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u r b a n

s c a p e s

c o m m i t t e e :

f e l e c i a d a v i s a r c h m a r c k e n z i e

[re]combinant architecture

A thesis presented to the Department of Architecture at Cornell University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Architecture Spring 2005


a special thank you goes out to both Heather Carlsen [Class of 2008] and Alida Serthin [Class of 2005] for helping me out with the finishing touches on my thesis... Colin Sieburgh [Class of 2005] for the midnight treats... Leon Lawrence [Multicultural Affairs 2001present] for always letting me come in to talk... Mario Morales [from the Harlem Center for Education] for forcing me to apply to Cornell University and for always being there for me... the HEOP office and the COSEP Office... and of course last but not least my friends and family, the reason for which I live.


“ A thesis is a proposition, an argument, an accent in a debate. assumptions and assertions, gradually developing into a specific A thesis ends where it is not expected to go; its form can not

It

is a body of work starting with a hunch, with questions, path. This path and its direction change over time. be designed in advance, rather it is put on like a mantle.�

Urban Flotsam: stirring the city/Chora: Raoul Bunschoten, Takuro Hoshino, Helvene Binet.


“ Time seems to pass, the world happens, unrolling into moments, and you stop to glance at a spider pressed to its web. There is a quickness of light and a sense of things outlined precisely and streaks of running lustre on the bay. You know more surely who you are on a strong bright day after a storm when the smallest leaf is stabbed with self awareness. The wind makes a sound in the pines and the world comes into being, irreversebly, and the spider rides the wind-swayed web� The Body Artist: Don Delillo


site

p r o c e s s

ithaca

harlem

rome

place making

c o n t e n t :


the review

studies

libraries

museums

malls

precedents


f o r e p l a y :

I once went to a lecture at Cooper Union right after graduation and saw a slide of a scholar in the 1500s drawing an image of a map. With this map he was dictating the form of the city to be. Now image a city, any city. Imagine the surface of it drawn in real time. Each aspect of the city must be detailed. The train system if there is one, car routes, streets, open public plazas, green spaces such as parks or riversides, and think about the places that on a week day serve one funtion and on the weekends another, think about the people and how they use places and spaces, and map these out. Think about that which is pernamanent and that which is temporary and imagine the gruelling task of drawing these conditions with an understanding that with time the built environment and that which isn’t will require an endless succession of drawings that when overlayed create and image of a city very unlike the one drawn by the scholar who projected his view... Today’s city is always being written and rewritten... the city you will see drawn will be a blur and though drawn with precision it is undefinable and without a doubt yet another representation of the city... yet another indescribable image of the city...


When I began thinking about my thesis some four plus years ago I was interested in the experiential qualities around/in architecture. I was, at the time, tossing about notions of place making. Places acquired meaning over time through use, through history, etc. I believed [ and still do uphold to this] that architecture/the built environment has a strong influence on the pshycology of the human mind. I began to compare the demographics of the Upper East Side to the South Bronx and noticed that the median income in the Upper East Side was three times higher than that for the South Bronx. The school achievement index in the South Bronx was a whopping 2.00, below the national average [5.20]. Meanwhile, the school achievement index in the Upper East Side was at 7.00+. What does this mean? Is the architecture in the Upper East side different from that of the Bronx? If so in what way? And can it really be a cause for this difference? Probably not? It’s more of a social, economical, and political issue. I understand that. But I wonder what would happen if I could shake and shift the NYC grid a little. I wonder if a diverse demographic would improve the school system for example for those underpriviledged many. If however there is/was no big difference then what is the cause of these discrepacies? What impact does urban planning have? Why are schools in the Bronx not meeting the national average or matching that of the Upper East Side? Can Architecture influence this? Probably not... Especially not a lone. How are places defined by these precise yet abstract numbers? What role does social practice play in architecture and vice versa. What sort of social economic forces form and shape the cities we live in? This book is organized around the number of thoughts/ideas that I came across while working on my thesis and still think about. It’s not about a logical sequence of discoveries that lead to an answer but more about concepts that informed the way I conceived of my project. The project began questioning social practice as an open process with which a dynamic structure would arise, capable of modifying itself over time or as needed to fulfill programmatic needs. The definition of any transforming process involves exploring the possibilities of articulation of social practice and project, which can then be formulated as an open process, as a sounding board for social demonstration, for a dynamic structure capable of modifying it self, like a kind of x-ray of a moment of coming together of energies and voices of varying intensity which aspire to be represented on this process map. That which is most solid in these processes, which finally acquires and operative consistency, actually stems from what is most ephemeral. Voices, gestures, movement, music. The ethereal actually takes shape on the basis of its capacity to transform. It is the social, momentary practice of space, whatever form it takes, which actualizes that space and makes it present. It produces place, here and now


t h e

d a i l y u r b a n s y s t e m :

The surface of the city functions as a matrix as well as the dynamic processes and new/old relationships and interactions. It unfolds assume different functions depending greatly to support and diversify activities over time even for new

of connective threads that organize both the built and the spaces around/between these events that weave through it. The city surface is an active fabric structuring events in time. In this sense the city is divided into a set or sets of geometries that on demand. The goal of any city like New York is to increase its capacity those that have yet to be determined. The city therefore is a stage, a backdrop set up uncertain conditions.


