Update: March 2014

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UPDATE people helping people grow

MARCH 2014

Old Armory, Fourth & Lyon, Albany, Oregon 97321, Phone 541-967-3871


Young Professionals Put Down Farming Roots Growing Farms course taught them how


eff Bramlett, 42, was a special education elementary school teacher in Salem; Carri Heisler, 34, was a GIS analyst for a computer software company. Both were successful young professionals in their vocations, yet they shared a dream of working together in a very different kind of field. Jeff and Carri wanted to farm, and they found the land, the training and the mentors to make their dream a reality. They now own and operate Pitchfork & Crow, a thriving 15-acre farm and Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) operation along Santiam Highway just north of Lebanon.


Transition to farming




Carri Heisler and Jeff Bramlett, have transitioned from their jobs in Salem as GIS Analyst for a computer software company and special education teacher, respectively, to farmers producing fruit and vegetables for their Community Supported Agriculture customers.

“Becoming a farmer has been good,” says Carri. “It is hard, but it is so much better than what I was doing because I feel I have really done something by the end of the day,” she explains. According to Jeff, the couple’s first step was to find some land to work, so in 2009 they rented an acre of ground in Stayton and worked on the small farm after their day jobs. They produced a small harvest of vegetables and sold

their goods from a table and canopy in a South Salem parking lot. To increase their profit in 2010, they leased additional land on Grand Island and in Lebanon and began to sell produce at the Salem Saturday Market. At the market, they built their base of loyal customers until they had enough business to begin a CSA. While the income was modest, their confidence grew and they began to envision a more permanent transition into full time farming. When the farmland they had been leasing in Lebanon went up for sale, the couple made the investment in the land and at the same time, made the lifestyle commitment to farming as their vocation.

To figure out the business plan and vision for their farm, Jeff and Carri enrolled in the Oregon State University Extension Service’s 2009 Growing Farms program, which is a series of workshops designed to provide beginning farmers with the tools and knowledge needed to manage the biological and financial risks of farming. “The Growing Farms class was the catalyst for us starting our farm,” says Carri. “The Growing Farms course is intended for people in their first five years of farming, people seriously considering starting a farm business, and people considering major changes to their farm,” says Melissa Fery, an OSU Extension faculty member who co-manages the Small Farms program. “The Growing Farms program showed us it wasn’t crazy to want to be farmers,” says Carri. “There were others taking the course with similar dreams.” Over the seven-part series, Carri and Jeff received practical ideas from the OSU Extension faculty and from experienced, successful farmers. They learned about the business aspect of farming, including budgeting and having employees. “Growing Farms showed us that if we were going to do it right, we needed to consider our farm a business — it isn’t just gardening,” says Jeff. See FARMING ROOTS on Page 2


MARCH 2014



Jeff Olsen Extension lost a valuable resource and a friend when Jeff Olsen passed away on January 31. Jeff received a bachelor’s degree in Horticulture from Washington State University and a master’s degree in Horticulture from Oregon State University. He was hired as an Extension Horticulturist with Oregon State University Extension Service in November, 1983, to work with commercial growers of tree fruits and nuts. Over the years, Jeff established himself as a prominent and well-respected leader in his field moving into the role as the primary Extension Specialist for hazelnuts. His research, publications, and presentations have benefited thousands of growers and professionals from throughout the world. He traveled the world to share his work through conferences, invited tours, serving as a technical advisor, and working as an international volunteer. These travels included Temuco, Chile; Windhook, Namibia; Bangkok, Thailand; Christchurch, New Zealand; Vitterbo, Italy; San Jose, Costa Rica; Rajasthan, India; Tarragona, Spain; Ordu, Turkey; Southern Africa; Krasnodar, Russia; Cape Verde, Africa; Northern India; and Melbourne, Australia. In 2008 Jeff was selected to be a review panel member for the United States Department of Agriculture/CSREES International Science and Education Grants program.

