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CUISINE OF

TEXAS

Contents Recipe Steamed Mussels

PUBLISHER Bob Miersma PUBLISHED BY MIERSMA PUBLISHING, INC. dba Cuisine Of Texas bobmiersma@gmail.com COVER DESIGN AND GRAPHIC DESIGN SupplyGraphics.com Copyrights All rights reserved. No portion of this publication may be reproduced without the written consent of the publisher.

Craft Beer What to "Fall" for this Harvest Season Raw Deal A raw Deal on Fruits and Vegetables

Like Wine for Chocolate Wine and Chocolates

Every Shrimp has a Tale When it comes to Gulf shrimp

Recipe Smoked Shrimp


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Coastal Texas Gulf shrimp is a Lone Star treasure. It’s wildly popular with consumers and professional chefs alike. And who can blame them? With miles of clean, sustainable coastline framing the Gulf of Mexico, there is no reason to buy, serve or eat shrimp from anywhere else. Texas Gulf shrimp is naturally delicious and better by a nautical mile. For information about wild-caught shrimp, visit gotexan.org.

T E X A S DE PA RT M E N T OF AG R IC U LT U R E

C OM M I S SION E R SI D M I L L E R gotexan.org


CUISINE

by Jane Nickles of Wines

Certified Specialist

ny people, myscff :eluded, just love, love, love to pair wine and chocolate. Together or separate, they are certainly two of my favorite things; but the truth is "wine and chocolate" can be a tough food-and-wine combination.

OF

TEXAS

I have two strategies for pamng wine and chocolate; one for wine lovers and one for chocolate worshippers. I call it "One for the Sommelier ... One for the Chocolatier." The pairing strategy for wine lovers will help preserve the delicate flavor and balance of the wine, and the strategy for the chocolate lovers will bring forward and highlight the flavor of the chocolate. Choose your sides, and take your pick!

Strategy Number One: For the Sommelier: Serve a moderately sweet chocolate dish with a wine with a great deal of f ruity flavors or some residual suaar. The sweetness of the chocolate will make the wine taste less f ruity and far less sweet, so you want to start out with a wine with enough sweetness/fruitiness to stand up to the change.

Here's why: Chocolate has intense flavor, lots of sugar, and a good dose of mouth-coating fat. All of these factors can be tough on wine. A food's flavor, sugar, and fat are all major factors in any wine-and-food combination, so let's take a close look at the complex character of chocolate.

For the best results with your wine's flavors, make sure to use a wine that is as sweet as, or slightly sweeter than, the chocolate dish. Make sure the wine has enouah intensity of flavor to stand up to the ffavor of the chocolate, which can be overwhelming. A sweet red wine, such as a Texas Port or Black Muscat, is a good, full-flavored choice.

very good chance of being the dominant flavor in any food-and-wine combination. The intense flavors of chocolate can easily overwhelm the flavors of wine. Any wine that is going to be paired with chocolate, in order to have any chance whatsoever to survive the match, is going to need to start out with its own dose ot intense flavor.

To make your chocolate a more perfect partner, add some acid to the chocolate dish by using walnuts or f ruit in the dish. This will make the chocolate a more balanced match for the wine and give your wine more "power" in the match.

Âť Flavor: Chocolate is one of the most intense flavors on the planet and has a

Âť Sugar: Milk chocolate, dark chocolate and bittersweet chocolate all have a good

dose of sugar. Sugar in food will make any wine taste less f ruity and less sweet while bringing forward any acidic or bitter flavors in the wine. In order to stand up to the onslaught, any wine that is paired with chocolate is going to need to have either a great deal of truity flavors, or a degree of residual sugar.

Fat: The fat in chocolate melts at body Âť temperature and will coat your mouth, which will make any wine taste less intense and less flavorful ... for a great pairing you need to start with a powerful wme that can cut through and stand up to the fat.


Try this strategy for yourself with one of these wines:

Brachetto d' Acqui - This slightly sweet, spar» kling red wine from Italy's Piedmont region is,

according to Miss Jane, milk chocolate's perfect match. The wine's slight tickle of strawberry-raspberry-cherry flavors will enhance any chocolate dish - also try it with dark chocolate. My favorite Brachetto is "Rosa Regale" by Banfi Vineyards.

» Sparkling Sparkling Shiraz - Australia's latest import, Shiraz, can be a fantastic match for

milk chocolate ... what else would you e:\.'Pect f rom a wine that has been called "Liquid Black Forest Cake"? For a good match, make sure your Sparkling Shiraz has a little bit of residual sugar. .. some versions are very dry. Try the version called "Vixen" by McLaren Vale's Fox Creek Winery.

» Ruby Porto - A Ruby Porto, and there are many good ones at reasonable prices, has the

sugar and the tannin to stand up to the sugar, fat, and bitterness of just about any chocolate dish. Miss Jane sez ... "Ruby Porto is the one and only wine I categorically recommend with chocolate." Graham's Six Grapes and Taylor Fladgate First Estate Ruby Porto are two of my favorites.

To put this strategy into action, try some of these Texas Wines:

0 Cabernet Sauvignon - Cabernet often has

a chocolate/cocoa/mocha flavor ... find one like this, and watch out! When these flavors combine with a chocolate food, the flavors are pronounced. Remember to find a Cabernet with pronounced Chocolate, Mocha, or Cocoa aromas. A great choice is Crios Cabernet Sauvignon from Mendoza, Argentina.