mapping out

the p a s s i n g , drawings

Sometime in the afternoon I stood on the edges of Campo di Fiori fumbling with my new camera... I was setting the aperture and under the glare of the sun I snapped and caught some still lifes... no, not the kind you set up on a table top but more like life made still... this is the magic of the camera it freezes the temporal and in passing through this pin whole we write with light...

of a

life


b e t w e e n : i n

Cities articulate the performance of individuals and collectives in a milieu systematized by ordering principles. It resonates with the needs of both the individuals as well as the collective. It coordinates story plots for collective living. It lives as an argument of, and stage set to, the physical e n v i r o n m e n t .


now imagine, yes, go ahead close your eyes... there was a light breeze... too faint and the tram at largo made a stop rain trickled down my neck having crept from the sky to my scalp and gently rolling to my neck where it rested for some time while I watched and set my camera to click streaming out of the tram people glanced my way missed me, crossed the street to meet friends, the freshly rained on streets gleaned


The

contemporary

city

is

a

theater.

Its dynamic energy is a result of its density and diversity.

In

stages.

a

way

a

city

is

a

vast

theater

with

many


waiting for my hot chocolate i hear the clamor... the hustle behind the counter the quick italian exchanged between the locals and then us... il camerino I remember the croissants and the smell of coffee... the dark coats... the clamoring the sweet taste on my lips of nocciola...


History

takes

shape

through

the

relationship

between

our

collective

memory

of

events,

place,

and

the

place

as

expressed

in

form.


northward we walked on this very street and bound we were to seeing it again... the pantheon.... crowds huddled around it... i remember grey streets and I remember the photo this girl [whose name escapes me] took of a young man walking toward the pantheon with people sitting behind him... sipping... eating... laughing... I remember the experience but I don’t remember her name...


w a l k i n g

m e m o r i e s : i t h a c a


w a l k i n g

m e m o r i e s : h a r l e m , n y c


the

s

i

t

e

:


d e m o g r a p h i c s :

Black African American Distribution 30 or more 20-30 10-20 5-10 less than 5


Hispanic Distribution 30 or more 20-30 10-20 5-10 less than 5


Poverty Distribution 30 or more 20-30 10-20 5-10 less than 5


P

o

v

e

r

t

y

About 30 percent of Bronx County residents live below the poverty threshold, compared with 19.1 percent of New York City residents. Median house hold income for Bronx County is $29,228—roughly two-thirds of New York City’s median household income of $43,434. Unemployment in 2005 was 11 percent, compared with 8 percent for the city. The areas of concentrated poverty in Bronx County are in the southwest. These communities have more than 40 percent of the population living below the poverty threshold.

http://www.newyorkfed.org/regional/community_bronx.html


b u i l t s u r f a c e

t h e

p r o g r a m m e d s u r f a c e :


g r e e n

m a t r i x


o r g a n i z a t i o n :

c o r r i d o r s + c o n n e c t i v i t y


t r a i n s a n d r a i l r o a d s

s e r v i c e

a n d n e t w o r k s :


t h e

w a t e r f r o n t :


z o n i n g :


Demographics Population Population density Percent female Percent male Median household income Households People per household Median age Median income Percent married Percent single (includes never married, divorced, separated, and widowed) Education School achievement index Spending per student Students per teacher Students per librarian Students per guidance counselor High school graduation rate College degree - 2 year College degree - 4 year Graduate degree Crime Violent crime risk Property crime risk Cost of Living population Overall population density Health percent female & Safety Physicians per 100,000 percent male population median household income Air quality households Watershed people per household quality Toxic sites Health costs index UV index Economy Unemployment rate Recent job growth Future job growth Sales tax rate Income tax rate

41,746 37,951 56.44% 43.56% $26,166 13,846 2.81 30.0 $10,640 26.20% 73.80%

43,280 57,480 51.79% 48.21% $52,097 18,691 2.25 35.2 $33,601 31.89% 68.11%

9,429 1,179 50.35% 49.65% $39,702 3,555 2.63 36.5 $18,598 58.33% 41.67%

2.00 $7,297 18.7 1,476.0 600.0

4.11 $7,422 18.5 1,482.7 602.4

5.20 $5,896 16.1 934.0 560.0

58.66% 7.09% 10.04% 6.16%

d

e

m

o

g

r

73.57% 5.91% 22.70% 17.50%

5 10451 regional 4 national avg.

a

p

h

i

c

s

76.44% 8.19% 14.93% 7.01%

7 5

3 3

41,746 43,280 147.6 9,429 177.8 37,951 57,480 1,179 56,44% 51.79% 50.35% 259.0 679.3 43.56% 48.21% 49.65% 26,166 52,097 39,702 23.0 16.2 13,846 18,691 3,555 50.0 50.0 2.81 2,25 2.63 62.0 83.4 182.9 186.1 3.70 3.64

100.0

7.70% -2.76% 2.84% 8.25% 10.53%

6.78% -2.47% 3.89% 8.25% 10.53%

168.5 50.0 50.0 70.0 103.7 4.30 4.70% 0.90% 10.83% 6.20% 5.02%


m e l r o s e ,

s o u t h

b r o n x

1 0 4 5 1

10451 regional national avg. median income school achievement index violent crime risk property crime risk overall cost of living

v a l u e s

w o r s e

10,640 33,601 18,598 2.00 4.11 5.20 5 7 3 4 5 3 147.6 177.8 100.0

t h a n

n a t i o n a l

a v e r a g e

a r e

d i s p l a y e d

i n

r e d .