New Extension publications available! The following resources are now available online: EC 1618, Strawberry cultivars for western Oregon and Washington • Authors: Chad E. Finn, Bernadine C. Strik, and Patrick P. Moore • Revised February 2014, 8 pages, NC • https://ir.library.oregon state.edu/xmlui/bitstream /handle/1957/45878/ec161 8.pdf EM 8860, Preventing herbicide drift and injury to grapes • Authors: Daniel A. Ball, Mary Corp, and Imed Dami • Revised February 2014, 7 pages, NC • https://ir.library.oregon state.edu/xmlui/bitstream /handle/1957/45880/em88 60.pdf

Cover Oregon Open Enrollment Continues through March 31 2013 to March 2014. HowCover Oregon is made ever, some groups can enfor Oregonians, by Oregoroll outside of the open nians. If you don’t have enrollment period: health insurance, can’t • Individuals can see if find affordable health inthey qualify for surance health coverage through work, own a small We invite you through the Oregon Health business or buy to visit Plan and your own health CoverOregon.com Healthy Kids at insurance, you’ll be able to to learn more any time. • Employers access health and sign up can apply at coverage opany time. Their tions through for updates. employees need Cover Oregon. to enroll within Even if you have the open enrollment pea pre-existing condition, riod set by their employer. you can apply for and reWe invite you to visit ceive health insurance. CoverOregon.com to learn For coverage starting in more and sign up for up2014, open enrollment dates. You can also get free takes place from October

assistance from certified insurance agents or community partners, or from Cover Oregon’s trained specialists. Locally, Linn County Health Department and Benton County Health Department is helping people find the right medical coverage for individuals and families. Call 541-967-3888 or call and leave a message at 541-766-2130. Someone will return your call within two business days. To be sure you’re working with a certified agent or partner, visit www.Cover Oregon.com or call 1-855CoverOR (toll-free 1-855268-3767). Language assistance is available.




An alphabet of vegetables, from arugula to zucchini, is produced year ‘round on the Pitchfork & Crow farm north of Lebanon. Carri and Jeff learned the basics of successful farm management by attending the Growing Farms series taught by OSU Extension Small Farms program faculty.

Farming roots Continued from Page 1 The OSU Extension Growing Farms series will be offered again in 2015 in the mid-to southernWillamette Valley region. Contact 541-766-3553 or melissa.fery@oregonstate.edu for more information.

Community Supported Agriculture Jeff and Carri’s Pitchfork & Crow farm produces apples and pears and many kinds of vegetables, “We grow the entire alphabet, from arugula to zucchini,” says Jeff with a smile. For information on how to join their year ‘round CSA, contact farmers@pitchfork andcrow.com. No moss will grow under their feet this coming year. The farming couple will begin to plant a hedgerow buffer on the perimeter of their land to attract native pollinators, continue the restoration of older fruit trees, and harvest a wholesome bounty from five acres of vegetables for a growing number of CSA members. As Carri looks over the table full of seed packets they have ordered for this year’s planting she says, “I can’t imagine doing anything else that would be more fulfilling than farming.” Carri and Jeff are growing their dream.

Linn County Extension Association

MARCH 2014


UPDATE — people helping people grow UPDATE is a monthly publication owned and administered by the Linn County Extension Association, a 501(c)(3) federal income tax exempt organization. The Albany Democrat-Herald, under a contract with the Linn County Extension Association, prints UPDATE. Content of UPDATE is furnished by Linn County Extension Association members, Linn County Extension service agents

and other organizations that contract with Linn County Extension Association to print a newsletter for their constituencies. Advertising is provided by the Albany Democrat-Herald and does not reflect any product endorsement by the above Association, Agents or Service. The Albany Democrat-Herald is located at 600 Lyon St., S.W., Albany, Oregon. Telephone 541-926-2211.

EXTENSION OFFICE HOURS The Linn County office of the OSU Extension Service is located in the Old Armory Building on the courner of Fourth Avenue and Lyon Street in Albany. The office is open from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Monday through Friday. Phone 541-967-3871. Seed Certification phone 541-967-3810. OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION FACULTY AND PROGRAM ASSISTANTS SERVING LINN COUNTY 4-H Youth Development — Robin Galloway 541-967-3871 x 2399 4-H Youth Development — Karissa Dishon 541-967-3871 x 2395 4-H Youth Development — Anne O’Rourke 541-967-3871 Commercial Agriculture (CA) CA Livestock & Forages — Shelby Filley* 541-672-4461 CA Orchard & Berry Crops — Ross Penhallegon* 541-344-1709 CA Small Farms — Melissa Fery* 541-766-6750 CA Small Farms — Amy Garrett* 541-766-6750 Community Horticulture — Barb Fick* 541-967-3871 x 2393 Family & Community Health (FCH) — Janice Gregg 541-967-3871 x 2830 Community Horticulture — Pami Opfer 541-967-3871 x 2836 FCH Oregon Family Nutrition Program (OFNP) — Tina Dodge Vera 541-967-3871 x 2392 FCH OFNP — Adejoke Babatunde 541-967-3871 FCH OFNP — Iris Carrasc• 541-967-3871 FCH OFNP — Leonor Chavez 541-967-3871 FCH OFNP — Ana Lu Fonseca 541-967-3871 Forestry, Natural Resources — Brad Withrow-Robinson* 541-967-3871 ADMINISTRATION AND PROGRAM SUPPORT SERVING LINN COUNTY Office Manager — Rosemary Weidman 541-967-3871 x 2396 Office Specialist — Laurie Gibson 541-967-3871 x 2391 Office Specialist — Michele Webster 541-967-3871 County Leader — Robin Galloway 541-967-3871 Regional Administrator — Derek Godwin 541-967-3871 Communications, editor -— Mary Stewart 541-967-3871




