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Standard Grade Computing Studies General Purpose Packages Frank Frame


GENERAL PURPOSE PACKAGES

Acknowledgement Thanks to Dorothy Tedman for her contribution to the review of the content.

First published 2004 Š Learning and Teaching Scotland 2004 This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part for educational purposes by schools and colleges in Scotland provided that no profit accrues at any stage. ISBN 1 84399 034 2

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Contents Introduction

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What are General Purpose Packages, why do we use them and what are they used for?

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Storing Data in Your GPP

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The Human-Computer Interface

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Integrated Packages

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What do you need to know about the Packages?

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What do you need to know about Graphics?

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What do you need to know about Spreadsheets?

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What do you need to know about Databases?

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Desktop Publishing

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Presentation/Multimedia Packages

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Creating a Web Page

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What is an Expert System?

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General Purposes Packages in the Workplace

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The Law

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GPP Questions

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GPP Answers

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Answers to Exercises

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Introduction This publication is part of a series of publications to support Standard Grade Arrangements in Computing Studies (March 2004). The titles in the series are: • • • • •

General Purpose Packages Communications and Networks Computer Systems Automated Systems Commercial Data Processing.

The first two packs, General Purpose Packages and Communications and Networks, provide complete coverage of the content as specified in the updated arrangements for Standard Grade Computing Studies. The other three packs, Computer Systems, Automated Systems, and Commercial Data Processing have been produced to support the three programmes featured on the DVD. The content of these materials has been written to relate directly to the programmes on the DVD and may not cover all the content as specified in the course arrangements.

General Purpose Packages The materials contained in this pack support the section on general purpose packages. They contain student notes, exercises, questions and answers at Foundation, General and Credit level covering all aspects of the detailed content outlined in the arrangements. Note: Credit level is marked in this document with shading.

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What are General Purpose Packages, why do we use them and what are they used for? What are General Purpose Packages? General Purpose Packages (GPPs) are commercially available, fully tested software packages that are designed to allow the user to solve a range of problems. The packages that you are going to learn about are: • word processing • graphics • spreadsheet • database • presentation and multimedia • web page creation • desktop publishing • expert systems.

Why do we use them? •

• • • •

Using General Purpose Packages is a very productive way to carry out complex tasks such as performing calculations and searching for information, even producing a complex multimedia slide show. General Purpose Packages enable us to complete our tasks quickly and efficiently. Keeping your documents and data accurate and up to date is made easier using these applications because entering data and updating it is straightforward. Changing or adapting your documents is made easy. You can easily change the content, style or layout of a document any time you need to. Using these applications you can produce a whole range of different types of documents that you can use to communicate ideas and information to people. Using the applications means that businesses can reduce their costs. The applications can be expensive but the increase in productivity they bring will reduce costs in the long term.

Exercise 1 1. Which GPPs do you have access to on your computer system? 2. List five reasons for using GPPs. 3. How do GPPs make altering a document easy? Give an example of a document you have entered and then altered in some way.

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What are they used for? The table below shows you the packages you have to know about and the sort of tasks they are designed to help you carry out. Package

Tasks

Word processing

Producing text documents, such as letters, memos, essays, and books. Storing, searching, and sorting data such as: names and addresses, customers’ details, pupils’ test scores. Storing numbers and performing calculations using formulae. Examples: bank account details, household expenditure, league tables. Producing graphics, illustrations, drawings, cartoons, diagrams, processing digital photographs.

Database Spreadsheet Graphics Web page creation

Producing web pages and websites.

Multimedia and presentation Producing multimedia presentations. Desktop publishing Producing documents that enable you to combine text and graphics with a high degree of control and precision. Expert system Storing and processing the knowledge of an expert. Used to help people make complex decisions.

Combining functions Some packages combine functions from other packages, for example: • word-processing packages have drawing tools available to let you illustrate your text • spreadsheet packages allow you to sort data • database packages allow you to use formulae • graphics packages have text capabilities.

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Exercise 2 1. Your teacher wants to store the names, registration class details and ages as well as the exam marks of each pupil in your class. She needs to be able to calculate the class average as well as sort the class names into alphabetical order and carry out searches for specific pieces of data. Which package would be the best to use? 2. Complete this table matching packages to the tasks. Package

Task Producing an online catalogue for a website. Producing a series of memos for an office. Storing the results of the school sports competitions. Storing the personal details of all pupils in a school. Producing the school magazine. Producing a poster advertising the school disco.

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Storing Data in Your GPP What type of data can you enter and store using your GPP? Type of data

Main package

Numbers

Spreadsheet – spreadsheets are designed for storing numbers and performing calculations on them using formulae. Other packages can store numbers: for example a database can store numbers and use formulae; word-processing packages have page-numbering features.

Text

Word processing – you can use your other packages to store text: databases can store text items like names and addresses, spreadsheets and graphics packages use text to label columns of figures and drawings.

Graphics

Drawing and painting packages – you can, of course, find graphics in the other packages: word processing, spreadsheet and database packages can all contain graphics.

Audio

Multimedia and web page creation packages can handle sound files.

Photographic

Graphics packages, multimedia and presentation packages.

Animation

Word processing, presentation and multimedia, web page creation, graphics.

Video

Multimedia and web page creation packages.

Audio data Many packages can handle audio data. Audio data can be stored and processed in two distinct ways: as MIDI or as digital audio. A MIDI audio file stores the instructions that tell the computer system how to create musical sounds, for example they hold data on the pitch and the length of musical notes. A digital audio file stores samples of sound waves that have been turned into binary numbers. Audio files are often compressed to make them smaller.

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Photographic data When you take a picture with a digital camera it stores a digital representation of the image in its memory as a pattern of binar y numbers, ‘1’s and ‘0’s. You can then transfer this digital image to your computer and process it using a range of graphics software or it can be inserted into a multimedia document or web page. For further information see the Computer Systems support notes pages. A problem with graphics images is that the files can be very large indeed, and, like audio files, they are often compressed before being stored and used.

Animation Many packages can handle animated graphics. The most common way of producing animations is for the computer to display a series of graphics very quickly one after another. To get a fluent movement the system has to display 24 images a second. This gives the impression of movement. It also means the animation files can be very large since the computer has to store and process information about every graphic that is displayed.

Video images Computer video works in a similar way to animations. The computer has to display images very quickly on the screen. It also has to store the data about each individual image on the screen. To get a smooth fluent video image it has to process 40 frames a second. This could result in some very large file sizes. If you are recording at a speed of 30 frames per second and 1 colour frame = 1 megabyte, then the camera will have to store 30 megabytes per second or 1.8 gigabytes per minute. Need to compress video footage It is obvious that there is a need to compress the video images. If you did not then you would find it very difficult to store and process them. Most video images are now compressed down to around one fiftieth of the original size. You can then store them on a DVD.

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Exercise 3 1. If you have any animated graphic files on your computer system, list them and look at their file sizes. 2. Describe how animations work. 3. Why do animations demand so much storage space?

Making backups Computers can break down, disks can develop faults and you can delete things by mistake. So you need to make backups on floppy disks, hard disks, tapes or writable CDs and store them in a safe place. It is important to make a backup copy of your data, otherwise you might lose it.

File formats We can save our text documents in different file formats. The most common are American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII), plain text, and rich text format (RTF).

Advantage When you save a text document using a standard file format you can be sure that the files will be accepted by a wide range of software. The result is that your data files are very portable and can be transferred easily from one package to another.

ASCII An ASCII file stores information about the characters in a document. It does not store information about the styles, the fonts, the spacing, simply the bare text. It is such a simple file format it is accepted by virtually all computer systems. So ASCII files are very portable. Also, because they do not contain additional information they are smaller than the equivalent rich text format file. This means they will not take up as much space on your hard disk and will take less time to transmit across a network.

Plain text This format is virtually identical to ASCII. It encodes plain text with no formatting information. There is a text format that includes the RETURN code, which allows it to divide text into paragraphs. Files saved as plain text are, like ASCII files, relatively small, take up less space on backing storage and take less time to transmit.

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Rich text format Rich text format (RTF) files store the information about the text and the information about, paragraphing, indentation, styles, fonts and sizes.

Exercise 4 1. What is a standard file format? 2. What is the advantage of using standard file formats? 3. Why is a file saved in ASCII format smaller than the same file saved in RTF?

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The Human–Computer Interface The Human–Computer Interface (HCI) is the part of the computer system that people use to interact and communicate with the computer. When you ask your computer to load a file, save to disk or to open a file, you are using the HCI.

GUI This is short for Graphical User Interface. GUIs use graphics to control the computer’s actions such as ticking boxes, or selecting a button.

Toolbar The toolbar is a common part of most HCIs. A toolbar is a menu made up of a series of icons that you can select as you need them. Toolbars make communicating with the computer easy since they make commonly used functions easily available to the user. Here is a toolbar for working with tables and borders.

WIMP A common type of HCI is a WIMP, short for Windows, Icons, Menus, Pointers (or Windows, Icons, Mouse and Pull-down menus). Windows display what is in a folder or a document. Windows like this one display items such as files.

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These icons represent software and hardware.

Here is a tools menu.

The pointer is used to select icons and option from the menus.

Why do computers have WIMP-based HCIs? – Because they are user friendly. ‘User friendly’ means that it is easy to learn how to use the software. Open a window, point at an icon and click on it. That’s how simple it is to open a file. What could be easier or more user friendly?

