ABPL30048 SEMESTER 1 2015
MIKAELA PRENTICE 636 455
House in Bruges Unbuilt (2010), Lisa Iwamoto, http://www.dwell.com/house-tours/slideshow/cut-it-out-work-lisa-iwamoto#6
contents 4 INTRODUCTION PART A: CONCEPTUALISATION 8 A1. Design Futuring 10 A2. Design Computation 12 A3. Composition Generation 14 A4. Conclusion 15 A5. Learning Outcomes 16 A6. Appendix Algorithmic Sketchbook 21
PART B: CRITERIA DESIGN 24 B1. RESEARCH FIELD 26 B2.. CASE STUDY 01 28 Matrix of iterations 30 Analysis of results 32 B3. Case study 02 34 Producing algorithm 36 b4. technique development 40 Analysis of Results 42 b5. Prototyping 46 b6. proposal 53 b.7. Algorithmic sketchbook 56 references 58 PART C: detailed design c1. design concept 60 Individual to collaborative 62 Site Analysis 64 Sunlight analysis 66 weaving technique 68 precedent study 70 Form finding 74 Development process 76 Concept to reality 78 Function analysis c2.. tectonic elements and prototyping 82 prototyping boxboard 84 prototyping plywood 86 Prototyping polyprop 88 construction systems 90 c3. final detail model 92 constructing the cells 96 1:10 connections 98 Construction proccess 100 blow up detail 102 form model 106 renders: site view 108 Renders: west 110 renders: north 112 REnders: south 114 Renders: polypropylene 116 c4. learning ooutcomes
Mikaela Prentice university of melbourne bachelor of environments
third year architecture
Previous studio experience is limited to completing the Architectural Design Studio: Water in Semester 2, 2014. In this studio we were guided to explore the concepts and techniques of a master architect, ours being Alvar Aalto. Through exploration of Aalto’s famous works, we studied his principles, which we were then to apply to our own project, the Boathouse redevelopment at Studley Park in Kew. In this studio I used the following digital programs: SketchUp - To map and phsyically represent the site using the topographically information given. I was then able to convert this and import into AutoCad in orer to develop floor plans suited to the landscape. I am currently studying in my third year of a Bachelor of Environments degree, majoring in architecture.
AutoCad - To draft floor plans and site plans with proper architectural conventions.
I have been interested into the design and building field since I can remember. Mum and Dad love to decorate and renovate so I think I got my first taste of this career path from them.
Rhino 3D - To develop a three dimensional model of the site and of the proposed boathouse. Making an accurate 3D model allowed me to explore the spatial and formal arrangements of the design in real scale.
Going into the Bachelor of Environments, I was 70% sure I would follow architecture, however I wasn’t sure I would be creative enough. After my first taste of design through the class ‘Designing Environments’, I really began to believe in myself as an ‘architect’. Throughout my time at university, I have developed a strong passion for architecture and am continually inspired by what developments are occuring in the industry at the moment. I am very excited to explore computational design through Grasshopper, as I believe that it will be the way of the future for architectural practice and design.
Vray - To input materiality to the 3D model, and the create realistic renders of the model and the site. Adobe Photoshop - To further develop realistic renders for presentation.
Adobe Indesign - To layout the final presentation.
The final renders of my design can be seen on the opposite page.
ONE CENTRAL PARK “ Landscape is architecture. So at One Central Park, we have created a kind of continuity between the park and the buildings, so the facades literally extend the park to the sky. By miming what can exist in Australian nature, we are proposing a new form of highrise living in direct contact with nature. “
- Jean Nouvel 8
One Central Park, Central Park, http://www.centralparksydney.m/live/one-central-park/architecture-and-design
One Central Park can be seen as a beacon in the exploration of emerging sustainable technologies at a high-density urban scale. From having the tallest vertical garden in the world, to being the first residential building in the world to experiment with sunlight harvesting and redirecting applications, One Central Park will stand as an inspiration for projects of all scales to come. One Central Park is the outcome of the redevelopment of the old Carlton and United Brewery site. One of the ‘design challenges’ of the project was how to incorporate a new park at an appropriate urban scale. Aesthetically, the creation of a ‘living green facade’ gives residents pleasing private gardens on their balconies, and at a collective scale, provides the city with a green urban sculpture. Basically, One Central Park acts as a forest in the sky. In this instant, the development proposes a solution to the problem of an ever increasing concrete jungle. Imagine a future where most urban buildings were covered in plants… we would inhabit a city that acted like a forest. Fostering the most pleasant of natural processes and creating a place for all living things to thrive. .
In a sustainable context, the green wall provides a message of sustainability. The plants absorb carbon dioxide, not only cooling the interior of the building, and creating a more pleasant environment for its inhabitants, but also cooling its immediate surroundings. This helps to alleviate the detrimental heat island effect present in all urban environments. Construction of One Central Park was completed in 2013. Now, a year and a half on, the success of the project is undeniable. As the building has been a fully functional and lived in complex for over a year now, the heliostats have been able to complete more than a full cycle of the seasons. I believe the realisation of this sustainable strategy, and the praise it has received, will become revolutionary. It will encourage all practitioners in the building and development field to rethink the way they approach sustainable services. A statement from Ateliers Jean Nouvel sums it up best in saying that “parks and gardens have at all times been the most desirable places to live next to”1 (because vegetation signals life. It is this innate human desire that will drive future residential development towards a similar method of practice.
Dongdaemun Design Plaza, http://www.zaha-hadid.com/architecture/dongdaemun-design-park-plaza/
DONGDAEMUN DESIGN PLAZA Zaha Hadid's Dongdaemun Design Plaza in Soeul, Korea is a prime example of a design engaging with the community for whom they are designing. Tony Fry declared that designers need to "broaden [their] gaze… stop talking to yourselves.. And start talking to other people, other disciplines." The DDP was built to be a cultural hub in the centre of Soeul, for people of all ages and all backgrounds. Instead of the architect embarking on a prescribed design journey based on the given brief, Zaha Hadid Architects instead go against the norm and continually engage the people who will be the users of the site. The DDP, as a design project, and as a completed complex, "engages the community in a collective dialogue where many contributions and innovations feed into each other, allowing talents and ideas to flourish"2. This concept, of community engagement and interaction, is a way of thinking that transcends traditional architectural practice, and as such, can be seen as a radical process which delivers a product and an experience unlike before. The design process of Zaha Hadid Architects will surely be emulated the world over, as the success of the collaborative approach is
apparent, in that the entire project is a work of collaboration and combination, not just in design process, but in design outcome, and how the building will function in the future. This is seen in a number of ways: The design allows the architecture, the city and land to combine in both form and spatial awareness. It blurs the relationship between interior and exterior (which is a factor that will continually develop in the near future) It meets the needs of a variety of people and can function in any number of ways due to the fluid nature of the interior and exterior spaces. And, the DDP is an amalgamation of the past, the present and the future. It acts as a link between the city's contemporary culture, emerging nature and rich history. It is also important to note that whilst not a pioneer in its use of BIM technologies, the success in which it uses BIM for construction management and engineering coordination should be celebrated. Its success meant that the design was fluidly adapting with the evolving brief and interaction between the varying stakeholders. BIM software is an important element of collaborative workflow. _____1
GA Document. 2014. GA Document 129 (Toyko: GA. Futagawa, 28-34 2
GA Document, 2014, 40-48
Zaha Hadid “ ....A FIELD OF PIXILATION AND PERFORATION PATTERNS.... THE DESIGN INTEGRATES THE PARK AND PLAZA SEAMLESSLY AS ONE, BLURRING THE BOUNDARY BETWEEN ARCHITECTURE AND NATURE IN A CONTINUOUS, FLUID LANDSCAPE.“
ZAHA HADID ARCHITECTS
A [two] Currently, with the continuous development of Computer Aided Design programs, such as Grasshopper, Architects are reverting back to a pre-Renaissance state, in which they are considered the ‘Master Builder’1. No longer are architects involved in just designing the form of a building, instead, architects become the engineers, the craftsman, the material designer and the surveyor. This is all with thanks to the development of computational design technologies. Computing is now involved in all stages of the design process. We can now begin generating form in CAD programs whilst inputting data which constrains the possibilities of the design. Inputting data allows the architect to analyse the performative aspect of a design in real time. The data can include anything from weather, material capabilities, sun pattern, wind flow, to human traffic data. Without the use of a computational system, an architect would have to have the knowledge to interpret the data correctly, and then manually refine the design with these in mind. However now, in a program such as Grasshopper, the design can adapt and mould itself based on this data. The benefits of this reach much further than making architectural practice faster and more efficient. Rivka and Robert Oxman (2014: 6) stated that the morphogenesis capacity of computational programs means that we have the capability to produce a ‘second nature’, meaning we take the knowledge and the principles learned in nature and apply it to the buildings, so that the built environment and the natural environment mimic each other, ensuring that we lived in a harmonious and sustainable environment. Computational techniques are also allowing architects to experiment with tectonic design and material manipulation. By inputting material capability data, in conjunction with other parameters such as sun angles, the architect is able to re-design or reconfigure the material so that it is functioning to its maximum capacity within the environmental context 2 .
