Technology+Nomad Michael Pryor_Thesis Book_Prof. Lawler_Fall 2010_NYIT
Towards a critical regionalism: six points for an architecture of resistance. Preface. All around the world one finds the same technol sources? 1. Modern buildings are so conditioned and technological that creating, significant urban forms become limited. Today archit end of the century brought about art nouveau of “art for the sake of art” consisting of dream worlds. Art has become a form of entertain rather than reason. Technology can revolutionize or retard society, however when technics become the universal form of production it c No new kind of architecture can emerge without a new relationship between designer and user, this can only happen with new progra local light or topography. To deconstruct work culture is to remove oneself from that eclecticism of the fin de siècle which appropriated when it has met other civilizations on terms other than conquest and domination. We call manifestation regional only because it hasn’t We can no longer maintain urban forms. A boundary is not that at which something stops, the Greeks recognized, it is the point in whic TV. 5. The bulldozing of a site truly represents placelessness. In a sense they are building the site, rather than working with the site. U and place, irrespective of local climate conditions which have a capacity to express the specific place and seasonal variations of its clim and virtual. The Stranger. Wandering is the liberation from any point in space, and the opposite of a fixed point. The stranger represen this group because he feeds some qualities into it, not because he has always been there. “Formulated by saying that in the relationsh the stranger result in a pattern of coordination and consistent interaction. Economics justifies the stranger as a trader. Economy can b The stranger becomes more obvious as he settles in the place he trades as opposed to leaving it. This could be because the longer he social groups are already established, were would u fit? The mobile person on the move comes into contact with every individual at o called from outside the colony, because no group member was unconnected to the community ties and judgments, they all already ha occur to his perception of giving situations. His criterion for situations is less specific and more general. The strangers relationship with Commonness becomes diluted the larger a group gets. Common interest could easily connect someone with many different people ra had not accidentally met their particular partner, the same significance would be found in another person. Non-common elements are n exist as general in their minds. The stranger is indeed a part of the group but the relation is composed of certain measures of nearnes urban fabric as necessarily fragmented, a palimpsest of past forms superimposed upon each other, and a collage of current uses, ma Bourgeoisie: The class of society primarily concerned with property values. Deconstructivism: Questions traditional assumptions ab between things. Excremental Culture: A culture dependent on money. Wage labor: The separation of labor from its product. Othernes ways to garner profit. Caesarism: Absolute government; imperialism. Nature-idolatry: Nature becomes purely an object for humankind, p thing to be shaped for social purposes and therefore always subservient to the construction of a social project. Modernism is a troubled man subjection of nature’s forces to man, machinery, application of chemistry to agriculture and industry, steam navigation, railways, has done this at a great cost: violence, destruction of traditions, oppression, reduction of the valuation of all activity to the cold calculus fancies, thus generating specialized, even highly customized architectural forms that may range from intimate, personalized spaces, th be shaped according to aesthetic aims and principals which have nothing necessarily to do with any overarching social objective, save and origins of modernism and postmodernism. To explain the ideals and opinions of Marx, and why these situations exist. To explore Modernism. Modernist urban planning works mainly in mono-functional zones. Circulation of people between zones by way of artific produces skyscrapers, groundscapers, central business districts and office parks which become over concentrated single use urban zo restoration and recreation of traditional urban styles. Restoration of older urban fabric for new uses. New spaces that create cunning v low cost housing and living, yet this created some of the worst instant slums and alienated conditions. corporate capitol could easily us nomic tune at the time. Low income becomes worse centers of delinquency and vandal than the slums they are set to replace. Middle strips malls and become bigger points of loitering. This is not the rebuilding of cities but the sacking of cities. Modernism planners wer and ideological reasons did go out of its way to repress the significance of capitol in urban life. Postmodernism was about finding ways
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logies and fabrications. Every culture cannot absorb the shock of modern civilization, how can we become modern yet return to our tecture seems to be either “high tech” in terms of productivity, or the harsh façade covering up all the harsh realities of system. 2. The nment but above all a form of a product to sell for income. Post-modernist architects are merely feeding the media society with images causes a historical totality – the world. 3. We need to remove from optimized technology, yet avoid the tendency to regress historicism. am. Universal civilization should be derived indirectly from a particular place. The governing inspiration should be something such as d alien, exotic forms in order to revitalize the expressivity of an enervated society. No one can say what will become of our civilization occurred anywhere else. We pass through these mediated skins of façade and end up in completely incoherent un-mediated areas. 4. ch something begins its presenting. Similar to the Polis. Maybe Americans do not need piazzaz, since they should be at home watching Urban fabric should also be seen as a site, it should be worked with, rather then demolished. Air conditioned is applied now in all times mate. Further more exploitative of nature is the fixed window. 6. There needs to be a meeting place between tactile and visual, the real nts a unity of the two. The stranger is permanent into a spatial group; their theoretical boundaries represent spatial ones. He belongs to hip to him, distance means that he, who is close by, is far, and strangeness means that he, who is far, is actually near.” Relations with be self-sufficient as products are traded internal to the group. The trader is only required for products originating outside of the group. is there the more people notice his presence and notice him for more than the purpose of trade. It’s like joining a new school that all its one time or another, but is not connected to them through ties of kinship, locality, or occupation. In old Italian civilization, judges were ad opinions of each other so it may have swayed there judgment. The stranger is bound by no commitment; therefore prejudice cannot h others is based of general ideals were as group member’s relationships are based on specific common traits and specific differences. ather than the ones in his group. Connection do to a specific experience has happened a thousand times before, therefore, if a person not individual, just strangeness of origin. Strangers are not individuals but are strangers of a different type. Nearness and farness both ss and measures. Condition of Postmodernity. Principle Ideas and Arguments. “Postmodernism cultivates, instead, a conception of the any of which may be ephemeral.” Key Words. Palimpsest: An object, place, or area that reflects its history. Good city: ecological city. bout certainty, identity, and truth. The fetishism of commodities: Money and market exchange puts a mask over social relationships ss: Groups in a society with less privileges or rights. Value in Motion: The circulation of capitol restlessly and perpetually seeking new purely a matter of utility. Problem. The metropolis is impossible to command except in bits and pieces. Modernists see space as somed and fluctuating response to the ideas of modernity. Bourgeoisie has created a new internationalism via the world market, together with electric telegraphs, clearing of whole continents for cultivation, canalization of rivers, whole populations conjured out of the ground. It of money and profit. Solution. Postmodernism aims to be sensitive to vernacular traditions, local histories, particular wants, needs, and hrough traditional monumentality, to the gaiety of spectacle. Postmodernists see space as something independent and autonomous, to e, perhaps, the achievement of timeless and disinterested beauty as an object in itself. Principle Usefulness. To explain the differences whether on not postmodernism is a different or valid alternate approach to architecture and planning. Principles of Postmodernism vs cial arteries becomes the central preoccupation of the planner. becomes anti-ecological because of a waste of time and money. This ones. This opposes a “good city” which has the total amount of urban functionality within walking distance. Postmodernism seeks active visions of traditional styles while applying new technology. mass production and the assembly line along with rational thinking created se every modernist trick in the book. To blame Modernity for post war urbanization is wrong without also blaming the political and ecoe income housing becomes a cookie cutter and has no personality. Civic centers and commercial centers replicate suburban shopping re scared that complexity and chaos would make the city ugly and hopelessly irrational. Modernist push, partly for practical, technical, s to express such aesthetics and diversity. Contemporary communications collapsed space and time boundaries allowing social interac
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tion across space. Eliminating the need for a city center. New technology such as computer modeling allowed mass production of perso our culture. Post modernism abandons the modernist search for inner meaning in the midst of present turmoil, and asserts a broader b preserve the self. We all are mixing as a society so why not mix the parts of the city. Postmodernism is a search for a fantasy world , would be worthless, but it is only through money that social labor can be represented at all. Money allows the ability to exercise powe money.The problem with capitalist modernization was to liberate us from the fetishisms of market exchange and to demystify the soci fragmentation, ephemerality, innovation, creative destruction, speculative development, unpredictable shifts in methods of production a context in which modernist and post modernist thinkers forge there esthetics and principals. Postmodernism does not reflect and fund it reflects a shift in the way in which capitalism is working. Capitalism becomes a good base for relations between postmodernism an power. If the only thing certain about modernity is uncertainty, then we should pay considerable attention to the social forces that produ ments, signs of the collective will as expressed through the principles of architecture, offer themselves as primary elements, fixed point world subject to caroming moral, political and economic system. But it does so in such a way as to be disorienting, even confusing and central themes.” “Constant revolutionizing of production, uninterrupted disturbance of all social relations, everlasting uncertainty and a opinions, are swept away, all new-formed ones become obsolete before they can ossify. All that is solid melts into air, all that is holy is “the understanding of perceptions and experiences of the present as a symbolic and associative, a fragmentary collage, with the big ci were no war? How could it have changed or been different without an industrial and economic boom? If postmodernism is a solution to lem among the urbanite is his attempt to maintain individuality. Freedom and achievements make a person individual, but it makes him tionally. People begin to know each other based on the premise of what they can benefit from this person rather than who they are. Pe them or keep track of them all. In this case the urbanite has the ability and is almost forced to pick and choose the people they have clo supplied for the market of unknown purchasers who are never viewed by the producers themselves. Products start to become generi modern mind has become a calculator, due to money-based economy; every problem in the world is fixed with a mathematical formul many membered organism. What one person likes could be shared with another. But those people have so many different likes that the time their flow of activity and economy would hiccup in a way, I believe that with today’s current technology, especially smart phones th ships, it’s the only way to understand what urban environments do to the masses. Money takes place of all things and the world is see tacts would but one in an unthinkable mental condition. Our minds respond, with some definite feelings, to almost every impression e limited to his development and has very little free activity for which he is solely responsible. When the average city dweller is placed in ancient polis is similar to a small town, design to fend off enemies. What this isolation does is makes citizens’ watch citizens and gover hold. This created an atmosphere were the stronger gained power and the weaker were held down. The advantage can be taken beca exclusive and no one will understand it, to common and it’s a trend. In a small town different may be considered weird. In the metropo were you might most likely know every one you encounter in everyday activities. A person does not end with the area in which his phys they must specialize in a trade and product to gain an income, since unlike a small town there isn’t one butcher or one repair man, one interactions are rare compared to small towns. The cultural progress of an entire city compared to one of an individual of that city, a fri based on stimulations, interests, and taking up time. On the other hand the city is composed of impersonal cultural elements. To save th movement of the individual in all his social and intellectual relationships would allow the same noble essence to emerge from all individu metropolis becomes the setting for these conflicts and a place to attempt their unity. It is out task to not complain but to understand. T pens to be, as well as, its presence in a certain moment in time and space. The original art determined the history of that time and expr it authenticity and meaning / significance as a real living, and travelling thing. Reproductions rob in a way an originals testimony to hist original. Film is societies most powerful agent, it represents social activity time and space. 2. The value of the original exists as rituals.