Exercise 5 1. What does HCI stand for? 2. What does WIMP stand for? 3. Use the ‘print screen’ feature on your computer to take screenshots of: • the icons on your desktop • a couple of open windows • two or three open menus. Now paste the screenshots into a document, give them headings, save the document and print it out. 4. Which toolbar do you use most often? 5. How does the toolbar help you complete tasks quickly?

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Getting your computer to help you Online help is a help feature available within a package. Online help is very easy to use. Simply open the help window, type in the topic you need help with and the software will display the information. In the example below the user has asked for help with changing page margins.

Another simpler version of online help simply explains what an icon does when you rest your pointer on it. If you want to learn how to use an application package you can also use an online tutorial. An online tutorial teaches you how to operate a package; leads you though examples and then sets you some exercises.

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Exercise 6 1. Open up the online help in your spreadsheet package and ask it for help with moving or copying a formula. Write out a summary of what it tells you. 2. What is the difference between online help and an online tutorial?

Templates Templates are very useful. They are the skeletons of a document with much of the format of the document already laid out, for example headings, colour, fonts, tables and text boxes already set up. A range of templates available to the user

A template for a frequently asked questions (FAQ) page, already divided into sections, numbered lists included and even text colour set

Wizard A wizard is a feature in a package that guides you through a complicated task. A popular use of wizards in general purpose packages is to take you, step by step, through the process of setting up a document. This wizard guides you through the stages involved in setting up a desktop publishing document.

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Customising the HCI If you customise something you change it to suit your own needs. You can customise the HCI of your computer by opening the control panel and changing features such as: • • •

the appearance of the icons the speed or appearance of the pointer the colour of the desktop.

Keyboard shortcuts Using menus is an easy way to get things done especially if you are learning how to use a package. Experienced users often find it quicker to use the keyboard. Lots of menus show the key presses that carry out the same action as a menu selection, for example you can save a document by pressing the ‘Ctrl’ key and the ‘S’ key.

Exercise 7 1. What is a template? 2. What is the advantage of using a template? 3. Open up one of your GPPs and use the online help to find out about templates. 4. Use the online help to find out about the wizards that are part of your packages. List them, and use a couple of them to create documents. 5. What is the advantage of using a wizard? 6. Use keyboard shortcuts to find and replace some text in your wordprocessing package. 7. If your system allows, use the control panel to customise your desktop. Write out a list of the changes you make.

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Integrated Packages Integrated packages have three or four GPPs in one package. They usually have spreadsheet, graphics, database, and word-processing packages available. The advantages of an integrated package are as follows. • • •

Transferring data between packages is quite easy. It is usually a simple cut and paste. All the GPPs have a common HCI. Integrated packages cost less than buying a series of individual GPPs.

They do have a disadvantage: each of the GPPs in the integrated package has fewer features than an individual package would have, for example the database part of an integrated package would have fewer features than, and would not be as powerful as, an individual database package.

Common HCIs When we say that all the applications in an integrated package have a common HCI it means their menus, icons and even keyboard shortcuts are similar. These three similar ‘Edit’ menus are from different applications in an integrated package.

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Advantage of a common HCI Because the HCI is so similar in each application, it makes it easier for the user to move between the different parts of the integrated package without having to learn about new menus, icons and keyboard shortcuts.

Producing a document combining data from different applications Integrated packages are ideal for producing documents where you need to combine data from different applications. If your teacher used an integrated package to produce a report on the progress of your class she would: • • • •

enter the text for the report using a word processing application copy and paste the data on your test results from the database into the word processing report document use the spreadsheet to produce charts of the results and then copy and paste them into the report document use the graphics package to produce a logo then copy and paste it into the report.

You can see all of these in the report example below.

Class 4C progress report Class 4C is making fairly sound progress through the standard grade computing course. They have taken quite a few class tests and have been fairly successful as their records, taken from the class database file show.

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Their overall performance as a class can be seen from these figures … Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7

6 9 3 2 0 0 0

… and from this graph.

If the class keeps working as well as it has been in the past few months, I think we can predict that its progress will continue to improve.

Integration using a suite of applications You can use a suite of applications to support tasks that demand integration. Suites are collections of applications usually produced by the same software company. All the applications in the suite are designed to have a similar HCI and use common formats for their data files. They allow the user to transfer data between applications easily and take advantage of the common HCI just like in an integrated package. There are differences: • • •

the applications in an integrated suite of packages have many more features than those in an integrated package a suite of applications will take up more space on your disk than an integrated package a suite of applications will cost a lot more than an integrated package.

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Linking files Dynamic links between files If you set up a dynamic link between two files, when you change the data in one file the file linked to it is automatically updated. In the report on the class above on page 14 the data on class results could be linked dynamically to the graph in the main report document. When the results data is changed, the graph would change automatically.

Static links between files You can set up static links between files. If the link is static it means that, unlike a dynamic link, when you change the data in one file, the linked file would not automatically update. The user would have to intervene and carry out the update.

Exercise 8 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

What are the advantages of using an integrated package? What is the main disadvantage of using an integrated package? If you have used an integrated package write down its name. What is a common HCI? Give examples in your answer. Describe how data is transferred between applications in an integrated package. What is a suite of integrated applications? What advantage does it have over an ordinary integrated package? Why does an integrated suite of applications cost more than an ordinary integrated package? 9. What is the advantage of using dynamic links between documents?

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What do you need to know about the Packages? The packages you need to get to know all about are: • Word processing • Database • Spreadsheets • Graphics • Multimedia/presentation packages • Desktop publishing packages • Web page authoring packages • Expert systems.

Common features Let us start with those features that occur in several of the packages. Feature

Description

Open/run an application Using the computer’s WIMP HCI you usually open an application by clicking on an icon or selecting from a menu. Create, save, open/load Again we use our WIMP HCI to open a new file or or print a file one that is already on disk, save a file or get a printout by selecting from a menu or clicking on an icon. Insert data This is easily done by moving the cursor to the point where you want the data then clicking. Once you have placed the cursor where you want it you can type in your data. Amend data This simply means changing the data. Delete You can highlight data and delete it using the delete key or a menu option. Or, on some systems, you can delete files by dragging them to the Recycle Bin/trash icon. Change the appearance You can change the appearance of your text of text in many ways: change the size, make it bold, and put it into italics. Move/copy data Moving data around a document is easy. You simply highlight it and then cut and paste. In an integrated package this is how you transfer data between applications. Headers and footers Headers and footers appear at the top and bottom of every page in a document. You use them to put page numbers in and other information such as the title or the date or even the author’s name.

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Print part of a document If you have a large document you might not want to print it all out. This feature lets you choose which pages you want to print out.

Exercise 9 1. Complete these sentences. • ‘When you amend a paragraph of text you …’ • ‘When you insert a word into a sentence you …’ 2. What is a header/footer used for? 3. Open up a word-processing file that has several pages. Use the printer dialogue box like the one above to print out one copy of pages 3 and 4.

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Word-processing packages Feature

What you need to know

Entering text Word-wrap

Text is usually entered by typing at the keyboard. If you type a word at the end of a line of text and there is not enough room, Word-wrap automatically moves it on to the next line rather than leaving part on one line and part on the next. Your page size is usually set to A4, but you can change it easily by a simple click of the mouse.

Alter page size

Alter page layout

Page breaks

Alter alignment

Set margins

Alter the text style Spellchecker

You can change the layout of a page by altering the margins, changing the positions of the headers and footers, by setting up columns on a page or by changing the layout from portrait to landscape. You can make your document begin a new page at any point. All you have to do is insert the cursor and make a selection from a menu. Changing text alignment is changing the way text lines up on the page. It can be: • left-aligned: lined-up with the left margin • right-aligned: lined-up with the right margin • centred • lined-up with both margins. Changing alignment is a simple matter of selecting the correct icon. You can set the margins by using the controls at the top of your page.

This lets you change the appearance of the text, for example by making it bold, italics or underlined. We have all had to use this. It does help to find spelling errors and correct them. Some things escape the spellchecker, for example correctly spelt but wrong words such as ‘there’ instead of ‘their’.

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Feature Grammar check

What you need to know It is a good idea to check the grammar to make sure your text is sticking to the rules of the English language.

Search and replace This is a really useful feature. It looks for a word or phrase you want changed and then changes it for you automatically.

Standard paragraph You can save paragraphs of text that are used frequently and then insert them into documents as you need them. This can save a lot of time.

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Table A table is made up of rows and columns and is used to help organise the way in which test is laid out on a page. It is very useful when you are typing up lists or columns of information, or placing graphics beside text. Bakery Delights Doughnuts

Apple pie

Meringue

Scones

Exercise 10 1. 2. 3. 4.

Give two examples of different text styles. Describe the advantage of using ‘Search and Replace’. What are standard paragraphs used for? Open up a word-processing document and insert a table with three columns and six rows. Insert suitable headings then fill up the table with the first names, surnames and addresses of five of your friends.

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Standard letter This is a letter that is used time and time again and sent to lots of people. When it is typed in no details of names and addresses are entered. These details are inserted later automatically, usually from a database file using the process known as mail-merge.