Research Pavillion Diagrams, http://detail-online.com/inspiration/research-pavilion-in-stuttgart-106075.html
Design computation ICD ITKE RESEARCH PAVILION, 2010 This research project explored the natural material properties of thin boards of plywood, inputting the data into a computational system and deriving an outcome that is based on the bending deformation of the wood within the elastic range. This project shows how design computation is allowing architects to go beyond the realm of just using a material, instead enabling them to redefine the material .within the designed context. Design computation was used throughout the entire process, from research, to inception, to material production, engineering simulation and robotic manufacturing1.
DIFFERENTIATED WOOD LATTICE STUDIO, 2009
ICD Research Pavillion, http://www.achimmenges.net/wp-content/gallery/ arch_icd_researchpavilion/webam_arch_10_icd_researchpavilion_am_tn07.jpg
This project was undertaken as part of the Performative Wood Studio at the Harvard University Graudate School of Design in 2009, The structure was derived from detailed studies on the actuation force, the size, thickness and fibre orientation, and required torque. They developed their own computational tool for assessing the aforementioned factors, which they used to generate this full scale prototype. Huang and Park went one step further and used computational fabrication techniques to bring the prototype to life. A robotic water-jet cutting application was used so as the integrity of the wood was not compromised during production. The structure relies on a lattice skin, whose actators are adjusted accoring to the computationally derived outcomes. The skin is attached the the wooden planar grid system, and causes the lattice to rise into its “computationally derfined, structurally stable double-curved form2. Achim Menges 2012 architectural design - material resource fullness (Image),34 - 43 Oxman, R., and R. Oxman. 2014. 'Introduction: Vitruvius Digitalis', in Anonymous Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), 5
Oxman, R., and R. Oxman. 2014, pp. 1-10
Menges.A, 2102. ‘Material Resourcefullness.’ Architectural Design: 34-43
A [three] In recent years, the shift from composition to generation using computational technologies has greatly impacted the architectural design process, and as a consequence, the way architecture is practiced. Now, digital tools not only create opportunities in design process, fabrication and construction, but also in the generation and formation of design concepts 1 .
HERZOG & DE MEURON
Firms such as Herzog & De Meuron are leading the way in this field, by investing in a dedicated “Technology” team at their head office. Rather than using the technology avaliable, the team actually finds and develops their own tool in response to the particular design brief. They often use scripting, but also use tools such as BIM software. Strehlke, the lead of the techology group, says that ‘performance’ is their main driver, whilst reiterating that architecture and its intent remains paramount. ‘The focus is, first of all, only on the architecture. So when we use methods of computation, it is not a technology that we try to do something with it; the focus is more on design intent and the architectural idea and concept. We try to find the right tool, and develop the tool to make the concept work. 2 ’ The above statement shows that whilst design intent remains at the forefront of their minds, the computational response to this intention is what generates and conceives the ‘built’ response.
Messe Using effect
Bassel Exhibition Centre, Herzog & De Meuron, computational techniques to create a ‘basketweaved’ of three new towers at the Messe Bassel Centre.3
The generation of a design response based on performance critera is what sets computationally oriented firms and traditional firms apart. It is not through desire or intent that the geometrical forms of their designs are develeoped, instead they are a direct response to the performative demands of the building, from conception. Before the inception of performative based script technology, such as Grasshopper and its various entities, a designer would receive a package of hundreds of pages of the engineers or environmental specialists, and have to manually edit to influence the design directly. In this case, I believe Herzog & De Meuron have maintained a practice which is equally funded on design and technology. They are responding to the brief as traditional architects in a ‘conceptual’ approach, however this approach is generated by computation scripting and performative modelling techniques. Using only computational techniques to generate a design response can be risky, as it eliminates any sense of ‘aesthetic’ control of the architect. However, the way Herzog & De Meuron have developed their process of design seems to combat this loss of control 2
The winning Flinders Street Station collaboration between Herzog & De Meuron computational design techniques and parameters to generate the arching forms of
competition design and HASSELL used performative design the proposed railway.
COmposition/Generation SOMA ARCHITECTS
soma is an Australian architectural firm who define architecture as “thinking in concepts”4. The team are award winning in their development of contemporary digital design strategies, as can be seen in the below example. The One Ocean, Thematic Pavillion designed and built for permanent exhibition at the EXPO 2012, was designed to reflect how we interpret and experience the ocean: as and endless surface, and as depth. It is this duality that inspired the building’s spatial and organisational concept 5 . However, it is the facade system which truly encompasses the firms intention of computational design inspiring generation. The facade is made up of glass fiber reinforced polymers that can be morphed into a number of animated patterns based on research that investigated how biological moving mechanisms can be applied at a built architectural level6 . The louvres of the facade are seen to morph based on the pattern of the sun (as seen to the left) 7. It is through this exploration of biomimetic research and data that the facade system was developed, hence dictating the overall form of the building and the aesthetic appreciations. It is my understanding that soma’s form generating came solely from the research and data inputted into computational design systems. In this instance, with the focus of the EXPO being ‘The Living Ocean and Coast’, I believe this generating technique has been extremely successful. Using biomimicry to generate form could be a disadvantage if the brief was very limited in its scope, or if it demanded a specific ‘aesthetic’ appearance, as that may be hard to achieve using these principles.
Peters, B. 2013. ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83: 8-15.
Peters, B. 2013. 'Realising the Architectural Idea: Computational Design at Herszog & De Meuron', Architectural Design Journal: 60 3
Peters, B. 2013, ‘Realising the Architectural Idea’, 56-61
soma. 2012. Theme Pavilion (http://www.soma-architecture.com/index. php?page=theme_pavilion&parent=2: soma Architecture) 5 6
ArchDaily. 2012. One Ocean, Thematic Pavilion EXPO 2012 (<http:// www.archdaily.com/?p=236979>: ArchDaily)
Knippers, J. 2013. ‘From Model Thinking to Process Design’, Architectural Design, 83: 74-81
A [four] conclusion Through exploration and research of the prevelance of digital and computational design technologies, it is clear that the landscape in which we practice architecture is changing. We have a need to respond to the changing world around us, and combat defuturing with innovative and unique techniques, as seen in part A One. The projects referenced will serve as inspiration for my coming design, not only for the aesthetic qualities they have, but in the design techniques they created and applied. It is therefore also important to not think like a ‘traditional’ architecture, whereby you design the program and the aesthetics of the building based on what they dictate to be a response to the brief. Nowadays, the architect takes on a role akin to a ‘master builder’. It is nolonger sufficient to design a building using regular methods and materials. As seen in A Two, with the emergence of highly sophisticated digital design technologies, we as architects are able to manipulate materials, create our own materials, develop software to dictate facade treatments or develop continuous iterations based upon performative data running alongside changes in our modelled design. Computational design has allowed laborative process amongst all
to become within the
Finally, it was through research in A Three that I really found inspiration. The development of software indivudal to a specific brief, as at Herzog & De Meuron will be too complex to tackle in the short space of generative time we have, however I will take inspiration from the way they treat every task indivudally, and use computational design to enhance the architecture, not to take over from it. I am also interested in exploring the biomimetic principles outlined in soma’s research. The way their designs react to their landscape, whilst fitting it with it, is something I am keen to explore. I believe it is significantly important to design in a way that uses technology and computational design to influence and enhance architecture as a way of bettering the future. It is not just architects and the building and design industry who will benefit from computational design. Infact one building could have a widespread impact, from the inhabitants of the building, to its neighbors, to the wider community, and also to the general health and wellbeing of our planet.