The LCEA Banquet is a place to not only celebrate the past year's successes, but also a great time to catch up with friends. Pictured here (L to R) are Barb Fick, Rich Little, Renee Webb, and Pami Opfer.

SEED CERTIFICATION** Doug Huff, Tamara Fowler


LINN COUNTY EXTENSION FAX NUMBER: 541-967-9169 LINN COUNTY EXTENSION WEB SITE: http://extension.oregonstate.edu/linn

Laurie Gibson

UPDATE MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE Robin Galloway Mary Stewart, Editor

Kate Schell

LINN COUNTY EXTENSION ASSOCIATION BOARD MEMBERS Kent Burkholder Joy Chase Rich Little Tim Rice Jess Ropp Al Severson Oregon State University offers educational programs, activities and materials — without regard to race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, national origin, age, marital status, disability, and disabled veterans or Vietnam-era veteran status — as required by Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Oregon State University is an Equal Opportunity Employer.

Banquet honors volunteers The Linn County Extension Association annual meeting and banquet was held at the Albany Eagles Lodge on Tuesday, February 18. OSU Extension regional administrator Derek Godwin was

the master of ceremonies, as well as providing an update on the State of Linn County Extension. The association can only function with the hundreds of hours provided by dedicated volunteers

JOIN LCEA! YES, I want to support the Linn County Extension Association. Here is my annual membership donation. Name______________________________________________________________________________________________ Address____________________________________________________________________________________________ City____________________________________________________ Zip____________ Phone______________________ Email_________________________________________________ ___$250 Sponsor ___$100 Benefactor ____$50 Sustaining Member ____$25 Contributing $______ Any amount Make checks payable to “Linn County Extension Association,” P.O. Box 1851, Albany, Oregon 97321

supporting all program areas. In recognition of this fact, several people were honored. They included: Master Gardener Volunteer, Ranee Webb; 4-H Outstanding Leader of the Year Jan Privatsky; Friends of 4-H, Wilco Farm Stores, TJ Colson; Small Farms, Paul and Noni Harcombe; Family Community Health, Nicole Evans and Theo Warren; Forestry, Mary Brendle. The educational feature talk was “GMOs in Today’s World,” presented by Dr. Steven Strauss with the OSU Forest Science department. A big thank you to LCEA Board member Al Severson and the folks at the Eagles Lodge. Everyone was very friendly and accommodating and the food was very good.

Melissa Ferry 541-766-6750 melissa.fery @oregonstate.edu


Commercial Agriculture

Small Farms


MARCH 2014

Groundwater Awareness Week Time to schedule your annual water well checkup! Just as you check your furnace or smoke detector batteries seasonally, spring is a good season to have an annual water well checkup before the peak water use season begins, according to the National Ground Water Association (NGWA). Why is it a good idea to have my water well checked annually? An annual checkup by a qualified water well contractor is the best way to ensure problem-free service and quality, safe to drink water. Also, preventative maintenance usually is less costly than emergency mainte-

nance, and good well maintenance — like good car maintenance — can prolong the life of your well and related equipment. NGWA further recommends you test your water whenever there is a change in taste, odor, or appearance, or when the system is serviced. The OSU Extension Ser-

vice also recommends having a well test for coliform bacteria and nitrate every 1 to 3 years or after a major weather event (ex: flooding). Coliform bacteria tests have to be done at a private lab, and your local office has a list of certified labs serving the area. FREE nitrate screening is avail-

able at the OSU Extension — Benton County office Monday through Friday 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Bring in a 1/2 cup of untreated well water in a clean container; be prepared to leave to sample (and sample container) if staff is away from the office. Schedule your annual water well checkup! Wells can provide highquality drinking water, and about half the U.S. population receives its drinking water from wells. But with well ownership comes the responsibility of keeping the water well in good working order. For more information, call: Chrissy Lucas, Groundwater Protection Education Program Assistant, 541-766-3556.