a

r

o

u

10452 regional national avg. population population density percent female percent male median household income households people per household

57,834 43,280 9,429 57,834 57,480 1,179 54.87% 51.79% 50.35% 45.13% 48.21% 49.65% 23,369 52,097 39,702 19,363 18,691 3,555 2.98 2.25 2.63

n

d

1

0

4

5

1


Demographics Population Population density Percent female Percent male Median household income Households People per household Median age Median income Percent married Percent single (includes never married, divorced, separated, and widowed)

57,834 57,834 54.87% 45.13% $23,369 19,363 2.98 27.0 $9,086 28.44% 71.56%

43,280 57,480 51.79% 48.21% $52,097 18,691 2.25 35.2 $33,601 31.89% 68.11%

9,429 1,179 50.35% 49.65% $39,702 3,555 2.63 36.5 $18,598 58.33% 41.67%

2.00 $7,291 21.2 1,498.0 598.0

4.11 $7,422 18.5 1,482.7 602.4

5.20 $5,896 16.1 934.0 560.0

55.35% 5.81% 7.89% 4.31%

73.57% 5.91% 22.70% 17.50%

76.44% 8.19% 14.93% 7.01%

8 6

7 5

3 3

142.0

177.8

100.0

261.1

679.3

168.5

23.0 50.0 59.0 189.9 3.70

16.2 50.0 83.4 186.1 3.64

50.0 50.0 70.0 103.7 4.30

rate 9,086 33,601 Unemployment 18,598 Recent job growth 2.00 4.11 5.20 Future job growth 8 7 3 Sales tax rate Income tax rate 6 5 3 142.0 177.8 100.0 Housing

7.70% -2.76% 2.89% 8.25% 10.53%

6.78% -2.47% 3.89% 8.25% 10.53%

4.70% 0.90% 10.83% 6.20% 5.02%

Median home purchase costs Home appreciation Median age of homes Percent of homes owned vs. rented Vacancy rating

$198,692 10.04% 41.5 6.14%

$376,223 9.97% 43.5 19.17%

$137,081 6.27% 27.8 63.40%

5.30%

7.73%

14.91%

1.12% 71.80% 7.14% 14.26% l a y

3.57% 56.42% 5.94% 14.48% i n

5.61% 1.95% 14.57% e71.60% d .

Education School achievement index Spending per student Students per teacher Students per librarian Students per guidance counselor High school graduation rate College degree - 2 year College degree - 4 year Graduate degree Crime Violent crime risk Property crime risk

h i g hCost bof Living r i d g e ,

b r o n x

Overall Health & Safety Physicians per 100,000 population Air quality Watershed quality Toxic sites costs index regionalHealth national UV index

10452 median income school achievement index violent crime risk property crime risk overall cost of living

v a l u e s

w o r s e

t h a n

n a t i o n a l

avg.

a v e r

1 0 4 5 2

Economy

Transportation Work at home Commute by bus Commute by carpool Commute a g e by own a car r e

d i s p

e d

r


b o u n d a r i e s :


c o e n n e c t i v i t y o r l a c k o f :


t h e

s i t e :

The site sat along the Harlem River near Yankee Stadium. It was home to wholesale merchants who threw open their vast warehouse like shops every morning just before sunrise greeting customers that came as far as Canada to shop at the largest ethnic and tropical produce in the East Coast. It supplied most of the city’s bodegas and catered to a growing number of immigrants who sought foods that reminded them of home and that were not found anywhere else. Now, a proposed redevelopment plan would evict the merchants and replace the Bronx Terminal Market with a shopping mall and an arena for the 2012 Olympics.

At the time that I was working on my thesis, the Bronx Terminal Market stood at about 30 vegetable and fruit sellers. Today, it is ruble and under c o n s t r u c t i o n .


what if we kept

the

m

a

r

k

e

t

,

and added a mall... Developer

Buys

Faded

Market

in

the

or a museum...

a park...

connecting to...

Bronx


p o l i t i c s : a n d

Market-Rate Giveaway

. . .

Produce merchants get the boot for a City Hall favorite and yet another Olympic stadium by Tom Robbins March 22nd, 2005 11:54 AM

Back in 1972, a wily operator named David Buntzman managed to win a sweetheart 99-year lease to run the market, which sits on cityowned property. The lease was awarded by the Lindsay administration shortly after Buntzman delivered a timely five-figure campaign contribution to Lindsay’s brief presidential bid. Buntzman promptly let the market slide into disrepair and decay, milking the merchants for whatever he could get. The and

market became mired lawyers, who

in

The

results

predictable:

were

numbingly

endless litigation with city attorneys pushing to had even closer ties to City A

once

thriving

market

that

had

100

force repairs, while Hall, fought

merchants

when

a

Buntzman

parade them took

of Buntzman’s lobbyists to a standstill.

over

festered

and

shrunk.

