.;and. The rail· normal ~ondith!ls of peace. It would he foolish to lim, r:lads must keep their tracks in good condition if they it road construc tion and maiut~nance any more than iR are to do the required amount of hauling, and the farm- abs()lutely necessar y. If we are to get the cr.)p~ to ers must keep the puhlic highway s in good shape if market it is of vital impnrtan .-e that the roads be m"intained in usable conditi"n . It will he the worst kind af ~hey properly reach the depot.q. :.\Iillions spent for roads and city streets can not be wasted from neglect. eC:lnomy to neglect them just at a time when they are Street sweeping s can be utilized for fertilizer . and the (,alled upon to carry the hca"ie-t bt:rden of traffic to garbage collected from the streets ean be f,·d to h ~gs meet the urgent nceds of the C l1lulry. t'nless S3 maiu· or used in making soap·grea se. Waste paper cau be taiued tbey ",ill deteriilra te rapidly. It is e\'Cn mor~ AAved and utilized. and tin cans ean he eollect..d. melt.. importan t now than heretofo re that highway allpropri · ed and used again. The same applies to old junk, rags ations be properly spent and that road w,rk go on as usual.'! and bottles. When the farm lands are too wet for eultivatio n. it will be an ideal time t() drain the pimds and keep the Motorist s Good Spenders .. road dit-ehes dear and in go:>d shape. To fail to keep It is often asserted that nutorists sp:'nd clllsdera the roads in good shape ,,'il! be failing in moving the hIe money in the states thr(lugh ",hi!,h they tour ann crops to the market. In this connectioll, an effectiyc that the finaucial retul'll to a state fr ,m his s<)ur('e in· e-m'ployment bureau will aid greatly in seeuriug help to eludes carryon this \\"ork. \\'aste must he rerltH·cd. nelt by state a large suru from residents of other states. The eutting out the needed \\'ilrk. hut by \nrking where the find highway commiss ioner of ('(,l"rado decided ti) out, if possible. how nlllch truth there was in Lis work done will he t.he most effective. frequent ly made elaim. S'l he distribut ed in Denver. There is a<; much wealth in the country today M Colorado Springs and Puehlo a eireular letter of in· there ever was, but it rou"t he kept m:,ving. The illle quiI'\' dollar and 1111' hual'ded dollar is like the idle land-· otber regardin g the e:'(f,,~nse ,)f tr>urillg' to residents "f states. th(' length "f their stay in Colnrado. and non.prDd uctive and a nOJj·consumer. ~foney Spl'ut on similar facts. r:.ads is money put into circulatio n. It goes for wages He olJtained repli~ frjm sH"nt~'-six touri~tB from and for the farmo;r's product. and thereby enahles him other states, which showed that eadl car ,..arric(! four to harvC8t anotlwr crop. Keep the dollar moving by persolls. as a rule; the average expendit ure was $3.30 keeping bu.iiness moving. No productiv e ageucy p€'r persfln per day. lind the a\'erage stay in the state should lrtop. The <'r0PS must he raised, but the factory was Th€' ret'ords "f travel connts and othwheels must be turning also. Both prJdueet s rcquire er 28.6 davs. estimate ; of foreign ('aI's indi"lI!e that during WIG It road to travel over. The road is the linUhat con- ahout nects the produC4lr and the consum€'r.. :'\0 raill'Oads oJ"ado. %.:100 ear,; of non·re~ir1en!s passed thrilll~h C >(. and dH~ state h~gh\\"ay ('oIUmissiotlt'r est rmate". and no publi,c highwa:r s meaus death to both the pr'" nn the baqis of the replies t<> his inquiries . that as a ducer an'll the eonsume r. result of this touring b~' nonrl'sid ents ahout $10,000;0 00 .All rDads leading from the farm M the railway. and was hrollg'ht inb and spent in the s(ate.

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ALAB AMA ROAD S AND HIGH WAYS -AN HISTO RICAL INTRO DUCT ION. By

DR. THOMA S

M. OWEN, LL. D.

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Director of the Alabama State Depart ment of Archives and History , Montgo mery, Alabama. The sketch which folloWi is an effort, in a very brief way, to indicate the historic origin of Alabam a roads and highways. Beginn ing with an account of aboriginal life, the main Indian highways and trails are discussed, followed by a description of the plantin g of white settlement, pioneer road beginnings, and early territor ial and State road extension. The genesis of the present road laws concludes the introduction. Within the limitations of a preliminary sketch, it is not to be expected that more than a brief outline can be given. While this is true, the facts aQ.d conclusions may be relied upon as accurate. In a way the details set forth willfor rn a 5uggestive basis for more exhaus tive and detailed tt,'eatment for the future.

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ABORIG INAL LIFE.

The early explorers of aboriginal America in th~ir ever continuous marches from the seaboard into the interio r soon realized that this vast region was not a pathless wilderness. They found the Indians living in villages, subsisting mainly by agriculture, hunting and fishing being only secondary employments to supplement their main food supplies of com, beans, pumpkins and squashes. . They found the 'villages, whethe r contiguous or far apart, connected by trails, and these trails were used by the explorers themselves in their expeditions. In process of time, in the progress of exploration, it was found that Indian America was,\in fact, a vast network of such trails, connecting not only village with village of the same tribe, but extend ing far off to

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GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF ALABAMA.

ALABAMA ROADS AND HIGHWAYS.

other tribes, so that it was feasible by means of these trails to traverse the' entire continent. The trails were always along lines where there were the fewest physical obstacles or obstructions, often going along on the watershed of two streams, when these watersheds pointed in the right direction. The crossing places of streams were always selected with such judgment that from the most remote period down to the present day, these same crossing places have served in numerous instances the purpose of man, whether savage or civilized. . The trails also often formed the basis of the modern civilized or white man's road. The intertribal trails served all the purposes of war and peace. War parties marched along them in their raids against other tribes, in quest of booty and scalps. In times of peace the Indian trafficker slowly toiled along over them laden with his wares to exchange for the wares of another tribe. These intertribal trails thus strongly appeal to the archaeologist, as they were means of a dissemination of relics, which show the wide extent of Indian intertribal traffic. Relics of Mica have been found in Atlantic States that must have come from a far western region. Sea shelIs that can only come from the Gulf of Mexico have been found in Ohio mounds. Obsidian relics have been found in Alabama that can only be referred to the YelIowstone region. Relics too of shell have been found in Alabama that show an undoubted intercourse with th~ prehistoric Shawnees of Cumberland River in Tennessee. White quartz arrow points have been found on a villa~e site in Mississippi that certainly came by tribal traffic from the Indians of Alabama. An account will now be given of some of the Indian trails of Alabama, the facts given, assembled from adent maps, from ancient books, and from pione~r traditions. This accQunt from the very nature of things is necessarily imperfect, as there can be no doubt that there were numerous other trails, not recorded on maps and in books and n~t preserved in border tradition. Still the ones that are given will serve to show that the red man of Alabama had a wide intercourse not only within the bounds of his own tribe, but like the Greek

Ulysses of old, he was often a much traveled Jllan, even in the far distant tribes of the East, North, and West.

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SOME INDIAN HIGHWAYS AND '1'RAILS.

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The Great S01lthern Tradi11g and Migration. Trail led from the mouth of St. John'S River, Florida, to the mouth of Red River in Louisiana. It crossed the Apalachicola River just below the confluence of the Chattahoochie and Flint, and the Mobile River a few miles above Mobile. It is intimately associated with Mobile Colonial history. Apart from its association with war and traffic, it was the great migration trail used by the Southern Indian tribes and sub-tribes that settled in Louisiana after the fall of French dominion in Mobile. A trail branched from the great migration trail at the Apalachicola crossing and ran northwest to the Alibamo towns. This trail was the great route of intercommunication between the Creeks and the Seminoles. A continuation of the Apalachicola-Alibamo trail ran from the' lower Coosada towns northwesterly by way of Oo-e-asa to Buttahatchee River and thence continued to the Chickasaw Nation. A Chickasaw Indian traveling this trail would have ,. no difficulty in going to the Coosada and Alibamo towns, and thence to the mouth of St. John's River in Florida.. The Great Pensacola Trading Path, known in pioneer days as the wolf trail, was the most noted trail in Alabama. It led from the Alibamo towns, a group of villages occupying the site of Montgomery, down to Pensacola, and was much used by the Creek Indians, and the traders. By the latter it was enlarged into a horse path, and afterwards it became an American road, much of whkh is still used. The battle of Burnt Corn occurred on this trail. The present railroad from Montgomery to Pensacola follows closely the lines of the old trail. A western branch of this trail deflected at Bluff Springs in Escambia county, Florida, and ran northwesterly to the junction of the Alabama and Tombigbee Rivers. The Mobile Tuckabatchie Trading Path crossed the wolf trail at Flomaton, passed through Brewton, continuing for


,U.AB.HIA ROADS AND HIGHWAYS.

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13

GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF AUBAMA.

some distance on the divide between Persimmon and Pigeon Creeks, crossing the latter creek about eight miles southeast of Greenville. and thence on to its terminus at Tuckabatchie. The railroad from Mobile to Brewton follows closely the line of the old trading path. The Big T:rading Path, from Mobile to the Choctaw and Chickasaw Nations, ran about a mile west of Citronelle, thence by Isney in Choctaw county and on to Coosha town in Lauderdale county, Mississippi, thence to Plymouth in Lowndes county, Mississippi, thence to the Chickasaw towns. ~uch of the trading path, then an Indian trail, was traveled by Henri de Tonti in 1702. In American times it became a horse path lor traders, afterwards the greater part was used as a post road by the government, and eventually a large part of it was converted into what was known as the Tennessee road. The A/amuehee-Creek Trail crossed the Tombigbee at the shoals a short distance above the influx of Chickasawbogue in Marengo county. According to local tradition this trail, trending easterly, crossed the Alabama River just below the influx of Cahaba, thence to old Town Creek and thence to the Alil>amo towns, the site of modern Montgomery. The part of the trail leading from Montgomery to old Town Creek was certainly the trail traveled by De Soto, and in more recent times a part of the trail formed the basis of the American road leading from Linden to Adams and Martins. The Creat Tombigbee War 'Crossing was at Black Bluff, Socteloosa, about two miles below the influx of Sukinatcha. Several trails from the Choctaw country converged at this crossing and then continuing as one trail for some distance to the east of the river, where the trail forked, one branch leading to Okfuskee on the Tallapoosa and the other to Coosada on the Alabama. This crossing was greatly used by the Creeks and Choctaws in their wars.路 After the surrender of Fort Toulouse, large numbers of Coosadas (Coshattees) and Alibamos settled at Black Bluff, and for some distance thence down the river. At the outbreak of the Creek-Choctaw war of 1766 these Tombigbee

settlers received such rough treatment from both belligerents that they returned to their former homes on the Alabama. The Creal S(JflJ(JMnah-Mississippi River Trail led from Savannah up to the northern part of Effingham county, thence went west to Tuckabatchie, thence continuing its course to its terminus at Milliken's Bend on the Mississippi-a trail equal . in length to the Great Southern Mi.gration Trail. Two great trails from the east umted at Flat Rock In Franklin county, Alabama, and thence continued west to the Chick"saw Nation. One or these trails came from the Chattahoochie to Little Okfuskee thence to Flat Rock. The other, the High. 'fown trail, started from Tellico in Monroe county, East Tennessee, thence southwest to Coosa town, and from it to Flat Hock. The Creat Cumberlmld River War trail led from the Hickory Ground up the east side of Coosa River up to Turkey town, thence to the well-known Creek crossing on the Ten~ l~essee River, near the mouth of Town Creek, above Guntersville. thence to the Cumberland settlements in Tennessee. There were three other crossings on the Tennessee River, one at Guntersville, one two miles below it, and one at Ditto's l.anding. But the one near 'the mouth of Town Creek was the most noted and most used by war parties in their raids against the Cumherland Settlements. A trail led northwardly from the Coshattee toWns and united with the Cumberland war trail in Marshall county. This was the trail used by the Coshattee war parties. A trail led from Will's Town, a Cherokee town, and united with the Cumberland war trail at the Creek crossing. A trail led from the Creek crossing on the Tennessee to Nickajack, thence the trail continued to Tellico Blockhouse. That part of the trail from the Creek crossing to' Larkins Landing in Jackson county was afterwards a public road and was the first mail route established in Marshall county. The Creat CharlestO'tl<-Chickasa,w Trail crossed Savannah River at Augusta, whence the trail ran to Okfuskee in the tipper Creek country. From this town it ran to Coosa, thence to Squaw shoals on the Black Warrior, thence to the old Chick-


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GBOLOGICAL SURVEY

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ALABAMA ROADS AND HIGHWAYS.

ALABAMA..

asaw crossing at Cotton Gin. It was first traveled by Col. Welsh in 1698, and afterwards used by the English traders. At the. crossing on the Chattahoochie a branch of the trail ran to the Alibamo towns. WHITE SETTLEMENT; PIONEER ROAD BEGINNINGS; AND EARLY TERRITORIAL AND STATE ROAD EXTENSION.

The foregoing presents in brief, but in as accurate and complete form as in short compass can now be done, the highways of the Southern Indian country about 1775. It was with conditions of land travel and transportation as here indicated that the Colonial and Provincial trade had been carried on about one hundred years, and with these and slowly changing conditions that the settlement of this vast area was to go on for the next quarter of a century. At the outbreak of the American Revolution in 1776 there was not a white settlement within the limits of the present States of Alabama and Mississippi, and in West Florida, save at Mobile, Natchez and Pensacola. Here and there, however, throughout this vast territory were occasional white settlers, usually traders or trappers, but their stay in anyone locality was never permanent. During the progress of hostilities between the colonies and Great Britain, and immediately following its close, from time to time, small portions of refugees from Georgia, and the Carolinas, drifted into what was vaguely known as the Georgia Western Country, and located themselves in the Alabama-Tombigbee basin. Their actual settlements were in the present Clarke, Baldwin and Washington counties. In Pickett's Alabama is an interesting picture of these first settlements. The close of the Revolution found the number increasing, and the Spaniards encouraged further immigration. The Choctaw Indians had in 17H5 ceded a tract of land West of the Mobile River and extending North to the Sintabogue in the present Washington county. Grants of lands in this cession were made, and later, cessions were made indiscriminate-

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ly in the delta country, now in th~ vicinity of Mt. Vernon and twenty miles north and several miles east and west: By 1798 when the Mississippi Territory was formed, these settlements had expanded until there were several hundred souls in the Tombigbee country. The social, economic and political affairs of these people demanded regulation, and on June 4, 1800, Washington county was laid out by executive proclamation. It embraced practically all of the present South Alabama, north of line 31 degrees. Contemporaneously with the growth of these settlements in the heart of the present Alabama, was the general growth of what is historically known as the Old South-West, perhaps the most remarkable and facinating period in the annals of American settlement. From the Atlantic seaboard the pressure of population westward found its way into the Northwest, the present states of Kentucky and Tennessee, and down the Mississippi River to the Natchez country. The migration into the Alabama section of the Mississippi territory moved rapidly until checked by the Creek War of 1813-14. Up to that time five counties had been formed. The !ihort, sharp and swift series of campaigns under Jackson, Coffee, Floyd, and Claiborne ending with the battle of the Horse Shoe Bend Marlfh 27, 1814, broke the Creek power. and within the next five years more than one hundred thousand â&#x20AC;˘ people had located in Alabama. The Alabama Territory had been formed March 3, 1817, and Dec. 14, 1819, a joint resolution was adopted admitting the State into the Federal Union. The coming of the pioneers, their settlement in groups here and there throughout those parts of the State then open to immigTants, and the formation of towns. all affected directly the location and opening up of permanent roads, but at the same time the early Indian trails and the guvernment roads had themselves in a measure shaped and directed the trend of settlement. The evolution therefore of the pioneer road from the old Indian trails. paths and trade routes was not only an easy, but a natural process. The coming of the white settlers was along these hiRhways,if they could be so dignified Some came,

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GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF ALABAMA.

ALABAMA ROADS AND HIGHWAYS.

however, by the river routes. Another very natural condition was the planting of little settlements along or near the trails. . At first there were no vehicles, but with the larger mo~ments of immigrants and the coming of the wealthier class, the rolling hogshead, the gig and the wagon were employed. The widening of the trails, the selection of new routes, the erection of ferries, the laying of causeways and the opening of houses of entertainment followed. Twenty-two counties were in existence when the Constitution was adopted in 1819. The Legislatures of 1819, 1820 and 1821 created ten more. These represented more or less contiguous groups of settlements, while at the same time their boundaries were in part determined by ·physical conditions. County seats were located largely from reasons cf convenience to the people, both as regards streams and road". The latter therefore both determined and were determined by town locations. . Some of these highways will now be described.

OLD FEDERAL, ROAD.

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The second of the highways in the Gulf country to receive J"ederal recognition was what is historically known as the Old Federal Road. Originally an Indian trail, by treaty with the Creeks, Nov. 14, 1805, it was formally recognized as "a horsepath through the Creek county, from the Ocmulgee to the Mobile." By 1811 it had expanded to the other with emigrants from the western part of the territory. It was the great highway from the South Atlantic seaboard and the interior of Georgia to the whole of South Alabama and South Mississippi. Its influence was far-"eaching. in , historic importance it is rivalled only by the Natchez Trace. For Alabama history proper it must take first rank. It survives and is in part still used. It entered the State at or near Fort Mitchell in Russell county, and passed in part through the present counties of Russell, Macon, Montgomery, Lowndes and Butler, formed a part o'f the boundary line between Monroe and Conecuh counties, and continued through Baldwin and Washington counties. Along its route in early days were located Fort Mitchell, Russell county, Fort Bainbridge and Fort Hull, Macon county, Mt. Meigs, Montgomery county, Fort Dale, Butler county, and Fort Montgomery in Balrlwin county. Over it traveled Lorenzo Dow and wife, Peggy Dow, Vice-President Aaron Burr, Gen. LaFayette and other ce1etrities. About 1807, it was extended westwardly from Old St. Stephens to Natchez. .

NATCHEz TRACE.

The oltiest of these is what is known in SOllthern history the Natchez Trace, or the Great Columbian Highway. Its i'\orthern terminus was Nashville, TeWlessec; its Southern, • Natchez, Mississippi Territory. It was not only the earliest of the highways projec~ed by the Federal government in anticipation of and as a part of its policy of opening up the lower Mississippi anti the Old Southwest, but it is to be compared , . . with the old Federal Road only in historic importance. Its route was southwest, passing the present towns of Franklin ',,- ;H~d Columbia, Tenn., and crossing the Tennesse~ River a few ---mile'S below Mussel Shoals at Colbert's Ferry. -fhe authorization of the road is to be found in treaties with the Chicka~aws and Choctaws dated October 24, 1801, and Dec. 17, ] 801. respectively. This road constituted lIle first post route in tht! Southern country. It entered Alabama in the northern part of Lauderdale county, crossed the Tennessee River at Colbert's Ferry, and passed through the northwest section of the present Colbert (formerly Franklin) county. a~

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The Tennessee terminus of this road was the town of Columbia, where it united with or branched from the Natchez Trace. It ran southwest and a few miles east of the Natchez Trace tntering Alabama in the northern part of Lauderdale count; and crossing the Tennessee River at Florence. It continued southwest through Tuscumbia, Colbert (formerly Franklin) county, Russellville, Franklin county (where it crossed the Gaines Road or Trace), old Pikeville, Marion county, Sulli2 GR

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GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF ALABAMA.

ALABAMA ROADS AND HIGHWAYS.

gent (old Moscow), Lamar (then Marion) county, to Columbus, Miss. The date and circumstances of its projection and opening are obscure. It had evidently been opened up, in part at least, prior to April 27, 1816, on which date Congress made an appropriation "for the purpose of repairing and keeping in repair the road between Columbia, on Duck River, in the State of Tennessee, and Madisonville, in ~he State of Louisiana, by the Choctaw agency." Government work under this authorization and subsequent orders of the War Department began in June 1817. The work was completed in January, 1820.

at even a partial list. From the great crossing places on the Tennessee, the Chattahoochee, the Alabama and the Tombigbee Rivers radiated many roads, extending into every section of the State. Tuscumbia, Elytori, Tuscaloosa, Montgomery, old Montezuma (Covington county), Greensboro, Russellville, Demopolis, and other points were important road centres. And long before the removal of the Creek Indians, thoroughfares penetrated every section of East Alabama.

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GAINES' ROAD, OR TRACE.

This road extended from Melton's Bluff, at the head of Elk River shoals, on the South band of the Tennessee River, in Lawrence county, to Cotton Gin Fort, on the Tombigbee River. It passed through Courtland, Lawrence county, near LaGrange, Colbert (then Franklin) county, and Russellville, Franklin county, where it crossed Gen. Jackson's Old Military Road. Under the treaty with the Chickasaws of Sept. 26, 1816, it became the eastern boundary of that tribe. It was originally a horsepath used for bringing merchandise from the Tennessee River to the Tombigbee River, whence it was carried by boats to the Indian trading house at St. Stephens. PENSACOLA AND FORT MITCHELL ROAD.

In the months of June, July and August, 1824, a road, 233 miles in length was constructed from Pensacola, Fla., to Fort Mitchell, Ala. It extended northeast through Covington, Pike, Barbour and Russell counties, probably passing old Montezuma, and Troy. The work of opening up this road seems to have been done under the direction of Capt. D. E. Burch, an Assistant ,Quartermaster, U. S.路 Army. OTHER ROADS.

The necessary multiplication of new roads and the absence of trustworthy early maps makes unsatisfactory any attempt

19


THE SPRAGINS SECTIO N

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om afar, who came to congra tulate the young couple and

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ldnt supper was served to which ample justice was done : guests. TCury would wi~h. for the youthful pair, the blessin of Ith, and the fmltIOn of their highest hopes and fo~est I,. as a down the river of life they glide, may she' the aIT, be to her husba nd-

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CHAPTE R

ROBE RT ELIAS SPRA GINS By

"Brigh t as a star when only one Is shining in the sky."

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WILLIA M

ECHOLS

SPRAGIN S

I had a nightm are Saturda y night which, togethe r with my study and of Spraigns family history, remind ed me of the first time I saw and old years six about was I heard my father having a nightm are. g sleepin was s Spragin l had an iron bed in my father's room. Genera in a crib in his mother 's room next door. During the night I was awakened by my father having a nightbut mare. I got up and lit a candle and prance d around the room, from in came mother my s minute few a In had no idea what to do. and next door, shook his should er and spoke to him. He awaken ed sense have not did I because ed was all right. He was quite provok that enough to awaken him in the same manner . He explain ed to me it ise, otherw him; g I should always speak to him, when touchin always have and would make matters worse. I learned this lesson remem bered it. At the time I had no idea what was wrong or what to do about it. I never saw or heard my grandf ather, Willia m Echols V, having life, a nightm are, but I was told that during the later years of his him. after hill a down g runnin he frequen tly dreame d that a log was e He was unable to move and had an awful time until someon awaken ed him. The ailmen t may be heredit ary in the Echols and Spragins famWililies. Unless his mother , Carolyn, can use her good influen ce on liam Echols Spragins III, he may have nightm ares. In studyin g old newspapers I' have just come to an editori al in : the Huntsv ille Times dated Octobe r 17, 1935 under the heading "COLO NEL ROBE RT ELIAS SPRAG INS" He was very much amused and enjoye d the action of Emory ille Pierce, former founde r, publish er, and owner of the Huntsv fact the of view in that 1919 about in Times. Emory Pierce told him that Mr. Spragins had two sons who were majors he, himself, should he have a higher militar y rank. From that time on, in his paper, per newspa The s.. Spragin E. Robert l Colone as always referre d to him the title appear s to have remain ed even after Emory Pierce lost bankin tion liquida h throug etc., g,. Huntsv ille Times, Times buildin


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ROBERT ELIAS SPRAGINS

THE SPRAGIN S SECTION

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ruptcy about 1930. "Col. Spragins" always enjoyed his promoti on and enjoyed telling about his authorit y for his military title. . Robert Elias Spragins was born October 14. 1861 at the old Spra. gms ~lace ~n West Holmes Street then owned by Robert Stith Bolling Spragms. hIS father. and presently owned and occupied by two grand. daughters of tbe latter. Mary Irby Mastin and Sally Mastin Gill. He was the son of Judge Robert Stith Bolling Spragins and his wife, Sarah Agnes Crutcher. It ~~pears that Judge Spragins. father of Robert Elias Spragins, was ongmal ly named Robert Stith Bolling Spragins; that he can. cluded Robert Stith Bolling Spragins was too much name. Accordingly he dropped the word Bolling from his name. His son was originally named Robert Edmonds Spragins. Whe~ as the son matricu lated at the University of Alabama. he signed' in through Sprag-ins E. Robert as d continue Robert Elias Spragins and the remaind er of his me. He was a friend and admirer of his Uncle Captain Elias Carter Spragins (brother of Judge Spragins). who served under Colonel Egbert J. Jones in the Confederate Anny. Robert E. Spragins was six feet in height. brown hair. and brown eyes. H~ told ~e on ~~e occasion that he never noticed that he had gray a ~alr untll he .vIsIted the local Souther n Railway depot. bought ticket the on him d describe agent ticket ticket and noticed that the as having gray hair. , Ro~ert Elias Spragi~s was of a "shirt sleeve" generation. His father dIed March 4. 1875 when Robert Elias Spragins was fourteen years old. Under his mother's will he would have inherite d one. third of his mother's property. He waived his rights in favor of his sisters. His mother had a little property. He told me that his mother sent him to the University of Alabama. At the age of ,fifo teen he entered the University and graduat ed with a Master of Arts in degree .three years ~ater. He then worked in the county house HuntsvIlle. saved hiS money, and sent himself to the St. Louis law scho~l which later became a part of Washington University of St. n LOUIS. Here he was graduate d in law. He received his early educatio at ~hep~erd School in Huntsville, He was a cadet captain at the UOlverSlty of Alabama. which at that time was a military school. The follo~ing. is copied from a clipping in my mother's scrap. . book of an artIcle m a local newspaper in 1883: "Robert Elias Sprag.ins. Esq.• has his law card in this issue of , and the.; DEMOC RAT. He IS. a young man of intellect, integrityfather. busmess energy and capacity. a proqJ.ising son of his worthy (

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the late Judge Robert Stith Spragins. We wish him abundan t suc. cess in his chosen profe ssion .". He joined the First Presbyte nan Church 10 1885. (Church . . Records), he was undoubt edly baptised when a baby. WIlham of r daughte Echols, Patton Susan married In 1886 he Echols V and Mary Beirne Patton. Susan Patton Echols was born '. February 17. 1867 and died March 25, 1918. of mme, ion 'compan " hunting "possum old an Mastin, Jim Mr. beand a contemporary and friend of my father's would frequently the giving and woods the in resting were come reminiscent when we oc· dogs a chance to search for and tree a "possum". On one such that fellow. rking hard·wo casion he told me that my father was a strange as it may sound. he never displayed any interest in any girl or woman other than my mother. , He practiced law by himself for some years and was later a member law finn of Walker and Spragins. When Judge Walker was apthe of pointed a federal court judge and moved to New Orleans. the partd nership of Spragins and Speake Was organized. This firm continue in business for some years until Judge Speake left the finn to become Circuit Court Judge. Robert Elias Spragins had his first law office in a building where the the Elks Theatre is now located. Later he moved his office to and Bank l Nationa First the between located is which White Buildin g the Henders on Nationa l Bank on the town square. At a later date, about 1910, he moved his law offices to the First Nationa l Bank " ' Building. He was made County Attorne y in about 19lZ and served in that capacity for the rest of his life. Under his management County Script increased in value from a few cents to 100 cents on the dollar (par). He owned a horse named Star. He sold Star for County Script for and after holding the Script for some years. he sold the Script horse. $2.000 a had he that fact the of proud quite was He $2,000. The cost of the horse. 1 believe was $150. He was a high.priced horse for that day and age. He was Alabama Attorney for the Nashville, Chattanooga, and St. Louis Railway for many years and was, for a short time, Madison for County Attorne y for the Souther n Railway. He was attorney Mills Lincoln the for y, Compan Power a many years for the Alabam of Alabama, for the Merrimack Mills, for the Fletcher Mills. for the First Nationa l Bank, and a number of other c(lrporations. in addition to serving as attorney for individuals and estates.

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ROllEllT EUAS

128

THE

Sl'llACtNS

SECDON

At the age of about sixty-five, he was forced to give up serving as a trial lawyer on lllXIOunt of deafness. He also discontinued to a brge extent bil allendance at Chu.rc:h as he waI unable to.he2r the minister and other proceedings. Addison White, fat.her of Carolyn White SpnginJ. servcd lU his attorney after .he becam.e unable to appear in court u his own lawyer. In about 1890 or shortly before; he made. I think, his fint real estate purchue, a brm which he later named Billy Goat Fum. Under the present government regulations. had they been in effeCt. some six· ty·five yean ago. he would hllve been cluillied as the ''Farm OperalOr" of niUy GOal Fann. When 1 WlU about the age of Dorothy or Ellen Echols Spra$ins, (three to four yean old), a big event for me ~ to sit 'back o( the saddle on MoUy. my mother's addle mare, .hold to my (ather's pocket! and ride to Billy Goat Farm t:Ytey morning before breaJ:.£asL He raised billy goau and black. Aberdeen Angu.\ cattle. Years later whcn his 'oung grandsons visited him, he aJways took them out to Bllly Goat Farm and told them they could hne any little billy goalS they could COltcb to take home with them. My recollection is that he gol caught hinuelf by having one of his grandsons ClItch a little billy goat and insin upon taking' it home. At a hlter date he bought from the CapUlin Humes estate an additional rann adjoining Billy Gou Farm.