Change Happens: Make It An Opportunity! OSU Extension Service Small Farm program will host a site in Corvallis for the 2014 Women in Agriculture Conference, which offers women in Oregon, Washington, and Idaho a unique opportunity to gather in 28 locations for a 1-day event featuring knowledgeable speakers, inspiring stories, practical advice for improving farm management skills and networking with other women producers. “Women are uniquely tasked with the demands of both farm and family, which can make travel to one state location a challenge,” said WSU Extension Director and chair of the conference Margaret Viebrock. “The format of this conference enables us to offer our headline speaker at all locations, while also tailoring the conference content for each region.” This year’s event, “Change Happens: Make It An Opportunity,” covers topics including farm business

decision-making, using financial records to improve the bottom line, and problem solving for change. This year’s keynote speaker Heather Darby, a seventh generation owner of the 200-year-old Darby Farm in the Lake Champlain Islands near Alburgh, Vermont, will share her strategies for success. The 130-acre diversified farm produces a wide array of vegetables and fruit, a small apiary, CSA program, farm stand, and operates a custom grazing service for local organic dairies. Darby will discuss how change has been a constant in her operation presenting her with a variety of opportunities related to financial issues, organizational management, employees, starting a family, and handling risk

management issues related to weather, prices and work-life balance. The keynote will be broadcast to all 28 conference locations. In addition to the keynote address, each location will feature three local women producers who will share their experiences with change. This conference is designed for women who have been farming for years, as well as for new and aspiring farmers. The registration fee is $25 before March 1, and $30 after. Registration includes the workshop, light breakfast, lunch, handouts, and a book. To learn more, view specific event locations, or to register, visit www.womeninag.wsu.edu. Melissa Fery, OSU Extension Service will be hosting the local conference in Corvallis. If you have questions, feel free to contact her at Melissa.Fery@ oregonstate.edu or (541)766-3553.

Amy Garrett 541-766-6750 amy.garrett @oregonstate.edu

Commercial Agriculture

Livestock & Forages

Shelby Filley, 541-672-4461, shelby.filley@oregonstate.edu


Evaluating Beef Cattle and Meat BY SHELBY FILLEY

derness of meat. The determination of the final quality grade is made by using a chart to identify the quality grade where the marbling degree and maturity score intersect. Dark colored lean (dark cutters) will reduced the quality grade. The quality grades for beef are: USDA Prime, Choice, Select, Standard (young beef only), Commercial, Utility, Cutter, and Canner (older beef). Prime beef contains a high amount of marbling, while standard has minimal amounts. Yield grades are numerical values between 1 and 5. They are estimates of the cutability of the carcass. Yield grade (YG) 1 has the highest amount of lean, while YG 5 has the lowest. The YG number corresponds to the yield of boneless, closely trimmed (about 0.3 in), retail cuts from the round, loin, rib, and chuck, or the four wholesale cuts. The yield grade number is calculated using the fat thickness, hot carcass weight, internal fat, and ribeye area.

As more and more producers grow beef for local marketing and consumption, it is important for them, as well as their customers, to understand how beef cattle (pre-harvest) and beef meat (post-harvest) are evaluated. Guidelines for these assessments (grades) are set by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and are used in both the production and marketing of livestock and meat.

Live Cattle Grades Feeder cattle grades are assigned to reflect the size (frame) and meatiness (muscle score) of the animals. Just as some people are built tall and thin and some are built shorter and more muscular in stature, so animals can have different builds (frame and muscle score). Feeder Cattle are young steers and heifers that are raised on grass and/or hay from weaning (e.g., 450 to 500 lbs) to the time they are ready (e.g., 750 to 800 lbs) to enter the final feeding (finishing) phase. Frame scores are classifications of skeletal size (see Figure 1). Cattle with low frame score are earlier and at lighter weights than larger framed cattle. Designations range from small to medium to large and are calculated from hip height measurements adjusted for age of animal. Muscle scores are classifications of muscle thickness grades, and range from 1 to 4 (thick to thin; see Figure 2). Two extremes in muscle score would be a nicely muscled animal of predominantly beef breeding compared to a poorly muscled animal with a dairy influence. When marketing feeder cattle, the USDA Frame and Muscle Scores are combined to have twelve possible combinations of cattle (Small 1, Small 2, Small 3, …, and Large 4). You may have seen pricing from auction market reports listing, for example, cattle as Large #1, indicating that price report is for large framed, heavily muscled animals. This can help you gage what price your cattle may bring compared to those listed.