onalized construction to produce faster. Although Postmodernism seems to be market-oriented because that is the primary language of base for the eternal in a constructed vision of historical continuity and collective memory. To preserve the past is part of an impulse to its not just function but fiction. Money represents the world of social labor and exchange value. In the absence of social labor money er over another. Man becomes an appendage of the machine. The state creates an alternative sense of community to that based on ial and historical world in the same exact way. Social processes are at work. under capitalism conductive to individualism, alienation, and consumption, a shifting experience of time and space, and a crisis-ridden dynamic of social change. these ideas form the material damental change of social condition. It represents either a departure from what could or should be done about social conditions or else nd modernity. Postmodernism is dangerous for it avoids confronting the reality of political economy and the circumstances of global uce such a condition. Quotes “This vision in its entirety seems to be reflected with a quality of permanence in urban monuments. Monuts in the urban dynamic.” “what deconstructivism has in common with much post modernism, however, is its attempt to mirror an unruly d so break down our habitual ways of perceiving form and space. Fragmentation, chaos, disorder, even within seeming order, remains agitation, distinguish the bourgeois epoch from all earlier time, all fixed, fast-frozen relationships, with their train of venerable ideas and profound, and men at last are forced to face with sober sense the real conditions of their lives and their relations with their fellow men.” ity providing the ultimate metaphor.” Questions. How could the time period in which modernism blossomed have been different if there o the errors of modernism than what may be a solution to errors in postmodernism? Metropolis and the Mental Life. The biggest probm more dependent of the complimentary activity of others. Man is dependent on differences. Urbanites react rationally rather than emoeople in small rural areas tend to know all each other, in the urban setting there are so many people that the mind cannot take to know ose relationships with. Relationships and reactions can develop in ways that cannot be understood in rational terms. Modern cities are ic in a way dedicated to a mass rather than the individual. The form of the metropolis is what allows these networks to be made. The la. The urbanite is so complex, that in a place were so many people have so may different interest; their relationships intertwine into a eir oppositions are easily shared with someone else, so on and so forth. Simmel states that if all the clocks in Berlin all went to different his “hiccup” would be much less drastic as stated in the article. Metropolitan life cannot be thought of without its activities and relationen in the way of “ how much” .If the external interactions that occur within a small town occurred in the metropolis, the amount of conemanating from another person. An elementary stage of organization is the almost closed circle, in this forced organization the user is n a smaller rural setting or “circle” he feels narrow, this narrowness limits the amount of relationships and activities that can occur The rnment to have to much control. The individual feels he is powerless of decision and ultimately only has authority within his own houseause the population is a manageable and controllable size. In the metropolis difference is appreciated in the struggle for individuality, to olis, because there is so many people with so many differences, people can feel very alone and disconnected apposed to a small town sical activity partakes, but he embraces the TOALITY OF MEANINGFUL EFFECTS which emanates temporally and spatially. One finds e must play the market well and have the best product or offer. This leads to increased personal relations with the public. Allotted social ightful difference would be seen representing a regression of the culture of the individual. On one hand, life is made easier from cities he personal element individualizations must be produced and exaggerated to be put into awareness of the individual. Full freedom and uals. No longer is it general equality between individuals that is the criteria for his value but its his uniqueness and irre-placeability. The The work of art in the age of mechanical reproduction 1. Reproduced art, no matter how exact, still lacks existence at the place it hapressed it at that time of existence. The changes an original gains do to wear and tear over time as well as it changes in ownership give tory. It did not have to experience the history in which it portrays. The reproduction meeting the eyes of an audience can reactivate the . Pure art denies social function and categorizes subject matter. When art is pure it destroys ritual and becomes politics. 3. “When the
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age of mechanical reproduction separated art from its basis in cult, the semblance of it autonomy disappeared forever.” 4. Shooting fil technology.” Camera man as surgeon, painter as magician. Magician lays hands on a body to heal respecting there distance, a surgeo art form, the sharper the distinction between criticism and enjoyment by the public.” Painting cannot present and object for simultaneou Painting invites a spectator to contemplation, film does not allow this before a movie frame can be examined it is already gone and a purpose, no intelligence, no thought or concentration; it provides hope beside the useless one of becoming a star in LA. The human ne iner, but an absent-minded one. Architecture and art make you observe, discover, and create your own interpretation of what you are e dropping seeds from airplanes it drops bombs. The Stranger. Wandering is the liberation from any point in space, and the opposite of represent spatial ones. He belongs to this group because he feeds some qualities into it, not because he has always been there. “Form far, is actually near.” Relations with the stranger result in a pattern of coordination and consistent interaction. Economics justifies the str originating outside of the group. The stranger becomes more obvious as he settles in the place he trades as opposed to leaving it. Thi like joining a new school that all its social groups are already established, where would u fit? The mobile person on the move comes in old Italian civilization, judges were called from outside the colony, because no group member was unconnected to the community ties mitment; therefore prejudice cannot occur to his perception of giving situations. His criterion for situations is less specific and more ge common traits and specific differences. Commonness becomes diluted the larger a group gets. Common interest could easily connect sand times before, therefore, if a person had not accidentally met there particular partner, the same significance would be found in ano different type. Nearness and farness both exist as general in their minds. The stranger is indeed a part of the group but the relation is c increasing mobile, nomadic society. While we pause briefly to answer a cell we briefly become unaware of our surroundings, like we ar can be voluntary and in voluntary. A voluntary nomadism could be a traveler who does so due to work commitments. An involuntary n state of nomadismThe most common example is a tent or yurt. Hard tool and soft tools are required. Hard tools are items such as she and inflatable, as well as changeable. An example is David Greens inflatable suit, were nomads would wear these suits, and depend individuals divide mobility and combine into a collective shelter. The typewriter in early days, before the personal computer, was cons and computer supported cooperative work. As long as have access to web, physical objects do not need to be transported in the work time increase, one could speculate that the need to maintain a traditional house/home also becomes questionable.” As more people ex city Work activity being independent from work location, can fix previously neglected family relations. Webber “cities would no longer b work can transport that cities would loose cultural and social functions, with low quality urban sprawls. Dual city = people with technolo come physical divides amongst workers and nomad by creating semi-private internal environments were city areas were populated by yet disconnected. Connectedness generates a sense of stability. “by contrast, technologically-based nomadism generates no local qua from a strong diffused sense of identity, and from being part of a global network.” Technological nomadism: technological boundaries P the individual. Information is much easier to obtain than it is to distribute. Technological nomadism: social boundaries “imagery of the di increased leisure time) the reality is the reverse. This is because, as there is no downtime, there is a tendency to work more rather tha houses can teach all how to access the web. “Until recently the lack of a physical address was a significant impediment in remaining vi the homeless it is important to provide an easy user friendly type of interface. Cannot be part of network without proper device, this ma goods and people replaced by informational one, reduce the need to travel to an office, reduce the need to keep in physical contact ove possibly increase distant travelling which could be negative on the environment. ID’s and passwords would be all that’s needed to acce the sustainability implifications are more likely to be social, rather than environmental.” Conclusion “Physical and logical space are in sleeping in his apparel shelter in an airport waiting lounge whilst a homeless person received an e-mail on his mobile phone.” Junk S brilliant inventions and infinite computation, their whole is the end of the enlightenment. Our architecture is not memorable or specific
object. It’s a
lm, especially with sound affords a spectacle unimaginable before. “the sight of immediate reality has become an orchid in the land of on cuts his way and plunges into the body, invading and exploiting the body. 5. “the greater the decrease in the social significance of an us collective experience, as architecture could do at all times. 6. Dadaism attempted to create the effects that the public seeks in films. always changing. “I can no longer think what I want to think my thoughts have been replaced by moving images.” 7. Film requires no eed for shelter is forever, Architecture can never idle. Its history is the most ancient art form. The movies have the public as an examexperiencing. 8. Technology has not been sufficiently developed to cope with elemental forces of society. Ex: WAR. Instead of society f a fixed point. The stranger represents a unity of the two. The stranger is permanent into a spatial group; their theoretical boundaries mulated by saying that in the relationship to him, distance means that he, who is close by, is far, and strangeness means that he, who is ranger as a trader. Economy can be self-sufficient as products are traded internal to the group. The trader is only required for products is could be because the longer he is there the more people notice his presence and notice him for more than the purpose of trade. It’s nto contact with every individual at one time or another, but is not connected to them through ties of kinship, locality, or occupation. In and judgments, they all already had opinions of each other so it may have swayed there judgment. The stranger is bound by no comeneral. The strangers relationship with others is based of general ideals were as group member’s relationships are based on specific t someone with many different people rather than the ones in his group. Connection do to a specific experience has happened a thouother person. Non-common elements are not individual, just strangeness of origin. Strangers are not individuals but are strangers of a composed of certain measures of nearness and measures. Logical space for the urban nomad. A nomadic society. We live in a rapidly re plugged into a new mental system, we don’t even notice the millions of others around us engaging in the similar activity. Nomadism nomad has lost the power to choose, they are likely to be from a less fortunate socio-economic profile. Technological responses to the elter and clothing, soft tools are access to networks and information. From Archigram to wearable’s Shelters were explored as moving ding who they were with at the end of the day, they could remove their suits and zip them together to form a shelter. In this sense the sidered to be a way to transport work. Generate a personal environment. Jacket with built in phone and music. CSCW = virtual offices environment between colleagues. “Shelter has not yet been perceived as an issue relevant to the work station; however, should travel xist without homes, the need for services beyond physical requirement may increase as well. Social change, technology, and the dual be necessary as people would be able to work in locations of their choice to avoid the overcrowded urban environments.” Others said if ogy got jobs and choose their work location, others without technology, in the same environment, had no choices. Even further would y the worker during the day, and the nomad at night. Low-income nomads rebuild using left overs from society; these spaces are local, ality, as their presence is almost unperceivable in the way they use public spaces. Technological nomads derive their personal identity Physical infrastructure has limitations in diffusing information technology, it cannot be forever nor can it go anywhere while pertaining to igital briefcase and the global portable shelter conjures an image of the freedom to work in any location (with the subtle implifications of an less, blurring the barrier between work and leisure.” Low income nomadism: access to hardware/interfaceCreating computer clubisible in society at large. This can now at least be partly ameliorated by providing access to e-mail and a digital address. In the case of akes it hard for low-income communities to benefit from technology. Sustainability Environmental improvement due to physical flow of er seas. Increasing logical links between people in different geographic states all over the world could encourage more nomadism and ess the workplace; this combines shelter and communication eliminating the need for designated mass work places. “for the homeless, fact complementary, each enhancing the experience of the other.” “In an ideal world, it would be possible to envisage a dot.com user Space. Junk space is the residue mankind leaves on the planet, after we have run our course. Junk spaces individual parts are from c, we do not leave pyramids. The main product of junk space is the encounter of air conditioning and escalators in an encasement of