0 Red Zinfandel r

Red Zinfandel can be the f uitiest, spiciest wine around. To get a really o-ood match, try one of the deep, rich, full-boded Zins from Lodi, California. Some of my favorites include "7 Deadly Zins" by Michael David Vineyards and Oak Ridge Winery's "OVZ" Old Vine Zinfandel.

0 Australian Shiraz r

- This is another big, spicy, f uit bomb of a wine. Try one of these: d'Arenberg "The Footbolt" Shiraz, Marquis Philip's "Sarah's Blend", or Charles Cimicky Shiraz. You'll love it!

Miss Jane's Final Word on Wine and Chocolate: Wine enthusiasts will want to pair chocolate w i t h a full-bodied, fruity-to-all-out- sweet wine so that it stands up to, and rises above the flavor and texture of the chocolate. Chocolate lovers will want a dry wine so that the chocolate's flavor shines. People who love both must grope their way through a maze of variables to find the individual pairing that suits them best. But take heart... there are tougher ways to spend an evening than taste testing some wine-and-chocolate combinations yourself


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What’s better than wild-caught shrimp from the Texas Gulf? If you ask us, it is wild-caught Texas shrimp paired with a flavorful Texas wine! Together, they are the perfect combination for the Lone Star plate. Plus, with so many incredible Texas wines to choose from, you can create a pairing sensation all your own. Visit gotexan.org for recipes, pairing tips and more.

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Are you on the verge of a vegetable veg out? You can keep telling yourself that you ge1 enough veggies in your daily diet, but a can of VB, the lettuce and tomato on your jumbo burger and the supposed fortified fruit juice that you chug for lunch aren't cutting it. You ge1 an 'E' for effort, but i1 just doesn't come close to the amount of fruits and vegetables that you need everyday. Well l you're not the only one in this club. Even with all of the he th kickin', vegan venturing and diet delving only about 12 percent of adults ea1 enough fruit and vegetables per day. As for the rest, they need to


pack their diets with more produce to get all of the fiber, vitamins and minerals that are required to fight cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes, obesity and certain cancers. But how should they prepare these life savers? Should they be cooked or eaten raw? Well, it depends. We'll break it down for you: Spinach and Other Leafy Greens Cooked: Contains over 30% more calcium than raw leafy greens. Raw: Preservers potassium and Vitamin C. Mushrooms Cooked: Increases antioxidants and polyphenols. Raw: Some contain toxins and aren't safe to eat uncooked. Fruits Cooked: Makes them sweeter and more appealing. Raw: Preserves Vitamin C. Tomatoes Cooked: Get more lycopene, which reduces the risk of a heart attack, but reduces the levels of vitamin C. Raw: Preserves the levels of Vitamin C. Carrots and Zucchini Cooked: Raises the levels of beta-carotene, which promotes vision, bone growth and immune system regulation. Raw: Eliminates polyphenols, chemicals that help with weight management. Broccoli, Cauliflower and Kale Cooked: Preserve 90% of vitamins if you rinse with cold water after boiling. Raw: Preserves vitamin C and indole glucosinolates, which may help fight cancer.

Now that you know when to add heat and when to hold back, hit the health track with a generous serving of fruits and vegetables each day and join the 12% of Americans who are getting their diet right every day.


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Culinary Terms


A–B A Abalone A mollusk found along the coastlines of California, Mexico and Japan in which the edible portion is the adductor muscle. Aceto The Italian term for vinegar. Achiote Paste made from ground annato seed, vinegar, salt, and spices. Aerate To sift; to expose to air circulation. Aïoli A strongly flavored garlic mayonnaise from the Provence region of southern France. A la Carte Each course is served and priced individually. Al Dente An Italian expression (meaning literally “to the tooth”) indicating the correct degree of cooking for pasta, which is still firm enough to offer a slight resistance when bitten into. The expression may also be applied to certain vegetables, such as green beans, which are served while retaining their crunchiness. Allspice This spice has a flavor similar to a mixture of nutmeg, cinnamon, and cloves. It is can be used in sweet and savory dishes. Also known as Jamaica Pepper. Amaretto di Saronno An Italian liqueur flavored with almonds, apricots, and aromatic extracts. It may also be used to flavor fruit, whipped cream, or consumed as an apéritif. Amazu Shoga Thinly sliced or shredded fresh ginger pickled in a sweet vinegar marinade and used as a garnish for many Japanese dishes, particularly sushi. Andouille Sausage A spicy, heavily smoked sausage made from pork chitterlings and tripe Specialty of Cajun cooking and found in dishes such as jambalaya and gumbo.

Anise This small annual plant is a member of the parsley family. Both the leaves and seed have a distinctive, sweet licorice flavor. Antipasto An Italian term for cold hors d’oeuvres, literally meaning “before the pasta”. Apéritif A French term for an alcoholic beverage served before a meal to stimulate the appetite. Arrowroot The starch extract from rhizomes (underground stems) of several tropical plants. It is also called arrowroot because of the therapeutic qualities attributed to it by American Indians in the treatment of arrow wounds. Used as a thickening agent in puddings, sauces and other cooked foods. It is absolutely tasteless and more easily digested then wheat flour. Aspic A gelatin made from clarified meat, fish or vegetable stock used to coat cold dishes of meat, poultry, fish, or eggs or to form a molded dish. Au gratin Sauced food topped with buttered bread crumbs and baked or broiled until brown. Au jus Meaning “with juice”, describes meat when served in its natural juices.

