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section one: introduction ([HFXWLYH6XPPDU\_003 3URMHFW&ULWHULD_004 :K\'HFRQVWUXFWLRQLQ'HWURLW"_005 3URMHFW3DUWQHUV_008 6FKHGXOH_009

Section two: documentation 8UEDQ$QDO\VLV_014 0LGGOH(DVW&HQWUDO1HLJKERUKRRG_020 6WUXFWXUH'RFXPHQWDWLRQ_028

section three: deconstruction 'HFRQVWUXFWLRQ3URFHVV_040 &RRUGLQDWLRQ6FKHGXOH_041 3HUPLW7KH3URFHVV_043 'HFRQVWUXFWLRQ'D\V_046 7KH&UHZ_047 7KH&OHDQRXW_050 /DWK,QWHULRU_054 5RRI_058 $WWLF)ORRU_062 ,QWHULRU:DOOV_066 ([WHULRU:DOOV_070 0DWHULDO3URFHVVLQJ_074 )LUVW)ORRU3ODWIRUP_078 7KLQJ:H)RXQG_081 7KDQN<RX9ROXQWHHUV_082

section four: Material Assessment



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section five: Design 'HVLJQ3URFHVV_114 3RVVLEOH5HFODLPHG0DWHULDO'HVLJQ7\SRORJLHV_115 7\SRORJ\6HOHFWLRQ_117 ,WHUDWLRQ2QH/DPHOOD+\EULG6\VWHP_120 ,WHUDWLRQ7ZR7UXVV6\VWHPZLWK6WXG:DOO_121 'HVLJQ'RFXPHQWDWLRQ_123 

section six: building sustainable communities /HDUQLQJ)URP7KRVHLQ$FWLRQ_133 &LYLF(QJDJHPHQW6WHSV_134 &RQFOXVLRQ_136


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section one: introduction


introduction: executive summary 3LRQHHU0DWHULDO5HQHZDOLVDSURMHFWWRGHFRQVWUXFW DQROGEXLOGLQJLQ'HWURLWDQGGHVLJQDQHZEXLOGLQJ FRPSULVHGRIWKHPDWHULDOKDUYHVWHGIURP GHFRQVWUXFWLRQ5HFRJQL]LQJ'HWURLW·VDEXQGDQW VWRFNRIDEDQGRQHGDQGGLODSLGDWHGEXLOGLQJVDVD JUHDWQDWXUDOUHVRXUFHWKHSURMHFWVHHNVWRGHÃ&#x20AC;QHD SURFHVVRIPDWHULDODFTXLVLWLRQZLWKYLDEOH FRQVWUXFWLRQSRWHQWLDO:DVWHPDWHULDOIURP EXLOGLQJGHPROLWLRQDQGFRQVWUXFWLRQFRPSULVHVRQH WKLUGRIDOOVROLGZDVWHLQWKH86DQGWKLVSURMHFW VWULYHVWRPLQLPL]HODQGÃ&#x20AC;OODQGUHGHÃ&#x20AC;QHQDWXUDO UHVRXUFHVWKURXJKDSURFHVVRIUHQHZDO %XLOGLQJRQWKHVSLULWDQGSULQFLSOHVRIHDUO\ SLRQHHUVZKRVHWWOHG'HWURLWDQGWKHFXUUHQWXUEDQ SLRQHHUVUHEXLOGLQJWKHFLW\WKHSURMHFWZLOOZRUN ZLWKDPLQLPXPRIUHVRXUFHVWRDPD[LPXPHà©&#x201D;HFW

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BUILDING SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITIES

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addressing an unmet need

multi-disciplinary approach

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" after looking into it more and more, i realized deconstruction is not just waste diversion, it’s job creation, it’s an economic multiplier.” -chris rutherford, architectural salvage warehouse of detroit

" The Motor City has become the testing ground for an updated American dream: privateers finding the raw material for new enterprise in the wreckage of the Rust Belt." -the new york times

" Unless we want to have landfills on every corner, we can't just keep throwing away perfectly good material. Over 100 million tons a year from taking down buildings is going into landfills right now." -dan pratt, architectural salvage warehouse of detroit

"Despite years of service, reclaimed wood does offer some performance advantages. Many of today's buildings use virgin lumber cut from second and third growth forests, resulting in lumber with a looser grain and more knots than wood cut from old growth forests." -james brandon, “suitability of salvaged timber structural design” 006


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008


process: original schedule dated: may 2014

DOCUMENTATION

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AUGUST 2014

SEPTEMBER 2014

OCTOBER 2014

deconstruction

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material assessment

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NOVEMBER 2014 report 1 DECEMBER 2014

JANUARY 2015 report 2 FEBRUARY 2015

MARCH 2015

design

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APRIL 2015 report 3 MAY 2015 final report


process: revised schedule dated: january 2015

DOCUMENTATION

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AUGUST 2014

SEPTEMBER 2014

OCTOBER 2014

material assessment

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NOVEMBER 2014 report 1 DECEMBER 2014

JANUARY 2015 report 2 FEBRUARY 2015

MARCH 2015

deconstruction

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APRIL 2015 report 3 MAY 2015 final report 010


section two: documentation


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MIDDLE EAST CENTRAL

MIDDLE EAST CENTRAL

NEIGHBORHOOD NEIGHBORHOOD

today

in 1930 interpolated

lack of density:

abundance of density:

3,961

11,375

unimproved lots in 2009

population per sq. mile 1930

blighted structures:

occupied structures:

136

42

vacant, open, & dangerous houses in 2010

occupied houses per detroit block in 1930

h igh rate o f unemployment:

h i gh r ate o f employment:

45.6 %

89.0 %

unemployed civilians in 2010

employed civilians in 1930


chene ferry market | 2014 chene ferry market | past

4820 DUBOIS

neighborhood condition | 2014 dequindre street | 1935

018


1

1

BASEBALL GAME - 1888

MIDDLE EAST CENTRAL: late 1800's 2

2

turnbull & chene streetcar - 1888

3+2726)5207+(:$<1(67$7(:$/7(535(87+(5',*,7$//,%5$5<


SANBORN MAP -1897

4820 DUBOIS

020


1

MIDDLE EAST CENTRAL: 1900's 2

4

3

3+2726)5207+('(752,7+,6725,&62&,(7<

1

DU BOIS STreet - 1901

2

427 hancock avenue - 1901

3

new orleans & superior - 1902

4

west side of chene - 1902


SANBORN MAP -1921

4820 DUBOIS

022


1

MIDDLE EAST CENTRAL: 1950's 2

4

3

3+2726)5207+('(752,738%/,&/,%5$5< ',*,7$/&2//(&7,21

1

1035 DUBOIS STreet - 1950

2

1014 dubois street - 1951

3

dubois & monroe - 1950

4

8035 st. aubin street - 1950


SANBORN MAP -1951

4820 DUBOIS

024


MAPPING: PERSISTENCE

MAPPING: DENSITY

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1897

1921

1951

1981

1997

2014


2014

1997 1981 1951 1921 1897

026


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The house: 4820 dubois street HOUSE HISTORY

HOUSE ACQUISITION PROCESS

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1

2

3

4

1

Second Floor Bedroom

2

Attic

3

First Floor Walls

4

Back Porch 030


residents of 4820 dubois

1889 Funk, frank + sched

frank + ramiowsky, jos goralski, joseph 1895 coop

1902 kuptz, frank+ rom bercholc, michael + kurz anthony 1912 bercholc, mi 1922 berckulz, michl + r

berchule, michl + sheski, h 1963 no return 1974 myles


s street 1888 Funk, frank dnkowski, wm. 1890 Funk, eph 1892 Funk, frank + p, frank 1900 kuptz, frank manowski, wladislav 1911 zewski, joseph + Lasinski, chael + Lasinski, anthony rearwietek, stanley 1941 henry 1957 berchulc, john , effie, mrs. 1997 no listing


