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Standard Grade Computing Studies Unit 2 - Introduction to General Purpose Packages Word Processing Database Spreadsheet Graphics Multimedia Desk Top Publishing Web Page Authoring Internet

Name: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Class: . . .

Bishopbriggs Academy


Contents: GPP1 – General Purpose Packages What is a General Purpose package Why do we need General Purpose Packages

GPP2 – User Friendliness

3 3 5

8

User Friendliness The Human Computer Interface The WIMP interface Templates Wizards

8 8 9 10 10

GPP3 – The Human Computer Interface

12

On-Line Help On-Line Tutorial Graphical User Interface Toolbars Keyboard Shortcuts Customising the HCI User Friendly features

12 13 13 15 15 16 17

GPP4 – Selecting General Purpose Packages

19

GPP5 – Common Features of a GPP

22

The packages available Overlap between packages Deciding which package to use

List of common commands found in GPPs Advantages of using a GPP

19 20 20 22 24

GPP6 – Social Implications – Employment

26

GPP7 – Social Implications – Security and Privacy

30

The effects of introducing computers to the workplace Working conditions Ensuring data is correct Preventing data loss Preventing data from being misused The Data Protection Act The Computer Misuse Act The Copyright Designs and Patents Act

26 28

30 31 31 32 34 34

GPP8 – Economic Implications

36

Initial costs Replacement costs Running costs Staff costs

36 36 36 36

End of Unit Questions 2

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Bishopbriggs Academy – Standard Grade Computing Studies


GPP1 General Purpose Packages In this chapter you will learn: • What a General Purpose Package is • Why we need General Purposes Packages What is a General Purpose Package? When the first computers were sold all software for them was custom made. This meant that a company might have one program to handle its employee records, another one to handle its customer records, another one to handle its orders and a further one to handle its stock. Each would be unique. Each used a different method of entering data, editing the data and storing the data – even though the tasks were very similar – they all store, search and sort data. This had very obvious disadvantages… • Custom writing software for every task is very expensive and time consuming • An operator familiar with one system could not work another so errors would often be made when an operator moved from one system to another • Transferring data from one computer to another was very difficult General Purpose Packages (GPP’s) are commercially produced software packages, which are designed to overcome these problems. A General Purpose Package is a piece of software, which is designed to carry out a set of similar tasks.

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The General Purpose Packages that you will study in the Standard Grade Computing Studies course are… • Word processing –for working with text • Database –for organising information • Spreadsheet –for working with numbers • Graphics –for working with pictures • Multimedia –for presenting text, pictures, sound and video • Desk Top Publishing –to layout pages of text and pictures • Web Page Authoring –for creating web pages • Internet – for working with the Internet • Expert Systems – for solving problems This still means that the average computer user will likely need several software packages – but far, far less than before. The one area of computing which does not use General Purpose Packages is games – they are all unique!

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Why do we need General Purpose Packages? • A single GPP can be used to carry out several similar tasks so this will save the company money. • GPP’s allow us to store large amounts of information and retrieve it quickly when changes have to be made. • Each of the different classes of GPP stores its data in a way that is best for its purpose. For example… o A Word Processor stores text along with information about its size, style, font and colour. It also stores information about how the text should appear on the page. This lets you set out a piece of text properly with title pages, page numbers, footnotes, etc. o A Database stores its information so that it is easy to search for any information or perhaps to present the information in a different order or in a different layout. o A Spreadsheet stores numbers and formulas to make it easy to carry out calculations. Change one number and any formulas that use that number will immediately recalculate the answers to the formulas. • It is easy to copy information kept on a computer. Companies make regular backup copies of their work in case their original files become damaged.

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• GPPs make it easy to change the font, style or size of text of a document and also how it is laid out on the page giving the user more flexibility when they create their documents • GPP’s allow users to make sure that information stored is accurate, complete and up to date. Accurate data means that it is entered correctly. GPP software will often automatically check for simple errors like spelling mistakes or impossible dates like the 30th of February to help you enter accurate data. Complete means that nothing is lost or missing. Some GPP software will only let you continue if you have supplied all the information it expects and prompt you if you miss anything out. Up to Date means that changes are easy to make which encourages the users to make them regularly. Credit Only • GPP’s make it easy to share information between businesses and organisations. Computers running the same packages can easily move data from one computer to another. Even if they are not running exactly the same package, most GPPs will still allow the users to exchange data through a network, by email or by sharing disks. This improves the flow of information between and within organisations 6

Bishopbriggs Academy – Standard Grade Computing Studies


Homework/Written Exercise 1 1.