sheetrock (all three missing from history books) It is always interior. Junk space is sealed together by skin not structure, it is masked created endless buildings, thus creating no boundaries to dictate an architecture. Because of these technologies architecture has beco as air conditioning we now pay for the conditioning of air, which ancients had for free by means of adjusting their architecture. When w space fuses high and low, public and private, straight and bent, bloated and starved to offer a seamless patchwork of the permanently vided. There are no walls but only partitions, structure is covered or worse used as ornament, space frames hold everything and ironic munity entrance mostly false in stucco. It has gone from the sole purpose of load bearing to strictly symbol and ornament. Junk space geometry means we can only arbitrarily in a sense make it. Transparency reveals everything in which you cannot partake, non events. in junk space. Instead of creation we thrive now on manipulation. Building materials are more and more modular and standardized. T wrong; flows depend on disciplined movement and coherent bodies. Junk space is a web without a spider. Its anarchy is one of the la space a vast potential utopia clogged by its users. Sometimes an entire junk space turns into a slum overnight like a night club or ba corrupts, absolute history corrupts absolutely" “but now your own architecture is infected, has become equally smooth, all-inclusive, co Security cameras represent windows into lives only to be wasted by the view of a poorly trained guard. “junk space has to swallow m author is dead, history is dead, only the architect is left standing.” Junk space will become wired to all the worlds other junk spaced c desks become sculptures ect. Final step of junk space = the world as public space. Some places like airports are the same material rep and arrive in a chaotic nothingness, with nothing guiding there direction but signs. “Color in the real world looks increasingly unreal, d obsessed with the weather: 40% of all tv consists of presenters of lesser attractiveness gesturing helplessly in front of windswept form window, real life is inside, cyberspace has become the outdoors. “mankind always goes on about architecture, what if space started loo city consists of layers forming a consolidated entity. Infrastructure, Architecture, and Landscape are sediments of one and the same g situation. Non-site- An abstract representation or re-interpretation of a site in the form of, a text, map, or sculpture. A de facto- In practic ences of city structure. Scaft- To give form to or shape. Morphology- Form and structure considered as a whole. Problem There are thre diversity. Any one of the three may dominate: sometimes the “road” is lost - to be found meandering on an incomprehensible detour; so all three are simultaneously absent. Solution Infrastructure, architecture, and landscape amalgamate to become one complex. Instead tecture is declared as landscape, infrastructure as architecture, and landscape as architecture, then the predicament is given for pote architecture, landscape, and infrastructure are in most cases today separated. To express that all system and typologies within a city these elements can be erased and blurred. Introducing the views of Rem Koolhaas, Hans Scharoun, Adriann Geuze, and Zaha Hadid o as freeways and power lines, as well as single family houses and shopping centers and suburban neighbor hoods, are together with exhibits properties of mineralogical structures that depend equally on natural and synthetic process. Flows occur when large qualities perception. Site and Non-site are two forms of one phenomenon they can be transposed onto one another. The windshield of a car is c this creating the “crystal landscape” This is a space that can be traversed – a space fundamentally determining the so-called reality of s an idiom for the endless city, in which the distinction between center and periphery, between inside and outside, between figure and g landscape is perceived as an interconnected tissue, a hybrid constituting the city’s primary connective principle. The disparate elements mity. Smooth space is not bound by a specific place but is primarily marked by vectorial displacement, multiplicities, lines, strata, and se multiple dimensions and coexisting structures. It literally smoothes over divisions. Scape / -schaft The form giving process must relate The city evolves, not through the external impositions of order, but according to internal interdependencies. Urban fields emanates fro societal changes both at material and cultural levels. Urban space is a system constantly exposed to change, it is not a static system implementation of predetermined type forms than by the tension resulting from a field of interactive forces. In that, architecture eludes t Architecture – Landscape Architecturalization of landscape and infrastructure, a terminology which reciprocally suggests an infra
and hidden away, to the point the common person no longer understands how the building works and operates. Air conditioning has ome the same everywhere, ever architect is in essence working on the same building, separate, but coherent. Also, due to such things we think of space we only describe its containers never the space itself as if its invisible, architects could never describe space. Junk y disjoined. Space is originally conceived of piling solids to create a new whole, junk space is additive, lightweight, layered, and subdically the arc, which is the original barer of loads and that was it’s only purpose for creation has become free standing symbols of come doesn’t create perfection, only interest. Its geometries are unimaginable, only makeable, we no longer understand why or what the THERE IS NO FORM ONLY PROLIFERATON (growth of parts by multiplication of cells) Junk space thrives on design but design dies Transitional moments are become stapling or taping, hardly an unbroken surface illusion. Junk space is described as flows, which is ast ways we experience freedom. There is a special way of moving through junk space aimless and purposeful. Infrastructure is junk achelor pad, air conditioning fails, cracks appear, letters drop off of signs. Corridors no longer link a to b but are destinations. "history ontinuous, warped, busy, atrium-ridden. Verbs that start with re are junk space. Credit tracks everything about you except who you are. more and more program to survive: soon, we will be able to do anything anywhere. We will have conquered place.” God is dead, the called e-space. Office is the new junk space, since you can work at home, office aspires to the domestic because you still need a life, peated in infinity, brick, wood, tile; all painted the same color, the symmetries are scaled to nothingness, they are dropped off at a gate drained. Color in virtual space is luminous, therefore irresistible.” “Because we spend our life indoors – like animals in a zoo- we are mations, through which you recognize, sometimes, your own destination/current position.” “conceptually each tv set is a substitute for a oking at mankind? We even change our bodies, are we to construction sites? Hybrid Morphologies. Principle Ideas and Arguments)The geology. Key Words. Geology- The study of origin, history, and structure of a celestial body. Site- The material reality of a pre existing ce but not officially established. Scape- a reading of the urban territory as a landscape. Smooth space- smooths over divisions in differee elements: roads, buildings, and nature; they coexist in flexible relationships, seemingly without reason, in spectacular organizational ometimes you see no building, only nature; then, equally unpredictably, you are surrounded only by building. In some frightening spots, d of accentuating their differences and treating them as separate entities, the possibility of their convergence is proposed. When archientially understanding the phenomenon city on other grounds than those conventionally pursued. Principle Usefulness To explain how y should be conceived as one whole gesture rather than many separate pieces. To provide examples of how boundaries and limits of on this idea of melting everything together as well using examples of their individual works. Site vs Non-Site Urban infrastructures such the landscape seen as one system. They are sediments of one and the same geology. The landscape has not grown organically but of asphalt, concrete, mud or glue are poured across parts of landscape. Non-Site strategies are superimposed onto a site, altering its captured in its physical condition but read as an extension of the landscape, in this way creating a new physical and mental landscape, space. Scape Town-scape and land-scape are not considered separate entities but are conjoined to form a single expression. Scape is ground is erased. Despite its inherent discontinuities, a specific form of cohesion is attributed to the contemporaneous city, the urban s of the city form a network conglomerate of variable components which amidst divergences offers the impression of a constant uniforegmentaries, lines of flight and intensities. Smooth space is a hierarchical, decentralized, and nomadic in its organization, they express e to the “demand which expresses itself in the unfinished”, that is, in open systems, this is essential within planning and urban design. om a process which includes the traces and histories of past processes. Urbanity is an expression of the “mental landscape” mirroring m but a mutable organization made of different components, adaptable to varying circumstances. Urban space is created, less by the the domain of bounded compositions to favor the dynamic, unceasingly fluid conditions of the urban land-scape space. Infrastructureastructuralization or landscapification of architecture. Adriaan Geuze Landscape architect. Rather than separating landscape and
infrastructural elements, he interweaves them. Approaches the site as an ecological system. In Storm Surge Barrier Project the alte scape is always subjected to a process of transformation in which disparate elements are conjoined into a fluid spatial continuum. Zaha an artificial landscape, derived from a reading of the site which expanded and heightened the sites topographical features. Through t traditional notions of the architectural object as a finite entity. The strength in her work resides in its energetic spatial fluidity. Rem Kool tion of the city as a dynamic system in which architecture, infrastructure, and landscape are no more than events or occurrences within spaces are densified using landscape and architectural elements. Green open spaces and built fabric become interlaced within the ne avoid prioritizing architecture and promotes hybridization of components. Fluid Morphologies While the traditional city demarcates a f urban landscape increasingly evolves as a dynamic process. Boundaries between architecture, infrastructure, and landscape dissolve w etries such as grids, axes and radial organizations through which to establish order within the urban fabric. These principles confirm the urban conglomerate in its entangled complexity. The new city unfolds from a system of relations between different sometimes contradic ated. The city is a system in motion characterized by fluid conditions. Infrastructure, architecture, and landscape loose their autonomy, termined state is attained, that repudiates – as to the logic of a new spatial conception – firmly secured hierarchies. Quotes “If there is longer be concerned with the arrangement of more or less permanent objects but with the irrigation of territories with potential; it will no into definitive forms; it will no longer be about meticulous definition, the imposition of limits; but about expanding notions, denying boun but with the manipulation of infrastructure for endless intensifications and diversifications, shortcuts and redistributions-the reinvention the entire landscape has a mineral presence. From the shiny chrome diners to glass windows of shopping centers, a sense of the crys The reflection on the windshield, the plastic buttons of the car radio, and the depression of the glove compartment are read as a kind of react when expansion occurs? Would expansion to an already unified body break its unity? Can it be added to or grow in a way which design its context, how can the idea of uniformity remain when not everyone has the same vision? if one lived in a city where everything happens to basic study ideas of hard scape / soft scape, especially in the visual forms we study them in such as figure-ground maps an time. Also it needs to be studied at different times of day, as noticed with the highline at hours of work ending and beginning it transfo school being over, weekends versus the work week. Also, the methods will show what activities occur at what time and how many of Does traffic affect the desire to reach the space? Does public transportation directly reach the place? Does it link other areas convenie Is there security? How clean is the area? Is this place an icon or beacon? Activities: The more the better Do different ages of peopl hereCan you meet friends here? Do people know each other by face or name? Do people use the space regularly and by choice? Doe independence in architecture are recent terms. What the mean now is different from there origins. Today these ideas have become ord of how people will occupy it. Instead of just architecture in drawing, can a drawing show how people interact with each other? The Mad and touching each other, only one person actually acknowledges the viewer. The existing villa Madonna in Rome has a mirrored plan which are open. In the painting, you never get a feel of place, or what the architecture of there location is like. Doors Thoroughfare roo one door leading to each room. Rooms used to be a matrix of interconnecting chambers, which works as a public building, but not so convenient room had but one.” Passages always connect one space to another; they never serve as general distributors of movemen place understandably within real limits. Buildings were rarely split into serving and served space. Although the villa Madonna had rooms only? Passages purpose was to ensure that one activity never infected another as well as servants being hidden from the public. At firs by, while other rooms could still function together directly if desired. Corridor restricted territories. From architect’s point of view, all oc hide in cut an unbridgeable gap dividing commodity from delight, utility from beauty, and function from form. The time of single space ro privacy. Rooms become independent. Stairs, landings, halls, and vestibules become nothing but a way to go from one space to anoth allow one to think and ponder as they traveled. House diagrams could be reduced to trajectory and position. Movement and flow