Documentation: house plans + elevations

BED ATTIC / STORAGE

plan: second floor

FAMILY

·µ

·µ ·µ

LIVING

DINING

0$6215<&+,01(<

KITCHEN 0$6215<&+,01(<

BATH

ENTRY BATH LIVING

plan: first floor

DINING

KITCHEN

·µ

·µ ·µ


0$6215<&+,01(< $63+$/76+,1*/(6 ·µ

·µ

·µ

:22'6.,57 9,1</21:22'6,',1*

elevation: south

·µ

·µ

·µ

0$6215<&+,01(< $63+$/76+,1*/(6

·µ

·µ

·µ

:22'6.,57 9,1</21:22'6,',1*

elevation: north

·µ

·µ ·µ

034


Documentation: house plans + elevations ·µ

ATTIC / STORAGE

BED

·µ

DINING LIVING

BATH

LIVING

·µ

section: north - south

·µ

·µ ·µ

6758&785$/ 7,0%(56

CELLAR

plan: basement

0$6215< :$//6

·µ

·µ ·µ


·µ

0$6215<&+,01(<

·µ

$63+$/76+,1*/(6

:22'-2,67 ·µ

ATTIC / STORAGE ·µ

KITCHEN

KITCHEN LIVING

·µ

0$6215<3,(5

·µ

sections: east - west

·µ

·µ

·µ

0$6215<&+,01(< ·µ

·µ

9,1</21:22'6,',1* :22'6+$.(6,',1*

·µ

·µ

·µ

·µ :22'6.,57

elevations: east - west

·µ

·µ ·µ

036


section three: deconstruction





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july 2014

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AUG 2014

pre-deconstruction logistics

OCT 2014

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SEPT 2014

NOV 2014

DEC 2014

JAN 2015

FEB 2015

MAR 2015

APR 2015

MAY 2015

042


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Exit

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2 the Inspector of

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the Engineer of

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Dangerous Buildings

Structure

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cleanout

lath

roof

attic

interior

exterior

material

Platform

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046


the crew

Meaghan Markiewicz, pmr team member jamiil gaston, volunteer site leader

pierce Sadler, (left) volunteer site leader mike paciero, (right) pmr team member

joe kuzdal, volunteer site leader drew tucker, volunteer site leader

dan pratt, aswd contractor charlie harris, pmr team member


jose perez, volunteer site leader brandon olsen, pmr team member

chris rutherford, aswd contractor justin lee, volunteer site leader

james sharp, pmr team member tony fakhouri, volunteer site leader

kienan kowalski, volunteer site leader detroit challenge fellows, volunteers

048


pre-deconstruction: the cleanout


cleanout

lath

roof

attic

interior

exterior

material

platform

CLEANING: trash, nick-nacks, artifacts 'D\2QHZDVFRQWHQWUHPRYDO3ULRUWRWKHSURMHFW HYHU\YLVLWWKHWHDPPDGHWRWKHVLWHHQWDLOHG ZDONLQJWKURXJKPDVVLYHDPRXQWVRIFORWKHV SDSHUVDQGRWKHUGHEULVWKDWZHUHVFDWWHUHGDFURVV WKHKRXVH7KLVLVWKHVLGHRIEOLJKWWKDWLVQRWDOZD\V VHHQIURPWKHRXWVLGH,WZDVKDUGWRLPDJLQH MXVWKRZWKHFRQWHQWVJRWVWUHZQDERXWDVWKH\ ZHUH&OHDULQJWKHVHRXWZDVWKHÃ&#x20AC;UVWVWHSLQWKH GHFRQVWUXFWLRQSURFHVV7KHUHZDVVRPDQ\FRQWHQWV WKDWRQHHQWLUHGXPSVWHUZDVÃ&#x20AC;OOHGRQWKHÃ&#x20AC;UVWGD\

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â&#x20AC;&#x153;This day was probably the most emotionally varied of the project... Although we had a great time as a group cleaning out the house, There was always that little voice in my head reminding me everything we found to be worthless was once priceless to someone.â&#x20AC;? -Joe kuzdal, volunteer


“There was a crazy amount of stuff!” -brandon olsen, team member

052


deconstruction: lath & interior


cleanout

lath

roof

attic

interior

exterior

material

platform

Lath: millions of tiny pieces 'D\7ZRWKURXJK'D\6L[ZDVODWKDQGLQWHULRU Ã&#x20AC;QLVKUHPRYDO7KHLQWHULRUÃ&#x20AC;QLVKRIWKHKRXVHZDV SODVWHUZLWKVRPHGU\ZDOO7KHFRQWUDFWRUV $6:'  UHPRYHGWKHSODVWHUZLWKWKHLUFUHZVRWKDW305 ZRXOGQ·WKDYHWRVXEPLWSDUWLFLSDQWVWRGXVWDQG OHDGSDLQWH[SRVXUH$6:'DUHSURIHVVLRQDOVZKR NQRZKRZWRZRUNZLWKKD]DUGRXVPDWHULDOV$Q DVEHVWRVVXUYH\ZDVDOVRUHTXLUHG7KDQNIXOO\WKH WHVWZDVQHJDWLYHIRUDVEHVWRVDQGZRUNZDVDEOHWR SURJUHVVRQWLPH

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“I will hate lath for the rest of my life!” -Joe kuzdal, volunteer

process Step 1- Remove and cleanup plaster Step 2- Remove lath and other interior Ànishes with hammers/prybars Step 3- Pile with similar sized pieces Step 4- Denail Step 5- Bundle lath into 50 piece per bundle and bundle trim

materials harvested Lath • Door Trim • Window Trim • Base Trim • Interior Shealthing • Wainscoting • Electrical Wiring • Window Weights • Doors


“One of the most awe striking experiences of all, was when I was tearing apart the ceiling and found a handwritten note from 1927 completely intact that had been hidden from the world for almost an entire century! Finding the note made me realize that this isn’t just some house, this was once someone’s home and has been a home to many different people over its lifetime.” -tony fakhouri, volunteer

056


deconstruction: ROOF


cleanout

lath

roof

attic

interior

exterior

material

platform

Roof: Raise Drop the roof 'D\WKURXJK'D\ZDVWKHURRIZDVUHPRYHG 2QFHWKHODWKDQGÃ&#x20AC;QLVKHVZHUHUHPRYHGWKHQH[W VWHSZDVWRVWDUWIURPWKHWRSDQGZRUNGRZQ 2Q'D\WKHURRIZDVVWULSSHGRIWKHVKLQJOHVE\ $6:'·VFUHZIRUVDIHW\UHDVRQVVRWKHYROXQWHHU FUHZFRXOGVDIHO\UHPRYHWKHUHVWRIWKHURRIIURP WKHXQGHUVLGH7KHURRÃ&#x20AC;QJÃ&#x20AC;QLVKHVFRQVLVWHGRIWZR OD\HUVRIVKLQJOHVDQGRQHRIFHGDUVKDNH2QFHWKH VKLQJOHVZHUHJRQHVXQUD\VEHWZHHQWKHRSHQVOLWV

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process Step 1- Strip roof Ànishes

Step 2- Dispose of roof Ànishes Step 3- Remove chimneys Step 4- Remove the underside roof sheating Step 5- Remove interor attic walls Step 6- Remove roof rafters Step 7- Remove gable ends Step 8- Remove front and back porch awning.

materials harvested 1” Thick Roof Sheating Boards • Brick • 2x4 Interior Studs • 2x4 Roof Rafters • 2x6 Roof Rafters • 2x4 Framing of Gable Ends • Wood Siding & Sheathing from Gable Ends • Cedar Shake Siding from Gable Ends

“With my major being Architectural Engineering the project had a lot to teach me. In classrooms you learn mostly theory and design, but deconstructing you learned how houses were actually put together.” -Pierce sadler, volunteer


â&#x20AC;&#x153;As the roof boards came down, the sun rays created an amazing lighting effect in the second story.â&#x20AC;? -Meaghan Markiewicz, team member

060


deconstruction: Attic floor


cleanout

lath

roof

attic

interior

exterior

material

platform

Attic: Nothing to stand on 'D\ZDVUHPRYDORIWKHDWWLFรRRU2QO\D FRXSOHPHPEHUVRIWKHFUHZZHUHQHHGHG6DIHW\ KDUQHVVHVZHUHZRUQDQGHYHU\RQHKDGWREH FDUHIXOQRWWRIDOOWKURXJKZKDWZDVQRZWKHRSHQ FHLOLQJ(YHQWKRXJKWKHURRIZDVRเฉ”DWWKLVSRLQW KDYLQJWKHDWWLFรRRUVWLOOPDGHWKHKRXVHIHHODVLI DURRIZDVWKHUH$IWHUWKLVVWHSWKRXJKWKHKRXVH EHFDPHPXFKPRUHRSHQDQGH[SRVHGWRWKH HOHPHQWV7KHDVWRXQGLQJIRRWORQJ[MRLVWV

