The Architectural Drawing Foundation Portfolio of Master Graduation Studio
Directed by Ross Anderson & Catherine Donnelley Weijie SHEN
“How to make the public engagement with the sensitive programs such as archive?” This design studio project as titled “Architectural Drawing Foundation”, which can be regarded as a cultural building project. The major collection of the drawing foundation is the “Tectonic Architectural Drawing” including the masterpieces by the Australian Tectonic pioneers and the outstanding works by the new-coming architects internationally. From my point of view, the design of a cultural building is not so critical about solving the problem as a housing project or a urban design project. Rather than that, this cultural building project should have a comprehensive understanding and solution occurring with human’s experience and the public engagement. As the question in the title “ How to make the public engagement with the sensitive programs such as archive?”
Understanding the overlaping programs as a cultural building project
Exploring the connection between urban fabric and natural embodiment
Allowing the intergration between “Public” and “Semi-Public” with a “buffer zone”
Making the interlocking loop with a “Massing tower” and “void courtyard”
Detailing the characterstics of each loop as well as the building facade
Understanding the role of the project as a public connection and urban amenity rather than a new attraction By understanding the programs of a cultural building, it is necessary to observe the characteristics of each individual program as well as its connection to the others. As can be seen from the square diagram on the right page, there are quite a few programs standing with the overlap to another program. The connection of each program is largely depends on its functional aspect with a consideration of humanâ€™s behaviour and experiences. Except for its major programs such as archive, library and education space, this cultural building should have adequate public open spaces as a amenity to the urban build environment.
Understanding the people’s reaction to the space with their perceptions The term “people” here, in other words, can be referred to the user group of this project. In general, there are mainly two different user groups including the public visitor and relatively private education group. Instead of separating them in the different building blocks, it could also creating some architectural moments respecting to human’s perception such as seeing and listening. As can be seen from the diagram on the right hand side, the top one indicates that the visitor in reading area of archive space could have a visual connection to the people in the educational space with a green buffer zone in-between. Meanwhile, there also need to be a noise separation between a number of different functions as well as the level of noise such as chasing in the archive space, playing in the public opens and drafting the quite studio space.
Public: visitor chating
Private: Drafting and Reading
Understanding the Precedent Study Selected Precedent From left to right: Figure1:Museum of Ocean and Surf/ Steven Holl Architects+Solange Fabiao Figure2:Competition winning design of Gare Saint-Denis Pleyel by Kengo Kuma&Associates Figure3:Facade design by K.Karklins & A.Birojs FORMA
From the selected precedent study by Steven Holl, Kengo Kuma and Karklins & Birojs, the absorption points could emerging from each stage of my design process. The initial concept have part of inspiration from Steven Holl’s Ocean Museum, which is characterised with a few functional massing box pop out the rooftop spaces regarded as a play ground for activities. Laster, i was interested in the Kango Kuma’s circulation design of the winning competition. The loop actually rump around the building introducing people climbing upward. In the facade design stage, the tectonic composition of bricks from Karklins and Birojs give me the inspiration to deal with the intensity of lights arrording to its function.