Mail merge The process of mail merging takes data from a source file, usually a database file but it can be a spreadsheet or even a table in a word-processing document, and inserts it into the previously prepared standard letter and then sends it to the printer. A mail merge is commonly used to produce sets of personalised standard letters. The procedure for setting up a mail merge can be divided up into the following steps. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Compose a standard letter with no personal details such as names and addresses on it, mark out the points in the document where the personal data has to be inserted. Save the standard letter to backing storage. Set up the link between the standard letter file and the file with the personal data that has to be inserted, indicating which fields in the data file are to be used and where they are to be inserted in the letter. The system then takes the data from the data file and inserts it into the standard letter. This is usually then sent to the printer straight away, though the user can choose to perform the merge and send the merged document to the printer later.

Why use a mail merge? Mail merging saves time and effort. Once the mail merge has been set up the computer will automatically produce as many personalised standard letters as you need.

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Creating a template Using a template can save you lots of time when you are producing a document. The template has the structure of the document already in place. For example it might have text boxes, text sizes, fonts and styles already in place. Most packages let you create your own templates by following a few simple steps that set up a new document or altering an existing template. This image shows a list of templates that have been created for a variety of purposes. Once you have created a template you can use it to quickly reproduce documents with the same structure, style and formatting.

Using optical character-recognition software Optical character-recognition (OCR) software enables you to edit text that has been scanned directly from a page. Once it has a digital representation of the page that has been scanned in, the OCR software compares the shapes on the page with shapes of the characters it holds in its data files. When it gets a match it stores the ASCII value of the character in memory. The OCR software then enables you to load the file into a word-processing document and add to it or alter it as you need to.

Why use OCR? OCR is used because it means you can input text without having to spend time at the keyboard. Time saved can be a big advantage to any user but especially so to business users.

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Exercise 11 1. Complete this bulleted set of instructions using the words below. • Compose a standard letter with no_____________such as names and addresses on it; mark out the points in the document where the personal data has to be ________. • ________the standard letter to backing storage. • Set up the_________between the standard letter file and the file with the personal data that has to be inserted, indicating which fields in the data file are to be used and where they are to be inserted in the letter. • The system then takes the data from the ______ ______, inserts it into the standard letter then sends it to the printer. It is usually then sent to the printer straight away, though the user can choose to perform the merge and send the merged document to the printer later. inserted, save, personal details, data file, link 2. The secretary in the school office has to send out the same letter to a group of 50 parents. Why should he use a mail merge? 3. Many applications enable you to create your own templates and save them for further use. Why is this feature useful? 4. Describe briefly how OCR operates. 5. Explain how OCR can speed up the input of text into a document.

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What do you need to know about Graphics? Feature

What you need to know

Enter text

Entering text in a graphics package is very useful. It lets you label graphics!

Draw graphic

You can use the drawing tools to create your own graphic.

Common tools

Most graphics packages have a similar set of tools for drawing lines, circles and rectangles for pouring colour into a graphic and for drawing freehand.

Alter tool attributes Changing the attributes of a tool such as the Line tool means changing, for example the colour or the thickness of the line.

Scale graphic

Scaling means changing the dimensions of a graphic by increasing or decreasing the height/width of the graphic.

Rotate graphic

This lets you spin your graphic round. You can control the rotation either by dragging the graphic round using handles or by specifying the number of degrees.

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Cropping a graphic When you crop a graphic you cut out the part of the graphic that you do not want, usually by selecting the cropping tool and dragging the handles at the edge of the graphic. This graphic has white lines down the side.

This one has been cropped to get rid of the white lines.

Scanning a graphic Once you load up your scanning software it will give you a series of choices that give you control over exactly how the scan is processed. You can choose: • the number of colours in the scan • the resolution of the scan: the number of pixels per square inch • the type of file that your scanned image is saved as. All of these can affect the quality of the scanned image and the size of the file in which it is stored.

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Editing the scanned graphic

Now that the graphic has been scanned you can load it into a graphics package and begin to edit it. Most graphics packages have features such as: ‘Crop’, ‘Change colours’, ‘Layer graphic objects one on top of another’ and ‘Zoom’, as well as enabling you to add effects such as ‘Soften’, ‘Sharpen’ and others that you can see in the menu above.

Exercise 12 This graphic image on the left is being edited below using the ‘Zoom’ feature then a combination of the editing tools in a paint package. Briefly describe the functioning of four of the graphic editing tools you have used.

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Exercise 13 1. Use a selection of the tools available to produce a suitable images, for example the shape of a dancer, a band, a CD-player, or spotlights. 2. Use the infill tools and colour menus to make your graphic attractive. 3. Scale and rotate your images until they look eye catching. 4. Save the file as ‘discographics’ and then print it out. Use your graphics package to produce illustrations to be used to advertise the school disco. 5. Produce a template for a handbill advertising the school discos. Set out the styles, text sizes and fonts as well as margins and text alignment. Save the template as ‘handbill’. 6. Scan in a suitable graphic, edit it by, for example, cropping it, scaling it or changing the colours, then save it. 7. Open up the template and use it to create a handbill to advertise the senior school disco. Enter suitable text about the location, timing and cost then insert the scanned graphic. 8. Save the file. 9. Print out the finished handbill.

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What do you need to know about Spreadsheets? Spreadsheet software lets you enter and store numeric data and perform calculations on it using formulae. Spreadsheets are organised into rows and columns. Formula Column

Row

Spreadsheet terms Feature Cell

What you need to know Each location in a spreadsheet is called a cell. Each cell has its own address made up of a column letter and a row number: C7, B8, D24. Row Rows are numbered from 1 upwards. Column Columns have their own letter: A, B, C, D, E, F, etc. Value A value is a number or a formula. Text Text is entered to label cells, rows and columns or even to give lengthy explanations of what is going on in the spreadsheet. Insert row or column This feature lets you put rows or columns into your spreadsheet to make room for more data or formulae. Alter the width of a column

If you have a lot of data to put into a column, this feature lets you widen it to make enough room.

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Feature

What you need to know

Alter cell format/attributes

When you set up the attributes of a cell you are defining the properties of that cell, the format of the data it will hold. Common cell attributes are: time, scientific, percentage, date, currency. This graphic shows examples of the various data formats that can be set up.

Formula

A formula sets out the calculation that has to be carried out on data. You should be able to recognise and use simple formulae such as: A4 + A5 B6 –B7 C6/C8 D6 * D9 You should also know these simple functions. = sum(A1:A6) This calculates the total of the values in cells A1 to A6. = average(B3:B12). This calculates the average of the values in cells B3 to B12. =

max(A4:A10) This finds the largest value in the range A4 to A10.

= min(B8:B16) This finds the smallest value in the range A4 to A10.

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Feature

What you need to know

Replication

This simply means copying a formula down a column or across a row, usually by entering a simple key press, for example to copy down a column simply highlight the column and enter a key press such as Ctrl D.

Charting

You can turn numbers in a spreadsheet into a chart. This makes it easy to see what they mean at a glance.

Automatic and manual calculation

Automatic calculation is usually the default setting on a spreadsheet. That means that your spreadsheet will carry out its calculations just as soon as you have entered the data and the formulae. You can switch off automatic calculation. This means you have to intervene and manually give the spreadsheet the instruction to perform the calculation.

Cell protection

By switching on cell protection you make sure that the data or formula in that cell is not changed by accident. Before it can be changed, cell protection needs to be switched off.

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Feature

What you need to know

Relative referencing

When a formula is replicated across a row using relative referencing the formula will change according to the cells it is copied into. For example the formula: sum(B6:B9) when replicated across a row into columns C and D will change to sum(C6:C9) and sum(D6:D9).

Absolute referencing Using absolute referencing the formula remains the same no matter where in the spreadsheet you replicate it to. Most spreadsheets use $ to mark an absolute reference. For example: The formula: average($B$6:$B$9) will remain the same even if you replicated it to column C and column D. Formula using conditions

The structure of an if function is as follows. if(condition, true, false). This means: ‘If the condition is met, the first action is carried out. If it is not met, the second action is carried out.’ Let us take the example of an ‘If ’ formula that is being used to calculate a bonus for a salesman. The cell containing the bonus has this formula entered. if(D20>=50, 100, ‘no bonus’) If cell D20 has a value greater than or equal to 50, then the cell containing the formula is given the value 100. If the value is less than 50, ‘no bonus’ is entered into the cell. Let us look at a spreadsheet and check out some of these features we have just been looking at.

This cell has cell protection activated to protect the important data it holds on the VAT rate.

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This formula uses both: • absolute referencing to refer to cell B18 that holds the VAT rate • relative referencing to refer to the costs held in cells C6, C7, C8, C9 and C10.


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Fully labelled charting Here are the highlighted grades Charts can have series of labels each giving its own piece of information about the chart. If you develop a series of charts for example for all the class results in fourth year then: • • • • •

you can have a label to identify the series you can insert a label for each individual chart you can have a title for each chart both X and Y axis can have labels you can even label points on the chart.

This window lets you set up labels showing values and percentages.

Exercise 14 1. List the labels a fully labelled chart should have. 2. Your teacher will supply you with a spreadsheet file. Open it up and chart the data, labelling it as fully as your package will allow. 3. If your application has a ‘Label Wizard’, use that to help you.

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Exercise 15: Spreadsheet practical exercise Create a spreadsheet to hold the results of class 4A. 1. In cell B13 enter the word ‘Total’. 2. In cell C13 enter the formula to calculate the total number of passes. 3. In cell C15, enter the formula to calculate the percentage of grade 1s. (Your teacher will help you with this.) 4. Do the same for cell C16 to calculate the percentage of grade 3s. 5. Change the attributes of the cells C15 and C16 so that they hold numbers up to two decimal places. 6. Insert a row to hold the percentage of grade 2s. 7. Use the charting features to chart the number of passes in each grade 1–7. 8. Ask your teacher to check your formulae and your chart. Your teacher may ask you to print out your spreadsheet and chart. 9. Label rows to hold the percentage of grades 4, 5, 6 and 7 and use a combination of relative and absolute reference to replicate the formula down column C. 10. Fully label your chart. 11. Ask your teacher to check your formulae and your fully labelled chart.