ms for a hyp
ernating light and dark stripes of sea shells appear as an extension of nearby infrastructures forming a linked territorial complex. Landa Hadid considers her architecture as a form of landscape extension. In the Honk Kong Peak competition the project was thought of as the super imposition of architectonic layers and the blurring of boundaries, the structure unfolds as an open tectonic field, countering lhaas Understands the city as a field determined by accumulations, connections, densities, transformations, and fluctuations. Concepan uninterrupted spatial field. In a project called “Dolphins” he focuses on the space created by freeway intersections, these left over etwork of streets. A wasted territory within the city is reclaimed through the introduction of new program and interconnected systems. It figure against the ground of its surrounding landscape, in the contemporary city figure ground distinctions are revoked. The city as an while de-centering the notion of the architectural object as a closed entity. Traditional city planning encompasses organizational geome specific distinctions between center and periphery, core and edge, inside and outside, categories no longer adequate to describe the ctory forces, no longer as an absolute but in reference to other structures. The relation between different parts is unceasingly renegoti, the established meaning of their respective definitions exposed to mutable significations. With the dissolution of categories, an undes to be new urbanism it will not be based on the twin fantasies of order and omnipotence; it will be the staging of uncertainty; it will no o longer aim for stable configurations but for the creation of enabling fields that accommodate processes that refuse to be crystallized ndaries, not about separating and defining entities, but about discovering unnamable hybrids; it will no longer be obsessed with the city of psychological space.” “The highways crisscross through the towns and become man-made geological networks of concrete. In fact, stalline prevails. From a drivers viewpoint, this artificial, crystalline landscape even merges with the topography of the car’s dashboard. f extension of the territory of the sub-urban conglomerate.” Questions If a city is thought of and designed as one organism, how does it h conforms to the uniformity? How can it not have additive qualities and connections? If one person designs a city, and many people g is as one would he/she lose sense of location and spatial significances? As the line between systems and elements are blurred what nd patterns? City for People. Public spaces are a dynamic entity, the climate and activity of these areas largely effects there use at that ormed into a transportation link rather than gathering space. Also, the availability of people at certain times such as kids in school or them there are. Furthermore understanding the agenda of each space and what defines it boundaries. Major Elements: Accessibility: ently? Comfort / Image: Does the place make a good first impression? Is there abundant seating? Is seating movable / customization? le use the space? Do certain groups use the space? Does one have choices of things to do? Sociability: Can you meet new people es this place mix age and ethnicity and represent the community at large? Figures, Doors, and Passages Preface Privacy comfort and dinary. The Plan and it’s occupants Walls, doors, and stairs, divide space and connect space. The absence is 2d drawing is the feeling donna in the room The Raphael painting Madonna portrays people more focused on touch than sight, as they are staring at each other and symmetry, the original plan does not, in fact every room is different. In plan it is very difficult to tell which areas are enclosed and oms in which u must walk through rooms to get to other rooms caused inconvenience, an alternative was a centralized hub room with o much with in the household with the ideas of privacy. “In 16 century a convenient room had many doors, in 19th century England a nt. Meaning there was always a door. Rooms provide an edge to perception and view. Allowing the social content of paintings to take s of all size and shapes, the connectivity and flow remained the same. Passages Is the corridor a device to remove traffics from a room st the corridor was not an exclusive means of access but was installed parallel to interconnecting rooms. This allowed servants to pass ccupants of the house becomes potential irritation to another. “this split between an architecture to look through and an architecture to ooms enclosed by one door can be described as “be short” as people did not want to be disturbed when in confinement. This becomes her. There should be more interacting and secondary activity in these places, thus why paintings were introduced into these areas, to ws. The new plan put members of the house that were distracting as well an offensive activities on one side furthest away from
programs that entitled harmony and peace. A compartmentalized building or building which circulation happens from room to room, has ate form. “the relation of rooms to each other being the relationship of their doors, the sole purpose of the thoroughfares is to bring thes of rooms, with all the diversion, incidents and accidents that they might harbors, Instead, the door of any room would deliver you into words these thoroughfares were able to draw distant rooms closer, but only by disengaging those near at hand.” Bodies in space Sinc Everything in emblematic rather than eventful. Nineteenth century family life sprung the individualization of each member’s spaces. “ reaction to others such as the path from bathroom to bedroom. All accidental encounters create encounter and create friction and con passes everyday reality, providing a format for social life to occur. “certainly it would be foolish to suggest that there is anything in a pla ity.” Architecture in the past two century’s has restricted social life and has created a type of preventative measure for peace, security Nomads and transformers Movement of Growth Motion is on relative if it is compared to something else.Architecture, now, is expan through purely public mediums. Ex: public phone, news paper, stock boards. Mechanical System –Organic system Entities themselve with other open systems, a network. Codes are fixed, but the way they are interpreted is relevant only to the individual. Flows – Flux C environment through convergence and divergence. These strategies form a response to the environment, but since the environment i inhabiting the landscape whilst in inhibition as landscape the complexities of our own nature prevail” Temporal-transient) City form is ne statics. Architecture of the city must however embrace motion, classical models of pure timeless form and structure are no longer ade ubiquitous, patterns related to the past that have matured and the physical appearance has become static. The patterns of the city do encing the past. City patterns, being fixed, fail to adopt and quickly become irrelevant to the present, they need to become more motiv one. Ex: cars rely on roads, planes on runways, internet on computers. Direct relationship between infrastructure and mobility. Perman tion. Fashion is more frivolous and chameleon-like. In the same sense architecture has a sole universal purpose of creating / enclosing tion. Event-facility Event spaces are the new program of the city, programmatically fluxing areas serving their purpose for a specific ins are informed of each other, they belong, a new architecture should not pretend to be historic but should represent the current and futu refit their premises on a 5-10 yr cycle. Technology rotating through their shell. Techno –nomads Technology is now aimed at the indiv techno-nomad.Traditional nomads roam from area to area and hold no interest in the land itself, they claim a “right of passage” Tech “rhizomes” to be navigable. Information boundaries = a form of insanity. Techno-Nomads require a base, they need to use the artificial infrastructure, they need to be traceable geographically. Geographic distance has been shortened, community no longer means the p Architecture and urban space has lost it’s specificity, and space as the definition of enclosure is no longer a relevant term to define arch new mobility. Computers have amalgamated information storage, retrieval, visualization, and communication. General characteristi “plug-in” anywhere. café = library, meeting place, work. It blurred home and being out. Non-space = no definition as space. Anywhere – ous international appearance, it does not signify any particular country because it symbolizes a gateway or portal to another place, it a human conceptual notation of the past as a source for producing the future.” Euclidean transformed to non-Euclidean. Complex form w is become.” Radical-redundant Event as monument has replaced static literal monuments. Architecture cannot exist with out humanity environment based on bodily experience. Sensations-skin Space is experienced by eye, ear, nose, tongue, skin, skeleton, and musc perceptive “anthromorphse” = appreciating bodies that have similarities to our own. “The motive anthropomorphizing of objects means t or reproduced in photographs or film – it is a holistic experience of the body and mind.” “Architecture has become a master of the fast ence is also holistic to space. Time and space are indivisible and require each other to survive. Spatial experience should be based on site-parasite Para = against, besides, near “So a para-site is essentially a site tht is intended for transient use or re use by the use of urban events. Architecture can grow over time, and like a clock, it can yield awareness of time. Architecture can be constructed with its adapting many forms of geometry of stasis. Different experiences based on different times and events. Experience itself aroun
t urban soci
s to be organized based on movement because movement is the only thing giving it coherence, although it does not necessarily generse doors into a proper system of communication. “ “no longer was it necessary to pass serially though the intractable occupied territory o a network of routes from which the room next door and the furthest extremity of the house were almost equally accessible. In other ce, the middle of the 19th century, architecture has been more concerned with the fabrication of architecture rather than its occupancy. “THE FRICTIONAL HOUSE FOR FRICTIONLESS LIVING” paths literally never cross at all. Certain paths are treated with caution in nflict in the family module. Conclusion The body is a vestibule of mind and spirit, and in which privacy is habitual. Architecture encoman which could compel people to behave in a specific way towards one another, enforcing a day-to-day regime of gregarious sensualy, and segregation, everything becomes exclusive and limiting, like gated communities. Freedom and Transience of space (Technondable and changeable not only through time but as space. Communication has become linked directly to the individual, rather than es can pose as a medium for other entities like a flock of birds or a blade of grass. Open systems are delocalized and interdependent Closed circle = mechanical system, Endless spiral = organic system. Organic models consist of flows, flux, and rhythms, based on the is changing as well these strategies ironically become relative to only a specific moment in time. “The complexities of nature prevail in ever more than a result than the temporal existence of things. Static-stasis “Architecture is by definition the study and representation of equate.” Water can be an example of flows and movements cant bend and melt around objects. Stable, strategic Our landscapes are not adapt rapidly enough to the dynamics of human nature. The urban pattern is an artificial landscape, which became historic, referve driven, and adaptive to remain appropriate to the needs of fluctuating inhabitants. Every motion based subject also relies on a fixed nence-polemic “Clothes are what we wear to facilitate ourselves within our environment in terms of social acceptance, and body protecg space, yet its appearance is not timeless. “Monuments have become backgrounds to the continuously changing events of consumpstance and another at some other time. The flow of event spaces does not have to destroy historic fabric, since the grid and its history ure situations of society. Flow through historic monuments. Contemporary-temporary Media = fast image and event. Shops and cafes vidual rather than the public in general. Ex: the public telephone, post box, and bus stop. The freedom of technology has created the hno-nomads expect to feed freely without boarders and boundaries; they browse information and expect the information routes and landscape as a launch pad to explore the beyond. “Whether the Launchpad is physical or digital, the nomad remains tied into a social people near you, but it means the people whom you have the most common with. Things that form communities are interest and age. hitecture. Techno-nomads are free of geographical and typological boundaries. Typology-technology Flow is most important due to our ic of new space = large span, loose-fit, space that is over flexible and has zoned rather than enclosed circulation. Symbols—space – space = space in which the user must bring his imagery, or the media has implied universally recognized images. Airports = ambigualso never embraces arrival. “genus-loci” Immutability-immortality “The only thing stopping architects from free experiential space is the with curves actually creates more static architecture because it is super permanent and defined in one way. “nothing ever is, everything y; man is the measure of all things. Instant media message has taken over experiential discovery, we have lost the ability to design the cle. Touch is the mother of senses it is differentiated into the others. Skin is our holistic window into experiencing the world. Motivethat our perception of form in space and space itself as a defined form is more than mere image that can be represented in perspective image accelerating experiential space and condensing spatial experience as a singular surface sensation.” Fast-slow Human experistimulation as a verb not a noun, it should be actions. Layers can create a slow space, unveiled over time. Gestures as events. Paraf formal gestures with in-built obsolescence.” Parasite examples Building can be set to self destruct and are one of the most popular s deconstruction in mind. Architecture can be a framework for universal facilitation, “one size fits all” Architecture can be a transformer, nd the world has become common, events and random social interactions become the true life of the dense urban atmoshpere.