Last year [2004] Michael Bloomberg announced a solution to what he called a “blight” and an “eyesore.” His plan calls for wiping out the produce market and replacing it with 1 million square feet of retail shopping, most likely department stores like Target or Marshalls. The new $300 million mall would create 4,500 jobs, the mayor said. It would be built by the Related Companies, the developer of the new Time Warner Center on Columbus Circle and headed by Stephen Ross, a close friend and former business partner of Deputy Mayor Daniel Doctoroff. As

for

the

produce

merchants,

To until

date, however, there the end of the month to

has accept

Bloomberg a

aides

said

they

would

been little planning. Tenants buyout package and relocation to

work

were separate

with

them

to

develop

a

relocation

plan.

notified on March 4 that they have sites around the borough—or face immediate eviction.


Planning for the new mall, on the other hand, has been intense. Records of the city’s deal obtained by attorneys hired by the merchants show that the new Gateway Center at Bronx Terminal Market, as it’s been dubbed, is due to receive both deep subsidies and guarantees against risk. More than $80 million in Liberty Bonds have been targeted for the project, and the city has agreed to reimburse Related for most of the $42 million it paid Buntzman to take over his lease should the project fall through. There are other key aspects of the project that were never mentioned at the mayor’s announcement. On the west side of the market, near the river, the city decided to create a new site for the 2012 Olympics, a velodrome—a large indoor arena for bicycle races. And just east of the market, the city quietly agreed to convey the nearby Bronx House of Detention to the developer to be demolished and made part of the new mall. Attorneys

for

the

merchants

say

that

instead

of

closing

the

book

on

the

market’s

sad

history,

the

city

has

only

added

another

chapter.

“The tenants and employees at the Bronx Terminal Market are the very essence of New York,” said Adrian Zuckerman, a partner at Lowenstein Sandler, a Manhattan firm. “They are the people who should be assisted and encouraged, not summarily thrown out of their businesses to facilitate a sweetheart development deal and an Olympic facility.”


. . .

a n d

m o r e


infrastructure

edges and boundaries

no

mans

land

b a r r i e r s :

If you take a close look at the Bronx without having to dive into the history of the Bronx... the whole waterfront is cut away from easy pedestrian access as a result of both the Major Deegan and the Bruckners Expressway... Not to mention that most of the waterfront has been dedicated to industry and much like in Williamsburg, D.U.M.B.O, etc. industry is no longer a thriving force. Therefore buildings that were once in use are now empty and abandoned to age. However like in most cities [from my own observation of places I have visited or read about] the edges/periphery along these infrastructural networks are also major targets for people of color or with low income. This is exactly the kind of demographics that you find living in the projects, the two/three story row houses and tenement buildings running along side these highways. Above you will find a general sketch of the Bronx with the Cross Bronx Expressway, the Major Deegan, and the Bruckners Expressway highlighted in orange. The two sketches next to it try to convey the physical effect these highways have on the buildt environment. These highways both connect/bridge long distances and at the same time disconnect at a local level the people from the waterfront.


the

invisible

wall...

ideal:

lets

penetrate

If we could somehow create or improve access to the site via bridges, underpasses, or even through the amenities offered we could open up the waterfront to the public in the immediate surrounding areas and even improve the quality of life around the site. How could I design something that could bridge across the Major Deegan and the Metro North Hudson train line? How could I even incorporate the existing market with the proposed shopping center in the design? How do you reveal a site and make it attractive to both people of low income and people of mid to high income? How do you finance this? Though my thesis did not solve this at the scale of the entire waterfront nor at the scale of the Terminal these were issues that I was trying to deal with or did think about but was unable to address in the span of four months... In the begining of my thesis I was involved with ideas of placemaking and how places acquired meaning. How does a work of architecture or a place influence the lives of people inhabiting these places or spaces. What is the difference between space and place? How are these places/spaces meaninful through cultural/historical associations, recurrence/use, as well as through distinctive architectural coherence or even through topographical identity? How do these become places of great importance to us? I think places affect our way of thinking, of interacting of living peacefully with others and with ourselves. If we lived in a world of demoralized individuals, where a decaying buildt environment, and an unhealthy earth existed we would ceased to exist. Or we would live in a world not unlike purgatory? But if our earth were healthy, green, and promising our built environment would reflect that and we the people would respect that and learn to live in balance? I end these sentences with question marks because these suppositions are ideal and because I’m not so sure how likely these statements could hold themselves togetther... But I also think [perhaps it is too idealistic] that the world we live in, the house we live in is a product of our mind and vice versa. We give form to matter and matter gives form to us. It has inherent properties that can be used to our advantange but that can also limit or provide us with rules with which to work with. Our minds in this case are inclined to discover what forms matter can take.


city

without

cars

waterfront as void

infrastructure:

divider

and

connector

. . .

e n c l a v e :

a

The Bronx Terminal Market sits nestled between the Major Deegan//I-87 and the MTA Hudson line. It is a few minutes away from Yankee Stadium and lays 20’ below the street level as you approach it from Jerome Avenue. The I-87 cuts across and looms over head ... Though the river front is accessible it is difficult to get there on foot due to the speeding cars that make their way onto I 8 7


attractions around site

The site is also in the Bronx Mall, Other things to note: Much apartment buildings.

parks around site

enclave

close proximity to Manhattan, the Bronx Criminal Court House, the Bronx Family Court House, the Bronx Museum of Art, several parks and Hostos Community College like D.U.M.B.O. and Williamsburg many of the factory buildings near the site are being renovated and turned into A major concern revolving the site is the possibility of gentrification.