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What do you need to know about Databases? A database is a collection of related information made up of Records that in turn are made up of Fields. File

Record 1

Record 2

Record 3

Record 4

Field 1 Field 2 Field 3 A File is a collection of Records such as a file of names, addresses and phone numbers. Records hold the data on one person or object in the file. For example you could have a record for each pupil in a school. A Field stores one piece of data such as the name field, the address field, the phone number field.

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Features

What you need to know

Add/create records When you set up a database you create new records and fill the data into the fields. If you need to, you can always add another record. Edit records

Once you have created your records you can go back and change the data held there.

Create fields

When the database is being set up you can create different types of fields to match the different types of data you are going to store in the database. You can create the following types of field: • Numeric • Text • Graphic • Date • Time.

Search on one field This is a simple search, for example search on the name field for ‘MacIntosh’. Note: some packages use the term ‘Query’ or ‘Find’ for a search. Sort on one field

This puts the records into order using the contents of one field, for example sort into order using the date field.

Alter a record format

You can alter the format of a record in several ways: change a field type so that it can hold different type of data, delete a field altogether.

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Features

What you need to know

Alter input format

Change the input screen. The two most common input screens are column/table and card layouts. Column

Card

Alter output format You can change the way data is output by changing the layout from column to a card layout. You can even decide which fields are output and where on the screen they appear, what colour they have, etc. Simple searches on Finding information on the internet or a CD-ROM is a CD-ROM or straightforward. All you have to do is to enter your search the internet and press ‘Return’ or click ‘Go’. The search engine does the rest. Search on more Sometimes searching on one field gives you too many than one field results. Searching on the name field for ‘McKenzie’ might produce a dozen records. To narrow down the number of results you can search on more than one field, for example searching on the Name field for ‘McKenzie’, the Address field for ‘Dowanhill Rd’ and the Date field for ‘12/11/2003’. Sort on more than You can use more than one field to sort your records into one field order. Sorting on the name field and the address field means that if two people have the same name then they will be sorted into order according to their address. So McKenzie in Dowanhill St. will be placed before McKenzie in Hillhead St.

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Features

What you need to know

Computed field

You use computed fields to store a formula that carries out calculations on data held in your database file. Keywords are used to identify records in a file. Each record is given a unique keyword, stored in a key field. This makes searching for records much simpler. If you know the keyword, such as an account number, it saves you carrying out complex searches on several fields. A search using the keyword will take you straight to the record you want. A simple search is a simple straightforward search for an item that is easily found.

Keyword

Simple search on a CD-ROM or the internet

As an example you could search for ‘Australia’ on a CDROM or the internet. The problem would be that you would find lots of entries. In fact a search for Australia on the internet will return hundreds of thousands of results; too many to look through. So, what you really need to do is carry out a complex search.

Complex search on Complex searches are searches where there are two or more a CD-ROM or conditions in the search, for example a search for all cities the internet in Australia with a population > 1,000,000. CDROMs help you put together complex searches with several parts or conditions in your search. Because the search has several conditions, it will return fewer results.

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Exercise 16 1. What is the main reason for using complex searches? 2. Why should you include as many conditions as you can in your search? 3. Write out the combination of conditions you would use to find out about Scottish islands in the Inner Hebrides except Mull or Coll. Carr y out the search either using a CD-ROM or on the internet.

Exercise 17: Database practical exercise Create a database to hold the details about five patients in a dentist’s surgery. Each record in the file should contain the following fields: ‘Surname’, ‘Firstname’, ‘Address’, ‘Date of birth’, ‘Extractions’, ‘Fillings’, ‘Crowns fitted’. Here is an example of the first two records. Carry out the following tasks.

1. Add another three records for the following new patients: ‘Jean McKenzie’, ‘Alec Wallace’, ‘Margaret McFarrell’. You can make up your own data for the rest of the fields. 2. Sort the file on the Surname field. 3. Add a field to hold data on the number of checkups. 4. Sort the file on the Surname and the Firstname fields. 5. Search for the record for ‘Eric McKenzie’ in ‘Ullapool Rd’. 6. (a) Add a new field to contain a patient number. (b) Enter the following patient numbers: 6701, 6702, 6703, 6704, 6705. 7. If your database software has the facility to do so, alter the database by adding a computed field to hold the total number of fillings and extractions each patient has had.

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Desktop Publishing A desktop publishing (DTP) package is a package designed to set up professional looking pages that contain text and graphics. DTP packages are used to set up pages for magazines, books, leaflets, newsletters. They have features that help the user control the position of the text and graphics, such as: • onscreen rulers • frames • text boxes.

Wizard Using a wizard is a great way to start producing a DTP document. A wizard will often offer the user a choice of templates that have the structure, style and even colour of the page already in place.

It will then step the user through the process of completing the page by entering the text or inserting graphics from a clip art file.

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Importing and scaling graphics You can scan in graphics, download them from the internet or transfer them from your digital camera. They can then be stored in folders on your hard disk or on a CD. You can then import the graphics easily into your document and scale them to any size you want. For a definition of scaling graphics see page 25.

This file is being imported simply by selecting itt andthen choosing insert.

This example shows how easy it is to scale a graphic by adjusting the height and width percentage.

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Importing text Setting up a text box is easily done. You can use the rulers at the side of the page to enable you to position the text box exactly where you want it then import the text using the menus and the pointer.

Once you have all the objects on your page you can change the page layout by changing the position of the objects on the page, or by altering the structure of the page layout itself. These graphics give a good example of how the layout of a page can be altered and the position of objects changed.

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Wrapping text around your graphics This is a useful feature. It enables you to wrap your text around a graphic. This is a very effective way of relating the text to the graphic and describing what is going on in the graphic. Here we can see several different ways you can wrap text around a graphic.

Exercise 18 1. Using a desktop publishing package choose a template for a document. 2. Use this template to produce a document and, using your jotter or your word processor, write down how the template helps you. 3. Import some graphics into your document. What does ‘importing a graphic’ mean? 4. Change the dimensions of your graphics by scaling them. 5. Crop some of your graphics and explain how this improves the document. 6. Use the text wrap feature to wrap text around your graphics. 7. Use your online help to find out about the features of your desktop publishing package that can help you: (a) position your text and graphics with precision (b) alter the layout. Use your online help. 8. Use these features to alter your document.

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Presentation/Multimedia Packages • • •

Multimedia documents combine text, graphics, sound, animation and even video clips. Multimedia authoring packages and presentation packages are both used to set up slideshows to present information using all of these types of data. Most packages provide you with a series of templates to choose from and many will provide you with a wizard to help you set up a presentation.

Assembling the elements of a presentation Before you start to assemble your pages you need to gather all the materials you are going to use, for example the sound files, the graphics and the video clips, and store them in folders. Once you have your sound files, graphics, videos and animations stored in folders you can begin to put the presentation together. This involves placing the graphics and text where you want them, attaching sound files and inserting video clips and animations. This page has a background graphic of the Glasgow Science Centre tower and text boxes are being placed carefully in the foreground.

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Let us look at how the different elements of a presentation are put together.

Inserting text and graphics There are two main ways of entering text: • using the keyboard • cutting and pasting from other documents. There are a couple of standard ways of adding graphics: • from clip art files held on hard disk, CD or websites. • from folders of graphics that you have collected and stored on your hard disk.

Adding audio You can attach an audio file to one or more slides in a presentation and, in some packages, to an object on the slide. This is usually a simple matter of pointing at the location of the audio file to link it to the slide or object. In this example an audio file is being attached to the graphic object.

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Adding video Video clips are an integral part of a good multimedia presentation. Linking a video clip to a presentation document is usually a straightforward matter of opening the folder, pointing at the file and clicking the mouse. Some applications have templates of pages/slides with control buttons like play, forward and reverse already in place. These are ready to have video clips linked to them.

Capturing audio You can capture audio for your presentation by: • • • •

recording a track from a CD playing a musical instrument, such as a MIDI keyboard, directly into your computer downloading a sound file from the internet recording sounds directly using a microphone and a recording feature like this one.

Your system really needs to have a good-quality sound card to enable you to capture good-quality sounds. To find out more about sound cards see the Computer Systems support notes.

Capturing images If you want to capture your own images to put into your presentation you can use these technologies that are explained in detail in other parts of the support notes. • • •

A scanner A digital camera A webcam

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You can also use a search engine on the internet such as Google to locate graphics.

Using hyperlinks to link slides Linear linkage of slides Once you have made up your slides you need to begin to link them up. Some packages automatically link your slides to follow one after another. With other packages you have to set up the links yourself. This graphic shows a set of slides linked to follow one after the other.

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When you are organising the slides in your presentation you can use hyperlinks to give the user alternative ways through the presentation. Hyperlinks link pages together and, by clicking on them, the user can jump to a new page. You can give the user a menu of hyperlinks and let them choose what they want to look at.

These hyperlinks give the user a choice of revision questions to answer. Hyperlinks can be attached to graphics, for example buttons or arrows. Clicking on the buttons/arrows lets users move forward or backward or even jump to pages they are interested in. The hyperlink attached to this button will take you to some credit topics. The hyperlink attached to this arrow moves the user forward to the next slide.