iety in flux...
TH E S I S _ STATE M E NT This THESIS is NOT about the cityâ€™s attempt to create order through long-term plans. It is about a temporary, unpredictable city existing within a permanent one, between the planned and the experienced, where events exist within a context, yet without any context at all.
CONTENTS S P A C E _ T I M E . . . 01 - 16
G r a p h s . . . 03 - 04 E s s a y . . . 05 - 08 G l o b a l N e t w o r k . . . 09 - 10 E x p e r i e n c e . . . 11 - 12 G l o b a l i z a t i o n . . . 13 - 14 P s y c o g e o g r a p h y . . . 15 - 16
T R A V E L . . . 17 - 28
W o r l d S t a t i s t i c s . . . 19 - 20 T r a n s i e n t L o d g i n g . . . 21 - 22 T y p i c a l v s N o m a d i c . . . 23 - 24 T o u r i s m v s A n t i -T o u r i s m . . . 25 - 28
C A S E _ S T U D Y. . . 29 - 44
0 1_P l u g - i n C i t y [ A r c h i g r a m ] . . . 31 - 32 0 2_N a k a g i n C a p s u l e T o w e r [ K K ] . . . 33 - 34 0 3_F l i e s E y e s [ B F ] . . . 35 - 36 0 4_S u i t a l o o n [ A r c h i g r a m ] . . . 37 - 38 0 5_L i v i n g R o o m [ D & S ] . . . 39 - 40 0 6_D u n e s c a p e s : P S 1 M o M A [ S H o P ] . . . 41 - 42 O t h e r P r e c e d e n t s . . . 43 - 44
C O N C E P T. . . 45 - 52
B l o o m i n g L i l i e s T i m e L a p s e . . . 47 - 48 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n . . . 49 - 50 M o d e l . . . 51 - 52
E X P E R I M E N T. . . 53 - 62 0 1_H u m a n C o m f o r t . . . 55 - 56 0 2_T r a n s f o r m e r s . . . 57 - 58 0 3_P a r a m e t r i c M a t. . . 59 - 62
P R O P O S A L S. . . 63 - 68 0 1_S t r e e t P e r f o r m a n c e . . . 65 - 66 0 1_P r o g r a m / S i t e / M a t e r i a l . . . 67 - 68
S PAC E _TI M E
â€œMind uses spatial metaphors to visualize its own conceptual structures. And the virtual space of mind is enriched by continuous comparison with the real architectural use of space. Electronic spaces apparently deny any form of geometry. They are logical, mental spaces. Take the internet, for example: The Net is fundamentally and profoundly anti-spatial. It has nothing to do with Piazza Navona or Copley Square. You never know where it is and you cannot describe its forms and proportions, or tell a tourist how to get there. The Net is an environment - located nowhere in particular, but at the same time everywhere.â€? -Puglisi, Luigi Prestinenza, Hyper Architecture.
IE N IE N
PE R PE R
Y_AM O U NT_ O F _ S PAC E _ C O V E R E D _ I N _ X_AMOUNT_OF_TIME_RESULTS_IN_ Z_ AMOUNT_OF_EXPERIENCE
S PAC E _TI M E _ C O M PR E S S I O N By: Michael Pryor
SPACE TIME_Essay 05
Time-space compression is a term used to describe processes that seem to accelerate the experience of time and reduce the significance of distance during a given historical moment¹. It is our visual experience and association with these spaces that develop our understanding of time-space relation. As Harvey states while expressing the instances of time-space compression while comparing “Blade Runner” and “Berlin” “photographs are now constructed as evidence of a real history, no matter what the truth of that history is…history for everyone has become reduced to the evidence of the photograph”.² In “Blade Runner” humans and machines co exist but on different time scales, yet machines are given false memories based on image and photographs which are fixed moments or freeze’s in time. In “Berlin” the angels experience the world through image as well, but they are many repetitious images constantly flashing rapidly. The difference of a fixed image versus fast moving rapid images can be a direct connection of societies move from a fixed, set in time, boundary city to one that is constantly changing and moving like a “Generic City”. Urban society has indeed made large leaps in development and understanding since modules like the Greek Polis. We are now faced with urban solutions expressed as Hybrid Morphologies, where landscape, architecture, and infrastructure all dance together in harmony. The shift in urban planning and necessity has sprung based upon certain evolutions on ease and the speed through which society is able to experience the urban environment. The flow of the public becomes the determining factor of the city plan, rather than the confinement of boundaries and zones. As society shifts in necessity and motion, cities must also begin to satisfy these changes through all aspects of architecture, landscape, and infrastructure. The Polis serves as a good starting point of a city, if you can call it a city, being formatted to serve that societies ability to experience time-space. It is a common assumption that the Greek Polis formed due to geographical boundaries, yet Kito explains that there are many other cities at this time which did not form this way but had similar geographical boundaries. Instead he insists “simply that this
is the way in which the Greeks Preferred to live”.³ They preferred a city center in which all their necessities revolved around, creating a singular nuclei “city state”, independent of the larger picture of ancient Greek civilization. On the contrary condition to the Polis, we are presented with the ideas of “Hybrid Morphologies”. Rather than separated zones revolving around central districts, current society is being retrofitted and morphed into typologies were “Infrastructure, architecture, and landscape amalgamate to become one complex. Instead of accentuating their differences and treating them as separate entities, the possibility of their convergence is proposed. When architecture is declared as landscape, infrastructure as architecture, and landscape as architecture, then the predicament is given for potentially understanding the phenomenon city on other grounds than those conventionally pursued”.4 Through the readings of Hybrid Morphologies Smithson explains non-site mediums which are abstract representations of a site such as maps, scripts, and sculptures. These maps, especially figure ground maps, seemed a perfect tool to explain instances such as the Polis, but in “hybrid” cities our perception of plan has to evolve into flows based on movement. As Linda Pollack explains “To build a landscape requires the ability to see it, and the inability to do so continues to permeate architectural design culture. This persistent blindness is evident in the still common recourse to the figure/ground plan, which fails to engage the material aspects of a site, representing the ground as a void around buildings.”5 The Polis in plan view has evident boundaries and order. “Private houses were low and turned away from streets. In Contrast the Greeks emphasized public temples, stadiums, and agora”.6 The figure ground in this setting would aid in direction and location. Smaller blocks would represent homes and larger would represent public facilities, where streets would be void. It makes sense to separate street and built environment in abstract mediums such as figure ground since the Polis is designed in a distinctly separated way. Exploring the reasoning’s behind the Polis’s form and the way that Civilization was at that time, the factors of time-space relativity become a driving factor for the Polis. The figure ground creates
boundaries which were needed by the Greeks to force time to be compressed within space.
On a city scale public transportation such as subways compress time by allowing a user to go from point to point rapidly. Also, unlike Ancient transportation and even cars, Public transportation requires only the known final destination. Ancient transportation required personal guidance, knowledge of the city, or a map such as figure ground to determine where to turn. This could also be why these singular architectural “gems” were prominent in their culture. Each style of building had to visually represent its program as a tool of location or node. Defined enclosures helped depict special determination and landmark association. In hybrid city spatial boundaries as a means of reference can be eliminated because, like a subway map, movement through space relies on guided flows throughout the city. The urbanite relies on the transportation to take them to a specific program, rather than visually locating this program through architectural appearance. “The city morphology, in this sense, is fluid and formally undetermined, pertaining to the oscillating interdependencies of contextual forces rather than to the logic of pre established form”.8 There is a choice of which flows to take but ultimately they are always planned. They do not rely on spatial forms to direct us through space. Space becomes eliminated
On a global scale airplane travel has compressed the world most rapidly, were a 15 hour trip from New York to China could be equivalent to the time it might take for an Ancient Greek to move from one Polis to Another. Furthermore, if it is true that time-space relativity is based off of image; then both space and time are severely compressed through flight because there is no visualization of destination and there are no references of distance travelled. There is only the sky, yet it is guaranteed that the desired destination will be reached. Ancient Greeks would have had to witness every part of the path on a visual level. A slow and constant visual reference of the path establishes a true evaluation of the physical space of the word. In the present, space and time are conceived mentally. Present cities are based upon the time it takes to travel a distance, were as old city models were based upon defining a reasonable distance that could be travelled in a given time. The amount of distance we can travel in such short lengths of time has also opened up new social networking possibilities. “The size of a Polis made it possible for a member to appeal to all his fellow citizens in person”.9 Plato and Aristotle stated that a Polis should have about 5,000 citizens everyone should know each other by face, that a population to small would not be self sufficient and a population to big would be hard to control. This form of population control is also determined by the limitations and boundaries that time-space relationships created on Greek society. Social process becomes another reason why the Polis became enclosed in time and space. Since there was no form of long distance communication, besides a messenger, it only becomes logical to keep a manageable and tight community. By enclosing a civilization, social interaction becomes manageable. The use of recognizable public space becomes key in creating communication and interaction. If there were no Polis then relationships between people may have been hard to keep due to the inability to quickly meet or interact with one another, but this situation seems to be what
A prominent factor in the formation of a Polis lies in its access to transportation. The problem of having to travel great distances for resources and leisure put special pressure on the needs for transportation. All available methods of transportation, being limited to pedestrian travel and animal traffic, such as horses, proved to be very slow in comparison to the distances that had to be travelled. Moving at such a slow pace can make travel seem very long, hence making distance and the world seem extremely large. By enclosing space the distance in which one needs to travel for resources is restricted, but becomes efficient in terms of travel. The Polis collapses the world into a tiny area that becomes manageable. In current times this boundary or collapse of space is not required. The reason being is the ever growing advances in transportation methods. “A second effect of modern urbanization is a remarkable increase in mobility and access”.7
and only scheduled time is present. Although, while walking the cityscape one needs a street sign, building number, or reference of a destinations image present in memory to form an awareness of location in space.
may have created the Polis. Due to the lack of long range communication, the Greeks were forced to encounter and interact with their neighbors on a daily bases, causing a tight knit community to form.