The £arm is presently owned by my sister, Mrs. J. F. W:ms.. The n me has been changed to Fagan Springs Farm and the name of old Billy Goal Farm Road ha been changed to fcClung Street ex teo· Lion. The road bas been paved. The city cemetery now owns about one-halI of the fronmge on the north side of the road. The remainder of the frontage on the north side and all the frontage on the south side Iw been subdivided and is covered with new houses. After Roben Elias Spragins ~ graduated from the St. Louis law school, his former Toom mate 'W<l5 opening a law oUice in Bir· mingham and :uked my father to go intO business wjth him in Bir· ming.ham. My father told me that he W25 JUSL unwilling to settle in a lillIe cross-roads town like Birmingham MIS in 1885 when he could settle in a much larger town lille HuntsVille. (Huntsville was likel to have had several thousand population in 18SS.) He told me that had he settled in Birmingham and had he had the same tcndencies and habits as he did have in Hunllvillc:, i.e,

IlAGlNS

129

buying up all the cheap land he coul~ ~~, B~ngha:m would have made him a millionaire if not a muln·millioiUJ1'e. He bought all tlu! real cotate that he could purchase cheap at foreclosure sales and otheJWUe. He rarely ever sold any land except town 10lS. He pre(e-rrm farm land because, as he said, it "o'OuJd p~y expenses and probably furnjsh SODle income. He owned a. few lots In Hunuvilte and he and SC\.eral partnen owned. at ODe ame. ill the vacant )0($ in Decatur, the county seat of Mo~ County. The Decatur Company also owned sevenl large traCl5 of farm land. He and Mr. Robert Leslie owned a large plantation in ~im.e­ stone County. (Genenl Spragins owns the one-half. intueSt m 11, which formerly Wll$ owned by his father). He bought numerous analler traCl5 of land in Madison County. He once g"Ol out oJ his diJtrict and he and several partners bought a lTllet of land in Florida just across the SOUthBll boundary of Alabama. HUNTSVILLE ICE AND COAL COMPANY Robert EliOl$ Spragins and his partner Cyrus F. Sugg organized the Huntsville Ice and Coal Company shortly before 1890. They owned a controlling interest, 51 % of the common swcJ:.. ~ Lew )'Cus afler they started the manufaCtUre of ice. in orc:ler to prOVide employ' ment {or the men and hones in the wiJueT. they added coal to the business. Tlte ice ftu:Lory tutu the first one in lhis secLion. Robert Elias Spragins ,..~ ~ident of the company from the time o{ it! incorpora.Lion to the time of his death in 19S5. Mr. Sugg was Secretary. Treasurer. and M,mager. MT. Sugg sold ~ st.od:. ~n about 1900 lind Sugg and Spragins organized the HunUVlIle E1ecmc Light and Power Company. AL a later date Roben Elias Spraigns acquired 51 'f.. of the stoCk. . the HuntsVille lee and CoaJ Company of which he "'"3.$ PresidenL ID • f ' ~ business was operated 5ulXl:$5fuUy from ~ ame ~ . Its org;m.. u.ation to the present time and iI stiU in openoon. William £chou V was one of the original stockholden and owned his stock. unLi~ the time of his death. B.oben EIias Spragim was succeeded as P~lde~t of the company by his son, Major General ~b:rt 1- pragms, lD 1955. who lerved until the company sllIJ'ted scllmg Ice to a gOy~t agency, the Huntsville ADena! and the Redstone ~ w~lch wett built at the tim.e or World War n. The law proh.i bts a retired arm officer from being an officer in a corporation doing business with the governmenL


130

THE SPRAGINS SECTION

General Spragins resigned and the writer succeeded him as President of the company. , At that time I was the largest stockholder in the company owning one-fourth of the stock formerly owned by my father, a few shares of stock inherited from the Echols estate and all of the stock formerly owned by Colonel Charles P. Echols. The Charles P. Echols stock was purchased by me at an auction sale of the assets of Colonel Echols estate which was held on the courthouse steps in Madison County. In 1948, I gave Roberta S. Watts, my god daughter, a few shares of ice factory stock and sold the remainder of my stock to Susan Spragins Watts, who later bought from the estate of Erwin Hamlet the stock formerly owned by Mr. Hamlet. This gave the Watts family approximately 49% of the outstanding stock which, in view of the fac~ t~at some of the stockholders never vote, is a practical working maJorIty. I resigned as President of the company and Jim Watts, husband of Susan Spraigns Watts, was made president and general manager of 'the company which responsibility he continues to hold. The company has paid good dividends over a period of sixty-five or seventy years with the exception of a few years; some years it has paid 25% dividends. The company bought the Mason Brown Ice and Coal Company of Huntsville (a fifteen ton plant), a few years ago and operated the plant as Plant No.2. During 1954 the company sold the original plant (100 ton capacity) to the city. The city will use the space presently occupied by the 100-tonplant and the adjoining coal yard for a new city utility building. The plant was sold for an amount larger than the book value of the stock of the company. The manufacture of ice has habitually been a rather peaceful and quiet business~ but in the summer of 1946 for several weeks the plant was surrounded by State and Municipal Police protecting the property and the right to work. Outside of the police line was the C. I. O. picket line. Demonstrations were not allowed on the street, but were held in the Big Spring Park across the street. The following is quoted from the Huntsville Sunday Times of July 14, 1946: "COMPANY DENIES NLRB's AUTHORITY Request For Election At Ice Plant Reported By Board Spokesman

ROBERT ELIAS SPRAGINS

The Huntsville lee and Coal Co. has declared to the Nati( Labor Relations Board that it is not engaged in interst~te COm~1( and therefore is not subject to NLRB, jurisdiction, PreSIdent WIll E. Spragins said yesterday. '' An NLRB investigator from Atlanta, Thomas V. Smith, still in Huntsville looking into CIO union charges that the com) had fired twelve emoplyes last Tuesday for union activity. Mr. Spragins said that his compan.y had been notified b' NLRB representative that the board had received a request fo election among the company's employees, presumably for the pose of establishing a bargaining agency. 'The company fully realizes that it supplies a vital need to community,' Mr. Spragins said. 'Since the recent discharge of t1 employes for inefficiency, we are continuing to operate at cal production. This means that with approximately 30 per ceni employes, we are continuing to render the service the public e:li and is rightfully entitled to. We shall tontinue our best effoJ serve the people of Huntsville.' , The discharge of the twelve plant workers came a day after' Adcock, head of the Huntsville Industrial Union Council, had fied the plant superintendent that his employes were org.a There has been no striking or violence in the dispute. The ume asked for a card check or an election to determine whether or majority of the workers wish it to act as bargaining agent for Some of the employes fired had worked for the company s years." , The local C. 'I., O. authorities were eventually notified th . company was not engaged in interstate commerce and that VV, ton authorities had no jurisdiction in the case. The pickets, wer removed. The total volume of ice sales in Madison County has dec during the last few years on account of the increasing num electric refrigerators being installed in the county. The total 1 of coal used in the 'county has decreased during the past thre on account of the increasing amount of natural gas being usc fuel. I am told that the company is presently selling more ie can be manufactured in the small No.2 plant and is imporl from Decatur, Scottsboro, etc., to supply the customers. Mr. Spragins had a new and larger plant built in abOl (100 ton plant), he traded ,the machinery and equipment in plant to the Scottsboro Ice and Coal Company, for stock in the pany. The Huntsville Ice and Coal Company still owns thi


182

THE SPRAGINS SECTION

HUNTSVILLE ELECTRIC LIGHT AND POWER COMPANY Spragins and Sugg, in 1892, bought the assets of the bankrupt Huntsville Electric Company, from one of its creditors; title to the said assets having been acquired by the creditor from the Register of the Chancery Court of Madison County, at foreclosure sale in 189l. The franchise granted by the city in 1887 was apparently the most valuable asset of the bankrupt company which apparently was in business about four years from the start of construction in 1887 to the foreclosure sale in 1891. Messers. Spragins and Sugg operated as a partnership under the name of C. F. Sugg from 1892 to 1895, each owning one-half of the business. In 1895 they incorporated the business under the name of the Huntsville Electric Light and Power Company. After incorporation Mr. Sugg and Mr. Spragins each owned fifty per cent of the stock of the company. (William Echols V and J. Kleber Miller were the only other stock holders when the company was incorporated. Shortly after incorporation, Messers. Echols and Miller sold their stock to Mr. Sugg and Mr. Spragins). The writer was born in Huntsville in 1887, and remembers the gas street'lights and gas lighting in the homes. I consulted my brother Major General R. L. Spragins who was born in Huntsville in 1890, he also remembers the gas street lights and gas lighting in the homes. We both remember the installation of electric street lights which replaced the gas street lights. The electric lights were open carbon type; another horse back rider replaced the old gas lighter and came around every day to replace the old carbons with new, he dropped the old carbons under the lights. Children (General Spragins and myself included) picked up the old carbons and used them as crayons to draw pictures, etc., on the electric light poles, board fences, side walks or other available light colored surfaces. Our recollection of the gas street lights and the early electric street lights appears to indicate that construction progress by the Huntsville Electric Company was rather slow during its four years existance. I remember the gas chandeliers in myoId home; the re:l:Uoval and the installation of combination gas and electric chandeliers. Spragins and Sugg apparently disposed of the plant formerly owned by the Huntsville Electric Company, later acquired by their creditors, Nordyke and Marmon Company of Indianapolis. This

ROBERT ELIAS SPRAGlNS

rerlorteCl to have been pn~sellt

lV\..':U';U

k>cation of the Southern Bell Telepholle

pany building. Spragins and Sugg built a new ~lant ~cross the stre from the Nashville, Chattanooga and St. LOUIS Ral1way . depot (the lot is presently occupied by the T.V.A.). They bUl and/or extended the electric distribution system. In 1899 they had a growing and profitable business, paying dividends and had no desire to sell. In 1899 Mr. J. H. Waters al Mr. T. Coleman DuPont of Wilmington, Delaware visited in Hun ville, their objective was the purchase of existing sn:all town elec~l power plants and distribution systems in this sectIon and P:OVI power and distribution systems in the small towns that were wltho such facilities. They asked Spragins and Sugg for a price on thl plant and distribution system. Mr. Sugg, and Mr. Spragins discussed the matter at ~onsideral length, finally concluding that they would ask a .good fair. I not a high price. Their reason being that they did not conSider tI were financially able to compete with Waters, DuPont and ass( ates should their offer be rejected and the would be pUlrchasers stali competing facilities. The writer's recollection is that the pI quoted was $40,000.00. After the deal was closed either Mr. Wal or Mr. DuPont remarked that they would have paid $60,000.OC necessary, Mr. Spragins answered that he and Mr. ?ad discussed the matter and had agreed to take $20,000.00 If necess ($20,000.00 would have allowed them some profit). Attention is called to the fact that $40,000.00 in 1899 dol were perhaps equivalent to $150,OOO.00.in 1955 dollars. 1899 was perhaps 10c to 12c per pound, no,:," 43c a pound: pe:haI larger advance in labor costs). The population of Huntsvlll~ m 1 was likely about 8,000, I do not have a census report readily a' able. Mr. Sugg was a native of Kentucky, he was a mechanical e neer by profession, had a M.E. degree from some college, I h~ve gotten which. He was a very valuable partner; always earned share of the load. T. Coleman DuPont and Associates apparently changed t minds in a short time and resold the property they purchased ÂŁ Spragins and Sugg. The Huntsville Electric Railway, Light and] er Company acquired the property in 1899. The Alabama P<


134

THE Sl'RAGI:"IS SECTIO.¡

Company acquired it in, 1915. The City of Huntsville acquired it in about 1935, (the city purchases power from the T.V.A.). Below is presented a copy of deposition executed by Robert E. Spragins, June 26, .1912: STATE OF ALABAMA COUNTY OF MADISON Robert E. Spragins, being duly sworn, deposes and says: 1. That since the year 1887 the electric lighting business in the the City of Huntsville, Alabama, has been carried on successively by or in the name of the following companies and persons, and no others: From 1887 to 1892 by Huntsville Electric Company; From 1892 to 1895 by C. F. Sugg; From 1895 to 1899 by Huntsville Electric Light and Power Company; In 1899 by Huntsville Electric Light Company; From 1899 to, date by Huntsville Railway Light and Power Company. 2. That deponent now resides and has resided since the year 1861 in said City; that he was formerly a stockholder in said Huntsville Electric Company and in said Huntsville Electric Light and Power Company, during the periods in which said companies were operating their respective electric lighting systems in said city; that he was jointly and, equally interested with the said C. F. Sugg in the electric lighting plant and properties in Huntsville, Alabama, during the period that the said Sugg operated the electric lighting system in said City in his name and cooperated with him in organizing the said Huntsville Electric Light and Power Company, owning one-half of the Capital stock of said Company and the said Sugg the other half, the shares shown to have been subscribed by W. H. Echols and J. K. Miller, having been transferred to the said C. F; Sugg and himself shortly after the organization of. the Company; and that he has acted successively as attorney for each of the above mentioned companies and for the said C. F. Sugg during the respective periods in which said companies and said Sugg were operating their respective electric lighting systems in said city, and is now act!ng as attorney for said Huntsville Railway, Light and Power Company. 3. That each of said companies and said C. F. Sugg during their , , respective periods of operation above mentioned, operated under the . electric lighting franchise granted on May 17, 1887 to said Huntsville Electric Company by the Board of Mayor and Aldermen of said city, and that said Huntsville Railway, Light and Power Company is at the present time operating under said franchise. 4. That title to said franchise has been vested in said Huntsville Railway, Light and Power Company by the following conveyances or assignments: .

:t. ,.

~~ ;,

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:\

Ii

ROBERT ELIAS SPRAGINS

Date F,-om To 1891 Register of the Chancery Court ' Nordyke and Mar m of Madison County, Alabama, Company of Indiana; pursuant to decree of foreclosure as purchase at fored against Huntsville Electric Co. ' sale. 1892 Nordyke & Marmon Company. C. F. Sugg 1895 C. F. Sugg , Huntsville Electric & Power CO. 1899 Huntsville Electric Light & Pow- J. H. Waters and 1 er Co. , DuPont. 1899 . J. H. Waters and T. C. DuPont ,Huntsville Electric . Company 1899 Huntsville Electric Light Co. Huntsville Railway, I and Power Co. : 5. That, although the first three of, the above mentioned veyances or assignments of said franchise do not appear of record, although the last three of the above mentioned conveyances or at ments do not specifically describe the said franchise, to depor knowledge no question has ever been raised, or doubt expresse any of the citizens of Huntsville, or by any of the officials of city as to the right and title of said Huhtsville Railway, Light Power Company to said franchise. ROBERT E. SPRAG INS Sworn to before me this 26th day of June, 1912. H. E. GRIZZARD, Notary Public. (SEAL) My commission expires February 7, 1913. if : HUNTSVILLE GAS COMPANY After Spragins and Sugg sold the Huntsville Electric Light Power Company they bought th,~ Huntsville Gas Company, whicl: already in existence with plant located on Spragins Street. They operated the Gas Plant for sotne years and then sol< profit:foly to a Philadelphia Company which at that time was bl up small 'gas plants. â&#x20AC;˘ The Huntsville Gas Company manufactured and sold arti gas. The plant and distribution system were purchased some thr four years ago (1952) by the city of Huntsville. This was done' a natural gas pipe line was constructed through Huntsville. The Huntsville Gas Light Company was incorporated In William Echols IV was Secretary and Treasurer in 1856.


136

THE SPRAGINS SECTION

ROBERT ELIAS SPRAGINS

On complete liquidation the stockholders should receive m better than book or par value for their stock. The writer rece: one of the shotguns on a partial liquidation distribution.

I remember, as a boy, seeing the "old gas lighter" ride around on a gray horse, stand in the saddle and light the gas street lights in the evenings and ride around and tum off the gas in the mornings. This was before the electric power company took over the street lighting.

FARMERS WAREHOUSE COMPANY THE HUNTSVILLE COTTON MILL THE MARGARET MILLS and THE FLETCHER MILLS Robert E. Spragins was attorney for and a stockholder m the HUNTSVILLE COTTON MILL which was the first cotton mill built in Huntsville. The Huntsville Cotton Mill was succeeded by the Margaret Mills. Robert E. Spragins was ,attorney for and stockholder in the Margaret Mills. The Margaret Mills were succeeded by the Fletcher Mills. Robert E. Spragins owned about one-fourth of the stock of the Fletcher Mills and was attorney for the company. The mills were operated successfully for a number of years. The mills were eventually closed after a strike accompanied by rioting. I have been told that massed pickets assembled on the street in front of the plant, caught girl employees of the mill who were on their way to work, stripped the girls of their clothes and sent them home naked, with a warning against attempting to get to their work. The mill manager and a few other employees surrounded the mill, serving as shot gun guards to prevent trespassing. The former mayor told me that he did not hear about the difficulty in time to assemble the city police and get them to the site of the trouble in time to do much good. The plant was closed and never reopened. The machinery from the plant was sold and shipped elsewhere. Four or five other cotton mills in Huntsville were closed. The cotton mill buildings are being used for warehouses or for other purposes. Only the two largest mills, the Lincoln Mills of' Alabama and the Merrimack Mills now owned by Lowenstein and Sons, continued in operation. The Lincoln Mills have since been closed indefinitely as of August, 1955. The Fletcher Mills are in process of liquidation. The mill buildings and lot were sold in 1954. A part of the mill village has been sold. Some houses and some vacant land is still owned by the com.' pany.

.:,. "

The Farmers Warehouse Company was incorporated and the warehouse building was constructed in 1905. An additional buik known as the "shed" was constructed later. Robert ,E. Spragins though not a large stockholder in the company, served many ~ as President, of the company. The business was operated profit for about forty years. The company office building and wareh< were located at 150 Brown Streetbetw'een the Southern Rai tracks and the N. C. & St. L. depot. The writer was elected President of the company in the Sf of 1946 for the purpose of liquidating the!business. He and the <: tors were ordered by the stockholders to proceed with the liquid. of the business. The writer was later, in 1947, appointed as rec by the Circuit Court in Equity and instructed by the Court to pre with liquidation.. In accordance with the order of the: stockholders, the land buildings of the company were sold on October 5, 1946. The Huntsville Times reports con~erning this transactio part as follows: ' "The $50,000 purchase of land and buildings. of the Fa] Warehouse Company * * * * marked the reductlO~ yesterd< Huntsville cotton storage space by'lO,OOO bales and SIgnaled t1 moval of one of the city's largesttgrocery finns, Ragland Bro into quarters twice as spacious as it now:occupies. "With a bid of $50,468.75 the wholdale grocery concern 1'10 purchase yesterday morning at the opening of bids. • • * • • "William E. Spragins, Presidefit of the Fanners Warehouse pany, said yesterday that 80 per cent of the compa?y's stod voted in favor of accepting the Ragland Brothers' bId at. a s: meeting held yesterday morning. The stockholders, he .sal~, f a resolution directing the officers of the company to hquidat business of the corporation.": ' This disposed of the larger part of the assets of the com Afterward, the receiver disposed of the! remaining assets in al ance/with' the orders of the Circuit Court. The total distril: mad'~ to the stockholders of the corporation was nearly 50 per Cl exce~s of the par value of the stock. The company paid satisf; annual dividends during the forty years it was in operation.


Tw: SPRACIHS

138

139 SECTlON

The writer \VlIS asked concerning his vote in Cavor o{ the liquida. tion o( the business and replied that in his opinion the stockholders were too numerous and the buildings (some rorty years old) were tOO small to be operated economically. No one of the group o( stockholders owned enough srock. to give him what my father would m.ve called "a moviDg interest in the business." HUNTSVILLE DAn.Y MERCURY The HunlSllille Timu under date o( October 17. 1935 repm:u thac

"Mr. Spragins was Ol)e o( the organum o( the Hunu\·iUe MeT'

rory, a daily newspaper. published here for a number o( ye:trs." The HUl1uville Mercury was organized in about 1890. Mr. O' cal WlIJ editor and lIUlIlageT. It was owned by Mr. O'Neal, Mr. pntgins, and perhaps others. Mr. Spragins owned the AlPcury building which is presently owned by his daughtet. Mrs. J. F. WatlS. The Mercury was a. daily morning paper. LINCOLN MILLS OF ALABAMA The preliminary arrangemenu [or the organization of the Lin· coin Mills of AJab= before its incorporation and the construction of the mill in Hunuville included agreemenu under which William L. Barrell and Company O( BOHon would own all the common. slOck; that Robert Eo Spragins and SIlelby S. fletcher would each p~ tWO hundred thoUSllIld dol1an worth of preferred stock; that Shelby S. Fletcher would serve as a member or the Board or Dil'ecton; and that Robert E. Spragins would serve as attorney for the corpora.tion. The state law or Alabama required that at least one member of the Board be II resident of AIabatna. Shelb)' S. Fletcher held his Lincoln fill stock and saved on the Board for the remainder o{ his life. Robert E. Spragins sold part of his st.ock to friends in Madison County. held the remainder o( hu Slock ($50.000 worth) and served as attorney Cor the corpontion for the ten of his Jile- The preferred lloel or the Lincoln MlUs of Alabama WIll called in by the company in about 1950, i.e. the company purchased the stock.

FARl\1ERS COTTON SEED OIL A D FERTIUZER CO £.PM'Y Senator Spragins Wll.~ President or me Farmers Cot.ton Seed Oil and Fertilizer Compwy. The project "-u II C1WUre. His losses were in excess or $100,000.00. He penonally advanced nearly 100,000.00 on notes ~ an e~r~rt 10 avoid the banknlpu:y of the company which was a loss. 10 addinon 10 his original investment, which was also a loss. The writer's personal diagnosis OT c1<.planation oC this si~u:ltion is that while similar ventures by Spragim and Su~ were umfoonly successful, Mr. Sugg W85 gone :md WIIS no longer v.;th the fum. Mr. Spragins had too many responsibilities 10 give the close per· lonal attention that Mr. Sugg would hllvc fumimed.

PATTO

BELL FACTORY ECHOLS A.''D TEVliN ECHOI.5 ESTATE

serving as attorney (or his mother·in·law, Mary :Beirne Patton Echols, Robert L Spragins liquidated the iliSClS o[ the Bell Factory Company. The :Bell Fac.tory olDpany was owned by Pa.tton. Echols, and Stevens (bern of Dr. Charles Patton). lie filled the low land of the Echols Rill place which fronted on Maiden Lane (now nilJ1)ed Euslis SCUI), subdivided and sold lou having about one city blon frontage (100 yards). This property was owned by Mary Beirne Patton Echols. He also sold other property, including some £arm land, (or her while lllllI1aging her aUairs. I do not think he ever purch85ed any properlY (or her. Alter the death of Mary Beirne Patton Echola, her SODS and lIOn· in·law served as 3dministrators of her estateDECl\..TUR LAND CO fl' ANY In about 1919 the partnership Beard. fletCher and Spragius was {ormed.

Mr. Burd was .Presidem attd Manager and largest Slocltholder in the Deeawr Ice and Coal Com!'any. (Duatu7's first ice factory). Mr. Shelby S. Fletcher was a cottOn broker and later ucceeded Robert Eo Spragins lIJl State SenalOr from Madison County. I Beard, Fletther and Spragins bought the 85S0U o[ the Deca.wr


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140

THE SPRAGINS SECTlON

Land Company which included all vacant lots in Decatur, acreage adjoining Decatur, and farm land in Morgan County. The plan was good and great success appeared to be in store for the firm. An effort was being made to sell land fast enough to meet deferred payments on the purchase price. It later appeared that a large part of the assets of the finn had disappeared. The business was reorganized, but recuperation was a long, slow process.

ROBERT ELIAS SPRAGINS

.'

FIRST NATIONAL BANK In 1910 Robert E. Spragins and Shelby S. Fletcher bought 51 per cent of the stock of the First National Bank. The First National Bank was a successor to the Huntsville branch of the state-owned Alabama State Bank, and is the first bank of Huntsville. Dr. Charles Patton apparently owned sufficient stock to control the bank. At least his heirs, Patton, Echols, and Stevens, did own a controlling interest after his death. The first the writer knew of the bank the Board of Directors was made up of: Major Echols, Major Stevens, Oliver Beirne Patton, Colonel William Willis Garth and A. S. Fletcher (father of Shelby S. Fletcher). Major Stevens, at that time, was President, Major Echols, VicePresident and Oliver Beirne Patton, cashier. I worked one summer (about 1905) as collector and keeper of the check register at the bank. At that time Major Echols was President. The heirs of Major Stevens and enough Patton heirs sold their stock to lose the Patton, Echols, and Stevens controL Thereafter, Major Echols sold the stock of his wife, but held ten shares of stock that was in his name. Robert E. Spragins and Shelby S. Fletcher bought the controlling interest from the successor to Patton, Echols and Stevens after the death of Major Echols. After securing control of the bank Messrs. Fletcher and Spragins sold and distributed half of their holdings to leading business men of the county whose duty and obligation was to bring new and desirable customers to the bank and to serve on the board of directors. Robert E. Spragins was elected President of the bank in about 1910 and held that office the rest of his life. He was the active head of the bank. Whenhe took this office, the bank was one of the smallest of the five banks in town. During his administration the First Nat-

The National Bank of Huntsville was organized and author to begin business September 15, 1865. It purchased the building f

alld succeeded tl,e Northern Bank of Alabama. On July 5, 1889, name of the bank was changed from National Bank of Huntsvill

,I ~,

..

ional became one of the two largest. The First National and Henderson National are the two leading banks of the town. Under Senator Spragins' management the First National weatl ed the financial stonns of the national depression of the early tJ ties. The First National and the Henderson National were the 1 banks out of the five in Huntsville which a.ccomplished this feat. Senator Spragins' conservative manag~ment built up the b: and carried it through the depression., He lived' to see the reSl of his management and died in 1935. ' 'He was succeeded as President of the bank by his youngest ! Marion Beirne Spragins. Mr. C. F. Sugg, Mr. Spragins'old pirtner, who had served Secretary-Treasurer and Manager, of the: Huntsville Ice and ( Company, The Huntsville Electric Light and Power Company, ~ Huntsville Gas Company, etc., went in the: banking business with old partner. Mr. Sugg was elected cashier at the First National B when' Mr. Spragins was elected President of the bank. Mr. Sugg ' tired after two years in 1911. It is interesting to note that when the writer worked in the b in 1905, the President received a salary :0ÂŁ $75.00 per month, cashier $75.00, the writer's salary was $35.00 per month. It is ported in a booklet published by the bank in 1951 that in 1880 President was paid $1,000.00 per annum, the cashier $1,300.00 and ".teller $600.00. , Below is presented a brief state;nent taken from the above n tioned booklet published by the First National Bank in 1951: State Bank of Alabama was established in Tuscaloosa in at 1825, 'it had four branches, Mobile, MClntgbmery, Decatur and Hu ville. (Likely Tuscaloosa was the State Capitol at that time.) . Huntsville branch was authorized January 10, 1835 by the Gen Assembly. The Huntsville Branch was succeeded by the Northern Ban] Alabama which was incorporated February 10, 1852. The Nord Bank of Alabama was in operation until closed by Federal tr< during the Civil War.

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142

THE SPRAGINS SECTION

First National Bank of Huntsville, the same officials continued in office. The following served as Presidents: BRANCH STATE BANK 1835 Bartlett M. Lowe NATIONAL BANK OF HUNTSVILLE James Hervey Mastin 1865.1882 1882-1889 James R. Stevens FIRST NATIONAL BANK James R. Stevens William Echols V Robert E. Spragins Marion Beirne Spragins, 1935 (presently

1889.1899 1899-1909 1909-1935 in office)

Oliver Beirne Patton I was cashier 1896-1909; Cyrus F. Sugg was cashier 1909-1911. Joseph Martin served as cashier of both the Nai.iona1 Bank of Huntsville and the First National Bank, 1874 to 1896. My recollection is that John Matthews served as cashier for about a year between Patton, Echols and Stevens control and Fletcher and Spragins control, between about 1909 and 1910. BUSINESS SUMMARY Robert E. Spragins earned and accumulated between the age of twenty-two and the age of sixty-five (1883-1926) roughly three quarters of a million dollars. The above estimate is based on 1935 appraisals, figured in 1935 dollars, which were twice as large as 1955 dollars; I.e. before Roosevelt, Truman, and other new dealers devalued the dollar by printing what Al Smith once called "Baloney Dollars." Between the age of sixty-five and the age of seventy-four he lost perhaps a third of his wealth. During this period, his age (in that he could not work as effectively as formerly) and the great depression of the nineteen thirties worked against him. Viewed as a whole he had a remarkably successful business career and like General MacArthur, he was right most of the time. Our "hind sight," (looking at it from the 1955 view point), shows that his long range judgment was good. For example, he owned half interest in a small farm on the west border of Huntsville. The farm was appraised at $30.00 per acre in 1935. The property is presently owned by General Robert L. Spragins. It is being subdivided and lots are selling at about $2,000.00 per lot.

ROBERT ELIAS SPRAGINS

14l

His usual hours, the of his werE 9:00 a.m. to 10:00 p.m. with one to two hours off for lunch at abou 2:00 p.m. He went to the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota for: check up on one occasion. The final diagnosis after two weeks' stud~ was that he was undernourished, was not sufficient food. Hi mother-in-law who served as house manager was quitl upset because she was a lady who believed over everyone In accordance with the doctor's orders she fed him three times ada' (instead of twice) and supervised his as well as the pflep~lratlol of the food. The doctor also ordered a discontinuance of work. In addition to other trials and tribulations, he raised and edll cated an expensive family. My opinion, based on personal experience, is that a man is simila to an old automobile in that at the age of sixty his parts start wearin out, the weakest parts going first. The devil of it is that his old cannot be replaced with new parts. Attention is called to the fact that land Madison County wa valued at about $2.00 per acre in 1809. Since that time values ha,' increased continuously except for dips in the curve of (i such a surve were platted). The quotation "four generations from shirt sleeves to shil sleeves" which is used several times in this "book" is from "Davi Harum," which was one of Senator favorite books. He a ways enjoyed the story of David Harum's attempt to trade horses wit ,the preacher or the presiding elder the church on SUIldav. Mr. Spragins said that "the to buy was when every OIl else wished to sell" and vice versa. He followed this rule in the oper; tion of his business. his retirement. M Mr. Sugg, his partner died in Kentucky. Spragins served as attorney and advisor for his widow, Mrs. Mr. Sugg's argument in opposition to his partner's taking a fu time political job was that in view of the fact that Mr. Spragins woul not steal anything he would lose money both on the job and at hom My fath~r told me that after careful consideration he had come to tl: conclusion that he and his family would be happier with him : home. ' , Mr. Spragins once said that no one could make much money 1 ~elling his time, i.e. working on a salary, legal fees or simi!: in real estate, ( occupation; that to earn more, one must


144

ROBERT ELIAS SPR.~GINS

THE SPRA.GINS SECTION

some other more hazardous form of speculation. But, he considered it advisable to hang on to the main job or occupation as a means of support while doing other things. "Billy Goat Farm" referred to above in this chapter, has been annexed and is now within the corporation limits of the city of Huntsville, I read in the local paper yesterday that the city had approved a plan for sub-division. Electric power, city water, and natural gas will be made available. "Billy Goat Farm" contains several hundred acres. About sixty years ago I hunted sparrows, black birds, etc., with an air rifle out that way. Fifty odd years ago, I became more ambitious and hunted quail. There were two coveys between Huntsville and the farm and two coveys on the farm. ~

Robert E. Spragins once said, "It is well for every man to own a few acres of God's footstool." "Billy Goat Farm" is presently owned by his daughter, Mrs. J. F. Watts. This farm and the Monte Sano summer cottage lot were the only real estate purchased by Robertl E. Spragins, bought for his own use, both bought perhaps some sixtyfive years ago. The farm likely cost less than $25.00 per acre. The following is quoted from the U. S. News and World Report, . Issue of May 11, 1956, to show the average shrinkage of the dollar during the past fifty years. "It is well to remember that the American dollar has lost twothirds of its purchasing power in a period of 50 years and nearly 50 per cent of its purchasing power within the last 17 years, through inflation. War accounted for most of that inflation, but even in the absence of war the long-range trend is toward a rising, not a declining, level of prices." PUBLIC SERVICE Mr. J. B. Converse of J. B. Converse Company, Mobile, Alabama, one of the leading consulting engineers of the state and who was a friend and admirer of Senator Spragins told me that Senator Spragins was the "Papa" of the State Highway Department. The conversation with Mr. Converse took place fifteen to twenty years ago when I was Chief Engineer of Alabama for the Public Works administration and made a business call on Mr. Converse in regard to the cold storage facilities he was building in connection with the Mobile docks. He told me that Senator Spragins wrote the law creating the

I

14!