B Bain Marie Named by the French, this cooking technique consists of placing a container (pan, bowl, soufflé dish, etc.) of food in a large, shallow pan of warm water, surrounding the food with gentle heat. This technique is designed to cook delicate dishes such as custards, sauces, and savory mousses without breaking or curdling them. It can also be used to keep cooked foods warm. Baklava A Greek or Middle Eastern dessert made of nuts and phyllo dough and soaked with syrup or honey. Béarnaise A type of hollandaise, flavored with

shallots, wine, vinegar and tarragon usually served with meat, fish and egg dishes. Belgian Endive A specially cultivated chicory whose leaves are cut off and shielded from light, so the new pale yellow leaves grow back in their characteristic cigar shape. Belon Oyster Originally from France and now aquacultured in California, Maine and Washington, this oyster is small (1-1/2 to 3-1/2 inches across) and considered superior when eaten raw. Benedictine A sweet liqueur named after the Benedictine monks of the Abbey of Fecamp in Normandy. Beni Shoga Ginger that has been pickled in vinegar and colored bright red. Used as a garnish for many Japanese dishes. Bisque A thick cream soup usually made from puréed fish, fowl or vegetable. Blackened A cooking technique made famous by New Orleans chef, Paul Prudhomme, by which Cajun spice coated meat or fish is cooked in a cast-iron skillet that has been heated until almost red. Blanch To plunge food into boiling water for a short period of time and then quickly in cold water to stop the cooking process. Blanching is used to loosen the skins of tomatoes and fruit so they can easily be removed. Bluepoint Oyster Originally from Blue Point, Long Island, the “bluepoint“ term refers to any of many small Atlantic oysters from two to four inches long. They are considered the best for eating on the half shell. Bok Choy Also called pak choy and white mustard cabbage, this oriental vegetable is dark green and leafy at the top, very white, and crunchy with a thick stem at the bottom. The flavor is very mild.


B–C Bordelaise Sauce A French sauce made with red or white wine, brown stock, bone marrow, shallots, parsley and herbs. It’s usually served with broiled meats. Bouillabaisse A celebrated seafood stew from Provence, made with fish, shellfish, onions, tomatoes, white wine, olive oil, garlic, saffron, and herbs. Bouquet Garni A small bundle of herbs, tied or wrapped in a cheese cloth and added during cooking to enhance the flavor. It’s removed before serving. Bourguignon Cuts of red meat prepared with red wine sauce, small mushrooms, and white onions. Braising A method of cooking food in a closed vessel with very little liquid at a low temperature and for a long period of time. Bresaola Originating in Lombardy, Italy. Air-dried salted beef filet that has been aged for at least two months. Served thinly sliced with a drizzle of olive oil and lemon juice as an antipasto. Brioche A soft loaf or roll made from a yeast dough enriched with butter and eggs. Brochette A French term referring to food cooked and served on a skewer. Bruschetta Toasted bread rubbed with garlic and drizzled with olive oil. Served warm. Bulgar Wheat Wheat kernels that have been steamed, dried and crushed. Butterfly To split a piece of food down the center while almost cutting through. When opened, the two halves resemble a butterfly.

C Café au Lait Strong chicory coffee poured together with an equal amount of hot milk.

Cajun Spice Generally a mixture of spices such as, but not limited to, garlic powder, onion powder, paprika, dry leaf thyme, salt, black and cayenne pepper. It is a representative of Cajun cooking. Cambozola A soft ripened, triple cream blue cheese made in Germany. Canapé Small decorative pieces of bread (toasted or not), crackers or pastry topped with a savory garnish and usually served as an appetizer. Cannoli Pastry tubes filled with cheese, chocolate or candied fruit. Caper This condiment is made from the flower bud of a bush native to the Mediterranean and parts of Asia. Generally pickled in a vinegar brine, capers can also be found salted and sold in bulk. Carambola (Starfruit) Thick-skinned, glossy fruit that forms golden star shapes when sliced. The flavor is complex, bittersweet with hints of artichoke heart. Caramelize To turn sugar into caramel by slowly heating it. Alternately, it can mean coating a mold with caramel, flavoring a pudding or glazing sugar coated fruits, choux, pastry, etc. Certain vegetables, such as small onions, carrots, or turnips are “glazed” or lightly caramelized by being heated with sugar and a small quantity of water or butter in a saucepan. Carpaccio An Italian first course consisting of very thin slices of raw beef served cold, originally with a creamy vinaigrette sauce made with olive oil. The dish, named in honor of the Renaissance Venetian painter, originates from Harry’s Bar in Venice. Caviar Sturgeon eggs that have been salted and allowed to mature. The three main types of caviar are Beluga, Osetra and Sevruga. The term caviar is also used to refer to other, less expensive fish roe (or eggs) such as lump fish caviar, whitefish caviar

(also called American Golden), salmon, or red caviar. Cellophane Noodles Also called bean threads, Chinese vermicelli or glass noodles. These gossamer, translucent threads are not really noodles but are made from the starch of green mung beans. Chicory This relative of the endive has curly, bitter-tasting leaves that are often used as a part of a salad or cooked as greens. Chinois A cone shaped sifter used for straining sauces. Chipotle Chile Smoked Jalapeño generally found dried, pickled and canned in adobo sauce. Choux A very light pastry made with eggs. Typically used for éclairs. Chutney An Indian condiment made with fruits, vegetables and spices. Cioppino A dish originating in San Francisco, consisting of a stew of white fish, shrimp, clams, and mussels, with garlic, tomato, and white wine base. Citronette A citrus sauce, or relish generally served as an accompaniment to fish or poultry. Clarified Butter Butter that has been heated to separate the fat solids from the milk solids. Cobbler A baked dish with fruit filling, covered with pastry. Concassé Coarsely chopped or ground vegetables or fruit such as a tomato concassé. Consommé Meat or fish stock that has been clarified and fortified. Contorni Vegetables served with the main course of a meal. From the Latin contortio (twisting), meaning that vegetables are served around the meat or seafood of the dish.