t h e

p r o g r a m m e d s u r f a c e 2 :

c o m m e r c i a l o p e n


r e s i d e n t i a l

i n d u s t r i a l


walking south on river avenue

s i t e

i n

p i c t u r e s :


and

intersecting

with

153rd

street


under

the

major

deegan


looking

toward

the

Yankee

Stadium


under

the

major

deegan


looking

toward

the

Yankee

Stadium

and

toward

the

bronx

criminal

court

house


under

the

major

deegan


looking

toward

the

juvenile

prison

and

markets

below

the

deegan


in

a

pile

of

industrial

ruins


there

use

to

be

a

building

here

but when i came back it was all gone


the

site

sits

20

feet

lower

than

the

surrounding

topography


so

the

wall

you

see

here

and

the

juvenile

prison

are

set

higher

than

the

site


related companies will have their way... but we hope that’s what we do and we think and we imagine potential scenarios and we hope that they wont forget us the few who remember the market as vibrant full of life the smells of fruit vegetables and the different languages being spoken here and there yes they will have their way... money always does....


to develop the bronx terminal market as a year round commercial, recreational and educational center...


for

whom?


precedents

library

park


museum

mall


A shopping ma l l o r s h o p p i n g ce n te r i s a building or set of buildings th a t co n ta i n a v a r i e ty o f r e ta i l u n i ts , w i th interconnecting walkways enabling visito r s to e a s i l y walk from unit to u n i t.

Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1) - Cite This Source - Share This mall

mawl; Brit. also mal – noun

1. Also called shopping mall. a large retail complex containing a variety of stores and often restaurants and other business establishments housed in a series of connected or adjacent buildings or in a single large building. Compare shopping center. Str i p ma l l s 2. a large area, usually lined with shade trees and shrubbery, used as a public walk or promenade.

p r e s c e d e n t s : m a l l / s h o p p i n g c t r

D e a d m a l l s

a

n

d

n

e

w

have develo p e d s i n ce th e 192 0 s , co r r e s p o n d i n g to th e r i s e o f s u b urban living i n th e Un i te d Sta te s a f te r Wo r l d Wa r I I . As s u ch , th e s tr i p ma l l d e velopment h a s b e e n th e s u b j e ct o f th e s a me cr i ti ci s ms l e v e l e d against suburbanisation and suburban sprawl in general.


A dead m all i s a shopping m al l wit h a h i g h v a ca n cy r a te o r a l o w co n s u me r t raffic level, or t hat i s dat ed or de te r i o r a ti n g i n s o me ma n n e r . T h e r e a r e m any m alls i n t he Uni t ed St at es t h a t a r e co n s i d e r e d “ d e a d ” . De a d ma l l s m ay be m ade up of one or m ore “ d e a d ” a n ch o r s , me a n i n g th a t th e s p a ce where an anchor st ore (oft en a lar g e d e p a r tme n t s to r e ) w o u l d b e l o ca te d is em pt y. Anot her t erm for a dead ma l l i s a “ g r e y f i e l d ” .[ 1] I n m any i nst ances, a m al l begi ns d y i n g w h e n th e ma l l ’ s s u r r o u n d i n g n e i g h borhood undergoes a socio-econom i c d e cl i n e , o r a n e w e r , l a r g e r ma l l o p e n s nearby. St ruct ural changes i n t he d e p a r tme n t s to r e i n d u s tr y h a v e a l s o m ade i t difficult for m alls t o survive : a f e w l a r g e n a ti o n a l ch a i n s h a v e r e pl aced dozens of sm al l local and re g i o n a l ch a i n s , a n d s o me n a ti o n a l ch a i n s have t hem selves gone out of busine s s . He n ce , i n mo s t N o r th Ame r i ca n ma r ket s, t here now aren’ t enough t rad i ti o n a l d e p a r tme n t s to r e s to f i l l a l l th e exi st i ng anchor spaces. The newer “ b i g b o x ” ch a i n s ( s u ch a s Wa l -Ma r t a n d Target ) norm ally prefer t o occupy th e i r o w n f r e e - s ta n d i n g b u i l d i n g s r a th e r t han m al l -anchor spaces.

t

r

e

n

d

s

:

Dead m al l s are oft en redevel oped. Le a s i n g co mp a n i e s o r ma n a g e me n t co mpani es m ay change t he archit ect ure , l a y o u t, d e co r , o r o th e r co mp o n e n t o f a shoppi ng cent er t o at t ract m ore ren te r s a n d d r a w mo r e p r o f i ts . So me ti me s redevelopm ent can involve a swi t ch f r o m r e ta i l u s a g e to o f f i ce o r e d u ca ti o n al usage of a bui l ding. As a last res o r t th e s tr u ctu r e i s d e mo l i s h e d a n d th e propert y redeveloped for ot her use s , k n o w n a s b u i l d i n g o n a g r e y f i e l d s i te . I n places such as V erm ont wi t h a s tr i ct p e r mi tti n g p r o ce s s , a n d i n ma j o r urban areas where open fi elds are l o n g g o n e , th i s ca n b e mu ch e a s i e r a n d cheaper t han bui l ding on a greenfie l d s i te . Ci nderel l a Cit y was t he largest m all w e s t o f th e Mi s s i s s i p p i R i v e r to cl o s e . One of t he m ost fam ous dead m al l s i s th e Di x i e Sq u a r e Ma l l i n Ha r v e y , I l linois. Dixie Square was feat ured in th e mo v i e T h e B l u e s B r o th e r s . T h e ca r chase scenes t hat t ook place i nsi d e a s h o p p i n g ma l l w e r e f i l me d a t Di x i e Square, and were film ed aft er t he m a l l h a d a l r e a d y b e e n cl o s e d d o w n . Pr o ducers dressed t he m all t o m ake i t a p p e a r to b e a f u n cti o n a l ma l l th a t w a s open for business. Aft erwards t he ma l l h a d s to o d v a ca n t a n d r o tti n g , a n d it st ill st ands t oday.