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Exercise 19 1. List two ways of entering text into a multimedia presentation. 2. Complete this sentence using the words below. ‘Most presentations are made up of ______ that are _______ together simply to follow on one _____ another. linked, after, slides. 3. 4. 5. 6.

List four ways of capturing audio for use in a presentation. Describe one way of capturing audio that you have used. List three ways of capturing an image for use in a presentation. Describe two ways of capturing images that you have actually used.

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Creating a Web Page Using a wizard or a template This is a good way to get your web pages started. A wizard will step you through the process and templates like these ones have page structures already set up. All you have to do is select the one you need.

Adding text, graphics, sound and video clips You can enter text into your web page by: • • •

using the keyboard cutting and pasting from another document inserting a text file.

Adding graphics, sound and video clips to your web pages makes them truly multimedia documents and makes them attractive. Adding these to your web page is usually a simple process of browsing through your folders/ directories and clicking on the graphic or video clip you want inserted. Here you can see a sound file being attached to a web page.

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Using hyperlinks You found out about using hyperlinks when you looked at multimedia and presentation software. Hyperlinks are used on web pages to link pages together and to help users find their way around your web pages.

Helping users find their way around your website When you are linking your web pages using hyperlinks you should try to help the users who are going to visit your site by setting up your hyperlinks so that they have different paths through the site.

Graphic hyperlink

Text hyperlinks

This page offers the user text links, a graphics link as well as, in the main menu on the left, links back to the ‘Welcome’ page and other courses.

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Adding a hotspot A hotspot is an invisible area on a page to which you attach an action of some sort. When a user makes the pointer hover over the hotspot, or clicks on it, an event takes place, for example it jumps to a new page, starts playing a sound file or activates an animation or a video. Using hotspots makes your page interactive and lets the user choose where to go and what to find out. For example you could place hotspots on these graphics and link them to text pages that explained what was going on in each one. When the user clicks on the hotspot that is marked by a circle, this text box appears.

This is a sensor that enables the robot arm to identify objects

Here you see a robot arm on a space station. Its reaction time will have to be instant. For further information on Real Time Processing jump to the systems section.

Here the hotspot, marked by a circle, is over a robot arm that is attached to the space station. This is one of the solar panels that provide the space station with energy.

The same graphic can have several hotspots attached to it. Here the user has activated a hotspot that has been placed over a solar panel on the space station.

Adding tables Tables in web pages are used to help you organise the materials on your page. They are an excellent way of keeping text and graphics together. Here is a picture of the Glasgow Science Centre tower. It has sensors that detect wind speed and direction. The data is fed back to a controlling computer system that changes the direction in which the tower is pointed. Here you can see a table with one row and two columns being used to hold text and a graphic.

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Exercise 20 1. How would a template help you create a web page? 2. If you have created a web page, describe how you entered text and graphics. 3. Name two types of data that, other than text and graphic data, you can include in a web page. 4. What are hyperlinks used for? 5. Do hyperlinks mean that users always have to go through web pages one after another in sequence? 6. How do tables help you control the layout of a web page? 7. What is a hotspot? 8. How do hotspots help the user interact with a web page?

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What is an Expert System? An expert system is a package that holds a body of knowledge and a set of rules on a subject that has been gained from human experts. An expert system helps the user make decisions by asking questions and then, based on the user’s answers and the knowledge that it holds, offering advice. It can even explain to the user how it arrived at its conclusions.

What is the purpose of expert systems? Expert systems are designed to help people make decisions by making the knowledge of a human expert available to them in a software package. Expert systems are used to help people make decisions in a whole range of situations. • • • • •

In the financial world they are used by people to make decisions about investments, risks, and complex projects. In hospitals expert systems can help doctors diagnose illnesses and suggest treatments. In the oil industry they are used in exploration for oil fields. In industry expert systems are used to help maintain and repair equipment. In factories they are used to help manage complex production processes.

Expert systems have the following advantages. • • • • •

They make expert knowledge available through a computer system. They combine the knowledge of lots of experts. They support people when they have important and complex decisions to make. People in remote places, for example doctors in remote hospitals, can have expert help and advice on hand in the shape of the expert system. People can learn using expert systems by asking questions, reading the answers and asking the system to give feedback on the reasons for the answers given.

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Exercise 21 Complete these sentences using the words below. 1. Expert systems are designed to help people make ________ by making the _______of a human _______ available to them in a software _______. expert, package, knowledge, decisions 2. In hospitals ________systems can help doctors diagnose ________and suggest_________. In the oil industry they are used in __________for oil fields. illnesses, exploration, treatments, expert 3. 4. 5. 6.

Use the internet to find other examples of the use of expert systems. List the advantages of using expert systems. How can people learn about a subject by using an expert system? Are expert systems meant to take over from people and make decisions? 7. Describe how an expert system can be used in a hospital or clinic in a remote part of the Highlands.

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General Purpose Packages in the Workplace Jobs How does the use of GPP in the workplace affect people?

Loss of jobs? Some jobs might be lost but for most people the introduction of new systems and packages means that their jobs change to fit in with the computer systems.

How does it change people’s jobs? People have to work with GPP and this means they have to: • learn new such as like word processing, using spreadsheets, constructing web pages.

Need for training When a new package is introduced staff members have to attend training courses. These can be very expensive but there are advantages, such as: •

once trained, staff can make full use of the packages

the business will run more efficiently and this should make the cost of the training worthwhile.

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No more paper? Using computers to store all our data means that we can store data and documents on hard disks, CDs even DVDs. Does this mean the end of paper? Because we can store so much on CD and hard disk or even USB Flash memory it does mean that there is less paper around, and less need for filing cabinets to store the paper in. But, so many people have access to printers that it is inevitable that we still produce lots of printouts. One big source of paper is the endless stream of junk mail that is churned out by computer systems and posted to you, though nowadays a lot of it comes by e-mail. A paperless world is still a long way off.

Exercise 22 1. What do people need to learn when new general purpose packages are introduced to their workplace? 2. Training courses can be very expensive. Why are businesses prepared to pay such a lot for training? 3. Is your printer rarely used or do you still need lots of printouts? List the documents you need to print out.

Initial costs, replacement costs and running costs When you set up a computer system with all its hardware and packages you have to remember that there are a lot of costs involved.

Initial costs These involve paying for: • computer systems • application packages • training courses • installation of cabling and power sockets.

Replacement costs Replacements are always needed because: • newer, more powerful computers are developed all the time • new software with advanced features is constantly coming on the market • new technologies, for example wireless computing, become available • hardware such as scanners, monitors and printers eventually wears out and needs replaced. STANDARD GR ADE COMPUTING STUDIES

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Running costs • • •

The cost of maintenance and repairs. The cost of consumables like toner for a laser printer, ink cartridges for an inkjet. The cost of internet connections.

This can all be very expensive but worth it. Documents are produced quickly and to a high standard, data is stored and updated easily, businesses run more efficiently.

Exercise 23 Complete this table on costs. The first row has been completed for you. Initial costs

Replacement costs

Running costs

Buying software packages

Replacing worn out monitors

Cost of inkjet cartridges or laser toner

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The Law Data Protection Act 1998

The need for the Data Protection Act Data held about people on computers and networks can be hacked into and the data can be changed, copied or deleted. People’s privacy can be invaded. To protect the data and people’s rights the Data Protection Act was passed by Parliament to protect people’s privacy. There is so much private information about people held on computer systems that it is possible for mistakes to be made and for data to get lost. There are also lots of hackers (people who try to get unauthorised access to data) who are constantly trying to access, copy, change or delete private information. When businesses or organisations keep information about people on computer systems they need to make sure that: •

data is backed up A system of making regular backup copies is necessary. This makes sure that if data is lost it can then be recovered from the backup copy.

data is protected Anyone who holds data on people must try to protect it from hackers. A common way of doing this is to use IDs and passwords. This is a good system and does restrict access to people who are authorised to see, search through and update data. Unfortunately, it does not stop all hackers.

data is checked for accuracy When data is being entered into a system or being updated people can make mistakes with the result that the data is inaccurate. Unfortunately, despite the fact that businesses and organisations carry out checks mistakes still happen and inaccurate data does get stored on computer systems.

So, if hackers can get through and mistakes can happen, there is a need to give people the right to access their own data.

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Everyone’s right under the law The Data Protection Act gives everyone the right to see data that is held about them on a computer system and to have it changed if it is wrong!

There are exceptions to the Act If the data is held by the police, the security forces or the Inland Revenue then access is denied. The Data Protection Act was passed by Parliament in 1984 and updated in 1998. The important points you need to know about are as follows.

Data subject Data subjects, the people who have data held about them, have the right to: • • • • • •

know if data is held about them on a computer and to have a copy of the data know why the data is being processed and who is going to receive the data inspect that data and to have it changed if they think it is inaccurate ask for compensation if data is inaccurate or if an unauthorised person has been given access to it prevent processing of data likely to cause damage or distress be sure that decisions made about them are not made only on the basis of automatic computer processing.

A data subject can also apply to the courts to block the processing of data or to correct, erase or destroy it.

Data controller A Data controller is the person, business or organisation controlling the collection, contents and use of personal data. The data controller must: • • •

register with the Data Protection Commissioner apply for permission to keep personal data on computers state what data they want to keep, what it will be used for and who has access to it.