Meat Grades Quality Grade and Yield Grade are two different terms used in meat grading, which is done by official USDA personnel, not packing plant employees (see Figure 3). Quality grades for beef carcasses are


based on two major factors: (1) degree of marbling (intramuscular fat) and (2) degree of maturity (age of animal). Lean color, texture, and firmness are also considered in determining final quality grade. Marbling, the amount and distribution of fat within lean, is used as an indicator of eating quality. Maturity refers to the physiological age of the animal rather than its chronological age, and influences the ten-

The designations of Feeder Cattle Grade, Quality Grade, and Yield Grade are used in marketing cattle and meat. When a livestock producer consistently sells cattle or beef of superior quality, an excellent reputation among buyers is established. Conversely, if one sells inferior cattle, a bad reputation can be acquired. The information on grade of cattle can also be used to sell on a “grid” whereby carcasses of certain standards are rewarded or discounted depending on how they compare to a base grade. Additionally, frame score can be used to determine target weight for finishing cattle to a desired quality grade. For example, a small framed steer would need to be less than or equal to 1,100 lb at harvest in order to achieve a quality grade of “choice, where as a large framed steer would need to weigh greater than or equal to 1,250 lbs. Actual weights for finished cattle will vary depending on their frame score and desired finish. This article only highlights the basic points of grading cattle and beef. To learn more, please request publications from your local Extension Office. References: United States Standards for Grades of Feeder Cattle (USDA, AMS-586) and Frame Score and Feeder Cattle Grade (Cattle Producers Library, CL775).

MARCH 2014


Forage Management Series This is a multi-part series including sessions on forage assessment, renovation techniques, fertility, irrigation, and harvest management. We will meet on weekday evenings indoors starting in early April and run through October of 2014 (specifics TBA). To demonstrate the principles of the series, we will have a “project ranch” that we work on together, including one or more site visits (time and date determined by the group) and an online document sharing and blog. We will choose a ranch project from among participants, but you can work on your own ranch on the side. The objective of the series is to improve knowledge about managing forage on properties in the Willamette Valley. Instructors: Shelby Filley (lead), other OSU faculty and local experts Fee: $25 per evening session per individual or ranch family/group ($100 for the series of five sessions) Dates/Locations: First meeting details are as indicated below: Corvallis, Oldfield Animal Teaching Facility, 6:30-8:30 p.m. Other meetings dates will be determined by the group; other meeting locations will include site visits to the project ranch and possibly other participants’ ranches. Please contact Shelby Filley at shelby.filley@oregonstate.edu, or call 541-672-4461 for more information and to let her know you are interested.

Linn-Benton Livestock & Forages Breakfast Educational Program Date: Tuesday, March 11, 2014 Time: 6:30 - 8:00 a.m. Location: Pioneer Villa Restaurant - Truck Stop off I-5 at exit 216 Speaker: Glenn Miller, NW Region Noxious Weed Program, Oregon Department of Agriculture Topics: New pasture and range weeds; new chemical and non-chemical control options Fee: Free to all (supported by Linn and Benton County OSU Extension Services) Please take this opportunity to join us, and as always, feel free to bring a friend. For more information contact: Joel Pynch or 541-466-5344 or jkpynch@century tel.net, or Shelby Filley or 541-672-4461.