the images on this page were scanned from the project on the city. the harvard design school guide to shopping. 2001.


the images on this page were scanned from the project on the city. the harvard design school guide to shopping. 2001.


the images on this page were scanned from the project on the city. the harvard design school guide to shopping. 2001.


the images on this page were scanned from the project on the city. the harvard design school guide to shopping. 2001.


DENTSU HEADQUARTERS AT SHIODOME Dentsu's new headquarters could have been simply a business investment. But the media giant made it an investment in community, using the complex to establish a new heart in Tokyo's redeveloping Shiodome district. To realize Dentsu's vision, Jerde anchored the site's office tower (designed by Jean Nouvel) with a place to relax and escape the fast-paced urban lifestyle. Offering restaurants and cafes, a performance theater, an advertising library and museum and specialty shops, the new community center extends activity at Dentsu's headquarters long after the workday ends. Jerde designed the base of the project as a rock using granite and natural materialsto represent a strong foundation and a natural extension of the earth. The rock metaphor is continued on the interior o, creating a six-level, terraced space featuring stone walls, waterfalls and natural light. Since opening, the Dentsu headquarters has not only launched a new era in the firm's drive to become the leader in communications, it has become a social and cultural hub ranking among Tokyo's most stylish places to see and be seen.

PROJECT NAME

LOCATION CLIENT PROJECT TYPE JPI RESPONSIBILITY SITE AREA TOTAL BUILDING AREA PROGRAM

Dentsu Headquarters at Shiodome

MALL OF AMERICA

Tokyo, Japan

When Minneapolis' professional sports teams vacated Metropolitan Stadium for a new facility, the city of Bloomington was left with a 78-acre void. Jerde filled it with Mall of America, the nation's largest retail complex - and biggest tourist destination. To make the enormous Mall of America easy to navigate, Jerde modeled it after a small city - with four distinctive streets surrounding a seven-acre park and the nation's largest enclosed amusement park. Today, Mall of America is the nation's leading tourist destination, annually drawing 40 million people - more than Disney World, Grand Canyon and Graceland combined. And visitors stay three times longer than the average visit to other malls. The impact of Mall of America is clear. It annually produces sales of $900 million and generates another $1.2 billion outside the project for the state of Minnesota.

Dentsu Mixed use Design architect 4.25 acres 2.1 million square feet Office Tower Retail/Entertainment Cultural Space

EXPERIENCE MAKES THE PLACE.

PROJECT NAME LOCATION CLIENT

PROJECT TYPE JPI RESPONSIBILITY SITE AREA TOTAL BUILDING AREA PROGRAM

Mall of America Bloomington, MN Ghermezian Organization Mixed use Design architect 78 acres 4.2 million square feet Retail Restaurants Entertainment Classrooms Walkway Amusement Park

EXPERIENCE MAKES THE PLACE. http://www.jerde.com/flash.php


FREMONT STREET EXPERIENCE In the 1980s, downtown Las Vegas was losing retail and office tenants to the suburbs and gaming revenues to The Strip. Jerde designed Fremont Street Experience, which not only reversed decline, but outcompeted the $2.3 billion invested in The Strip. Jerde used lights, which had made the "Glitter Gulch" famous, to revitalize downtown Las Vegas. The idea was immediately successful, motivating almost every casino to invest in improvements or expansions and drawing three bids for the vacant Main Street Casino. Today, Fremont Street Experience comes to life every evening with a show of 2.1 million lights and 540,000 watts of sound. And, seven years after opening, it's still the number one reason to visit downtown, attracting 60 percent of all visitors.

PROJECT NAME

LOCATION CLIENT

PROJECT TYPE JPI RESPONSIBILITY TOTAL BUILDING AREA PROGRAM

Fremont Street Experience

GRAND HYATT FUKUOKA

Las Vegas, Nevada

When Jerde-designed Canal City Hakata opened in 1996, it reinvigorated an abandoned industrial waterfront into a vibrant urban district. Key to creating the mixed-use project was Grand Hyatt Fukuoka designed by Jerde to appeal to both business travelers and tourists. Located between the Naka River and Canal City's Hakata's canal, each of the hotel's 370 guest rooms offer views of the river or canal. The hotel's riverfront port cochere forms an important gateway into Canal City Hakata, while the canal side sits atop a five-level podium designed with a transparent faรงade that exposes the hotel's active lobby and entertainment areas to Canal City Hakata's interior. As a result, Grand Hyatt Fukuoka's mix of traditional Japanese and international restaurants and bars become a specialized food anchor for Canal City Hakata. The 500,000 square-foot hotel also includes Japanese and Western style guest rooms; multiple conference rooms connected to the lobby; fitness and spa facilities; a roof-deck Japanese garden; and a wedding chapel designed as a bridge that spans the canal. In addition to serving as Canal City Hakata's hospitality centerpiece, Grand Hyatt Fukuoka was the first international hotel on the Japanese island of Kyushu. It has been named best hotel in Fukuoka by Japanese magazine Nikkei Trendy.