I came into this subject knowing that it would be extremely beneficial, not only for enhancing my tehcnical profficiency at computer aided drawing programs, but also for my knowledge of the changing landscape of architectural design, Learning about computational design has inspired me in a way I didnâ€™t think possible. Naively, I had previously considered architecture in a tightly constrained box, seperate from the other disciplines of the industry. However, now, I have a greater understanding and appreciation for the colloborative effect of architecture, particularly in response to computational technology. Learning the varying capabilities sign has been beneficial for future forms through performative data input, rial based on the inherent capacity of
and capacities of computational dedevelopment and study. From generating to generating and creating a new mateold materials, the possibilites are endless.
Now, looking back on previous studios work, such as Water Studio , shown on page 5, there were so many ways I could have developed the design futher. One of my main drivers for the design was the angle of the topography and how I can use that to merge my design with the river. Knowing more about computational design tools now, I realise that I could have collected data from the site and used that to inform, generate and develop the response.
ALGORITHMIC SKETCHBOOK ALGORITHMIC SKETCHBOOK
references ArchDaily. 2012. One Ocean, Thematic Pavilion EXPO 2012 (<http://www.archdaily.com/?p=236979>: ArchDaily) Fleischmann et al. 2012. 'Material Behaviour', Architectural Design: 43-54 GA Document. 2014. GA Document 129 (Toyko: GA. Futagawa) Knippers, J. 2013. 'From Model Thinking to Process Design', Architectural Design, 83: 74-81 Menges, A. 2012. 'Material Resourcefullness', Architectural Design: 34-43 Oxman, R., and R. Oxman. 2014. 'Introduction: Vitruvius Digitalis', in Anonymous Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1-10 Peters, B. 2013. 'Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought', Architectural Design, 83: 8-15 ---2013. 'Realising the Architectural Idea: Computational Design at Herszog & De Meuron', Architectural Design Journal: 56-61 soma. 2012. Theme Pavilion (http://www.soma-architecture.com/index. php?page=theme_pavilion&parent=2: soma Architecture)
B [ONE] Strips and Folding is the algorithmic technique in which a single surface is transformed into a volume. It is a ‘succesion of transformation’ in which the continuity of the material is emphasised.
Loop_3 Project, Co-de-It, http://www.co-de-it.com/wordpress/loop_3.html
In altering the frequencies of the folds, one can alter the volumetric spaces both internally and externally. The surfaces of these volumes are also changed by adding or removing folds, i.e. folding or unfolding.
- Strips form the - Strips form loops a - Horizontal and v created a stable - Use of timbe Pin joints, - Has a sense of through the use of co Ripp - Trigonometric func
A R C H I P A R A M E T D E S I P A V I Chalmers Univer
There are many different techniques for organising folds. These can be parallel, intersecting or overlapping. Each technique changes the visual aesthetic and the spatial experience of a shape. In terms of fabrication, the strips and folding technique is economical, in that is reduces waste by utilising as little material as possible. Practical application of this technique sees facades created purely of folded strips, which as a method of design, becomes the structure itself, meaning less need for material. This application is both financially and timely economical.
Deleuze, an architectural historian, discusses the importance of folding in Baroque architecture. He states that folding is an endlessly producing operative1. Deleuze continues to discuss the elements of folding techniques including points of inflection, elastic points and transformations, which were such important elements of Baroque mathematics. It is interesting here, to notice to correlation between historical architecture usage of such techniques, and the usage and adaptation of these techniques in the digital age. Deleuze also implies that a fold has neither a beginning or an end point. Thankfully, in the computational age, the manipulation and application of these techniques are much easy and more widely avaliable thank in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Archipelago Parametrically Designed Pavillion, 2012, photograph by Lidija Grozdanic, http:// www.evolo.us/architecture/archipelago-parametrically-designed-pavilion/
- Surface folded using a - Creases are created fo - Saw tooth joints - Flexibility achieved th - Seating inside and out - Built for 2mm-thick la
Strips and folding has an inherent complexity in which the fluid lines express speed and dynamism. This is further enhanced through the functions of light and shadow. The complexity of this can be increased by increasing the number of strips. This increases density, blurring the image, furthering the sense of speed and velocity. Deleuze, G. 1933. ‘The Fold: Leibniz and The Baroque’: 1-6 Erioli, A. 2012. Loop_3 (http://www.co-de-it.com/wordpress/loop_3.html) 3 Grozdanic , L. 2012. Archipelago Parametrically Designed Pavillion (http://www.evolo.us/architecture/archipelago-parametrically-designed-pavilion/: Evolo) 4 Biothing. 2010. Seroussi Pavillion (Paris) (http://www.biothing.org/?cat=5) 5 Fornes, M. 2012. Double Agent White (http://theverymany.com/constructs/12-atelier-calder/: The Very Many) 1
curvature of the form. at all 3 projecting wings vertical elements inside structural sequence er, pliability, moldable. allow for rotation fluidity and movement ontinuous planes of strips ple effect ctions to derive curves2
P E L A G T R I C A L L G N E L L I O rsity of Technology
aluminium sheeting or the fold
hrough variation of joints tside aser-cut steel sheets3
O Y D N
Biothing Seroussi Pavillion, Digital Model, http://www.biothing.org/?cat=5
U L L Biothing
- Thin strips raising from the ground towards an attraction point cast notable patterned shadows, which change throughout the day. - Sense of movement when passing through the space - Based on electromagnetic fields (EMF) and the patterns of factors which modify themselves. - Logics of attraction/repulsion were computer in plan and then lifted via a series of structural micro-arching sections through different frequencies of the sine function.4
D A W
U G H
E I Marc Fornes
L N T
- Continuous surface composed on 9 interesecting spheres. - Achieving a maximum degree of morpholical freedom with a minimum amount of components. - 'Prototypical architecture' - Object orientated computing to generate developable parts for fabrication of double Double Agent White, Photograph, https://theverymany.files.wordpress. com/2012/01/mfornesphoto-19_ps_fornes_s.jpg?w=500&h=333 curved surfaces. (For material rigidity) - The piece achieves structural continuity, visual interplay and logistical efficiency. - Double agent system: Two parallel but divergent sets of distributed agents describe the surface condition. - The first is a controlled macro set that generates the overall geometry with the minimum number of elements able to be cut within specified sheets of flat aluminium. - The second involves a much more expressive set of higher resolution and morphologies that crafts aperture as ornament. - The two sets then inform each other simultaneously, following the logic of assembly mobility5.
E T E
The Seroussi Pavillion was ‘grown’ out of self-modifying patterns of vect based on the attraction/repulsion logic of magnetic fields. These we
“Cocoon like spatial fabric, a system of ve “Opportunities for different degrees of cohabitation “Dynamic blueprint closer t “Distribution of lighting/shading and programming of driving parametric differenetiation of angle, or
1 Biothing. 2010. Seroussi Pavillion (
CASE STUDY ONE
case study 01
tors based on electro-magnetic fields. Trajectories were computed were created in plan and then lifted as a series of sine curves.1
eils that unfurls trhoguh the space.”1 or humans and art collection living with art.”1 to musical notation.”1 views is achieved through sine-wave functions rientation and the size of the aperture.”1 1
Grasshopper Definition: Seroussi Pavillion
I T E R A T 2
Increase number of Steps of Field Line (from 100 to 600)
Divide the Curve (100 times, increase density)
Set FSpin instead of point charge
Set FSpin as well as point charge
Decrease the number of curve divisions to 5 (less density)
Making 3D: lifting curves in the Z axis
Increase radius of circle (10) to create blank spaces.
Making 3D: sending curves down in the Zaxis
3. Spin Field
S E R I E S
2. Changing Fields
1. Extending/Distoring Curves
Iteration 1 + increase decay of pcharge to 100 form 60
Change shape of Bezier graph so thickness is at the bottom of shape
Gaussian Curve with increased decay
Increase decay of point charge to 60
Interpolate curve, extrude curves in z axis
MATRIX OF ITERATIONS
Sweeped surface between mapped points and flat point
Ruled Surface between graph mapped points and flat points
Ruled surface between graph mapped points and flat points, reflected in the Z axis.