C–F Coulis A thick purée or sauce usually made with vegetable or fruit. Couscous (KOOS-koos)­ A granular semolina staple of North African cuisine. Cooked, it may be served with milk as porridge, with dressing as a salad or sweetened and mixed with fruit for dessert. Créme Anglaise A light egg yolk, sugar and milk custard sauce used in fruit or pastry desserts. Créme Brûlée A rich custard with a brittle top crust of caramelized sugar. French name means “burnt cream”. Créme Caramel A custard baked in a mold lined with caramelized sugar, which is then un-molded. Créme Fraîche A sour-tasting cream with nutty undertones used extensively in French cooking. Crêpe A paper thin egg and flour pancake served as a main course or dessert usually filled and covered with sauce. Croque Monsieur A French-style grilled ham and cheese sandwich that is dipped into beaten egg before being sautéed in butter. Croquette Food that had been puréed or bound with a thick sauce, made into small shapes, breaded and fried. Croustade Pastry, hollowed-out bread loaf or pasta that is generally deep-fried or toasted and contains a thick stew, creamed meat or vegetable mixture. Croûte (en) Describes a food such as meat or paté wrapped in pastry and baked. Cube To cut into small square pieces. Cumin This ancient spice dates back to the Old Testament. Cumin is the dried fruit of a plant in the parsley family. Its aromatic, nutty-flavored seeds come

in three colors: amber (the most widely available), white and black (both found in Asian markets). White cumin seed is interchangeable with amber, but the black seed has a more complex peppery flavor. Cumin is available in both seed and ground form.

with a filling. Usually grape leaves filled with lamb, rice and seasonings.

Curaçao A liqueur based on sweet and bitter oranges (originally it was made from the dried peel of bitter oranges on the island of Curaçao, off the west coast of Venezuela). It is now made by many liqueur houses and often sold as “triple sec”.

Dredge To lightly coat food to be fried, as with flour, cornmeal or bread crumbs. This coating helps brown the food. Chicken, for example, might be dredged with flour before frying.

D Daikon Japanese for “large root,” this vegetable is a large Asian radish generally used raw in salads, shredded as a garnish or cooked in stir-fry and has a sweet flavor. Deglaze To heat wine, stock or other liquid together with the cooking juices and sediment left in the pan after roasting or sautéing in order to make a sauce or a gravy. Demi-glace A rich brown sauce combining veal stock and Madeira or Sherry, slowly cooked until it is reduced by half to a thick glaze. Used as a base for many other sauces. Devein To remove the blackish-grey vein running down the back of a shrimp. Can be removed with a utensil called a deveiner or with a sharp knife. Dijon Mustard Mustard of French origin made from brown or black mustard seeds, white wine, unfermented grape juice and various seasonings, and ranging from mild to hot in flavor. Dollop A small glob of soft food, such as whipped cream or mashed potatoes. When referring to a liquid, dollop refers to a dash or “splash” of soda water and so on. Dolmades Arabic for “something stuffed”, these are grape leaves, vegetables or fruits stuffed

Dice To cut food into 1/4” cubes or smaller. Drawn Butter See Clarified Butter.

E Éclair A light, oblong shape made of choux pastry split, filled with cream and topped with a sweet icing. Egg Foo Young A pancake made of bean sprouts, mushrooms and eggs with shellfish, chicken or meat, served with stock sauce. Emulsion A uniform mixture of two unmixable liquids. Emince To cut fine or slice thin. Entrée The main dish served with a sauce and garnish. In a formal meal, it is the third course following the fish course. Escabèche Of Spanish origin, escabéche is a dish of poached or fried fish, covered with a spicy marinade and served cold as an appetizer. Essence An oily extract from foods which can be used to flavor some dishes.

F Farina Flour of wheat, nuts and potatoes; very fine in texture. Fenugreek Herbs with aromatic seeds that are used as seasoning, especially in curry. Fettuccine Long, flat pasta noodles. Wider than linguini.


F–H Fillet 1. To cut the bones from a piece of fish or meat. 2. A boneless piece of fish or meat. Flake To shred into small pieces; usually with a fork. Flambé Brandy or liquor added to food and then set alight. Flan A fruit or custard filled pastry shell. Fleur de Sel French term that literally translates to flower of salt. Florentine Dishes presented on a bed of spinach, or spinach used as a ring or topping. Fold A technique used to gently combine a light, airy mixture with a heavier mixture. The lighter mixture is placed on top of the heavier one in a large bowl. Starting at the back of the bowl, a rubber spatula is used to cut vertically down through the two mixtures, across the bottom of the bowl and up the nearest side. The bowl is rotated a quarter turn with each series of strokes. This down-across-up-over motion gently turns the mixtures over on top of each other, combining them in the process. Fondue A hot cheese and wine sauce in which bite size foods are dipped. Foie Gras A goose or duck liver which is grossly enlarged by methodically fattening the bird. Fricadelle Meat balls of pork and veal or beef with spices and bread crumbs, usually shallow-fried. Fricassée Stew made of pieces of chicken or veal cooked with vegetables and often flavored with wine. Frisée (free-ZAY) A member of the chicory family, frisée has delicately slender, curly leaves that range in color from yellow-white to yellow-green. This feathery vegetable

has a mildly bitter flavor and is often used in the special salad mix, mesclun. Choose frisée with crisp leaves and no sign of wilting. Fritter A small quantity of batter mixture that is deep-fried until crisp. The food is either chopped and mixed with the batter or dipped into it. Fruits de Mer A French term referring to a combination of seafood, very often crustaceans. Fumet A concentrated stock (usually of fish or mushrooms) that is added to a sauce or cooking stock to enhance its flavor or give it extra body.