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062


“I began to see much more potential in all the material!” -Jeremy nafus, volunteer

process Step 1- Put on Safety Harness Step 2- Determine where to start (from front of

house) Step 3- Remove Floorboards with Prybar Step 4- Drop Floorboards between Ceiling Joists for Storing. Step 5- Remove All Wood from Main Floor of House.

materials harvested 1x12 Áoorboards (middle-original house) • 1x8 Áoorboards (back addition) • 1x6 Áoorboards (front addition)


â&#x20AC;&#x153;The project has helped me gain inspiration for myself in Detroit. We can play a role and impact the future of this city and help make it the place we want to live and spend our life in. The amount of opportunity I see in the city now makes me want to stay here which is something I would have never thought of saying before.â&#x20AC;? -kienan kowalski, volunteer

064


deconstruction: interior walls


cleanout

lath

roof

attic

interior

exterior

material

platform

Interior WallS: They are on the inside 'D\ZDVUHPRYDORIWKHLQWHULRUZDOOVDQG WKHFHLOLQJMRLVWV7KLVZDVRQHRIWKHPRVW WUDQVIRUPDWLRQDOGD\VDVWKHKRXVHEHFDPHRQODUJH RSHQURRPE\WKHHQGRIWKHGD\$WWKHEHJLQQLQJ RIWKHGD\LWORRNHGOLNHLWGLGDIWHUUHPRYDORIWKH DWWLFÁRRUZLWKZRRGVWUHZQHYHU\ZKHUH7KDWZRRG ZDVFDUULHGRXWDQGSLOHGLWXS7KHQWKHWHDP SURFHHGHGWRNQRFNRXWDOORIWKHLQWHULRUVKHDWKLQJ DQGLQWHULRUVWXGZDOOV2QHLQWHUHVWLQJFRQVWUXFWLRQ PHWKRGZDVWKDWWKH[VKHDWKLQJ W\SLFDOO\SO\ZRRG

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066


â&#x20AC;&#x153;It is not typical to see such high quality interior boards. They must have been original to the house â&#x20AC;? -Mike Paciero, team member


process Step 1- remove remaining interior

sheathing boards Step 2- remove interior walls Step 3- remove remaining door frames Step 4- remove stairs Step 5- remove remaining windows Step 6- remove ceiling joists

materials harvested 1x interior sheating boards • 2x4 studs from walls • 2x4 top & bottom plates door frames • window frames & glass stair stringers, risers, & treads • 2x6 ceiling joists

“This deconstruction project was entirely different. Not only did it strengthen my pride for Detroit, it energized my friends, non-Detroiters, to give back to the city that helped build America.” -Jamiil gaston, volunteer 068


deconstruction: exterior walls


cleanout

lath

roof

attic

interior

exterior

material

platform

exterior WallS: They are on the outside 'D\WKHÀQDOIXOOGD\ZDVUHPRYDORIWKHH[WHULRU ZDOOV7KLVZDVDODERULQWHQVLYHSURFHVVDVLWWRRN QHDUO\WKHHQWLUHFUHZWRORZHUWKHZDOOVRQFHWKH\ ZHUHFXWWKHPLQWRVHFWLRQV,WZDVFHUWDLQO\D G\QDPLFGD\DVWKHHQWLUHSURMHFWZDVQRZUHYHDOHG WRWKHVWUHHW2QFHWKHZDOOVZHUHGRZQWKH\ZHUH GLVDVVHPEOHGWKHPRQWKHÁRRUGHFN7KLVZDVWKH VDIHVWZD\WRFRPSOHWHWKLVSURFHVV$IWHUWKHZDOOV

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process Step 1- Sawzall walls in sections at

strategic points Step 2- Lower wall to ground with entire crew Step 3- Disassemble wall on ground Step 4- Organize components into respective piles

materials harvested 2x4 exterior studs • 2x4 top and bottom plates • wood siding • cedar shake siding from front wall front window & decorative trim • exterior facia boards


â&#x20AC;&#x153;It was extremely satisfying to see the house slowly become piles of organized materials to be re-purposed.â&#x20AC;? -Joe kuzdal, volunteer

072


deconstruction: material Processing


cleanout

lath

roof

attic

interior

exterior

material

platform

material Processing: denail + inventory $IWHUWKHZRRGLVUHPRYHGIURPWKHKRXVHLWPXVW EHLQYHQWRULHGDQGSURFHVVHG3URFHVVLQJPHDQV WKDWVLPLODUSLHFHVDUHVWDFNHGWRJHWKHUGHQDLOHG DQGWKHQZUDSSHGRUORDGHGXSRQDWUDLOHUWREH VWRUHGRà©&#x201D;VLWH'HQDLOLQJLVWKHPRVWWLPHFRQVXPLQJ VWHSLQWKLVSURFHVV7KHUHDUHVRPHWLPHVGR]HQVRI QDLOVLQDSLHFHRIZRRG'XHWRWKHOHQJWKRIWLPH WKLVSURFHVVWDNHVGHQDLOLQJRIWHQRFFXUVRà©&#x201D;VLWHDW DVHFXUHORFDWLRQ,QWKLVSURMHFWVRPHRIWKHZRRG

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074


â&#x20AC;&#x153;The project has opened my eyes to the possibilities and potential that the city of Detroit possesses.â&#x20AC;? -Justin lee, volunteer


“What made the work easiest was the comradery between the volunteers. We were all excited to be there which made even the worst jobs, like removing lath or de-nailing wood, incredibly fun. Nothing makes the work go by faster than when you’re dancing, singing, and working all at the same time” -Joe kuzdal, volunteer 076


deconstruction: first floor platform


cleanout

lath

roof

attic

interior

exterior

material

platform

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078


process Step 1- Remove Tongue + Groove

subÁoor decking Step 2- Remove Áoor joists Step 3- cut beams at intersection point of where structure will be saved Step 4- Rake and clean dirt and debris under house Step 4- Organize materials under existing structure and tarp

materials harvested 4” Tongue + Groove SubÁoor • 2x6 + 2x8 Floor Joists • 6x8, 8x8, 4x7 Structural Beams • CMU Block from Structural Piers • Misc. 2x4’s and Other Supporting Members • Misc. Metal, Glass, + Plastic


â&#x20AC;&#x153;It was amazing to see how the foundation of the house was constructed. For 127 years Hardly anything was mechanically fastened, yet most of the foundation was solid as can be. The beams sat unattached on the piers, beams were notched together where they connected, and the joists were notched into the beams.â&#x20AC;? -mike paciero, team member

080


THINGS WE FOUND One of the most exciting parts of the project was discovering souveniers with either historical signiÀcance from the early 1900’s or belongings of previous residents that were hidden behind walls or under the Áoors. Each time something new was discovered, the crew member who made the discovery walked around the site and showed the Ànd to everyone. Pictured here are a few of the items found. To name a few, there were 1922 Silver Dollars, square hand cut nails, old newspaper dated 1927, and what ended up being deeped the project mascot “Mr. Hippo”, and his friends.


thank you: all the volunteers volunteers: the list -HUHP\1DIXV/786WXGHQWƷĮƫ%URWKHU 'DULQ0F&OHVN\1HLJKERUKRRG5HVLGHQW $QGUHZ0DUNOH/786WXGHQWƷĮƫ%URWKHU '\ODQ0DVNR/786WXGHQWƷĮƫ%URWKHU 0DULR*DJQRQ/786WXGHQWƷĮƫ%URWKHU 0LNH3UXVNL/786WXGHQWƷĮƫ%URWKHU 5LFK'RXJODV/786WXGHQWƷĮƫ%URWKHU $DURQ%DUURFODXJK/786WXGHQWƷĮƫ%URWKHU 7UDYLV0F&DXO/786WXGHQWƷĮƫ%URWKHU &RG\&KXPEOHU/786WXGHQWƷĮƫ%URWKHU 'DQ*DOODJKHU/786WXGHQW +DGLHO0RGKHOLGHDQ/786WXGHQW 6XH0DUNLHZLF])ULHQGRIWKH3URMHFW 6FKRUHQ)DPLO\)ULHQGRIWKH3URMHFW 6DUDK&DPSEHOO)ULHQGRIWKH3URMHFW 5\DQ'LHKO/786WXGHQW 5DQG\7HEEV/786WXGHQW .HQQ\'HODJH/786WXGHQW $DURQ%DUURFODXJK/786WXGHQWƷĮƫ%URWKHU 6WHYHQ3DFLHUR)ULHQGRIWKH3URMHFW 'DYLG3DFLHUR)ULHQGRIWKH3URMHFW /HVOLH3DFLHUR)ULHQGRIWKH3URMHFW