State Highway Department, secured its passage and was the firsl Chairman and President of the State Highway Commission. The Montgomery Advertiser under date of April 8, 1911, repor~ the appointment of the commission.in part as follows: "The commission was recently created by passage of the Almon Bill, which puts into effect the purposes of the constitutional amend· ment • • •. . All three of the commissioners are well known in Alabama public life. Chairman Spragins is the present Senator from, Madison and served in the Constitutional Convention from the same county. He is regarded as one of the strong men of the state and is frequently mentioned for Governor." , The Mobile Daily of the same date says in part as follows: "These appointees will have control of the road system of the state. By them a road engineer will be elected to take charge of the practical work." : Under date of October 17, 1935 the Huntsville Times states in part as follows: ; "Mr. Spragins' first venture into public life came in 1901, when he was named a delegate from Madison County to the constitutional convention of that year. In 1903, he was eleCted to the state senate, where he served four consecutive terms., "From 1923 to 1927, Mr. Spragins was active as president of the State Highway Commission. During the World War, he was chairman of the district exemption board:' Robert E. Spragins is reported to have been a Red Cross official during World War I (either State or National). Mr. Spragins joined the Elks Club when; the Elks were promoting the building of the Elks Theatre b~ilding. ;He served as chairman of the building committee. Huntsville, at that time, was without a theatre building. He also served as chairman of the building committee when the Y. M. C. A. building was constru~ted. Senator Spragins took a "moving interest", in state and local government. He was likewise interested in natiorialaffairs. He became so interested on several occasions that the temptation to run for political office which would have taken more 0:£ his time than serving in the constitutional convention, the State Senate, etc., was almost irresistible. With the advice and assistance of his partner, Mr. Sugg, he succeeded in resisting the temptation. Mr. Sugg,~ his partner, was about six feet in height and somewhere around four feet 'in circumference. When he laughed, his bay w~ndow "shook like a bowl full of jelly." He was a shrewd, comphent, and efficient man. \ \ ..


146

THE SPRAGIN S SECTION

Mr. Spragins was sorely tempte d to run for Govern or on a local option ticket. He was much interes ted in this question, but he finally succeeded in getting the local option law passed. In campaigning for his seat in the State Senate, he had opposition the first two terms, no opposition the last two terms. In one of his first campaigns, Honora ble James Ballan tine was his oppone nt. Senator Spragins and Mr. Ballan tine were quite friendly. They drove around the county in the same buggy making campaign speeches at all the cross路roads towns. During the campaign Mr. Ballan tine developed a new deal rabble-rousing speech. In Mr. Ballant ine's speech he stated that Mr. Spragins was president of this and that corpora tion and attorne y for most of the large corporations in this section and asked the voters whethe r or not they would be willing to trust their interests to such a plutocr at. Mr. .Spragins replied by saying that everything he had was earned by the sweat of his brow; that on the other hand his good friend, Jimmy Ballantine, was born with a sliver spoon in his mouth and dissipa ted his inherit ance in riotous living and the purchase of loud clothes . Mr. Spragins then pulled up Mr. Ballan tine's trouser leg and said, "Now ladies and gentlemen look at these lovely socks." He had pre-. viously notiCed that Mr. Ballant ine's socks were very loud. There was much applause from the audien ce and Mr. Spragins won the debate. They drove to the next cross-roads town perhap s some five miles distance. Mr. Ballan tine opened with his same new deal speech (twenty years ahead of Mr. Roosevelt) and Mr. Spragins proceeded to deliver the same answer that he had made at the last town. When he pulled Mr. Ballantine's trouser leg, he discovered that Mr. Ballant ine was going withou t socks. He had manag ed between towns to pull his socks off and put them in his pockets. Mr; Ballan tine then made his . rejoind er. about the .. bloated plutocr at displaying Mr. Ballant ine's nakedness. Needless to say, Mr. Ballant ine had the best of the debate in this town. Mr. Spragins told the above story on himself. In anothe r campaign his oppone nt was Mr. John Wallace, a Huntsv ille lawyer who had the reputat ion of being quite a flowery orator. The story was told on Mr. Wallace during this campaign that he was looking for a place to leave his horse for the night. He drove up in front of a farm house. A little farm boy came to the door and

ROBER T ELIAS SPRAG INS

Mr. Wallac e is reporte d to have said, "Young American, stabulate t: quadru ped, donate unto him a sufficient supply of nutritio us a ment, and when the dawn comes over the horizon, I will reward tl: with a pecuni ary recompense." The farmer's boy turned to the hm and yelled, "Pal there's a furiner out here. I don't reckon I can f ger out what he wants." The writer is not certain who made up. this story, but would r be surpris ed if Mr. Spragins was guilty of telling the story. Mr. Wallac e tells one on himself, when some years later he \I state game warden. He was riding in the smoking car when an 01 of-season fisherman came and sat down by the side of him. T fisherman told the usual line about how many fish he had caught ai how large they were. Thereu pon, Mr. Wallace said, "Do you kne who I am?" The fisherman said, "No, I don't know who the h-l yl are." Mr. Wallace said, "I am the state game warden of Alabam , The fisherman though t a momen t and then replied, "Do you kne who I am?" Mr. Wallace replied, "No." The fisherman then sai "I am the biggest liar in Alabama." The following newspaper quotati ons are quoted from r mother 's scrapbook: "SENA TOR SPRAGINS Local Option Bill' , Hon. Robert E. Spragins, of Huntsville, one of the most co spicuous men of affairs of today in Alabama, is stopping at the E change Hotel. Senato r Spragins announces that he will introdu ce t: first local option bill in the next Senate. The bill will apply to Mac ~on County only, but Senato r Spragins says that he will assist al other Senato r who. says his people want local option, and who as the Senate to pass the bill.. Senato r Spragins' bilI will ask for dispensary in Madison County. Senato r Spragins, for eight years has been a leader in the Al bama Senate. He is a lawyer in Huntsville, and is interested in se eral of the most import ant enterprises in that city. His business ar legal trainin g stood him in good stead wh~n he entered the Sena and from the first entry into the Senate he took a commanding pIal in that body. .. ; Senato r Spragins was a most vigorous oppone nt of the Fuller ar Carmichael State路wide prohib ition bills. When a compromise on tl time limit was adopted, and the opposition to State-wide prohibitic collapsed, Senato r Spragins refused to ceas,e his opposition to t1 two measures, as did a numbe r of local option Senators. He was or of two Senators who spoke against the State-wide prohib ition bill an he was the last man to speak against the measure, predicting that


'"

',,:

I

....

148

THE SPRAGINS

SECTION

would bring more ills than it would cure. He was a leader in the fight against the proposed prohib ition amend ment, and for more than two weeks in the Senate he and the other Senators who united with him had the bill stopped. An soon as they lost the fight, he took stump in opposition to the adoptio n, and render ed valuable assistanthe ce in the anti-am endmen t campaign. Senato r Spragins was promin ently mentio ned for Govern or during the winter and at one time it was though t he would make the race. He became, however, a candid ate for re-election to the Senate. He declared in every public utteran ce that if elected to the Senate he would introdu ce a bill to re-establish the dispensary in Huntsv ille. He notifie d the voters of Madison County that no man need vote for him under a misapprehension, for he intende d to make a determ ined fight for the dispensary in the next Senate if elected. He was chosen withou t opposition, and the voters of Madiso n County elected two Representatives in accord with his views. In the midst of the Gubern atorial campai gn, Senator Spragin . wrote a letter to the candidates for Governor, asking what their s attitude would be towards a dispensary bill if it should be passed the Senate. Hon. Emmet O'Neal answered immed iately that if by the Senate passed the bill at the request of the Senato r from Madiso n County, and it came to his desk, he as Governor, would sign it. Senato r Spragins' bill for a dispensary for Madison County will be the first measure that will bring up the prohib ition questio n in the next Legislature." -Mont gomer y Advert iser <

"SENA TOR SPRAG INS The State and Madison County particu larly are to be congratulated that they will again have the wise service of Mr. Spragin s in the Senate of Alabam a. Petition s were largely signed all over the county by Amend ment and Anti-A mendm ent people indiscr iminately, asking him to become a candid ate again. He has yielded to this insistence and will go back withou t opposi tion. This is the highest tribute possible to a citizen and shows the affectionate esteem in which Senato r Spragins is held by his people and the confidence they have in his statesmanship, high character and integrity. The Mercury-Banner has been in line with the temperance views of Senato r Spragins as a citizen of the state from the start, and be~ lieves with him that as long as the enforce ment .of the crimina l laws are in the hands of the respective counties under our form of governmen t that the questio n of whiskey or no whiskey should be settled by the counties and not by the State- in other words, local option with the county as the unit. The Mercury-Banner is further in line

ROBERT

ELIAS SPRAGIN S

with Senato r Spragins, in that he believes' as a citizen of Madis' County, that an honest, well-managed dispe,nsary is the best solutil of the whiskey questio n in this county as a means or regulat ing t traffic and curbin g its evils. It goes withQut saying that regard l of whethe r the reader assents to these principles or not, that Senat Spragins should have honestly and firmly stood by the issues on whi he was elected in 1906. The Mercury-Banner was disa,ppointed ~at Senator Spragins d not make the race for Govern ~on this clean cut issue, and hOF sometime to see him in this ex ted position. We love a manly m; who stands up fairly and squarely for what he believes to be rigl whethe r we agree with him or not, and we have always found Senat Spragins that kind of man. This is why hi~ people love and respf him and are willing to trust him when some of them do not agr with with him all along the line. In an editori al comment on Senato r Spragins card favoril commission form of govern ment for HurttsviIle, the Birmin gha News remarks: 'Mr. Spragins strongly emphasizes the ÂŁact that under the. C~l mission Plan responsibility, and what he has to say along this II: is sure to carry weight with all engaged in a study of the subject.' 'In the recent election, Mr. Spragins was again chosen Senat from Madison County, being elected withou t opposition. He is 01 of the strong men of the State, and his earnest espousal of the COl mission Plan should prove encour aging to all who hope and lab for better munici pal govern ment in Alabam a.''' ---:Huntsville Mercury-Banner <

"SENA TOR SPRAG INS VOTE S 'NO' AND IT WILL COME NEAR MAKI NG HIM COVE RNOR Robert E. Spragins, and don't ever spell his name with tv 'g's' or he'll get mad, can vote 'no' louder than any man, who ev sat in the legislative halls of Alabama. Mr. Spragins hails from Madison CO,unt,Y, and it ~akes .nerve a man to come from Madison and vote no, for MadIson 15 50 ne;fl out of the State that few people remem ber that it's here. But neither Alabama, nor Madison, nor Spragins has ever r gretted that Madison sent Spragins here as Senato r and that he coul vote 'no' in a tone as big as the Capito l dome. SpraginS' has come seriously near being Governor by. voting Alab,uua knows he is gubern atorial timber, and sometIme he 'n~ W1 vote 'no' at the right time and the people will demand that he t Governor. He has been to the Legislature several times as a Senato and he also served in the Consti tutiona l Convention. He has nev( <

<


Touring by Numbers-Why and .How FREDERICK W. CRON Deti," Engineer, Region 9. a",ea" al Public Rood •• Denver. Colo,ad

FE-W

PEOPLE nllw neliv.: in d"l);lrlmenl$ ;llId Ihe BUren" oJ PulJ1i'c Ronds enn r.:member when th.:re were no U.S. route m;)rkers on American highWO)·S. The familiar blnck-nnd-whlte shield hos hcocome so much a pnrt of the highway SCMc thaI it is I ken ilS much fnr ~rnnll!d os: he molor \'chicle itself. 1l hn~ m:ul' CrrJS~­ country mOlorlO~ :l mal r of comfllrlllhlc rOll lIIe, r:llher th:ln on 'xperi nce uf high m!vcnlure alld 1''''pi fntlUlI As a \',)uth 10 1'22. J hclrl<:d mv lalher d~h'e frllm Ylnmln III Kan:..,.;" hl~n l/IIck 10 M:lryl;ond, t)\'('r Ill, <liTt ;tnd gravel ro;1ds IIf lh:ll rlny, Our ~tJlrll!S were Ihe tllur bunks of thl! Amer't"" Aillomohlll' Assr.lci,,liuo and the m."k~:I creel d hy nu.mcmus tr;1I1 as.~(K'"lillions. whkh wart! p~lntctl on rocks. harn1i, fellces :lnd u I!liiy \loll'S. The mt/st ptlpU I,r oesi~-:ond Ihe cusiest In [ol1owWI'S 3 series of colurcd 11itllds pninl '0 on utlllly poll·s. The "Lincoln lIil:hw. y" hl,rl three bnnds-rl!d. while lind blue-while Ihe "Dixie Ili\:b·.'my" wnll dJslmgu ~hed I~y Iwn hJllhwll~'

blinds. blue and grny. Th"r~ W(,I'~ m. ny olhern, ellch Ihe properly nf Sf)me ll.'iSodalinn whlC:h wns promolIn,!! lmvel nlon!: /I p"rhcu"'r rnule, In thll J lIl>senc~ .,f an .,(fichl mnrklll).\ N st m, Ih 'se Imils preJv"I(·d ~, IIs..,(lIl S'TII;C!: II ttl· mulonst. ('\'cn Ihll"l:h lht:y were moli~'" l·d. al It'II, t In pllr1, hy the lic~IT'" 10 prolllul.. 'ntnm,'r 'ial Illtcrf!.~L,. Ho ....· vcr. Ih' mnv '1Il1mt .~, nIUlllly ~uI II t "f ham! ns IIIOr,· IIn,l lIlorc trnil;! Wl'n' ur}:lIl1lz(',1. mm' uf Ihes' wt're jlllt-lIl1d-uLI' rn ·111'1. By 102·1. Ih"r' were /II h'm't 2511 tT/uL Sj>un,,"rl'<I IIU<l IIII,rk.·<I h)' lit Icn~1 lOll UrS:lll1i7111IulIs. ","·h w,Ih :, lll'nullullrlt'r. 1..,..~1II118 1111'1'" IIlul '" II'

liO

m:,1 rial lind l:olledmA fllIllls. Sume Clf th~ roull's wOtre int 'rlOlal in c!u,rllctllr: others were of only luelll siJ:nific"nce. Some "rollles w,'re pTumnll'<1 10 further 1ll011')tll,1

rond hUJI~l/Ig by "rousin!: puhlk ollinitllt; some were of llurcly IIccnlc volul:'; :md sume 'xistcd prine pnlly 10 provide salaries for their or~an­ 17.er5. The Irnil organi7.alions were highly competitive lind Iheir crforts were almost tolall)' um:onrdlnilted. r 'lIuJling in numNOUS (lv\'rl;lps. For nmple, if! perc 111 of onc fl'. il ov r111Pl.md otll\'r m;lfked mull'S nne! Ofll' trilil O\'!'I'Japrx-'tI as Ill/'ny n. II "thers One rrl1ld c:lrri d 19ht alf:'r 'nt Ir"ll mnrk 'r~ fllr. clln~idc.r­ 01,1" dlslltnCl' Man. tr:lIl" hnd nll'rn"t' .~I't' lUllS. !:.llllimllndlnl! Ih., cUflfllsirm, :md ,>11,- h;..1 :011 ·nUtI/'.

(ollo.... HlI1 Ihr\,(' sq,ar" e ro"d. nil .... ill1 IllI- .1Inw n. me. Mo. I rQUI~s f"lIo,,"'<I their fimlnel;.1 support nm! II WOl~ Inlpns.oJhl' tfl ihl 'I:r"le mnny uf them IlIln . ny Inl;lI:,,1 hlghwny "Y'h,'m~

A Systematic Approach

of

'fhe pllCl>SlIre Ihese n:;.~uci. lillllS fllr imp"wemcnl of their Irails mnu • oS 'nSlbl ~rQ}:raminll of improvements II)' hiJ;:h .... ny departmenls nltnl),~t Impos,;lblc, The -situ, Ii... n flul so 1,.,11 thitl the Amerie"n A.o;,~oeia­ Iwn of Stale "i~hw/lY OHicll.ls (I\AS1I0), in 1924. al}provc<.! n re~o­ It,lioll re'lll -Sling the Secretary of AgncllItuI' , In name 11 jnml hoard furmul. tl'

III

0111,1

prumuJIl:lte

and 111l1rking lIystNlI nr r f(lf th.: Ilfil1cil,lll n.~lIou. Th II Ihl' Ihe prllIJlell1 wa,~ L)' th· "wllIh-n; Ilf Ih,· As. Ill'Ia111l1l wa" 11I1I:<tr ,t ,.1 I. 111,' n'lI1nrk uf I-' W 'While III Ill"',. Ih"l1 AASIIO pn·Stdt·nl. ",1m nLlllllj~rinl:

lilt 'rstllll: chnrllel hlllhw/l)"N "f II" Ilcklll'h 'lIIlI/fl' Il( flllly "I,pn:eialt;

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1"111>11. r lUIII Itrlll"'M-,1 h'lnr,1 "JIllII 1''''o-oulI' kllll"·fl. II", n'!:III'" hl'!:II, 11"1'1';111:"

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In n-spon"., I" II", ",,,"1111 lUll. II ...

Sl~ret:lr)' on

March 2. 1925 nppOinled a Jutnt BUilru flf 21 state hillhwil)' eris:inn rs :.nd three Bllreau r,f Public .Roilds (!n~incers 10 ~lu<1y Ihe prnblem. 'fhe chalnn:m wa" llu'lmas H. 1I1cOon:lI<1. Com:lllSsiancr of Public'Ronds. anel Ihe secr('t:'lf)' Will' E. W. Jam's. Chief 'of Oesisn of the Bureau. At iLs first me'llng Ihe Jom Board adopt d Ihree guidll1 principles: Because the Secretary's iluthorll)' wns limited 10 Pcderlll-aid hi hwnys, only these woulo be plnccd on lh.. prupl}:'«;u ~y"lcm , n pubhc hennngs would he h I (the Bonrel wnnl·1l I) "volIl plnclO' ,tsdr In lh" pOSH tin of IIrbller Jx..tw.·.·" eoml"'!lfll; Ir;' l!i). AHaI'll ~'I I 's would I.e in Ih.· dos.-sl posSlhle conperllUnn wllh lh.. Sln(c.~,

The Bmlrd poinledl. rdrillne,1 frum ct)n.~icl rln~ th condition nf lin)' hl~hw:l)' as a fnelllr. but It uld in;;l!>l thill only tldsling IIIgh"o'ays bl' inrhllJ xl In Ihe l>rnpQllecl 5)'1't\'lIl. Two Ihnrn.>' problems prc.'enlel! Ulemsclves; Whell•.!:'r to desi/lnllle Ihe proposed inl('Ts1:t1c rondll by n;unc5 or nllmbers; and tu design n sl;md:ord mnrker for usc on all '·(lules. The task of stud),ing these pruhlellls Will' I:'i~'en 10 n subcomnllllee un<ler Mr. James.

Names Not Suitable F'ro", Ilw hl'!:"lulIl,,}: ;1 w. II ill'lIilr"nt thaI "nmln • was Iml'TIlcllt.• • L

There wer' 1m, IOnll)' 11:\II",d rOll's l,lrelltl)', mne In're \\",11 plnn'll'd nd n'asnn"hl." din:.:t mul w 'r • . p"",~,,rl'(1 by ~l-sl'onsi"I' orgmllznlit n" slIch liS the Lincoln IIi '.II\\' y A.1'1l6nl1t1ll IIl1cl 01.1 Spnn\) h Trnll

ASS,,\,' III linn. TIll'.\' cnnlt! bl' lnc{lrI,nrllh'll prncliclilly witholll dllHlgr III

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",hilI t" ri.. wilh th\' :\rlln'1 of IIlh\'rs Ih It "1\111.1 lI"t I,,· Illn,l.· til tit 1111" 1111)' IU}:II:III .!l '~~I'III? 1'llI'.•· Ills" wer.-

J'UULlC WOnKS /'"''

j'c!,rtlllr)/, 1l11~ ,I


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nlll 'J' TillS WaJI lfll' $v"I'm rl!CQm. mended 10 he S"l'I'l'1I1ry 'If AI!r1. ... ,I U1'1' an Ill<' IIn•• ni' Im,,1 pur (01' oh,·r. 1!I25) ., ,I "PII. v.·d I.·.· h II \\ •• h ,1:0' :1",111"111.1 ,r," mm n!;Il,n" "Ihn! till' . 11\1"'.... 10 A ~..dnI. It) "f. iI',· IIIJ:hwIly H.,,:.I. 1~lk.· Sill' I I w,'I",'1In- "11'11" •• ~ mll:hl I... fl';lSI It' II tI 'r .Il Ir' rt'. pcc:hvo sin Ie Inw, 0 pilI I h,· pl:1I\ In U 'I,"'r,,' lOIn 110 1I11"ll ",I Ill' n'pnrt III Il.i lInl1llll! mc.. lIll~ In I!)2S...... h"rc· "I.n II· (' ry II "hnrll d h.. Jom BOllr A. th.. s<lm' m el'! In/{. /\ASHO ,ll'l,ga «l tl It Exl' li\' Conlml'· I.. iI\llhqril~" mnkl' minor ('hnn!:,,, III thl' , commenden , yslenl "IIS ;'Ip' p,·iI.ril nl"ecs~n~' or desll'llble.'· ImInedia ely. ,equ\'s ,5 For ch;ln~cs lx'giln to .. me m. B I\\" n ndjoummcnt of Ihe Oc ob r. I 25. AASIIO me-dinK nnd 'ov~mbcr. 1!126, th c mmillec OlC'ted on 142 r quest:;. mnny 01 them "by no me<lns minor in nature." and approved adrlitlons which boos.led Iht' S)' lern 10 06,626 mHes. This system was finally ,approved b}' AASHO in ovember. 1926, The sYslem Ihlls adop'ed ",ns- {Oli (rom p~TflX1. n.« its ereRtors cadily ncknowledl1ed OIL .he time. Concessi!!ns hlld 10 b made 113 local prel'SUTCS til oblain SID'e npprovnJs of nn)' 5)1. em a. all. bu. i wmi hoped hal.omt' Inilial mist,.kcli' I'Quld 1". reclJf, d III I.lm~, 0'1 hope .hal wa:< on1)' p:>rlllllly real17 d Petitions lor chAng s nnd extensions continued come in .he Exeeu ive Committ~c Dnd were r..FeTTed 10 n roule numb rinl: suhcommitle For :<"'l'('n· inlt an(1H'cnmm,;ndOltlonl'

'0

'f)

Many Changes Tn Ihe forty years since .he 5 stem was established. vasl ('"hanges have laken place in the highway systems of ,,11 the stales. e-w routes havc been constructed, old jones improved or relocated nnd some have been abandoned or relel:D'ed to local control. Economic grdwth hal< . been RecompllTlicd by expnns on of highway networks nnd newer, morc <hrecl routln)(.'l have been found For mllny rondo ThrulIJ:h it nil. 'h~ .5. I 'umhero-d System hilS h"'n Ih.. 1;lIlhF I Fri 'nd "F tIl(' m\l.'rs'lIl!' Irn"d,·r. II " II Irillllle 10 AASIfO lind hI' S••1I·s lh". /11" h,w mnlln~llu In pr'SI'n'" till' "Ih';:rll.\· fIr Ihis Illln'ly "ulllnlllry _'ysl"IIl. nlld I'V n ~Ir 'II!! 11t'1I .1. Rc ·ogoli.llIfo: lhlll In,lIs rllillm."· (,'lCICD. iun 01 .hl' : ...sll'lII wo"ld ,hllll(' and wI'ak"n itl'· ..rl,·etlvl''''''''', tl ... E:<t,cu'JV' CQmm.llce .rl clio limit xpan. on b.v ;:r. dllnll~' lIi:"n;: II1\"

82

.,,""n;:

ro·'I'urc'" ..."'. rur II"\\' rhlll.· Ill' I".&:.nlllll&:, AA. flO hns tI"al! LIJII~' WI h "1;11" hll:hwl.y d,·I".r,1I1, /I "ncl. I- Hh II,,· ,. . I' ',,,, • f Ih,· I'lln 1\111"...... "'1:11\\":,\', hll' .,·luJU·" " 1I."'It· an\' 11I&:!l\ ';n' III ""0 111,....1 ~'H _.• L'II) ')11' H ,.. H UJt 11••· n". tt(,l .4.. ~ If .~pp tt\ i .. ~ n.~'.· "~JI"':"- h·01.hllJ~ ,,, II' t' "It I,ruler... lInd D." l"r.·,1 ,h,1I . ,1,1, "",,, h. h.. ~'" .... "IUlI,f I hI' IlItll ",I '" "X'I'U,un u( r"UI,· :.Jr,·:.d' nu.nJ .. or,-.d S"J.a:t~'I.·d ·/mn&:'·". "\,;," II "11111"'''' • t,'ouhin tlU,o. ~t •• t~·. U".·,.-,· r'lf(,·rr,·d I .. /I IJ'lIllm . sl,. ". fur "",lrll\"1I1 :\n.. Ill'r .. "d\" pul ... " WI!I' nil' 0 c-hanj.:l' nmbt';",f "";'''5 ·'.f In sn c!'llnj;l 11 "',,"m 111.11' 01 IIl..... n~ :tiluII .. ,I " n ' IIml,,',O'..! ROlliI'. :tn' "r'prt\'C'li of sHeh Tl'CO~1lI lon," Thi.,; poll ';V rl', UltloU III I' 'rpdunllnj.: ollie:-r Tn\llinW IfmA 'If l'r' more dlrec rands hOld bl'cn impro\'cd /1.:<1 upcnt'd trollie. :lnd pJ'obabl)' ac"ounle:-d for the:- rnsh of splil roulf'S lhll' t:repl inlo lhe s)'s em. B ' 1933. Ihe system had il'l~,ras..d o 12'1,758 mill'S :lnd houghtIul high\\"lIyndiTcinl trnlors were deetarlnl( Ihn' whal Ihe s\'s'em needed W;'IS "pcrlecti"m anrl 'not e)(len510n." 1n 1!140. Ihe A:>: ociil'ion adapled a p<llfcy '0 Aovern changl"s lind nddilions I~ lht' syslt'm. ThIS p<llicy. which wilh fl'W ,·II"nj;lc..o; is slill in ~'Ife ,rlednrl'd lhal' rnllll

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~ 'l1wr' "b"Jt b, nl) mnJ:(' ,·.·u!"1! nun I"'r' /,.. US !lll- E :,ml '1,_ WI 11",1 h..',· ")(1' '"'4 shall I,,· "ll ".,',·01., r''III,II\· ill' £1<, ,.hl"

n.,

'0

~ TI,e E <.'Cull,,\! Commitl~ or Ai\SIf0 hns {,,1I 1I,'lhorily 10 :lpprove all .. h:m!:!'s :lnd :ldchliom•.

~ The Execulivc Commill\!e will ('onsult "'lIh :til Sl:tI\'s.conC<'mcd ht,f'lr.. IIppro"IO'; n n 'w rOll ,.

~ Enc.h stOlt hi~hw:ty d pOlrlrnent pl"'lJ.:t's Ihnl II w,ll nol odd or rhnnlle: U.S. m:li"kt,4'!I nn nn.l' rou.e:wllholJl Ih' CllnCIITTl'nCe o{ 'he E:<'cllli\"e Commill('('

'0

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~ road shall be added or l'xi!;!Ing roule xlcnded "withoul n showing nl , n lluerl'.nl I.v-improved highway.cnrrying lin :l1(1bli.~h\!d Md neCeli.~nr)' Ime of inlc-rstnl' lraffic no. othe-rwlse p'o\"ided {or b ellis.ins: .5, rallIes. nnil ror which adec'l/llle s n·j (,ilnnnl IIf' flTO'" ,h·\l lor S'n I' rllllll' "umll T5" ~ EXlslin;: roulC!l shnll be e:-x"'nr(,·d nnl:-- ill till' same:- ;:t'lll'1"Tl! .ll. reclion. nn ('xl '~"i n:\ ~h III not I", lI\lIlh· ",hid, clupl ...alL' xis'm.: rlllll<'. I·X...·11t In' silltrl iI •. I IIlC". • Ilc'l W"O'1l 1"""1. IIf" \'I·rlll·m·,· ~

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PUULI

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MICHAEL BAMER. JR., INC.