Use the following words to complete these sentences: problems similar organising place backup money purpose flexible easy graphics word processing multimedia

a)

A GPP is a piece of software that is designed to carry out a set of __________ tasks.

b)

_______ _______ is used for working with text.

c)

Database is for _________ information.

d)

Desk Top Publishing is used to _______ text and pictures on pages.

e)

________ is used for working with pictures.

f)

____________ is used for presenting text, pictures, sound and video.

g)

Expert Systems are used to solve __________.

h)

GPPs are more ________ in their use so this saves a company ______.

i)

GPPs makes it ____ to deal with large amounts of information.

j)

Each GPP stores its data in a way that best suits its _______.

k)

_________ copies should be made in case the original files are lost or damaged.

2.

Describe what is meant by the terms accurate, complete, up-to-date.

Credit only 3.

How do the use of GPPs improve the flow of data within an organisation?

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GPP2

User Friendliness

In this chapter you will learn… • • • • •

what is meant by ‘User Friendliness’ what is meant by the ‘Human Computer Interface’ what a WIMP system is about the use of Templates about the use of Wizards

User Friendliness If a program is designed in such a way that it is easy to learn and easy to use then the operator is more likely to use it and will get through their work quickly. A program which is easy to learn and easy to use is said to be ‘User Friendly’. Some of the main factors, which help make a program User Friendly are… • • • • • • • •

a clearly laid out screen meaningfully labelled menus and menu items helpful error messages when things go wrong checking that a user has entered data correctly making sure that the user has missed nothing out the type of Human Computer Interface the availability of ‘Templates’ being able to use ‘Wizards’

Human Computer Interface The Human Computer Interface (or HCI) is how the user and the computer interact with each other or what the user sees when they sit down at the computer screen.

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The most common type of HCI in use today is the WIMP system. This is used in almost all microcomputer systems. WIMP Stands for: •

Windows – areas of the screen to work in.

Each

task is given a different window for its work. • Icons – pictures uses to represent commands and objects like documents, programs, folders, disk drives or printers. • Menus – lists of commands from which you can choose an item. • Pointers – allow you to make choices by pointing at and selecting from the menus and icons. This is controlled by a pointing device such as a mouse. For example: Microsoft Windows XP looks like this…

Menus

Icons

Window

Pointer

A WIMP system is very easy to use and can be learned very quickly by new users. The HCI plays a big part in User Friendliness.

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Templates A template is an outline document that has been prepared in advance. The layout of the text, the font, the size and style are all preset. The user then just has to change the heading, insert any new text and the document is ready. No time is wasted getting the layout ‘just right’. It also means businesses documents will have a uniform (or corporate) look. Many GPPs come with a large set of templates ready to use. Businesses will create their own in their corporate style Wizards A wizard is a small program that will guide the user through a complicated task. For example if you were to install a new printer in your computer, a wizard would guide you through the process by asking you a series of questions about how you want the printer set up. At each stage it would check that your answers make sense. It would not proceed with the installation if you tried to do anything silly. Only when it has a sensible set of correct answers would it actually install the necessary software to use the new printer. Many GPPs come with wizards, not just to install the program but also to let you carry out more complicated tasks with your software. For example you may find a wizard which will guide you through the process of making up a database to hold the names and addresses of your friends. 10

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Homework/Written Exercise 2 Complete the following sentences using the words below‌ template windows clearly

user friendly pointers corporate

correctly wizard missing

HCI install helpful

pictures lists

a) A ____ _______ program is easy to learn and easy to use. b) A _____ laid out screen helps make software user friendly. c) _______ error messages help make software user friendly. d) Checking that data has been entered _______ helps make software user friendly. e) Ensuring that nothing is _____ helps ensure that software is user friendly. f)

The ____ is how the user and the computer interact.

g) ______ are areas of screen to carry out a task. h) Icons are small _______ to represent commands. i)

Menus are _____ of commands.

j)

_______ let you choose the icons or menus.

k) A ________ is an outline document that has been prepared in advance. l)

The use of templates gives a company a _______ look.

m) A ________ is a small program which guides the user through a complicated task. n) Wizards are often used to ______ new software.