“The emphasis shifts here from forms of public space to processes of urbanization, processes that network across vast regional-if not globalsurfaces”.10 Today’s Urbanite in an evolving hybrid city no longer has to rely on close neighbors to satisfy his/her social desires. Technology such as the Internet, Telephone, and Television has allowed society to step out of its boundaries and need for designated gathering areas. Instead, Technology has replaced singular meeting grounds and the individual is capable of determining his/her own social groups or networks. In the present social groups are developed by way of common interest rather than similar location. In this way time-space compression occurs at a global scale. One can simply go on the internet on a social networking site such as Face Book and search groups with a common interest. By joining this group they can instantly start to become friends with people all over the world. In the realm of cyber space we move past time and space into a sort of virtual “nothing” were one can communicate with another outside of their time and space. Time then becomes condensed to a single click of a button and space exists through uploaded images. These easier forms of communication and networking change the appearance of the city and begin to create a blurring of independent city entities. Ease of communication is for one, allowing more people to work from home, eliminating the strong need for large business districts. Since people can communicate and establish connection based on interest the purpose of defined housing developments becomes unnecessary. Since products can be ordered from the internet the need for cities to revolve around markets becomes obsolete. The city is now allowed to become a hierarchy of dynamic individual interest based on motion rather than fixed, pre-determined bodies. “If there is to be new urbanism it will not be based on the twin fantasies of order and omnipotence; it will be the staging of uncertainty; it will no longer be concerned with the arrangement of more or less permanent objects but with the irrigation of territories
with potential; it will no longer aim for stable configurations but for the creation of enabling fields that accommodate processes that refuse to be crystallized into definitive forms; it will no longer be about meticulous definition, the imposition of limits; but about expanding notions, denying boundaries, not about separating and defining entities, but about discovering unnamable hybrids; it will no longer be obsessed with the city but with the manipulation of infrastructure for endless intensifications and diversifications, shortcuts and redistributions-the reinvention of psychological space.”11 In the hybrid city all components become one. The question then arises as “What becomes of society’s perception and experience of time and space?” A city based on constant movement and flows of process is representative to compression of time relative to rapid flashes of image as stated about the movie ”Berlin”. If every surface is smoothed over and merged together how can one determine distance relative to time? Current cities such as New York and even singular nuclei areas like the Polis largely rely on icons as references to spacial location. Time can be judged by ones awareness and familiarity with these landmarks or nodes. Imagine driving on a highway, you are accompanied by a clock on your dash board, mile markers, and exit signs with ramps. Now, imagine the clock is broken and you are driving the same highway in a thick fog. Your ability to judge your distance, location, and time of travel becomes completely impossible without visual reference, so you pull over and wait until you can gain some understanding of how to travel. So can we live in an urban environment comparable to this situation? At first glance it seems true that if everything was one layering system of sweeping gestures like a Zaha Hadid project that movement through space would become impossible and insignificant. Although Architecture, Infrastructure, and Landscape are merged into one it is impossible to rid the essence of these components. There will always be a path and habitable space. Zaha’s projects appear as extensions of land but they are like gradients were the line between architecture and landscape is blurred but on either end one becomes more evident than the other. One can determine what is infrastructure and what is landscape by simply walking on it, if it feels comfortable to walk on than it can be determined path were as steeper angles or slopes can begin to determine what architecture is, or solely landscape. Unlike older
views of these components which can easily be detected in the figure ground, where built enclosure is presented amongst a void of flat circulation. This new ideal only becomes understood by way of experience, use, and materiality. Such projects as the highline represent this well. Although the highline is a mergence of post infrastructure and new landscape, while walking on the Highline one can determine a path by material separation of concrete versus grass. Public gathering is established by the use of wood, whether it be benches or a theater space. All this can only be determined by experience because on a figure ground medium the highline would exist as an elevated void carving through â€œArchitectureâ€?. So it seems evident that the new urban city will become only understood in terms of perspective and process rather than plan and preconceived boundaries.
The new urban city is timeless and space less, like the universe it seems infinite in form and function. Time and space become irrelevant in terms of planning because society now operates in ways that are without the restrictions of time and outside the limits of space. One thing is for sure, as society advances time-space compression become less of a physical enclosure determined by necessity like the polis and becomes a mental compression of distance based on the ease of connectivity. 1. Wikipedia.com definition of time-space compression 2. Harvey, David. The Condition of Post Modernity. 1997. 312-313 3. H.D.F. Kito. The Polis. 1951. 37 4. Angelil,Marc & Klingmann, Anna. Hybrid Morphologies. 20 5. Pollak,Linda. Constructed Ground: Questions of Scale: The Landscape Urbanism Reade., 2006 7. Wall, Alex. Programming the Urban Surface. 2 8. Angelil,Marc & Klingmann, Anna. Hybrid Morphologies. 24 9. H.D.F. Kito. The Polis. 1951. 38 10. Wall, Alex. Programming the Urban Surface. 2 11. Koolhaas, Rem. Whatever Happened to Urbanism. 1994
SPACE TIME_Global Network Evolution_of_Networks
The rise of the technology age has led to an excessive ease of knowledge, acquisition, and a high state of global connectivity. This state of society has given rise to the global urban nomad, living in a constant state of transience and flux. A global network has been created where everyone knows each other, maybe not personally, but at least through another person. Social groups now have the ability to connect around the world, allowing communities to be established based on interest rather than geographical location. Global connectivity has made our preception of the world smaller than it once was. In ancient days the greek polis served as a model for force condensing the world by putting all the needs of a civilization within and enclosed boundary. This boundary managed travel time. Now the boundary is irelevent due to rapid transportation and data networking.
SPACE TIME_Global Network Information_Super_Highway
The ease of internet travel and telephone communication come with the downfall of loosing physical experience. As travel speed increases, time and experience become blurs of existence. The availability of the world itself is further and further compressed into singular technological devices. A person has entertainment, knowledge, and communication all at the tips of their fingers, never having to leave their home or explore their surroundings and even going as far as allowing people to create digital lives in digital worlds. At this time permanent architecture becomes irrelevant in terms of defining boundaries and zones. We no longer need to understand where locations are because our idevice
informs us. The figure-ground now becomes a playground for the relevant flows of society, as opposed to the means of understanding the city. Our society is transient, if architecture is for people, should it not be transient as well?
= SPACE TIME_Globalization 13
= G LO BALI ZATI O N
The world is faster and faster becoming a single Integrated culture through economy, trade, and transport. As people travel across great distance with ease, a globalization of cultures occurs. Every major monument becomes globally iconic, rather than culturally significant. Every major business gets copied and pasted around the world, thrown in the eyes of the traveler, allowing the same experience here as there. It seems we can no longer look to a distant landâ€™s environment and products as a means of understanding or experiencing alien cultures. Everything now is mass produced and sold globally. Mass production has infected the architecture world creating idetitieless skyscrapers and cookie cutter developments. The ability to level sites and condition air have allowed buildings to ignore site conditions and grow infinitely as money allows. This allowing the same building to be plugged in anywhere in the world, creating dense urban landscapes in which individuality becomes lost.
SPACE TIME_Globalization Architecture_as_Landscape
The city is seen differently form every person who encounters it. Memories effect how we experience our environment. Sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell can bring us back into time to another similar recollection of that same sense, this gives us a specific feeling and emotion attached with what we experience. Each person develops a unique mental map of their surrounds based on most visited, and most important areas in which the person is involved with. For instance, me being a college student, school is a huge part of my life so that becomes a main part of my mental map. On the other hand the working man or a homeless man may omit my school completely in their rendition of the city.
UPPER WEST SIDE
â€œLeaving there and proceeding for three days towards the east, you reach Diomira, a city with sixty silver domes, bronze statues of all the gods, streets paved with lead, a crystal theatre, a golden cock that crows each morning on a tower. All these beauties will already be familiar to the visitor, who has seen them also in other cities. But the special quality of this city for the man who arrives there on a September evening, when the days are growing shorter and the multicoloured lamps are lighted all at once at the doors of the food stalls and from a terrace a womanâ€™s voice cries ooh!, is that he feels envy towards those who now believe they have once before lived an evening identical to this and who think they were happy, that time.â€? -Italo Calvino, Invisible Cities
World_Population_Density Total Population (in mil.)
Paris New York
BAN Istanbul Shanghai Hong Kong Bangkok Singapore
2.7 Passengers per year = 1.09 billion Flights per year = 18 million Flights per day = 49 thousand
W o r l d _C r u i s e Tourists per year (in mil.) 15
Paris New York
BAN Istanbul Dubai
Shanghai Hong Kong Bangkok Singapore
Pa New York
34 million passengers take a cruise holiday each year, spending upwards of US $60 billion annually.
THE_TYPICAL_BUISNESS_TRIP Passengers per year (in mil.)
ORD Istanbul Dubai
Shanghai Hong Kong Bangkok Singapore
Bejing Internationl Chaoyang, Bejing, China O’Hare International Chicago, Illinois, US
Tokyo International Ota, Tokyo, Japan
Los Angeles International Los Angeles, California, US
Paris Charles de Gauelle Val d’Oise, Ile-de-France
Fort Worth International Dallas, Texas, US
Frankfurt Hessen, Germany
aris Istanbul Dubai
Shanghai Hong Kong Bangkok Singapore
Denver International Denver, Colorado, US
Top cruise occupancy (in tho.)
Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Atlanta, Georgia, USA
London Heathrow London, England, UK
A man travels for business. He leaves his family behind. Travelling with a suitcase full of clothes, documents, and a laptop. The airport architecture represents one thing in his mind, leaving. The only reason he knows from were he is leaving is because he has remembered the place he is leaving from. He can’t tell where he is going based on the architecture, it gives no clues to what lies in his travels, only a digital display assuring him he is in the correct gate informs him. Flying now in a plane, he passes land and sea, his current location is unknown, he doesn’t know these cities below or their people, they’re just his gateway to destination. As he arrives, the same generically designed place is seen as before. The same procedures, x-rays, generic franchises, and cheesy novelty stores selling commercialized culture. Has he even gone somewhere new? He could be in the wrong place and not even be aware, would it even matter? He trusts and the flight service; he is no longer in control. As he enters his cab for the trip to his hotel, he is zoomed past potential social engagements. His experience becomes condensed to purely visualization, mediated through the lens of a car window. He now stands in front of an identity-less hotel. The chain of hotel does not matter; the rooms are the same everywhere. The same bed, walls with tacky wallpaper, and default furnishings. He has no control of this space; he only occupies it. Threw out his stay, he uses the web, exploits the hotels amenities (white tiled indoor pools, dim lighted minibar, pre-packaged breakfasts), and meets in the same conference room he has always met business partners
H g h _Hotels Class_Hotels Highi Class
C o m mHotels ercial_Hotels Commercial view
Manderin Oriental Trump 4 Seasons Ritz Carlton Plaza
NON-TANGIBLE AMENITIES wash
Price Per Night: $800 - $40,000 Popular Companies
Price Per Night: $65 - $500 Popular Companies Holiday Inn Marriott Sheredon Hilton Hyatt
Non-Tangible Services Self-Service
NON-TANGIBLE AMENITIES clean
TANGIBLE AMENITIES dine
H ostels Hostels view entertain rest
rest work Rating
Price Per Night: $45 - $150 Popular Companies Super 8 Super 6 Days Inn Hampton Inn Holiday Inn express
Non-Tangible Services Self-Service
NON-TANGIBLE AMENITIES clean
TANGIBLE AMENITIES dine
Price Per Night: $15 - $30 Popular Companies Journeyâ€™s Flying Pig Wanderers Inn East Seven Rucksack Inn
Non-Tangible Services Self-Service
NON-TANGIBLE AMENITIES clean
TANGIBLE AMENITIES dine
New York City
Winston - Salem
$167.67 St. Louis
$169.58 San Diego
U.S. dollars per sqare foot
amenities, staff, and intangible services. We shall leave only the infrastructure, the HVAC, core, passages, plumbing, and electricity. Besides these things, what does an occupant need? He needs a place to rest and work, in the most minimalistic state. If the hotel occupant isn’t trapped in this mega structure of generic amenities, he is free and forced to resort to the surrounding city and culture to support his needs. Furthermore, he can take his place with him, if it becomes transportable, put on a plane, and shipped TRAVEL_Transient Lodging
in. The city only exists to him as an image outside a window. Before he knows it, its time to go home. The same trip is repeated as before but in reverse, it might as well be forwards. The same cab, airline, food, and work. Finally he is back at home, where he has a previous molded idea of experience and the ability to shape his space. He has no new worldly knowledge. He could have had the same experience searching his destination on Google images. His travel across the globe was similar to travelling to a hotel down the street. The hotel is not individual; it is “One size fits all”. Manufactured for everyone and at the same time, no one. So how can this trip become a true experience to a new place? Let’s start by stripping the hotel of everything. Strip it’s rooms,
TRAVEL_Typical vs Nomadic
around the world. If a nomad requires a base home for financial and governmental reasons, and this base is what always keeps him coming back, then it seems obvious to make his base a nomad as well. This space could be inserted into infrastructure, tapping its resources when needed. With the availability of practically anything, anywhere, the need to own so much becomes obsolete. The social structure and city itself can provide everything needed.
TRAVEL_Typical vs Nomadic
This concept of nomadic space can solve some critical issues in today’s technology and availability age. ONE, the user is forced to experience culture; he tastes its foods, mingles with its people, and explores its geography. TWO, by forcing the user out, a greater distinction is happening between work and leisure since they are not happening within the same building. THREE, building costs for hotels (which happen to be some of our worlds most expensive buildings) would go down. Only things that are always needed would be permanent, there would be no wasted architecture with unoccupied rooms, or oversized, non-human scaled massive wastes of resources. FOUR, The amount of money the traveler spends would also be less. Amenities and services are the sole driver of room prices. Without them, as well as inexpensive building costs, all a user would pay for, essentially is power. FIVE, the unit itself becomes familiar to the user; it is not some strange generic, alien room, where he wonders how sanitary it really is. He can customize it and recognize it. It is his.
Now this traveller can theoretically, fold up his room, take it to the airport, check it on a plane, bring it in the cab, and arrive at a power source with it. It is unfolded, attached, and occupied. It can be visually customizable, money is saved, and most importantly, the user does not have everything to his whim, he must venture out to obtain his needs, essentially creating the “anti-anti-social” experience. True, the experience between destinations may lack experience, but that is the consequence of faster travel. This should not be true when at a fixed location. Now the Technomad can go somewhere rather than another, physically distant “nowhere.”
TRAVEL_Tourist vs Anti-Tourist 25
Tourism Webster- The promotion of tourist travel, esp. for commercial purposes. Evaluation- Tourism consists of seeing common known, worldwide locations / objects. Most people go to see these things without a true understanding of their significance or relevance to time. Furthermore, every object exists for the time it was created. Sights, as almost everything else in the world, become outdated and irrelevant to current culture. These sights become commercialized for profit, creating a false sense of culture, or a front to what is really going on in a place. New- The promotion of tourist travel and visiting of brand, not place, to endow on moments in history that are not truly connected to the current inner workings and situations of a place. Tourist Webster- A person who travels for pleasure, usually sightseeing and staying in hotels. Evaluation- A tourist goes to a place and sees all it’s common sights. They do not understand a places social structure or its experience in terms of how life there is lived. They are guided along their journey and directed towards false icons and the “picture image” of that place. No more different than seeing an image from a post card or the Internet. They have no intent to experience a new life, only to live their same life in a different location. New- A person who travels to place to live their same life in a visually different atmosphere, confusing commercialism with culture, they have technically gone somewhere, but are not truly aware of where they have gone. They view culture; they do not experience it. Traveler Webster- A person who travels or has traveled in distant places or foreign lands. Evaluation- If a Tourist is someone who does not know where they are, a traveller is someone who does not know where they are going. A traveller has no exact map or reason to where they are going besides the fact that they are going. They have no pre-conceived image of that place. They “go with the flow” and let experience and spontaneity direct their course of life. New- A person who travels because they can, letting random action dictate their next move. Nomad Webster- A member of a people or tribe that has no permanent abode but moves about from place to place, usually seasonally and often following a traditional route or circuit according to the state of the pasturage or food supply. Evaluation- Unlike a traveler, a nomad is forced to relocate, whether they see it or not. Comparable to a parasite, their movement is based on necessity and benefit for the individual. They use resources and move along when their needs can no longer be fulfilled by a place. New- A member of a people or tribe that has no permanent abode and becomes mobile due to need, viewing place in terms of what it offers rather than cultural identity. Anti-tourist Webster- Anti- a person who is opposed to a particular practice, party, policy, action, etc. Tourist- A person who travels for pleasure, usually sightseeing and staying in hotels. Evaluation- The anti-tourist sees the “dirty” side of a place. A place’s significance comes from the individuals mind rather than media driven commercialism. They want to truly insert into a culture and experience it all, even the bad parts that are naïvely ignored by tourist. Rather than view and interpret, they live this culture, embracing all of its aspects with an open mind, letting this new place become their life. Each individual finds and explores their meaning of what this place is. New- A person who travels to find their own experiences, while letting a foreign culture become their own.