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BANISTER ENGINEERING CO. ''IIIlfalhtl 10& romllt leI,

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WATER SUPPLY & POLLUTION CONTROL SYST(MS • POWER PLANTS • INCINERATORS TUDOR ENGINEERING COMPANY 14,.,,,... \1-'\.,, .....llltwtJ III11UU", ...t..ntlllftl.. I)t.Lln

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Il mil I e(l"'~- .. hll:b percentof through trnrnc. ~ '0 nltemnlc hnll be marked unl s it i comparahle to lh'c mnrked roule IUld hoth routct are needed to D('commodale- the tro~1. II):'C

~ If the propose-d roule 15_ better Ihun Ih mnrked route, and holh ,.. not needed for throu~h trnel. then the prllpo"'ed nllernate roule- .1hnuld rccci e the ,5. markjnJ:: and the present rllut hQuld he dropp tI. Thl: E>l:cc1.tli,· Commlu",'C i1t5~ appealed fur OJ determined errOrl 'm Iht' pari of thO s tel;, durIng In'e ne 1 15 years-. 10 brmR all mUle. In thl' 5.~·stem up 0 pnmar s anrlard!:.

Numbering the Interstate

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HOWARD K. BELL

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"PUBLIC WORKS ... AGAZINE

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The Nation;!l Sy Lcm of' Inter tall! 'mel D fense High"':. }:s .....as nuthnri7.Cc\ by €ongres.., in 19'J4. It IS limited by In..... to ·11.000 m,les "lin loc_alcd -liS III connetl b)' rou Cl' as d cc:l if~ ,pn'ctie:lble. thc ,Princlp",l meLropolit-nn l.lITIIS. cities and IndustriAl r:enter-s-." The routes were sclcclcd by joint acUon of Lhr: ta e hlghwDy Q.apartments < were- subjecL Ie "PIHo"al by the Seerdar)'of Comml!rr:c. Sihcc their purposcs .....ere simd, r. the U.S: Numbl-red System o.vcrlapped much o[ the fnlerslll~ Sy.slcm. yct it "''liS [t'lt tllM lhe IAth:r s'hould hit... Its own distjnCtiv~ marker. -The tAsk of (j'e,-j:;in-g A method of m"rklng lind II mark/:r wns ~I\'en to the ROlltt' Nllmbcrinll Commjtll!l~ of AASHO. whlcb reenmm 'ndcd b..mcally the Ih.., <SRme nlCthod liS thni adopted 31 yClIr!I rll ·r. elle 'pi lhnl til 10\\'1.'51 number·d mul('-~ nrc In th west nnd soulh instead of norlh nnd cas Easl,-wt.'st rOll II'S hDn' even numb('TS /lnd nOr111-50uth routes odd nurriLcrs. Mnjor rout hIVe one or two-digit numbers. nnd the most imporllilll huve nUnlb.CI"S "mhn!: wll.h 0 gr 5. Sp !Cinl. rcJotl.'d fhreeIligil numllers lire used La dl'silCnnlC SpUI"li und eircumfcTcr\.tinb In urb"n OTens. TIll' mnrkcr is n red. whitl' nnd blu(' shield dcsllCnL-d by A 1\5110. Thill mnrker r:an be u!icd ,only on rORd!! liIot nrc pari ol the

nd

P,UBUC WORKS for FcbruQ'1I: 1968


:

GANNETT FLEMING CORDDRY & CARPENTER, Inc:. f"Il'''··'' Uuru _'t'1 w.~ . . , _.',... r__ •• r w. ,t. AI u.,11.,... II CI

AlFRED GREW CONSULTING ENGllfEERS IHC. ~n,I"

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GERAGHTY & MILLER

FOR RATES FOR THIS SPACE

(Ott'"/lmg G,ou"d.Wau., G._o'., ••"

wrhe

PUBLIC WORKS MAGAZINE 700 So. B,ood S'

.Idg.wood, N I

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EDWARDS AND KELCEY

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PAUL GODLEY Co. CONSUl..T1NG RADIO ENGINEERS eo .... U... CAt'O,.. • • • • TPf. """E" .. Oo/TeLAI .. 1201) 7"11'3000

FAY, SPOFFORD & THORNDIKE, INC.

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FINKBEINER, PETTIS .. STROUT ilIt"r Sum,.,

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WAlTER H. FLOOD & CO. GR"NLEAf

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PUBLIC WORKS MAGAZINE 200 So

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.S.

IImhl'rNI

Bituminous Stobili...ation of Sand-Clay Base

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HOWARD R. GREEN CO.

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WAIf''' WillI I. ..

PUBLIC WORKS MAGAZINE

MDreo\'t'r,

System IS a p~reJy volunbry :.rmngeml'nl between the states. wlt(1/'lui ilny I 'Ilnl status whnt('\'I'r. I ~ n ""'r h ·Iess • l.: ngiblf' m',"ll1111'nt til lh.. 1X.'C1rllilr E:('l1l1ffi oC Ih<' American Iwoplt· lor workins: OUI pm...tlC01I solUlions Cor dlHicu!t pr blellls. For forlY years II hQ,~ bl; n 1I CaithCui Cri 'n~1 ~( the Aml'r1cnn mQtoris

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1.

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~

Int r. 1lI1' Syst 'm itnll 11:0 ... , I""f'n Iml'mv ,I 10 (ull Interstat 5 nnd:lrd" or to sl:tncmrds ml ,u:otl' £t,r prw; 'ot tl:;l((le AA5110 nos nu say illl to Whill mUlt' mil)' b· On the Systf,m, nor :lny ilulhor/ly tI "pprhY' IlddlllnllS It"; :ll/tllonl)' IS hmilcfJ tu :lpplyinl( • t,,(j I n I mlJl'r til ffmtes th.1t nllY" ht'lln approv d 11)' thl' S<.-crel:lI"y o( T-, pon. tlon 4ntlll"'!''' r/lUl('S Where th Interstnte System I. developed o... cr nn J!xlsUnJ: numbered U.S. route. both U.S. and 1nt rslatc sh elds arc us«l to mark those Sf..'Cl.tons which iJre coincident There is much public misunderstanding oC both numbered syste~. nlike many Core gn countries, the niled StoLes docsc nOI hiJve natlonnl road systems owned by the FcdI'ra! govl'rnml'nl, With th exceplion oC a comparatively snmll nuLeoge oC roa~ in National Parks. alional forests. milltary reservations and other Federally-owned atl~a". all roads and streets belong to the slates or their pol ticill subdivisions. which are"l'esponsible (or their operiltion nnd mnintenance. The numbering systems. arc merely devicell 10 help the Iraveler Hnd the shor eSI nnd bc:st way to his deSliniltion

1\ sand c1ny ro'ul in On,"!:,' Cu. Fla.• which cOtri..s henvy tmer. wa.~ sl.l,bih7, d by the usc of il compound c;,II..tI 51\-1. furnlsh'd by Ih.. C. nlroll Chemic I Co. oC fn",no. Cilli£. Tht· road wn.~ scar CIt·d nnd lh,.. 5,\II WlIlt'r soilltion WIlS npplicd ..... ith n w.nter Iruck, no "d(lit annI a~gr,,­ l:llh' 1,,'inA lIsed. After thnroufo:h mlxllll:, tIll' roml \".:- cIUnllllclt.J with II pn<:nmlltir rolkr. Vt'ry Ill'\\'}' rninfnll occurred h~'(on' sur! .:info: 'nuld 1lt' pi nl:t'<1 , bUI no dnmnltc wns causl'u by traHie. ,,'ClI:r tht' llllrC""I' rlrll'tI, fiSK·3 WilS pph"d I'" n IInm' CLllIt lit tl1o" ml,' o( 0.25 fo:lll psy Th,' W\'nrinl: :o;urflln' ... L~ ;: 12 hulLt'r .1111: IIl1d tUS IInl ps~' el( RS· 2.• Hlo:<1llt,1 hi"'" ht"'1\ st,lIsCII,",lnry nnel .t IS plnlll1l't1 t" ,', t,'II,1 tlte w"rk WIII\lwy Wolf. .'Iup,·r nlt'nd"nt oC HlIl1l.l.~ IIml Brl<ll:"". Or~tnl;" C\>lllIly. Orlllllcl". (I1n'clt I IIIl' wurk

PUBLIC WORKS fo~ (rhTulll'l/. l!lt.i8


AM'ERICAN HIGHWAYS PUBLISHED QUARTERLY BY THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF STATE HIGHWAY OFFICIALS

Subscription Price Volume VI

638-639 Munsey Building. Washington. D. C. Copyright 1927-All rights reserved

April. 1927

One Dollar a Year Number 2路


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.......

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United States Numbered Highways F o~ the Convenience of the 'Traveling Public a Limited System of State Roads Have Been Given Continuous Numbers Across the Country ..For the .past two ye.ars the State highway departments includes the mileage through cities. In some instances, of. the NatIon have been working on a plan, in cooperation particularly in mountainous country, it is necessary, for wIth the Department of Agriculture, of designatinO' certain short distances, that a road carry two numbers i but in through roads with numbers that would be carried con- such cases both numbers will be erected on the same post tinuous from coast to coast. Naturally this carries a lim- and it will not be at all confusing to the traveling public. ited mileage, but it is believed that the system approved The design adopted is the commonly known United States takes' care of the major part of interstate traffic. shield outline, and this shield carries the number as well The plan adopted provides that roads running north and as the State name through which the road passes. south shall be odd numbers and roads runninO' east and The following descriptions of these routes have been prewest, even numbers. Necessarily there must be ~ome diag- pared after careful observation and approval of the State onal routes joining these odd and even numbered routes. officials of each State. The roads designated by these numIn laying out this system. the highway officials felt that bers do not have any preference over other roads on the the simplicity of the plan adopted would be popular with Federal Aid Highway System, as far as construction and the people, and in a large majority of the States the num- financing are concerned, but it is impossible to simplify bers chosen have already been erected. The total mile- interstate travel and have the entire Federal Aid System age involved in the routes selected is 96,626 miles. This numbered according to this plan. ilited States Highway No. 'I. Total ericksburg, Richmond, Petersburg, South .Minnesota Beginning at Duluth via

Mileage 2 '>69

, ,~ai~e Beginnin.g at the United StatesnadI~n InternatIOnal Boundary at Fort nt. VIa Van Buren, Presque Isle, Houlton, lals, Ellsworth, .:3angoor, Belfas~, Rockd, Bath, Bruns:"lck, Portland, B!ddeford, ;tery to the Mame-New HampshIre State ~ north of Port!;mouth. 'I w H shir B ., t th M . e H am Ph · ~, egI.nmng a e r aIDew a:nps Ire "tate IIDe north of Portsuth Vla Portsm0\J:th, Hampton, Seabrook the New Hamnshlre-Massachusetts State ! north of Newberryport. flassachusetts Beginning at the New mpshire-Mas:oachusetts State line north NewberrypoI"t via Newberryport, Boston, :th Attleboro to the Massachusetts)de Island State line north of Pawtucket. thode Island Beginning at the Massasetts-~hod~ Island State line north of vtucket vh\ Pawtucket, Providence, Apaug, Alle'1ton, Wakefield, Westerly to Rhode Islund-Connecticut State line west Westerly. :onnecticut Beginning at the Rhode nd-Connecticut State line east of Ston;on via Stonington, Mystic, Graton, FlanI Village, Saybrook, Westbrook, Clinton, Iford, Br'anford, New Haven, Milford, igeport, Southport, Norwalk, Stamford, enwich ';0 the Connecticut-New York :e line at Port Chester. ew York Beginning at the Connecticut7 York ::;tate line at Port Chester via 7 Rochelle, New York City to the New k-New Jersey State line north of Jersey ew Jersey Beginning at the New York, Jersey State line north ot Jersey City Jersey City, Newark, Elizabeth, Princeto Trenton on the New Jersey-Pennania Sta ce line. ~nnsylvaT.lia Beginning at the New JerPennsylYania State line opposite Trenvia Morrisville, Oakford, Philadelphia, ia, Kennett Square. Oxford, Nottingham ;he Pennsylvania-Maryland State line ' h of Nottingham. aryland Beginning at the Pennsyla-Maryland State line south ot Oxford Rising :Sun, Bel Air, Baltimore to the rict of Columbia line. :strict ot Columbia Beginning at the ;oland-Di.strict of Columbia line via hington to the District ot Columbiainia line., rginia B:eginning at the District of Colia-Virgin ia line via Alexandria, Fred-

Hill to the Virginia-North Carolina State line north ot Pashchall. North Carolina Beginning at the Virginia-North Carolina State line north of Pashchall via Norlina, Henderson, Raleigh, Sanford, South Pines, Rockingham to the North Carolina-South Carolina State line north of Cheraw. S h C . B" t th N th out arohna egIDmng a e or Carolina-South Carolina State line north of Cheraw via Camden, Columbia, Lexington, Batesburg, Aiken to the South CarolinaGeorgt'a State line at Augusta. . " . GeorgIa. Begmmng. at the South Car!>hna-Georgt~ State IIDe at Augusta Vla Wrens! Swau?-sboro, Bax~ey, Waycross to the GeorgIa-FlorIda State lme south of Folkston. . ,Florida .Beginning at the Georg;13-FlorIda ~tate lIDe sout~ of Folkston V'fa J~cksonVllle, St. Augus~lDe, Daytona, TItusvIlle" Melbourne, Fort PIerc~, vyest Palm Beach, Fort Lauderdale to MIamI. .

United States Highwav.~ No.2. Total Mileage, 2,409 Maine Beginning at the United StatesCanadian International Boundary east ot Houlton via Houlton, Island Falls, Macwohoc, Lincoln, Bangor, Newport, Pittsfield, Skowhegan, Norridgewock, Farmington, Wilton, Rumford, Bethel to the Maine-New Hampshire State line west of Bethel. New Hampshire Beginning at the MaineNew Hampshire State line west of Bethel via Gorham, Lancaster to the New Hampshire-Vermont State line at Town of Guildhall. Vermont Beginning at the New Hampshire-Vermont State line at Town of Guildhall via St. Johnsbury, Wells River, Barre, Montpelier, Burlington, Grand Isle to the New York State line east of Rouses Point. Michigan BeginJlin~ again at Sault Sainte Marie via Pickford, St. Ignace, Manistique, Escanaba, Powers to the Michigan-Wisconsin State line near Iron Moun'tain; and from the Michigan-Wisconsin State line near Florence via Crystal Falls, Watersmeet to the Michigan-Wisconsin State line east ot Hurley. Wisconsin Beginning at the MichiganWisconsin State line near Iron Mountain to the Michigan-Wisconsin State line near Florence and from the Michipn-Wisconsin State line east ot Hurley VIa Ashland to Superior.

Grand Rapids, Bemidji, Bagley, Crookston, East Grand Forks on the Minnesota-North Dakota State line at'Grand Forks. . North I?akota Beginning at Grand ~orks on the MInnesota-North Dakota State,line via Larimore, Niagara, Devils Lake, Rugby, Towner, Minot, Stanley, Ray, Williston to the North Dakota-Montana State line west of Williston. Montana Beginning at the North' Dakota-Montana State line east of Culb--"son t:n via Glasgow, Havre, Shelby, Browning;-Glacier, Parks Station, Belton, Kalispell, Libby to tb Montana-Idaho State line west ot Leonia. Idaho Beginning ~t- the Montana-Idaho State line west of Leonia to Bonners Ferry. f

United States Highway No.3. Total Mileage, 253 New Hampshire Beginning at Colebrook via Groveton, Lancaster, Plymouth, Laconia, Concord, Nashua to the New Hampshire..Massac husett s Sta t e t:nne at T yngs boro. l-lassachusetts Beginning at the ~ew Hampshire-Massachusetts State line' at Tyngsboro via Lowell to Boston. .

United States Highw3,Y No.4. Total Mileage, 194 . New Hampshire Beginning at P~rts­ mouth via Dover, Concord, Franklin, Lebanon to the New Hampshire-Vermont State line at White River Junction. ~ Vermont Beginning at the New Hampshire-Vermont State line at White River Junction via Woodstock, Ruthiand to~ the Vermont-New York State line at Fair Haven. _: .' New York Beginnlng at the VermDntNew York State line at Fair Haven via Whitehall, Hudson Falls to Glens Falls.

United States Highway No.5. Total Mileage, 313 Vermont Beginning at the United StatesCanadian International Boundary at Derby Line via Newport, St. Johnsbury, Wells River, White River Junction, Windsor, Brattleboro to the Vermont-Massachusetts State line at Town of Guilford. Massachusetts BeginninJ at the Vermont-Massachusetts State line at the Town ot Guilford via Bernardston, Greenfield, Northampton, Springfield to the Massachusetts-Connecticut State line south of SPIinefield.


AMERICAN

• Connecticut Beginning at the Massachusetts-Connecticut State line on the east side of the Connecticut River via Enfield, East Windsor Hill, East Hartford, Hartford, Berljn, Meriden, Wallingford, North Haven to New Haven.

United States Highway No.6. Total Mileage, 707

HIGHWAYS

United States Highway No.9, East. Total Mileage, 160 New York Beginning at Glen'il Falls via Hudson Falls, Waterford, Troy, Defreestville, Schodack Center, Hudson, Poughkeepsie, Yonkers to New York City.

United States Highway No.9, West. Total Mileage, 158

Massachusetts Beginning at ProvinceNew York Beginning at Glens Falls, town via Sandwich, New Bedford, Fall River Saratoga Springs, Mechanicville, Waterford, to the Massachusetts-Rhode Island State Cohoes, Watervliet, Albany, Kingston, Newline at East Providence. burg, Nyack to the New York-New Jersey Rhode Island Beginning at the Massa- State line at Sparkill. chusetts-Rhode Islapd State line on WatermilD Avenue, East~ Providence, via ProviUnited States Highway No. 9 d~ce, North Scitutte to the Rhode IslandNew Jersey Beginning at the New YorkConnecticut State line at South Killingly. New Jersey State line south of Sparkill via Connecticut Beginning at the Rhode Jersey City, Newark, Elizabeth, Rahway, Island-Connecticut State line at South Kill- Perth Amboy, Asbury Park, Lakewood, ingly via Danielson, Brooklyn, Clarks Cor- Toms River to Absecon. n&-s, Willimantic, South Coventry, Coventrr, Bolton Notch, Manchester, Burnside, United States Highway No. 10. Total H$rtford, Farmington, Plainville, Bristol, Mileage, 2,481 Terryville, Thomaston, Watertown, Minor(Includes No. 10 N.) toWn, Woodbury, Southbury, Sandy Hook, Michigan Beginning at Detroit via Danbury, Mill Plain to the New York-ConPontiac, Flint, Saginaw, Clare, Reeds City, necticut State line west of Mill Plain. New York Beginning again at Kingston Baldwin to Ludington. Wisconsin Beginning at Manitowoc via ,via Kerhonkson, Wurtsboro to Port Jervis. Pennsylvania Bej?;inning at the New Appleton, Fremont, Waupaca, Amhurst, york.Pennsylvania l?tate line at Port Jervis Stevens Point, Marshfields, Neillsville, Humvia Matamoras, Milford, Honesdale, Car- bird, Augusta, Menomonie, Eau Claire to bondale, Scranton, t'::larks Summit, Tunk· the Wisconsin-Minnesota State line at hannock, Wyalusini, Towanda, Mansfield, Hudson. Minnesota Beginning at the WisconsinCanoe Camp, Wellsboro, Coudersport, Farmers Valley, Kane, Wlirren, Corry, Waterford Minnesota State line at Hudson via St. Paul, Minneapolis, Elk River, St. Cloud, where it to Erie. ' is given alternate routes designated No. 10 United States H~hway No.7. Total North and No. 10 South and converge again at Moorhead. Mile~ge,

304-

United States Highway No. 10, North. Total Mileage, 201

Vermont Beginning at the United StatesCanadian International Boundary north of Minnesota Beginning at St. Cloud via Highgate Springs via St. Albans, BurlingLittle Falls, Motley, Wadena, Detroit to ton, Middlebury, Rutland, Manchester, Bennizwton to the Vermont-Massachusetts State Moorhead. line north of Williamstown. United States Highway No. 10, ~assachusetts Beginning at the VerSouth. Total Mileage, 211 mont-Massachusetts State line north of Williamstown via Pittsfield, Lenox, Great Minnesota Beginning at St. Cloud via Barrington to the Massachusetts-Connecti- Alexandria, Fergus Falls to Moorhead. cut: State line at Capaan. Connecticut Beginning at the MassachuUnited States Highway No. 10 setts-Connecticut State line at Canaan via North Dakota Beginning at the MinneSmIth Canaan, Lime Rock, Cornwall Bridge, sota-North Dakota State line at Fargo via Flanders, Gaylordsville, New Milford, Brook- Valley City, Jamestown, Bismarck, Mandan, field, Danbury, West Redding, Branchville, Dickinson, Medora to the North DakotaWilton to Norwalk. ': , Montana State line " est of Beach. Montana Beginning at the North DaUnited States Highway No.8. Total kota-Montana State line west of Beach via Glendive, Miles City, Hysham, Billings, Big Mileage, 312 Timber, Livingston, Bozeman, Butte, Deer Michigan Beginning at Powers to the Lodge, Drummond, Missoula, St. Regis to Michigan-Wisconsin State line west of the Montana-Idaho State line east of Mullan. Pembine. Idaho Beginning at the Montana-Idaho Wisconsin Begit1]ling at the Michigan- State line east of Mullan via Cataldo and Wisconsin State line west of Pembine via Coeur d'Alene to the Idaho-Washington Pembine, Laona, - Crandon, Rhinelander, 'State line west of Post Falls. Prentice, Ladysmith, Cameron, Barron, St. . Wasllington Beginning at the Idaho-Croix Falls to the Wisconsin-Minnesota · Washin~n State line west of Post Falls . State line west of St. Croix Falls. via Spokane, Davenport, Wilbur, Coulee, Minnesota Beginning at the' Wisconsin- Waterville, Wenatchee, Blewett, Cle Elum Minnesota State line west of St. Croix to Seattle. ' Falls via Taylors Falls to Wyoming.

United States Highway No, 9. Total Mileage, 584 ' :-.:.r".

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011

No. , W..)

:- New York, Be~g at the United · States-Canadian International Boundary at :.Rqaaes Point via 'Plattsburg, Elizabethtown, ·Chestertown, ,J,.ake George to, Glens Falls, "'wher~ it is given alternate routings rdes~­ · Dated No. 9 East and "No. 9 West. ',No.9 'r begins again on the loYClw 'York-New .Tersey . State line. ", -.:;r~

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United States Highwa.Y No. 11. Total Mileage, 1,696

Pennsylvania-Maryland State line soath ( Greencastle. ~aryland Beginning. at the Pennsy vama-Maryland State hne at State Lint south of Greencastle, via Hagerstown to th Maryland-West Virginia State line south 0 Williamsport. West Yi,rginia Beg.inning at the Ma~ land-West Virginia State line south of Wi} liamsport via Martinsburg to the West Vir ginia-Virginia State line north of Bunke: Hill. Virginia Beginning at the West Vir ginia-Vil'ginia State line north of Bunke] Hill via Winchester, New Market, Staunton Lexington, Roanoke, Wytheville, Abbingtol to the Virginia-Tennessee State line at Bristol. • Tennessee Beginning at the VirginiaTennessee Sta~e line at ~ristol via. Kingsport, RogersVllle, KnOXVIlle, Lenol.1' City, Athens, Chattanooga to the TennesseeGeorgia State line south of Wauhatehie. Georgia Beginning at the TennesseeGeorgia State line south of Waubatchie via Trenton to the Georgia-Alabama State line south of Rising Fawn. Alabama Beginning at the Georgia-Ala-bama State line south of nising Fawn via Fort Payne, Attalla, Gadsden, Birmingham, Tuscaloosa, Livingston to the AlabamaMississippi State line southwest of Cuba. Mississippi Beginning at the Alabama. Mississippi State line southwest of Cuba via Kewanee, Meridian, Laurel, Hattiesburg, Poplarville to the Mississippi-Louisiana State line east of PetU'1 River, La.

United States Highway No. 12. Total Mileage, 1,301

Michigan Beginning at Detroit via Ann Arbor, Jackson, Marshall, Battle Creek, Kalamazoo, St. Joseph to the MichiganIndiana State line east of Grand Beach. Indiana Beginning at the Michigan-Indiana State line east of Grand Beach via Michigan City, Gary to the Indiana-Illinois State line west of Hammond. Illinois Beginning at tht~ Indiana-TIlinois 'State line west of Hammond via Chicago, Barrington to a point north of Algonquin and north to the Illinois-Wisconsin State line south of Genoa City. Wisconsin' Beginning at tbe TIlinois-Wisconsin State line south of Genoa City via Lake Geneva, Elkhorn, Whitewater, Fort Atkinson, Madison, Sauk City, Bara~oo, Manston, New Lisbon, Tomah, Black RIver Falls, Humbird, Augusta, Eau Claire, Menomonie to Hudson on the Whlconsin-Minnesota State line. . Minnesota Beginning at f'le WisconsinMinnesota State line at Hudson via St. PanI. Minneapolis, Litchfield, Willmar, Benson to the Minnesota-South Dakota State line west of Ortonville. ' South Dakota Beginning d the Minnesota-South Dakota State line' west of Ortonville via Wilbank, Summit, Aberdeen, Selby, Mobridge, McLaughlin. McIntosh. to the South Dakota-North Dakuta State lme east of Lemmon. , North Dakota Beginning 'at the Sou~, nakota-North Dakota State' line east th . ,Lemmon via Hittinger, Bo~~n to e. North Dakota-Montana State line west of Marmorth. Montana Beginning at the Nor t h ~ Dakota-Montana State line ~est of Mar- : -'lnorth via Westmore to MileE; City. .;~ 0

· New York Beginning at Rouses Point · via Canton, Watertown, Pulaski. Syracuse, · Courtland, Binghamton to the New. YorkPennsylvania State line south of Kirkwood. , United States Highw&)' No. -13. Pennsylvania .~eginning at the New • York-Pennsylvlujia, _ State line north of . . Total Mileage, 245 .-~ Great BeIUl via'· New Milford, Alford, Kings.. Pennsylvania Beginning o.t J(01Tl~ -i . ley, Clarks .Summit, Scranton, Wilkes,Barre, Shickshi~y, 13loo~sbU!g, DanvillEl, . via Bristol, Philadelphia, MllrcusJj B~_ .;.; Sunbury" Clarka ';Fer,y, Harnsbgrg, Car- ~e Pe~8Ylvan~-Delaware ~te De . , -.:i ... ..;:j lisle, Chambersburg and Greencas~le ,to the . jeaat of. Marcus Hook.

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AMER ICAN

Delaw.are Beginn ing at the Pennsy l'van ilL-Delaware State line southea st of Marcus Hook via Wilmin gton, State Road, Dover, Greenw ood to the Delawa re-Mary land State line at Delmar . MaJ:yland Beginn ing at the Delawa reMarylan d State line at Delmar via Salisbury, Pocomo ke to the Maryla nd-Virg inia State line north of New Church . Virgini a Beginn ing at theM:a rylandVirginia State line north of New Church to Cape Charles .

United States Highw ay No. 14. Total Mileage, 599 J<1innesota Beginn ing at Winona via Roches ter, Owaton na, 'lfankat o, New Ulm, Lake Benton to the Minnes ota-Sou th Dakota State line east of Elkton. South Dakota Beginn ing at the Minnesota-So uth Dakota State line east of Elkton via Brockin gs, Huron, Mi1ler, Heighmore, Fierre, Midland to a junction with Route No. 16 south of Phillip.

United States Highw ay No. 15. Total Mileage, 460 Pennsy lvania Beginn ing at Harrisb urg via Gettysb urg to the Pennsy lvania- )laryland State line north of Emmitt sburg. .Uaryla nd Beginn ing at the Pennsy lI'ania-M aryland State line north of Emnittsbu rg via Frederi ck, Licksvi lle to the Uarylan d-Virgi nia State line at Point of Rocks. Virgini a Beginn ing at the Maryla ndvirginia State line at Point of Rocks via .eesbur g, Aldie, Warren ton, Culpepp er, ;ordons ville, Palmyr a, Bolling , Farmvi lle, {eysvill e, Chase City, Clarksv ille to the iirginia -North Carolin a State line south of loudan. ~orth Carolin a Beginn ing at the Vir:inia-No rth Carolin a State line south of ,oudan via Oxford , Durham , Chapel Hill, 'ittsboro , Sanford , Pinehu rst, Carthag e, vest End, Ellerbe to Rocking ham.

United States Highw ay No. 16. Total Mileage, 1,480 :\lichiga n Beginn ing at Detroit via righton , Howell , Lansing , Grand Rapids to rand Haven. . Wiscon sin Beginn ing again at Milwau !e via Pewauk ee, Waterto wn, Columb us, )rtage, Kilbour n, Mansto n, New Lisbon, larta, West Salem to the Wiscon sin-Min !sota State line at La Crosse. Minnes ota Beginn ing at the Wiscon sininnesot a State line at La Crescen t via Ishiord , Preston , Austin, Albert Lea, ue Earth, Fairmo nt, Jackson , Worthi ngn, Luvern e to the Minnes ota-Sou th Ikota State line west of Manley . South Dakota Beginn ing at the Minne:a-Sout h Dakota State line west of Manr via Valley Springs , Sioux Falls, Salem, tchell, Plankin ton, Chambe rlin, Vivian, udo, Kadoka , Wasta, Rapid City, Sturi, Spearfi sh to the South Dakota -Wyong State line east of Beulah. Wyoming Beginn ing at the South Da:a-Wyo ming State line east of Beulah Sundan ce, Gillette , Orvada , Ueross, tfalo to Worlan d.

United States Highw ay No. 17. Total Mileage, 949 'irginia Beginn ing at Frederi cksburg Saluda, Lee Hall, Newpo rt News, Norc to the Virgini a-North Carolin a State , south of Deep Creek. forth Carolin a Beginn ing at the Viria-Nort h Carolin a State line south of p Creek via South Mills, Elizabe th City, !nton, Windso r, William ston, Washin gNew Bern, Wilmin gton, Whitev ille,

HIGH WAY S

Chadbo urn to the North Carolin a-South Carolin a State line south of Fair Blutl'. South Carolin a Beginn ing at the North Carolin a-South Carolin a State line south of Fair Blutl' via Marion , Florenc e, Kingstr ee, Charles ton, Walterb oro, Yemass ee, Ridgeland to the South Carolin a-Georg ia State line southw est of Hardeev ille. Gei;lJ::gia Beginn ing... at. the South Carolina-G eorgia State line southw est of Hardeeville via Monteit h, Savann ah, Brunsw ick to the Georgia -Florida State line south of Kingsla nd. Florida Beginn ing at the Georgia -Florida State line south of Kingsla nd to Jacksonville .