G Ganache A flavored cream made with chocolate, butter and fresh cream. Used to decorate desserts, fill cakes and make petits fours. Gazpacho A Spanish soup, originally made with cucumber, tomato, onion, red pepper and bread crumbs, seasoned with olive oil and garlic, served ice cold. Gelato Italian ice cream made with egg custard, sugar and flavorings. Giblets Edible internal organs and trimmings of poultry and game. Ginger A root with a hot, spicy flavor. Fresh ginger and dried ginger should not be substituted for one another when cooking. Gnocchi Small dumplings made from semolina, potatoes or choux pastry. Goma Japanese for “sesame seeds.” Granita, Granite A dessert ice­‑flavored with coffee, lemon or other flavoring that has a ­near-soupy granular texture. Gratin A savory dish with a golden topping of lightly browned breadcrumbs or cheese.

Grits Though it’s now commonly used to mean “hominy grits”, the term “grits” actually refers to any coarsely ground grain such as corn, oats, or rice. Most grits come in a choice of grinds–coarse, medium, and fine. Grits can be cooked with water or milk-usually boiling or baking and eaten as hot cereal and served as a side dish. Guacamole Mashed avocado seasoned with chopped onions, tomatoes, chile peppers, and cilantro. Served mainly as a dip. Guafre French word for waffle. Guafrettes are waffle like chips. Gumbo A thick Creole soup, usually containing a mixture of poultry, meat, or seafood and vegetables.

H Haberñero Chile The world’s hottest chile, orange in color when ripe and used in sauce, jerk spice, chile, and barbeque spice. Hammans Hats, Hammantaschen Small triangular pastries filled with honey-poppy seed, prune or apricot and traditional sweets of Purim. A festive Jewish Holiday treat. Hangtown Fry Fried breaded oysters cooked together with eggs and fried bacon. Haricots Verts The French term for green beans. Harusame Japanese noodles made from soybean, rice or potato flour. Hoisin Sauce A Chinese sauce used for marinades and basting. Made from soybean paste and seasoned with garlic, sugar, chilies and other ingredients. It is a combination of sweet and spicy flavors. Hollandaise Egg yolks, butter and lemon juice made into a creamy sauce. Served with fish or vegetables.


I–M Hors d’oeuvre Foods served as appetizers with a cocktail or “apéritif ”, as a first course, hot or cold. Hummus, Humus A thick Middle Eastern sauce made from mashed chickpeas seasoned with lemon juice, garlic and olive or sesame seed oil.

I Ile Flottante French for “Floating Island”, this is a liqueur-sprinkled sponge cake spread with jam, sprinkled with nuts, topped with whipped cream and surrounded by a pool of custard. Infusion The flavor that is extracted from an ingredient such as tea leaves, herbs or fruit by stripping them in a liquid such as water.

J Jalapeño Dark green chilies from Mexico ranging from hot to very hot. Jambalaya A specialty of New Orleans, inspired by Spanish paella and made of highly spiced rice, chicken and ham. Various ingredients can be added, such as sausage, peppers, tomatoes, shrimp, or oysters. Jardinière A French term meaning garnished with fresh vegetables, diced and cooked and arranged in separate groups. Jicama Large, Mexican root vegetable with thin brown skin and white crunchy flesh. Its sweet, nutty flavor is good both raw and cooked. Joint To cut meat and poultry into large pieces at the joints. Jubilée (Cherries) A dessert of black cherries and ice cream, flamed with cognac. Julienne Food (usually vegetables or meat) cut into thin matchstick strips.

Jus The French word for juice from fruits, vegetables or roasts (usually refers to the juices that are created from roasting meat and used as gravy).

K Kahlua A coffee flavored liqueur made in Mexico. Kalamata Olive An almond shaped Greek olive that is dark in color and the flavor is rich and fruity. They can be used to flavor vinegar or packed in olive oil. Kedgeree Originally from East India, this dish is made of cooked fish or meat, rice and eggs, served at breakfast or lunch. Ketjap Mannis A thick, dark brown Indonesian sauce used as a marinade or condiment. Kibbeh A Middle-Eastern dish that usually combines ground meat (lamb), bulgar wheat, and various spices. Kimchee A hot and spicy condiment made of fermented vegetables. Used in Korean cooking. Knead A technique used to mix and work a dough in order to form it into a cohesive, pliable mass. By hand, kneading is done with a pressing-folding-turning action performed by pressing down into the dough with the heels of both hands, then pushing away from the body. The dough is folded in half and given a quarter turn, and the process is repeated. Wellkneaded dough is smooth and elastic. Kosher Foods that are prepared according to the requirements of the Orthodox Jewish food laws.

L Lard To insert strips of lardons or bacon into a d­r y cut of meat using a larding needle. This adds moisture and flavor to meat.