Commercial Agriculture Field Crops MARCH 2014



Seed Fertilizer Needs on Grass Seed Crops Grass seed crops respond to nitrogen (N). N fertilizer on grass seed crops probably returns more per dollar invested than any other input. With fertilizer prices on the rise, it’s not a bad idea to ask yourself, “How can I get the most bang for my buck?” Fertilizer rates should not be reduced because of high N prices but using extra N above optimum levels is an unnecessary expense. A few take home messages: 1. Total N. The most important point is getting a sufficient amount of N on the field when it’s needed by the crop. This is more important than the form of N you use, whether you use a single vs. split application, or what coating or treatment is used. 2. N from soil. We still do not have a soil test to help predict precise N requirements. We do know that soil provides 50 to 100 lbs N/acre depending on soil type and age of stand. Poorly drained soils with high organic matter show less of a yield increase from higher N rates than well drained soils with low organic matter. 3. N from spring fertilizer. N recommendations are in addition to the nitrogen supplied by the soil. • Perennial Ryegrass 120-160 lbs N/acre. If fall N was not applied, you will want to be on the high end of this range. Rates at and above 180 lbs N/acre contribute to


• Scout for stripe rust in winter wheat fields, especially early plantings of the variety Goetze. • Complete N fertilizer applications on winter wheat before jointing (Feekes 6), which often begins in early March. • Complete first N fertilizer applications on established perennial grass seed fields. Split application should be timed to provide adequate N for the period of peak uptake that occurs in April. • Apply phenoxy herbicides before the 2 node stage in wheat. If the label allows treatment after jointing starts. • Sample mint fields for nematodes. • Spring grains: plant as early as possible with 20/lbs of N/acre with the seed. To prevent lodging, limit total N to 80 lbs/acre of N. • Scout for billbug damage in orchardgrass seed fields late into March. • Scout for Vole activity and spot treat with zinc phosphide down holes according to label. Delay broadcast applications until label allows this use.


Cumulative N uptake, lb/acre


160 120 80 40 0 4/1




Tall Fescue

stand decline or “dieout.” • Tall Fescue - 100-140 lbs N/acre. Tall fescue has a more variable response to spring applied N than ryegrass species. In onfarm trials across the valley, N rates below 135 lbs/a produced the top seed yield in more than 50% of the trials. Less than 25% of the sites showed an economic response to rates above 150 lbs N /acre. 4. Timing and uptake. The window is wider than wheat. The earliest date grasses begin to use N in western Oregon is at TSum 200. However, peak uptake of N by grass seed crops occurs during the jointing stage of growth in early April. Getting N on between mid-February and late March will meet the demand. (See N Uptake Curve graph, above.) 5. Split vs. Single Applications. There is little advantage of split over a single well-timed and

uniform application. Splitting an application does not provide a yield benefit. However, if splitting an application helps ensure uniformity of application with your spin spreader, allows you to get some fertilizer applied if weather is conducive early, but not late, and/or provides you with a better night’s sleep between rain showers, there is nothing wrong with splitting your fertilizer application. 6. P and K. Use a soil test to determine P and K needs. If soil test results for P are over 25ppm in a new seeding or over 15ppm in an established stand, P is not needed. Post-harvest residue management will strongly affect K need. Consult OSU nutrient management guides to determine how much K is needed. If you choose to replace P and K removed in straw and soil test is “adequate,” application can be made in spring or fall.

Shawn Mehlenbacher, OSU hazelnut breeder and his crew have done a marvelous job of breeding new hazelnuts that are resistant to EFB, and making them available to hazelnut growers and the general public.

Check for Eastern Filbert Blight (EFB) The regional EFB infestations seem to be slowing, or maintaining. I have been seeing a lot of old eastern filbert blight pustules, but, so far, in 2014, there seems to be less new pustules. Take some time to look for EFB on your hazelnut trees. Mainly look at the Daviana, Butler, Barcelona, or pollinizer trees. We know the blight is here, so inspections are still very important. Visit http://pnwhandbooks.org/plantdisease/ hazelnut-corylus-avellana-eastern-filbert-blight/ for more information on what to look for.

COMMERCIAL HORTICULTURE HINTS MARCH • Apply small and tree fruit delayed dormant sprays. • Finish pruning berries and tree fruits. • Prepare for scab sprays in apple and pear trees. • Apply oils to control scale, mites, and aphid eggs. • Watch for bloom in apricot, prune, and plum. • Control walnut blight. • Begin tree fruit fertilization in late March and early April with the spring rains. • Control dead bud and bacterial canker in cherries. • Control bacterial canker and phytophthora root rot.