The data controller must keep to the following data protection principles. All personal data should: • •

be processed only if the consent of the individual is given, if it is part of a legal contract, if it is essential to a business transaction or the carrying out of public duties be held for the specified purposes described in the Register entry

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• •

be accurate and where necessary be kept up to date be relevant and not excessive in relation to the purpose for which they are held be adequate for the purpose specified be processed in accordance with the rights of the data subject be surrounded by proper security only be transferred to countries outside the EU that have in place adequate security measures as defined in the act.

• • • •

Data user This is an authorised user within the organisation or business who is given an ID and password that enables them to access data. A data user in a bank would be one of the bank’s employees.

Exercise 24 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What right do people have under the Data Protection Act? Does this apply to all data held on them on every computer system? How do businesses and organisations control who accesses personal data? What is hacking? Complete this table using the descriptions given below.

Data subjects Data controllers Data users The authorised users within the organisation or business. The people, businesses or organisations controlling the collection, contents and use of personal data. The people who have data held about them on computer systems.

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Copyright Designs and Patents Act Software copyright is protected by law for 50 years after it is published. The Copyright Designs and Patents Act makes it illegal to: • • •

Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988

make unauthorised copies of software that is copyright protected run unauthorised copies of software transmit software over networks and copy it without licensed permission.

The Computer Misuse Act This makes damaging a computer system by hacking into it illegal and subject to penalties. This act makes it illegal to: • gain unauthorised access to a computer system (hacking) • make unauthorised modifications to computer materials. What is modifying computer material? It means: • • •

Computer Misuse Act 1990

damaging a computer system by inserting a virus preventing authorised access by changing or deleting passwords making unauthorised changes to software or data.

What are the penalties? – Up to five years’ imprisonment and fines.

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Exercise 25 Complete this table using the terms given below. You can use a term more than once. This act is designed to make planting viruses and hacking illegal. This act is designed to make unauthorised copying of software illegal. This act is designed to make it illegal to make unauthorised changes to computer software or data. This act is designed to make it illegal to use an unauthorised copy of software. Computer Misuse Act Copyright Designs and Patents Act

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GPP Questions Packages and data 1. Write out a list of the packages you need to know about. 2. Give two reasons why do people use GPP. 3. Complete this table listing the packages that handle the following types of data. Type of data

Package

Text Numbers Graphic Audio Photographic Animation Video 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

What is text used for in a graphics package? Give an example of the use of graphic data in a database. Describe an expert system. What is an animation? Why can files that store animations be quite large? Why are video files often stored on DVD? Describe the difference between an ASCII file and an RTF file.

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HCI 1. Complete this sentence: ‘This graphic is an example of a _____. It is made up of a series of _____.’ 2. What is the Human–Computer Interface (HCI)? 3. What is a Graphical User Interface (GUI)? 4. What is an icon? 5. List three pieces of hardware that you have used by clicking on an icon. 6. What does ‘WIMP’ stand for? 7. Why is a WIMP-based HCI so popular? 8. What is a template? Give an example of a template that you have used or know about. 9. What is a wizard? Give an example of a wizard you have used or know about. 10. Describe what ‘online help’ is and give an example of what you would use it for. 11. What does ‘customising your HCI’ mean? 12. List two simple ways of customising the HCI on your desktop. 13. List two examples of keyboard shortcuts that you have used. 14. What advantage is there in using keyboard shortcuts?

Integrated packages 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 8. 9.

Describe an integrated package. Why do people purchase integrated packages? List two advantages of using an integrated package? ‘The applications in an integrated package have a common HCI.’ What does this mean? Which of these is an advantage of an integrated package? (a) its ability to handle 3-D graphics (b) the speed with which it can display video clips (c) the ease with which you can transfer data from one package to another. Complete this sentence: ‘When you set up a dynamic link between two files a change to the data in the source file … .’ Give an example of the use of a dynamic link. Describe a static link between two files. List three differences between an integrated package and an integrated suite of packages?

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Spreadsheet Look at this spreadsheet carefully.

The spreadsheet is set up to calculate the cost of a range of hardware that is arranged alphabetically in column A. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

What is the address of the cell containing the amount of the ‘Total Cost’? Write out the formula to calculate the total cost. Another piece of hardware – a laser printer – the Samsung ML-2152 costing £527 has to be added to its correct position in the list. What has to be done to the spreadsheet to make room for it? You cannot see all the details in the ‘Make and Model’ column. What needs to be done to improve this display? Column C must display the figures as pounds sterling. What has to be done to the cells in that column to achieve this? Write out the formula that should be used to find the cost of the most expensive item. What could be done to the spreadsheet to make sure that the discount rate in cell B18 was not changed accidentally? How would charting the data help the users of the spreadsheet?

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9.

A 10 per cent discount is given if any item is >£1000. Write out the formula, which will be replicated down column D, to calculate the discount amount for the desktop using absolute and relative reference where it is appropriate.

Database This is a display from a database held by a dentist’s surgery.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

There are two records displayed on the screen. What could the dentist do to display more records? The dentist wants the database to hold information on the date of the next appointment. What needs to be done to the database to do this? A new patient joins the dental practice. What should be added to the file to hold the new patient’s information? The dentist wants to see the record of a patient called William Wallace. How can this be done using the database? How can the dentist get a list of all patients in alphabetical order even if there are some people who have the same surname? The dentist wants a list of all patients who have had more than two fillings and more than four crowns fitted. Describe the search that needs to be carried out to get this list.

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7. 8. 9.

The dentist wants to keep note of the total number of treatments each patient has. What needs to be added to the database file to hold this information? The dentist wants printouts cards with just the patients’ names and addresses on them. How can he do this? Is there any way the dentist can change his database file so that he can find any patient without having to carry out complex searches?

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Word-processing: Highloch Walking Holidays

To: Date: Dear Holiday Booking Form Thanks for applying for a place on our waking vacation in the Scottish Highlands. Your vacation in _____________ will include a trip to Fort William and Ben Nevis as well as a fine walk in the Cuillin Mountains on the Isle of Skye. The dates of your vacation are _____________. Your accommodation has been reserved in one of the serf-catering Highland Hideaway Chalets. We hope you will enjoy your stay with us as well as the lovely Scottish scenery. Yours sincerely A McFarlane Highland walking tours

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

The words in italics are spelt wrongly. What feature of the wordprocessing package needs to be used to correct it? How does it work? Explain how the alignment of some of the text needs to be changed. The person who is creating the letter prefers to use the word ‘holiday’ instead of ‘vacation’. He wants to change every occurrence of ‘vacation’ to ‘holiday’. Explain how this can be done efficiently. The person who created this letter used standard paragraphs to help him. Explain how the use of standard paragraphs helped put the letter together. What is the advantage of placing the heading and the graphic of the hill in a table? How would creating a template help set up standard letters like this in the future? Which package would be used along with the word-processing package to produce this letter? The manager sees an article in a magazine about walking in the Highlands. How could he get the text of the article into his computer without having to type it in?

Web page 1.

Explain the advantage of using a template like this to make the web page on the right. Template

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2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

There are two types of hyperlink in this web page. What are they? Explain what hyperlinks do. How does attaching an audio file improve a web page? What is the job of the table in this web page? How can the web page be set up so that when a user moves the pointer over one of the graphics it links to another page with more robot graphics and data?

Jobs and costs 1. 2. 3. 4.

5.

How do people’s jobs change when computers are introduced into the workplace? The cost of training people to use packages can be very high. Why is it worth the cost? ‘There is really no need to have a printer. You can store and display all your data on the computer system.’ Do you agree with this statement? Give reasons for your answer. Paying for packages and training courses are examples of: (a) initial costs? (b) running costs? (c) long-term costs? Buying the latest version of a web page authoring package is an example of: (a) initial costs? (b) replacement costs? (c) running costs?

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The Law: Check your knowledge of the Data Protection Act 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

7.

8.

9.

Why is the Data Protection Act needed? Why are IDs and passwords needed? How do backups help protect data? What right does everyone have under the Data Protection Act? What exceptions are there to people’s rights to inspect data held about them? A ‘data subject’ is: (a) the person or organisation that collects data about people and stores it on a computer system (b) the person whose details are stored on the computer (c) a person who is authorised to view and update personal data. A ‘data user’ is: (a) the person or organisation that collects data about people and stores it on a computer system (b) the person whose details are stored on the computer (c) a person who is authorised to view and update personal data. A ‘data controller’ is: (a) the person or organisation that collects data about people and stores it on a computer system (b) the person whose details are stored on the computer (c) a person who is authorised to view and update personal data. The Data Protection Act lays down principles that the data controller must keep to. Indicate which of the following are true or false principles under the Act. Principle (a) The data controller must get the consent of the people whose data is stored on his system (b) All data must be accurate and kept up to date. (c) Data can be transferred anywhere in the world to be processed. (d) Data must be protected by adequate security measures. (e) Data controllers can store as much information about a person as they like.

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10. ‘The Computer Misuse Act was designed to make it illegal to copy software without licensed permission.’ True or false? 11. What does the Computer Misuse Act mean by ‘modifying computer materials’? 12. Complete these sentences: The Copyright Designs and Patents Act makes it illegal to make copies of … The Copyright Designs and Patents Act makes it illegal to transmit … The Copyright Designs and Patents Act makes it illegal to run …

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GPP Answers Packages and data 1. 2.

