Page 1

Annual Report 2009-2010

The mission of the Linn Soil & Water Conservation District is to promote and facilitate the wise use of all natural resources.

Linn Soil & Water Conservation District 33935 Highway 99E, Suite C, Tangent 97389

History of Linn SWD

program. • Continued working as the Fiscal Agent for the Mid-Willamette East OWEB Small Grant Area. • Collaborated with Linn County Extension and USDA-ARS Plant Materials Center, Corvallis, on vegetating high flow ditches. • Collaborated with OSU Extension to present the

The first district to form in Linn County was the Linn-Lane Soil and Water Conservation District, which was organized December 23, 1946, and had as its first Board of Supervisors: Randall Grimes, Chair; Reese Janigan; Wilbur Evans; A.B. Herman; and Ben Christensen. The original secretary was O.E. Mikesell, County Extension Agent. Randall Grimes, from that original Board, served on the State Soil and Water Conservation Commission for 13 years and was chairman of the Commission during that time, from 1953-1966. Ben Christensen, of the Linn-Lane Board, was one of the original Board members of the Oregon Association of Conservation Districts, and served as treasurer of the Association from 1954 to 1991. A second district then formed in July 1954. It was the East Linn Soil Conservation District, and had as its first Board of Supervisors; O.R. Griffen, Chair; Leo Metcalf; Elmer Donicht; Joe Schlies; and Stan Lenox. The original secretary was O.E. Mikesell, County Extension Agent. The districts in Linn

Continued on SWCD 4

Continued on SWCD 2




Winners of the 2010 FFA soil judging contest.

Many highlights for 2009-2010 • Sponsored the FFA Upper Willamette Valley Soil Judging Contest in October of 2010. The district provided awards to the top three individuals in the novice and advanced levels. The district worked with Lebanon Land Lab and NRCS to provide a site for the contest and have the soils judged. This is the 54th year that the district has sponsored or co-sponsored the con-

ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF 2009-10 Assistance Provided No. Technical Assistance 280 Conservation Plans Assisted 1900 acres Site Visits with Landowners 110 Conservation Articles Published 14 OWEB Small Grants in Linn 4 test. • Co l l a b o ra te d w i t h US DA-A RS sc i e n t i s ts from Corvallis to study erosion as related to am-



phibious habitat in grass waterway projects in Linn County. • Assisted NRCS in implementing $490,000 in

conservation practices through the Environmental Quality Incentive Program in Linn County. • Acted as Team Leader for the Mid-Willamette East OWEB Small Grant Team. The team leader coordinates meetings, helps grantees and project managers stay up-to-date with their grant reporting requirements, and helps answer questions about the


Many highlights for 2010-11 Continued from SWCD 1

CORE pesticide classes at Linn CountyFair and Expo, November 16 & 18, 2010. • Living on the Land Series. A presentation for small landowners was held in October at Brownsville City Hall to focus on pasture, mud and soil nutrient management in collaboration with Calapooia Watershed Council and OSU Extension Small Farms Program. Kevin Seifert, Linn Soil & Water Conservation District watershed technician, was one of the speakers.




Kevin Seifert speaks to a group of growers at the SWCD South Valley Farm Tour.

Celebrating 64 years of conservation


Paul Berg speaks to members at the Linn County SWCD annual meeting.



Paul Berg of CH2M Hill was the keynote speaker for the Linn Soil and Water Conservation District's 64th Annual Meeting, Wednesday, November 18, at the Pioneer Villa in Halsey, Oregon. Mr. Berg spoke of his volunteer work for emi (engineering ministries international) in Uganda from August 2009 through May 2010. Water quality, access to water, infrastructure. and repair to existing pumps were challenges complicated by corruption, cultural customs and finances. Berg's wife, Karen, spoke of her work with Bread for Life and the day-to-day living in the village. Linn Soil & Water Conservation District's mission is to lend technical assistance to landowners and operators concerning soil and water quality issues on their land in Linn and Lane counties. The annual meeting includes a fiscal report, an overview of projects, awards for Educator of the Year and Cooperator of the Year, and dinner.


Linn Soil, Water District was organized in 1978 Continued from SWCD 1




District cooperator of the year Aaron Schumacher is shown with his daughters.

Cooperator of the Year : Aaron Schumacher The Cooperator of the Year award was presented to Aaron Schumacher of Scio. Schumacher grows perennial ryegrass, peppermint, row crops, vegetable seeds, and filberts utilizing Verris testing

and EQIP programs. Schumacher is a member of American Farm Bureau, Perennial Ryegrass Growers Association, and serves on the NORPAC board of directors.

District directors Directors are property owners or managers from our county who serve to educate and lead in the conservation of natural resources. There are seven Linn SWCD Director positions. All board members are elected officials who serve voluntarily for four years. Prospective members should have a genuine interest in and understanding of natural resource management and soil and water conservation issues, and must be willing to volunteer time to attend monthly board meetings, assist with projects, and lead committees or activities. Linn SWCD Staff Debra Paul, District Administrator Kevin Seifert, Watershed Technical Specialist

District Zone Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5 At-Large At-Large

Linn SWCD Directors Member Office Hubert Christensen Liz VanLeeuwen Chair David Neal Janice Horner Sec/Treasurer Jason Whitehead Lucyann Volbeda Peter Jensen Vice-Chair

Linn SWCD Emeritus Directors Ben Christensen, Chris Rebmann, James Howell

County were very active, particularly in drainage improvement and flood control programs. They sponsored numerous projects through the Upper Willamette RC&D program and through the Public Law 566 programs. Projects include the Lacomb Gravity Flow Irrigation System; Albany Montieth Park; Periwinkle Flood control and Recreation Project; and the Little Muddy, Rowland, South Priceboro, Little Oak, Halsey, Peedee RC&D Flood Control measures, and the Grand Prairie Watershed Project. The original Linn-Lane District was formed around the Muddy Creek Irrigation Project in Linn and Lane counties, and put a considerable amount of effort into improving the irrigation project. The Linn-Lane District was also one of the most active districts in equipment programs in the state, and the Linn District has retained a considerable amount of funding in its district treasury as a result of that program. The Linn Soil and Water Conservation District was then organized March 7, 1978, through a consolidation of the East Linn and Linn-Lane Soil and Water Conservation Districts. The district now includes almost all of Linn County, except a small portion near Sweet Home, and also includes the Coburg community of Lane County. The first Board of Directors of the Linn SWCD included Paul Livingston as Chairman; Ernest Glaser; Vice-Chairman; Lynn

Barnes, Treasurer; Ben Christensen; Leonard Opel; Glenn Wilson; and Merwin Vannice. The District Secretary was Kay Burton, who was hired by the district with funds furnished by Linn County. Today, the district continues to work with landowners to assist them with soil and water quality issues. Much of the focus today is from legislation and rules imposed by SB1010, the Oregon Plan, and the Southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area; the district works with individuals to help them meet the expectations of each program on their property. We also work to match landowners with the many conservation programs that are available through State and Federal agencies. Conservation programs are available through the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Farm Service Agency (FSA), Oregon Department of Agriculture (ODA), Oregon Fish and Wildlife (ODF&W) and Oregon Watershed Enhancement Board (OWEB). The staff employed by Linn SWCD is available to provide technical assistance to landowners and operators regarding soil and water quality issues on their land. The district has no regulatory nature but is simply a source of advice and consultation for the public. The staff also provides education and outreach on various natural resources issues and topics.





Educator of the year Tami Kerr, right, teaches the next generation.

Educator of the Year: Tami Kerr Linn SWCD Educator of the Year is Tami Kerr, Executive Director of Oregon Agriculture in the Classroom Foundation. Tami grew up on a family dairy farm in Tillamook. She is still very involved with the farm and milks cows when she is in Tillamook. The family-operated dairy consists of 500 Registered Holsteins, and Tami owns several of them. Tami has a bachelor of science degree from Oregon State University in Agricultural Business Management, with a Minor in Animal Science. • Executive Director, Ag in the Classroom Foundation, (1999 - Present) • The 2009-2010 school year was a ground breaking year for the program, with 106,000 students reached by Agriculture in the Classroom (AITC). • As part of the 3rd Annual AITC Literacy Project, 375 AITC volunteers read to 13,700 students in grades K-5 in 30 counties.

• Edited second printing of Get Oregonized student history book and teacher's guide. Printed 5,000 student books and 400 Teacher's Guides in 2007. • Member of Ag Fest and Summer Ag Institute boards. • President Elect of the National AITC Consortium Board, elected in June, 2010. Served as a representative of the Western Region and served two terms. Elected secretary for 2009-10 year. ORGANIZATIONS/MEMBERSHIPS

• Oregon Dairy Women, President (2009 - Present) • Linn-Benton Women for Agriculture, President (2002 - 2005) Treasurer (2005 - 2009) • Oregon Holstein Association, President (1997 - 1998); Delegate to 4 National Conventions • National Holstein Junior Advisory Committee (1996 2003) Western Regional Advisor • Oregon Farm Bureau Member (1990 - Present).

Web sites of interest ■ Linn Soil & Water CD ■ Oregon Association of Conservation Districts ■ OSU Linn County Extension http://extension.oregonstate .edu/linn

■ OSU - Southern Willamette Groundwater Project /willamette

Special thanks to Linn County Extension! The Linn Soil and Water Conservation District would like to give special thanks to the OSU Linn County Extension Service. For the past 64 years, OSU Linn County Extension has been a strong supporter of the district, even providing their Extension Agent to act as District Secretary in the early years when the district was operating as East Linn Soil Conservation District and as LinnLane Soil Conservation District. The input, cooperation, and support that we continue to receive from OSU Linn County Extension is greatly appreciated.