I O N S 5
Divided the curve to increase density
Increase decay to 4.
Parabola Curve with increased decay
Failed Voronoi triangulation
Decrease the radius of circle to 1. Flip z axis
Increase radius of circle to 1
Perlin curve with increased decay
Change Bezier curve parameters to X1 Y1
Increase radius of circle to 10
Increase strength and decay to 100 on spin force, disabling point force
Metaball then Delauney Edges
Flipped Z axis, flattened Bezier curve, radius of circle increased to 5.
Increase number of times curve is divided to 45
Sine curve simulation
Sweep divided curves
ANALYSIS OF RESULTS
Analysis of results Iteration 1.4 This iteration was chosen from this species as I feel it is the most developable and could become a number of different things. The areas of greater density show areas where the field has a greater attraction point. It looks like a city plan, with the high traffic zones converging to a central area. This could be used to begin creating forms that use the data from this iteration (being areas of greater/lesser density) to create a surface which is dense in one area and less dense in another. The areas of greater density would form a complete cover whilst the areas of less density would have openings in the surface. This application would also work as a surface treatment on a wall/roof etc.
Selection Criteria: - Ability to be configured in a long walkway (to be used as a foot bridge) - Provide areas of cover/exposure - Explore field possibilities of attraction/repulsion
Iteration 2.5 I chose this iteration for its three dimensionality and the look of movement. In this iteration I was trying to achieve a fluid movement and I think it was successful as the curving lines create a sense of speed, of plasticity, of contant evolution. The site has many people walking, riding and running through it. This is a good way to three dimensionally represent that movement on the different levels of the site. I like how it isnâ€™t one continuous line, there are moments of â€˜pauseâ€™ represented as blank spaces, or gaps in the lines. This idea of gaps, Pathway from left to right: going down, then going across, then up, then across, then finally down onto the right side. This pathway could become the bridge, either moving up or down, or diagonally to the side. Iteration 3.4 This iteration really shows the folding of strips inherent within this research field. I really like how the lines curve over themselves as the ends of the shape, which in turn creates a folding moment. It would be interesting to further explore how the use of continuous curving lines can create the look of sharp edges when viewed from specific angles. The shape itself, a cylindrical form within a greater series of arches is interesting as it creates a tight, dense area within a sparce larger area. In this iteration, I was trying to see how intense the angles could get when folding the lines onto themselves. This could potentially be furthered by increasing the decay and the strength of the spin force. Iteration 4.3 This iteration shows how surfaces can be applied directly to the original shape to create a useable architecture. The small surfaced panels could act as walls, guiding people in certain directions. They could also control the views experienced once inside the shelter. Further exploration could be done into changing the shape of the surface, or changing the patterns of surfaces.
B [three] Loop 3
Loop_3 Project, Co-de-It, http://www.co-de-it.com/wordpress/loop_3.html
â€œMathematics provides an underlying layer for the description of realityâ€™s inner complexity in t elegantly and seamlessly linking science, art, economy, philosophy and other discipline Architects relentlessly explore this territory ever since, using mathematics as a privile
The installation is a self-standing object that uses mathematical trigonometric functions a use of rationality in complex shapes that merges user spatial interaction, curvature as shape) and form as a sorting device to deploy functions (carrying 3D models, showing pi
Loop_3 explores the rationality of complex shapes joining spatial interaction, curvature as st shape as sorting system for the deployment of functions (flat parts are intended for 3D
All installation components are derived from planar elements and collaborate mut creating systemic relations among the various parts differently from traditional to structural stability while the plywood core morphology comes firs
CASE STUDY TWO CONCEPTUALISATION
Erioli, A. 2012. Loop_3 (http://www.c
case study 02
it & uniBologna
Loop_3 Project diagram, Co-de-It, http://www.co-de-it.com/wordpress/loop_3.html
terms of computation as well as the tools to enhance and intensify research and expression, es, merging them into force fields of a unified yet topographically differentiated territory. eged tool for tracing systematic paths as well as enhancing their expressive language.
s (explored through parametric design software) as a mean of aesthetic device, exploring a structural and expressive strategy (the voluptuous ripples also strengthen the overall pictures from various projects as well as a pad to interactively explore design strategies). 1
tructural and expressive strategy (the voluptuous ripples give help the overall stability) and D prototypes while pictures occupy the most vertical surface parts to facilitate reading).
tually to structural stability, morphological organization and function deployment, l structure-skin-ornament linear dependency (the tensioned lycra skin concurs st from the curvilinear trajectories and then optimizes material use).â€?1
AREA DIVIDE CURVE
MOVE DIVIDE (60) INTERPOLATE CURVE
GRAPH MAPPER (SINE)
SCALE DIVIDE (60)
CONCEPTUALISATION CREATING THE ALGORITHM
MOVE GRAPH MAPPER BEZIER
FLIP Z AXIS (8) INTERPOLATE CURVE
LENGTH FLIP (Z)
VEC2PT MOVE NEG (Z)
B [four] technique development E X P L O R I N G AT T R A C T I O N S WIT H MES H COMPONENTS
S P E 3. KC UA
C U L L I N G PAT T E R N S A N D CURVE DIVISIONS
Increase division of initial curve from 18 to 25
Taking a si Voronoi s create tw
Increase movement factor and number of divisions towards attraction point.
Move central points further towards attraction point
Increase division of initial curve from 18 to 55
Increasing height of attraction until point of failure
Increase division of initial curve from 18 to 100
I T E R A T I O N S
Apply un points i
Change the culling pattern to 101010101
Increase number of points in attraction zone.
Increase the number of points affected until failure
MATRIX OF ITERATIONS CONCEPTUALISATION
Decrease division to 30, change culling pattern to 00010001
C I E S
A N G A R O O – C AT E N A RY U R V E D PAV I L I O N S W I T H ORONOI COMPONENT
ingular curve from series 1. surface, scale voronoi to wo curves for each shape
nary force in Z direction to in the middle of shapes
ed ‘pressure’ force
g the pressure of and the length
K A N G A R O O – PAT T E R N I N G S U R FA C E S
Pressure component on mesh with Vorronoi Loft between the two
Culling patterns to release side of pavilion
S EC T I O N I N G A N D CONTOURING
Offset and extrude original curve
Offsetting, extruding and splitting surfaces
Decrease rest length of it.1. Add anchor points in the middle of the mesh on the ground
Weaverbird Catmull-Clark Subdivision Triangulate mesh Pressure component
Split vertical surfaces
Culling pattern of points on mesh to true, false, true, false
Combine vertical and horizontal faces, then split CONCEPTUALISATION 37
Change culling pattern to 111011101110
Stopping the toggle before t has completed to get a reduc
Contour curves, interpolate along XY axis
Interpolate surfaces through points
Increase division to 100, change culling to 001100110011
Increase division to 200
Removing sections of vo to create a holed surfa
Using less force and le
I T E R A T I O N S 8.
Change curve degree to 1 to make hard lines
Decrease curve division to 25, change cull pattern to 0000000010
Removing all holes and d the radius of the second
Mesh Surface and voronoi
Inputting a metaball component onto divided points
CONCEPTUALISATION MATRIX OF ITERATIONS
Change cull pattern to 111111100001111110000
the force ced shape
Combine with Weaverbird inner polygon subdivision
Turn off other meshes, leaving only the inner polygon
Combining the catenary curved mesh with the base mesh to create an enclosed shape.
decreasing d voronoi
Weavebird Loop Culling naked points
Decrease culling of naked points, increase pressure
Combine vertical and horizontal faces, then split
Combine vertical and horizontal faces, then split
Combine vertical and horizontal faces, then split
Combine vertical and horizontal faces, then split
Combine vertical and horizontal faces, then split
ANALYSIS OF RESULTS
Analysis of results Iteration 2.9 This iteration was chosen as it looks like a movement pattern. The chosen site for the design has two pathways which connect together to cross the water to the other side of the river. This three pronged design could be used as a form finding technique for design proposal. This iteraction meets the selection criteria of an interaction between the natural and the built environment as it appears as if the three-prongs are growing and evolving out of the ground.