Word processing, database, spreadsheets, graphics, multimedia/ presentation packages, desktop publishing packages, web page authoring packages, expert systems. They help increase productivity; keeping data up to date is straightforward; they enable you to produce documents that help communicate with other people; documents are easily altered; they reduce costs, in the long term.

3.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Type of data

Package

Text

Word processing, DTP, presentations

Numbers

Spreadsheet

Graphic

Graphics (drawing, painting)

Audio

Multimedia

Photographic

Graphics, multimedia, web page authoring

Animation

Graphics, multimedia, web page authoring

Video

Graphics, multimedia, web page authoring

For labelling graphics. To store people’s photos as well as their names and addresses. An expert system stores and processes the knowledge of an expert and is used to help people make complex decisions. An animation is a series of drawings displayed quickly one after another to produce the effect of movement. Because the computer has to store information about every graphic that is displayed. There can be as many as 24 graphics displayed every second. Because they are too large to store on a CD. An ASCII file stores only text, without any formatting information such as paragraphing, styles and fonts. A rich text format (RTF) file stores the text and the formatting information.

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HCI 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

11. 12.

13. 14.

‘This graphic is an example of a toolbar. It is made up of a series of icons.’ The HCI is the part of the computer system that we humans use to control, and communicate with, the computer system. It is an HCI that is based on graphical displays such as icons, windows and dialogue boxes. It is a graphic that represents a file, a folder, a piece of hardware or a software package. Likely answers are: ‘printer’, ‘floppy disk drive’, ‘removable hard drive’, ‘CD-writer’, ‘scanner’, ‘digital camera’. Windows, Icons, Menus, Pointers. (or Windows, Icons, Mouse, Pulldown-menus.) Because it is so user friendly. A template is the skeleton of a document with much of the format of the document already in place, such as headings, colour, fonts, tables and text boxes. An example is a template for an invitation card. A wizard is a sort of tutorial that guides you through a complicated task. A popular use of wizards in general purpose packages is to take you, step by step, through the process of setting up a document or labelling a chart. ‘Online help’ is a collection of information about the features of your software packages that is part of your package. You would use it to find out how to perform a task, for example how to display the formulae in a spreadsheet. It means making changes to the HCI to fit your personal taste. Some likely answers are: ‘changing the size and shape of your icons’, ‘changing the speed of the pointer’, ‘changing the appearance of the desktop: its colour, the screensaver being used’, ‘changing the keyboard settings, such as the cursor blink rate’. Obvious shortcuts are Ctrl-P to print, Ctrl-S to save, in fact any on an edit menu like this one: Using keyboard shortcuts is a direct and quick way to get tasks done. This is because you can avoid using a series of menus, which slows you down.

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Integrated packages 1. 2. 3. 4.

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

An integrated package combines three or four applications – usually: ‘graphics’, ‘spreadsheet’, ‘database’ and ‘word processor’. Because an integrated package costs a lot less than a series of individual packages. • They make it easy to transfer data between packages. • They have a common HCI that makes them easier to use. This means that each of the programs in the integrated package have very similar icons, menus and keyboard shortcuts. This makes it easier to: • learn how to use them • move between one application and another. (c) ‘When you set up a dynamic link between two files a change to the data in the source file causes the linked file to update automatically.’ There can be many examples of this. They are all valid answers provided they include the idea of the automatic updating of the data in the linked file when the data in the source file is changed. Here the data in the linked file does not automatically update when the source file is altered. An integrated suite of packages will: • cost more than an integrated package • have many more features in each application than an integrated package • demand more space on backing storage than an integrated package.

Spreadsheet 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

C12 =SUM(C6:C10). Insert a row above row 9. Alter the width of the column. Change the cells attributes to display currency. =Max(C6:C10) You could use cell protection to prevent accidental loss of this important piece of data. It displays the data in a visual way as a chart, making it easier for them to understand. If(C6>=1000,D6=(C6*$B$18),0)

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Database This is a display from a database held by a dentist’s surgery. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Change the layout or format of the records so that the data are displayed in columns. She needs to add a field to hold the appointment data. A new record needs to be added to the file to hold the data on the new patient. She can search on two fields, on the Surname field for ‘Wallace’ and on the Firstname field for ‘William’. He can sort the records in the file on two fields: on the Surname field and, in case there are two people with the same surname, on the Firstname field as well. He needs to search on the Fillings field for ‘> 2’ and on the Crowns fitted field for ‘> 4’. He needs to add a calculated field that will contain a formula to add up the total of treatments. He can alter the output format by selecting the fields he needs and positioning them the way he wants them to be displayed. He can add a field to the database that holds a keyword, usually a number, which uniquely identifies each patient without having to use complex searches.

Word-processing: Highloch Walking Holidays 1. 2. 3. 4.

5. 6.

7. 8.

The spellchecker. It goes through the document comparing each word with the correct spellings it has in its dictionary. When it finds an error, it asks the user if he or she wants to make the change. It is right-aligned, this means it is lined up with the right margin. It needs to be left-aligned. By using search and replace. A standard paragraph is a paragraph of text that is saved on backing storage and inserted into a document whenever it is needed. It came in useful when putting this letter together because there was no need to type it in. It was already saved on backing storage. It helps you control the position of the text and graphics, and keep the text beside the graphic. Creating a template would mean that you saved a document that had already set out the format and styling of the letter. This would save you lots of time because, to produce another similar letter, all you would have to do is change the content. A database package. He could scan it in as text using OCR software.

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Web page 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

The template provides you with the structure of the web page already in place: in this case the banner headline space, the area for the menu down the left side and the main area for the text and graphics content. There are text-based and graphics-based hyperlinks. They link web pages together and allow the user to move between pages by clicking on the hyperlink It makes the web page more attractive and interesting. Anyone opening up the web page can hear music, sound effects or a voiceover. It is to help control the positioning of the text and graphics. A hotspot could be set up over the graphics. Once the pointer goes over the graphic a link is activated to another web page.

Jobs and costs 1. 2.

3.

4. 5.

They have to learn how to do their job using a computer system. This means they need training in the use of hardware and software packages. A single day’s training can cost hundreds of pounds. There is no doubt that it is worth every penny to the business or organisation that has to pay the bill because once people are trained to use the system properly they become much more efficient and productive. There is no doubt that a lot of information is stored on computer systems, avoiding the need to use paper. However, it is so easy to print off attractive documents using our inkjets and laser printers that the paperless world is a long way off. Initial costs Replacement costs

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The Law: Check your Knowledge of the Data Protection Act 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

To protect people’s rights to see data held about them on computers and to make sure that it is accurate. To make sure that only people with authorisation are allowed to see the data on the computer system. Backups are taken and stored in a safe place so that, if data is lost, it can be quickly recovered. Everyone has the right to see data held on them on a computer system, check that it is accurate and have it changed if it is not. People do not have the right to inspect data held on them by the police or the security forces. (b) the person whose details are stored on the computer. (c) a person who is authorised to view and update personal data. (a) the person or organisation that collects data about people and stores it on a computer system.

9. Principle (a) (b) (c)

(d) (e)

True or False?

The data controller must get the consent of the people whose data is stored on his system. All data must be accurate and kept up-to-date. Data can be transferred anywhere in the world to be processed. Data must be protected by adequate security measures. Data controllers can store as much information about a person as they like.

True True False It can only be transferred to places that have suitable security systems in place. True False They can only store data that is needed for the purposes of the business or organisation.

10. True 11. Inserting a virus, preventing authorised access by changing or deleting passwords, making unauthorised changes to software or data. 12. Complete these sentences: The Copyright Designs and Patents Act makes it illegal to make copies of software packages without licensed permission. The Copyright Designs and Patents Act makes it illegal to transmit and copy licensed software without permission. The Copyright Designs and Patents Act makes it illegal to run unlicensed copies of software.

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Answers to Exercises Exercise 1 1. 2.

3.

This depends on the packages available to you at home and in school. • They enable us to complete our tasks quickly and efficiently. • They help us keep data accurate and up-to-date. • They make changing or adapting documents easy. • Using these applications you can produce a whole range of different types of documents that you can use to communicate ideas and information to people. • They help increase productivity. Because the documents are stored electronically it is a simple matter to delete data, insert data or add to data. The most likely examples are word processing and graphics, but a document from any package will do.

Exercise 2 1. 2.

A database package. Complete this table matching applications to the problems. Web page authoring package

Producing an online catalogue for a website.

Word processing package

Producing a series of memos for an office.

Spreadsheet – possibly a database Storing the results of the school sports competitions. Database

Storing the personal details of all pupils in a school.

Desktop publishing package

Producing the school magazine.

A desktop publishing package and/or a graphics package.

Producing a poster advertising the school disco.

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Exercise 3 1. 2. 3.

If you do not have any animations available, you can always search the internet for animations, download one or two then check the file sizes. They display a series of still graphics very quickly to produce the animated effect. Because they need to store the data on large numbers of still graphics.

Exercise 4 1. 2.

3.

It is a widely accepted way of structuring the data file for, in this case, word-processing documents. The fact that they are standard means that they are used all over the world. This means that once a document has been saved in the standard format it will be read by any computer system running that format, no matter where in the world you send it. Because it is storing less data than the RTF file: it does not store the formatting information.

Exercise 5 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Human–Computer Interface Windows, Icons, Menus, Pointers (or Windows, Icons, Mouse, Pulldown menus) Show your printouts to your teacher. This depends on what you are doing. The most likely answers will be a drawing toolbar or a word-processing toolbar. It presents you with rows of icons to help you use the features of your package without having to open lots of menus.