UPDATE People helping people grow

Non-Profit Org. U.S. Postage PAID Permit #107 Albany, OR


Old Armory, Fourth & Lyon, Albany, Oregon 97321, Phone 541-967-3871

Cutoff dates for planting winter or spring wheat?

LCEA banquet topic: Hazelnuts and blueberries BY CHARLENE VECCHI

At this year's LCEA Annual Meeting and Banquet on Tuesday, February 15, two guest speakers will once again focus on local Oregon products. If you attended last year's event, you will remember sampling wine and cheese from local producers. This year, the focus is on blueberries and hazelnuts. The speakers are Bernadine Strik, OSU horticulture professor and Extension berry specialist; and Polly Owen, manager of the Oregon Hazelnut Industry Office. You are invited to this year's Annual Meeting and Banquet in the Willamette Conference rooms at the Linn County Fair and Expo Center. We will start the evening with a reception at 6 p.m.; the dinner buffet begins at 6:30 p.m. Oregon is a top producer of hazelnuts in the US and in the world, and is also one of the leading berry crop production regions in the world. Dr. Strik conducts Extension education programs for the commercial berry crop industries, and she is also the Berry Crops Research

Leader at the North Willamette Research and Extension Center (NWREC) in Aurora, Oregon. Her research interests focus on whole plant physiology, improving yield and quality, machine harvest efficiency, alternative production practices, plant nutrition, cold hardiness, and organic production systems. As manager of the Oregon Hazelnut Industry Office, Polly Owen works with the Hazelnut Marketing Board, the Oregon Hazelnut Commission, and the Nut Growers Society of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia. She has worked in the hazelnut industry since 1995, and is well known to hazelnut growers in our region. Consumer demand for blueberries and hazelnuts continues to be strong. Widely reported scientific research on the dietary health benefits of blueberries and hazelnuts has contributed to consumer demand — plus, both of these foods produced in Oregon and in the mid-Willamette Valley taste good!





Blueberries will be one of the focuses of this year's LCEA annual Continued on Page 15 banquet.

The general cutoff date for planting winter wheat in the Willamette Valley is mid-February. However, by mid-February it becomes a toss-up whether or not to plant a winter or a spring wheat variety. Among current winter wheat varieties, Goetze has the least vernalization requirement (cold temperature requirement) and is the best choice for late winter planting. Goetze has better lodging and stripe rust resistance than spring wheat varieties, and therefore has some advantage still for early February plantings. And like spring wheat varieties, Goetze has excellent seedling vigor and jumps out of the ground quicker than commonly available winter cultivars. Mid-February is too late or at least too risky for some winter varieties. Yamhill, for example, has a strong vernalization requirement and should not be planted after the first of the year. Spring wheat varieties often do as well as winter wheat varieties planted in February. Spring wheat is certainly a better choice to plant by early March. Rather than mudding in a winter variety in an effort to beat the calendar in February, a better choice on some fields Continued on Page 2



Winter flowers in the garden Gardens can provide color spots even in the gray, short days of winter. As I wandered around my yard between rain showers in early January, my goal was to find at least five plants flowering. The smallest plants I found were Cyclamen coum with pink or white flowers on 4-6 inch stems. This small perennial with attractive leaves in a basal clump will bloom from January to March and reseeds easily in the garden. It could be grown in pots, a rock garden or under native oaks. I also grow C. hederifolium for late summer flowers. A heath (Erica) along the front walkway was covered with magenta flowers. Excellent drainage is needed for this small evergreen shrub. Roots will die in standing water. Clay soils need to be amended with organic matter. This sun-loving plant is often grown with Scotch heathers (Calluna vulgaris), as they have similar growing requirements. Many heaths flower in winter, while heathers flower from June to November so you can have year-round bloom in the garden. The shade-loving Sarcococca confusa or Sweet Box is a slow growing small shrub. I grow this plant for the wonderful fragrance of the small, white flowers,

Lawn & Garden Barbara Fick 541-967-3871 x2393 E-mail:




Cyclamen coum

which can be nearly hidden in the glossy foliage. S. humilis forms a low growing ground cover about 1.5 ft high in the shade. The evergreen foliage on these plants and the blue-black fruit also make this an attractive plant for the landscape. A November trip to gardens in England convinced me I needed at least one hybrid mahonia. Mahonia x media 'Arthur Menzies' foliage is as prickly as Oregon grape, but the growth habit and arrangement of the foliage makes up for this unpleasant characteristic. The dramatic, frond-like leaves

grow in whorls along its coarsely branched stems, forming a statuesque shrub in the winter garden. Besides the beautiful foliage and upright growth habit, great sprays of gold flowers appear in December. M. x media 'Charity' produces sprays of soft yellow flowers. I am growing both these plants; one in partial shade and one in full sun. 'Arthur Menzies' will grow into a vase-shaped shrub 6 to 8 feet tall and 'Charity' can reach 10 to 15 feet tall. Both plants can be kept shorter by pruning. Hamamelis intermedia 'Jelena' is a large shrub (to 15 ft. high) with large yellow

flowers blended with red. The orange, red, and scarlet fall leaf color of this shrub is more impressive than the flowers. Ornamental grasses (brown) and deciduous Japanese Maple trees surround the plant, and the flowers don't stand out as much as I would like. A green backdrop would make the flowers pop. Even though I am disappointed in the flower display in the landscape, I do cut the branches for use in winter flower arrangements. Next month watch for five flowering plants I wish I didn't have in my winter landscape.

• Tune up lawn mower and garden equipment before the busy season begins. • Have soil test performed on garden plot to determine nutrient needs. Contact your local Extension office for a list of testing laboratories or view EM 8677 online. • Select and store healthy scion wood for grafting fruit and nut trees. Wrap in damp cloth or peat moss and place in plastic bag. Store in cool place. • Plan an herb bed, for cooking and for interest in the landscape. Among the choices are parsley, sage, chives, and lavender. Choose a sunny spot for the herb bed, and plant seeds or transplants after danger of frost has passed (late April-early May in the Willamette Valley and Central Coast; June-July in Eastern and Central Oregon). • Plan to add herbaceous perennial flowers to your flowering landscape this spring. Examples include candytuft, peony, penstemon, coneflower. MAINTENANCE AND CLEAN UP

• Repair winter damage to trees and shrubs. • Make a cold frame or hotbed to start early vegetables or flowers. • Fertilize rhubarb with manure or a complete fertilizer. • Incorporate cover crops or other organic matter into soil. • Prune and train grapes; make cuttings. • Prune fruit trees and blueberries. • Prune deciduous summer-blooming shrubs and trees. • Prune and train trailing blackberries (if not done prior late August); prune black raspberries. • Prune fall-bearing raspberries (late in Feb or early March). • Prune clematis, Virginia creeper, and other vining ornamentals. PLANTING/PROPAGATION

• Plant windowsill container gardens of carrots, lettuce, or parsley. • Plan to add herbaceous perennial flowers to your flowering landscape this spring: astilbe, candytuft, peony, and anemone. • Good time to plant fruit trees and deciduous shrubs. Replace varieties of ornamental plants that are susceptible to disease with resistant cultivars. • Plant asparagus if the ground is warm enough. • Plant seed flats of cole crops (cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, and Brussels sprouts), indoors or in greenhouse. Witch Hazel




Help us celebrate 100 years of OSU Extension in Oregon In the next several months, we will be celebrating the 100-year anniversary of Extension in Oregon. My plan is to use this column to explain how Extension got started in Oregon and where it is headed. What were the principles and intentions of the founders? I will discuss the current struggles and the possible future for Extension here in Linn County, in Oregon, and across the country. Things are changing. For one thing, money is tight. This will be a tough year for the public service sector of the economy, including higher education. We have seen significant cuts. We will see more. For example, we have not been able to refill Mark Mellbye's agronomy position. Mark is our grass seed Extension agent. He retired from his fulltime position three years ago. We simply do not have enough money in our state budget for higher education to fill the position. Did you know that salaries of the Linn County Extension faculty are paid by Oregon

State University? Another change is the increasing use of distance learning technologies. Today, if something is useful, or if it is not useful, it is probably available on the internet. Some people ask, do we really need Extension anymore? We can simply get the information we need on Google. This is true; we can get the information we need. But what if we do not know what information we need? We still need help from the applied research community to generate solutions to problems for which there are no current solutions.

Extension should continue to play a role in developing new ideas into new small businesses and new ways of improving our lives together. I have to laugh. Every time we have a serious recession, the king and queen in the ivory tower lift up the draw bridge. Extension is invariably left on the outside of the mote. University presidents often say during economic downturns that we are going to conserve our core functions of research and matriculating students. We will have to cut public services. I believe this represents a fundamental misunderstanding

of what Extension is all about. Extension is not just a public service. It is a key function of higher education. Researchers discover new ideas and technologies. Teachers convey knowledge to future generations. Extension, through the process of engaged research and engaged teaching, completes the learning cycle by integrating and applying knowledge in service to society. It would be odd for a university president to report that, due to financial problems, faculty will continue to discover new knowledge, but they will no longer participate in the integration and application of knowledge in service of society. I will explain what I mean by all this in the next couple of months. Did you know that Extension associated with the Land Grant University system is unique to the United States? It is a unique American invention. Please join us in celebrating the 100year anniversary of Extension applied research and education in Oregon.

Cutoff dates for planting winter wheat? Continued from Page 1

is to wait until better weather in March and go with a spring wheat variety. In 2010 (last season), the variety Alturas performed very well in unsprayed field tests. It was, in fact, the top yielder among available vari-

eties. Excellent test weight and very good stripe rust tolerance. If available, this variety may be worth a second look. Alpowa, Whit, Babe, Merrill, and Louise are other leading contenders. Regardless of the spring wheat variety selected, the yield potential depends a lot on planting date and

spring weather conditions. To optimize yields, plant by the end of March and seed at 120 to 150 lb/acre. Keep in mind stripe rust disease races have changed in recent years. While some wheat varieties do have improved resistance, be prepared to scout for rust if you plant a spring wheat.