Selection Criteria: - Ability to be configured in a long walkway (to be used as a foot bridge) - Provide areas of cover/exposure - Explore field possibilities of attraction/repulsion -Interaction and Interplay of natural/built environment
Iteration 4.5 The ‘pressure’ force effect created a pavillion with perfect structural integrity. This would be difficult to fabricate as the curves are non-planar. However, it could be 3D printed. This iteration used the curves found using a graph mapper function from the Loop 3 algorithm. The pattern created on the top makes for an interesting patten which could be used to assimilate the structure better into its natural environment. Certain faces may be removed to allow for light and views to penetrate through. The ‘pressured’ forms are attracking towards a vertical point. Iteration 4.9 This iteration is the most fluid and curvilinear of all chosen. I believe it best embodies the ‘Strips and Folding’ tehniques explored throughout B2, B3 and B4. The smooth pavillion roof looks as if it has emerged from the water like a wave. This would lead to a very sympathetic approach to design which amalgamated the built and natural environemnts in harmony. Iteration 5.5 This iteration is a good example of the way folding techniques can produce interesting shapes. The three ‘arms’ weave into the other, and it looks as though it could be one piece of material twisted, folding and bent around itself. This would be difficult to fabricate as a solid peice becuase it has no planar surfacecs. However, the faces of this design were interesecting with vertical extrusions to create a series of contour which would be very easy to laser cut and stick together to achieve a similar aesthetic.
B [five] INTERSECTING SINE CURVES USING WAFFLE GRID TECHNIQUES I began the fabrication process of the photograph to the left (taken on site at Merri Creek) using strips and folding techniques to achieve the pattern. The curves were produced with a Sine function in Grasshopper. A small section was baked and taken away, and then I began preparing for fabrication. I employed the Waffle Grid Intersecting Surfaces script to create the notches apparent in the pieces. This emulated the desired effect of the planting mesh. This process allows for the easy fabrication and construction of curved planes which would otherwise be unachievable with traditional fabrication processes. In the waffle grid construction technique, a vertical and horizontal member slot together with notches which are determined by the materials thickness. These notches were created using the aforementioned Grasshopper definition. After receiving the panels from the laser cutter, I realised that I had selected a material that was not strong enough to hold itself together. I then had to resort to using glue to hep hold the pieces together.
Interlocking Planting Grid,Photograph, Author, 2015
Digital Model of Sine Curve and Waffle Grid technique
However, as I had used non-planar curves, I had to bend and manipulate the strips by hand in order to achieve the Sine curve function as shown in the digital models to the left. This construction technique works effectively in both tension and compression, so could be well utilised on a site which would experience live loads, not only from human interaction, but also wind load and other natural forces. The waffle grid method will be useful for my intended design as I hope to amalgamate the built and natural environment. As in the photo above, The pattern will receed into the ground, and then raise above forming a â€˜caveâ€™ like structure under the bridge. In time, plants will grow up and around the cave, creating a rainforest like canopy of vegetation above. This aims to blur the boundary between current human/nature interaction at the site, which is currently limited to meering viewing the nature from a paved pathway. The waffle grid achieves this by interweaving the natural and the built.
Digital Model of Sine Curve and Waffle Grid technique
This definition was created as a response to the fact that the aforementioned technique involved a lot of hand manipulation as nonplanar curves cannot be laser-cut. In this instance, I merged the techniques of strips and folding with sectioning, as the sectioning allows for the strips and folding technique to be developed, prototyped and fabricated with greater ease. This prototype was developing using the Sine curve from Iteration 1A in B4. which was then further developed for fabrication. I focused on taking smaller detailed elements from the iterations produced in B4 and further working them towards producable creations. Production of some of the iterations was impossible using the techniques avaliable to us, as the majority used curves which were non-planar in both directions.
I am happy with the outcome as it successfully allows for the interplay between natural and built surfaces, and this will merge into the hill and the dirt/planting will encase some aspects of it. In time, planting will grow above the structure, creating a natural â€˜urbanâ€™ experience.
Better in tension than in compression - will need to further refine this is to form part of the bridge structure, however, if it is just an element tacked underneath then this fabrication method will be fine.
If need be, a fluid folded strip structure could be applied over the internal cave structure. The waffle grid would maintain the shape while the folded strip would act as the cladding, and be the interest of this design.
B [six] "a
Shelter from Urbanism Pathway that bridges the gap between the built and the natural environments. An enabler of the interplay between humans, nature and architecture. To facilitate the movement between previously isolated and disconnected places. The structure enforces the interplay between human connection and natural forces, such as healthy sun exposure, natural breezes, sense of smell, and environmental atmospheres. The fragmented and disjointed sheltering element atop the pathway act in the same way as a natural tree canopy, emulating the feeling of being in a rainforest. The way the sun trickles through the gaps, or how the breeze passes through encourage the user to immerse themselves in this world which is not completely urban nor entirely natural. The fragmented and angled pathway accentuates the landscapes natural form. Land forms are not perfectly curvilinear, instead the land is rugged, sharp and masculine, and the base is a way of acknowledging that. If the base was a fluid curve, it would emulate water running over water, not land passing over water, as is the intention. Promotes sustainability by encouraging a better understanding of the natural forces at play within our greater urban context. The pathway is intended to not only be a directional encourager, it is also a platform for the user to stop, reflect, and enjoy the surroundings they find themselves in. People come to Merri Creek and the Yarra Trail pedestiran and cycling track to escape the busy urbanities of day-to-day life. This pathway acts as the symbolic bridge between escaping the city to nature. One crosses the bridge and immerses themselves within the immediate context. They can forget about the city, just a few kilometers away, and instead become accustomed to a newly formed â€˜natural urbanâ€™.
T T E
VICTORIA PARK MAIN YARRA TRAIL
HODDLE STREET MELBOURNE CBD
........."A PATH TO THE NATURAL URBAN"
From the research field, Strips and Folding, I have garnered an understanding of the technique as a great form finder. I will use the technique to develop the overall form of the pathway and also the underground, path covering semi-circular grid-shell structure which runs underneath the main form. I was successful in using Graph Mapper techniques to develop precise curves in all forms of the design, and these will continue to be developed and explored until an ideal form is found. The advantage of using a graph mapper component in my design is that these forms are naturally occuring mathematical phenomenons. It is in this instance that curves are an ideal starting point for development, as they link the built with the natural in a flawless, sympathetic way. Mesh components were explored through patterning and then again with Kangaroo physics to produce ideal structural shapes which can be fabricated with ease and structural integrity. As well as combining Stips and Folding techniques with Sectioning ideas, the interplay of Patterning occurs through meshing and triangulating surfaces. However, limitations will occur in the fabrication stage, as I have not yet mastered how to fabricate with this technique well.
As mentioned previously in B5 Fabrication, a waffle grid fabrication method is easily employable for the desired outcome of this project. Waffle grids are structurally sound and can fit into many different environmental contexts. I will definitely continue to use a waffle grid for the underside of the main bridge form, but will develop the strips further to create more fluid lines which delve down into the ground, as if it appears they are emerging naturally from the landscape. I would also like to explore the use of tabs or zip teeth to create the perforated shelter structure, or the main bridge form. H-clips are useful for fabricating meshes, so this could be explored too.
Learning Objectives and outcomes
OBJECTIVE 7: DEVELOPING ‘THE ABILITY TO MAKE A CASE FOR PROPOSALS’ In the presentation, I was able to point out the mistakes inherent in my design proposal and offer solutions for future development. In the prototypes shown, I was quite limited in what I explored. I used a basic waffle grid, which in hind sight was far too simple and basic for what I wanted to express. However, it was presented to me that the sine curved, non-planar ‘waffle’ like grid was the most interesting to develop. OBJECTIVE 8: DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONALISED REPERTOIRE OF COMPUTATIONAL TECHNIQUES The technique development, evident in B2 and B4, it is clear that I have developed an understanding of algorithmic techniques, particularly in the fields of attraction points, graph mapping, kangaroo physics, forces etc. However, I understand I need to continue to learn new techniques to build a more comprehensive repetoire. OBJECTIVE 3. DEVELOPING SKILLS IN VARIOUS THREE DIMENSIONAL MEDIA My fabrication technique was limited to two simple waffle grid constructions, however I have expressed an interest to expand my capacities and use different techniques. Different geometries were used via the graph mapper technique, which then fabricated various sine curved structures. I have not yet fabricated at a small scale joint level, but will do so. Issues of forces were expressed in B5. OBJECTIVE 7. DEVELOP FUNDAMENTAL UNDERSTANDINGS OF COMPUTATIONAL GEOMETRY, DATA STRUCTURES AND TYPES OF PROGRAMMING I have highlighted selected algorithmic sketches which I deem to be successful opportunities in prototyping, form finding and technique development. I have provided grasshopper definition diagrams to prove learning and understanding of computational programming. I believe I was successful in reverse engineering the project in B3, and will be able to continue to reverse engineer projects I find informative to inform further development of technique.