Exercise 6 1.

This will vary from package to package. Here is the help info from Excel. Move or copy a formula (a) Select the cell that contains the formula you want to move or copy. (b) Point to the border of the selection. (c) To move the cell, drag the selection to the upper-left-hand cell of the paste area. Microsoft Excel replaces any existing data in the paste area. (d) To copy the cell, hold down ‘Ctrl’ as you drag.

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2.

‘Online help’ is a collection of information about your software package that you consult when you need to find out about a feature of your software. An online tutorial is a program that teaches you about your software package. It explains the features of your package, demonstrates them then gives you exercises to do.

Exercise 7 1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6. 7.

A template is the skeleton of a document with much of the format of the document already laid out. It speeds up the production of documents. Because the structure is already in place, all you have to do is call up the template and then fill in the content. This will vary from package to package. Here is some info on templates from Word: • A template determines the basic structure for a document and contains document settings such as AutoText entries, fonts, key assignments, macros, menus, page layout, special formatting, and styles. This is a practical exercise that will depend on the wizards available to you in your software. Your teacher will help you choose a couple of wizards to use. A wizard steps you through a complicated process that otherwise you would find quite difficult. You will use a simple key press such as Ctrl-H. There are lots of things you can do to change the HCI: change the appearance of the icons in your folders, alter the cursor speed, alter the blinking of the cursor, change the colours of the desktop. Experiment with these changes until you have the desktop that suits you. You may find in some schools there are restrictions on the number and type of changes to the HCI you can make. Check with your teacher.

Exercise 8 1.

2. 3. 4.

• Integrated packages make it easy to move data from one application to another. • The different applications in an integrated package a have a common HCI. This makes it easier for the user to move between packages without having to master a completely new set of menus and icons. • They are cheaper than having to buy a series of individual packages. Each application in the package will have fewer features than the equivalent individual package. This will depend on the software available to you. In an integrated package all the applications, for example the wordprocessing package, the database, the spreadsheet will have similar icons and menus.

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5.

6. 7. 8. 9.

The most common method is simply to highlight some data then copy and paste it into whatever document you want, for example highlight some cells in a spreadsheet, copy them then paste them into a wordprocessing document. Integrated suites are collections of applications usually produced by the same software company that have a common HCI and use standard file formats. Each of the packages in the suite has a full set of features and so is a much more powerful piece of software. This is because each of the applications is a fully developed software package in its own right and is much more powerful than the equivalent part of an integrated package. Using dynamic links between documents makes the process of updating linked documents easier. All you have to do is change the data in the source document and the data in the linked document changes automatically.

Exercise 9 1. 2. 3.

• ‘When you amend a paragraph of text you make a change to it.’ • ‘When you insert a word into a sentence you place it somewhere in the sentence.’ They are used to hold information – such as page numbers and dates – that will be displayed at the top or the bottom of each document. This is a practical task that your teacher will help you with.

Exercise 10 1. 2. 3. 4.

Bold, italics, underlined. It is an efficient way of changing text that is repeated throughout a document. They are paragraphs of text that are saved on backing storage and can be called up and inserted in a document whenever needed. This is a practical task. If you need help with setting up a table you can either ask your teacher or use online help.

Exercise 11 1.

The completed set of instructions is as follows. • Compose a standard letter with no personal details such as names and addresses on it; mark out the points in the document where the personal data has to be inserted. • Save the standard letter to backing storage. • Set up the link between the standard letter file and the file with the personal data that has to be inserted, indicating which fields in the data file are to be used and where they are to be inserted in the letter.

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2. 3.

4.

5.

• The system then takes the data from the data file, inserts it into the standard letter then sends it to the printer. It is usually then sent to the printer straight away, though the user can choose to perform the merge and send the merged document to the printer later. Because he can automate the process of producing the letters. He can use a database file to personalise 50 copies of a standard letter that is saved on his hard disk. This feature enables you to set up the structure of a document with its main features such as headings, fonts, sizes, text boxes already in place. Once you save this document as a template you can call it up at any time and simply add content to produce a document. The fact that you can create a template means that you can add to the templates that come supplied with your package. Text is scanned into the system and then the OCR software compares the shapes of the text scanned in with those it holds in memory. When it gets a match the text is entered usually as ASCII code into a word-processing document where it can be edited and saved. It avoids the need for typing at the keyboard.

Exercise 12 This depends on the graphics packages available to you.

Exercise 13 This is a practical task that your teacher will help you with. Tasks 5 to 9 are Credit level.

Exercise 14 1.

The labels that a fully labelled chart should have are: Chart title, X-axis label, Y-axis label, series label, labels for individual data items, legend.

Exercise 15 The tasks in this exercise are mainly practical in nature. Your teacher will help you and check your work. 2. 3. 4.

= sum(C6:C12) = (C6/C13)* 100 This formula will give you the correct percentage of grade 1s. = (C8/C13)* 100 This formula will give you the correct percentage of grade 3s.

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9.

To replicate the formula successfully you have to use a combination of absolute reference and relative reference. It should look like: = (C9/$C$13)* 100

Exercise 16 1. 2. 3.

They make your search more specific and return information that is directly relevant to your search. The conditions help the search eliminate information that is not relevant. Scottish and Islands and Inner Hebrides NOT Mull NOT Coll.

Exercise 17 This is a practical exercise. Your teacher will help you with this. Tasks 6 and 7 are Credit level.

Exercise 18 This is another practical task that your teacher will help you with. 3. 5.

Importing a graphic means inserting a graphic from a file that you have prepared earlier either using a graphics package, downloaded from the internet or captured using a digital camera. Cropping a graphic lets you select parts of the image and cut out others giving you the ability to select the parts of the graphic that suit your purpose.

Exercise 19 1. 2. 3.

4. 5.

6.

You can type it in or insert a text file. The completed sentence is: ‘Most presentations are made up of slides that are linked together simply to follow on one after another.’ • Recording a track from a CD • Playing a musical instrument directly into your computer • Downloading a sound file from the internet • Recording sounds directly using a microphone Ask your teacher to help you to capture a sound and then write down a description of how you did it. Using: • a scanner • a digital camera • a webcam. Ask your teacher to help you to capture an image then write down a description of how you did it.

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Exercise 20 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

It would provide you with the structure of a page. All you would have to do is add the content: the text and graphics. This answer will vary according to the package you used. Ask your teacher to check this answer. Video clips and sound files. Hyperlinks are used to link pages together. No, hyperlinks can be set up to let users have different paths through the web pages, depending on what they are interested in. They are used to control the positioning of text and graphics. It is an area on a web page with a link to another page hidden in it. When you move your pointer over the hotspot the link is activated and the linked page will open up. Hotspots let the user interact by linking them to more web pages with information on the topics they are interested in.

Exercise 21 Complete these sentences using the words below. 1. 2. 3. 4.

5. 6. 7.

Expert systems are designed to help people make decisions by making the knowledge of a human expert available to them in a software package. In hospitals, expert systems can help doctors diagnose illnesses and suggest treatments. In the oil industry they are used in exploration for oil fields. Show the results of your internet search to your teacher. • They make expert knowledge available through the computer system. • They support people when they have important and complex decisions to make. • People in remote places can have expert help and advice. • People can learn using expert systems. By asking questions, reading the answers and asking the system to give feedback on the reasons for the answers given. No. They are designed to support people who have complex decisions to make. The medical staff in the hospital can use the expert system to supplement their own knowledge and expertise. This may help balance up the fact that they are in a remote location and do not have access to the specialists that may be available in the city hospitals.

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Exercise 22 1. 2. 3.

They need to learn new skills such as word processing, using spreadsheets, constructing web pages. Because once people are trained they will be able to make full use of the computer hardware and software and the business will benefit by becoming more efficient and productive. Most people still use printouts from all of the general packages we have looked at.

Exercise 23 The lists in this table are by no means exhaustive. You might be able to think up other suitable items. Show your completed table to your teacher. Initial costs Buying software packages

Replacement costs Replacing worn out monitors

Running costs Cost of inkjet cartridges or laser toner

Buying hardware

Replacing printers, computers and all sorts of peripherals with the latest improved models

Cost of printer paper

Paying for the installation of cabling

Electricity bills

Replacing software with the latest version

Paying for training costs for internet access

Telecommunication bills Staff costs

Exercise 24 1. 2. 3. 4.

They have the right to see data held about them on computer systems and have it changed if it is wrong. Except for data held on police, medical and security forces computers. They use IDs and passwords to control access to data. Hacking is accessing computer systems without proper authority.

5.

Complete this table using the descriptions given below.

Data subjects

The people who have data held about them on computer systems.

Data controllers

The people, businesses or organisations controlling the collection, contents and use of personal data.

Data users

The authorised users within the organisation or business.

STANDARD GR ADE COMPUTING STUDIES

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GENERAL PURPOSE PACKAGES

Exercise 25 Complete this table using the terms given below. Computer Misuse Act

This act is designed to make planting viruses and hacking illegal.

Copyright Designs and Patents Act

This act is designed to make unauthorised copying of software illegal.

Computer Misuse Act

This act is designed to make it illegal to make unauthorised changes to computer software or data.

Copyright Designs and Patents Act

This act is designed to make it illegal to use an unauthorised copy of software.

88 STANDARD GR ADE COMPUTING STUDIES

General purpose packages  

The official GPP unit by F Frame

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