One acre of trees removes about 13 tons of dust and gases annually.

Dan’s Column Dan McGrath, Staff Chair 541-967-3871 x2397


UPDATE — People Helping People grow UPDATE is a monthly publication owned and administered by the Linn County Extension Association, a 501(c)(3) federal income tax exempt organization. The Albany Democrat-Herald, under a contract with the Linn County Extension Association, prints UPDATE. Content of Update is furnished by Linn County Extension Association members, Linn County Extension service agents and other organizations that contract

with Linn County Extension Association to print a newsletter for their constituencies. Advertising is provided by the Albany Democrat-Herald and does not reflect any product endorsement by the above Association, Agents or Service. The Albany Democrat-Herald is located at 600 Lyon St., S.W., Albany, Oregon. Telephone 541-926-2211.

EXTENSION OFFICE HOURS The Linn County office of the OSU Extension Service is located in the Old Armory Building on the courner of Fourth Avenue and Lyon Street in Albany. The office is open from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Monday through Friday. Phone 541-9673871. Seed Certification phone 541-967-3810.

OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION AGENTS | SERVING LINN COUNTY Program Agent Office Phone Staff Chair Dan McGrath Linn 541-967-3871 x2397 Commercial Horticulture Ross Penhallegon Lane 541-344-1709 Bob McReynolds NWREC 503-678-1264 x225 District Dairy Faculty Mike Gamroth 541-737-3316 Field Crops/Farm Mgt.* Mark Mellbye Linn 541-967-3871 x2394 Forestry* Rick Fletcher Linn, Benton 541-766-6750 Home Horticulture* Barbara Fick Linn, Benton 541-967-3871 x2393 4-H/Youth Robin Galloway Linn 541-967-3871 x2399 4-H Program Assistant Melanie Mintken Linn 541-967-3871 x2395 Family/Community Hlth. Janice Gregg Linn 541-967-3871 x2830 Livestock** Shelby Filley 541-672-4461 Small Farms* Melissa Fery Linn, Benton 541-766-6750 Swine & Forage* Gene Pirelli Polk 503-623-8395 Nutrition Instructor Tina Dodge-Vera Linn 541-967-3871 x2392 Nutrition Instructor Iris Carrasco Linn 541-926-6666 Nutrition program assist. Adejoke Babatunde Linn * Indicates agent has multi-county assignment ** Area assignment in Benton, Lane and Linn counties

Office Manager Office Specialist Office Specialist

LINN COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE STAFF Rosemary Weidman 541-967-3871 Laurie Gibson 541-967-3871 Michele Webster 541-967-3871 SEED CERTIFICATION**

Doug Huff, Tamara Fowler



UPDATE MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE Mark Mellbye Jim Monroe Charlene Vecchi Janice Gregg

Peter Kenagy

LINN COUNTY EXTENSION ASSOCIATION BOARD MEMBERS Jeannette Halseth Sally Corrick Ken Pearson Terry Plagmann Lorraine Scott Carl Weinbrecht Peter Kenagy David Sunderland Betty Goergen Roger Haffner Sherm Sallee Oscar Lopez Gary C. Hull Oregon State University offers educational programs, activities and materials — without regard to race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, national origin, age, marital status, disability, and disabled veterans or Vietnam-era veteran status — as required by Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Oregon State University is an Equal Opportunity Employer.

Clams have no brain or eyes.





Educator of the year Tami Kerr, right, teaches the next generation.

Educator of the Year: Tami Kerr Linn SWCD Educator of the Year is Tami Kerr, Executive Director of Oregon Agriculture in the Classroom Foundation. Tami grew up on a family dairy farm in Tillamook. She is still very involved with the farm and milks cows when she is in Tillamook. The family-operated dairy consists of 500 Registered Holsteins, and Tami owns several of them. Tami has a bachelor of science degree from Oregon State University in Agricultural Business Management, with a Minor in Animal Science. • Executive Director, Ag in the Classroom Foundation, (1999 - Present) • The 2009-2010 school year was a ground breaking year for the program, with 106,000 students reached by Agriculture in the Classroom (AITC). • As part of the 3rd Annual AITC Literacy Project, 375 AITC volunteers read to 13,700 students in grades K-5 in 30 counties.

• Edited second printing of Get Oregonized student history book and teacher's guide. Printed 5,000 student books and 400 Teacher's Guides in 2007. • Member of Ag Fest and Summer Ag Institute boards. • President Elect of the National AITC Consortium Board, elected in June, 2010. Served as a representative of the Western Region and served two terms. Elected secretary for 2009-10 year. ORGANIZATIONS/MEMBERSHIPS

• Oregon Dairy Women, President (2009 - Present) • Linn-Benton Women for Agriculture, President (2002 - 2005) Treasurer (2005 - 2009) • Oregon Holstein Association, President (1997 - 1998); Delegate to 4 National Conventions • National Holstein Junior Advisory Committee (1996 2003) Western Regional Advisor • Oregon Farm Bureau Member (1990 - Present).

Web sites of interest ■ Linn Soil & Water CD ■ Oregon Association of Conservation Districts ■ OSU Linn County Extension http://extension.oregonstate .edu/linn

■ OSU - Southern Willamette Groundwater Project /willamette

Special thanks to Linn County Extension! The Linn Soil and Water Conservation District would like to give special thanks to the OSU Linn County Extension Service. For the past 64 years, OSU Linn County Extension has been a strong supporter of the district, even providing their Extension Agent to act as District Secretary in the early years when the district was operating as East Linn Soil Conservation District and as LinnLane Soil Conservation District. The input, cooperation, and support that we continue to receive from OSU Linn County Extension is greatly appreciated.


LCEA annual meeting and banquet This month LCEA members, their guests, and friends of Linn County Extension will gather together for the Annual Meeting for the Linn County Extension Association. This year's meeting and banquet will be Tuesday, February 15, at the Linn County Fair and Expo Center in the Willamette Conference Rooms. A great program has been planned around the hazelnut and blueberry industries in the Willamette Valley, particularly Linn County. The evening begins at 6 p.m. with punch, wine, microbrew and cheese tasting reception followed by a dinner buffet beginning at 6:30.

Those attending will have the opportunity to hear from two speakers, Dr. Bernadine Strik, Professor of Horticulture and OSU Extension Berry Crops Specialist, and Polly Owen, Manager, Oregon Hazelnut Marketing Board. Both the blueberry and hazelnut industries have enjoyed success in our local area for a number of years and I'm sure you will find their talks interesting and informative. In addition to good food and good friends, the meeting is also a time to update the membership on the status of LCEA and Linn County Extension. We will review the successes of the

past year and present a vision for the future. We also will begin the celebration of 100 years of Extension in Oregon. Meeting and dinner invitations were mailed to LCEA members in January. I encourage you to reserve your place at the annual meeting by returning your reservation form today, if you have not already done so. If you are not a member of LCEA, I would encourage and invite you to attend. The cost is $20 per person. You may make reservations by contacting Lorraine Scott at 541-259-1676. I look forward to seeing you at the annual dinner.

JOIN LCEA! YES, I want to support the Linn County Extension Association. Here is my annual membership donation. Name______________________________________________________________________________________________ Address____________________________________________________________________________________________ City____________________________________________________ Zip____________ Phone______________________ Email_________________________________________________ ____$250 Sponsor ____$100 Benefactor ____$50 Sustaining Member _____$25 Contributing $______ Any amount Make checks payable to “Linn County Extension Association,” P.O. Box 1851, Albany, Oregon 97321

Linn County Extension Association Terry Plagmann 541-928-8729

Here’s what’s happening February 1 — Master Gardener board meeting, 10 a.m., Evelyn Downing Room, Old Armory Building, Albany. 2, 3 – PNW Brown Bag, Extending Your Garden Harvest, noon, Wednesday at the Albany Public Library, 2450 14th Ave SE; and on Thursday at East Linn LBCC, 44 Industrial Way in Lebanon. 9, 10 – PNW Brown Bag, A Garden of Fragrance, noon, Wednesday at the Albany Public Library, 2450 14th Ave SE; and on Thursday at East Linn LBCC, 44 Industrial Way in Lebanon. 14 – Master Gardener general membership meeting, 6:30 p.m., Evelyn Downing Room, Old Armory Building, Albany. 15 — Linn County Extension Association annual banquet, 6 p.m., Linn County Fair and Expo Center, Albany. 16, 17 — PNW Brown Bag, Adaptive Seeds, noon, Wednesday at the Albany Public Library, 2450 14th Ave SE; and on Thursday at East Linn LBCC, 44 Industrial Way in Lebanon. 21 – Horse Leaders Meeting, 7 p.m., Evelyn Downing Room, Old Armory Building, Albany. 23, 24 — PNW Brown Bag, Roses, noon, Wednesday at the Albany Public Library, 2450 14th Ave SE; and on Thursday at East Linn LBCC, 44 Industrial Way in Lebanon.

March 2, 3 — PNW Brown Bag, Kiwis & Blueberries, noon, Wednesday at the Albany Public Library, 2450 14th Ave SE; and on Thursday at East Linn LBCC, 44 Industrial Way in Lebanon.




Sharing robotics knowledge

4-H Robin Galloway and Melanie Mintken Galloway: 541-967-3871 x2399 Mintken: 541-967-3871 x2395

Camp counselor and Junior Staff applications due





ego robotics is one class being offered through 4-H, in the national initiative on Science, Engineering and Technology (SET). A SET after-school class at South Shore Elementary in Albany was taught by Clever Clovers 4-H members Nathan Kinkade and David Wall. Nathan and David compete in a First Legos League, and were able to share their experiences with the younger students.