LEARNING OUTCOMES AND OBJECTIVES
EVALUATING FIELDS Taking one divided element from the original Biothing Pavillion and pushing the limits of the spin curve components. Changing the graph type also changed the patterning of the lines
Graph Controllers 54
voissoir cloud exploration
references Biothing, Seroussi Pavillion, (Paris: 2010) Deleuze, Gilles, â€˜The Fold: Leibniz and the Baroqueâ€™, (1933), 1-6 Erioli, Alessio, Loop_3, (http://www.co-de-it.com/wordpress/loop_3.html: 2012) Fornes, Marc, Double Agent White, (http://theverymany.com/constructs/12-atelier-calder/: The Very Many, 2012) Grozdanic , Lidija, Archipelago Parametrically Designed Pavillion, (http://www.evolo.us/ architecture/archipelago-parametrically-designed-pavilion/: Evolo, 2012)
PART [C] CRITERIA DESIGN
PART C> DETAILED DESIGN
T H E
E D A P H I C
C [one] F
I N D I V T
It was decided after the PART B presentations Chen assigned the groups based on projects The two members I got partnered with were Tim what the strong points of each of our design individual presentations in PART B. The followin
STRENGTHS: - Good narrative - Good site choice - Continue with weaving pattern on underside of bridge - Continue with the weaving of vegetation on underside of bridge
STRENGTHS: - Good idea based around the differ - Combining shelter with planting p - Continue to develop the planting - Good narrative
From this proposal, we took the bridging form as a concept of connecting users with the site. We continued to develop the ideas that were occuring on the underside of the bridge - the underpass. We also will consider using this site for the final site.
From this proposal, we took t individual cells. However, we wi cells and shelter, to provide a
design concept O
I D U A L O
OR AT I V E
s that we were to continue on in small groups. with similar interests, techniques and concepts. m and Melissa. In collaborating, we tried to assert ns were based on the feedback received for our ing are listed below under each individual design.
rent planter boxes for different plants purpose box idea
the purpose of revegetation through ill look at combinging the two items: single structure with double purpose.
+ MELISSA TOKKUZUN STRENGTHS: - Good development of organic form - Idea that it continues into the ground, as if emerging from it - Nice pattern developing in the shelter structure - Good site choice From this proposal, we took the patterning of the shelter, and the curve of the shelter structure as something that is developable. The site is adjacent to the site in the first proposal, so the context and narrative will align when combining these projects. Also, we will explore how the structure can permeate the ground in a meaningful and useful way.
VICTORIA PARK MAIN YARRA TRAIL
HODDLE STREET MELBOURNE CBD
The site location we have chosen is at the junction of Merri Creek and the Yarra River. This location is easily accessible from many main transportation links and is accessed from both north and south. A carpark is located adjacent to the chosen spot, and is therefore used as a beginning and end point for most users of the site. It is here that we observed many different types of people, from young families playing with children, to runners and joggers exercising on the track, to the elderly going for leisurely strolls at midday. The site receives quite a lot of diagram below, yet there is lack
daylight as can be seen on the maps in the of natural or manmade shading devices on site.
To the west of the site, along the Yarra Trail pathway we encountered a number of locations that had employed soil retention systems on steep areas. This was also a field that we decided to further explore. We also experienced the lack of activity happening in the cleared glass area at the top of the small incline next to the pedestrian pathway. We all agreeded that it would be important to make use of the already present cleared site, and to activate it to encourage further use of the site.
T T E
Adequate shading devices
Places of rest
Something to encourage and promote users up and onto the grass area
Soil retaining devices in this area which could be exposed to erosion or landsliding in the future.
S U N L I G H T
From the above analysis of sunlight and shading present throughout 12 months, there is a lack of shade over the flat green area
This lack of shade leads to an ambient temperature which can feel up to 5 degre issue when people use the location as a place of meeting or rest, are they are linge
We have decided to purse a design which in some part has through this that we also plan to provide an atmospheri
Aerial photographs from webs 64
A N A L Y S I S
t 12 months of the year, it is evident to see that in 9 out of of our chosen site, and on the corresponding pedestrian pathway.
ees hotter than when areas of semi-shade. Upon visiting the site, this becomes an ering in one spot for a period of time, with no respite from the heat or direct sunlight.
its focus on the provision of shading for the location. It is ic cooling condition, potentially through revegetative techniques.
S O I L 66
R E T E N T I O N
G R A S S HOPPER
E X PLOR AT ION S
We developed a ‘weaving’ script in Grasshopper using a series of interlocking curves, set around three slightly different shaped input curves. We then set a trigonometric graph mapper to the curves in order to control the resulting ‘celluar’ grid forms. We played with functions including: Linear, Parabola
various graph Sine, Bezier, and Cosine.
We began to disect these and choose a number of different explorations, as seen in the enlarged diagrams below. These were based on the critera of being as similar as possible to the existing soil retention device that was on the site. We also chose a few which had periods of differentiation, i.e. spaces of higher concentration vs. lower concentration. This could potentially be the answer in a site where areas which needed greater soil retention would have a much greater population of cells, as opposed to the areas on the site which needed less retaining. We decided to look further into prototypes to explore whether this had been done before, and which graph function/ cell shape suits the function best.
DEVELOPMENT OF INTERLOCKING ‘HONEYCOMB’ GRID CELLS
W E A V I N G
P R E C E
T HE L I V IN G PAV IL L IO N ANN HA AND BEHRANG BEHIN
- Made from recycled milk crates planted with both sun and shade-friendly growing surfaces - Described by its designers as ‘a beautiful summer-time shelter that offers the perfect shady place to relax - ‘Wave’ form, with shade tolerant plants distributed on the underside - Some pockets are left unplanted to serve as light pockets - Large planted surface area stimulates evapotranspiration, resulting in a cooling down of the atmosphere for the vistors underneath 1
Bernick, Kristi, Living Pavillion: Green Walled Garden Wave Coming to Governor's Island, http://inhabitat.com/living-pavilion-green-walled-garden-wave-coming-to-governors-island/ edn, 2015 vols (Inhabitat, 2010) [accessed April 10]
D E N T S
EDAPHIC EFFECTS - Intended as a solution to Philadelphia’s inadequate stormwater infrastructure - Requires dispersal solution - Explores the efficiency of customized substructures as alternatives to conventional onsite stormwater collection - Manipulation of ‘geo-cells’, filled with gravel, soil or plants - Meeting infrastructure requirements whilst expressiving surfaces that add colour, pattern and texture to vacant site - Developed using parametric software to visualise existing and redirected water flow patterns 2
World Landscape Architecture, Edaphic Effects, Philadelphia USA, PEG, http://worldlandscapearchitect.com/edaphic-effects-philadelphia-usa-peg/ edn, 2015 vols (World Landscape Architecture, 2011) [accessed April 10]
SELECTED FORM: Maximises space on the site// Open 70
ns site up through a central axis// Appears to assimilate within the site without looking unnatural// Suits the topographical lines of the site//
C O M B
F O R M & P Applying the weaving successful iterations
I N I N G
PAT T E R N pattern to the most as proposed earlier.