From left to right Figure1: “Archdaily”, Museum of Ocean and Surf/Steven Holl Architects+Solange Fabiao, http://www.archdaily.com/135874/museum-of-ocean-and-surf-steven-holl-architects-in-collaboration-with-solange-fabiao Figure2:”Dezeen”, Kengo Kuma wins bid to design station for new Paris Metro line, http:// www.dezeen.com/2015/03/24/kengo-kuma-train-station-paris-metro-gare-saint-denispleyel-france/ Figure3:”Archdaily”, Samrode Building / Krists Karklins & Arhitektūras Birojs, http://www. archdaily.com/285044/samrode-building-krists-karklins-arhitekturas-birojs
Exploring the Oppourtunities of Site The site in Sydney CBD is on Hospital Road to the North of the Hyde Park Barracks and to the East of The Mint. As can be seen from the figure ground plan on the right hand side, there is a strong fusion between the high density urban fabric and natural open spaces. On the one hand of the site is the high-rise building as a urban background, while on the other side is natural embodiment with â€œthe domainâ€?. Additionally, the site is located in the historical heritage precinct which includes the Hyde Park Barracks and Sydney hospital as the neighbouring context. At the same time, there are also lots of opportunities lying on this location such as bringing the landscape to the site, framing the view from the building design and connecting the existing f-
abric. The strong sense of the historical meaning has played a significant role in shaping the early stage ideas. According to my research and precedent study of Steven Hollâ€™s work, to design a building in the heritage site is about looking for the missing element of the contexts. From my point of view, the site surrounded by a very solid line of brick and standalone building. There is a opportunity to fit a soften elements into it activating the circulation as well as the connection. As for the influence from the large area of open space sounded the site, it is necessary to creating a impression and extension of the greenery of the contexts and possibly applying to the rooftop area for allowing a wide range of arctivities. Figure Ground Plan
WHITE COLLA R FROM CBD
Circulation & Transportation “Could the project become a connection between the NSW Art Gallery and City CBD”
As can be seen from the circulation diagram, there are mainly four major directions for the people coming to the site according to the gradient of the circulation dot. The public transportation(Bus and Train) have played an important in directing people coming from the Hyde Park and Museum station. Meanwhile, there are also people working in the CBD could walk to the side horizontally. Most importantly, as a cultural building, it will be a wonderful architectural moment if people finish their tour in the NSW Art Gallery could drop by to the site on their way to get the bus or train. The connection between the Art Gallery, the domain and CBD could be realised in the design of this project. The impression of the public open spaces in the site could also reflect the character of the neighbouring contexts.
WHITE COLLA R FROM CBD
VISTOR FROM CITY WESTFIEL D
VISTOR FROM BOTANIC GARDENS &OPERA HOUSE
WHITE COLLA R FROM CBD
VISTOR FROM CITY WESTFIELD
VISTOR FROM ST MARY’S CATHEDRAL
1:5000 Circulation Diagram
GA RD E
View & Attraction BO TA N RO YA L TO EW
MARTIN PLACE Macquarie St
As can be seen from the view diagram on the right, the site is surrounded by a number of tourist attractions including the Sydney tower, Martin Place, Hyde Park, St Mary’s Cathedral,State Library and New South Wales Gallery. There are quite a few sharp angles from our site could have a view connection to these famous attractions. On the other hand, from each of these attraction spot, some of these could have a view connection to our site including the Nsw Art Gallery, Hype Park square and Sydney tower. To be located in that rich and attractive site, there is no much need to be a new attraction to against these existing ones. Instead, there is a great opportunities to make the site to be a urban amenity to let people visit, play, rest and most importantly learning form the visiting experience. It could also emerge a wide range of atmospheres and activities at the same time.
“Could the building design become a Urban Amenity among the Attractions in the contexts?”
LLERY RT GA LERY EW A TO N T GAL R W A IE V NEW FROM W IE V
ER K OW ER Y T TOW AR ARK NE EPEP YD DNEY S YD YD O Y T S H H W M VIE FRO TOOM W EW R VIE VI W F E VI
ST MARY’S CATHEDRAL
1:5000 View Connection Diagram
Can see each other
Can see one dirctection
Allowing the Connection between Programs
STUDYAREA PRESERVATIONROOM READINGAREA EXHIBITION GALLERY
similar program. As for this point, i am interested in looping the public programs as well as the semi-public programs into a single line diagram( as can be seen from the bottom diagram on the right). The Private and semi-private programs will be located in the massing square or the void square imagined from the line diagrams. Later on, as for the 3D version of the line diagram( can be seen from the bottom right diagram), the floor plate has been generated in relation to the line diagram. It has a significant influence towards the spiral design in the later design stages, which the program loop will be applied to each arm of the floor plate accordingly to the area of function and circulation.