Lardons Narrow strips of fat used to lard, or cover, meats generally to prevent drying and add flavor. The French also use the term lardon to refer to bacon that has been diced, blanched and fried. Latte Short for caffé latte. Made with 1/3 espresso and 2/3’s hot steamed milk. Leaven A yeast-like substance which causes dough to rise. Limu The Hawaiian word for seaweed. Lo Mein A Chinese dish of boiled noodles combined with various stir-fried ingredients, such as chicken, pork and vegetables. Lumpia Philippine version of the egg roll, it consists of a filling which is wrapped and usually fried. Lyonnaise A French term for dishes prepared or garnished with onions.

M Macerate To soak food (usually fruit) in a liquid in order to infuse it with the liquid’s flavor. A spirit such as brandy, rum or a liqueur is usually the macerating liquid. Maison The French word for “house”. Usually when found on the menu it means “specialty of the house.” Marinate To soak a food such as meat, fish or vegetables in a seasoned liquid mixture called a marinade. Foods should be covered while marinating. Médallions Small circular cuts of meat, fish, or paté. Mince To cut food into very small pieces. Minestrone Italian for “big soup”, it is a thick vegetable soup containing pasta or rice. The Minestrina (Italian for little soup) is a lighter soup.


M–P Mirepoix A mixture of diced carrots, onions and celery used to enhance the flavor of meat, game, fish, broth, or sauces. Miso A Japanese condiment dressing consisting of fermented soya, made from cooked soya, (soy) beans mixed with rice, barley or wheat grains and salt. Varies in color from a dark red to white. Mocha A variety of Arabian coffee beans grown on the borders of the Red Sea, named after the Yemenite port from which they were traditionally exported. Mocha is a strong coffee with a distinctive aroma, but some people find it bitter, with a musky flavor. It is normally served very strong and sweet in small cups. Mole A thick, highly spiced Mexican chocolate sauce made of chilies, cumin, coriander, cinnamon, herbs, and other ingredients. Moo Shu A Chinese dish from shredded pork, vegetable and seasonings that are mixed and rolled into a small, thin pancake.

Newburg A dish of shellfish (usually lobster) served with a cream and sherry sauce. Niçoise (á la) The name given to various dishes typical of the cuisine of the region of Nice, France, in which the most common ingredients are garlic, olives, anchovies, tomatoes and French (green) beans. Noisette (nwah-ZEHT) 1. The French word for hazelnut. 2. Also, a small, tender, round slice of meat (usually lamb, beef or veal) taken from the rib or loin.

Paupiette A thin slice of meat (veal or beef ) rolled around a filling.

Nopales Cactus paddles, which can be cooked like a vegetable and used as is, or in salsas. They are soft, but crunchy, with a flavor similar to bell pepper and asparagus combined. Nori Paper-thin sheets of dried seaweed used for wrapping sushi and rice balls. Nuoc Nam Vietnamese for fish sauce. Nougatine A mixture of caramelized sugar and almonds or other nuts used in decorative work, as a confection, and flavoring.

2. Savory mousses are made from meat, fish, shellfish, foie gras or vegetables by adding whipped cream, eggs and beaten egg whites and are baked in a water bath at a low temperature.

Nouvelle Cuisine A modern style of cooking that emphasizes lightness of sauces and seasonings, shortened cooking times, and new and sometimes startling combinations of foods.

Nan (Naan) From East India, this little white flour bread in the shape of a leaf is traditionally baked in a tandoor oven. Nap To completely coat food with a light even layer of sauce or jelly. Napoleon Pastry layer cake with alternating layers of cream. Neapolitan Ice cream and other desserts with three distinctly different layers.

Parfait Frozen dessert made of whipped cream and fruit purée. Pâté Refers to well-seasoned ground meat preparations that can be either smooth and spreadable or coarsely textured, served hot or cold.

Mousse 1. A cold dessert made with whipped cream/egg whites. Very light and sweet.

N

Pare To cut the outer layer of skin from foods; usually with a paring knife or vegetable peeler.

O Offal Edible internal organs of meat, poultry, and game. Open–Faced A sandwich that is prepared with one piece of bread with its ingredients placed on top.

P Paella A saffron-flavored rice dish with chicken, vegetables, chorizo and shellfish and named for the large shallow pan in which it is traditionally cooked.

Pesto Pasta sauce made with olive oil, parmesan cheese, garlic, and fresh basil. Petit Four Bite-size ice cakes or small fancy cookies that are finely decorated and highly elaborate. Phyllo (alternate spelling: Filo) A Greek pastry made of paper tissue thin layers of dough. Pilaf An Eastern dish of spiced, cooked rice mixed with meat, chicken, or fish. Pith White lining covering the flesh of citrus fruit. Plat du Jour Dish of the Day. Poach To cook food in water just below or at the boiling point. Po-Boy A sandwich served on long loaves of French Bread. Originally very inexpensive and filling fare, which explains the name. Polenta A cornmeal porridge. It is the basic traditional dish of Northern Italy. Poussin The French word for a very young small chicken. Printanier A garnish of spring vegetables, also referred to by its Italian name, “alla Primavera”.


P–S Profiterole Tiny round pastry made from eclair paste; filled with savory fillings and served as an hors d’oeuvre, or filled with ice cream and served as dessert. Prosciutto Italian for ham, this term is broadly used to describe ham that has been seasoned, salt cured, and air-dried. Provenéale (à la) Refers to dishes prepared in the style of this French region, usually with garlic, tomatoes, and olive oil. Purée Raw or cooked food sieved to a thick and smooth consistency. Pulse The dried seed of any several legumes including beans, peas, and lentils.