F O R M
1. FORM DEFINI
F I N
3. EXTRUDING IN
D I N G 74
2. LAYING THE WEAVE
4. DEFINING THE STRUCTURE
6. LAYOUT FOR FABRICATION
CONCEPT T S O I L R E T E N T I O N VIA INDIVIDUAL PLANTING CELLS
Through exploration of the precedents and a detailed look at the existing soil retention devises on site, it was decided that a dual cell system would best suit the design intent. Firstly, we developed the SUBMERGED CELL which would act as the soil retention devise. This cell would sit in the ground and provide added stability on the sloping site. This would also be planted out to provide visual interest, to add much needed vegetation to the otherwise clear site, and to passively cool the atmosphere. Next, the SUSPENDED CELL developed in the same style as the submerged cell, yet it is double ended, with a plant in both the top and bottom of the cell. These typologies would make up the cantilevered component of the structure. Finally, some cells would be left empty, as in The Living Pavillion, to provide areas of sunlight. 76
CONCEPT TO REALITY
O REALITY P A S S I V E C O O L I N G VIA PLANTATIONS AND TRANSPIRATION 26degrees = average summer temperature
5 degrees cooler due to plant shading and cooling transpiration
The suspended cell system can be seen in the above evapotranspiration diagram. Here, the atmospheric cooling effect occurs when hot sun rays hit the structure. Some are passed through the open cells to provide daylight underneath the canopy. However, most of the rayâ€™s warmth is absorbed by the vegetations atop the structure, with a cooler air passing through to beneath the structure. This design will effectively It is in this way that
cool the immediate atmosphere around the structure. we successfully achieve the desired design intent.
A N A LYS ING
F U N C T I O N DISSECTING THE FUNCTION OF EACH AREA OF THE STRUCTURE
CANTILEVERED CELLS WITH SCATTERED PLANTING IN-GROUND SOIL STABILIZING GROUND LEVEL SCATTERED PLANTING
IN GROUND SOIL STABILIZATION SYSTEM
GROUND LEVEL PATTERNING
A N A LYS ING
F U N C T I O N AGAINST EXPLORED PRECEDENTS
ABOVE GROUND PLANTING CELLS
CANOPY/SHELTER WITH VEGETATION
C [ two ] techton EVALU
Beginning the prototyping process, we sent preliminary tests to the FabLab using Boxboard. However, upon receipt of the laser cut pieces we quickly realised that this would be an ineffective material choice. Boxboard does not curve nicely, instead failing and bending angularly at joints.
nic elements & Prototyping ATING
I ALI T Y
Regular pin connections were used as they are simple, cost effective and secure. However, this would not be an appropriate method at a 1:1 scale, however, we deemed the split pin connection to be appropriated to a nut and bolt connection type. We decided to further explore later with polypropelene, both of
this connection type with which have better ductility
plywood, and and [pliability.
Plywood was chosen as a prototyping material for its economic value and efficiency in connections. However, it was not successful in strip form as seen to the left, as it bent and snapped when increased pressure was applied. We decided to try a section cut of the resulting cellular grid and found that this achieved the â€˜formâ€™ we desired but lacked any structural integrity. We have decided to pursue sectioning as a way of depicting the overall form of the structure, but we will need to explore other prototyping methods in order to find a structural alternative.
TESTING THE LIMITS OF PLYWOOD
I ALI T Y
M ATERI ALI T Y EXPLORING PROPERTIES OF POLYPROPYLENE
Through various connection details, including butterfly clips, split pins, and central bracing rods, polypropylene has proven to be the most pliable. It is also ductile, acting well under the tensile pressures that would be experienced in a cantilever. Here, the butterfly clip detail, as seen in the top left hand image, is very sturdy, create a rigid connection, whereas the split pin connection leaves room for post-connection tensioning/tweaking. Both connection types use only one connection type, hence being efficient in construction time, and in money spent producing the structure.
The diagram to the right illustrates the various connection types we modelling using Grasshopper.
1. Cell retaining base plates - work well in compression, are held in place by the strips. Could be used to plant on top of later. 2. Horizontal tensioning rods - dictate the opening size of the cells, however will only hold in tension in one direction. 3. Vertical correctly could well as they and the strips
tensioning rods - If stiffened hold the shape of the strips would be bolted into position joined together around the rod.
4. Both vertical and horzintonal support - Would work well, but would not have much flexibility. Will also be visually bulky.
MODELLING CONNECTION MATRIX
By using very lightweight and maliable metal wire, we we capacity, whilst remaining rigid in its form. The structure w 88
DEVELOPING CONNECTION SYSTEMS
5. Horizontal strips - these strips would be made out of the same material as the cellular strip grid. These would be connected in a waffle grid manner, with slits in all strips indicating position. These would be flexible in nature, and allow for increased flexibility of the structure, but may not be the best solution for a cantilevered structure which needs increased support. 6. Lightweight, two way metal frame system - Similar to system 4, but less obtrusive. This sytem would be rigid and structurally sound, but may not offer much needed flexibility.
7. Vertical strips - Similar to system 5, yet running vertically through the structure. This would be the least rigid out of all as it provides no lateral stability against compressive forces.
8. Horizontal strips of Plywood - Similar to system 5 yet using a stronger material such as plywood to increase rigidity.
ere able to produce a prototype that had excellent bending was self-supporting and needed no additional bracing or ties.
C [ three ] SUSPENDE CONSTRUCT FORM
C3: FINAL DETAIL MODELS
final detail models D
DE TA IL
C O N S T R
Using a number of different connection methods, such as split pins, butterfly clips, shelf levels, and nuts and one cell had one layer of polyprop, whilst the other was constructed with a double layer. This double la Then, we constructed a base out of plywood. Plywood has the most compressive strength, out of the materials tested The individual cells were connected together using split pins, and then the
After construction of the cells, the planting process began. It was important in the SUSPENDED CE We ensured that the suspended cells had a minimum First, we laid a vapour barrier on top of the plywood base to ensure the wood remain be taken in by the plant. The plant was then put in and a mesh layer added ontop 92
DEVELOPING THE CELLS
U C T I N G
d bolts, we constructed two individual SUSPENDED CELLS. We prototyped the cell walls with polypropylene: ayer allowed for greater rigidity and meant that the cell held its shape even when exposed to pressure. d, when cut along the grain. This was positioned in place in the center of the cell by shelf levellers, as seen in image 3. two cells were connected together using a cleat plate and bolting system.
ELL configuration that the plants were positioned deep enough within the cell for the roots to grow. of 30cm depth, so each plant had 15cm to itself. ned structurally sound, and to ensure that any water entering the cell would remain and p, to retain the plant. This would be especially important for the underhanging vegetation.
DEVELOPING THE CELLS
P R O T O T Y P I N G 1
A one-way lightweight steel frame, made up of pre-curved steel sections, which have been bolted together for added rigidity. The steel is visually unobstrusive as it is hidden between the centre of the polypropylene strips. This framework provides a rigid structure and allows for the large cantilever. The steel rods are driven quite deep into the ground, beyond the natural extension of the structure, to ensure adequate bearing depth and to prevent movement.
B O L T E D
C O N N E C T I O N S
Nuts and bolts are used to connect both the steel frame rods to one another, and also to connect the polyprop strips together, holding the steel in between their folds. The bolts provide a rigid connection and help to keep the structure intact and stable. By using bolts instead of welding the steel together, the structure is able to have some degree of flexibility. Considering the movement that may occur during heavy upwinds or drafts, the structure must have limited amounts of flexibility, or else it will suddenly fail and the entire thing may collapse. Whereas, bolts allow the structure to move slightly, limited to the stress applied to the building during large forces.
The plywood bases have a dual function of providing rigidity to the form, ensuring that the poyprop strips to not compress in the centre and fall out of shape, whilst also acting as the base for vegetation planting. These bases sit between two bolts, as if resting between two shelf supports. A vapour barrier is then lapped around the base to provide a water tight area for the planting to occur. Plants are then put into the cell, and covered with a permeable mesh so as not to fall out or dislodge.
P O L Y P R O P Y L E N E
S T R I P S
Polypropylene strips provide a lightweight network for the structure. Polypropylene is aesthetically simple, yet the transparency allows users to experience the structure of the project as well as its experiential qualities.