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section four: material assessment


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086


1

michigan lumber: history 2

4

3

1

Wood harvested from Michigan forests

2

WOOD traveling down THE BLACK RIVER

3

a sawmill in Detroit

4

Modern harvesting equipment


25 billion 35-96 million was transported on the board feet of lumber is sold annually in saginaw river THE state of michigan board feet of lumber

Michigan Lumber:1897

Michigan Lumber: today

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088


Cut lumber came from St. Clair, Lapeer, Sanilac and Saginaw, towed by tug boat along the shore of Lake Huron, down the Black River and across Lake St. Clair. Over time Detroit's role faded as more and more mills were built in the Saginaw Valley.


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Lumber totals

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094


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POST AND BEAM SPANS

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SPANS WITH SHORT MEMBERS

ENCLOSURE

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096


material test one: compression


compression:

7HVWLQJFRPSUHVVLYHSURSHUWLHVRIQHZDQG UHFODLPHG[VLV3LRQHHU0DWHULDO5HQHZDOVÃ&#x20AC;UVW WHVW7KHWHDPPXVWYHULI\WKDWWKHUHFODLPHGZRRG·V FRPSUHVVLYHSURSHUWLHVKDYHQRWGHWHULRUDWHG RYHUWLPH,QKHUHQWO\ZRRGLVVWURQJHVWLQ FRPSUHVVLRQVRLWZDVK\SRWKHVL]HGWKDWWKH KLJKHVWORDGRIDOOWKHWHVWVZRXOGEHH[SHULHQFHG KHUH7KHFRPSUHVVLYHSURSHUW\LVLPSRUWDQW EHFDXVHFRPSUHVVLRQLVDPDMRUIRUFHWKDW[VDUH VXEMHFWHGWRZKLOHLQDORDGEHDULQJVWXGZDOO

Example Calculation:

materials needed:

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·VUHVHDUFK(DFKWHVWHGVSHFLPHQZDV FXWIURPDVHSDUDWHORQJHU[WRHQVXUHGLYHUVLW\ ZLWKLQWKHVSHFLPHQV2QHVXUSULVLQJTXDOLW\RIWKH PDWHULDOLVWKHIUHVKQHVVRIWKHUHFODLPHGZRRG ZKHQFXW8QOLNHWKHRXWVLGHRIWKHZRRGWKHUHLV OLWWOHGLà©&#x201D;HUHQFHWKHHQGJUDLQFRORUEHWZHHQWKHQHZ ZRRGDQGWKHROGZRRG

testing Pictures:

)LJXUHCompression Test Specimens

process:

/78·V6WUXFWXUDO7HVWLQJ&HQWHUFRQWDLQVDWHVWLQJ PDFKLQHWKDWFDQFRPSUHVVRUSXOOPDWHULDOXVLQJ GLà©&#x201D;HUHQWDWWDFKPHQWV)RUWKLVWHVWWKHFRPSUHVVLYH DWWDFKPHQWZDVXVHG(DFKVSHFLPHQZDVSODFHG LQEHWZHHQWKHSODWHVRIWKHPDFKLQH,WZDVFULWLFDO WRHQVXUHWKHVSHFLPHQZDVFHQWHUHGEHWZHHQWKH SODWHVVRWKDWDQHYHQORDGFRXOGEHDSSOLHG2QFH FHQWHUHGWKHPDFKLQHDSSOLHGDSUHVVXUHDWDUDWH RILQFKHVSHUPLQXWH$FORVHH\HZDVNHSWRQ WKHORDGDPRXQW(DFKWHVWWRRNDERXWPLQXWHV 6SHFLPHQVZHUHORDGHGXQWLOWKH\VXVWDLQHGWKHLU PD[LPXPORDGH[FHSWIRUWKHRQHSLFWXUHGRQWKH SUHYLRXVSDJHZKLFKZDVFRPSOHWHO\FUXVKHG

)LJXUHCompression Test Setup 098


3

3 4 5

Compression failure beyond max yield point Compression failure in new lumber specimen Compression failure in reclaimed lumber specimen

Results: 7KHUHVXOWVVKRZHGWKDWWKHUHFODLPHGOXPEHU ZDVVWURQJHULQD[LDOFRPSUHVVLRQWKDQWKHQHZ OXPEHU7KLVFRQÃ&#x20AC;UPV305VRULJLQDOK\SRWKHVLV 7KHFRPSUHVVLRQWHVWZDVWKHPRVWFRQFOXVLYH RIDOOWKHWHVWVDVWKHGLà©&#x201D;HUHQFHLQVWUHQJWKZDV KLJKHVW2QDYHUDJHWKHUHFODLPHGOXPEHU KHOGZDVPRUHSVLWKDQWKHQHZOXPEHU +RZHYHULWLVQRWHQRXJKWRMXVWFRPSDUHWKH UHFODLPHGYDOXHVWRWKHQHZYDOXHVLWPXVWDOVR EHFRPSDUHGWRFRGHYDOXHVVLQFHFRGHJRYHUQV EXLOGLQJFRQVWUXFWLRQUHTXLUHPHQWV(YHU\VSHFLHV RIOXPEHUKDVLW·VRZQVWUXFWXUDOSURSHUWLHVSHUW\SH RIIRUFH$OORZDEOHD[LDOFRPSUHVVLRQRI6SUXFH

3LQH)LUZDVUHVHDUFKHGDQGIRXQGWREH SVLIRUDVHOHFWVWUXFWXUDO 66 JUDGH KLJKHVW $ JRRGUXOHRIWKXPEIRUFRGHYDOXHVLVWKDWWKH\ DUHUHGXFHGDSSUR[LPDWHO\[IURPDFWXDOYDOXHV IRUVDIHW\IDFWRUV6LPSOHFDOFXODWLRQVVKRZWKDWLQ FRPSUHVVLRQERWKW\SHVRIOXPEHUH[FHHGFRGH HYHQZLWKRXWVDIHW\IDFWRUV7KHSKRWRVRQWKH SUHYLRXVSDJHVKRZWKHVWUHVVFUDFNVFUHDWHGLQWKH OXPEHUE\WKHFRPSUHVVLYHIRUFH:KLOHWKHFUDFNV DUHVXEWOHWKHVHPHPEHUVDUHFRPSOHWHO\IDLOHG 7KHLPDJHRQWKHWRSVKRZVDPHPEHUWKDWZDV FRPSOHWHO\FUXVKHGIRUGHPRQVWUDWLRQUHDVRQV


Specimen: one

Specimen: two

Specimen: three

New Lumber: 5238 psi

New Lumber: 5486 psi

New Lumber: 4895 psi

Reclaimed Lumber: 8133 psi

Reclaimed Lumber: 7613 psi

Reclaimed Lumber: 7733 psi

4

5

100


material test two: tension


Tension:

7HVWLQJWHQVLOHSURSHUWLHVRIQHZDQGUHFODLPHG [VLV3LRQHHU0DWHULDO5HQHZDOVVHFRQGWHVW /LNHFRPSUHVVLRQWKHWHDPPXVWYHULI\WKDW WKHUHFODLPHGZRRG·VWHQVLOHSURSHUWLHVKDYH QRWGHWHULRUDWHGRYHUWLPH,QKHUHQWO\ZRRGLV ZHDNHVWLQWHQVLRQVRLWZDVK\SRWKHVL]HGWKDW WKLVLVWKHSURSHUW\WKDWKDVGHJUDGHGWKHPRVW RYHUWLPHDQGZRXOGEHPRVWFRPSDUDEOHWRQHZ ZRRG7KHWHQVLOHSURSHUW\LVLPSRUWDQWEHFDXVH OLNHFRPSUHVVLRQLVDPDMRUIRUFHWKDW[VDUH VXEMHFWHGWRZKLOHLQDORDGEHDULQJVWXGZDOODQGLQ WUXVVDVVHPEOLHV