Public speaking scholarship contest offered Students under age 19 as of last December 31 (2010) are invited to enter the Annual Oratorical (public speaking) Contest sponsored by the Albany Optimist Club. This scholarship program is endorsed by the National Association of Secondary School Principals and the American Association of School Administrators. The speech topic is: "If I were Leader of the Free World, the First Issue I would address would be..." Speeches are to be 4-5 minutes in length. The club contest will be on Tuesday, March 15, at noon at the Sizzler. Contestants will be the Optimists' guests

for lunch. Awards will be $150 for first place and $100 for second place, plus medallions and the chance to compete for a scholarship. A "run off" contest ( two if necessary) will be held on a Saturday in April, followed by the final contest in Salem on Saturday, April 30, at the Optimists' Pacific NW District Convention. Scholarship awards there will be $2,500, $1,500 and $1,000. For the application form and full rules of the contest, go on-line to Select "Visitors," then "Scholarships," and then read the Oratorical Contest information down

to "click here" for application information. Again, go down to "click here" for the form and print. On the form, fill in the club name as Albany and the club number 32000. You may call Shirley Hilts, contest chairperson, at 541-928-0951 for more information or to request a mailed application form. Entry applications and a birth certificate copy must be received by Tuesday, February 15. Mail them to the Optimist Club, P.O. Box 61, Albany, OR 97321. Students who enter will be notified if the required minimum of three contestants has been met.

We need energetic teens to serve as counselors at the Linn-Benton-LincolnT illamook 4-H Camp. Camp is held at the Oregon 4-H Conference & Education Center near Salem. Teen counselors are 9th12th-graders, and they are assigned to campers in grades 4-6. Older staffers are assigned as counselors to 7th & 8th-grade campers. Teen counselors are volunteers and they receive free room and board for the week at camp. Staff training will be May 14-15 at the 4-H Center. All counselors must attend this training. Camp is June 2025, with staff coming in the afternoon of June 19. There are three positions at camp. Counselors for 4th-6th grade campers must be in 9th-12th grade. Counselors for 7th-8th grade campers must be in 12th grade, or have completed high school. Junior Staff must have completed

high school and have camp experience. Please indicate which position(s) you are applying for on your application. All new applicants must attend Counselor Selection Day, March 12, at the Polk County Fairgrounds in Rickreall. If you are a new applicant and cannot attend, you will not be considered for a counseling position. Returning counselors can have an interview with their 4-H agent. The application form, two reference forms, and a 4-H Enrollment/Health Form are required. All of these must be turned into the Linn County Extension office by February 11 if you want to apply to be a Camp Counselor for 2011. We will send you directions and more information about the Selection Day after the February 11 deadline. For information call Robin Galloway at 541-967-3871.

Rolling Back the Renaissance The Fair theme at the 2011 Linn County Fair will be "Rolling Back the Renaissance." The Renaissance was a cultural movement from approximately the 14th to the 17th century. 4-H clubs can have lots of fun using the Renaissance theme to decorate with Kings & Queens, Knights & Maidens, Dams & Damsels, Suits of Armor, Swords & Shields, Art, and much more!



Ag In Classroom announces literacy project book Oregon Agriculture in the Classroom (AITC) Foundation is pleased to announce the 2011 Literacy Project book is Pancakes, Pancakes! by beloved children's author and artist Eric Carle. It's about a boy named Jack who wakes up hungry and wants some pancakes. But first, Jack must gather wheat from the farmer, flour from the miller, eggs from the chickens, milk from the cow, etc., before he can take a single bite. This great tale is a fun illustration of all the steps that go into bringing food to the table. The goal of the Literacy Project is to help improve both the reading and agricultural literacy of Oregon students. This was the

third year of the annual project and was the best yet with 375 volunteers reading to 13,719 students in grades K-5. The largest group of volunteers was high school FFA students. Volunteers read to students in 30 of Oregon's 36 counties. Each year a featured literacy book is selected based on its ability to engage the interest and imagination of children and on the book’s connections to Oregon agriculture. AITC staff design a hands-on activity for volunteers which complements the reading and expands on the message of the book. Additional lessons and supporting resources are made available to teachers via the AITC Web site. All the materials, books,

W.O.R.L.D. Retreat

and volunteer time are provided to schools in Oregon for free. The success of the AITC Literacy Project is a result of the enthusiasm of the volunteers who believe in sharing their personal story about agriculture and wish to support their youngest readers. AITC recruits and trains volunteers who read the featured book and do a related activity in classrooms in their communities. AITC donates a book to each classroom, as well as providing all materials for the activities, and packets of support materials for the teachers. A volunteer's classroom time commitment is about 45 minutes per presentation.

The AITC Literacy Project is an annual event held in the spring (March 14 - May 31). More information on the project is available by calling 541-737-8629 or through the AITC Web site, For the first time, Oregon Agriculture in the Classroom Foundation was able to reach over 106,000 students statewide during a single school year. AITC is dedicated to helping Oregon K-12 students grow in their knowledge of agriculture, the environment, and natural resources. AITC is a science-based, politically impartial, 501(c)(3) organization that receives no state or federal funding.

Thanks, Linn residents, for historical items




Linn County youth who attended the annual W.O.R.L.D. Retreat at the 4-H Center over Martin Luther King Jr. Weekend were , from left, Koby Roofner, Jeffery Cates, Taylor Kline and Donielle Miller. All participants work on a community service project while attending W.O.R.L.D. This year the community service project was making baby blankets for police officers to carry in their trunks to give to children during emergency situations.

The name filbert comes from “full beard,” referring to the husk on the nut.

As we celebrate the Centennial of Oregon Extension, we've been delighted to get historical items from Linn County residents. Doug Gatchell of Lebanon brought in his recordbooks and 4-H history from the 1950s on. It's really special to see the changes in animal project costs (and human hairstyles) over the past six decades. What hasn't changed is the emphasis on life skills for 4-H'ers. In Doug's recordbooks, one category of Activities is called personal and community health. For years, he reported: "Kept hair combed and teeth brushed daily. Washed hands and face three times a day. Wear proper clothing. Eat 3 good meals a day. See dentist twice a year. Get plenty of sleep. “Have a medical examination at least three times a year for sports." Some things just don't change over time! Sandy and Ed Reynolds of Lebanon brought in a

big box of old animal science books. The 1923 classic called Feeds and Feeding was first published in 1898, then updated for decades. We will be sharing photos and articles from this stockmen's bible. They also gave us the Practical Home Veterinarian from 1943. It's an education in itself to note that most of the diseases and unsoundnesses then are still applicable now. Treatments are also usually similar, ie: manage the whole animal, keep everything clean, and deal with the specific issue.

Carl (Gene) Nygren of Albany brought in a copy of the National 4-H News from 1947. There is a feature on the Linn County Model 4-H Dairy Club, which was 25 years old then. This date would make them older than the Greenback 4-H Club, which is reportedly the longest operating club in Oregon. Can anyone share some history on the Model 4-H Dairy Club? We currently have Model Dairy & Beef - and need more details. If you can share some Linn County Extension history, feel free to drop it by the office anytime.



Local Pick of the Month

Carrots great source of vitamin A One of the most popular vegetables eaten raw is carrots. When asked for their favorite way of eating carrots, most people I have talked to say “raw, just one after another!” Carrots are an excellent source of Vitamin A, which is necessary for healthy eyesight, skin, and growth, and also aids our bodies in resisting infection. Carrots have higher natural sugar content than all other vegetables, with the exception of beets. This is why carrots make a wonderful snack when eaten raw, and make a tasty addition to a variety of cooked dishes.

Family & Community Health Janice Gregg 541-967-3871 E-mail:


There are many varieties of carrots, but the variety typically found in supermarkets is from 7-9 inches in length and 3/4 to 1 1/2 inches in diameter. Carrots are usually sold packaged in plastic bags. Baby carrots were once longer carrots that have been peeled, trimmed to 11/2 to 2 inches in length and packaged. True baby carrots are removed from the ground early and actually look like miniature


carrots. SELECTION

Carrots are available and in season all year long. Look for well shaped carrots. Pick carrots that are deep orange in color. More beta carotene is present in carrots that have a darker orange color. Avoid carrots that are crackled, shriveled, soft, or wilted.

Carrots are best stored between 32-50 degrees in the crisper section of the refrigerator. If you buy carrots with the green tops still on, break off the tops and rinse, place in a plastic bag and store. Storing them in the refrigerator will preserve their flavor, texture, and the beta

carotene content. Do not store them with fruits. Fruits produce ethylene gas as they ripen. This gas will decrease the storage life of the carrots, as well as other vegetables. This is why it is best to store fruits and vegetables separately. PREPARATION

Although carrots lose

some of their vitamins when peeled, dishes prepared with peeled carrots taste fresher and better. Cook carrots in a small amount of water until they

are tender, or save time and cook them in the microwave. Season with dill, tarragon, ginger, honey, brown sugar, parsley, lemon or orange juice.