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GPP3 The Human Computer Interface In this chapter you will learn more about these features of an HCI… • On-line help • On-line tutorials • Graphical User Interfaces • Toolbars • Keyboard Shortcuts • Customising an HCI On-Line Help When you are using a package and encounter a problem you need help! On-line help is a set of answers to common problems that people have when using the program. The easiest way to solve the problem is to ask the program you are using for the answer. The on-line help system appears in its own window and you type in what you are having problems with. It will then look up your question and if it finds a matching answer it will describe how to ‘fix’ your problem. On-line help saves you having to look through the software manual and, as it is part of the program, you can use it while the program is running.

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On-Line Tutorial An On-line Tutorial is a series of lessons, which takes the user through the software demonstrating its features. It is very useful if you are using the package for the first time. Having On-line Help and On-line Tutorials available, add to a program’s User Friendliness. NOTE: The term “on-line”, when it is used with ‘OnLine Help’ and ‘On-Line Tutorial’ means that these are available from within a program – it does not mean that they are available over the Internet!

Graphical User Interface The WIMP Human Computer Interface is part of what is known as a Graphical User Interface (or GUI). There is more to a WIMP interface than just windows, icons, menus and pointing devices. For example, a window might contain radio buttons, check boxes, popup menus, text boxes, buttons, rulers and scroll bars. This picture of a Page Set-up Dialog window from Microsoft Word shows the use of radio buttons, check boxes, pop-up menus, text boxes and buttons all used in a single window.

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Pop-up Menu

Check Box Text Box

Radio Buttons

Buttons

This picture shows another window from Microsoft Word for a new word processing document with rulers and scroll bars.

Rulers Scroll Bars

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Toolbars This is another feature of a Graphical User Interface. A toolbar groups commonly used commands in the form of icons in a strip that is normally placed above or at the side of a document. Selecting an icon on a toolbar is much quicker to use than having to open a menu and selecting an item. It is especially useful for commands that will be used frequently. One of the tool bars from Microsoft Word looks like this‌

New

Open

Save

Print

Cut

Copy

Paste

Credit Only Keyboard Shortcuts For some experienced users, using a toolbar is still too slow for them. Instead they will use an additional feature called Keyboard Shortcuts. A keyboard shortcut is a way of activating a command by pressing a combination of two or more keys together. The most common commands like New, Open, Save, Print and Help all have keyboard shortcuts. Unit 2 – Introduction to General Purpose Packages

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Undo


Customising an HCI Customising means being able to alter parts of the HCI to suit the user. The user can change certain of the HCI’s parameters such as mouse speed, screen size and desktop patterns etc. This is especially useful for someone with a disability. For example, someone with poor eyesight might make everything on the screen appear bigger to make it easier to read. Pupils in a school may only have a limited set of commands available to them to prevent them changing a computer setup by accident or to keep them focused on their task. Modern operating systems like Microsoft Windows XP and Apple OS X will let each user customise their HCI to suit them. When they log on to the computer it uses the parameters they have saved to recreate their own particular look and feel. When they log off and the next person logs on it will set up with that person’s individual parameters.

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The features that make software user friendly should now read… • a clearly laid out screen • meaningfully labelled menus and menu items • helpful error messages when things go wrong • checking that a user has entered data correctly • making sure that the user has missed nothing out • the type of Human Computer Interface • the availability of ‘Templates’ • being able to use ‘Wizards’ ��� having on-line help • having an on-line tutorial • using a Graphical User Interface • having a Toolbar in a program • having Keyboard Shortcuts in a program • being able to customise the HCI

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Homework/Written Exercise 3 1) What is meant by the term ‘on-line help’? 2) When might you use on-line help? 3) What is meant by the term ‘on-line tutorial’? 4) When might you use an on-line tutorial? 5) What does the ‘on-line’ part of on-line help and on-line tutorial mean? 6) Name four parts of a GUI apart from windows, icons, menus and pointers. 7) What is a toolbar? 8) What is a toolbar used in place of? Credit only 9) What are keyboard shortcuts? 10) Why are keyboard shortcuts provided when the user already has a toolbar and menus? 11) What parameters of the HCI can the user customise? 12) Why is it useful for a school to be able to customise its HCI? 13) Why is it useful for a home user to be able to customise their HCI?