B L O W
Detailed Section (BLOW UP) 100
BLOW UP DETAIL
metal tensioning rods, and bolts. (IN PLAN)
Polypropylene strips, metal tensioning rods, and bolts. (IN THREE DIMENSION)
O O 1
S I T E V I E W R
RENDERS: SITE VIEW
W E S T E R N A S P E C T 108
N O R T H E R N A S P E C T 110
S O U T H E R N A S P E C T 112
1 : 1
P R O P O S E D
M A T E
P O L Y P R O
R I A L
O P Y L E N E
C [ four ] O B J E C A
O U T C P R E S E N TAT I O N
F E E D B A C K
The primary feedback we received after presenting our project was that we didn’t do enough to prove that the structure would work given our proposed construction technique. Hence, we developed further diagrams to illustrate the inner workings of our structure and to hopefully provide a greater insight into the construction techniques employed. The diagrams developed can be seen on pages 78-79, 80-81, 98-99, and 100-102. Another issue raised was the constructability issues of using plywood for the cell strips, as seen in the renders on pages 106-113. After further discussion with our tutor and as a group, we decided that continuing with our explorations in polypropylene would be the best outcome. The aforementioned diagrams illustrate the construction process with polpylene instead of plywood. We also developed renders using the polyprop instead of plywood, seen on pages 114-115. We decided not to change the form, as was a suggestion from one guest crit, as we believed that through the form finding exercises completed, that the final form suits both the context and the concept well.
Objective 1. “interrogating]a brief” by considering the process of brief formation in the age of optioneering enabled by digital technologies; I believe that individually, and as part of a group during Part C, I developed the ability to formulate a brief within a digitally enabled project. It was through exploring the parameters of parametric software that I was able to learn its capabilities, and hence develop a suitable brief which maximises these parameters. Objective 2. developing “an ability to generate a variety of design possibilities for a given situation” by introducing visual programming, algorithmic design and parametric modelling with their intrinsic capacities for extensive design-space exploration; As seen throughout the journal and the algorithmic sketchbook, I have developed the skill of generating a large quantity of iterations and design possibilities very quickly using Grasshopper. A sample of these can be referenced on pages 26-27, 34-37, 66-67, 72-73. I have found parametric software incredibly efficient, as it has the capacity to change the entire design based on one minor parameter change. It is in this ability that I was able to develop and explore multiple ‘best outcomes’ and to come up with a resolved design.
Through developing further diagrams and considering alternative material choices, we believe that we have developed a resolved design outcome to the brief and concept. Objective 3. developing “skills in various threedimensional 116
C4: LEARNING OBJECTIVES
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media” and specifically in computational geometry, parametric modelling, analytic diagramming and digital fabrication; This subject has increased my skill level profusely in numerous three-dimensional capacities, from greater knowledge of 3D modelling in Rhino, to the obvious gain in knowledge of parametric modelling in Grasshopper. However, I also developed skills in digital fabrication, through creating numerous prototypes. It also helped me to develop my diagramming techniques as I know know how to use parametric tools to develop fast iterations, and quick diagrams. Objective 4. developing “an understanding of relationships between architecture and air” through interrogation of design proposal as physical models in a t m o s p h e r e ; Through creating physical models, I was able to understand the relationship between form (architecture) and its atmosphere (air). Also, the brief of our final project stemmed from the idea of how architecture can cool the atmosphere around it. Hence, I believed that I developed a thorough understanding of the relationship and the interplay between the two. It was in the final physical form model that we really got to visually understand how our form sat within its context, and therefore also how it affected the atmosphere (both in experiential and thermal capacities).
Objective 5. developing “the ability to make a case for proposals” by developing critical thinking and encouraging construction of rigorous and persuasive arguments informed by the contemporary architectural d i s c o u r s e . For both the Part B. Individual Proposal, and for Part C. Group Proposal, I reference contemporary architectural discourse through the examination of precedents. It was through these precedents that I was able to argue the legitimasy of proposals, both conceptually and technically. In the final presentation, the structural integrity of our proposed technique was questioned, however we were able to rebut the question and give validation to our technique through the reference of an already built precedent which employed similar techniques. I also believe that my ability to present a project, and argue for that project, has improved based on my increased understanding of contemporary architectural discourse given throughout this course. This understanding has allowed me to assert myself somewhere within the current architectural landscape and to understand where myself, and my design beliefs sit within this landscape. Objective 6. develop capabilities for conceptual, technical and design analyses of contemporary architectural projects; Once more, this objective was developed through looking critically at the precedents and projects given to us throughout the semester, and also through
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O U T C analysing the ones personally chosen relative to our proposal. Throughout the semester we were given the opportunity to engage with precedents on a whole other level, by exploring their parametric scripts firsthand. Through reverse engineering projects like Loop3 and the Biothing Pavillion in Part B, I was able to develop a greater understanding of how real life architectural development takes place, and what the development process might be within a firm. Also, once more, through analysing precedents based on their concept, I was able to further understand the current architectural climate, and develop a brief and proposal which is relevent in Architectural discourse in 2015. Objective 7. develop foundational understandings of computational geometry, data structures and types of p r o g r a m m i n g ; Through reverse engineering projects in Part B, to analysing the most-likely data structure or technique used in precedents in Part C, I was able to develop a wider understanding of the types of computational geometries, data structures, and programming types avaliable in the Architectural field. It was also interesting to learn just how many projects employ parametric design techniques within their outcome. Objective 8. begin developing a personalised repertoire of computational techniques substantiated by the understanding of their advantages, disadvantages and areas of application. I feel as though I am now equipped with the skills to use the aftermentioned techniques and understandings in further design projects. I have sufficient understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of parametric modelling, however belief that it would be useful in some capacity, for every design project.
From completing Studio Air, my perceptions of architectu the insight of computational design and parametric mod knowledge of regular three-dimensional architectural m as Rhino, and two-dimensional software platforms like Au me not only a new way to model, but also a new way to thin
The design process of Studio Air is completely differ in which you are given a brief and a site, and then using the traditional design process of understandin a site analysis, proposing a design, improving and and then presenting the final design. With this pro discovering the possibilities of computational design of techniques that would inform our design outcome brief. With this new information we were then given in terms of the requirements of the brief. This was le an appropriate response, from choosing a site based through parametric tools, to developing a concept, and e
This studio was also the first instance in which I had constructability. I think this was a very important p computational design allowed us to digitally test many dif deciding on one. Computational design and parametric d come up with some interesting connection types, which w
R E F Bernick, Kristi, Living Pavillion: G pavilion-green-walled-garden-wave-c
World Landscape Architecture, edaphic-effects-philadelphia-usa-peg
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ure have changed through delling. With only previous modelling software, such utoCad, this Studio taught nk, to produce, and to build.
rent to previous previous you develop the design ng the brief, completing developing the design, oject, we began by first n, to develop a ‘repetoire’ es, and even the design n very little information eft up to us to formulate d on research generated eventually a final design.
d to think about realistic part of the project, and ifferent techniques before design also allowed us to were design in Grasshopper
and sent straight to the Fabrication Lab. These digitally fabricated prototypes gave us a greater insight into the capacities/shortfalls of using digital technologies for structural purposes. It also allowed us to easily and quickly make on the spot changes to either the form design or the connection design to create a greater holistic response. It is interesting to note that as students in a creative field, particularly in architecture, we are taught to draw and to test ideas and concepts through sketching. However, this was discouraged within this course, as the focus was on how computation and digitial platforms could inform the design for the whole process. I found the iterative capabilities of Grasshopper extremely helpful in generating ideas, and it is much faster and neater than hand sketching. This newfound knowledge and experience of working with parametric design tools also changed the way I think about design. I now have a huge interest in the impact that digital design can have on architecture and architectural practice. I believe that digital design will be the next big ‘movement’ in architecture. It proves to be a system which is holistic, from conception, to development, to fabrication, even at a large scale. All in all, this studio has been extremely successful in the teaching of digital design processes. I have learnt many new techniques and approaches that I will employ in later design concepts. I will continue to purse my architectural education with a focus on the development of digital design.
E R E N C E S Green Walled Garden Wave Coming to Governor’s Island, http://inhabitat.com/livingcoming-to-governors-island/ edn, 2015 vols (Inhabitat, 2010) [accessed April 10]
Edaphic Effects, Philadelphia USA, PEG, http://worldlandscapearchitect.com/ g/ edn, 2015 vols (World Landscape Architecture, 2011) [accessed April 10]
MIKAELAPRENTICE STUDIOAIR 2015