L L E RY
OOKSHIOTIOPNLGA L L E RY IB R A RY BY C AFEB
BOOKSHOP OPENSPACE LIBRARY
“Could the major program “Archive” become a semi-public space?” As can be seen from program diagram on the right, according to the rate from public, semi-public, semi-private and private, all the listed programs can be put into four major catalogue. The public includes the lobby, cafe, bookshop, public open space and library. The semi-public includes the archive, reading area, exhibition, gallery and rooftop space. The semi-private include working studio, study area and preservation room. The private includes office and conference room. It is clear that a number of problems in the public will have connection with some in the semi-public and same as the others. The four layers of programs can not really figure out the issue between the connection of each
OOKSHOP L IB R A RY BY C AFEB
From top to bottom Figure1: The program calssification diagram Figure2: The Looped Program and its generated floor plate
Making the Loop into a Ribbon
â€œCould the transformation from the loop to a ribbon happened with a emerge of a courtyard or two courtyards?â€? By making a loop in to a ribbon, the programs are working together to providing the user group a strong sense of the unified experience with a unique characteristic spatial journey. As can be seen from the physical model image for the interim presentation, the clear perspex part is the public loop with the programs including the lobby, cafe, bookshop and reference library. The translucent perspex is the loop contains the semi-public programs mainly the gallery and archive spaces. The building mass standing in the middle can be regarded as the educational part, includes the working studio and offices. Meanwhile, there are two courtyard emerged in-between the educational tower and each arm of the archive space and reference library. That can reflect to the initial concept that people in the archive space could have a visual connection to the people in the drawing studio with a greenery buffer zone.
Intrim Presentation Model 1:200
Design process of the 3D massing can be seen from the diagram on the right page starting from a basic building volume to the generated floor plate diagram. Each stage have a consideration of the site as well as the spatial quality according to the initial concepts. The fluid circulation part can be seen as a highlight of the design in this stage, as people experience the rump in each of the programs with a view connection to the courtyards spaces and its surrounding attraction spot such as the CBD city line, the domain and the harbour view. There are also a lots of opportunities emerging along with the process of the volume variation such as a underground courtyard.
Feedback from the Intrim Presentation
“Could the senstive exploration of circulation engaged more in designning the characterstic of the loops?” The concept of intertwining the public and private spaces of the Archive with a sensitive exploration of circulation and experience are well considered. The drawings were advanced and very resolved, at this stage it will be valuable to remain flexible with explorations of the best design outcomes rather than be too “locked in”. There was a strong analysis of the design process. Well supported with explanatory diagrams. Consideration of an evocative atmosphere was present in the last drawing, with potential for extension into all drawings.
Exploded Iso 1:100 A0
Making the “Mass and Void”
“Could the two Loops generate the “massing tower” and “void courtyard” along with the circualtion?” The move of the massing tower from the centre to the left corner in the consideration of the the sun access to the courtyard space. At the same time, it also helped to enlarge the major courtyard space to allow a wide range of activities with the adequate sun access. The massing tower on the south part of the building also can be seen as a conclusion of the semi-public loop in a private educational tower. Additionally, the back corner of the massing tower which is the office and drawing studio space could have framed view of the city line. As for the void courtyard next to the entry lobby, it can be seen as secret garden at the underground level which people could have a visual connection with the stuff working in the preservation room and the gathering space of the auditorium. The circulation experience to bring people down to the underground level starting the journey of the gallery and active loop also have the consideration of the intensity of light.The cantilevered space applied to the cafe area in the lobby with a connection the lane way next to the Sydney Hospital’s elegant facade. Another cantilevered space in the reference library also can be seen as view lookout point to the domain and a angle of harbour view. 2nd Intrim Presentation Model 1:200
Design process of the 3D massing can be seen from the diagram on the right page starting from a basic building volume to the generated floor plate diagram. Each stage have a consideration of the site as well as the spatial quality according to the initial concepts. The fluid circulation part can be seen as a highlight of the design in this stage, as people experience the rump in each of the programs with a view connection to the courtyards spaces and its surrounding attraction spot such as the CBD city line, the domain and the harbour view. The standing massing tower on the one side as well as a underground courtyard next to the entry lobby can be seen as a highlight of the 2nd intrim presentation.
Mass & Void
Integration of “Loop,Massing and Void” “Could the integration of loop, massing tower and void courtyard represented in the characterstics of the programs?”
As can be seen from the cutaway section on the right side, the section cut through the integration of the three major roles including the “Loop, Massing tower and Void underground courtyard”. The public loop start from the underground courtyard rump around the building with the programs including the entry lobby, cafe, bookshop and end up with a view lookout point in the reference library. The semi public loop start from the underground gallery rump around the building to form the massing tower on the south side for the educational purpose. As for the underground level, from left to right, there are the auditorium, gathering space, the
underground courtyard and preservation room. The dimension of the corridor have the potential to have the working space facing the courtyard. The auditorium can be access from ground level through the lift of the tower as well as the underground corridor. When rises up to the ground level, there is a ground level courtyard next to the educational tower entry, the two courtyards will have the visual connection with each other. The cafe located next to the entry lobby, which have the folding doors allowing the flexible use to connect the outside. The archive loop sits above the entry level connecting with a void space.