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GPP4 Selection of General Purpose Packages In this chapter you will learn: • The uses of different types of general purpose packages • The ability of a package to fulfil more than one purpose • How to decide on the best package to use The main General Purpose packages that are used are: • Word processing –to manipulate text to create letters, reports etc. • Database –to store information so that it can then be searched through or sorted easily. • Spreadsheet –to manipulate numbers with the help of formulas to so that calculations can be performed quickly and accurately. • Graphics –to create and manipulate pictures • Multimedia –to combine text, pictures, sound and video into a single presentation. • Desk Top Publishing –to layout text and graphics on pages to make books and magazines. • Web Page Authoring –to create information sites on the Internet. • Internet – the browser and e-mail packages we use to communicate on the Internet. • Expert Systems – using someone else’s expertise to solve a problem.

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Overlap does exist between these packages. Some examples are: 1.

Drawing a graph Method 1

Use a graphics package to draw the graph

Method 2 Use a spreadsheet with chart facility 2.

Calculate the total of a column of numbers Method 1

Use a spreadsheet

Method 2 Use a Database This overlap is becoming increasingly more common because as packages become more sophisticated they have added features. For example, many word processors now include a drawing facility. Credit Only When faced with a problem or task you must be able to select the correct GPP for that problem. To decide what software to use, you must‌ 1. Decide exactly what the problem is you need to solve 2. Consider what software you have available 3. Consider what software you know how to use 4. Consider what computer hardware you have available 5. Decide which software that will run on the computer systems will be the easiest for you to use to solve the problem Sometimes you will need to use a combination of two or three packages to solve a problem.

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Homework/Written Exercise 4 1. Match the user to an appropriate General Purpose Package (use each one only once!)‌ User Secretary

Package

Junior doctor Photographer Foreign journalist Accountant Lecturer Magazine editor On-line shop manager Librarian 2. Give an example of how a Drawing package can be used to carry out a similar task to one of the other GPPs. Credit Only 3. A school is intending to set up a monthly magazine for its pupils. a) Make a list of the different items of hardware that the school should buy giving a reason for each of your choices. b) Make a list of the different software packages the school should buy giving a reason for each of your choices.

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GPP5 Common Features of GPPs In this chapter you will learn… • about the common features of a General Purpose Package. • The advantages of using a General Purpose Package Most general purpose packages have the following features in common: Open/Run Application

allows the user to start the program

New

creates a new document

Open/load file

allow the user to use an existing document

Save file

documents can be saved to media using the backing storage device

Print a file

allows copies of documents to be made on paper

Insert data

allows new data to be inserted in to a document

Amend data

make a change to the data in a document

Delete data

remove data from a document

Change text style

font, style, size of text can be altered to change its appearance

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Copy part of a file

this allows you to select a part of your document and then make a duplicate of it which can be inserted elsewhere in the document or in another document. Often called ‘Copy and Paste’.

Move part of a file

this allows you to select a part of your document and then move it to somewhere else in the document or to another document. Often called ‘Cut and Paste’.

Set Header

allows you to enter a piece of text that will appear at the top of every page in a document. Often used to show the title or author’s name throughout a document.

Set Footers

allows you to enter a piece of text that will appear at the bottom of every page in a document. Often used to hold page numbers.