Here’s some slow cooker ideas for those cold, wet winter days There is something about cold, rainy weather that makes us want a warm meal waiting for us as we come in the door at night. Slow cookers are a great way to enjoy family favorites year-round. Get that pot out and get cooking with these tips: Slow cookers work best when they are half to ¾ full. If you fill a pot to the brim, it can't regulate

the heating of the food correctly. Likewise, less than half full will cause food to overcook. A high setting is equal to 300 degrees F, and the low setting is equal to 200 degrees F. Each time you lift the lid, you increase the needed cooking time by 20 minutes. For food safety, get the food inside the cooker to 140 degrees as

quickly as possible, so use the high setting the first hour, then switch to the low setting to finish cooking. Also, start with thawed foods. Dense veggies like potatoes, carrots and other root vegetables take the longest to cook, so place on bottom and cut pieces not thicker than an inch. Anything high in fat cooks

quickly, so place meat on top of vegetables when loading the cooker. Browning meat before adding reduces fat and enhances the flavor and color. Condensed cream soups are a good substitute for milk, which can curdle over long cooking times. Ground herbs and spices tend to

Oregon grass seed farms employ about 10,000 Oregonians.

lose their flavor; red pepper and hot sauce tend to become bitter, so add late in cooking. Soak dried beans before cooking. For more information, including a chart to convert cooking times from a conventional oven to a slow cooker, go to:



Healthy DASH diet may lower blood pressure High blood pressure is a health concern for many of us. There is a 90-percent chance that middle-aged Americans will develop high blood pressure during their lives. The DASH diet is something that can help reduce blood pressure. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan helps lower systolic blood pressure quickly. Research has shown that following the DASH diet plan will decrease blood pressure in as little as two weeks. The diet is good for anyone because

MORE INFORMATION A booklet about the DASH plan is available online at w_dash.pdf. Another handout that is helpful for knowing how much of each food group to consume each day can be found online at /prevent/h_eating/h_e_dash.htm. it incorporates healthy foods we all need to be eating. The diet includes foods low in saturated fat, cholesterol and total fat, and emphasizes fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products. The plan also recommends a healthy amount of whole-

grain foods, fish, poultry, and nuts. LIFESTYLE CHANGES

Don't wait until you are diagnosed with high blood pressure to start healthy habits. The first line of defense for high blood pressure, both before and after it is diagnosed, is making

lifestyle changes. The lifestyle changes that can have a positive impact on your blood pressure are limiting alcohol, not smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, reducing sodium in the diet, adopting the DASH eating plan and being physically active. Overweight people are at a higher risk for developing high blood pressure. Losing weight can help decrease systolic (top number) blood pressure. Men who consume alcohol should limit themselves to two drinks per day, while women should have only

one drink per day. Quitting smoking is good for blood pressure and your overall health. TOO MUCH SALT

Eating too much sodium or salt can also contribute to high blood pressure. Sodium impacts blood pressure when the kidneys fail to get rid of the extra sodium. The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that all people should consume 1,500 milligrams or less per day and this is the amount the DASH plan recommends. One teaspoon of salt contains about 2,400

mg of sodium. Most Americans consume over 3,000 mg of sodium per day. This does not count foods eaten away from home. The problem is that the salt shaker is not the only place to find sodium. It is also important to look at Nutrition Facts labels to see how much sodium is in foods — canned and frozen foods can be especially high. Many of us really enjoy the flavor of salt. It is interesting to note that we are not born liking salt like we do sugar — we develop our taste for it.

Here’s how to eat to your heart’s content Centennial facts Be kind to your heart by eating well on Valentine's Day and year round. Research has shown that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables along with low-fat dairy foods, seafood, and lean meats and poultry can lower blood pressure. Lower blood pressure means a lower risk of having a heart attack or stroke. Focus on fruits and vegetables year round. Although fewer locally grown fruits and vegetables are available in winter, there still are many choices. Broccoli, cabbage, winter squash, carrots, and citrus fruits (such as oranges) are

nutrient-dense. Hearty vegetable soups are appealing on cold winter days. Orange and tomato juices are good choices throughout the year. Consider canned, frozen, and dried fruits and vegetables during the winter. If you're cooking at home, consider altering recipes for a healthy, lower fat diet. For example, substitute plain yogurt in place of sour cream in sauces and dips. Use skim milk in place of whole milk in recipes. Also, try evaporated milk or evaporated skim milk in place of cream in soups.

Consider these lower fat food preparation tips. • Choose lean meat and poultry. Trim visible fat off meat. Remove chicken skin before cooking, and moisten the chicken with wine or tomato sauce. • Broil or bake poultry, fish, and meats instead of frying. • Chill soups and stews and skim the fat off the top before reheating and eating. • Use lemon juice or lowcalorie dressings on salads. • Use spices and herbs for flavoring rather than butter or margarine. Watch the sodium when you're planning meals. Cut-

ting dietary sodium can help control blood pressure. Be wary of salty snacks, cereals, French fries, lunch meats, frozen dinners, and ramen noodle soups. Check labels for the sodium content of processed foods. Try to reduce sodium to about 1,500 milligrams per day for the best results. Finally, don't forget the importance of exercise for maintaining good health. Take a heart-healthy walk with a friend or relative as often as you can. Source: Carolyn Raab, Extension food and nutrition specialist

and home economics

Home Economics or Home Demonstration agents were in five counties from 1919 through the late 1920s. Those counties without county-funded agents had specialist and resident faculty from Oregon Agricultural College deliver programs to their areas. Early programs were on food conservation and preservation, child welfare, and household accounts and budgets. A clothing project, including making dress forms, was popular during this period. A school

lunch project was begun in Jackson County. Throughout the United States the county home demonstration agents were extremely helpful to rural schools in devising plans for providing some supplementary hot foods and in drawing up lists of suggested "menus" in advance.

There is only one queen bee in a colony.

An ear of corn averages 800 kernels in 16 rows.



NRCS has new faces, opportunities for producers The Oregon Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) office for Linn County has new leadership that recently arrived to help local agricultural producers in conservation planning, implementation and farm bill program administration.




Linear Irrigation System recently installed near Scio, OR with assistance from the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP)


The NRCS also has a new multi-county Basin Team Leader for the Upper Willamette Basin who arrived this fall. With her office also located in Tangent, Heather Y. Medina Sauceda came from Michigan to provide oversight of all NRCS activities in Benton, Lane, Lincoln, and Linn counties. She has a bachelor's of science in zoology environmental biology from Michigan State University and has been with the NRCS since 1999.

Mark Mellbye 541-967-3871 x2394 E-mail:

South Valley Crop Notes


With my office located in the Tangent Service Center, I arrived this past summer to take over as the Linn County NRCS District Conservationist. I am responsible for working with agricultural producers, other qualified program participants, local conservation partners, groups, and other interested citizens to ensure available NRCS programs are addressing local resource concerns. I am a graduate of Utah State University with a bachelor's of science in crop science. I transferred to Oregon from Utah where I worked as an NRCS Soil Conservationist. My previous experience included work as an agronomist for USDA Agricultural Research Service in a forage grass breeding program.


Lynn Larsen, District Conservationist with the NRCS in Linn County. OPPORTUNITIES AND SUCCESSES

One of the many NRCS program opportunities for Linn County agricultural producers in 2011 is the

Conservation Stewardship Program (CSP). CSP is a voluntary program that encourages agricultural and forestry producers to address resource concerns by (1) undertaking additional conservation activities and (2) improving and maintaining existing conservation systems. CSP provides financial and technical assistance to help land stewards conserve and enhance soil, water, air, and related natural resources on their land. CSP is available to all producers, regardless of operation size or crops pro-

duced. Eligible lands include cropland, grassland, prairie land, improved pastureland, rangeland, nonindustrial private forest land, and agricultural land under the jurisdiction of an Indian tribe. CSP is open for application year-round. A CSP contract can pay up to $40,000 per year and up to $200,000 during the life of the contract. Oregon as a whole has used CSP to a large extent, including more than $2.9 million of obligated funds and more than 350,000 acres contracted. However, Linn County currently has only one producer enrolled in CSP. There is great potential for CSP to be utilized in Linn County because of the conservation-minded Continuedon Page 9

• Wheat on wheat: ammonium sulfate and potassium chloride blends help suppress take-all, especially during late tillering, where wheat follows wheat. • Apply 50 - 80 lbs/ac N on perennial grass seed crops during vegetative growth (late February to midMarch) and an additional 50 - 80 lbs/ac in early April. • Growing degree days: delay first application on grass seed crops until after T-Sum reaches 200 GDD (usually mid-February). • The entire spring N can be delayed on wet soils until mid March or early April without reducing grass seed yields, especially on ryegrass crops. Delay fertilizer where soils are saturated or ponded. • N on wheat: apply N before the end of February on winter wheat to ensure N gets on the ground before late tillering. Application before Feekes GS6 (jointing) is critical because rapid N uptake begins at this stage. • Mint: dormant season applications of Gramoxone and Goal on peppermint should be completed by early February or before growth starts, especially on fields that are weak or will be flamed in the spring. • Don't forget to sign up over-seedings to maintain eligibility for seed certification. • Scout grass seed fields for late winter grain mite outbreaks. • Complete fertilizer and spray applications on meadowfoam before stems become brittle. • Complete Goal herbicide applications on white and red clover before Feb. 15. • Complete grass control herbicide treatments on winter wheat before March 1 on most fields. Applications on spring wheat may occur later in the season. • Wheat on wheat: ammonium sulfate and potassium chloride blends help suppress take-all, especially during late tillering, where wheat follows wheat. • Apply 50 - 80 lbs/ac N on perennial grass seed crops during vegetative growth (late February to midMarch) and an additional 50 - 80 lbs/ac in early April. • Growing degree days: delay first application on grass seed crops until after T-Sum reaches 200 GDD (usually mid-February). • The entire spring N can be delayed on wet soils until mid March or early April without reducing grass seed yields, especially on ryegrass crops. Delay fertilizer where soils are saturated or ponded. • N on wheat: apply N before the end of February on winter wheat to ensure N gets on the ground before late tillering. Application before Feekes GS6 (jointing) is critical because rapid N uptake begins at this stage. • Mint: dormant season applications of Gramoxone and Goal on peppermint should be completed by early February or before growth starts, especially on fields that are weak or will be flamed in the spring.