Commercial Agriculture

Orchard & Berry Crops

Ross Penhallegon, 541-344-1709, ross.penhallegon@oregonstate.edu http://extension.oregonstate.edu/linn

MARCH 2014


How much damage did snow storms cause? W inter seems to be hitting us really hard this year. December was really cold for more than two weeks. Fortunately, we had 4-7 inches of snow — that’s right, I said fortunately. The snow was a great insulator and saved a lot of plants. The ground had started to freeze and had frozen to 8 inches. Another week of cold weather would have frozen any unprotected potted plants, and most unprotected roses, and started to damage blueberry bush roots. Then again, on February 7-12, more snow and the ice storm that followed caused massive branch breakage, and every plant that had some pre-blooms, namely witch hazel and hazelnuts, were covered in ice - only time will tell how bad the freeze damage will be. Driving around, I see lots of burned or freeze damaged plants. The snow and ice has caused many plants, such as boxwoods and arborvitae to really spread out and bend toward the ground. Quickly tie these bushes back up into their previous form. We just have to wait to see how bad the damage is. Even though the plants look really bad, many times they will recover. Even burned or frozen leaves provide the plant with some energy. Blueberries and peaches were really pushing right before the latest storm. The chance for damage on these plants is very high. Many peaches will be infected with peach leaf curl, as they pushed in early January before the trees were sprayed with copper or lime sulfur. My maple tree had buds almost 1/4-inch long already when they were covered in thick ice. As long as the ice is forming, the ice actually emits heat. If the ice stops forming, then the buds will be frozen solid. Time will tell in a few weeks as to the level of damage. Cutting the buds



open with a sharp knife will show if there is any damage in the buds. There are lots of broken branches from hazelnuts, maples, white birch, and other plants. Cut up the broken branches on the ground. For broken branches in the trees, cut back to where the branch meets another branch and cut to the area called the branch collar or the slightly raised area along the branch. Do not use a product called seal heal or the black tar. This just increases the chance of the tree rotting. Cut the broken branch at an angle to shed water and if the cut is big (more than 4 inches), cover the cut area with a piece of tin so it will shed the water. In mid-March or before the buds break and we have green tissue or bloom, spray the trees with a good copper or lime sulfur. This will remove any old fungus or bacteria that may be on the trees. Note — spring freeze damage is very normal for the Willamette Valley in the early spring. Pollinators are affected by the overly wet springs we have had in 2010, 2011, and 2012. The native pollinators did a fantastic job of avoiding the rain drops and getting their job done. If the weather turns wet, then the fruit will have increased disease problems. The past three out of four years have been horrible for fungus problems, huge apple and pear scab, huge Pacific coast cedar rust problems on most pears, on quince, and service berries; rust on raspberries and blackberries; a lot of anthracnose on apple and pear trees; and powdery mildew on almost everything that grows. Good air circulation from pruning has helped keep the foliage dry; use of drip irrigation has helped by putting the water right where it needs to go; pruning

plants so they are more open and using either organic or conventional fungicides all helps to fight disease problems. Keep up with a good fungicide cover spray. If possible, spray the trees before it rains so the blooms and leaves are sanitized. Here are some helpful hints to try and make it through the spring. 1. Keep up with the necessary sprays to keep the fruit clean. Pick up a current spray guide at the local Extension office. 2. On late blooming varieties, adding a lot of organic matter or mulch to the soil will keep the soil temperature cooler and delay the bloom for a couple of days. 3. Fertilization will be needed by the middle of March to first of April. Check your leaf analysis from 2013 and soil tests to see what nutrients the trees need for 2014. Fertilize while there is still a little moisture (rain) to move the fertilizer into the root zone. I am now saying to add lime since the soils in the valley are very acidic, and liming releases a lot of the nutrients that are tied up due to the acid soil. 4. Monitor insect populations. Hopefully, the freezing weather will reduce the insect populations a bit. 5.The diseases of apple and pear scab, peach brown rot, and cherry pseudomonas are always a problem. 6. Moss continues to be a big problem. No matter how hard you tried to keep your lawn free of moss, it has won out again. Control moss by raking it out of the lawn and then treating with a good moss killer. Usually liming the lawn with 40-80 pounds of lime per 1,000 square feet will help prevent moss from growing. Reseed the bare spots with a turf type grass. Typical causes are too shady, too wet, too compact, and/or soil that is too acidic.

At left, while snow can be an insulator to help protect plant tissue from freezing temperatures, it also weighs the shrubs and limbs down causing breakage. To help control breakage on shrubs, you can take a broom and gently sweep the snow off the top.