Print Part of a file

allows you to print only the part of your document that you want instead of printing all of the document

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Advantages of a GPP You have already learnt that individual types of General Purpose Package are targeted at certain areas and that they share common features. This gives them certain advantages over individually written packages. • A General Purpose Package with a User Friendly Human Computer Interface will let the users get through their work more quickly. • Common editing features such as inserting, amending, deleting let the users make changes easily. • Familiarity of the user with a General Purpose Package means that they can carry out many similar tasks with the same piece of software – this gives the users increased productivity. • Common features such as being able to move part of a file, copy part of a file, set headers or set footers means that the users have flexibility in how they lay out their work. • It is easier to deal with the vast amounts of information that is now available to us through the Internet. General Purpose Packages make it easy for us to find, capture and reuse the parts of that information in ways that suit us best. • Using GPPs improves the flow of information between and within organisations as it is easy to move data from one GPP to another through networks, on discs or by e-mail.

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Homework/Written Exercise 5 1.

Which common feature of a GPP is used to… a) put a title at the top of every page ____________. b) correct spelling mistakes ________________. c) remove data from a document ______________. d) store a file on media _____________. e) make a copy of a document on paper ___________. f)

copy an existing document from media to memory _____.

g) add new characters into a document __________. h) make text bold ____________. i)

create a document _______.

j)

duplicate part of a document ________________.

k) add a page number to the bottom of every page ________. l)

place a section of text in a new position ____________.

m) print out just one page from a 5 page document ________. 2. Use these words to complete these sentences… editing

quickly

a) A user friendly HCI lets users get through their work more __________. b) Common __________ features let users make changes more quickly. 3. How has the use of GPPs lead to a) increased productivity, b) increaded flexibility? Credit Only 4. How have GPPs helped us deal with the Internet? Unit 2 – Introduction to General Purpose Packages

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GPP6

Social Implications Employment

In this chapter you will learn: • The effects on employment • The effects on working conditions. The introduction of computers running General Purpose Packages has changed the types of jobs that people do in the workplace. Most employees now need to be able to use a computer system and to be familiar with at least the common features of General Purpose Packages. There is much less opportunity for workers with no or poor computer skills. General Purpose Packages have also changed the types of job that people do and made these jobs more varied and interesting. For example, a typical business will need computer operators, maintenance engineers, systems analysts and programmers where before they just had clerks and typists. Many workers have undertaken retraining as part of their job. This has allowed them to learn new computer skills and keep their job. This is expensive for the company but in the long run most companies benefit from giving their workers proper training as the employees are then more efficient and more productive for the company.

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Unfortunately the introduction of computer systems has had big effect on employment. There have been many job losses in offices and factories and fewer job opportunities for young people. Only those who can use up-to-date hardware and software are required. However there are obviously new opportunities for people who can write software, make and repair hardware or even train others to use a computer system. New jobs have also opened up such as in Call Centres and the companies which send out advertising in the from of Mail Shots - these are individually tailored adverts sent to millions of households around the country to try to create new business.

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Working Conditions There have been many changes to people’s working conditions since the introduction of computer systems and the use of General Purpose Packages. The Health and Safety at Work Act was amended in 1992 to ensure that regular users of computers have… • adjustable seats and monitors to improve user comfort. • plenty of space to work in comfort. • good lighting which does not flicker. • curtains or blinds to reduce glare. • an environment that is not too dry or humid and does not have noisy equipment. It was once thought that the introduction of computer systems into offices would lead to the paperless office where all data would be moved around electronically. However this has not been the case. One of the effects of the ease at which documents can be created, amended and printed has meant that people now print more than they actually need to, so rather than moving from a paperless office businesses have seem a big rise in the amount of paper that they use.

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Homework/Written Exercise 6 1.

Use the following words to complete the following sentences‌ maintenance engineers, common, clerks, computer retrained, call, programmers, mailshots a) Most employees now need to be able to operate a _________. b) They must be familiar with the _________ features of a GPP. c) Before computers, offices employed ______ and typists. d) Many staff had to be _________ to use the computers. e) Companies also need to employ ___________. f) Large companies will also employ analysts and __________. g) New jobs have been created in ______ centres. h) ________ are used to send out personalised advertising.