Cutaway Section 1:100 A0
Detailing Approach to the Final Stage
â€œAtmosphere, Activities, Applications make a building Aliveâ€? The atmosphere are varied in different spaces of this final design, ranging from the bustling ground floor to quiet drafting studio. Each of the functional space is design to allow a number of activities including chatting, playing, exhibiting and studying. The varied application of facade design and a number of building devices such as the louvers, folding door and channel glass, which largely contribute to create the characteristics of each programs.
Final Presentation Model 1:100
City as a Background
â€œThe Drawing Foundation gives a performance to its audience with a background of city line from day to nightâ€? Regarding the building as a living object, it can act differently from the day to night and season to another season. In the daytime, the building is acting quietly to accommodate its visitors and students with their individual purpose. During the night time, the building will shinning up with the vivid light coming out of the building facade to welcome people with a wide range of exhibition or celebration. The material applied to this project can be seen as three categories, including the transparent, semi-solid, and translucent in responding to its function and a consideration of the context.
Front View Rendering
Distribution of Programs
In relation to the contexts
The arrangement of the programs is designed respecting to the spatial requirement and orientations, each of the program should have the adequate dimension of the space to allow a maximum usage and fully consider the peopleâ€™s dynamic experience in the building. The collection of the archive is largely displayed in the its loops from the first level to the second level, which allow the visitors to to read and scan. At the same time,
the position of each program also have a close consideration to its relationship with the outside environment. The working space of the archive is facing the internal courtyard with a framed view while the circulation rump of the archive is attached to the front facade. The design intention of this is to have a proper designed facade which can let the people from the outside have a view of the peopleâ€™s moving shadow.
Archive ARCHIVE Office ( Academic staff)) Office(Academic staff Bookshop & Cafe
Bookshop & Cafe Gallery
Student Workshop Student Workshop
Reference Library Auditorum
Programs meet the spatial requirement as well as the orientation quality
Frame of views
In relation to the Views
As can be seen from the diagram on the right page, the dynamic circulation is highlighted by the framed view within the visitor’s journey. The experience of the view from the “the domain” to the “city line” is maximised with volume of the specific space as well as the dimension of the openings. Thanks to the “Ribbon” loop, there is a strong sense of continuous view connection between the internal courtyard and external view
point. As for the educational tower, the working studio and offices at higher level could have a view of city line as well as the heritage buildings. There is a separation for the entry on the ground floor, the visitors entering the building on the north side while the academics and student using the entry on the south side. The void underground courtyard marked as a barrier between these two marjor circulation at the urban level. circulation meet the spatial requirement as well as the view quality
Armatures & Enclave
“The urban pattern of the ground floor plan share its atmosphere with the surroundings” As the site is located in the heritage precinct, the term “enclave” should referred to the strong solid line of the historical context building such as the mint and Sydney Hospital. Instead of ruin the historical atmosphere, the rump introducing people going to the underground courtyard which can be seen as a secret garden with a wide range of activities. Next to the underground courtyard, the ground level courtyard mainly used by the students and academics who can be regarded as a regular basis to the building. The visual connection between the two courtyards also highlighted by the functional aspect and its user group. The term “Armatures” here referred to the urban circulation, it is obvious that the lane way on each side of the site have a great chance to intruding people from the Macquarie Street to the site. And using the rump to bring the public down on the underground courtyard to start their journey from galley. Ground Floor Plan
Underground Floor Plan
First Floor Plan 0
Detailing the spaces according to its programs and characteristics, the underground floor plan above shows the arrangement of programs including the auditorium, gathering space, computer lab, preservation room and the start of the gallery space. As for the architectural moments, the working space along the windows facing the underground courtyard will have a visual connection with the people have activ-
ities in the courtyard space as well as the greenery. At the same time, people from the outside also could have a visual connection with the people working in the preservation room and studying in the gathering space of the auditorium. The solution to this is dealt with the rump the middle. People walking down from the preservation room will have a visual connection to the external courtyard as well.