Q Quadrille To score the surface of grilled or broiled foods with a pattern of criss-cross lines. These markings are produced by grill bars or skewers. Quenelle A light dumpling made of ground meat or fish, used as a garnish with a rich sauce. Quesadilla A flour or corn tortilla folded around fillings including cheese, cooked meat, refried beans or other combinations. Quiche An open tart filled with a mixture of beaten eggs, fresh cream, (and pieces of bacon for Quiche Lorraine) but also other ingredients such as onions, mushrooms, ham, shellfish or herbs. Its origin dates to the 16th century in Nancy, France, where it was a specialty. Quinoa Bead-shaped grain, with a delicate flavor that can be used in any way suitable for rice.

R Ragoût A thick stew of meat, poultry or fish with or without vegetables.

Reconstitute To bring food in a dried or dehydrated state back to its original consistency by adding liquid. Reduction A liquid that had been concentrated by cooking it to evaporate a portion of the water. Remoulade A cold sauce made by adding mustard, gherkins, capers, and chopped herbs to mayonnaise. Render To melt animal fat over low heat so that it separates from any connective pieces of tissue, which then turns brown and crisp and are generally referred to as cracklings. Restaurant The word appeared in the 16th century and meant, at first, “a food that restores” (from restaure, to restore) and then was used more specifically for a rich, and highly flavored soup, capable for restoring lost strength. The 18th century gastronome Brillat-Savarin referred to chocolate, red meat and consomme as restaurants. From this sense, which survived the 19th century, the word developed the meaning of “an establishment specializing in the sale of restorative foods”. Until the late 19th century, the only places for ordinary people to eat out were inns and taverns. In about 1765 a Parisian “bouillon seller” named Boulanger wrote on his sign, “Boulanger Sells Restorative Foods Fit for the Gods,” along with the motto in dog Latin: Venite ad me omnes qui stomacho laboretis; et ego resturabo vos. (Come unto me, all you whose stomachs are aching, and I will restore you.) This was the first restaurant in the modern sense of the word. Rice Paper An edible, thin white paper made from the pith of an Asian shrub called the rice-paper tree. Risotto An Italian specialty, usually made from arborio rice, that has been sautéed in butter and then cooked by adding stock to it gradually. Risotto can be flavored with saffron and other various ingredients.

Rossini Used to describe dishes including foie gras, truffles, and demi-glace surfaces. Rouille Meaning rust in French due to its rust color, this spicy sauce is made of hot chilies, garlic, and olive oil and generally diluted with fish stock and served as a garnish for fish and stews such as bouillabaisse. Roulade A French term for roll of meat, vegetable, chocolate cake, etc. Roux A mixture of fat and flour used as a sauce base.

S Sabayon The French word for Zabaglione. Saffron A spice consisting of dried stigmas of the saffron crocus, a bulbous plant originating in the East. It was introduced into Spain by the Arabs and cultivated in Mediterranean regions. It takes between 70,000 and 80,000 stigmas which must be picked by hand to make approximately one pound of saffron. Saignant Meat underdone. Saint-Honoré Traditional French cake made of cream puff pastry dipped in caramel, liquor flavored custard and whipped cream. Sambal Oelek Sambals are a popular multipurpose condiment throughout Indonesia, Malaysia, and southern India. They come in an array of varieties, but its most basic form is Sambal Oelek. Sambals are served, most commonly, alongside rice and curried dishes. Sashimi Raw slices of fish served with daikon radish, ginger, wasabi, and soy sauce. Sauté To cook food in a small amount of very hot oil until brown. Scampi The Italian term for a type of large prawn.


S–T Score Small, shallow penetrations or cuts to the surface of certain foods. Used to tenderize less tender cuts of meat, for flavor absorption, and allows excess fat to drain during cooking. It is also used for decorative purposes on breads and meats. Sear To brown meat rapidly with high heat to seal in juices. Sesame Oil A richly flavored and highly aromatic oil made from sesame seeds. It is used a considerable amount in Japanese and Chinese cuisine for flavoring. Shiitake A dark oriental mushroom. The average size is 3-6 inches. The meaty flesh has full-bodied steak-like flavor. Choose plump mushrooms with edges that curl under. Shish Kebab Pieces of marinated meat and vegetables grilled or broiled on a skewer. Shoga The Japanese word for ginger. Skim To remove the scum, cream, foam, and fat from the surface of boiled or cooking liquids. Smoke To expose fresh food, usually meat or fish, to a wood fire smoke. Exposure can vary from a few hours to several days long. Smoking is used to cook, cure, and season foods, leaving them with a smoky flavor. Smorgasbord A Swedish word referring to a wide range of cold or hot hors d’oeuvre, salads, and various dishes served on a buffet. Sorbet A type of flavored water ice (fruit and/or syrup and aromatic substances) that does not contain any fat, milk or egg yolks. Soufflé A baked dish made with egg whites beaten and thickened with egg yolk. Sousing Pickling food in brine or vinegar.