Enterprise budgets available What does it cost to grow grass seed and grain crops? What is the break-even price? What does it cost to perform individual operations like combining and no-till planting? These are the types of questions that enterprise budgets help answer. And thanks to the efforts of Marion County Extension agent Tom Silberstein and OSU Ag Economist Bart Eleveld, all the grass seed and wheat budgets have been updated this year. The budgets now use a similar equipment and materials database, which helps when making comparisons between crops. A summary of total costs and break-even prices for selected crops is presented in the table at right. T he full budgets give a range of break-even prices that vary with yields. The prices shown here are for "typical" yield levels. Copies of the budgets are available on-line from the Oregon Agricultural Information Network (OAIN) at OSU or from the Linn County Extension office. Please call for a free copy. An easy way to get the budgets is to go to the "Willamette Valley Field Crops" Web site. There is a convenient link that will take you right to the budgets.

New faces and opportunities at NRCS Continued from Page 8

producers and the innovative practices that they are already utilizing. The NRCS Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP) has been a very positive program across Linn County for years, improving efficiency in agricultural irrigation, waste management, and increasing production efficiencies, all the while improving local water quality and addressing quantity concerns. EQIP has been used extensively throughout the nation to assist agricultural producers with the implementation of conservation practices since the mid 90s. Through EQIP, NRCS is able to provide both technical and financial assistance to farm-




New NRCS basin team leader Heather Y. Medina Sauceda visits with farmer Aaron Schumacher about conservation programs.

ers and ranchers who are voluntarily applying conservation practices. In 2010, NRCS obligated more than $12.7 million in funding on

509 different contracts across Oregon; 33 of those contracts and more than $1.2 million were in the fourcounty Upper Willamette

Basin; more than $850,000 has been obligated in Linn County since 2009. Linn County producers have historically used EQIP to install conservation practices such as: brush management, manure storage facilities, fencing, watering facilities, pipeline, irrigation systems, and stream bank protection. EQIP has also helped producers become more effective with management practices, including irrigation water management, pest management, and wildlife habitat management. There were five new linear or pivot irrigation systems installed in Linn County in 2010 using EQIP assistance. These new systems greatly improved irrigation efficiencies and also reduced pumping costs.

Another local EQIP highlight this past year was the installation of a large manure storage facility to help a producer address waste management challenges associated with increased animal numbers. The big winner from this project is the nearby waterways. With the manure storage facility in place there is no longer a concern about causing water quality problems. FOR MORE INFORMATION:

Information on all NRCS programs is available on the Web at www.or.nrcs.usda .gov. Interested individuals are encouraged to call me at the Oregon NRCS field office in Tangent at (541) 9675925 x121 or email me anytime at lynn.larsen@or

Spanish explorers brought pigs to the Western Hemisphere.




Forestry Rick Fletcher 541-766-6750




Local woodland owner and sawmiller Aaron White, from Scio, will be one of several local wood producers you can meet at the Goods from the Local Woods sale on February 19.

Goods from the Local Woods sale Saturday, February 19, 2011 is your chance to buy goods from the local woods. The sale, which will be held in conjunction with the annual Linn County Small Woodlands tree seedling sale, will run from 8 a.m. to noon at the Linn County Expo Center, 3700 Knox Butte Road East, Albany. On display for you to examine will be a range of native sawn raw wood, including boards, flooring, bowl blanks, and burls, as well as finished wood craft items all made from wood grown on local family forest properties. One big goal of this sale is to better connect those who produce local specialty woods and wood products with those who

want to buy them. You will also be able to connect with local small sawmill operators who can custom-cut wood products for your use. Vendors who have committed to attend so far plan to display boards, blocks, and other items from maple, alder, oak, ash, cherry, and black walnut. This will be your chance to examine these items up close and find local woods for your home and craft projects. For more information about the sale, contact Rick Fletcher, OSU Extension Forester at 541-766-6750 or Mary Brendle, Linn County Small Woodlands Association at 541-367-2845.

More programs of interest to family owners February 23, 24 & 25 : Oregon Logging Conference, Lane County Fairgrounds, Eugene. Contact organizers for more information at www.oregonlog or 800-595-9191. Wednesday, March 3 : Willamette Ponderosa Pine

Annual Meeting; Linn County Extension Office, 4th and Lyons, Albany. 1-3 p.m.; meeting is open to anyone interested in restoring native ponderosa pines to the Willamette Valley. Contact: Bob McNitt, 503769-2520. Saturday, March 19: Tree

School sponsored by OSUClackamas County Extension; this is the big woodland owner education event each year in Oregon, with more than 50 classes to choose from; will be held at Clackamas Community College, Oregon City; Contact Clackamas County Extension Service, 503-655-8631.

Oregon has 362 miles of publicly accessible coastline.


Food Check-Out week and the Ronald McDonald Houses BY MARY G. GRIMES

Linn County Farm Bureau, Oregon Farm Bureau and the American Farm Bureau proclaim February 2026, 2011, as Food CheckOut Week in Oregon and the U.S.A.. We call upon all citizens to reflect upon and recognize the strength of our agricultural industry during this week. Despite lean economic times, it is important that Americans consume healthy foods containing adequate vitamins, minerals, fiber and other nutrients. Achieving better nutrition with less money is a

shared concern among our citizens that can be addressed through education and smart shopping strategies. Oregon farmers and ranchers are unmatched in their ability to consistently produce an abundance of nutritious, safe, and abundant food. It is noteworthy that they continue to do this, despite confronting significant uncertainties on a daily basis, including inclement weather, damaging insects, and other challenges. Oregon farmers, ranchers, and others involved in

the agriculture industry work together in an environmentally sustainable way to help feed people here in our nation and in other countries around the world. As a way to celebrate Food Check-Out Week in Oregon, the Oregon Farm Bureau Women's Advisory Council will spend a morning in a Portland metro area grocery store purchasing groceries for the two Portland Ronald McDonald Houses with funds we have collected from the county farm bureaus around the state. Then the women will deliver the groceries to the

two Ronald McDonald Houses and stock the pantries. Around the first of June, the OFBWAC will again purchase and deliver groceries, but it will be for the Bend Ronald McDonald House. By November, the OFBWAC will take any remaining funds from county farm bureaus since June and divide equally with each Ronald McDonald House, just in time for Thanksgiving. Linn Co Farm Bureau participates in the funding and shopping. If you would like to contribute to helping fill the


Linn County Farm Bureau Don Cersovski 541-995-8310

Ronald McDonald House pantries, you can participate at any McDonald's restaurant at any time. All drive-up windows have a collection box for your convenience. The three Ronald McDonald Houses in Oregon are located near hospitals and medical centers and are home-away-fromhome for families with sick or injured children. Doctors and medical staffs can refer the families that otherwise could not afford to stay close to their sick children while the children are in the hospital going through a prolonged

medical procedure. The respite house has all the comforts of a regular family home, including food the family can prepare when their schedule allows. We recognize the need everyone has to find solutions to feeding families healthy foods on a tight budget. Farm Bureau is helping consumers find solutions to eating healthy on a stretched budget. Oregon's farmers and ranchers are committed to producing safe, abundant, and healthy food, as are all American farmers and ranchers.


Seedling sale set for Feb. 19 The Linn County Chapter of Oregon Small Woodlands Association (LCSWA) is sponsoring a seedling sale on Saturday, February 19, 2011. The location is the Santiam Building at the Linn County Fair and Expo Center, 3700 Knox Butte Road in Albany. This is near I-5, Exit 234. The time is from 8 a.m. to noon, or while supplies last. It is best to come early. We have ordered the following conifers: Douglas-fir, Willamette Valley ponderosa pine, western redcedar, noble fir, grand fir, western hemlock, coast redwood, giant sequoia, and incense-cedar. The hardwood trees and shrubs are Oregon grape, Oregon ash, red alder, vine maple, ocean spray, ninebark, eastern redbud, kousa dogwood, purple smoke tree, and

Japanese pagoda tree. Prices for the conifers are $1.00 to $1.50 depending on species. The prices for the hardwoods and shrubs are $1.50 to $3.00. There will be bagged sword ferns available at $5. Some of the trees are excellent for smaller places around a home; they flower in the spring and/or have nice colored leaves in the fall. Most seedlings will be twoyear-old bare root, directly from the nursery. Again this year we will have available for sale tubes and stakes to help protect your seedlings from animals that might find your plant attractive as food. New this year will be a display and sale of local wood products. While the list of participants has not been completed, we hope to have vendors with native woods

and wood products available for viewing and sale. An information table will be available to view samples, see pictures, and read information about the seedlings. An OSU Extensiontrained Master Woodland Manager will be there to answer questions and provide information on which trees are best suited for a particular planting site. Portions of the money earned will be used to help fund the Linn County Chapter's educational programs for youth in Linn County. These include forestry camp and college scholarships. If you have questions, or to pre -order, please contact: Fay or Sherm Sallee, (541) 4515322. E-mail:

Blueberries are low in calories, fat, and a good source of fiber.

Woodland Info Night Tuesday, March 1, from 6:30-8:30 p.m., the Woodland Information Night returns to Albany with speakers and displays designed to help you gather up-to-date information about managing your woodland property. The program will be held in the Linn County Old Armory Building, located in downtown Albany at the corner of 4th and Lyons Streets. Agenda for the evening includes:


6:30-7:15 p.m.


Habitat and Fish: What You Might Want to Know About Headwater Streams - Doug Bateman, USGS Fisheries Biologist, Corvallis. 7:15-7:45 p.m. Refreshments and Vendor Viewing 7:45-8:30 p.m. The Oregon Woodland Cooperative: New Markets for Woodland Owners - Neil Schroeder, Oregon Woodland Cooperative, Hillsboro.