United States Highw ay No. 17-1. Total Mileage, 243 Virgini a Beginn ing at Petersb urg via Empori a to the Virgini a-North Carolin a State line north of Pleasan t Hill. North Carolin a Beginn ing at the Virginia-N orth Carolin a State line north of Pleasan t Hill via Weldon, Rocky Mount, Wilson, Goldsboro, Warsaw , Kenans ville, Burgaw to Wilmin gton.

United States Highw ay No. 18. Total Mileage, 1,029 Wiscon sin Beginn ing at :\o1ilwaukee via Waukes ha, Jefferso n, Madison, :'tit. Horeb, Dodge,, ;lle, Fennim ore to the Wiscon sinIowa State line at Prairie du Chien. Iowa Beginn ing at the Wiscon sin-Iow a State . line at McGreg or via West Union, New Hampto n, Charles City, Mason City, Algona , Emmet sburg, Spence r, Doon to the Iowa-S outh Dakota State line west of Beloit. South Dakota Beginn ing at the IowaSouth Dakota State line west of Beloit via Canton , Parker, Olivet, Burke, Winner , Rosebu d, Martin, Ogalla, Hot Springs to the South Dakota -Wyom ing State line west of Edgemo nt. Wyomi ng Beginn ing at the South Dakota-W yoming State line west of Edgemont to the intersec tion of United States Highwa y No. 85.

bum, Geneva , Canond aigua, Avon, Genese o. Warsaw , East Aurora , Athol Springs , Fredonia, Westfie ld to the New York-P ennsylvania State line west of Westfie ld. Pennsy lvania Beginn ing at the New York-P ennsylv ania State line east of Northeast via Erie, West Springf ield to the Pennsylvani a-Ohio State l}ne east of Connea ut. Ohio Beginn ing at the Pennsy lvaniaOhio State line eaSt of Connea ut'路 via Ashtabula, Geneva , Painesv ille, Clevela nd. Elyria, Oberlin . Norwal k, Bellevu e, Fremont, Woodville, Perrysb urg, Maume e Charag har, Oak Shade, Fayette , Alvordt on. to the Ohio-In diana State line west of Columb ia. Indiana Beginn ing at the Ohio-In diana State line west of Columb ia via Angola , LaGran ge, Elkhart~ South Bend, Michlgar: City to the Indiana -Illinoi s State line west of Hammo nd. Illinois Beginn ing at the Indiana -Illinois State line west of Hammo nd via Chicago, Elgin, Mareng o, Rockfor d, Freepo rt, Galena on the Illinois -Iowa State line at East Dubuqu e. Iowa Beginn ing on the Dlinois -Iowa State line at Dubuqu e via ~lanchester, Independe nce, Waterlo o, Iowa Falls, Fort Dodge, Rockwell" City, Early, Connec tion.ville to the Nebras ka State line at Sioux City. Nebras ka Beginn ing at the Iowa-N ebraska State line at South Sioux: City via Laurel, Orchard , O'Neill , Ainswo rth, Valen.tine, Rush,,;l le; ~hadron to the ::gebras kaWyomi ng State line west of Haniso n. Wyomi ng Beginn ing at the Nebras kaWyomi ng State 'line west of Harriso n via Van Tassell , Lusk, Orin Junctio n:Doug las, Casper, Shosho ni, Worlan d, Greybu ll, Cody to the east entranc e of Yellows tone National Park.

United Stat~s Highw ay N:o. 21. Total Mileage, 793 ~

Ohio Beginni9-g at Clevela nd via Brecksville, Ghent, Canoe, Fulton, MassHlon, Navarre, Strasbu rg,Dov er, New Philade lphia, Stone Creek, Newcom erstown , Cambri dge. Caldwe ll, Mariett a to the Ohio-W est VirUnited States Highw ay No. 19. ginia State line north of William stown. Total Mileage, 767 West Virgini a. Beginn ing at the OhioPennsy lvania Beginn ing at Erie via West Virgini a State line at William stown Waterfo rd, Meadvi lle, Frankli n, Slipper y via Parkers burg; Ripley, Charles lon, GauRock, Butler, Pittsbu rgh, Washin gton, ley Bridge, Beckwi th, Fayette ville, BeckWaynes burg, to the Pennsy lvania-W est ley, Princet on to the West Virgini~-Virginia Virgini a State line at Mount Morris. State line south of Bluefield. . West Virgini a Beginn ing at the PennVirgini a Beginn ing at the West Virsylvani a-West Virgini a State line at Mount ginia-V irginia State line south of Bluefiel Morris via Morgan town, Fairmo nt, Clarks- via Bland, Wythev ille, Indepen deni:e to thed burg, Sutton to an intersec tion with No. Virgini a-North Carolin a State lipe north 21 at Gauley Bridge. of Sparta. ! Tennes see Beginn ing again at Blutl' City North Carolin a Beginn ing at. the via Elizabe thton to the Tennes see-Nor th ginia-N orth Carolin a State line :northVirof Carolin a State line at Elk Park. Sparta via Elkin, Statesv ille, Charlot te to North Carolin a Beginn ing at the Ten- the North Carolin a-South Carolin a State nessee- North Carolin a State line at Elk line south of Pinevill e. Park via Spruce Pine, Burnsv ille, Ashevil le, South Carolin~ Beginn ing at the Waynes ville, Bryson City, Murphy to the Carolin a-South Carolin a State Ime North south North Carolin a-Georg ia State line north of of Pinevill e via ~ort Mill, Rock H1il, ChesBellevu e. ter, Winnsboro,:路 Columb ia, Orange burg, Georgia Beginn ing at the North Care- Branch ville to Yemass ee. lina-Ge orgia State line north of Bellevu e United States Highw ay No. 22. via Blairsvi lle, Clevela nd, Gainesv ille to Lawren ceville. Total Mileage, 490 New Jersey Beginn ing at Elizabe th via United States Highw ay No. 20. Somerv ille, Whiteh ouse, to the New JerseyTotal Mileage, 2,542 .Pennsy lvania State line at Phillips burg.. Massac husetts Beginn ing at Boston via Pennsy lvania Beginn ing at the New JerWorces ter, Springf ield, Lenox to the Massa- sey-Pen nsylvan ia. State line at Easton via chusett s-New York State line west of Pitts- Allento wn, Kutztow n, Reading , Lebano n. field. . Harrisb urg, Duncan non, Millers town, MiffNew York .Beginn ing at the Massac hu- linetow n. Lewisto wn, Hunting don, Water setts-N ew York State line west of Pitts- Street, Hollida ysburg, Ebensb urg, Blairsfield via Schodock Center. Renssel aer, Al- ville, Pittsbu Imperia l to the Pennsy lbany, Cherry Valley, Richfield Springs , vania-W est rgh, Virgini a .State line west -of Brid~ew ater, Cazeno via. LaFaye tte. AuParis.


AMERICAN West \'lrginia Beginning at the Pennsylvania-West Virginia State line east of Wellsburg to the West Virginia-Ohio State line opposite Steubenville. Ohio Beginning at the Ohio-West Virginia State line at Steubenville via Cadiz to Cambridge.

United States Highway No. 23. Total Mileage, 625 . Michigan Beginning at Mackinaw via Cheboygan, Rogers, Al ,Tawas City, Bay City, Saginaw.. , Brighton, Ann Arbor to the Michi.n-Ohio State line north of . T o l e d o . : 'Ohio Beginning! at the Michigan-Ohio State line north ot Toledo via Rossford, Perrysburg, Scotch:ridge, Fostoria, Corey, Upper Sandusky, Marion, Delaware, Columb~, Circleville, Chillicothe, Waverly to Portsmouth.

i Unl'ted States Highwav.., No. 24. Total Mileage, 771

Michigan Beginning at Pontiac via Flat Rock, Monroe to the Michigan-Ohio State line north of Toledo. ~hio Beginning. at the Michigan-Ohio state line north Qf Toledo via Maumee, Waterville, Grand ,;Rapids, Napoleon, Defiance, Cecil, Antwerp to the Ohio-Indiana State line west of .Antwerp. Indiana Beginnmg at the Ohio-Indiana -State line west of Antwerp via Fort Wayne, Huntington, Peru, '; Logansport, Kentland, to the Indiana-nIinois State line east of Sheldon.} nIinois Beginniqg at the Indiana-Illinois State line east of Sheldon via Watseka, Gilman, Chenoa, Peoria, Canton, Lewistown, Rushville to the nIinois-Missouri State line at Quincy. !Missouri Beginning at the lllinois-Missouri State line at Quincy via Taylor, PalJ:llNl'a, Monroe City, Paris, Moberly, Keytsville, Carrollton,Waverly, Lexington to Kansas City.

~ United States Highway No. 25. .; Total Mileage, 792

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(Include.

Hn....... of No. %5E)

Michigan Beginning at Port Huron via Mt. Clemens. Detroit, Flat Rock, Monroe, Erie to the Michigan-Ohio State line north of Toledo,·' Ohio Beginning at the Michigan-Ohio State line north of Toledo via Maumee, ·Perrysburg, Bowling Green, :!findlay, ~luffton, Lima, Wapakoneta, SIdney, PIqua, Troy, Dayton, Franklin, Monroe, Sheronville, Reading to the Ohio-Kentucky State line at Cincinnati. Kentucky Alternate routes No. 25 East and No. 25 West, begin at Newport on the Ohio-Kentucky State line opposite Cincinnati.

United States Highway No. 25, East. Total Mileage, 129 : Kentucky Beginning at Newport -via ' W' h t to . te Cyntb "lana, P arls, me es er. an m 1'section with, No. 25 West at Richmond.

HIGHWAYS

No.

~ Total Mileage, 3,472

Kentucky. Beginning again at Corbin via Barbourville to the KentuckY-Tennessee State line north of Cumberland Gap. Tennessee Beginning at the KentuckyTennessee State line north of Cumberland Gap via Tazewell to an intersection with No. 25 West at Knoxville.

.

(Inetud.. No. 30 North)

New Jersey Beginning at Atlantic City via Absecon, Egg Harbor, Berlin, Kirkwood, Mangolia to Camden on the New Jersey Pennsylvania State line. Pennsylvania Beginning' at the New State line at Philadel United States Highway No. 25, West Jersey-Pennsylvania phis via Coatesville, Lancaster, ColumbiaKentucky Beginning again at Corbin to York, Gettysburg, Chambersburg MCCan' the Kentucky-Tennessee State line north nellsburg, Bedford, Jennertown, 'LigonierGreensburg, Pittsburgh, Imperial to of Jellico. Tennessee Beginning at the Kentucky- Pennsylvania-West Virginia State lin e Tennessee State line north of Jellico via northwest of Hookstown. Wes~ Vi:ginia. B,e~inning·at the PennLaFollette to an intersectio.l with No. 25 sylvanIa-West Vlrgm18 State line south East at Knoxville. west of Hookstown to the West VirginiaOhio State line at Chester. United States Highway No. 25 9hio Beg}nning at the West Virginia_ Tennessee Beginning again at Knoxville via Strawberry Plains, Newport, Hot OhIO State hne east of East Liverpool via J.4sbon, Canton, Mass~llon, Wooster, HayesSprings to the Tennessee-North Carolina ville, Mansfield, Gahon, Marion Kenton, State line west of Hot Springs. North Carolina Beginning at the Ten- L~ma, Delpha~, Van Wert, to th~ Ohio-In_ nessee-North Carolina State line west of, dIana State hne west of Townsley Indiana Beginning at the Ohio:Indiana Hot Springs via Marshall, Asheville, Hen- State line west of Townsley via Fort dersonville to the North Carolina-South Wayne, Columbia City, Warsaw, Plymouth Carolina State line south of Tuxedo. South Carolina Beginning at the North Valparaiso, to the Indiana-Illinois State lin~ Carolina-South Carolina State line south of west of Dyer. Tuxedo via Greenville, Greenwood, EdgelIlinois Beginning at the Indiana-Dli_ field to the South Carolina-Georgia State nois State line west of Dyer via Chicago Heights, Joliet, Aurora, Geneva DeKalb line at North Augusta. Rochelle, Dickson, Sterling to th~ Illinois: United States Highway No. 26. Iowa State line at Fulton. Ttl Mil 22Iowa Beginning at the lllinois-Iowa 0 a eage, ;) State line at Lyons via Clinton, Stanwood Nebraska Beginning at Ogallala via Cedar Rapids, Tama, Marshalltown, Am~: OShkosh, Bridgeport, Scottsbluff to the Ne- Boone, Jefferson, Carroll, Denison, Milhraska-Wyoming State line east of Torring- souri Valley to the Iowa-Nebraska State ton. line at Council Bluffs. Wyoming Beginning at the NebraskaNebraska Beginning at the NebraskaWyoming State line east of Torrington via. Iowa State line at Omaha via Fremont. Torrington, Lingle to a junction with Columbus, Central City, Grand Island, United States Highway No. 185 near Kearney, North Platte, Ogallala, Big Dwyer. Spring, Sidney, Kimball to the NebraskaWyoming State line at Pine Bluff. United States Highway No. 27. Wyolning Beginning at the NebraskaTotal Mileage, 516 Wyoming State line at Pine Bluff via Michigan Beginning at Cheboygan via Cheyenne, Laramie, Medicine Bow, Rawlirul, Gaylord, Grayling, Clare, Mt. Pleasant, Rock Springs, Granger, where the route Alma, Lansing, Charlotte, Marshall, Cold- becomes alternate routes 30 North and 30 water to the Michigan-Indiana State line South. north of Kinder Hook. United States Highway No. 30, Indiana Beginning at the Michigan-InNorth. Total Mileage, 326 diana State line north of Kinder Hook via Wyoming Beginning at Granger via Angola, Fort Wayne, Decatur, Portland, Richmond, to the Indiana-Ohio State line Kemmerer, Cokeville to the Wyoming-Idaho State line at Border. at College Corner. Idaho Beginning at the Wyoming-Idaho Ohio Beginning at the Indiana-Ohio State line at College Corner via Oxford, State line at Border via Montpelier, Soda Springs, McCammon, Pocatello, American Millville, Ross, Dunlap to Cincinnati. Falls, to the intersection with No. 30 Sout;b UDl'ted States H'Igh way No. 28• east of Burley. Beginning again at,Ontano Corner to the Idaho-Oregon State lme near Total Mileage, 462 Oregon Beginning at Ontario via Vale, Weiser. Oregon Beginning at the Idaho-Oregon Unity, Dayville, Mitchell, Prineville, RedState line at Weiser to a junction with No. mond, McKenzie Pass, Eugene to Florence. 30 north of Ontario Corner.

th;

United States Highway No. 29. Total Mileage, 393

North Carolina Beginning at Kings Monntain to the North Carolina-South Ca"'.. olina State line north of Blacksburg. United States Highway No. 25, West. South Carolina Beginning at the North . Total Mileage, 191 Carolina-South Carolina State line north of . Blacksburg via Gaffney, Spartanburg, Kentucky Beginning at Newport via , Greenville, Anderson to the South CarolinaCovington, Williamstown, Georgetown, Lex- , Georgia State line east of Hartwell. ,ington, to an interseetlon with No. 25 Eaat Georgia Beginning at South Carolinaat Richmond. ", : Georgia State line east of Hartwell via

United States Highway

United States Highway No. 30

United States Highway No. 25, East

25 . . . t:~=geLa~~e"8::rJ.:~fa~~m~es::;

, Kentucky Beginning again at Richmond . line at West Point. .. ,'via Berea, Crab Orchard, to Corbin where .... Alabama Beginning at the Georgia-AIa'alternate !'Outes, No: 26 Eat and No. 26 '. hama State line at Welt Point via Opelika " WAd. al!'m dil'en!'e.' ,.~,-:--.; .., -:'!"-:' ...;. - to Tuske....

,

United States Highway No. 30, South Total Mileage, 280 Wyoming Beginning at Granger, via Fort Bridger, Evanston to the WyotnInCUtah State line west of Evanston., Utalt Utah Beginning at the Wyommg- . State line west of Evanston via Echtbe°U~ Ogden, Brigham, Tremonton, to • Idaho State line near Snowville-Utah ldahD Idaho Beginning at the . . State line near Snowville to the m~, tion with No. 80 North at Bnrley.

United States Highwq No. 30 of:.

Idaho Beginning at the ~~..,.~ No. 80 North And No_ 30 Sou..... • -;


AIGAWX2S

7

United States Highway No. 38. Total Mileage, 598

Pass, Wolcott, Glenwood Springs, RUle to Grand Junction.

limEkiCAN a. Twin .Falls, Bliss, Mountain Horne, Jise; to the Idaho-Oregon State line at ltario Corner. Oregon Beginning at the Idaho-Oregon ate line at Ontario Corner via Baker, Larande, '. Umatilla, The Dalles, Portland, linier to Astoria.

United States Highway No.3!. Total }IHeage, 1,385 Michigan Begmn'ing at Mackinaw via :toskey, Charlevoix, Traverse Cit y, :uIah, Manistee, Ludington, Hart, Muske,n, Holland, St. Joseph, Niles to the Michan-Indiana State line north of South :nd. , Indiana Beginning at the Michigan-In~na State line north of South Bend via ymouth, Peru, Kokomo, Indianapolis, llumbus, Seymour to a pi)int north of !w Albany where alternate routes No. East goes through Jeffersonville to the lio-Kentucky State line opposite LouisIe and No. 31 West through New Albany the Ohio-Kentucky State line opposite uisville. Kentucky Beginning at Louisville on ~ Ohio:Kentucky State line via West int, Elizabethtown, Horse Cave, Bear lllow, Glasgow, Scottsville, to the Ken:ky-Tennessee State line south of ScottsIe. rennessee Beginning at the Kentuckynnessee State line south of Scottsville L Gallatin, Nashville, Columbia, Pulaski the Tennessee Alabama State line at {mont Springs. Alabama Beginning at the Tennesseelbama State line at Elkmont Springs, via hens, Decatur, Cullman, Birmingham, ,ntgomery, Greenville, Evergreen, BrewI, Bay Minette to Mobile.

Nebraska Beginning at Omaha via Ash. land, Lincoln, Milford, Fairmont, Hastings, Minden, Arapahoe, McCook, Imperial to the' Nebraska-Colorado State line west of Lamar. Colorado Beginning at the NebraskaColorado State line west of Lamar, Nebr., via Holyoke, Hanum, Sterling Brush, Fort Morgan to Greeley.

United States Highway No. 40. Total Mileage, 3,220 (Indaclee No. 40 North)

New Jersey Beginning at Atlantic City via Mays Landing to the New Jersey-Delaware State line at Penns Grove. Delaware Beginning at the Pennsylvania-Maryland State line southwest of Marcus Hook via Wilmington, State Road to the Delaware-Maryland State line east of Elkton. Maryland Beginning at the DelawareMaryland State line east of Elkton via Aberdeen, Baltimore, Frederick, Hagerstown, Cumberland to the Maryland-Pennsylvania State line northwest of Keyser. Pennsylvania Beginning at the Maryland-Pennsylvania State line northwest of Keyser via Somerfield, Uniontown, Brownsville, Washington to the Pennsylvania-West Virginia State line west of West Alexander. West Virginia Beginning at the Pennsylvania-West Virginia State line east of Valley Grove to the West Virginia-Ohio State line at ·Wheeling. Ohio Beginning at the West VirginiaOhio State line at Bridgeport opposite Wheeling via Clairsville, Cambridge, Zanes't d St t H' h N 32 ville, Columbus, Springfield, Brandt, VanUnI e a es Ig way o. . dalia to the Ohio-Indiana State line east of Total Mileage, 511 Richmond. llinois Beginning at Chicago via NaperIndiana Beginning at the Ohio-Indiana le, Plano, Mendota, Lamoille, Princeton, State line east of Richmond via Richmond, effield, Geneseo, Moline to the illinois- Greenfield, Indianapolis, Brazil, Terra I'a State line opposite Davenport. Haute, to the Indiana-Illinois State line ·owa Beginning at Davenport via Wil- west of Terra Haute. , Iowa City, Marengo, Colfax, Des Illinois Beginning at the Indiana-IIliines, Dexter, Adair, Atlantic, Oakland nois State line east of Maxville via Marshall, the Iowa-Nebraska State line at Council Effingham, Vandalia, St. Jacob to the IlliIffs. nois-Missouri State line at East St. Louis. Missouri Beginning at St. Louis on the United States Highway No. 34. IlIinois-Missouri State line via St. Charles, Total Mileage, 395 Columbia, Boonville to the Missouri-Kansas State line at Kansas City. llinois Beginning at Sheffield via KeKansas Beginning on the Missouri-Kannee, Galver, Galesburg, Monmonth to sas State line at Kansas City via TongalIIinois-Iowa State line at Burlington. noxie, Lawrence, Topeka, Wamego, Manowa Beginning at the Illinois-Iowa - hattan where alternate routes Nos. 40 North ,te line at Burlington via Mount Pleas- and ~o. 40 South diverge. , Ottumwa, Alvia, Chariton, Osceola, ;on, Corning, Red Oak, Glenwood to the United States Highway No. 40, 'a-Nebraska State line at Council Bluffs. North. Total Mileage, 449 Kansas Beginning at Manhattan via United States Highway No. 36. Total Mileage, 938 Clay Center, Beloit, Osborne, Stockton, Hill ndiana Beginning at Indianapolis via City, Hoxie, Colby, Goodland to the Kanlville, Rockville to the Indiana-Illinois sas-Colorado State line at Kanorado. te line at Dana. Colorado Beginning at the Kansas-Colllinois Beginning at the Indiana-lIIinois orado State line at Kanorado via Burlingte line at Dana via Chrisman, Tuscola, ton, Limon where it converges with No. 40 :atur, Springfield, Jacksonville, Pitts- South. I, to the IlIinois-Missouri State line at United States Highway No. 40,

:~~:~~i Beginning at the Illinois-Misri State line at, Hannibal via Monroe r, Shelbina, Macon, Chillicothe, Hamilto the Missouri-Kansas State line at St. eph. :ansas Beginning at the Missouri-KanState line opposite St. Joseph via Troy, watha, Seneca, Marysville, Belleville, lkato, Smith Center, Phillipsburg, Norto a junction with United States High. No. 40 at Colby.

South. Total Mileage, 884 Kansas Beginning at Manhattan via Junction City, Abilene, Salina, Ellsworth, Russell, Hays, Wakeeney, Oakley, Sherron Springs to the Kansas-Colorado State line west of Weskan. Colorado Beginning at the Kansas-Colorado State line west of Weskan via Cheyenne Wells, Hugo, Limon, Ramah, Colorado Springs, Lake George, Trout Creek Pass, Buena Vista, Leadville, Tennessee

United'States Highway No.

~O

Colorado Beginning again at the junction with No. 40 North and No. 40 South at Limon via Deertrail, Denver, Berthand Pass, Hot Sulphur Springs, Kremmling, Rabbit gar Pass, Steamboat Spring!l,CJ:aig to the Colorado-Utah State line at K Ranch. Utah Beginning at the Colorado-Utah State line at K Ranch via Vernal, Duchesne, Fruitland, Heber, Kimball, Salt Lake City, Mills to the Utah-Nevada State line at Wendover. Nevada Beginning at the Utah-Nevada State line at Wendover via Wells, Deeth, Halleck, Elko, Carlin, Battle Mountain, Gol. canda, Winnemucca,· Lovelock, Fernley, Wadsworth, Sparks, Reno to the NevadaCalifornia State line west of Verdi. California Beginning at the NevadaCalifornia State line west of Verdi via Truckee, Auburn, Sacramento, Davis, Martinez, Oakland, across the bay from San Francisco.

United States Highway No. 41. Total MiI~age, 1,958 }lichigan Beginning at Copper Harbor via Houghton, L'Anse, Marquette, Powers, Menominee to the Micltigan-Wisconsin State line at Marinette. : . Wisconsin Beginning at the MichiganWisconsin State line at Marinette via Oconto, Green Bay, Appfeton, Oshkosh, Fond du Lac, Theresa, Slinger, Menomonee Falls, Milwaukee, KilbournvH1e to the Wisconsin• Illinois State line at Truesdell. Illinois Beginning .at the Wisconsin-Illi. nois State line north of Zion via Chicago to the lIIinois-Indiana State line at South Chicago. Indiana Beginning- at the Illinois-Indiana State line at South Chicago via Hammond, Dyer, Kentland, Attica, Rockville, Terre Haute, Sullivan, Vincennes, Princeton, Evansville on the' Kentucky State line. Kentucky BeginniIlg at the IndianaKentucky State line at Evansville via Henderson, Dixon, Madi1;onville, Earlington, Nortonville, Hopkinsville to the KentuckyTennessee State line 'north of Clarksville. Tennessee Beginniil.g at the KentuckyTennessee State line 'north of ClarksVille, Ashland, Nashville, Murphreesboro, Manchester, Jasper, Chattanooga to the Tennessee-Georgia State line at Rossville. Georgia Beginning at the TennesseeGeorgia State line at Rossville via Rjnggold, Dalton, Cartersville, Atlanta, Griffin, Macon, Perry, Tifton, Valdosta to ;the Georgia-Florida State line· south of Elk Park. ; Florida Beginning at the Georgia-Florida State line south of Elk Park' via Jasper, Lake City, Gainesville, Ocala, Brooksville, Tampa, Venice, Fort Myers to Naples.

United States Hjgh~ay No. 41, West. Total MiI~e, 100 Tennessee Beginning at Chattanooga via Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Park to the Tennessee-Louisiana State line at this Park. Georgia Beginning at the TennesseeGeorgia State line at the Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Park via Lafayette, Summerville and Rome to an intersection with No. 41 at Cass Station.

United States Highway No. 42. Total Mileage, 251 Ohio Beginning at Cleveland via Strongsville, Medina, Lodi, Ashland, Mansfield, Mt. Gilead, Delaware, Plain City, London, Xenia. lRhanon to Cincinnati.


United States Highway No. 45. Total Mileage, 917 lIlinojs Beginning at Chicago via Kancakee Gilman, Paxton, Tuscola, Effingham, "lora' Fairfield, Norris City, Harrisburg, tienn'a, Metropolis on the Illinois-Kentucky :ltate line. Kentucky Beginning at the Illinois-Ken;ucky State line at Paducah via Mayfield ;0 the Kentucky-Tennessee State line south .f Fulton. Tennessee Beginning at the Kentuckrrenriessee State line south of Fulton vIa M:artin Trenton Jackson, Selmer to the rennes~ee-Missis'sippi State line north of Jorinth. !1ississippi Beginning at the Tel;messe~­ ~ississippi State line north of Cormth VIa rupelo, Columbus, Meridian, W ayn~sboro ;0 the Mississippi-Alabama State lIne at :ltate 'Line. . . . . ,Ala\'ama Beginning at the ,MISSI.SSIPJ?I\.hibama State line at State LIne vIa Clt'onell~ to Mobile.

United States Highway No. 48. . Total Mileage, 67 California Beginning at French Camp ria TI;'acy, Haywards to San Jose.

United States Highway No. 49. , Total Mileage, 175 Mississippi Beginning at Jackson via Hattiesburg to Gulfport.

~endenhall,

United States Highway No. 50. Total Mileage, , 2,856 (Includes No. $0 North)

Maryland Beginning at Anna.poli.s vi~ 3uena'Vista to the Maryland-~Istrlct of Jolumbia line northeast of ~as~mgton. District of Columbia BegInnmg at the ~aryland-Dis~ict of .Columbi~ line north!ast of Washmgton vIa 'Washmgton to the ~istriot of Columbia-Virginia line south.vest of Washington. ' Virlrinia Beginning at the District of ~olur:t>ia-Virginia line $out~west of .Washngton·'. via Alexandria,:. FaIrfax, WIncheser to the Virginia-West, Virginia State line It Gor:e. . : V' West Virginia BegiIlning at the Irrinia-West Virginia State line near. C~p.on 3ridge via Romney to the West Vlrgmlaliaryland State line at· Gormania. . . Maryland Beginnin~ at the Wes~ VI!rinia-Maryland State lIne at Gormama vIa ied House to the Maryland-West Virginia >tate line at Red House. West Virginia Beginni~g at the Maryand-West Virginia State lme at Red Hou.se ria Grafton, Clarksburg to the West Vlrrinia-Ohio State line at Parkersbu~g.. . Ohio Beginning at the We~t VlrglI!la)hio State line at Velpre vIa qo~lvllle, \thens, Albany, McArthur,. ChIllicothe, 3ainbridge, Hillsboro, FayetteVIlle, O~ens­ rille, Milford, Cincinnati to the Ohlo-Inliana State line east of Lawrenc.eburg: Indiana Beginning at the OhlO:lndlana :ltate line east of Lawrenceburg vIa Law'enceburg Aurora, Versailles, Seymour, Bedford 'Shoales, Washington, Vincennes ;0 the indiana-Illinois State line west of vincennes. . Ill' Illinois Beginning at. the Indl~na- 1lois St'ate line west of VIncennes vIa .Lay;~enceville, Flora, Sandoval to the I!IInolsliissouri State line at East St. J;-oU!s. . Missouri Beginning at. th~ IllInols-Mlslouri State line at St. LoUIS v;a Gr::ys Sumnit Union Drake, Mt. SterlIng, Linn, Jef:er~on City, California, Seda!ia, Knobn?s;er, Warrensburg, Lees SummIt to th!,! Mlsi

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Kansas Beginning at the Missouri-Kansas State line at Kansas City via Olathe, Baldwin City, to a point west of Baldwin City where it is given an alternate route and designated as No. 50 North and No. 50 South. These alternate routes join at Garden City.

United States Highway No. 50, North. Total Mileage, 340

Ohio Beginning at Chesapeake, OPPOsite Huntington, West Virginia, via Ironton Portsmouth, Manchester, Ripley, New Rich: mond, Cincinnati to the Ohio-Indiana State line at Harrison. Indiana Beginning at the Ohio-Indiana State line at Harrison via Brookville Rushville, Indianapolis, Lebanon, LaFaYet~ to an intersection with United States High_ way 41 northwest of Fowler.

Kansas Beginning at the intersect.ion with No. 50 South, west of BaldWIn CIty, via Scranton, Burlingame, Osage City, Council Grove, Herington, Marion, McPherson, Lyons, Great Bend, Larned, Jetmore, Garden City, where it connects with No. 50 South.