Example Calculation:

materials needed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·W HQRXJKIRUFHLQWKHPDFKLQHWRSXOOWKHIXOOVHFWLRQ DSDUWVRWKHFURVVVHFWLRQVL]HKDGWREHUHGXFHG E\FXWWLQJLQFLVLRQVDWWKHFHQWHUSRLQWWRLQGXFH WHQVLRQIDLOXUHDVFDQEHVHHQLQWKHSKRWRV

testing Pictures:

)LJXUHSplitting of the reclaimed wood due to

jaw pressure

process:

/78·V6WUXFWXUDO7HVWLQJ&HQWHUFRQWDLQVDWHVWLQJ PDFKLQHWKDWFDQFRPSUHVVRUSXOOPDWHULDOXVLQJ GLà©&#x201D;HUHQWDWWDFKPHQWV)RUWKLVWHVWWKHWHQVLRQ DWWDFKPHQWZDVXVHG(DFKVSHFLPHQZDVSODFHGLQ WKHMDZVRIWKHPDFKLQH2QFHSODFHGWKHSUHVVXUH RIWKHMDZVKDGWREHDGMXVWHGWRHQVXUHWKH VSHFLPHQZDVQ·WFUXVKHGSULRUWRWHVWLQJ$FORVH H\HZDVNHSWRQWKHORDGDPRXQWDQGHDFKWHVW WRRNDERXWPLQXWHV6SHFLPHQVZHUHORDGHGXQWLO WKH\HLWKHUIDLOHGLQWHQVLRQRUZHUHVSOLWE\WKH SUHVVXUHIURPWKHMDZV

)LJXUHTension Test Specimens

102


3

3 4 5

textbook tension failure in new lumber specimen tension failure in new lumber specimen tension failure in recliamed lumber specimen

Results: 7KHUHVXOWVVKRZHGWKDWRQDYHUDJHWKHUHFODLPHG OXPEHUZDVVOLJKWO\ZHDNHULQD[LDOWHQVLRQWKDQWKH QHZOXPEHU7KLVGRHVQRWFRQÃ&#x20AC;UP305VRULJLQDO K\SRWKHVLVWKDWWKHUHFODLPHGOXPEHULVVWURQJHU WKDQWKHQHZ+RZHYHUDWHVWHUURURFFXUHGWKDW OHDGVWREHOLHYHWKHUHFODLPHGOXPEHUGLGQRW UHDFKLWVPD[LPXPWHQVLRQVWUHQJWK7KHQHZ OXPEHUUHDFKHGWH[WERRNWHQVLRQIDLOXUHDVFDQ EHVHHQRQWKHWRSSLFWXUHRQWKHSUHYLRXVSDJH %HIRUHWKHUHFODLPHGOXPEHUFRXOGUHDFKWKLV SRLQWWKHSUHVVXUHIURPWKHMDZVRIWKHPDFKLQH VSOLWWKHVSHFLPHQHDFKWLPHKDOWLQJWKHWHVWDQG DQà©&#x201D;HFWLQJWKHUHVXOWV7KHVSOLWFDQEHVHHQLQWKH

SLFWXUHRQWKHSUHYLRXVSDJH,WLVWKHRUL]HGWKDW LIWKHVSHFLPHQGLGQRWVSOLWLWZRXOGKDYHPHW RUH[FHHGHGWKHQHZOXPEHUWHQVLOHVWUHQJWK 7KLVDOVRPD\LQGLFDWHWKDWGXHWRWKHUHFODLPHG ZRRG·VGU\QHVVIURPVRPDQ\\HDUVFRPSUHVVVLRQ SHUSHQGLFXODUWRWKHJUDLQPD\EHDFRQWUROOLQJ VWUXFWXUDOIDFWRUUDWKHUWKDQFRPSUHVVLRQSDUDOOHO WRJUDLQWHQVLRQRUEHQGLQJ5HJDUGOHVVWKRXJK ZKHQFRPSDUHGWRDOORZDEOHFRGHYDOXHVIRU63) ERWKQHZDQGUHFODLPHGOXPEHUKHOGWRWKHFRGH DOORZDEOHSVLWHQVLRQVWUHQJWKIRU63)$OO PHPEHUVDOVRH[FHHGHGWKDWYDOXHPXOWLSOLHGE\ DVLVWKHUXOHRIWKXPEVDIHW\IDFWRUIRUFRGH


2x4TensionTestͲLumberLumbervs.OldGrowthReclaimedLumber Type

Name

Specimen1 Specimen2 Specimen3 Specimen1 Reclaimed Specimen2 Lumber Specimen3 New Lumber

Specimen: one

Width(in) Height(in) Area(in^2) 1.5 1.5 1.5 2 1.9375 1.9375

3.5 3.5 3.5 3.75 3.8125 3.8125

5.25 5.25 5.25 7.50 7.39 7.39

Specimen: two

Red.Area Force(lbs) (in^2) 1.125 6,000 1.125 3,500 1.125 5,500 1.125 4,400 1.125 5,400 1.125 5,100

Stress (psi) 5333 3111 4889 3911 4800 4533

4444

4415

Specimen: three

New Lumber: 5333 psi

New Lumber: 3111 psi

New Lumber: 4889 psi

Reclaimed Lumber: 3911 psi

Reclaimed Lumber: 4800 psi

Reclaimed Lumber: 4533 psi

4

AvgStress (psi)

5

104


material test three: bending


bending:

7HVWLQJEHQGLQJSURSHUWLHVRIQHZDQGUHFODLPHG [VZDV3LRQHHU0DWHULDO5HQHZDOVWKLUGWHVW/LNH FRPSUHVVLRQDQGWHQVLRQWKHWHDPPXVWYHULI\ WKDWWKHUHFODLPHGZRRG·VWHQVLOHSURSHUWLHVKDYH QRWGHWHULRUDWHGRYHUWLPH7KHUHZHUHDFRXSOH GL੔HUHQWHOHPHQWVWRWKHEHQGLQJWHVW)LUVWRYHUDOO VWUHQJWKZDVWHVWHGDVGRQHEHIRUH6HFRQGO\ GHÁHFWLRQLQWKHPHPEHUZDVDOVRWHVWHGDQG PHDVXUHG,WZDVK\SRWKHVL]HGWKDWWKHUHFODLPHG OXPEHUZRXOGDJDLQEHVWURQJHUEXWWKDWLWZRXOG GHÁHFWOHVVWKDQWKHQHZOXPEHUEHFDXVHRILW·V GU\QHVV%HQGLQJSURSHUWLHVDUHLPSRUWDQWYDOXHV LIXVLQJDFRQYHQWLRQDOUDIWHUIUDPLQJV\VWHPIRUD URRIDVZHOODVWUXVVDVVHPEOLHV

Example Calculation:

materials needed:

7KHPDWHULDOVXVHGIRUWKHEHQGLQJWHVWLQYROYHG WKUHHUHFODLPHGVSHFLPHQVDQGWKUHHQHZOXPEHU VSHFLPHQV(DFKVSHFLPHQZDVFXWWREHVL[IHHW ORQJ7KLVOHQJWKDOORZHGIRUDUHDVRQDEOHVSDQ WREHWHVWHG7KHDFWXDOVSDQEHWZHHQVXSSRUWV ZDV·µ1RUPDOO\[VGRQRWVSDQKRUL]RQWDOO\ DVKRZ305WHVWHGWKHPEXWDQRUPDOKRUL]RQWDO VSDQQLQJPHPEHUVXFKDVD[LVH[SHFWHGWR EHKDYHLQDVLPLODUPDQQHUZKLOHVXSSRUWLQJPRUH ZHLJKW$VLQWKHSUHYLRXVWHVWVWKHQHZOXPEHULV VWUXFWXUDOO\JUDGHGDV1R6SUXFH3LQH)LU 63)  DQGLVFRPPRQOXPEHUIRXQGDWDQ\ORFDOKDUGZDUH VWRUH7KHUHFODLPHGOXPEHUVSHFLHVDQGJUDGHLV XQNQRZQEXWLVVXVSHFWHGWREHSLQH

process:

/78·V6WUXFWXUDO7HVWLQJ&HQWHUFRQWDLQVVHYHUDO DFWXDWRUVIRUWHVWLQJEHDPVEULGJHVDQGRWKHU PDWHULDO)RUWKLVWHVWWKHVPDOOHVWDFWXDWRUZDV XVHG(DFKVSHFLPHQZDVSODFHGRQVWHHOVXSSRUWV VRWKDWLWVSDQQHG·µ,QDGGLWLRQWKHPHPEHUV ZHUHODWHUDOO\VXSSRUWHGE\VWHHODQGUHVWHGRQ FRQFUHWHF\OLQGHUVDVFDQEHVHHQLQWKHSKRWJUDSKV LQWKLVVHFWLRQ2QFHSODFHGWKHDFWXDWRUSXW SUHVVXUHDWWKHFHQWHURIWKHVSDQ$OVRKRRNHG WRWKH[ZDVDVWULQJSRGZLWKDGLVWDQFH PHDVXUHPHQWDWWDFKHGWRLW7KLVSRGPHDVXUHG WKHDPRXQWRIGHÁHFWLRQLQWKH[WKURXJKRXWWKH WHVW8QOLNHFRPSUHVVLRQDQGWHQVLRQ7KH[ZDV ORDGHGXQWLOLWFRXOGQRWVXSSRUWDQ\PRUHORDG 7KLVDOORZHGIRUYHU\DFFXUDWHGDWDSRLQWVWREH UHFRUGHGDVFDQEHVHHQLQWKHUHVXOWVVHFWLRQ 106


3

3

fully yielded reclaimed lumber specimen

Results: 7KHUHVXOWVVKRZHGWKDWRQDYHUDJHWKHUHFODLPHG OXPEHUZDVVWURQJHULQEHQGLQJVWUHVVWKDQWKH QHZOXPEHU7KHWHDPWHVWHGWKHQHZOXPEHUÃ&#x20AC;UVW DQGNQHZWKDWWKHUHFODLPHGZRRGZRXOGQHHGWR VXVWDLQDODUJHUORDGWRHTXDOWKHVWUHVVVXVWDLQHG E\WKHQHZOXPEHUEHFDXVHLWQDWXUDOO\KDVDODUJHU FURVVVHFWLRQWKHUHIRUHLWVKRXOGFDUU\PRUHZHLJKW +RZHYHU305GLGQRWH[SHFWZKHQWKHUHVXOWV ZHUHFDOFXODWHGWKDWRQDYHUDJHWKHUHFODLPHG OXPEHUZRXOGEHRYHUSVLVWURQJHUWKDQWKH QHZOXPEHU%HQGLQJVWUHVVFDOFXODWLRQVKHDYLO\ GHSHQGRQWKHVL]HRIWKHPHPEHU7KHVOLJKWHVW FKDQJHLQVL]HFDQTXLFNO\LPSDFWWKHUHVXOWLQJ

VWUHVV7KLVZDVHYLGHQWWKURXJKWKHUHFODLPHG OXPEHUFDOFXODWLRQV)RUH[DPSOHLIUHFODLPHG OXPEHUVSHFLPHQZDVWUXO\µ[µRQO\µ ZLGHUDQGµWDOOHUWKHEHQGLQJVWUHVVZRXOGEH UHGXFHGWRSVLUDWKHUWKDQSVL6LQFH WKHZRRGZDVKDQGFXWVRPDQ\\HDUVDJRYHU\ IHZRIWKHPHPEHUVDUHDFWXDOO\WKHVDPHH[DFW VL]HDQGRQO\URXJKO\µ[µ7KLVXQLTXHPDWHULDO TXDOLW\LVVRPHWKLQJWRWDNHLQWRFRQVLGHUDWLRQ ZKHQGHVLJQLQJZLWKWKHPDWHULDOERWKDHVWKHWLFDOO\ DQGVWUXFWXUDOO\5HJDUGOHVVDOOPHPEHUH[FHHGHG FRGHYDOXHVDJDLQDVVHHQLQWKHFKDUW


2x4BendingTestͲReclaimedLumbervs.OldGrowthReclaimedLumber Type

Section Width(in) Height(in) Area(in^2) Modulus Span(in) "Sx"(in^3)

Name

Specimen1 Specimen2 Specimen3 Specimen1 Reclaimed Specimen2 Lumber Specimen3

1.5 1.5 1.5 2.0625 1.875 1.75

New Lumber

Specimen: one

3.5 3.5 3.5 3.875 3.75 3.625

5.25 5.25 5.25 7.99 7.03 6.34

3.063 3.063 3.063 5.162 4.395 3.833

Specimen: two

64 64 64 64 64 64

Max Force (lbs)

Max Moment (lbͲin)

1,661 1,067 974 1,254 2,926 2,178

26,576 17,072 15,576 20,064 46,816 34,848

Stress AvgStress (psi) (psi) 8678 5575 5086 3887 10653 9092

6446

7878

Specimen: three

New Lumber: 8678 psi

New Lumber: 5575 psi

New Lumber: 5086 psi

Reclaimed Lumber: 3887 psi

Reclaimed Lumber: 10653 psi

Reclaimed Lumber: 9092 psi

Reclaimed vs. new bending stress over time: 10000

PSI

8000 6000 4000 2000 49.4 99.1 148.8 198.5 248.2 297.9 347.6 397.3 447 496.7 546.4 596.1 645.8 695.5 745.2 794.9 844.6 894.3 944 993.7 1043.4 1093.1 1142.8 1192.5 1242.2 1291.9

0

SECONDS Reclaimed Lumber Stress (PSI) 7KHJUDSKDERYHVKRZVWKHVWUHVVFXUYHVRI1HZ /XPEHU6SHFLPHQDQG5HFODLPHG0DWHULDO 6SHFLPHQ7KHJUDSKVKRZVWKHEHKDYLRURIWKH LQWHUQDOVWUHVVHVRYHUWLPH7KHUHFODLPHGOXPEHU

New Lumber Stress (PSI) WRRNPXFKORQJHUWRIXOO\\LHOGWKDQWKHQHZOXPEHU DQGLWZDVPRUHUHVLOLHQWDVLWUHORDGHGVHYHUDOWLPHV EHIRUHIXOO\IDLOLQJ 108


3

3

reclaimed lumber specimen mid test

Results: %HQGLQJVWUHVVZDVQRWWKHRQO\LPSRUWDQWYDOXHWR HYDOXDWHZKHQFRPSOHWLQJWKLVWHVW6LQFHGHÁHFWLRQ ZDVDOVRPHDVXUHGLWZDVSRVVLEOHWRFDOFXODWH WKHHODVWLFPRGXOXV ( RIWKHPDWHULDO7KHHODVWLF PRGXOXVLVWKHUDWLRRIWKHVWUHVVWRWKHVWUDLQRI WKHPDWHULDO,WLVGHWHUPLQHGE\DVVHVVLQJWKH DPRXQWRIGHÁHFWLRQDWPD[LPXPORDGDQGWKH PRPHQWRILQHUWLDRIWKHVHFWLRQ ZKLFKLVDJDLQ GHWHUPLQHGE\WKHFURVVVHFWLRQDODUHDRIWKH VSHFLPHQ 7KHHODVWLFPRGXOXVGHWHUPLQHVKRZ PXFKDPDWHULDOFDQHORQJDWHEHIRUHLWFDQQRWJR EDFNWRLWVRULJLQDOVKDSHDQGHYHQWXDOO\\LHOGV$V FDQEHVHHQLQWKHSKRWRVRQWKHSUHYLRXVSDJH WKHUHFODLPHGOXPEHUZDVVXUSULVLQJO\ÁH[LEOH7KH