6:30-7:15 p.m. Biomass and Biochar: Opportunities for Woodland Owners - John Pine, Oregon Department of Forestry Biomass Specialist, Roseburg. 7:15-7:45 p.m. Refreshments and Vendor Viewing 7:45-8:30 p.m. What to Do With Small Trees? - Scott Melcher, Logging Contractor, and 2010 Oregon Tree Farmer

Woodland Information Night is free and open to anyone interested. It is sponsored jointly by the Linn County Small Woodlands Association and OSU Extension Service. Questions about the program can be directed to Rick Fletcher, OSU Extension Forester in Corvallis at 541-766-6750.



Going high-tech with cattle Technology, a word you would normally associate with the computer world. However, we in the cattle business sometimes find ourselves immersed in it. Here is a synopsis of an educational program I have been assisting producers with over the last several years. We are planning a class for later this February or early to mid-March. I hope you can join us! See the announcement at the end of this article.

Shelby Filley 541-672-4461

ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION SCHOOL A 3-day school designed to enable the producer to effectively artificially inseminate cows. We cover anatomy, physiology, and nutrition as it pertains to efficient reproduction in cattle. Equipment and supplies and technique for artificial insemination , including practice on cows, are covered. Successful participants will be awarded an AI Certificate. High School seniors are encouraged to contact their local Livestock Associations for scholarships to attend. Douglas County Livestock and Jackson County Stockmen's Associations have offered these in the past. Date: March 23 - 25, 2011. 8 am - 5 pm Location: Roseburg (OSU Extension & area ranch) Instructors: Genex Corp. personnel & Shelby Filley, OSU Extension. Cost: $200 - 300 estimate Other: You must sign up for or be a current member of the Douglas County Livestock Association (insurance requirement)


The Douglas County Livestock Association (DCLA) Purebred Breeders' Committee and OSU Extension Service work together to use technology in genetic evaluation of cattle. The technology is ultrasound scanning of live cattle for carcass characteristics. An ultrasound machine, along with probes and plenty of oil, are used as bulls and heifers come into the chute one by one to be scanned. The probes are gently pressed against the backs of the cattle for collection of data such as rib eye area, rump fat, back fat and intramuscular fat (marbling). We learn about the specific

Livestock & Forages




Shelby Filley is shown here scanning a cow.

measurements from the cattle and how they relate to beef quality. Ultrasound technology assists producers in selection for carcass traits by scanning of live cattle. Animals that are candidates for these scans are purebred cattle that are potential herd sires or replacement heifers. They should

be approximately one year of age at evaluation, but there are age limits of which to be aware. Ultrasound on yearling bulls assists producers in selection of superior seed stock to produce calves of high carcass value. Many people place little emphasis on scanning heifers. However, it is also important to eval-

uate these ladies by ultrasound in order to improve decision making for breeding options when selecting for replacements for the seed stock cow-herd. The scanning data is stored to a disc and then sent to Centralized Ultrasound Processing Lab (CUP Lab) run by Walter and Associates, LLC, which origi-

Co-sponsored by the Douglas County Livestock Association and OSU Extension Service nated from Iowa State University's CUP Lab. There, the results of scans from across the United States are analyzed and reported back to the producer and the breed registries for calculation of EPD or Expected Progeny Differences. These EPD, which are indicators of genetic merit, can then be used by beef

producers with commercial cattle operations to choose the most appropriate sires to achieve their goals for herd or individual groups within their herd. For example, if one wanted to increase marbling (intramuscular fat) in their beef product, then a bull with Continued on Page 13

Ultrasound scanning events and educational program Oregon State University Extension Service and the Douglas County Livestock Association's Purebred Breeders Committee are making plans to have a certified technician perform ultrasound scans on purebred cattle (yearling bulls and heifers). The scan data will be used for evaluating the potential of these breeding animals to improve carcass characteristics in their offspring. See accompanying article "Ultrasound Technology" for information on the benefits and procedures of ultrasound evaluation of cattle. A certified technician will be available for the event to perform ultrasound scan-

ning on your purebred cattle. Carcass characteristics such as back fat thickness, rump fat, intramuscular fat (marbling), and rib eye area, are the measurements that will be taken. Last year, we used Susan McCalib, certified ultrasound technician, to scan the cattle. For more information on scanning and Susan's work, visit her Web site at . Two locations are being considered for scanning cattle, Roseburg (Lookingglass Red Angus ~ Thank-you to Brian Heinze) and Willamette Valley (TBA). Participants in Roseburg need to sign up/be members of

the Douglas County Livestock Association. In the past, cost has been between $16 and $20 per head of cattle scanned. Actual cost will depend on the total number of cattle from producers at each site. The event will be held sometime in late February/early March, depending on need. There will be no charge for viewing the event. Educational information and publications will be available. Youth and adults alike are encouraged to come and learn. Producers need to provide official data collection sheets (barn sheets) prior to the scan. These can be obtained from the breed registry websites so that the data can

be reported to the central processing lab correctly. Make sure you know the age or other specifications that the breed registry requires in order to use the scan and EPD information. To sign up for a scanning event, or to let us know you may be interested in upcoming years, please contact the following people: • All locations - Shelby at (541) 6724461 or • Roseburg - Brian Arp (541-825-3550) or Veril Nelson (541-459-1330) • Corvallis - Janice Hunter (541-6020002)


FSA Conservation Loan Program The Farm Service Agency makes and guarantees conservation loans on farms and ranches to help conserve our natural resources. The Conservation Loan (CL) Program provides farmers with the credit necessary to implement conservation measures on their land. The direct CL limit is $300,000 and

the guaranteed CL limit is $1,119,000. Guaranteed loans are available through lenders working with FSA. Applicants will work with Natural Resources and Conservation Service (NRCS) staff to develop a conservation plan. Conservation practices must be approved by NRCS before FSA can provide financing. Examples of con-

servation practices include installation of conservation structures; establishment of forest cover; installation of water conservation measures; establishment or improvement of permanent pastures; transitioning to organic production; manure management, including manure digestion systems; and more.

Disasters Crop insurance deadlines near declared in Linn and Curry Effective December 27, 2010, Secretary of Agriculture Thomas J. Vilsack declared a natural disaster in Curry and Linn counties in Oregon, due to losses caused by the combined effects of excessive rain, flooding, and below normal temperatures from April 15, 2010, to June 30, 2010. Contiguous counties are: Benton, Coos, Deschutes, Douglas, Jefferson, Josephine, Lane, Marion, and Polk counties. Farmers will be considered for assistance from FSA, provided eligibility requirements are met. This assistance includes FSA emergency loans and the Supplemental Revenue Assistance Payments (SURE) Program. Farmers in eligible counties have eight months from the date of the declaration to apply for emergency loan assistance. Contact your local FSA office for further information.

Dungeness crab can live up to 13 years.

Now is the time to think about signing up for crop insurance for the 2011 crop year. Many crops can be insured through your local insurance agent. If your insurance agent is not willing or able to insure your crops, contact the Farm Service Agency. We will help you locate agents who can in-

sure your crops and/or provide the coverage through USDA's Non-Insured Assistance Program (NAP). Deadlines for signing up are: March 15, 2011 - Beans, broccoli, cantaloupe, cauliflower, corn, cucumber, lentils, mustard, peas, potatoes, pumpkin, safflower, sunflower, squash, tomato,

watermelon May 31, 2011 - Buckwheat Risk Management Agency's Adjusted Gross Revenue Lite program has a sales closing date of March 15th for the 2011 crop year. This is a streamlined whole farm revenue protection program. Please contact your local crop insurance agent.

County committee election results Congratulations to Debbie Crocker. Debbie is the newest member to be elected to the Farm Service Agency's county committee; she represents the farmers of South Benton County. Congratulations also go out to Skip Gray! Skip was re-elected for a sec-

ond consecutive term and represents the farmers of North Linn County. FSA appreciates all of the voters for taking the time to complete the election ballot. The county committee system works only because of your participation.





Farm Service Agency 33630 McFarland Rd., Tangent, Oregon 97389 Office Staff: Katie Hennessy-FLM; Scott Nieman-FLO; Michelle Ham-PT; Patty Curtis-PT; Michelle Nycz-PT; Janelle Huserik-Acting County Executive Director

Committee: Skip Gray, chair; Peter Kenagy, vice chair; David Goracke, Debbie Crocker, Sterling Grant

The USDA is an Equal Opportunity Provider and Employer

Changes in management The new year begins with goodbyes to Dan Sundseth as he retires after 28 years of service to the Farm Service Agency. We wish him well in his new endeavors. We welcome aboard Janelle Huserik. Janelle is Polk County's Executive Director and will be sharing the management of both Polk County and the Tangent Service Center. Welcome!

DATES TO REMEMBER February 21, 2011 The Farm Service Agency office will be closed in observance of George Washington's Birthday.

LDP sign-up underway Eligible producers who plan to participate in the Loan Deficiency Program (LDP) for unshorn pelts and/or wool can now come into the office and get signed up for the 2011 crop year. Eligible producers must have beneficial interest in the pelts, owned the lamb for at least 30 calendar days before the date of slaughter, and sell the unshorn lamb for immediate slaughter. Producers must also comply with wetland conservation and highly erodible land conservation provisions on all lands they operate or have interest in.

Livestock & Forages

Going high-tech Continued from Page 12

superior characteristics in that trait could be selected as the new herd sire. This is very similar to the scenario of choosing a calving ease bull to decrease dystocia in first calf heifers. In addition to EPD calculations for purebred cattle some feedlots and livestock shows are using ultrasound scanning for judging the degree of finish and other carcass characteristics in market cattle.

All this technology makes for improving the efficiency of production (pounds of beef per head of cattle) in the United States. The US Beef Industry has made tremendous strides over the years in helping to reduce the environmental footprint of growing food for a hungry world. Let's make an effort to incorporate technology and other efficiency-improving methods in our production practices. Step forward, not back.