TRAVEL_Tourist vs Anti-Tourist
Culture Webster- The behaviors and beliefs characteristic of a particular social, ethnic, or age group Evaluation- Culture, to most people is what we let the media and commercialism let us see. It is the image of a place, and the branding of that place with icons. New- The behaviors and beliefs of the false lifestyle’s of a place accompanied by a “prettied up” front operation for profit and user recognition. Counter-culture Webster- The culture and lifestyle of those people, esp. among the young, who reject or oppose the dominant values and behavior of society. Evaluation- Counter-culture represents the things a place has to offer that are usually ignored by Tourist. An Anti-Tourist explores this counter culture. It is all the real things that happen in a place that only a member of that society could understand. It may not be pretty, fun, or helpful; but it is in fact the real essence of a place. It is the experience of culture rather than the “front” for a culture. So it seems Counter-culture is in fact culture, were as culture is in fact a façade. Counter-culture holds nothing back and changes for no one. New- The culture and lifestyle of real culture. It is what the people who make that culture experience and how they live. It is the medium for what false cultures and icons plug themselves in and disguise it’s presence. Hotel Webster- a commercial establishment offering lodging to travelers and sometimes to permanent residents, and often having restaurants, meeting rooms, stores, etc., that are available to the general public. Evaluation- A hotel is a non-culture. It exists as itself and is a medium in which a person can travel and still feel they are in a comfortable, safe, recognizable place. It creates a false atmosphere of what a place is. It’s generic or “themed” amenities steal away from the locations actual culture. Through means of concierge and guided tours, it also veers the user away from the possible ugly side of a place, giving them the generic, often traveled paths of a place that are not individual, but are shared experiences that many others visiting have endowed before. New- a commercial establishment inserted into a place, masking that places true identity with it’s own, robbing the place of it’s possible attention from the user and it’s worldly significance. It turns every place into the same place. Resort Webster- a place to which people frequently or generally go for relaxation or pleasure, esp. one providing rest and recreation facilities for vacationers. Evaluation- Resorts create an image of a place based on what marketers believe people want this place to look like. Usually exploiting some key geographical factor such as weather or ocean. Mainly doing what a hotel does to a place, but on a much larger and grander scale often even changing the context completely with no regards to location. It is like a gated culture within a culture. New- a place to which people frequently go to be indulged in manipulated/controlled experiences that reflect the actual location in no way except visually. NoTel – The hotel for the ANTI-TOURIST “As the world has become smaller so its wonders have diminished. There is nothing amazing about the Great Wall of China, the Taj Mahal, or the Pyramids of Egypt. They are as banal and familiar as the face of a Cornflakes Packet.Consequently the true unknown frontiers lie elsewhere. The duty of the traveller therefore is to open up new zones of experience. In our over explored world these must of necessity be wastelands, black holes, and grim urban blackspots: all the places which, ordinarily, people choose to avoid.The only true voyagers, therefore, are anti- tourists. Following this logic we declare that:The anti-tourist does not visit places that are in any way desirable. The anti-tourist eschews comfort. The anti-tourist embraces hunger and hallucinations and shit hotels.The anti-tourist seeks locked doors and demolished buildings. The anti-tourist scorns the bluster and bravado of the daredevil, who attempts to penetrate danger zones such as Afghanistan. The only thing that lies behind this is vanity and a desire to brag.” - Daniel Kalder (Lost Cosmonaut: observations of an anti-tourist)
TRAVEL_Tourist vs Anti-Tourist
+5 +2 +1 +3 +4 +2 +4 +354 +7
TRAVEL_Tourist vs Anti-Tourist 28
P L U G - I N _ C I T Y [ARCHIGRAM]
CASE STUDY_01 Plug-in City [Archigram] 31
CASE STUDY_01 Plug-in City [Archigram]
N A K A G I N _ C A P S U L E _ T O W E R [KISHO_KUROKAWA]
CASE STUDY_02 Nakagin Capsule Tower [KK] C o n s t r u c t i on _ B a s ed _ on _ N e e d = S a v e d $$$
CASE STUDY_02 Nakagin Capsule Tower [KK]
F L I E S _ E Y E S [BUCKMINSTER_FULLER]
CASE STUDY_03 Flies Eyes [BF] 35
CASE STUDY_03 Flies Eyes [BF]
U n i t _ of _ D e s i g n
S U I TA L O O N [ARCHIGRAM]
CASE STUDY_04 Suitaloon [Archigram]
CASE STUDY_04 Suitaloon [Archigram]
L I V I N G _ R O O M [DILLER_SCOFIDIO+RENFRO]
CASE STUDY_05 Living Room [D & S] 39
CASE STUDY_05 Living Room [D & S] 40
CASE STUDY_06 Dunescapes: PS1 MoMA [SHoP]
CASE STUDY_06 Dunescapes: PS1 MoMA [SHoP]
F l o w _ of _ M o v e m e n t
C O N C E P T
â€œafter removing their body suits, they zip them together to make a roomy, warm four-person tent. The next day or during the night, after everyone has slept, they unzip the tent and climb into their body-suits to continue their travelling. Later they meet again with other people and the same tent, or another, is reconstructed.â€? -Orta and Restany, 1998
CONCEPT_Blooming Lilies Time Lapse
CONCEPT_Blooming Lilies Time Lapse 48
I NTE R PR ETATI O N
The Lily field serves as a perfect concept for architecture that can close up for privacy and open for interaction. As seen in the time lapse video the Lily buds begin as individuals and as they blossom, the flower petals overlap and intertwine creating a larger unified form made of many parts. Metaphorically the seeds can be interpreted as the occupant, the petals as the architectural intervention. The petals protect and serve the seeds, as architecture does for people. This system could create an interesting, ever changing, customizable new urban typology that is as transient as society itself.
EXPERIMENT_01 Human Comfort
This position accentuates the low back curve, if the mattress is too hard.
Leaning forward at about 70 degrees for extended work periods hurts the spine and neck because nothing is supporting the spine from gravitational forces. 55
Side posture with flexed knees, which decreases the low back curve. The pillow should support the neck.
A common misconception, sitting at a 90 degree angle can also hurt the spine because nothing is supporting the spine besides the spine itself.
A pillow which i neck, arms and
The proper angle for seating is at about 135 degrees, this is because every portion of the spine is supported directly.
If a cushion is placed under the knees in this position, the low back curve is corrected.
Social Space Personal Space
EXPERIMENT_01 Human Comfort
is too high overstretches the d shoulders.
4 feet 36”
TRANSFORMERS These wood stick and screw constructed dynamic models were designed to study how space can transform from occupiable to trasportable by way of shrinking and expanding.
EXPERIMENT_02 Transformers 58
EXPERIMENT_03 Parametric Mat
PARAM ETR I C _ MAT
EXPERIMENT_03 Parametric Mat
The parametric mat was designed to study the spatial possibilities of several units joining together. Triangle shapes were cut out and taped together with clear tape allowing equal hinge movement in both directions. Triangles were chosen do to their unique structural possibilities and their ability to swing on a hinge point while remaining connected to other triangles without ever having to separate from the whole, as other geometries such as octagons or squares might have to. The mat lays flat from the start. When plucked up from certain points and dropped, the triangles align them selves in structural positions giving the mat a three dimensional form. These forms can be manipulated as desired by the specified program and site restrictions.
EXPERIMENT_03 Parametric Mat
EXPERIMENT_03 Parametric Mat 62
PROPOSAL 01_Street Performance
S T R E E T _ P E R F O R M A N CE
PROPOSAL 01_Street Performance
My goal was to create a technology driven space, transformable and transportable for the travelling entertainer, accommodating both home and work. It can be singularly configured or combined with others for larger customization, ultimately allowing new fluctuating experiences for tourists and locals engaged in their shared cities. Technological advancements in travel and distribution of information has allowed us to exist in a free and transient state. A pure expression of a places culture exists in itâ€™s social activities and temporary events of entertainment, as they represent the present society, not a commercialized past, or a falsified context. The proposal is a folding structure, transforming from rest to work. Combined with media technology, the entertainment can be viewed by the public, and the internet community. By sharing the performance via the web, the cultural experiences of transient environments becomes available world wide. Meanwhile, a connection occurs as the physically present public interacts with the digital audience over a shared interest. Afterwards, the performance peice is disasembled and transformed into shelter.
PROPOSAL_01 Program / Site / Material
BASE POD Site_Nodes/Plazas
Busking or more commonly known as street performance has existed in every major culture and dates back to times before writing. Many city dwellers consider these performances as some of the most unique and raw events existing in the city. This is because their spontaneity and creativity creates new experiences in old places. Often these performances engage the audience and create a cheerful atmosphere were complete strangers share this specific moment. Pitches or sites in which buskers target are ones with a constant fluctuation of audience. Sites like city nodes and plazas fit the criteria because they are common meeting place as well as gateways. Transport hubs are also targeted because people are briefly stuck there. Even business entrances are used because they force large amounts of people into a small area of movement. Street performance has the power to stop you in you tracks and observe. Unused roof tops seem to be the perfect housing for the base systems. This is because roof tops hold main connections to electricity, HVAC, water supply, sun exposure, and even tall parapets protecting from wind loads. The Technomad could venture to the streets during the day to perform and return to the roof tops at night via existing building elevators. Here on the roof he charges his pod, uses amenities, and rests.
Nano_Tex Nanotechnology transformed fabrics which 100% repel water, sleet, snow, and even coffee. The fabric itself maintains a consistent softness and is semi resistant to abrasion. This material is also relatively cheap at $30 a pair of pants. You can go out in the rain, it will drip off. Carbon_Nano_Tube The strongest and stiffest materials in terms of tensile and elastic strength, yet threads can be thinner than a strand of hair. It has many advantages, but the one Iâ€™m most interested in is its fabric ability. When woven it is as flexible as cotton, when electrically charged it can become harder than diamond.
PROPOSAL_01 Program / Site / Material
Flexible_Screen Developed by Sony, The OLED screen is .01 inches thick and completely flexible. It can display high definition video in light and dark colors. The composite is a mixture of plastics and nano electronics. The screen itself does not require backlighting like LED, it is thin and a lowvoltage is needed.
Books Braye, Marie-Agie & Simonot, Beatrice. Archilabâ€™s Earth Buildings: radical experiments in land architecture. Tafuri, Manfred. Architecture and Utopia: design and capitalist development. Kiesler, Frederick J. Endless Space. Page, Max. The Creative Destruction of Manhattan: 1900-1940. Bos, Caroline. UN Studios: design models, architecture, urbanism, infrastructure. Bos, Caroline. UN Studios II: design models, architecture, urbanism, infrastructure. Wiedenhoft, Ronald. Cities for People. Mapelli, Elisabetta G. Urban Enviornment. MVRDV. Metacity Datatown. Tschumi, Bernard. Architecture and Disjunction. Jenks, Mike. The Compact City: a sustainable urban form. Betsy, Aaron. Landscrapers: building with the land. Tschumi, Bernard. Architecture in/of Motion. Garcia,Mark. The Diagrams of Architecture. Harvey, David. The Condition of Postmodernity. Macionis, John J. Cities and Urban Life. Koolhaas, Rem. S,M,L,XL. Koolhaas, Rem. Mutations. Gregory, Paola, New Scapes: territories of complexity. Tung, Yu Liu, Defining Digital Architecture. Kenneth, Powell. Richard Rogers Partnership: architecture of future. Joseph, Lin and Cii Wong Yunn. Transportable Enviornments 2. Cook, Peter. Archigram. Lang, Peter. Superstudio: a life without objects. Sadler, Simon. Archigram: architecture without architecture. Jane, Alison. Futurecity: experiment and utopia in architecture. Bullivant, Lucy. 4D Space: interactive architecture. Fox, Michael and Kemp, Miles. Interactive Architecture Crompton, Peter. Concerning Archigram Koolhaas, Rem. Content IIAC. Self Sufficiant City Kalder, Daniel. Lost Cosmonaut: observations of an anti-tourist Calvino, Italo. Invisible Cities Siegal, Jennifer. Mobile: the art of portable architecture Bey, Hakim, T.A.Z.
Koolhaas, Rem. Generic Cities Koolhaas, Rem. Junkspace Angelil, Marc & Klingmann, Anna. Hybrid Morphologies: infrastructure, architecture, landscape. Kitto, H.D.F. The Polis Figures, doors, and passages Simmel. Metropolis and the Mental Life Simmel. The Stranger Benjamin, Walter. The work of art in the age of mechanical reproduction. Benjamin, Walter. The Author as Producer. Whyte. Social life of small urban space. Frampton. Kenneth. Towards a new regionalism Brown, Gary. Freedom and Transience of Space
Film Wong, Kar Wai. In the Mood For Love Wong, Kar Wai. 2046
TH E S I S _ S PAC E
THESIS SPACE_Semester one