Wisconsin Beginning at Superior via Spooner, Barrow, Chippewa Falls, Eau Claire, Whitehall to LaCrosse.

United States Highway No. 50, South. Total Mileage, 391

United States Highway No. 54. Total Mileage, 1,071

Kansas Beginning at the junction with No. 50 North, west of Baldwin City via Ottawa, Emporia, Cottonwood Falls, Florence Newton, Hutchinson, St. John, Kinsley, ' Dodge City, Cimarron, Garden City where it connects with No. 50 North.

Illinois Beginning at Pittsfield to the Illinois-Missouri State line near Louisiana. Missouri Beginning at the IllinoiS-Mis. souri State. line at Louisiana via. BOWling Green, MeXICO, Fulton, Jefferson CIty, Linn Creek, Buffalo, Bolivar, Stockton, Nevada to the Missouri-Kansas State line east of Fort Scott. Kansas Beginning at the Missouri-Kan_ sas State line east of Fort Scott via Fort Scott, lola, Yates Center, Eureka, Eldorado, Wichita, Kingman, Pratt, Greensburg, Bucklin. Meade to the Kansas-Oklahoma State line south of Liberal. Oklahoma Beginning at the Kansas. Oklahoma State line south of Liberal via Hooker, Guyman to the Oklahoma-Texas State line at Texhoma. Texas Beginning at the Oklahoma-Texas State line at Texhoma via Dalhart to the Texas-New Mexico State line south of Bravo. New Mexico Beginning at the TexasNew Mexico State line south of Bravo via Nara Visa, Tucumcari, Santa Rosa to Vaughn,

United States Highway No. 50 Kansas Beginning again at Garden City, via Lakin, Syracuse, to the Kansas-Colorado State line west of Coolidge, Colorado Beginning at the Kansas-Colorado State line west of Coolidge via Lamar, Las Animas, LaJunta, Pueblo, Florence, Canon City, Salida, Monarch Pass Gunnison, Montrose, Delta, Grand Junction to the Colorado-Utah State line west of Mack. . Utah Beginning at the Colorado-Utah State line west of Mack via Green River, Woodside, Price, Castle Gate to Thistle., Nevada Beginning again at Ely vIa Eureka, Austin, East Gate, Fallon, Leeteville, Carson City, Glenbrook to the Nevada-California State line at the south end of Lake Tahoe. . California Beginning at the NevadaCalifornia State line at the south end of Lake Tahoe via Placerville to Sacramento.

United States Highway No. 51. Total Mileage, 1,359 Wisconsin Beginning at Hurley via Minocqua, Tomahawk, Merr.ill, Wausau, Stevens Point, Portage, MadIson, Stoughton, Edgarton, Janesville to the WisconsinIllinois State line at Beloit. Illinois Beginning at the WisconsinIllinois State line at Beloit via Rockton, Rockford, Rochelle, Mendota, LaSalle, Bloomington, Decatur, Vandalia, Duquoin, Carbondale, Anna to the Illinois-Kentucky State line at Cairo. Kentucky Beginning at the Illinois-Kentucky State line at Wickliffe via Bardwell, Clinton to the Kentucky-Tennessee State line south of Fulton. Tennessee Beginning at the KentuckyTennessee State line south of Fulton via Dyersburg, Ripley, Memphis to the Tennessee-Mississippi State line north of Horn Lake. Mississippi Beginning at the Tennessee-Mississippi State line north of. Horn Lake via Batesville, Grenada, PIckens, Jackson Hazelhurst, Brookhaven to the Mississi'ppi-Louisiana State line south of Osyka. . . . . Louisiana Beginning at the MISSISSIPP.ILouisiana State line south of Osyka vIa Amite, Hammond to New Orleans.

United States Highway No. 52. Total Mileage. 343 West Virginia . ~egin~ing at H;untington ",... +-'ho Wac+- V;PO'lT11A_OhTn ~t~t.~ hn,:lo

United States Highway No. 53. Total Mileage, 272

United States Highway No. 55. Total Mileage. 267 Minnesota Beginning at Minneapolis via Farmington, Cannon Falls, Rochester, Pres· ton to the Minnesota-Iowa State line south of Preston. , Iowa Beginning at the Minnesota-Iowa State line south of Preston via Burr Oak. Decorah, Postville, Garnavillo, Luxemburg to Dubuque.

United States Highway No. 60. Total Mileage, 1,382 Virginia Beginning at Virginia Beach via Norfolk, Newport News, Lee Hal!. Richmond, Burkeville, Lynchburg, Nat~;.al Bridge, Lexington, Covington to the ';fginia-West Virginia State line east of 'White Sulphur Springs. " West Virgir.'ia. ~eginning .at the 'VIf! ginia-West Vlrgmla State Ime eas~ 0 White SulJlhur Springs via Gauley Brlt~e. Charleston, Huntington to the West Ifginia-Kentucky State line at Kenova, v' Kentucky Beginning at the West ~. ginia-Kentucky State line at Kenova ~ Catletts~urg, Ashland! Gray~on, MorehL:x: OwingSVIlle, Mt. Sterlmg, WInchest~b' 'I!e ington, Versailles, Frankfort, Shli Yd~5: f r Louisville, Tip Top, Brandenburg. eon . burg, Hawesville, Owensboro, Hen du"cah Morganfield, Marion. Smithland. F ?, at to the Kentucky-Missouri State Ime Wic~liffe. . .. K tud..-YMIssourI Begmnmg at the e!1 t via Missouri State line at Bird's pOI~'illO"" Sikeston, Poplar Bluff, Van BureUn, a)' to Springs. Caboal, Mansfield, Ga OW

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United States Highw ay No. 61. Total Mileage, 1,750

Iowa Beginn ing at the Minnes ota-Iow a United States Highw ay No. 68. State line south of Gordonsville via NorthTotal Mileage, 389 wood, Mason City, Hampto n, Hubbar d, Minnes ota Beginn ing at the United Colo, Ames, Des Moines, Indiano Kentuc ky Beginn ing at Maysvi lle via 'oited States-C a n ad ian Interna tional High Point to the Iowa-M issouri la, Le~m, State line Washin gton, Millers burg, Paris, Lexin~n, oundary near Grand Portage via Grand at Lineville. Harrod sburg, Springf ield, Bardsto wn, Hod:arias, Two Harbor s, Duluth, Carlton , Pine Missou ri Beginn ing at the Iowa-M is- genville , Horse Cave, Cave City, Bowlin g ity, Wyomi ng, St. Paul, Hasti~gs, Red souri State line at Lineville via Trenton , Green, Russell ville, Hopkin sville, Cadiz, 'ing, Wabash a, Wenona to the Mmnes ota- Chillico the, Carroll ton, Waverl y, Marsha ll, Benton to Paduca h. 'isconsi n State line at La Crescen t. Sedali saw, Buffalo, Springf ield, 'Wisconsin Beginn ing at the Minhes ota- OZark, a,Wllr United States Highw ay No. 69•. Bronso n to the Missou ri-Arka nsas 'isconsin State line opposit e La Crescen t State line Total :Mileage, 154 . . north of Omaha. a La Crosse, Viroqua , Prairie du Chien, Arkans as Beginn ing at the Missou riIowa Beginn ing at Leon- t<r. the- Iowa--~nnimore, Lancas ter, Dickysv ille, to the 'isconsi n-Illino is State line at East Du- Arkans as State line north of Omaha via Missou ri State line south of Lamoni . Harriso n, Marsha ll, Clinton , Conway, Little • Missou ri Beginn ing Ique. at the Iowa-M isIowa Beginn ing at Dubuqu e via Maquo- Rock, Pine Bluff, Gould, McGehee, Lake souri State line south of Lamoni via Village to the Arkans as-Loui siana Bethan State y, Camero n, Excelso r Springs to !ta, Dewitt, Davenp ort, Muscat ine, BurKansas City. Igton, Fort Madiso n, Keokuk to the Iowa- line south. of Readlan d. Louisia na Beginn ing at the Arkans asissouri State line at Keokuk. United States Higltway No. 70. 1Iissou ri Beginn ing at the Iowa-M is- Louisia na State line north of Millikin via Total Mileage, 2,330 uri State line opposit e Keokuk via Way- Lake Provide nce, Tallula h, St. Joseph, Ferld West Quincy, Hannib al, -Bowlin g rida to the Louisia na-Miss issippi State line North Carolin a Beginn ing at Beaufo rt 'e~n, Wentsv ille, St, Charles , St. Louis, opposit e Natchez . via Morehe ad City, New Bern, Goldsboro, 'edericktown, Cape Girarde au, Sikesto n, Raleigh , Cary, Durham , Greensb oro, SalisUnited States Highw ay No. 66. . !w :I1adrid, Hayti, to the Missou ri-Arka nbury, Statesv ille, Morgan town, Ashevil le, l State line north of Blythev ille. Total Mileage, 2,448 Marsha ll to the North Carolin a-Tenne ssee Arkans as Beginn ing at the Missour iIllinois Beginn ing at Chicago via Joliet, State line west of Hot Springs . kansas State line north of Blythev ille via Dwight , Bloomi ngton, Tennes see Beginn ing at the North CarSpringf ield, Litchceola, Gilmore, Marion to the intersec - field to the olina-T ennesse e State line west of Hot IllinoisMissou ri State line at n with United States Highwa y 70 near East St, Louis. . Springs via Newpo rt, Strawb erry Plains, !st :V!emphis. Knoxvi Kingsto n, Crossville, Sparta; Missou ri Beginn ing at the Illinois- Mis- Lebanolle, renness ee Beginn ing at the Arkans asNashvil le, Wa.verly, Hunting ton, souri State line at St. Louis via Pacific, Jacksonn, nnessee State line at Memph is to the , Browns ville tp the Tenness eemessee -Missis sippi State line near Walls. Cuba, Rolla, Lebano n, Springf ield, Car- Arkans as State line at M~mphis. : thage, Joplin to the Missou ri-Kans as State ~Iississippi Beginn ing at the Tennes Arkans as Beginn ing 'at the Tenness eeline at Galena. ";lIissis sippi State line north of LakeArkans as State line at West Memphis viJl Kansas Beginn ing at the }fissou ri-Kan- Forest City, Brinkle w ""ia Clarkes dale, Cleveland, Leland, y, lAMke , Rod:, sas State line at Galena via Galena, Bax- Benton , Hot Springs , Glenwood, Little 'ksburg , Natchez , Woodville to the MisD~ ter Springs , to the Kansas -Oklaho ma State Queen to the Arkans as-Okla homaDierks, ;ippi-Lo uisiana State line south of WoodState line line south of Baxter Springs . west of DeQueen. e. ~ Oklaho ma Beginn ing at the Kansas .ouisian a Beginn ing at the Mississ ippiOklaho ma Beginn ing. at the Arkans asIisiana State line north of Turnbu ll via Oklaho ma State line south of Baxter Oklaho ma State line west of DeQueen via Francis ville, Baton Rouge, Conven t to Springs via Miami, Afton Vinita, Clare- Idabel, Hugo, Durant , Madill, Ardmor e, more, Tulsa, Sapulpa , Chandle r, Edmond, Waurik e to the Oklaho ma-Tex as State line IV Orleans . Oklaho ma City, EI Reno, Bridgep ort, Clin- at Burkbu rnett. _ • United States Highw ay No. 63. ton, Elk City, Sayre to the Oklahom a-TexTexas Beginn ing on the Oklaho ma-Tex as State line near Texola. as State line at Burkbt dnette via Wichita Total Mileage, 606 Texas Beginn ing at the Oklaho ma-Tex as Falls, Vernon , Matado r,t Plainvie w, Mule)wa Beginn ing at Des Moines via Monshoe to the Texas-N ew ;Mexico Stateli ne Oskaloosa, Fremon t, Ottumw a, Bloom- State line at Texola via Claude, Amarill o, west of Farwel l. ;. I to the Iowa-M issouri State line north Ontario to the Texas-N ew Mexico line west New Mexico Beginn ing at the Texasof Glenrio . :..ancaster. New Mexico Beginn ing at the Texas- New Mexico State line west of Farwel l via lissouri Beginn ing at the Iowa-M isClovis, Fort , Valighn, Willard , La.. ri State line north of Lancas ter via New Mexico State line west of Glenrio via Joya, SocorroSumner , Magdal ena, Quemado t(\ the Tucumc ari, Santa Rosa, Romeroville, Santa New Mexico (sville, Macon, Moberly, Columb ia, Jefline east of on City, Vienna , Rolla, Housto n, Caboal, Fe Albuqu erque, Los Lunas, Grant, Gallup Springe rville;-Arizon a Stiate ~ ! low Springs , West Plains to the Mis- to 'the New Mexico -Arizon a State line west Arizona Beginn ing at'the New Mexico~ of Lupton . ~i-Arkansas State line south of Thyer. Arizona State line east of Springe rville via rkansas Beginn ing at the Missou riArizona Beginn ing at the New Mexico- St. Johns, Coucho , Woodruff tt) Holbroo k. ansas State line north of Mammo tn Arizona State line west of Lupton via St. ngs via Black Rock, Walnut Ridge, Michae ls, Navajo , Adama na, Holbrook, United States Highw ay No. 71. Winslow , Flagsta ff, William s, Ashfork , c'" !sboro, Marked Tree to Turrell . Total Mileage, 1,686 .. Seligma n, Peach Springs , Kingma n to the Jnited States Highw ay .No. 64. Minnes ota Beginn ing at the United Arizona -Califo rnia State line west of ToStates- Canadi an Interna tional Bounda ry at Total Mileage, 766 pack. Interna tional Falls via Bemidji , Parlf Califor nia Beginn ing at the Arizona - Rapids, Wadena , Long Prairie, 'kansas Beginn ing at Conway via MorWillma r~ Califor nia State line west of Topack via Olivia, Redwood Falls, Windom, Jackson m, Russell ville, Clarksv ille, Ozark, t<t Buren to the Arkans as-Okla homa State Needles , Dagget t, Ludlow, Barstow , Victor- the Minnes ota-Iow a State line north o~ ville, San Bernard ino, San Fernand o, to Los Spirit Lake. west of Fort Smith. . uahoma Beginn ing at the Arkans as- Angele s. Iowa Beginn ing at the Minnes ota-Iow a' homa State line opposit e Fort Smith State line north of Spirit Lake via Spencer ;United States Highw ay No. 67. Sallison , Muskog ee, Tulsa, Pawnee , Sioux Rapids, Storm Lake, Sac City, CarTotal Mileage, 654 'i, Enid, Cheroke e, Alva, Buffalo, roll, Audubo n, Atlantic , Clarind a to the :er, Guymon, Boise City to the OklaIowa-M issouri State line south of Braddy Missou ri Beginn ing at Frederi cktown I-New Mexico State line west of Boise via Sylvia, Greenville, Poplar Bluff to the ville. Missou ri Beginn ing on the Iowa-M isMissou ri-Arka nsas State line south of 'w Mexico Beginn ing at the Okla- Neelyville, souri State line south of Braddy ville via .-New Mexico State line west of Boise Burling ton Junctio n, Maryvi lle, St. Joseph, Arkans as Beginn ing at the Missouri- Platte ,,;a Falsom to Capulin . Kansas City, Harriso nville, Arkans as State line south of Neelyville via Butler, City, Nevada , Lamar, Carthag e, Joplin, Corning nited States Highw ay No. 65. , Pocoho ntas, Walnut Ridge, Hoxie, Neosho to the Missou ri-Arka nsas State line Newpo rt, Beebe, Little Rock, Benton, Arka- south Total Mileage, 1,139 of Noel. delphia , Prescot t, Hope to the Arkans asArkans as Beginn ing on the Miasou ri:mesota Beginn ing at St. Paul via Texas State line at Texark ana. Arkans as State line south Noel via ·ault, Owaton na, Albert Lea, to the Texas Beginn ing at the Arkans as-Tex- Gravett e, Bentonv ille, Rogers, ot Faye~viIJe, !sota-Io wa State line south of Gor- as State line at Texark ana via Mt. Pleas- Van Buren, Fort Smith, Mansfield, Walille. ant, Greenv ille to Dallas. (Contin ued on page 12)


AMERICAN

.

HIGHWAYS

~oon, Mena, DeQueen. Ashdown, Texarkana

Auburn, Dawaon to the Nebraska-Kansas Mississippi Beginning at the Alabaml State line north of Sabetha. Mississippi State line west of Bexar vi Kansas Beginning at the Nebraska-Kan- Tremont, Tupelo, Holly Springs to the Mil sas State line north of Sabetha via Sabetha, sissippi-Tennessee State line northwest Q Holton, Topeka, Carbondale, Lyndon. Bur- Olive Branch. lington, Yates Center, Neodesha, IndependTennessee Beginning at the Mississippi ence, Havana to the Kansas-Oklahoma State Tennessee State line northwest of Oliv line south of Caney. ' Branch via Oliver Springs to M-emphia. Okbihomi- .Begffitiing at the KansasUiiited Slates Highway No. 72.: . Oklahoma State line south of Caney via United States Highway No. 80. Total Mileage, 297 Bartlesville, Collinsvi11e, Tulsa. Sapulpa, • Total Mileage, 2,726 . Tennessee Beginning at Jasper to South Okmulgee. Henryetta. Wetonka. Coalgate. GeoI'cia Beginning at Savannah vil Pittsburg on the Tennessee-Alabama State Atoka, Durant to the Oklahoma-Texas State line., line north of Denison. ~ro. Dublin, Jeffersonville, Macon Alabama Beginning at the TennesseeTexa. Beginning at the Oklahoma-Texas, KnOXVIlle, TalbottolD to the Georgia-Ala, Alabama State line at South Pittsburg State line north of Denison via Sherman, bama State line at Columbus. vja Scottsboro, Huntsville, Athena, Florence, Dallas, Corsicana. Buffalo, Madisonvine, Alabama Beginning at the Georgia-Ala. Tpscumbia to the Alabama-Mississippi State· Huntsville, Conroe, Houston to Galveston. bama State line at Columbus via Tuskegee Montgomery, Selma, Dem~lia. Livingstoti United States Highway No. 76. line east of I u k a . : , to the Alabama-lliasiaippl State line wes1 . Misaissippi Beginning at the AlabamaT tal -":1_ 200 of Cuba. Mississippi ,State line east of luka via 0 J.'f.&Ucage, Cbrinth to the Mississippi-Tennessee State South Carolina Beginning at Florence Misaissippi Beginning at the Alabama. lfue south of Selmer; via Sumter. Columbia, Newberry. Laurens to Mississippi State line west of Cuba via i Tennessee Beginning at the Mississippi- Greenville. Kewanee. Meridian, Newton. Forest, Jackson, Vicksburg, to the Mississippi-Louisiana Tennessee State line south of Selmer via U "ted Stat H' h N 77 selmer, Bolivar, Somerville. Oakland to a m e s Ig way o. • State line at Delta. junction with No. 70 at Bartlett. Total Mileage, 735 Louisiana Bel'inninc at th~ MississippiUnited States Highway No. 73. Nebraska Beginning at South Sioux City Louisiana State line at Delta via Tallulah . . via Oakland, Fremont. Lincoln, Beatrice to Royville, Monroe, :Ruton. ~ Minden: Total Mileage, 555' the Nebraska-Kansas State line south of' Shreveport to the LouiBlaDa-Texu State line I (lJld. . . . Ne. 71 But) , Wymore. ' east of Waskom. 'Nebraska Begninmg at Auburn' via Kansas Beginning at the Nebraaka-KanTexas :Bwf:nn.ine at the Louisiana-Texas Schubert. Falls CitY to the Nebraska.-Kan- sas State line .cIutb of Wymon via IrIarys- State line east of Waskom -ria Karaban, sas State line norti of Reserve.··· ville. Junetion City Herington. Jlarion. Longview. Mineola. Dallu, Fort Worth. Kansas Begi.nn4lg· at .the . Nebraska- Flo.renee.E1dorado, Doll4rlu. WiDft~d. Ar- . Eastland. AbDene. }lie Spriac, Pecos. San Kansas State llDe' north of Reserve via bnau City to the KaDaaa-Oldahoma State . Martine. Van 'B0l'Dr El Paso to the TexasHiawatha, Horton: where it is given an. line south of Arkanau City. New Mezico State line II01Ith of Anthony. alternate routing dalpated No. 73 East, OkJaJao.. ~ at the Kanaaand No. 73 West.. 'thae routes ::' Oklahoma State line sonth of ArkaDua City N NeW' Mmco Be~ .t the T~ Oswego then 'ria Chetopa on the ew Mexico Statll liiie IIO'l1tb of A.nt~DY V1& sa . .....' vi. Newkirk. Ponca City. Perry Guthrie, Oklahoma State 1ih. Oklahoma ~orman, ~ PUb,Val-. ,·Los Cruces, Dem!Dr, Lorc1sbarg to the New ore, Jbrietta io the Okla-·, Mexico-Arlsona Sta~ liDe west of ~,eo. ley, Davia, tfnited States mghway No. 73, East.homa-Tezu State line eoutb of Thacker-' ., Arboaa BuiunfnA' at the New MeXico'Total Mileage, 256: . ville. . Arizona .state line west of Rodeo via DoqIouansas~' at Horton 'viaAtchiTexas Bednnin.- at the. 'Oklahoma:.,,,··laa, Biibee. Tombstone, TaCaon; Florence;on , T~, State line south of Thac:.kervIDevia Kess. Phoenix, Avondale, HUu,yamp; G~ son, LeaTeDworth, Oity. LoUia1nlrti 'Gamesville; Denton to Dallas.; . Bend. Sentinel, Yuma to the Arizona-CaliPieasanton. Ft. Scott. Pittabm'g. Colum' f rnia State lin west of Yuma. Oswego where.' it inte:rseets lJDited United States BJghway .No•78 0,. e .bna, • Califomla Bui:JmIqo at the ArizonaStates Highway No. 73 weSt. Total Mlleage, 756 California State lIne west of Yuma via EI tjPitedStates Jl!ghway No. 73, West. ~ N~ 78 NertIo) -Centro. Jacumba to San DIego. • . :Total MDeage, . 214 'n . South CaroUDa' Be~ at Charleston , UnitecI States u:"Jnrav No '81 , -" .' V1& Somerville St. Georre.· BraDehville, AA.IA # • • • -Kansas .~. at. HortOn via Efting- Bamberg, ~e, Aiken to the South Total Mileage, ~7~9 ham, Nortonville. OSkaloosa, Lawrence. Ot- .Carolina.:Qeorgia State line at A:Qcuata.. . tawa. Garnett, lola, Chanute, Erie, Parsons ". Georp BeKinnina' at the South earoNorth Dakota ~ a.t the Umted to Oswego where it forms a junction with. lina-GeoJ'l'ia State line at All~ via States-Canadian ~tion&l BoUndary United states Higllway No. 73 East. : W&llhb1&'tOn.. Atb~ Monroe. Atlanta. n~rth of Pembina VIa Grafton. Gnu Forks, ' m·ted States HI'ghway N.o. 73 Douglasville. to a point west of Douglas- Hillsboro. Far£o. Wahpeton ~ .. the North U ville where alternate routes. 78 North and Da~ota-South 1>&kota 'State line north of Oklahoma Beginning' at' the Kansas- 78 Sout~. begin a~d extend into Alabama, White Rock. , . '. '. rth Oklahoma State line south of Chetopa via convergIng at Heflin. . . South Dakota ~ at the No Vinita, Pryor. Wagoner. Muskogee. Checo- ' • • Dakota-South Dakota State line north of tah. EUfaula, McAlester to Atoka. Umted States Hlg1}way No. 78, North. 'White.Rock via SiaaetOn, Watertown, MadiTotal Mileage, 55 son, Salem to the So,nth. Dakota-Nebraska United States Highway No. 74. Georgia Beginninll" west of Douglasville State line south o~ Yankton. ' Total Mileage, 279 via Bremen. Villa Rrea, Tallapoosa to the ,Nebl'uka ~ at the South DaNorthCaroIhui: Beginning at Chad: Georgia-Alabama State line west of Talla- kota-Nebraaka State line aouth of Yankton bourne via Lumberton, Rockingham, Mon- p o o s a . , . via Crafto'D, Norfolk. ColDmbua, Osceola, roe; Charlottei ,Gastonia. Rutherfordton' to Alabama Beginning on the Georgia-Ala- Fairmont. Hebron to the Neb~Kansas Asheville. ':' bama State liJie west of Tallapoosa to Heflin, State line sonth at Chester. 'Um.ted States HI'gh-av No. 75. where BecbmiDc at tbe Nebrub-Kan... .., South. .a junction is formed with No. 78 auK..... State line ~ Of CheItWr -ria BeDeriDe, to the Arkanaas-Louisiana State line north of Ida. Louisiana Beginning at the ArkansasLouisiana State line north of Ida via Ida, Shreveport, Coushatta, Campti, Luella, Aloha. Colfax, Alexandria, Lecompte, Bunkie. Lebeau. Ravenwood to Port Allen.

1

J::

Minneso~o~:,~::e, a~,6~e

United ,States-Canadian Intemational Boundary , near Noyes via tiolJoek, Warren. Crooks-, .. ton. Ada, Moare"" Breckenridge, _ .Wheaton. Ortonvine. J64i1on. Ivanhoe, ~:;';:_Pipestone; Laverne to the Minnesota-Iowa ",: ,~te line north, of Boek Baplela. ,..,. ~~. _ Iowa, ~.mq at the ~ta-Io'" '7' State Jhi8aOn1a ofBack . . WI YIa hrJdu; ~::'Le ~BIoak ~,o- p ~ Val-

United States Highway No. 78, Sooth. , Total MUeage, 51 Geor~ia Becbminc' west of Douglasville via CarroJton, BowdoD to the Geor8iaAlabama State 1lDe west of Bow~on. ,Ala. . . ' ~ OIl the ~-A1&b,ama State tiDe west of Bow~N Hope-, wen to Hdin. . '. ". . .. ' ,... ' UDlted 8&atft IIIalway No. 78 ....... ... at BdJa 'ria ;.=..;ci1 Bhdh., '. ~ PeD ClWI' ~""!'!t ~""f " ~....... lit -tile Icrn-ll.... , (hdD, a...... to U. MQe-=.......appt. t •• ' ;.: a:!"" ,;.; .. ,. at 0IIiUa_ PIattMua~· State 1tDe -__ .at BaR. _,.; • : ' . - • ".•. r - .• ....

:,.le7tothi,~N."""'~IJDe.~_Coun-" I

~~

_

_

~

__

""I,,"h.~ 'n

.i:::m~=.eaW~~eri

to the ~klahoma tate line aOn.th of 'Caldwel1. K.a1DaaOklabollla Be~ at the . Oklahoma State liDe .oath of CaldweD ~ ')(edford, Enid, ~, Bl ~ . . . Duncan, WaWlb to the 0 ,.Tau StateliDe IOutb of'hrftL '. Tau ~ I t . OIdaboma-TPu State IbM lOath OfaTan! .,. JUDaOld, 'wBcnrt.. LaNdo to Valtid StatesKatCaa ~ BCII_U,,_

=DetatarAZ ....

~:


Abl}!;JUCAN

.Unt~ed.States Highway No~ 83. ~

,. Total Mileage, 181

North Dakota Beginning at McKenzie Linton, Strasburg to the North Dakota-·

l

's;.~t~&~~t:of.tat~~~~:t~tofth~~ortb

lkota-South Dakota State line south of ~llg'"~ ~~~~~d. Mou~d City; Selby, Gettys-

United States Highway No. 84. Total Mileage, 281 Georgia Beginning' at BrunswiCK via aycross, Homerville, Valdosta, Quitman, ,omasville, Cairo, Bainbridge to the Geor~1n.labama State line northwest of LUU Alabama Beginning at the Georgia-Alatna State line northwest of Jadkin via rdon to Dothan.

HIGHWAYS

to the intersection with No. 87 East at Muddy ~ap. '~-d St·- H' h No. 87 Unhc a~s Ig way

Wyoming Beginning at Muddy Gap to Rawlina.

United States Highway No. 89. Total .Milea.ge, 917

Montana Beginning at Armington via Thistle, Ephraim, Salina, Richfield, Junction, Panguitch, Mount Carmel to the Utah-Anzo~. State liB·ne. so~th °tf tKhanUabtah' Ariz _'u'lZona egmnmg a e ona State line south of Kanab via Fredonia, Lee's Ferry, Flagstaff, Ashfork, Prescott, Phoenix, Florence, Tucson, Schuarita, NoI t th U 'ted Stat M' I t ga es 0 e Dl es- eXlcan n ernational Boundary.

United States Highway No. 90. Total Mileage, 1,567

United States Highway No. 85. Total Mileage, 1,582

13 Idaho Beginning at the Montana-Idaho State line near Gibbonsville via Challis. Stanley, Hailey, Shoshone, Twin Falla. Gerome, Rogerson to the Idaho-Nevada State line south 01 Rogerson. . . Nevada Beginning at the Idaho-Nevada State line south ot Rogerson via Contact to Wells. .

United States Highway No. 94.' Total Mileage, 110 Florida . Beginning at Naples to Miami.

United States Highway No. 95. Total Mileage, 483 Idaho Beginning at the United StatesCanadian International Boundary at Eastport via Bonners Ferry~ Sandpoint, Coeur d'Alene, Muscon, Lewiston, Grangeville, New Meadows to Weiser.

United States Highway No. 96.