Souvlaki Skewers of marinated lamb; a Greek specialty. Soy Sauce A basic condiment from Southeast Asia and Japan. This sauce is made from soya beans, wheat, water, and salt. Soy sauce has the same nutritional value as meat extract and improves with age. Spanakopita Greek phyllo-dough crusts filled with spinach, onions, and feta cheese. Spumoni Flavored and colored ice cream made with whipped cream / egg. Steep To soak food or tea in liquid (usually hot) in order to extract its flavor or soften it. Stock Liquid that is the result of cooking meats, vegetables, bones, etc. in water. Also known as broth, the basis for soup and sauce making. Strudel Pastry dough made into thin leaves, filled with various mixtures, then rolled and baked. Sundae A dessert originating in the United States, consisting of ice cream and fruit coated with jam or syrup. Originally it was served with the family meal on Sundays. At the end of the 19th century, North America was puritanical and the consumption of sweets was still frowned upon. But the fashion for ice cream (encouraged by the first manually operated ice cream freezers) was increasing and gradually the nickname “Sunday” was given to the traditional ice which could be served on Sundays without offending God. Sushi Rice molded and topped with raw fish. Sweat A technique of which ingredients, particularly vegetables, are cooked in a small amount of fat over low heat. The ingredients are covered directly with a piece of foil or parchment paper, then the pot is covered tightly. Ingredients soften without browning and cook in their own juices.

T Table d’hôte Meal at a fixed price, usually three or more courses. Tahini A thick paste made from ground seed, used in Middle Eastern cooking. Tamarind The pod or fruit of a very large tropical tree native to India. When fresh, its pulp is white, crisp, and has a sweet / sour flavor. When dried, it turns brown and very sour. Tapenade From the South of France, this thick paste is made from olives, anchovies, capers, olive oil and seasonings and used as a condiment or as a spread. Tartare (tar-TAR) A dish of coarsely ground or finely chopped high-quality, raw lean meat (traditionally beef ), that has been seasoned with salt, pepper and herbs. It is thought to originate in the Baltic provinces of Russia where, in medieval times, the Tartars shredded red meat with a knife and ate it raw. Today the seasoned raw meat is usually shaped into a mound with an indention in the top, into which is placed a raw egg yolk. Beef tartare (also referred to as steak tartare) is usually served with capers, chopped parsley, and onions. Temper To slowly bring up the temperature of a cold or room temperature ingredient by adding small amounts of hot or boiling water. This prevents the food from cooking, setting, or curdling. Tempura A Japanese specialty dish made of small pieces of fish, poultry, or vegetables that have been dipped into a batter and fried. Tiramisu An Italian dessert consisting of sponge cake layers soaked in coffee or liqueur, layered with mascarpone cheese and chocolate sauce. Tofu Bean curd. Tripe The lining of an animal’s stomach.


T–Z Truffle A subterranean fungus which lives in symbiosis with certain trees, mainly the oak, but also the chestnut, hazel, and beech. A highly esteemed food item, the truffle can have various sizes and is divided in two main groups: winter black truffles or white truffles (most expensive and intense in flavor). Truss To secure food (usually meat) with string, pins, or skewers so that it retains a compact shape during cooking. Turmeric A spice obtained from the dried and powdered rhizome of an Indian plant. In the Middle Ages its color made it a substitute for saffron.

U Unami A fifth element of taste. Apart from the other four elements, (sweet, bitter, salty, and sour) this Japanese word means “delicious” or “savory”. It is regarded as a meat or broth-like taste. Its flavor, characterized by glutamates, can be found abundantly in most Asian foods.

V

Velouté Sauce White sauce made with chicken, veal or fish stock; very creamy. Verjus (vair-ZHOO) An acidic, sour liquid made from unripe fruit, primarily grapes, and used to flavor sauces. Vermicelli Pasta shaped into very thin strands.

Worcestershire Sauce A condiment consisting mainly of soy sauce, vinegar, garlic, tamarind, onion, molasses, lime, anchovies, and other various seasonings. It is a thin, dark, piquant sauce that is also used to season meats, sauces, and other dishes.

Y

Verte Sauce French for “green sauce”. Sauce verte is green colored mayonnaise. Served with cold fish dishes.

Yakitori Japanese term meaning “grilled”. It usually refers to chicken marinated in soy sauce, ginger and sake, skewered and broiled.

Vichyssoise Potato and leek soup, creamy and served cold.

Yokan A Japanese cake made with agar, adzuki beans, and sugar

Vinaigrette Vinaigrette is a basic oil and vinegar combination. More elaborate variations include adding various ingredients such as spices, herbs, shallots, onions, mustard, etc. Vol-au-vent A puffy pastry shell that is filled traditionally with chicken, fish, shellfish, meat, or vegetables in a rich creamy sauce.

W

Vandyke To cut in a zigzag in the edges of fruit and vegetable halves. Used mostly as a garnish.

Wasabi This green condiment is the Japanese version of horseradish and has a sharp and pungent flavor.

Variety Meats The internal organs and entrails of an animal.

Won Ton Bite-size pockets of paper thin dough filled with a mixture of meat, seafood, and / or vegetables.

Z Zabaglione A rich dessert made of egg yolk, Marsala wine and sugar, usually served warm as a sauce for a cake, pastry, fruit, or ice cream. Zest The colored part of the peel of citrus fruit. Zuppa Inglese Meaning “English Soup” in Italian, this dessert consists of layers of sponge cake moistened with rum, alternate layers of whipped cream, and candied fruits or almonds.


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CuisineofTexas/Austin/Fall19  

A great list of restaurants in Austin, TX including maps, and menu's. Austin Chef Recipes, Culinary Terms, enter to win $200 of restaurant...

CuisineofTexas/Austin/Fall19  

A great list of restaurants in Austin, TX including maps, and menu's. Austin Chef Recipes, Culinary Terms, enter to win $200 of restaurant...