WHDPDQWLFLSDWHGPLQLPDOÁH[LQJGXHWRLWVGU\QHVV 7KLVZDVQRWWKHFDVHDVLWWRRNORQJHUWRIXOO\\LHOG WKHUHFODLPHGOXPEHUGXHWRWKLVÁH[LQJWKDQLWGLG WKHQHZOXPEHU VHHIROORZLQJJUDSKV ,QIDFWRQFH WKHQHZOXPEHU\LHOGHGRQFHLWZDVFRPSOHWHO\ IDLOHG2QWKHRWKHUKDQGWKHUHFODLPHGOXPEHU UHORDGHGPDQ\WLPHVEHIRUHFRPSOHWHO\IDLOLQJ 305FRQFOXGHVWKDWWKLVLVDUHVXOWRIWLJKWHUDQG PRUHOD\HUVRIJUDLQLQWKHROGOXPEHUDVZHOODVLWV RSHQDLUQDWXUDOGU\LQJSURFHVVUDWKHUWKDQLQVLGH DODUJHRYHQ ZKLFKFDQGHVWUR\QDWXUDOJOXHV DV LVGRQHWRGD\$VDUHVXOWWKHHODVWLFPRGXOXVZDV KLJKHULQWKHUHFODLPHGOXPEHU


Reclaimed vs. new deflection + modulus of elasticity: Type

Name

Specimen1 Specimen2 Specimen3 Specimen1 Reclaimed Specimen2 Lumber Specimen3 New Lumber

Average Moment Elastic Deflectio Elastic ofInertia Modulus n""(in) Modulus "E" "I"(in^4) "E" 1.365 5.359 1,240,454 0.940 5.359 1,156,824 1,124,879 1.015 5.359 977,360 0.522 10.001 1,312,694 1.256 8.240 1,543,560 1,530,372 0.987 6.947 1,734,863

Specimen: one

Specimen: two

Specimen: three

New Lumber: 1,240,454 psi

New Lumber: 1,156,824 psi

New Lumber: 977,360 psi

Reclaimed Lumber: 1,312,694psi

Reclaimed Lumber: 1,543,560 psi

Reclaimed Lumber: 1,734,863 psi

Reclaimed vs. new elastic modulus over time: 2500000

ELASTIC MODULUS

2000000

1500000

1000000

500000

33.9 68 102.1 136.2 170.3 204.4 238.5 272.6 306.7 340.8 374.9 409 443.1 477.2 511.3 545.4 579.5 613.6 647.7 681.8 715.9 750 784.1 818.2 852.3 886.4 920.5 954.6 988.7 1022.8 1056.9 1091 1125.1 1159.2 1193.3 1227.4 1261.5

0

SECONDS Reclaimed Lumber Elastic Modulus

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New Lumber Elastic Modulus

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material test four: truss


Truss:

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materials needed:

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1

scale model of truss design using available lengths

2

Trimming and cutting ends to the right angles for connection

3

Mid-Construction of full scale truss

process:

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truss lab setup with lateral bracing.

2 truss under load with final cross bracing setup

3

gusset plate at peak of truss

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114


Truss Load & Deflection vs. Time 3.5

5,500 5,000

3 4,500 4,000

2

3,000 2,500

1.5

2,000 1

1,500 1,000

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Deflection (IN)

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1

nail deformity in first gusset plate after removal

3

failed bottom cord splice separation

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2

nail tearout in bottom cord splice connection

4

damage to wood from nail tearout

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116

repaired bottom cord splice connection ready for second test


section five: design


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Possible Reclaimed Material Design Typologies dwell $UHFODLPHGGZHOOLQJFDQXWLOL]HVHYHUDOPDWHULDOV LQYDULRXVZD\V'ZHOOLQJLVGHÃ&#x20AC;QHGDVDKRXVH DSDUWPHQWRURWKHUSODFHRIUHVLGHQFH$GZHOOLQJ PD\UHTXLUHDGGLWLRQDOH[SHQVHVVXFKDVZLQGRZV LQVXODWLRQZDWHUSURRÃ&#x20AC;QJSOXPELQJHOHFWULFDODQG PHFKDQLFDOV\VWHPV$GZHOOLQJPD\DOVREHSDLUHG ZLWKDQRWKHUV\VWHPVXFKDVDWUDLOHUIRUYHUVDWLOLW\ DQGPRELOLW\'ZHOOLQJVPD\QRWRQO\EHLQWKHIRUP RIDKRXVHRUDQDSDUWPHQWEXWQRQFRQYHQWLRQDO PHWKRGVRIKRXVLQJPD\EHDUHVXOWRIUHFODLPHG PDWHULDOV

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124


concept

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Conclusions from material tests

replicability of process

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ITERATION ONE: LAMELLA HYBRID SYSTEM $IWHUJRLQJWKURXJKWKHSURFHVVRIEUDLQVWRUPLQJ WKHSUHOLPLQDU\WHVWVDVGLVFXVVHGLQWKH0DWHULDO $VVHVVPHQWVHFWLRQWKHGLUHFWLRQRIWKH FRQFHSWXDOGHVLJQRIWKHVWUXFWXUHVKLIWHG WRDK\EULGL]DWLRQRIPXOWLSOHV\VWHPV7KLV K\EULGL]DWLRQDOORZHG305WRJDLQWKHDGYDQWDJHV RIWKHGLà©&#x201D;HUHQWV\VWHPVEHLQJSURSRVHGDVWHVWV ,QWKLVFDVHLWLVSRVW EHDPDQGODPHOOD7KLV PHWKRGRIFRQVWUXFWLRQZRXOGDOVRDOORZIRUDKLJK GHJUHHRILQWHJUDWLRQRIYDULRXVVHWVRIUHFODLPHG PDWHULDOVLQFOXGLQJWKHVWDQGDUG[PHPEHUV ODUJHUVSDQQLQJPHPEHUV>[?[?[@WLPEHU EHDPVDVZHOODVUHFODLPHGZLQGRZVDQGGRRUV IRUDSDQHOL]HGHQFORVXUHV\VWHP7KHGHVLJQDOVR

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Iteration two: Truss System with stud walls )XUWKHUH[SORULQJGHVLJQWKHWHDPWXUQHGEDFN WRWKHWUXVVRSWLRQ3UHYLRXVO\DVHWDPRXQWRI [·VKDGEHHQVHOHFWHGWREHXVHGIRUWHVWV$IWHU VXEWUDFWLQJWKHPDWHULDOQHHGHGIRUFRPSUHVVLRQ WHQVLRQDQGEHQGLQJWHVWVWKHUHPDLQLQJPDWHULDO KDGRULJLQDOO\SODQQHGWREHXVHGWRFRQVWUXFWD IXOOVFDOHODPHOODSURWRW\SHRUDWUXVV8OWLPDWHO\ 305RSWHGIRUWKHWUXVVGXHWRWKHXQLTXHGHVLJQ FKDOOHQJHDVVRFLDWHGZLWKLW7KHUHZHUHYDULRXV VL]HVRIZRRGLQWKHOHIWRYHUPDWHULDOUDQJLQJIURP ·µWR·µ305ZDQWHGWRNQRZZKDWGLà©&#x201D;HUHQW VKDSHVDQGVL]HVRIWUXVVHVFRXOGEHEXLOWZLWKWKLV KRGJHSRGJHRIPDWHULDO7KHWHDPNQHZWKDWHDFK PHPEHUFRXOGEHFXWWRDFHUWDLQVL]HWRPDNH DW\SLFDOORRNLQJV\PPHWULFDOWUXVVEXWLQVWHDG

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128


dubois grange

plan: neighborhood

dubois grange

proposed agriculture land use

plan: farmstead


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SITE OPTION c

program: site + previous iterations

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elevation: street view

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130


DESIGN Documentation: house plans + elevations

/2)76.,367$,56

Porch

Greenhouse / planting

Community kitchen

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PLAN: GROUND FLOOR

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Greenhouse / planting Community kitchen

SECTION: NORTH - SOUTH

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ELEVATION: east

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132


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BEFORE DEMOLITION RECLAIMED WINDOWS POTENTIAL FACADE USE FOR RECLAIMED WINDOWS PROPOSED DUBOIS GRANGE BUILDING