Fremont Street Experience Llc. Public Space Design architect 140,000 square feet Public Space

EXPERIENCE MAKES THE PLACE.

PROJECT NAME LOCATION CLIENT

Grand Hyatt Fukuoka Fukuoka, Japan Fukuoka Jisho Co., Ltd. Fukuoka Jisho, Urban Design & Development Co. Sumitomo Life Insurance

PROJECT TYPE JPI RESPONSIBILITY PROGRAM

Hospitality Design architect Hospitality Landscape Interior

EXPERIENCE MAKES THE PLACE.


canal

city

hakata


a

city

within

a

city


p r o g r a m m a t i c b r e a k d o w n :

circulation retail entertainment miscellaneous restaurants


p r o g r a m m a t i c b r e a k d o w n :

circulation retail entertainment miscellaneous restaurants

today shopping is one of the few public activities remaining today... everywhere urban life is subject to the infiltration of shopping in any form, means, or ways... the spaces of shopping shape our schools, town centers, streets building typologies, the internet etc.


if you live in the suburbs you hop in your car and swing by the mall to get food or a movie... in saved by the bell, zack and his crew hung out at the mall and even worked at the mall... the point is... there is no public center where people congregate... the mall is convenient... it is not affected by the weather... air is artificial... the waterfalls are artificial... it is a place for youth, families etc. to get together...?


a mall is an enclosed shopping complex containing various stores, restaurants, businesses accessible by common passageways. now imagine that we unfold the function of the mall as a self contained entity and peel away... at its surface... imagine that we interrupt this air conditioned box with display windows with a park or a museum or housing?


imagine c

that h

all

it a

contains... n

now

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to .


Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1) - Cite This Source - Share This museum myuzium[myoo-zee-uhm] –noun a building or place where works of art, scientific specimens, or other objects of permanent value are kept and displayed. [Origin: 1605–15; < L muséum place sacred to the Muses, building devoted to learning or the arts (referring esp. to the scholarly institute founded in Alexandria about 280 b.c.) < Gk Mouseuon, equiv. to Moûs(a) Muse + -eion suffix of place] Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1) Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2006.

f

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m

e

b

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p r e s c e d e n t s : m u s e u m i f i c a t i o n

t

h

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n

c

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m

e


r e v i t a l i z a t i o A m u s e u m i s a “ p e r m a n e n t i n s t i t u t i o n i n t h e s e r v i c e o f s o c i e t y a n d o f i t s d e v e l o p m e n t , o p e n t o t h e p u b l i c , w h i c h a c q u i r e s , c o n s e r v e s , r e s e a r c h e s , c o m m u n i c a t e s a n d e x h i b i t s , f o r p u r p o s e s o f s t u d y , e d u c a t i o n , e n j o y m e n t , t h e t a n g i b l e a n d i n t a n g i b l e e v i d e n c e o f p e o p l e a n d t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t ” .

n


p r e s c e d e n t s : t r a d i t i o a n a l g a l l e r i e s

gemaldegalerie hilmer and

in

berlin. christoph

heinz sattler

alte pinakothek in munich. leo von klenze


uffizi

in

florence.

giorgio

vasari

state gallery in stuttgart. james stirling


alte pinakothek, munich. leo von klenze

altes museum, berlin. karl friedrich schinkel


glyptothek, munich. leo von klenze

musĂŠe du louvre, paris. renovation i.m. pei


metropolitan

museum,

new

york

center pompidou, paris. renzo piano


carre dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;art, nimes. norman foster

galician center of contemporary art, santiago de campostela. alvaro siza


kunsthaus,

bregenz.

peter

zumthor

zkm, karlsruhe. oma


tate museum, london. redesign herzog and de meuron

tate museum extension, london. herzog and de meuron

institute of contenporary art, boston. diller scofidio+renfro


beyeler

museum,

basel.

renzo

piano

moma, new york. edward durrell stone and philip goodwin 1939; yoshio taniguchi 2004


fondation

cartier

pour

lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;art

contemporain,

paris.

Jean

Nouvel


guggenheim

museum,

bilbao.

frank

gehry


parc

de

la

villette,

paris.

bernard

tschumi


museum insel hombroich, dusseldorf. erwin heerich


Dictionary.com Unabridged library [lahy-brer-ee, -bruh-ree, -bree] Pronunciation Key –noun, plural -brar·ies. 1. a place set apart to contain books, periodicals, and other material for reading, viewing, listening, study, or reference, as a room, set of rooms, or building where books may be read or borrowed. 2. a public body organizing and maintaining such an establishment. 3. a collection of manuscripts, publications, and other materials for reading, viewing, listening, study, or reference. 4. a collection of any materials for study and enjoyment, as films, musical recordings, or maps. 5. a commercial establishment lending books for a fixed charge; a lending library.