Florida Beginning at Jacksonville via Total Mileage, 371 S-orth Dakota Beginning at the United Lake City, Monticello, Tallahassee, Quincy, ltes-Canadian International Boundary. Mariana, Chipley, Bonifay, De Funiak Tens Beginning at Rosenburg via :th of Ambrose via Ambrose to a junction Springs, Milton, Pensacola to the Florida- Whorton, Victoria, Beeville, Skidmore, Alice. :h State Highway No.5 south of Am- Alabama State line at Nunez Brid~e, Falfurrias, San Juan to Brownsville. Ise and from a point on State Highway Alabama Beginning at the Fiorlda-AlaUnited States Hiahway No. 97. ,.5 west of Ambrose to a point on United bama State line at Nunez Bridge via Loxler. q; Ltes Highway No.2 west of Williston via Mobile, Green Bay to the Alabama-MissisTotal Mileage, 680.' lxander, Watford City, Grassy Butte, sippi State line east of Orange Grove. Washington Beginnhur at United States~field, Midway, Amidon, Bowman to the MlaiuJfPI Beginning on the Alabama- Canadian 'International ':Boundary north of. rtb Dakota-South Dakota State line Miaaiaaipp State line east of Oran.g8 Grove Oroville via Okanogan, Ol'OJldo. Wenatch~ Ith of Swartwood. via Paacal9Q1a, BDoxi, Gulfport, Bay St. Blewett, Th.orpe, En~burC',. WaJtiDJIat ~outh Dakota Beginning at the North Lonis to the Mlasisaippi-LouiaiaDa. State Buena, Goldendale to tlie WashlJ)gton-<n:e.' . S lin :th. Gold-..I-';' kota-South Dakota State line south of line east of. Pearl R~ver. artwood via Buffalo, Bellefourche, Spear~~ Bel'bming at the Miaaias~l- gon tate e Boa 0... ~ • 1 Deadwood Lead to the South DakotaLouunana State nne east of Pearl River VIa Oregon Begin~ at the Washington· -~ming Stat~ line southwest of Buckhorn. 8U~1l, New Orlea~,' Houma, New Iberta.: Oregon State line at Bim via !lora, sq. V' • B'" t th S th D .. La Fayette. Jennfnia Lake ChaTlea to the . niko, Redmond, Bend, Klamath Falla to a· ,-.yomm&: egmnmg ,a e . Oll' a-., Loaiai&na-Texu Sta~ Une .eut of Orange~ '. junction with, No. 99 south of Auland a-Wyommg State .linesouthwe:st of.. T Beginning t the LoulaiaDa-T ;" .. :khorn viJ!- Newcastle; Mule creek, L~;'Sta.~z-- _~ of O· . _ 'D ~ •••:.:" United States Highway No. 99. gle, Tarrmgton, CheyebDe ..tcf tbe"Wyo-";-; ,.........-- e.....' . ~e Via DCIOUWon",; Total MU 1 569 19-Colorado State line south- of. Cbe~e. ... . Houton, Columbu. GomaIes, San Antonio, . ". .' ~ , • :olorado Begiuning at the WYOllliDf-' EuvaIde, Del RiO, Alpine. Marfa, to Van :. WaahiDPOIl Bedmrln« at the United .... _ States-canadiaD .liJtenmtiOnal Boundary. orado State line south. of·Cbey~e·.VIa~·,· Ho~ . an, Greeley, Brighton, Denver, C!"stle' . . United States mghwayNo~·91. north of Blaine via BeUhtgham. ~t. VerD01i,' Total Mileage '1388 ~verett. Seattle, Tacoma, Olym~ Cheh&~ :k, Palmer Lake, .~lor&do Spnngs, !blo, Walsenburg, TrmIda4 to the Colo. .' ' . hs, Kelso, Kalama to the WuJiington~ o-New ~exico S~te)ine at Raton Pass. . Montana Beginning at Great Falla via gon State line at Vancohver. . OregOa B~ a~ the Waabingtonlew M~lCO BegI.nmng at the Colorad~- Wolf Creek, He!ena, Boulder, Butte,SUver71 MeXICO State lme at Raton· Pass Via bow, Dillon, Lima to the . Montana-Idaho Oregon' State line op~te Vancouver via on, ~ell, Wagon Mound, Las Vegas, State line- at KoDida..· ., Portland, Salem, Alba1iy, Junction Ci9'. neroVIUe. Santa Fe, Albuquer9ue, Los ldaIIoBednninc ~t the ~ontana-Idaho Eugene, Roseburg, Gratit. Pa~ Medf~ LaS, La Joya, Socorro,. Hot Sprmgs, CaState line at lIonlda VIa DubeR, Idaho Falls, .Aftland to the Ore,on~orn1&State Un;t .0 to Las Cruces. PoeateUo, lI~amJDOn, Preston to the Idaho- south of Siskiyou.' .' . 'ted Stat H' h N 87 Utah State line aouth of Franklin. . C lif . . B...,,;.... I.. t th 1'\---' UDI es Ig way 0 . . Utah ~.•.aatt the Idaho-Utah State .a ~ -...- g a e v"wav~ Total Mileage, 817 line aoutllol Franklin via Logan, Brigham, Cali.forma State. line north of Hornbrook na . 0 ~d'en. ~ D.'.. Lake C'ty PrOVO, S ' gvill Yreka, Woodland DunsmUll',Davit Redding, Red Bld~ C1Ddacl.. No. 81 Eut) 1, prm . e, Iiams Sacramento· :ontana Beginning at the United States- Fillmore. Cave Fork, Par0'!8n, Cedar Cl~, ton Merced Fr~sno Bakerafteld..1.o; ADadi~n Intern!'tional Boundary north of - St. George. to the Utah-Arizona State lme gel~s, Pasadena, Sar: Bernardino, Redlan~, b Via Browmng, Sbauteau, Great Falls, north:, of Littletl~ld., . Indio Browley to EI Centro. . lington where alternate routes No. 87 Arizona BegmnJng at the Utah-ArIZona ' . ' t and No. 87 West begin and extend to State line north of Littlefield via Littlefield United States Highway No. 101. i south central part of Wyoming. to th-: Arizona-Nevada State line near Total Mileage, 1,896 ~

ited States Highway No. 87, East. MN~~ Beginning at the Arizona-NeTotal Mileage 538 vada State line near Mesquite via Bunker-

:ontana Beginning at Armington via tford, Grassrange, Roundup, Billings. ; Custer to the Montana-Wyoming State south of Wyola. 'yoming 'Beginning at the MontanaltDing State line south of Wyola via chester, Sheridan. Buffalo, Kaycee, Salt !k, Casper to the intersection with No. fest at Muddy Gap. .

vill~, GJ~cIale, ~ Vegas to the Nevada-

CalifornIa State Ji.ne .south of Jean. . ' c.;Ufomia ~gmnJng at the Nev!1da-CalIforma State line south of Jean VIa Baker to Dagptt.

United States Highway No. 92. Total Mileage 161 . '

Florida Beginning at Daytona via Or-

·t d Stat HI'ghway No 87 West lando. Kissimmee, Lakeland, Plant City.to .e es. . , . Tampa. . Total.M~leage, .715, . United states Highway No. 93. ontana Beglnnmg at Armmgton VIa "'otal MfI-- 7-68 te Sulphur Springs, IJvinpton. Emf-.

It, Gaiiiiner. to the Montu.Wycnmq

eline at the YeIlowato_National PaR.

t.°·3~.t=~:~,:::

.a'_-..

1I0JItua BqbmiDc at tH UnJted Stataat Gate-

c.n.dlp lDterDatloaal ~

=J..~~rr~ ::TM~n'::

in. DuBola,Blnrton, LucIer~,HaDe, Idaho. State 11M . . . GlbbonmDe. ."

".

'.\.;:~:

.

WuJdqtoa.· Be~*at Olympia ~ Shelton, Duckabuab, Pm Diacovery. P~ Angeles, Fo~ka, H~ptulJps. ~. ~ymon, South IHnd. Dwaco to the Wa.ah= mgton-Oregon State line- at lIecler. Oregon BeginninC again at the. Waabington-Ore,goD State li~ at .utorJa via. Tillamook," Newport, FJoreDee, CoqaIIIe. Boudon, Port Oxford, BrooJr:iDp to tH ()n.th gon-California State liDe north of SmJ .' River., . California Beginning at the Orepo-: California State line lOuth of BrooiIDD YIa Crescent City:..~dad, Eureka, WOllt:I, .'Ukiah. Santa ACna, San IWUL &II claco, San' Jose.' SaUn..., PuG lobi-. LaD Obilvo. Loa Cruea, 8aDta ~ Vatar&, 1:;0. Agel. . Santa J" to

IPr:!'.:

~~ ~~~tM~i8r.ta~~~~~

InternatIOnal Boundary at " . 1-

~--....;..~-----

'

.


14

AMERICAN

HIGHWAYS

'United States Highway No. 102. Total Mileage, 36

United States Highway No. 120. Total Mileage, 315

United States Highway No. 141. Total Mileage, 123

Michigan Beginning at Crystal Falls via Co'(>ington to a junction with No. 41 south of L'Anse.

Pennsylvania Beginning at Philadelphia via Reading, Pottsville, Sunbury, Muncy, Williamsport, Lock Haven, Emporium to Ridgeway.

W!seonsin Beginning at Green Bay via M!LDltowoc, Cheboygan, Port Washington +_ Milwaukee. ...

United States Highway No. 106. TotaTMlleage, 90 .

United States Highway No. 121. Total Mileage, 107

Pennsylvania Beginning at the Pennsylvania-New York State line at Narrowsburg via Ateo to Indian Orchard and from Carbondale via Kingsley, New Milford to Wyalusing. . ,

United States Bigh-way No. 150. Total Mileage, 66 Indiana Beginning at New Albany via Paoli to an intersection with No. 50 south of Shoals.

WISCOnsin Beginning at Oshkosh via Winchester to Fremont. .

. Virginia Beginning at the junction with United States lIighway No. 111 between Wytheville and Pulaski via Hillsville to the Virginia-North Carolina State line north of Mount Airy. North Carolina Beginning at the Virginia-North Carolina State line north of Mount Airy via Pilot Mountain; WinstonSalem to Lexington.

Wisconsin Beginning at Fond du Lac via Waupun, Beaver Dam, Columbus to Madison.

United States Highway No. 111. i Total Mileage, 239

United States Highway No. 122. Total Mileage, 91

United States Highway No. 154 Total .Mileage, 27 •

, Pennsylvania Beginnin~ at the New Yot-k-Pennsylvania State line at Lawrence- _ ville via Mansfield, Canoe Camp, Trout Run, Williamsport, Muncy. Northumberland, Sunbury, Clarks Ferry, Harrisburg, Lemoyne, York, Shrewsbury to the Pennsylvania~land State lin6' south of Shrewsbury. Maryland Begimiing at the Pennsylvania-Maryland State line north of Free·latid via Towson to! Baltimore.

New Jersey Beginning at Whitehouse via Flemington to the New Jersey-Pennsylvania State line at Lambertville. Pennsylvania Beginning at the New Jeraey-Pennsylvania State line east of New Hope via New Hope, Doylestown, Mont-' gomeryville, Norristown, Paoli, West Chester, Elam to 'the Pennsylvania-Delaware State line south of Elam. . De1awue Be2:bmin2. at the Pennsyl-' ;r:i=:are State fine south of ElaJD to

)Jnited States Highway No. 110. Total Mileage, 30

United States Highway No. 112. . Total ~eage, 156 ' Michigan Beginning at Detroit via Ypsi-. lanti, Clinton, Somerset, Jonesville, Cold-

United States Highway No. '124. . Total Mi)ea~ 58 .

,

United States Highway No. 15l. ' :Total Mileage, 72

Kansas Beginning at Bucklin to Docip _City.

United States Highway No. 161. , Total Mileage, 19,3 ' Iowa Be.Einnfu at the interaeetion with No. 61 aoutn-of DUbuaue via Ca4C'icle, Anamosa, Cedar Rapids. City, AJnaworth Mt. Pleaaant, Donnellson to an intersection with No. 61 north of Keokuk.

rowa

United States IDghway No. 165. Total MIleage, 303

kbuu Be~ at JleGehee". to the ·Arbn....t.cJu.ai. ::n~d=~~~:t.~~~ ~e::ls:Be~ .. atcG~mg.~,to ana State lfne. aoatb Of WDmot. ,.. Indiana BePmiDK at 'the JOchlcan-Iildi· LoaUiua BetinniDc at the ArbnsU-:·; ana State line north of E1ll:hut to EJkhart.UnitecJ States Highway llfo. ,127~,"'- · Louiafana State line aouth of WibDot "fi&.~... United States Highway No. 113. .. ,.. Total Mileage,' 77:' . , ~er Roue. _~L -onroe,' CoI.umbia/: Tiap, AleDndl'ia. J.a1D0urie, LecOmpte,~<; Total Mileage,·. 91 . ·llidaJpnBeciiminc at l:.ns~ _ via Oakdale, Oberlin, Beton to IOWL " Delaware BeginniDg at Dover via Jackson, Somerset, Adrian to theMi~ United States Highway No. 166. Georgetown to the Delaware-Maryland State Ohio State line south of Sylv.ma. ' line north of Berlin. . Ohio Beginning at' the Michigan-Ohio ':l'0tal M~ 177 lfaryland Be~ing at the Delaware- State line south of Sylv.ania to Toledo. .. ~ ~ at the juDetion with Maryland State line north of Berlin via, BerUnited Sta,te,s H,ighway No. 129. United, States HiChway No. 68 at Baxter lin . to an intersecti9n with United States SpringS via' Chetopa. CderiDle, Caney, Highway No. 13 at ?oeomoke. , Total )lUeage, 135 Sedan, 'Arkansaa 0lt7 to 8o~U. Haven. United States HJghway No. 116. Georgia BeJrinninlr at Gainesville via United Sta~ Highway No. 167. Total Mileage, 29 Athens, Eatonton to lUcan.

.

Wyoming' .Begimrlng at Ueross to Sheridan. . .

United States Highway No. 130. Total Mileage, 34

United States Highway No. 117. Total Mileage, 159

New Jersey Beginning at TrentOn via Bordentown to Camden.

Virginia Beginning at Vuginia Beach via Norfolk, Portsmouth. Suffolk, Franklin to the Virginia-North Carolina State line south of· Franklin.. North Carolina ,Beginning at the Vugioia-North Carolina State lii1e north 1>f Murphysboro via Murp]1ysboro, 'Jackson, Weldon, Rocky Mount, Wilson, Goldsboro, :::saw, ,Kenansville, Burgaw to Wilmin&'-

United States Highway No. 131. Total Mileage, 238

.

United States Highway No. 118. , Total Mileage, 35 Wisconsin Beginning. at Dodgeville via Irfineral Point, Prattville, DickysVille to the Wisconsin-Iowa State line opposite Dubuque.

Michigan Beginning ··at . a point on United States Highway No. 31 near Acme via Cadillac, Reed City, ·Big Rapids, Howard City, Grand Rapids,· Kalamazoo to White Pigeon. .

United States Highway No. 138. Total Mileage, 73 ' . Nebraska Beginning at Big Spring· to

'the Nebraska-Colorado State line north of Julesburg.·, . Colorado Beginning at 1;11e NebraskaColorado State line north of JUlesburg 'to

- " United States Highway No~ 119. , , ,::~!Bq. . ',' . ' Total Mileage, 243 .::, c', '., ,: ~, ynited States Highway No., .140. .' P....,..... Beirf!mJq' ai~DaBOii-;'ria.~':~~~.,::.. _~. MI1iace, 53

"

-

~::~-~~". ~

.

TotaI"MfJeqe, 2M.

",

Arkanau' ~ at Little :Rock. via Sheridan, FordyCe, Camden. El, Dorado' to the ArbDaas-LQuisiana' state line north of Junction CitY. <'. . ' . •.. Louisiana .Be&iDning .at the ArkanS&llLouisiana State Ime north of lunetion CitY via Ruston, Jonesboro, WinDfield to Aloba.

United States Highway· No. 168. Total Mileage, 137 : . ' Kentucky'· Beainn~ at LoukvD1e via !

t!~~~fi . .' . . ..

to KoUDt ·VtIrIKlD.

United States BtPway NO. 170., ,j .. , "Total MIJeare, 215 _ j Vlri'bda BeeinJdq at L7Dchbarr via -j

earo-

F;:lva,Chatham to the VInrbda-North ~ lina State lin. I01Ith at DazmDe.., .. '-l Nortla ~ .~, at tbe"V~·:J

Kbda~Nort:b CIII'otiaa'" -u. aoll~:i 'ria ~ GneaV=o. ,~i Point, 8alUb1ll7. CoDcar4 to Qlclotte. ,..,r. Unit.. Statu BJPn.T No. l'1L:·~'

Dumn.

1DcIlaDa. B1alrmIle, ~CoDII.u.-· ;;;.. 1IU7.... Bea:tan!nc at· BaItlmON • ville, tTDloDtowD to tile W....' WatiDIDIter to the ~~P«DU7lftDia .'V!n'bda Staw'llDe lOath of ~.,8tate line aoatb of'LIWUt:01nL. --i'1f_~ -..m-"at.~--~ ~at the .JIaI7.

·.~tr=-~~,=wa;~

· Montroae. WilmOt

at

Total .Lo.Weu . . . . .

1'1 to '.

-J . ' I::I~.'IJ,;


United States Hia'hway No. 116. . Total Mileage, 116

~o..th Carolin a Bechm inc at Hender son-

ville via Saluda to the North Carolin a-South Carolina State line south of Tyron. Souib Carolin a Beginn ing at the North