2. Why were fewer workers needed when computers were introduced? 3. What happened to the workers who were kept on? 4. What are the benefits of giving staff proper training? 5. What skills do you have to show when you apply for many jobs today? 6. List four features of the working conditions of a modern office. 7. Why was the dream of the paperless office not realised? Unit 2 – Introduction to General Purpose Packages

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GPP7 Social Implications Security and Privacy In this chapter you will learn about… • ensuring that all personal data held is correct • preventing accidental loss of data • preventing the misuse of data • the Data Protection Act • the Computer Misuse act • the Copyrights and Patents Act The increase in the use of computer systems means that more and more personal information is stored about people. It is important that organisations make sure that this data is correct, and not lost or misused. To ensure that any personal data held is correct… • Any individual has the right to see and to check their own personal data. They can ask to see any information being held about them and to have any incorrect data changed as long as they have proof that it is wrong. • Organisations will regularly ask their employees to confirm that the information held about them is correct in case they have changed address or phone numbers and not passed the information on the organisation. • There are some exceptions to this however like the Police, Inland Revenue or Social Work. Their records do not have to be shown to individuals.

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To ensure data is not lost… • An organisation must make regular backup copies of work. These must be stored in a safe place (like a fireproof safe) and also tested regularly to make sure that they work to reduce any chance of losing data. • Anti-virus software must be installed and kept upto-date to prevent data from being corrupted To ensure data is not misused • Only authorised personnel should be able to access computer areas by keeping these in locked areas. If that is not possible then individual computers can be fitted with security locks to restrict their use. • Use User IDs and passwords on computer systems, which will restrict access to only the files and information that the user requires. • Very sensitive data can be encrypted to make it unreadable to unauthorised users. • Record and keep track of who has accessed files • Install a firewall to prevent access to computers through the Internet. Accessing a computer system without consent is called “Hacking”. It is illegal!

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Credit Only The Laws that affect the use of computer data The Data Protection Act, 1984 amended 1998 This is the main law that affects how data about people is collected and used. In simple terms this states that all personal data must be accurate and up-to-date, gathered fairly, only used for its declared purpose, kept safe and destroyed when it is no longer needed. To ensure this, the Data Controller (the personal or organisation holding the data) must… • Apply for permission from the Data Protection Commissioner to keep personal data on a computer before they start to collect any data • Convince the Data Protection Commissioner that they have a good reason for collecting the data, the data will be collected fairly, only used for its stated purpose, kept safe and destroyed when no longer needed. If a Data Controller makes a successful application then these details will be recorded in the Data Protection Register. The Data Controller must then apply the following Data Protection Principles • Only data described in their Data Protection Register entry is gathered • The data is only used for the purposes described in their Data Protection Register entry • The data held is accurate and up-to-date • An individual has access to check and if necessary have their own data corrected 32

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The data is kept secure Enough data is kept to fulfil its stated use No unnecessary data is kept Data is destroyed when it is no longer needed Data is only transferred to another country if similar measures can be shown to be in place • If the information would form part of a legal contract, or is essential for a business transaction or is needed to carry out a public duty then the data can only be processed if the individual gives their consent. • • • • •

Data Controllers will then employ Data Users to actually collect and process the personal information for their company or organisation. The individuals who have data held about them are referred to as Data Subjects. This law gives them certain rights… • To know if data is being held about them and to be able to get a copy of this information • To be able to check their data and have anything wrong corrected – provided they can prove it is wrong • To ask for compensation if data held about them is wrong or if an unauthorised person has obtained their data. • To know why data about them is being collected and used • To be certain that decisions made about them is not made solely as a result of processing data about them • To know who their data is going to be given to • To prevent data about them being processed if it is likely to cause them harm or distress

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If a Data user finds that their rights have been infringed then they can make a complaint to the office of the Data Protection Commissioner who will investigate on their behalf and if necessary take action against the Data Controller. The Computer Misuse Act, 1990 This law controls access and use of computer systems. It is illegal to… • access a computer without the owner’s permission (Hacking) • modify computer materials without the owner’s permission. This includes… o Writing a virus program which prevents a computer from running properly o Changing someone’s password to prevent their access o Altering or deleting someone’s software or files. Penalties can be fines or up to 5 years in jail! The Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988 Computer software is protected from unauthorised copying for up to 50 years after it was published. It is illegal to… • make pirate copies of software • possess pirate copies of software • run pirate copies of software • send or receive copies of software over the internet to make or let someone else make pirate copies • allow employees to make, hold or use pirate software on a company’s computers Penalties can range from fines up to 10 years in jail!