Detailing the spaces according to its programs and characteristics, the first floor plan above shows the arrangement of programs including bookshop, reference library and archive space. As for the architectural moments, the working space along the windows facing the underground courtyard will have a visual connection with the people have activities in the courtyard space as well as the greenery. At the same
time, people from the outside also could have a visual connection with the people reading in the archive space and studying on the table along the window. People walking down from the archive will have a visual connection to the external view as well. The tower plan includes two staircases, the left one is used by the visitor going down to the archive loop while the right one used by students and academics.
City as a Background As can be seen from the cutaway section on the right side, the section cut through the integration of the three major roles including the â€œLoop, Massing tower and Void underground courtyardâ€?. The public loop start from the underground courtyard rump around the building with the programs including the entry lobby, cafe, bookshop and end up with a view lookout point in the reference library. The semi public loop start from the underground gallery rump around the building to form the massing tower on the south side for the educational purpose. As for the underground level, from left to right, there are the auditorium, gathering space, the underground courtyard and preservation room. The dimension of the corridor have the potential to have the working space facing the courtyard. The auditorium can be access from ground level through the lift of the tower as well as the underground corridor. When rises up to the ground level, there is a ground level courtyard next to the educational tower entry, the two courtyards will have the visual connection with each other. Cutaway Section 1:100 A0
The illustration Journey starts from here...
Exploded Iso Drawing 1:100 A0
The Underground Courtyard
The rump introduce public going down to the undergournd courtyard with a wide range of activities, which is the start of the gallery journey.......
The Underground Auditorium&Gathering Space The grathering space for auditorium can be access from the tower at the ground floor level as well as the underground courtyard, for the students and teachers as well as the vistors during the public lectures
The Entry Lobby and Cafe
The entry lobby have a rump start the journry to the public loop with the programs including the bookshop and reference library. The cafe sits next to the looby have the folding door to control the flexibility to connect the external overhang space.......
The Active Learning Archive
In order to create a disable friendly rump, the active learning archive have a diagonal rump to climb up the levels with the bookshelves.....
The Active Learning Archive
This arm have a longspan cantileevered area, which is solved by the steel truss system. Oneside of this archive space is designed to place the working space towards the view of the courtyard wihle the other side is the circulation area.
The Adaptable Archive space have a void space connect with the underground lobby
The reference library have a digital scan copy room at the turnning point for the vistors to scan a digital copy of the collection. On the other end, it connects the long span cantilevered lookout point with a framed view of “the domain” and the “harbour view”on the north side.......
TURNING POINT: TURNINGSPACE/REST POINT: GATHERING AREA GATHERING SPACE/REST AREA
Detailing the facade The design of the facade as a reflection of the theme “tectonic”, it shows the consideration with the contexts as well as the programs inside. As can be seen from the facade diagram on the right page, i take the front facade as a typical example. I am interested in the tectonic composition of the masonry block pattern. The holes in-between the two blocks could be seen as a small opening connecting the interior with exterior. The overall pattern design is according to the program behind the facade such as the turning point, circulation area and gathering space/rest area. Then, i put the concept of “attractor” into the grasshopper definition to generate a few iteration of the pattern and pick the final one as displayed on the right page.
GRADIENT TRANSLATION GRADIENT TRANSLATION
MASONRY PATTERN MASONRY PATTERN
ARCHIVE: CIRCULATION ARCHIVE: CIRCULATION
TURNING POINT: TURNINGSPACE/REST POINT: GATHERING AREA GATHERING SPACE/REST AREA
Conclusion of the Journey “The Tectonic Architectural Drawing Foundation” as a cultural building project, the design intention has been fulfilled with a lot efforts during the process. “Thinking through drawings, and working through models”, this can be seen as my slogan during the whole design process. Since it is the last project of my academic studying life, i have applied all the techniques and skill gained from the class as well as my personal practices. The exploration of the architectural drawing style from this project can be varied from the grayscale to a vivid illustration. I hope the influence and outcome of this studio is still ongoing…… Perspective from the entry lobby to the two courtyards
Ongoing...... This is the last project of my academic learning life, the profound influence and encouragement on myself is ongoing. There are lots of efforts and improvements through the master degrees study both from UTS, AA Visiting school and end up with the Sydney University. Along with my winning competition Leichhardt Housing Competition earlier this year, this project can be seen as a comprehensive representation of my ability throughout the 5-year studying and practicing. The ending of the architectural education experience will mark the starting point of practical career in the industry. The experience and knowledge gained from this Master graduation studio definitely contribute to the future development of my architectural journey.