Health note on co-mingling cattle for events BY DR. SCOTT HENDY DVM AT PARKWAY ANIMAL HOSPITAL IN ROSEBURG

Animals moved from one ranch to another for ultrasound scanning or show or exhibit need to be apparently disease-free. This includes, but is not limited to, nasal discharge, cough, diarrhea, ringworm, lice, pinkeye, lethargic, or depressed. Animals should also be current on their vaccinations. This should include 8-way Clostridial vaccine, viral vaccines (BVDIBR-PI3-BRSV), and a Pastuerella vaccine. Some producers also use additional vaccines. Vaccines should have been ad-

ministered within the last year and on weanling to yearling animals preferably within the last 6 months. Contact your veterinarian for specific health measures for your herd. Keeping animals separated in different pens or tied apart, avoiding nose to nose contact, and avoid drinking out of common water tanks or eating out of shared feed bunks are all general common sense sanitation procedures to follow on the day of the event. It is important to respect the concerns and risks to fellow producers in cooperating in these events.

Tallow, beef fat is in soaps, cosmetics, candles and chewing gum.



Update from Oregon State dairy foods program After 30 years of hibernation, the OSU dairy plant has been completely remodeled and is once again a fully licensed dairy facility. With state-of-the-art cheese making equipment imported from Europe, it is possible to produce most types of specialty cheeses in the facility. One reason for applying for the license was to serve as incubator for starting cheese companies. Cheese makers can make and sell cheeses produced at OSU while constructing their own facilities. This helps lower the entrance barriers for starting companies. Currently, the company "Cheese Louise" is producing ricotta and mascarpone cheeses, which are sold for food service use. The dairy plant also hosts several Extension classes each year. Besides receiving training in cheese making, dairy sector employees are trained in safe processing procedures, GMPs, SSOP, and HACCP. Cheese making classes are also popular among OSU students. In the past, the classes were open to all students, but are now restricted to food science and dairy option students because of the large enrollment growth in these programs. By Homecoming 2011, the OSU cheese will be launched. Beaver Products propose to develop and sell artisan cheeses based on OSU's strengths in food science and innovation. Beaver Products cheeses will be developed, produced, marketed and sold by OSU students using milk from the OSU dairy farm. The practical hands-on experience will provide great training for students. Providing paying jobs for students

dairyfoods programs in perpetuity and will have a great impact. The first recipient of the professorship, Dr. Lisbeth Goddik, extends a sincere thankyou to the donors, a couple who believes in the importance of safe and nutritious dairy products, sustainable rural communities, family farming, and local food. COMING DAIRY FOODS EXTENSION EVENTS




The guys from "Cheese Louise" at the new dairy facility, producing ricotta and mascarpone cheeses sold for food service use.

right on campus will help students handle the economic challenges of getting a college degree. Scaling up of the equipment is required to handle larger production batches. A new 240-gallon cheese vat has just been ordered from Holland. New cheese caves are currently being built, and a new cheese press was just installed. Funding for covering start-up costs will come from dairy industry companies and private donors. In November, the Paul and Sandy Arbuthnot Professorship was established, which supports the Arbuthnot Dairy Center. The Arbuthnot Dairy Center is both a physical location on campus and an outreach program. The center consists of the dairy pilot plant with connecting laboratory and classroom. The classroom and laboratory are currently undergoing renovation to better fulfill industry standards. The outreach program will focus on promoting development of safe and innovative dairy

products in Oregon. Special attention will be given to helping dairy farmers who are adding value to their milk by converting to farmstead dairy operations. Each year, an international cheese maker will be invited to be cheese maker in residence at OSU. The first cheese maker is expected to be from Italy. The cheese maker will work with Oregon's artisan cheese makers through classes at OSU and on-site visits. The endowment will also support student internships with dairy companies. This endowment will support OSU's

February 1: Getting practical about sustainability. One day short course at OSU focused on maximizing material and asset utilization, minimizing utility usage and stopping waste, reducing scrap and rework, analyzing equipment size for effective and efficient use based on processing volume April 11 : Framing your message for the media. One day short course in Salem focused on communicating with the media. April 12-13: ODI 100 yrs conference. Annual conference for dairy processors from OR & WA and suppliers to the industry. May 10-12: Practical introduction to cheese making. Introductory class focusing on people interested in starting up artisan dairy processing.

Small Farms Melissa Fery 541-766-6750 x2395


Tree Fruit Growers annual meeting set for Feb. 12 PHOTO



A Spotted Wing Drosophilia.

The Willamette Valley Tree Fruit Growers Association (WVTFGA) annual meeting has been set for February 12, 2011, at the Roth's IGA, Salem. WVTFGA is a group of tree fruit growers that get together twice a year for educational classes and tours. The winter meeting is held in February, and the summer tour is held in June. This meeting is for anyone who is growing tree fruits, berries, and/or nuts, and would like educational classes to improve their management techniques, plus pesticide credits.

Cost is $25 per member; if a member gets a new person to come, the cost is $15 for the member and the guest. This annual meeting will cover the new insect Drosophila, air blast sprayer technologies, spray drift and reducing drift, plus what an ODA investigator has learned about spray drift, new pesticide laws and regulations in a format that will surely please everyone! Please call or e-mail Diana Brin,, 541-9086166. Or call Ross at 541-344-1709.

Checking for Eastern Filbert Blight The region seems to be pretty "clean" from the EFB infestations that happened earlier. Take some time to look for EFB on your hazelnut trees. We know the blight is

here, so inspections are still very important. It is easier to see now that the leaves have fallen. Look for weak branches that have black, raised black bumps that are in a straight

line on the branches. If you find any such symptoms, come into the local Extension office and pick up the publication Detecting and Controlling EFB, EC 1287, which has

good pictures of EFB or drop a sample by and we will look at it. If you find anything that looks like EFB, please call your local Extension office.

PRUNING CLASS SCHEDULE A list of the current pruning classes is available at the Lane County Extension office. Drop by the Linn County Extension office or call 541-967-3871 for a copy or go to http://extension.oregon


Commercial Horticulture Tree Fruits and Nuts Ross Penhallegon 541-344-1709

Horticulture Hints February • Peaches and blueberries are breaking bud, so dormant spray. • Finish pruning berry and tree fruits. • Prepare for scab sprays in apples and pears. • Apply oils to control scale, mites, and aphid eggs. • Apply bloom sprays in apricot, prune, and plum.

Pacific Northwest Weed Short Course Feb. 1-2 A PNW Weed Short Course is scheduled for Eugene, February 1-2, at the Lane Community College Center for Meeting and Learning. The conference is for those people needing public, commercial, and consultant pesticide training credit hours. There will be an antici-

pated 12 hours of credit. The subject for 2011 is weed management. The registration form can be found on the OSU Extension Lane County Web site at, or you may call 541-344-0265, or 541-344-1709 to request a registration form.

Machine harvesting advances help growers stay competitive Continued from Page 1

Dr. Strik reported in 2007 that harvested blueberry acreage in Oregon had more than doubled, from 2,100 acres in 1995 to 4,400 acres in 2006. As a result, the OSU Extension Service expanded efforts to support Oregon blueberry producers. In addition to offering educational workshops for growers, Dr. Strik has conducted extensive studies on crop management and mechanized harvesting systems. "Advances in machine harvesting, in particular, have helped growers remain competitive by reducing harvesting costs," she said. "In our outreach efforts, we've tried to address all the key issues

that will help our growers produce a quality product." Perhaps the biggest challenge that hazelnut growers continue to grapple with is the threat posed by Eastern filbert blight (EFB). The disease was first discovered in Oregon in the mid-1970s. Since then, OSU researchers have worked continually to develop new hazelnut varieties for resistance — and ultimately, immunity — to this deadly crop disease. Growers have cooperated in the research effort by donating promising stock samples and helping researchers conduct field trials. Ed Dyke, who farms in the Cornelius area, is one hazelnut grower who donated samples from his orchard to the university

research effort. He discovered EFB in his orchard about 25 or 30 years ago. He said he loses some of his trees to Eastern filbert blight each year. At one point, his hazelnut harvest had gone from 4,000 pounds to 1,000 pounds of nuts. But he mounted an aggressive control program, replanting with new tree varieties developed by OSU, and maintaining his spray program. In 2010, Ed harvested 2,700 pounds of hazelnuts. The 15-acre orchard, which Ed purchased from a neighbor because it was adjacent to his land and the neighbor wanted to sell, is 85 years old, originally planted in 1935. Through the years of nurturing

the orchard and protecting it from being totally overrun by EFB, Ed has watched one tree with special interest. "I've had one tree that was surrounded by others I had to remove. I've been caring for that tree for 25 years, and it still hasn't gotten the blight. All the trees around it got the disease." Researchers from the university breeding program took samples from Ed's tree about a year ago. He hasn't yet heard about the test results, but he said, "This work takes a long time." Wayne Chambers started planting his filbert orchard in 1962 because he and his brother wanted to diversify their farm. The orchard now covers 145 acres, with 136 trees per acre planted in 18-foot

spacing. Barcelona was the variety of choice when the Chambers established their orchard. Since EFB struck his orchard, Wayne has had to remove a total of about 7 acres —952 trees. He continues to work with OSU scientists, testing new varieties of hazelnut stock. He has high hopes for a new OSU variety he planted, Jefferson, which is doing well in his orchard so far. Wayne said that Jefferson compares favorably with the original Barcelona variety in size, quality, and flavor of the nuts. "OSU has been doing a tremendous job in the breeding program," he said. "EFB is a killer. It's a slow death, and eventually it will force the replanting of all hazelnut acreage."


People helping people grow. February 2011 edition.