1

4

134


136


section six: Building Sustainable Communities


civic engagement building sustainable communities :KLOHH[WHQVLYHUHVHDUFKRQWKHQHLJKERUKRRG KDVEHHQVWXGLHGWKURXJK6DQERUQPDSV7KH 0RWRUFLW\0DSSLQJ3URMHFW'DWD'ULYHQ'HWURLW ODQGXVHW\SRORJ\7KH%XUWRQ+LVWRULF&ROOHFWLRQ 7KH'HWURLW3XEOLF/LEUDU\DQG7KH:D\QH6WDWH 'LJLWDO&ROOHFWLRQWKHUHLVQREHWWHUPHWKRGRI XQGHUVWDQGLQJWKHFXUUHQWQHLJKERUKRRGODQGVFDSH WKDQWKURXJKFRPPXQLFDWLRQZLWKWKHFXUUHQW UHVLGHQWVFRPPXQLW\PHPEHUVORFDOEXVLQHVVHV DQGQRQSURĂ&#x20AC;WV

why? 7RUHQHZFRPPXQLW\LQWHUHVWDQGDFWLRQLQ UHPHGLDWLQJEOLJKWWKURXJKKDQGVRQDFWLYLWLHVWKDW PDNHWUDQVIRUPDWLRQVRI´ROGLQWRQHZ¾WDQJLEOH ZLWKLQDFRPPXQLW\

If I were to move, I would want a farm.

community

member

awareness flyers 1HDUE\UHVLGHQWV305 FRQQHFWHGZLWKDJUHHGWR GLVWULEXWHĂ \HUVPDGHWR RWKHUVWKDWZRXOGOLNHWR EHLQIRUPHGRIWKHZRUN RUDQ\RQHLQWHUHVWHG LQKHOSLQJZLWKWKHSURMHFW

social media

I want to create an urban homestead, creating a structure that would support resident farming.

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learning from those in action /LIH5HPRGHOHGLVDQRQSURÃ&#x20AC;WRUJDQL]DWLRQWKDW H[LVWVWRUHPRGHOOLYHVRQHQHLJKERUKRRGDWDWLPH 7KH\XVHKROLVWLFVWUDWHJLHVWRPDNHGUDPDWLFDQG LPPHGLDWHLPSDFWLQFRPPXQLWLHVDQGWRHVWDEOLVK IRXQGDWLRQVIRUORQJWHUPVXVWDLQDEOHJURZWK DQGGHYHORSPHQW/LIH5HPRGHOHGKDV\HDUVRI UHYLWDOL]DWLRQZRUN ZZZOLIHUHPRGHOHGFRP 3URMHFWV  Â&#x2021;5HPRGHOHGQHLJKERUV·KRPHV  Â&#x2021;%RDUGHGXSYDFDQWGDQJHURXVKRXVHV  Â&#x2021;%HDXWLÃ&#x20AC;HGEORFNVLQGHWURLW·VQRUWKHQG  Â&#x2021;,QYROYHGYROXQWHHUV 3URMHFWV  Â&#x2021;5HPRGHOHGVFKRROVLQ&RG\5RXJH  FRPPXQLW\  Â&#x2021;5HPRYHGEXUQWKRXVH  Â&#x2021;%RDUGHGXSYDFDQWKRXVHV  Â&#x2021;%HDXWLÃ&#x20AC;HGFLW\EORFNV  Â&#x2021;&RPSOHWHGPLOOLRQV\QWKHWLFIRRWEDOOÃ&#x20AC;HOG 140


history + documentation Main goal:

House:

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Detroit Blight:

Neighborhood:

142


deconstruction Main Goal: 7RFRPSOHWHO\GHFRQVWUXFWWKHKRXVHXVLQJXQVNLOOHG VWXGHQWDQGFRPPXQLW\ODERULQRUGHUWRSURYLGHD PRGHOIRURWKHUSURMHFWVDQGFRPPXQLWLHVDURXQG WKHFLW\WRGRWKHVDPH

Process:

6LQFHWKHFLW\GRHVQRWRเฉ•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

Duration:

Material Assessment Main Goal:

Testing:

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7RDSSUR[LPDWHDQGYHULI\WKHPDWHULDO\LHOGHGIURP WKHKRXVHDQGWHVWWKHVWUXFWXUDOSURSHUWLHVRI \HDUROGZRRGDJDLQVWWRGD\ยทVZRRGDQGVWUXFWXUDO VWDQGDUGV

Material Reclaimed:


design Main Goal: 7RGHVLJQDVWUXFWXUHWKDWVHUYHVWKHFRPPXQLW\ XVLQJQRPRUHWKDQWKHUHFODLPHGPDWHULDOVIURP 'XERLV

Design Concept: 305VGHVLJQFRQFHSWLVDQ8UEDQ*UDQJH+DOO7KLV DOLJQVZLWKWKHUXUDOQDWXUHRIWKHQHLJKERUKRRG DQGDOVR5HFRYHU\3DUN·VLQLWLDWLYHVWRVXSSRUWDQ XUEDQDJULFXOWXUHGHYHORSPHQW$JUDQJHLVDQ RUJDQL]DWLRQRIORFDOIDUPHUVDQGJURZHUVDQGD JUDQJHKDOOLVWKHLUJDWKHULQJSODFH&RQVLGHULQJ WKDWWKHUHDUHPDQ\ORFDOXUEDQJDUGHQVLQWKH DUHDFRXSOHGZLWKWKHIXWXUHGHYHORSPHQWRI 5HFRYHU\3DUNDORFDOJUDQJHKDOOZRXOGVHUYHWKH FRPPXQLW\LQPXOWLSOHFDSDFLWLHV

The Design:

7KH'XERLV8UEDQ*UDQJH+DOOVLWVRQDW\SLFDO ·[·'HWURLWORW,W·VFRQVWUXFWLRQLVWUDGLWLRQDO [IUDPLQJRQDVODERQJUDGH7KHVRXWKHUQ HQGLVFODGGHGLQUHFODLPHGZLQGRZVWRDOORZIRU QDWXUDOGD\OLJKWLQJDQGVRPHJUHHQKRXVHJURZLQJ 7KHUHLVDOVRDFRPPXQLW\NLWFKHQDQGVOHHSLQJ TXDUWHUVORFDWHGLQWKHUHDURIWKHVWUXFWXUH7KH URRIVWUXFWXUHFRQVLVWVRIWKHDV\PPHWULFDOWUXVV WKDWZDVGHVLJQHGIRUWKHVWUXFWXUDOWHVW7KH FRPSOHWHGGHVLJQSURYLGHVDWHPSODWHIRUWKH IXWXUHFRQVWUXFWLRQDQGGHYHORSPHQWRIWKHVLWHDQG EXLOGLQJ  144


3URMHFW0DVFRW0U+LSSRIRXQGRQVLWH)HEUXDU\


conclusion ,QRQH\HDU3LRQHHU0DWHULDO5HQHZDO DFFRPSOLVKHGLWVJRDOWRÃ&#x20AC;JKWEOLJKWWKURXJK DGHFRQVWUXFWLRQSURFHVVWKDWFDQEH UHSOLFDWHGLQRWKHU'HWURLWFRPPXQLWLHV ,WZDVVXFFHVVIXOLQODUJHSDUWEHFDXVHRI WKHFRPPXQLW\SDUWQHUVDQGYROXQWHHUV 5HFRYHU\3DUNSURYLGHGWKHDUHDLQZKLFK WKHSURMHFWZRXOGRFFXUDQG$UFKLWHFWXUDO 6DOYDJH:DUHKRXVHRI'HWURLWSURYLGHG GHFRQVWUXFWLRQH[SHUWLVHDQGVFKHGXOLQJ VHUYLFHVWKDWPDGHWKHSURMHFW·VH[HFXWLRQ SRVVLEOH,QDGGLWLRQWKHSURMHFWZRXOGQRW EHSRVVLEOHZLWKRXWDOORIWKHYROXQWHHUVWKDW KHOSHGRQVLWHRYHUWKHGHFRQVWUXFWLRQ GD\V(à©&#x201D;RUWVE\DOORIWKHVHSHRSOHHYHQ JRWWKHSURMHFWIHDWXUHGRQ'HWURLW·VORFDO )R[FKDQQHODVDQHZVVHJPHQW7KHWHDP KRSHVWRVHHNPRUHIXQGLQJWRFRPSOHWH DQRWKHUVLPLODUSURMHFWDVZHOODVFRQVWUXFW WKHGHVLJQLQWKHUHSRUW

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