:::.,:= 'ted States HI'ghway ~..o. 180.

~~~~f1~S~;~:t;:~J~o~ Unl

Total Mileage, .336

NeW' Mexico Beginn ing at Caballo via Hillsboro, Silver City, Lol'dsburg to the New Mexico-Arizona State line east of DunC&D. Arizona Beginn ing the New MexicoArizona State line east at of Duncan via Duncan, Thatch er, Globe, Superio r to a junctio n with No, 80 north of Florence,

United States Highw ay No. 181. Total Mileage, 163 Texas Beginn ing at San, Antonio· via 3eeville , Skidmo re to Corpus Christi, N 185 U 't d St t H" h DI

e

a es Ig way 0, Total Mileage, 126

Wyoming Beginn ing at Cheyenne via :hugwatel', Wheatl and to Orin Junctio n.

United States Highw ay No. 187. Total Mileage, 265

·'

united

~tates-High~ay N~ 209. ,P~~:YIvanfa..Maryland;ta~~ no~:j'. .

Total Mileage, 158'

' . of Conow iqo.' PeDD81lvania Beginn ing at Milford -ria United States Highw ay No. 230. Dina'mana Ferr:y, Strouds burc. Welf;1 rrt., , ," , Total Mileage, 38 . Mauch Chunk, Tamaq ua, Pottsvi lle, . era-, P" I -~- B " t H . b burg to Clarks Ferry, to t::. ~~ eemnm C a ams United States ~ighway No. 210. Total MIleag 127 . Minnes ota Be'"'fuifu'" ate,Carlton

via AItkin, Brainer d to -Motley, , . . UnIted States HIghw ay No. 211.

!

United States Highw ay No•. 231. Total Mileage 161

Total Mileage, 92

' ,. Alabam . Becinn inc at Montgomery ,via Troy, Ozark. Dothan to the Alabama-FlOrida State line south of Campbellton. Florid. Beginn ing at the Alabam a-Flor, ida.St ate line south of Campbellton to Manan a.

United States Hi'ghway· No. 212. Total Mileage, 474

United States ~ighway No. 240. Total ,Mileage, 39

Vir...inia. Be""".. in'" at Key Brid- via • -~ Fairfax , Warren ton to- New Market ..Minnes ota Beginn ing at Willma r via Montevideo, Mariet ta to the Minnes otaSouth Dakota State line west of Mariett a. So th D k ta B ....;-_. u a 0 ea.....·n:1g a t th e M'IDD~ sota-So uth Dakota State line west of Manetta via Waterto wn, Clark, Redfield, Faulkton, Gettysb urg, Dupree , Newell to Bellefourche.

United States Highw ay No. 213. T tal Mil o eage, 156

Mar,la nd, ~ginDing at ~~eri ~ to the Maryl,and-D18trlct of ColumbIA line at Washin gton.

U nl'ted S tates H'Igh way No. 241. Total Mileag e 81

, , Kentuc ky Beginn ing at Hopkin sville via Penbroke to the Kentuck:y-Tennessee State line south of Guthrie . . Tennes see Be ~ at Kentue qTennes see State lfhe iOUth· of Guthrie VJa Springf ield to Naahvi lle.

the

Maryla nd Beginn ing at Elkton via Chestet't?wn, Easton , Salisbu ry. Berlin to Ocean,Clt:y. , ,

United States Highlf8.Y No 266. Total .. n_ U - 130 ,.: .ID.U-'~ Umted States Highw ay No. 217. 'O..,_L._· B" ."._ .:0._... ~_ '. Total MDeage 165' " ........ . ~ ~ at O&J&AOIpa Ciq United States Highw ay No, 190. '. North earolhia Be~.t Wilao n. ct'e eo~ :1~ .?: \~t :': :; Total Mileage, 104 Smithfield, Dunu, Fa1ette ville, Lumberto1a W& 11le

Wyoming Beginn ing at Rock' Sprinp ia Eden, Pinedal e, Jackson to Moran.

Louisiana Beginn ing at Slidell via audeville, Covington, Hammond, Alban)' Baton R o u g e , '

United States Highway; No. 191. . Total Mileage, ·123.· '

r' . to the North Caro1ln.a--South CaI'oliD& Sta~ L. "11 ..... line south of RowlaDd. ta 8 CIlW&Y No•. 270.' SoutIL Caroli u Becbmin&' .t'the North '/ Total MUeaa e, 65 -( . CaroUn..,south .Oarolbia Stata 1JDe lOath of T ' Be-le-.d_- • a....... -,__... _,.J,c,'" Row~ ,Via ~OD to P e e d " ' , : l i m : m : - : M ~ ..._-:~ _e-

10_

U,_r.:_.a

tett. m

<.

UmtedT a.tesM~~~~wa!o~.o.218.", .~'.':.':·.,U.n.. i ted~States':m.hway N -211.:,':' Montana Beginn ing at the w e a t e n t r a sotalt n c e _ " 7 .LQV. Total Yellowstone 'Nation al Park via West '. ··Minn esota 80 'B~ g at Owatonna via .... ". - \ eaee,: . !llowstone to the Montan a-Idaho State line . Austin, to the .!I1nnea Ota-Iow a State lbwA zIwa iu ar Henry' s Lake. ~ at Fort Smfth to south of Lyle. '. the Arbn. ."'O ma State IiDe DOrth of Idaho Beginn ing at the Montan a-Idaho loW'. Beginn ing at the Mbmuo ta-Iowa HeanD H. ~te line near Henry's Lake via Ashton , State line south of Lyle via Oaaee. Charles .Old... Beaiu Jna'.t the .ArbDa Uxburg, Rigby to Idaho Falls, . City, Waver J"k Cedar Falla, Vinton to • ,Oklaho ma.,.. State lbIB'nOrth of HeaftD er-ria "ted State H' h N 192' junctio nl nwith s Ig way 0 . ' 0. 80 80uth of,Vint on. U HeaveM r. S...•• -Pote a~ ..PaP '. Oklfho ma.I._t.. .......L.toofthe Pan. United States

Mii

IUghw ay No. Total Mile~ge, 56 Total MiJea p, 137 219. i:::~da Becinn ing at Kissimmee to MelPelU 181b uJa:= ic at the· New ;~~~-P~~~:=.t.~ ~::'.t United States Highw ay No. 195. Ridgewa:y, Broekwa~.. DuBoia, Total Mileage, 173

-'-.Arl::..Ii'e~udthe O~ma

It:: • eurw. ...

ville, Ebensb urg, JlUDdja Corners , Jo~ daho Becinn ing at Sanpoin t to the town, Jenilerto~ Somers et, Berlin, Garre~ ho-Was hington State line near Newpo rt.- Meyersdale. Sal18bU% 'J' to the Pennsy lvamaV'a ahingto a Beginn ing at the Idaho- Maryla nd State line southw est of SaliSb i; ahington State line near Newpo rt via ~ar1land Be ~ at the Penna, ,ttaro:y, Spokan e, Colfax, Uniontown to vama-M aryland ~tate line sooth ot Bel' Washin gton-Id aho State line at Lewis~:e intersec tion with No, 40 Dear Grants-

Jnited States Highw ay No. 199. Total Mileage, 84

AzbUa a State 11M aoDth Of Pap'~ Kena. .:United States Higll1ra:r No. 285. .

Tota1M0e8~ 131

.

W1'OiDinl BeCInnIuc at Lan.mIe ~ Tie Siding to the WJ'ODliDc-Colondo Stile line at Virgini a Dale. ., '. . CoJorado BeciJmiD&" at the W ' Colorado State line ~. D' Fort Collina , LanJ aud.' to Denver . ' . '. .

b

at.

United States litchw ai N~

290. '.~ .

United States Highw ay No. 220. Total MDea p, 325, Total MI~ 27.. Co~1 =tyo rt~A.Jl=-.:t:' relon Becinn ing at Granta Pan via' PelU181'lnnla Bel'!Jurlnc .t, the New toaD taten.1:tioD witb ))' to the Ore-n- Calilo -:- Sta..- ,:..- York-P No. 80 ..... of SD, uda State Uu. at Soutla 1laI'tble. &&.IW W.verl eDDqIv " ~ Towu Ida. .~ LaPOrlie. .". . . ~If~~l~rriDninl' .t the OreCOD. MuuC)'I..-WiIIlamQort. Loek Haftil, . . . . . . Unttea S1&tes HfP1r a7 Ne.. JlL rornia State line west ot T-t-:'- -..:. tonte,.L

.v

......._

BOD ::=,

Mlln,.,

,

iI. Bed· . Total ford to")'J'one, 44 the A.1tooD P~' State . ' . ," ' liDe north of ~ . ,'Wa Ulqt aa Btcfnn1n. • CoIfa "".' 'nited States Highw ay No. 20L MarylaDd JIeIf:n aIq at the ,Pennq l- Da8t)' to DogL '. Total Mile.. .. 173 vania-M aryland Stae.l Ine near Hale • to. untied "States BJehW&7 No. 301. --' Cumber laDcL . ..•.. Total ~line Beginn ing at United · UDlied S'-'- BI-h No. 22° dian Interna tional Bouu ~ lle&l'Stat.... Jack.. waT • ., .- p" ...,nf a« .. ~ via Bing ~ 8oJoa, ~ Nor. ' Total MOn p, I. ..;.... Barre W woeJc, Skowh &eQL .' '.p . --,I.... ISta. GardiDerepu,J'a to . . . . . . .W. ~~ on . . '.. .~ ,.. . . ' ..... lid. Qaia7wtlleto YIDe to ~

-..wua.-_ :h River to Creacent Cit:y. ' .

the

"Iga'n."

--=

""'

Ka_

11.

••


16

AMI::.:.I{lt:A:\

.

HIGHWAVS

IJnited States Highway No. 310. Total Mileaget 114 .

Paso at the United States-Mexican International Boundary.

United States Highway No. 470 Total Mileage, 73 .

Montana Beginning at Laurel via Bridger to the Montana-Wyoming State line near Frannie. Wyoming Beginning at Montana-Wyoming State line near Frannie via Deaver to Greybull.

United States Highway No. 370. Total Mileage, 260

N~w Mexico Beginning at Willard via Monarty to Albuquerque.

Texas Beginning at Bowie via Henrietta, Wichita Falls, Vernon, Childress to Claude.

United States Highway No. 485: Total Mileage, 164

United States Highway No. 385. Total Mileage, 758

. . New Me:rlcoBeginning at Raton \ia CImarron, Taos, Espanola to Santa Fe.

Total Mileage, 123

United States Highway No. 511 Total Mil~age, 284 •

United States Highw~ No. 311. . Total Mileage, 211

United States Highway No. 501 New Mexico Beginning at Raton via Des Total Mileage, 128 • Moines, Clayton to the New Mexico-Texas' State line at Texline. Virginia. Beginning . at Burkeville via Texas Beginning at the New Mexico- Keysville, Halifax to the Virginia-North Texas State line at Texline via Dalhart, Carolina State line south of Cluster Springs . ~orth Carolina "Beginning at the Vir: Amarillo, Canyon, Flainview, Lubbock, Big guna-North Caro1ina State line south of Springs, San Angelo, Brady to Comfort. Cluster Springs via Denniston, Roxboro to Durham. ' United States Highway No. 395.

Virginia Beginnjng at Roanoke via Martinsville to the Virginia-North Carolina State line sonth of Ridgeway; ft"ortb Carolina Beginning at the Virginia-North Carolina State line south of Ri~eway via Madison, Walnut Cove, Winston-Salem, High Point, Asheboro, Pinehurst to i\.berdeen.

United States Highway No. 320. i Total Mileage, 26 Wyoming Beginning Shdshoni.

at

Riverton

. to

United States Highway No. 322. Total Mileage, 226 Pennsylvania Be . g at Water Street . via: Tyrone, Ph g, Clearfield, DuBo£s, Brookville, , non, Franklin, Meadville, Jamestown to 'the Pennsylvania-Ohio State line west of Simmons. Ohio Beginning :at the PennsylvaniaOhio State line west of Simmons via Colebrook, Windsor £0 qeveland.

. h N United States Hlg way o. 330. Total l\fileaget 37

D}inois Beginnin~ at Chieago to Geneva.

~nited ~;a~s~:Y4~0. 331. Alabama Beginning at Flomaton to the Alabama-Florida State line south of Floma-

toll:

, I!'lorida Beginning at the. Alabama-Flor~State line south of Flomaton via Molino, :M:~ogee to Pensae('lla.

-pnited States ~ Total

hway No. 340. ge, 31

Washington Beginning at United StatesCanadian International Boundary near Laurier via Colville, Springdale, Deer Park to Spokane.

¥~s:onE!sboro, Morristown to Strawberry

United States Highway No. 401. Total Mileage, 31

United States Highway No. 522. Total MIleage, 135

Virginia Beginning at South Hill to Clarksville.

Pennsylvania Beginning at Selinsgrove via Middleburg, Lewistown. Millcreek MeCounellab.arg to the Pennsylvania-MarYland State line north of Hancoclc:. Mary1aDdBe~g 'at the .Pennsylvania-ltlaryland State" line north of Han. cock to Hancock.

U'Dl'ted Stat .'. es H'Igh way N o. '*.110• Total Mileage, 469 Washington Beginning at the IdahoWashington State line at Lewiston via Pomero)', Dodge, Walla Walla, Wallula, Pasco, Sunnyside, Buena, Yakima. Enumelaw,Auburn,Puyallup,.Taeoma,' Olympia to Aberdeen. ' ,

United Statesm,hway No. 411.

TotalMileag~,Uc;F

Tennessee Beginning at Bristol via Bluff

United States HJghway No. 530. Total Mlleage, 25 Utah BeBinninI" at, Ec1lo City. to Kimball .Junction. '.

United Stites Higliway Ro~550. Total Mileage, U8

,Virginia BeginningatBriatol via Gate City, Jonesville to Cumberland Gap.

Colorado Beginning at Durango via Silverton, Ouray to Montrose.

United States Highw~ No. 420. Total Mileage, 41

United States Wghway, No. 566. Total Mileage, 118

Wyoming Beginning at Denver to Cody.

United States Highway No. 422. Total 1lSil 203 J.f.1 eage,

New MUicoBeginning at Hondo via Carrizozo' to·· San Antonio.

United States I(tghway No. 601. , Total Mileag~ 39

Maryland Beginning at Frederick to the Maryland-West Virginia State line at Har, pers Ferry. ' • West Virginia B ning at the Maryland-West Virginia line at Harpers Ferry via Charles Town, to the West Virginia-Virginia State line north of Rippon. Virginia Beginning at the West VirginiaVirginia State line north of Rippon via Millwood to Berryville.

to the Pennsylvania-Ohio State line at New Bedford. Ohio Beginning at the PennsylvaniaOhio state line east of Youngstown. via Youngstown, Warren, Chagrin Falls to Cleveland.

Colorado Beginning at Salida to Buena Vista.

United States Highway No. 341. Total Mileage, 178

United States Highway No. 430.. Total Mileage, 37

United States Highway No. 666. .Total Mileage, 141

Georgia BeginnIng at Perry via Hawkinsville, McRae, Baxley, Jesup to Brunswick.

Dlinois Beginning at Aurora via St. Charles, Elgin to a point north of Algonquin where it connects with United States Highway No. 12. .

United States Hjghway No. 350. Total Mileage, 84 Colorado Beginning at La Jnnta to . Trinidad. .

. United States Highway No. 366. Total Mileage, 437

Pennsylvania

Be~g

at Ebensburg

via Indiana, Xittanmng, Butler, New Castle

United States Highway No. 441. Total Mileage, 87 Florida Beginning at. Ocala burg, Tavares to Orlando.

via

Lees-

United States Highway No. 450.

Tes:aa Beginning at Amarillo' via 'CanTotal Mileage, 465 . lon to the Texas-New Mexico State line at "'_1__ .1_ :'D_..l_ FarweB.. '-'VIVI'AUV .-..UUli:D&' at Walsenburg via . Ne" Mexico Beginni~ at the Texas- La Veta P. .1..~~OA, Bonte Viata, Del New Kexico State line at Fal'W.en via Clovis, ~..!"'~1f U'MJC Pua, Pqoaa 8Jlriap,. Partalea. .~.BoswelI, Hondo AI.unoprdo. ....... __v, Cones to the Colorado-UtaJi State ~ Oro~' to the New iiUleo:=Tuu State Un, -..t of 1I00000000o. ,tina IOU.tIl o~ N.~nDp:!· ,,' .....•.. ' UtU·Babm!u at the Colorado-Utah , Tau 'BMbmiD&' It. the Nnr JIa:Ico. ~ State 1iIlI ... of lIoDtlceDo via KoDtlcdo Texu State lme .oqth'otNlI'WIIWi to· •.. ,r.uaJ J~OD, 'Jloab to VaUe7Ott1. •

South Carolina Bqinninc at Cheraw via Darlington to F10l'eJ1ee.

United States Highway No. 650. Total Mileage, 27

Colorado Beginning at Cortez to the Colorado-New Mexico State line south of Cortez. New Mexico Beefnn1ng at the Colorad?New Mexico State line .oath of eortez V1& Wilson to Gallup.

United States HighWay No. 730. : Total ~26 Wallld:qtcm BegimJ.iDg at Wa11ula to the W.,.hinI'toD-Orego!i State line south of Wallula:. Oregon. Bqi.nnbag at .tbeWashingtOD· Ore....n State line I01Itb of Wallula W

Um:tina. . .'

'

United States Bleil ay No. 830. . ..' ':fotal MIJeap, 209 . '. _'!~a~ at J(aryhW . -

.,

U ~ ~ :a:=to~

~.~.

~at..~

,


DESCRIPTIVE SECTION ALABAMA miles, of whleh 71\) ure :l,llW,218,

I~OIl,d",!lou:

I:~'l' :::; :~: \;I,;:,a:i",,;:'': ::,';,\" :,'i

and Ih" Gulf of

Wn.tPfB nnd tt Iflr~e i(,(~i'o:perti!,,~ In them, The the oy~t"r, whleh Shrhrll'~ aN' IllHo taken,

most imllorlant III exe"ptlonall and IIsh tim mort' Important are tile , mullet and .'attl"b. BecrMtlon, Due to a wise l(ame amI fi~h Jaw, llnimals. birds and fish are "IHllHhml In Alabamll. W'lltl dueks amI l(1'l'Se are .'unlllHlIl, willI tllrk.,ya are found In (~') uf tbe 07 "milltl,ja, amI II Is a It'a.llnl\' Qual! slale. S'IUirrl'ls, oposaum an.1 ra"e""n abunnd, and bla,'l, Iwar and deer fr!'lluently se.m In Mme se.,tions. fj'lahh'j!" e'""ellent In 0", v"riuu~ rlvl'rs and lltre"ma, but tin, mu~t f"mou~ reg'ion for UIIs 's orl I (lIld the slreams llowl s ,wll ,,~ Ow (lnlf of 1\1 111"'1\'""" flshiul\', an,l fUUl,,1 not far In· laud.

black

u(·k('fPl,

ba~s

lUUU1el

htl~s.

~ll(~ekl(~d

f(wk 1115h.

and bream oll'l'r n varlely uf

TbtJ} Gulf is

ftl~nOlla

~llOrt.

for tllrpon. hlacldhth,

cavalla and rN1fi~b, a~ wl'll as ma ny othm, klulls. 1'I'rtll!10 lIay. lwar l'enKlleola,I;'lll., Is arH)'tlH?-r flllllOlHJ

tlshinp;

rp~ion.

'I'll" fBI'H'k Wllrrlor. fl'onN'nh

~tgl~:r :~~:::na~e~~'l~{~fl~tal;~)'S,:e::'~\ini';rc SlOP" s"etlou, stat" •",";" ';,. ""

areas lIflnlnll'l Alllhama's ~reat mIneral dlstrlet I' "onlhwrl to Ihe northeru half of tim IItllt'". '1'hlrly·mw mlm'rala of N>llIlUerelal lmpor· tllll"" are fOUlId, Of these the most Importllnt lire Iroll lind eOlll, ",bleh are fmmd In eJote proximity. '1'h"8e lJ:rellt blillmillonlleoal ftellls, the Warrior, Cababa and Co()sa, 1I111116!l'from tlll~ rivers \vbleh rUlI tbrougb tbem, eo"'et over


ALABAMA

ALABAMA AJ:,AIlAMA (C()ntlnned) The park- f~ ulHo of Interest ,tor Hs semltr()pknl t)lnnt lIff" its Rllnll dUn(~8 nnd f:H\,'IUl-

Das. It s a. national preser"e tor migratory waterfowl. where 'wild dUCkS ~("eHC. brant fintl

;of~~all:~~:~t l~r~:;.t\\~~N;:trl~l~ ~~;.:~~ ~~~t.~\~~I~d~niJ Baldwin COlt"t)'. Huuth of tho IntrnctHlttt"nJ i

" Canal. into un nHr:u'Un' tOllrh;t Ilnd tt't:rt'n. tl(Hl l,puf.Pf. wlt h

a.nd

ft1'lhin~.

nlld

fll.dllti(~i':' ror bOH..tlng;, hl\thlnl{ flue Kitf'H for f.tllmuu'r :Inti

whlt,t"r hOllH>,..q. 'fhp Hr~'ll has alr~NHI:r hN'Jl hn~ provt,'d b,Y the hnU.ling- IIr fondA. dearing u,. of HlHh·rhruliIh. nthl 1111' hnthling- of n 11111l1hl'r

of cottages fvr triultih'ut toUrlAtH. It 11'1 necesslhJp by boal hy wny of the Cunol, anll l\ yacht lUlsin i:'l pln.HIlt.'t'f on (hltt part of the parkway which hordt.'Tli the callol. Overnight cottagNl RIHl trni)(>r l'lih~li nrc proddl~(l jn the

park. . The parkwu.\' will he

b,'autifi~1l on bMh h'!\A't h~ and tI.IH road fUHK in

-: of ih entIn' "of th~ ,vfltt\r~ of Llfth\

ai<l,'.

litight

I.tt~oon, l\lobile Hay alH} tlw (~ulr of Mt'xi('o. Ofh'l\ nh)Jl~ tllC' rnut'H Q,shermen fwd I$hrhnlH~rR may b~ ~N~n nt work. Jlm'iJcalloc DeIHL ~I(1,tc Jronll.fH,Cllt. TnlJ:lP()08.'1 Count)', on the nMth bnnk of the Tnlln-

1

3Y~:i :~~~1~~d ~yD~~~:~ t~~J~l~~~~~~l~~~~;~S~~~t~

JItgllwu,Y 63. TJd~ fh-e·ocrc 1rflct i~ the Ril.p of n dN:islvt:" l!'ngag't'nH~nt. Hli M"rd, 27, 1814, lH~~ tween .AIHlrp.w .Tor'kjo{()l) nnd hiR T(\lllH'H'HN~ $old~ t.. . rs t find I\l'('Ill\WH nml llix tTllllN" Crpl'k ln~ dhtHM. 'rIte lmtth' ('nth"t till' rf' ~IJ of tPl'rllr of: thf' Cr('{~kl') tUul l\ \'f'ug-t'd ttl.' mlHhiHefo of Fort

1I1ima

(.N' ere~tNl by

tHilI MIIlotto). Thore lire C(lngrN"~

mnrk~r.

Hlld ttH~ Dnllghtf"rA of 181.2, an(i til(' rE'rnnhtff or Jackson'8 df'f(',ul.r.s

are IHill c,-ith'nt,

<'.

WOQtnJ/t ~~'fi.fr. Pork. ·1\Jontg-nmcr)' County. .. tour and one·holf mtJrs HortJH'Ust (It J\Lontgoul0r.v on Stntr- IJig-bwllY' fl. lind ahout onf'!' anO O(H~·JHllf mll(,H; to th(O ri~lIt 011 h011l"o"I'(1 roud. 2-10 n('rf).N. :uUoiHIH~ tlu' Jllllnldpni ol\'llort. Tlt.i('ol }lurk· provith!M 11. ('l'nl"~' ~l'dinn of the nora tYlikH) of tlH~ dN~P sOllth. Pienic fn(:il~ itl~i.

],ittlr RiL~('r lCftfltr, Pork. i\[onro(! U1Hl li1s('llm.

bill CountieN, OH the Little H i\,pr, abont ] 8 mll(>s north of Atmr.rt' un Rtllte Highway 11.

:l'bi~ fOI'CRt l)Ilrk, of :!.12U IH~rl's, WIiA once the hunting: g:round of ~rf'ut lndtn.n chh'ftnll1R, 111

the \"il"inlly- a ..., Ih.. Kit,·S of old Tn'linn vil-

lages, A ('.C.C. ('flln)) hHtJ hn))ro"(~d the pftl'k are-a, hunt a traill'r pnrk nud (,Hbhl~, fllHl ('()U~ struf~tN.1 trails. Fh:hing, hnthtH~. twnting tHHl camp ~ihl,"o1, j(olllo .'{tl1l0 Stllte PHrk, ~l:HlIs()n County

top pf MOllt~ ilnno. abont six mi1~s ellst of HuntK\"m" 011 n. s_ nighwn~' 72. From its

()Ii

elevation f)f nhnllt 2,000 fj'(lt nhon' ~Nl 1...'·('1

it ov ... look~ HlIlltK,·m... At the ,.IImlllit or the

lon T'l)jn t, fn IHOU~ for ita 'renn~FUH'·p. Volley and th~ mOllll. ,tain~ he~'o'HI. wllkh arc }.lurt. of lh~ Cnluhf'r.. Iftnd rangf'>, On t.~11 of ;\()nh~ RanI) iK n naturAl well more thall ~OO f""t dN'p. all,l 40 f"et in tlllun~t."r al Its ",hi"Kt I,,'lnt. ,rhe park incJU,l'lll. 1,000 nr ...·K. ulld III tllld~r Ihe jurlsdic-

'. JJlonnt.i.llll is .,. vi(lJ'W (If f he

In~llirfl i

., tion of tIle TVA.

A(01l1111 N/ato .i(ollltmrnl, '1~l1scnloosu nnll lIal~ CountieR.jllKt lIurtt. of 1\[ollndR,\·illp. whi<'ll j816 mll~s sPllth nf TnK,·"looSll ()n !;tut<· HI/(hway lS. Hf\ft" :\ prehisturic lWl)IlI~, probnhh' from. the Mn."H (·(Hll1tT.\~. PRtHhll~hf'<1 U (,()lIl-

.i

.;<,

ltlunit)' ("('ntHril'~ fl1{H. Part of tlln Rite iR now ~)C(;upINl by 1l11\ fown (If l\foltllfJ\'IUp. nIH] f\ J6(HH~r(' trpe! (,OHlll1'iHlnp: tlH~ pf'nlrnl purl' nf

tbe Iln~l,·"t ell.\' Ilod th(, prhJ<>irml ItH\l"HIK.la ownNl b~' tlw Alnhrllnll Mll.emn of· Nnllll'nl HIRtOI'Y null i~ 1,,'lllg lle",'}oTlPll os n Rt·n t~ mOllum ht, wflh Ilw ~p('Tleratloll nt the Nntio"n' Park ,'~r\"iee nlHl Ih~ ('.r.c. The rlliture of ihe ~[ollll'hllJ,' Tl~opl~ WM of a hll(h tyl'~, A~ Rlwwn h~' till; <loHI!tn nn,l flnl~h l)f the objects of rlny. stone. ~hl!l1. hOlle 1I1Hl COlllwr. In the pfll'k ther~ lire 32 lltOtllJ(I~. 18 of wlllch fnrm n hollow Rtlllllre. They ar~ of the trlll"'nt~d PSrlllllld tvp~, of vnrlolls siZeR, with tops llnll 11ilaeK tl.\1(\1Iy .qtlnr~. hnt 8l>llletltMa ~Iongllte. Tll~ Inr/(~Rt mOllOd Is B, oilY. leet htgh and cMering nbont one nnrl thr~e­ ·lluArter. n~reM ',f A"rnUll,l. The mOlina. h('long ,to the df}ml~lllnr.,· or fPremoninl dBMseR. nn,I

templ~g ''''re ~::~te l",rloHls

illnce

1~20

ANDALUSIA (C()ntlnued) in tbe city, Quail l\untlllg nnd bass flshlng are ·good In the Yiclnlt)'.

eon.tructed upon them. Tw() sill)of construction ha ve been ident!abollt 2.500 skeleton8 IHlYe

be~n

ANNI8TON~Pop.

n~mo\'t"'l1, n f(>w from the mouudl'J. but most of thf!1i1 fronl ndjacent cemet.~rl('i:J. BurJnla wel'1;t

22.300: alt. 145 ft. County seat of Clllhouu l;oltlltr. III the f""lhllls of th.,

oftt'tl Ino(1r- wlt.h thl) JH.'rt.uHU\l pO~8eRl'Jlons of

tho

bl\llda nn

abont 22 mUes south. In t1"IlIll\<1ella Natlouol

other nrnamt"nta being

01\ tlu, boll.,-, and otll~r ()bject8 being ais)O~I\d around tile b()(l,V, A A'l'OU[) of burinla Hl n~ h,,-en ~lll('O"prea and left In t»)ace exactly

)(oft

I

d,~('eascd,

· Blue RJdge Moulltnlus, tChNllll\ ~t{\tn Park ll:f

Jl'°fiJS~istlln

wna se.l:tled In 1873 b)' !;nllluel Noble~ nn Engllalunnll, who WitS nt:trn('tt'd to ,thIs region h~' rMSOIl of its lroll lire d"l,oslta. With Alfred 1'rIH, a COIHl~"tlcu t e"llllalist, Noble l'Utrt~d the smeltltll: fnrnflce. nud <'ottun )Dills around whlcb the ~I\rl~' d""~lopment of .. Annhl:ton took place. TOtllt.r ttwre are 85 mftlHI" foctnrlng plnnts I()eat~d In the Anniston dl.· .trlet. 'The clll- Is the Inr/(eKt producer of cnat Iroll soli pip" in tbe world. fllUI the lu rgest tntUe center of Alnbllmn. n,,<1 hM one of the largest eleetro-cllemielll \'llnnt. in t.M slIuth. Oxford Lake. t:llr~~ m Ie. from town, i. the site of It state fish hntcherY' nnd Ull IHnn"eDlellt park, the Intt~r with facllltica for bont,lOll, swimming, llowllng nnd .klttinll. Tw~h'e wll II north or Anniilt()n Is the J·n~kRom·lUe . Stat' TescIJer8 C(l\l~/(e. antI the narher lIte)/wril\l Seminary tor Il~/(ro /tirla Is located in tile cit... P()ints ()f Intcreat , Rega,' AJ"8~1I'" of Nolll,ral lfi8lortJ. ndjnlnIng the Carnegie Llbrar)", nt 111th I'lt. nud Wil-

IlS fOlllld. /,xu'pt thllt hroken pi,'ces ,Of,llotlery

hil\-O h(,(,11 n·~t()r(Hl and replaced. An areb'tleo,. logleal mnfu'lJlIl il'1( Hutler construct.lon to J)t'o., te~~

this J;rOllll and to dlsplllY nrtltncts. .] J:tllre aru llO on~rnl~ht accommodations but E~e~l:;r:.llcllitie" lire llrovill~d. 'J'he pa'rk elose8

.,.~

Oak Jlounluin. State Pa.rk, Shelby County.

in tlw Ouk lIfollnt"lus, abcllIt 18 miles s()uth of Hirmln ]1ll1ll and three anll one-Ilnlf miles east of lJ. S. ,Ill from P"lhum. 040 IlCre8, elllbrllcIII/( Kmn" of th" m"st rll/(/(ed mlluntain ellUl1tu in tbo Nt"t~. D/lgw....Il, lIak und peraltnmon flr" the predominnnt tree species, and "'lid. nznl~a and mO'/lltain IBnr"l are found. SelinlC .... f<,Arure. are n waterfall and the view frotil:-th(l' .l,OOO-f()..t aummlt. Hiking trnlI8, ,pIcnic grclllllU. llnd a trailer pal'k have been ·pro~~I~:?~na",:lllec\ftag"s nre a\"allable at $1.75 per

r

"rtnJIIfT Creek l"5tal'e Park,

Geneva COll.ut:V.

mer Ave.

Sonm-

"I/(ilt nnd Oll~'!'" If JIln~K uorl'hweat ()f, K'"1 Illld t.WO Ill\h'" w,'.t "f f\tl\te Hlghwll,y 12

Tho Inrg'l)Nt stuh.~ fUlr~ ill AhLbnmn, Cotlf3iating

of

it~

kind In

'~:I~e~f Ih,~~t:~t~!rtKJ8t~ll~(1 '~~I,ls. O::~el~,lNi~~

of 5.'100 !ICI'es of tlj'lcai wlregrns8 anll pine wood", with spl"ndl fncllltles for 8w\mmlng Hnd h()atln/:. IllHI /(<lfoll ftKhlng. Panther Cr~ek )"HIS I.hro\l/(h II p"rtlnn "f the park_ Bridie lln,\ hikIng trails n"d motor road8 lend

-

sit"., a trllilH park nnll picnic I:r()nncls ,II/"i"O Vil/n 8/n,/e /',wk, L~e County'; II dl•. ' vl.ln\l fof tCI",wllc'a I'ltnte I'lIrk, lIOntll of Ollo'lik" h~' .llirt r<llld. 280 nere8 OIl Little Uellee en"'k. HN"d "hi.,lIy hy emnpln/( !l"f()Ul'8 soeh as the noy SCOHtS and Girl Sconts: Tilcre Is a .wimmin/( jlool nne} n Inke. Sprin/( Vl\In Boos", fin 01(1 r('stor('d llnt.e-h,"Unm pln.ntntion llOmp.. nnll n ("11' other bulldln/(s offer shelter tp tile g'I'OIlPS who rnn ke spflcinl arrangements.. to CtlIllJ) hf'l·f'!. Ph:ntc fucllitles, • 1'/,Uo".,[!/l 8/otc PO"k, Tnllt.dega County, SOllthwc.t of '.I'alllldcl!"a nna w~st of Sylaciiugll hy ,l1rt r..."ls. ·121 l\(,reK. vn tile b"nk8 lIf the C;:()l)~tl Hi\'('r, with some market} Repute '\"ttl0<"8. n ....relltlr"'"l fncillth's are \lodevelope/l, but Cllmp Rltea are a"'lilnble. l'1l!tCIJ 0reek Slnte Pork, Dnilt18 Couoty•. ahoot 12 mJl~s north of I'lelltla lind fOllr miles west ()f Stnte Hi/(hwa~' 22. 900 acres, in a

·.

11 extinct Rpeeles. Also wild anfrnalR. fishea, raptUea: coral displnY's, "h,'lIs, rnlIu'rllla,

through Ow nr(>n. There nr-e enllins. good enrol)

f~~T:~s 1l~\~1 h,~r~r~~~l :~hc~~Y~)tt(~:l1h~:~~n~~~~~ dlI~~.9 \i~~h~oCI6 ~;::'d' S,l'ndnl)~0~Y8 6 ~~~;'oo"OI (Jllqrch/ on, th~ northw','st corn~r ()f 17th St.

and Coob A,-e. One of the show plnc"s of the Sllllth, buUt b)' .lohll \Y. Nohle fllr his emplo)'~s. '.I'he rhnrch, 90-foot, I"w~r, rrd,.,ry, pariah house lind chnp~1 are uf N()rmlln Gothic arehltectnre nlHl built of nati\·e Rt()lIe. The interior of the church is of IlIler,·.t for its carved w....dwllrk. atalned gln.s windows.. murble altar Bnd rere,l()s. The belfry' eonta hl8 It

'~~~';e~ ~~ It'11eh~~~s?~~ ~r,ilgli~1ta-:'la~n'Jn1~i ,(lll!els, Sept, 20. 1800. Open; sec carctaker. (Jalhom, OOllnl" OOllrlhollse, 11th llnd Gurnee Sts. HIlS Illl IllltlSllal stailll>tl gins. ntlas used as a clland"'lier in the lobhy'. ZIti" Park, in the heart ()f the d()wntown dl8trlct, b~tween 13th and 15th St8., and Gurnee nno Moore :':ts. A benlltif"I1~' landscuped purk:, contal"Illg the lwme or the Axis Cluh. " WOlllan's civic or/(ani7Altion,. Tbe hOtl8e was formerly the Anniston Inn nnd was d~slgned

brokl"n nnl} Rt.'f'nic nrt·'n t where a)] forms of

fMest recr ll,tlon may he enjoyed. 'Contalils a IltrJ(e lake originally fMmed by beaver. dllms: . Wcoollf~'" Hlnte Park, ClIosn County, "lHint Se""'l mll"K sonth of S.\"lncnugll on State HI hwll.r 11. tllf'n fOHr mllea w~at by dIrt rOltd., 03 Il,,...... Incltlflinl( thl\ summit of 'l!OlrUr:t1l M(,"nl''!ln. known locally as Flng MOUDtflln, alt,1 saul to ha,-o be.en n sl/(nlll statlon·dtlring , tho Wnr B~tween the States_ An automobUe r()lld Icnd. froUl the county road north 'of, the pn rk 1'0 Iho top of the m()nnta In, whleh ad'Ord8 lin exr.. 1I~ltt "l~w from Its ob~ervatlon tower. A fnot trull len'ls throll/(h Weogurka Cretk g,'rgo. O"~ruight /,abills lire provided. '

Wlllli 10 See -

~l'he ~(!\~t'ntb mllS(l'llm

Size In the Unltt'oJ I'ltlltes. l~xhihits indnd() the fllm()nS R../(lIr·Wcrtu·r e('I1~diou. nlltabl)" tile.

by A~Q~~J~~~

Wllere to Stop

AL11lXANt)FlR CITY--l'op. 4,525; alt. 147 it. 'TnHnpo()sn Conntv. 'To the J'orth is the larl!"".t. Rl'~t1on of the tTaUnd~/(a National ForeBt: to Ihe south Is I,aka Martin, formetl bY tlle' Mnrtin Onlll On the TnllapooBa River (tWeIUlllpka).Orlnt.erpst: .~ I· trrorsfslloe Hr.,,(/, SIMI! AfOlmment, on the north hltllk of the TII1InpooBn RIVer, east lIt A.I,'xnllfl~r City (see Stabl Park section),·' Jlotel: Rna"oU. ANDALUSIA-Pop, 5,100. County lo' 0,.· \ Y' hlA"tOn Count:\-. Sotlthenst or Andlltlala:, aarr,owpry 18 tPnnther reek' State PUll', '. In.ln Is a northern llatewllY to tbe' lI~tl., , Nn tiona' Forest.; a forest rllnlttr Is .t"tt(>li~ " ..

'--

}j,:~~;ical 00., 7th and DunclLn Sts, One or the lnr/(est el~,:tro-ellmulcal pllLnts in the s()uth. OPN' on llP\luentlon. Fort McGle/lIm, "dj()in n/( the cit" : entrance ',$liven miles northellst on Stnte highwa.\' n. The reser\'ntion is one of tbe Inr/(est <>f the F.ourth C()rp. Ar~a, coverlnl( 19.1100 acres. It Is the home or the 22nd lnfnntr.v. tile 4th Tank Corp8. and tile C.C.C. tllstrlct hendqunrtel's. During the World War 40.000 soldiers were trllined here. A nUlllh~r ()f line bul1dln/(s have recently been COllll'IP.led. Tn th" reservation is Rl1~y F'h')f1, nn nrlln" lIirport. Ellstaboga SIMe Ii'ish ]j"I('It~r/l. lIln" mn~s west of :Aunlst()n on U. S. 78 lind thr/)e miles south on dirt road. Propn/(lttes bass and bream,

H()te181 Alabamll; Jefferson Dnvls. , ATUli:N PoP. 4.250; alt.. 6115 ft. County sent ·ot Limestone County, in the north rentral part· of, the stote, A typical early Alahama " ::town, noted for its snte-bellum homes. Athelia ".' College, founded In 1842, Is th" second worn, an's college in age in the south and the only ·...,Oll./l that md not close a 81nllie doy during the . , '.Wu Bl!t'weeil the States. -:., "'wtllle,-; Hall, at Athens COllege, wns bullt '::\n. 1842 by alave labor,

5

ATTAI,LA-P()p, 4,5711; alt. 530 ft.. Et()wah County, ab()ut live nnd one-holt mlln west ()( Gadslien. A ecnter for coal and Ir()n mines and m~~~~a~t,w~rl};'1al?s~j~~~r~~~lies Mrthmt on

~QII'~· 11l\~'~~~ltlr.;I ~~~~~t:r"'\I:... a~tagr }J~~~e:.

,,'Irh n "h~tlr drop of 00 f,'et o"er /I limestone rld/(e "r L()Ok()ut l\I()tllltnln, IntO n p()OI In the valle)'. AUB{IRN-Pop. 2,800; alt. 008 ft. Lee County, 6.1;l~I:~~"u~"'i:tSlt~~r,~\I~ f~s~rrl~::~:~:rloullded here In 18U1I as the IUast Alnblllllll lIiale College. a prlvntl) InstItution donntell to the state ·tn 1812. It is known as line or the fOr/Hll08t .. poll'tf\"hnlcnl schools In tbe Unlteq States. Th~ StBte Al(rleulturol and E:<l'erhnenta.1 Station Is ()pernled In eonjunctl.. n wlt.b tbe Institnte. . BAY l\nNIl:1~'l'E~PoJl' 1,1IIiO: nit. 278 ft. County R"at of Jlahlwin ( OUllty, one of tile richest tlA"rleult.ural coulltle8 in the United States, and the l~lItllug t.rncklng c..untl' ()f A.labama. Of int~rest; . .'Iite 0/ F'ort Jlim8, marked by n ,cnira of rough mnrble, ubout 25 l)llleS nortlt of Bay t~~I:l~t~e; rnVte o~~I~I~I~~~~r~fl ~:nrirn~~~~,~ato~~ offict'. -8::rlng the uprlsl,,/( of the Cree1<s III the Wll,r of 1812 nb()ut 550 m~n, women nnd ehi!tlreu to"k refn/(e her" III tb~ temporllry slockn<1<1 known os Fort Mlms. On Augu.t llO, U1l3. tlll'y' ","re surprised h~' n fllrc" of lu<)Inns Ull<lor the hltlf-hreed, William Weatll~rford, n"t! all were l\laR8II('r~tl ~.cellt. 15 who. escBped, nnd II few tw/(roes an,l hnlr-br~~ds 'Vh() were tnken prl80ll~rs. It was in re"ellgo r()r thia mnS8l\cre thnt An,lrew .Tllckslln led a cnlllpaign a/(Illnst tile Indlo,na, whllling bllttles'llt t"talIn<l~gn /llld tH()rSellhlle 13l'1ld (Stat"! Monu-' ment). , BAYOU LA nA'l'BFl..-POll. 5t)O. lII"bile Count~'. 25 mil"s allllthwelli. ()f Mnblle n~ar lI1lsaisBII'fi Sound. A pietllresque old fishing dllllge ant JIlarket tor 8ea food. Boata of ·all)' size· from smolt skllTs tn bonts 76 f~/·t in lengtb nre nlwar8 1"'lIilnble for fishing parties. BESSEMER-Pop. 20,725: alt. 510 ft. Jeffcrsoll Countr ahout. 1.2 miles soul'bweRt of Blnnln/(hntn. Besaem"r ts tile Industrlnl ltn,l trn,L1n/( center f".. tilt, vnrious iron ,lind, COlli

r.:~~~fr,:~I~~,l:ll~l~~'ismWlllt~::/~el;',:jr;r(ll~~;I;;I~~

nre loenl.,'d h~re. Of Inh)re!Jt : IJC,ke)f'oo(l }JRtoles, slmilnr t() Blrmln/(llnm's fnmous lIIountaltl Br()ok Estatea. IIbout one mile below Bessemer on the TU8ealoosn highwar· We8t L"ke P"rk, n popular amusement center. . BIBlIUNOIIAlIl-Pop. 259.615' alt. 600 ft. C()nnty sent ()f Jelferson C()unty und metrollolis <>f the state, llIrmln/(lmm Is In tIle nllrtlt central port.lon of Ah\b