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Homework/Written Exercise 7 1.

Use these words to complete the following sentences‌ anti-virus,

check,

lost,

regularly

a) An individual has the right to see and to _______ information held about them is correct. b) Many organisations _______ ask their employees if their records about them are correct. c) Organisations should make regular backups to ensure data is not ______. d) _________ software should be installed to prevent loss. 2. Which organisations are exempt from letting you check if information held about you is correct? 3. Describe four ways that are used to prevent hacking. Credit Only 4. Which law controls how personal data is used? 5. Who are the following people referred to in the DPA? a) Data Controller, b) Data User, c) Data Subject? 6. List four of the data protection principles a Data Controller must satisfy in order to use personal data. 7. List four of the rights of a Data Subject. 8. Which actions are illegal under the Computer Misuse Act? 9. Which actions are illegal under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act? Unit 2 – Introduction to General Purpose Packages

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GPP8 Economic Implications Setting up computer systems in business usually costs a lot of money initially. This is because both hardware and software can be expensive, and some staff may have to be retrained. Types of costs: Initial Costs: • Buying the computer Hardware and Software • Creating suitable working conditions with good lighting, ventilation and furniture. • Staff training (although some staff may lose their jobs which will save wages) • Employing computer specialists – technicians to install and keep the computers running Replacement Costs • Updating Hardware and Software Running Costs • Consumables - Buying ink, toner, disks etc • Maintenance - Keeping the hardware and software running • Making and storing backup copies • Telephone bills and access costs for an Internet connection Staff Costs • Staff wages • Continuing Staff Training to keep their skills upto-date

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Homework/Written Exercise 8 1.

Use these words to complete the following sentences‌ specialists, software, retrained, working conditions a) A company which is going to introduce computers into its business will need to spend money on computer hardware and __________. b) The company must ensure their workers have good _______ __________. c) Staff will need to be ________ to use the computers. d) Computer __________ like technicians will need to be employed to keep the systems running.

2. Why does computer hardware and software have to be upgraded regularly? 3. Describe four running costs of operating computers. Credit Only 4. What initial cost will have to made for staff who lose their jobs? 5. Why do staff need to be regularly retrained? 6. Why would staff who have been retrained from clerks and typists to become computer operators expect a rise in their wages?

Unit 2 – Introduction to General Purpose Packages

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End of Unit Questions A golf club keeps all of its member’s details on cards. They wish to update their membership system by transferring all of the member’s details to computer files. The President is in charge of the golf club and the membership details are handled by the Membership Secretary. 1.

Use some of these words to complete the following sentences… templates, productive, right, GPP, buy, backup, retrained user friendly, hardware a) Using a ____ allows the Membership Secretary to access information more quickly than with the old card system. b) To prevent loss of data a _________ should be taken regularly. c) The computer system is more __________ because changes to membership details can be made quickly. e) Before the Membership Secretary transferred the membership details to the computer she had to be ___________. e) All members will have the ____ to check that their membership details are correct.

2. A common, user friendly system is a WIMP system. Wimp stands for… W ________ I ________ M ________ P ________

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Bishopbriggs Academy – Standard Grade Computing Studies


3. When the membership secretary first starts to use the new computer system she uses an on-line tutorial. a) How does this help her? b) How will an on-line help system help her later on? 4. Name two features of a GUI that will help her speed up her work. 5. What changes may have to be made to the office that the Membership Secretary uses when she changes from using the card system to the computer system? Credit Only 6. The golf club will need to register their intention to hold personal data before they can make the transfer. a) Which law governs the use of holding personal information? b) Who will be the Data Controller for the golf club? d) Who will be the Data User for the club? e) Who are the Data Subjects in the club? 7. The golf club is concerned that unauthorised people might access the confidential member files. This is known as hacking. a) Which law makes this illegal? b) What other activity is illegal under this law? 8. The Membership Secretary suggests that, in order to save money, she will use a copy of a package she has at home. What is wrong with this? Unit 2 – Introduction to General Purpose Packages

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Bishopbriggs Academy – Standard Grade Computing Studies


Intro to Gpps