A

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p r e s c e d e n t s : l i b r a r y o r y e t another social hub

i

l

e n

c f

t o

i r

o

n

m

a

t

o

f

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I n t h e W e s t , t h e f i r s t p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d u n d e r t h e R o m a n E m p i r e a s e a c h s u c c e e d i n g e m p e r o r s t r o v e t o o p e n o n e o r m a n y w h i c h o u t s h o n e t h a t o f h i s p r e d e c e s s o r . U n l i k e t h e G r e e k l i b r a r i e s , r e a d e r s h a d d i r e c t a c c e s s t o t h e s c r o l l s , w h i c h w e r e k e p t o n s h e l v e s b u i l t i n t o t h e w a l l s o f a l a r g e r o o m . R e a d i n g o r c o p y i n g w a s n o r m a l l y d o n e i n t h e r o o m i t s e l f . T h e s u r v i v i n g r e c o r d s g i v e o n l y a f e w i n s t a n c e s o f l e n d i n g f e a t u r e s . A s a r u l e R o m a n p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s w e r e b i l i n g u a l : t h e y h a d a L a t i n r o o m a n d a G r e e k r o o m . M o s t o f t h e l a r g e R o m a n b a t h s w e r e a l s o c u l t u r a l c e n t e r s , b u i l t f r o m t h e s t a r t w i t h a l i b r a r y , w i t h t h e u s u a l t w o r o o m a r r a n g e m e n t f o r G r e e k a n d L a t i n t e x t s .


seattle

public

library,

seattle.

oma


sendai

mediatheque,

sendai.

toyo

ito


deux bibliothèques de jussieu, paris. oma


library

delft

university

of

technology,

delft


m

e

c

a

n

o

o


bronx

terminal

market


â&#x20AC;&#x153;... very much in the same way as light becomes visible only through reflection, space itself is invisible. What makes space perceivable to us is a complex and often very individual interplay of time, matter and mind. Space results from our knowledge of, and feelings for, the objects and life forms around us. In order for space, and light, to become apparent, they must be confined. That is what architects do: create confines, boundaries that will [in most cases] keep in what is desired, and out what is not.â&#x20AC;?

Borderline. Lebbeus Woods & Ekkehard Rehfeld. 1998


â&#x20AC;&#x153;If one considers architecture as an extention of human interactions, the product of social environments, and the context within which memories render, architecture carries the burden of being the mediator of all human behaviors- psychological, physical and spiritualâ&#x20AC;Ś human activities progress with time. Architecture inhibits such permanence and rigidity that it is so contradictory to time which is constantly evolving and advancing. So how does architecture catch up with the changes that time brings?

Architectural Design. Games of Architecture. London: Academy Group, 1996


c e n t e r p o m p i d o u a t t h e m a r k e t :

i c o n i c


a r c h i t e c t u r e

b i l b a o a t t h e

m u s e u m m a r k e t :


s e a t t l e l i b r a r y a t t h e m a r k e t :


s e n d a i m e d i a t h e q u e a t t h e m a r k e t :


nemo museum, amsterdam. renzo piano


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t w

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h

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a y

q

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p a

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:

barcelona market, barcelona. EMBT

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p

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incline, barnley and scarborough, uk


park

of

desires,

medellin


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scottish

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parliament.

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EMBT

m

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:

yokohama port terminal foreign office architects

waterfront competition. carmen pinos

s

o

s

u

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a

i

n

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f


yokohama port terminal foreign office architects


maritime youth center, copenhagen. bjarke ingels group


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p

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.


o w i g s h e i t e

?

s c a l i n g t h e m a r k e t :

h b i t s

Bronx Terminal Market, Bronx NY, USA

Arts Quad, Cornell University


y

Arts Quad, Cornell University

Canal City Hakata, Fukuoka Japan

Canal City Hakata, Fukuoka Japan

Grand Palais, Lille France

Grand Palais, Lille France

0m

0m

5 0 m 50m


p r o g r a m m i n g t h e s i t e :

related companies commercial scheme


overlaying 3rd Avenue (a commercial strip in the Bronx] on the site


straddling the Major Deegan with Tenement buildings/Housing Scheme 1


straddling the Major Deegan with Tenement buildings/Housing Scheme 2


straddling the Major Deegan with Tenement buildings/Housing Scheme 3


straddling the Major Deegan with Housing and a Commercial Strip Scheme 1


straddling the Major Deegan with Housing and a Commercial Strip Scheme 2


building a commercial plinth with housing on top


mall as box with public courtyard scheme 1


mall as box with public courtyards scheme 2


study diagrams of possible massing scenarios as well as ways to reach the waterfront


study diagrams of possible massing scenarios as well as ways to reach the waterfront


pop up the site and pack with program


spread the program through out field


comparing the scale of a market stall to a store


comparing the scale of a mall department store to a field of market stalls


open

mixed - housing

commercial center

educational

media library

mixed - housing

open

market restaurants

restaurants

art

graffiti

food

commercial

hip hop museum

and the mall spills over...


forming the site...


forming the site...


... and the mall program spills forth...


but lets add a field in which it can sit on...


scale/framework/overiding structure

shopping/housing massing possible scheme 1


connecting the areas of shopping and housing

the green folds/open framework


interweaving

extending to waterfront


main boulevard

meandering paths


paths and possible point of exits


composite


structure


sub structure


program


surface folds



UrbanScapes: Recombinant Architecture Thesis