Community Horticulture

Barbara Fick 541-967-3871 x2393 barb.fick@oregonstate.edu


Pami Opfer 541-967-3871 x2836 pamela.opfer@oregonstate.edu


MARCH 2014


Snow & Sleet 1






ain sounds great after the snow, sleet and ice we experienced in December and February! Although we can get cozy indoors, how do plants survive cold temperatures, ice, and snow? Cold is a problem for plants, because like us, they are composed mostly of water. When water freezes, it forms ice crystals. What was liquid and fluid one moment turns into something solid and sharp-edged the next. Water also expands as it freezes. The result is massive rupturing of cell membranes. When the ice crystals melt, the liquids leak from the mangled cells and there is no possibility of recovery. We all know how the foliage of dahlias and hostas turn to mush after the first hard frost. Cold-hardy plants get around this by preventing formation of ice crystals in their tissues or slowing their formation drastically, so individual ice crystals are much smaller and less damaging. Although the tops of perennial plants like dahlias and hostas die, usually the plants root system can survive the cold weather. The single digit night temperatures in December may have harmed undug dahlias left in the ground, but hostas will be fine. Most of the water of de-




7 ciduous trees and shrubs is withdrawn to the roots, where it is protected from rapid temperature changes by the mass of soil in which they grow. Even if the ground freezes, it freezes much more slowly than water in the aerial parts of the plant. This results in smaller ice crystals that may not damage cell membranes at all.

Cold also injures plants by drying out living tissues. Broad-leaved evergreen plants, such as California lilac, suffered in the cold snap in December. On cold, sunny winter days the leaf tissue is warmed and water vapor is lost from the leaf. Strong wind that continuously carries away the warmer, moister air near the leaf surfaces

makes things worse by promoting even more water loss. Leaf tissues dry to the point of no return, and scorch is soon evident around the margins of leaves. Even some plants that are well adapted to cold can’t handle sudden changes in temperatures. A camellia that is hardy to 0 degrees F may not be injured if it has a long gradual acclimation to progressively cooler temperatures. Yet the same camellia might be severely damaged if it suddenly experiences a 10 degree F night after a long period when the minimum has been 30 degrees F. Snow acts as an insulation layer and may protect plants from the cold. Unfortunately, the weight of the snow may break tree limbs and branches of shrubs. Ice on top of snow compounds the problem and the gardener is faced with lots of clean up. As an amateur photographer, I enjoy taking pictures of these weather events. Please don’t rush out to replace dead looking plants! Some may recover from the root system. It is a bit early to assess the damage. But it is a great time during the rainy weather to get on the computer, open a magazine, or visit a local nursery to dream about what new plants could replace those looking a bit weary and tired.

1. Winter Aconite’s sunny yellow flowers are a welcome sight in early February. 2. Flowers of Arnolds Promise Witchhazel survived both snow and ice. 3. Snow drops going strong. 4. These glass hand blown Pitcher Plants stay upright through all weather conditions. 5. To determine if the branch is alive, rub away the outer bark. If green underneath, it should be alive! 6. Who needs plants? Use glass and metal sculptures to spruce up the garden! From Seattle Flower and Garden Show February 2014. 7. California lilac Ceanothus are usually evergreen with dark green foliage.


Seed to Supper Ten Rivers Food Web (TRFW), in partnership with program developers Oregon Food Bank, and the Oregon State University Extension Service Master GardenerTM Program, is proud to bring Seed to Supper to Linn, Benton, and Lincoln counties. Seed to Supper is a comprehensive five-week beginning gardening course that gives novice, adult gardeners the tools and confidence they need to successfully grow a portion of their own food on a limited budget. Nearly twenty Master Gardeners from Linn and Benton counties will be serving as Seed to Supper Volunteer Educators this spring! Seed to Supper classes are designed for adults gardening on a budget. Class size ranges from 8-25 participants, depending on the location and population served. Community organizations such as health departments, senior centers, food pantries, affordable housing units, and parenting groups with an existing client base will be primary locations for outreach for Seed to Supper students. Neither participants nor agencies are ever charged for Seed to Supper classes. At least five-possibly as many as seven-Seed to Supper classes will be offered in our

area between March and May of this year. Seed to Supper classes meet for 1.5 hours once a week for five weeks. During the first week, participants are given a gardening booklet that is theirs to keep; participants will also be given seeds and/or plant starts to take home. Over the course of five weeks, participants will learn about building healthy soil; planning, planting, and caring for their garden; and harvesting and using their bounty. Ten Rivers Food Web builds stronger communities in Linn, Benton, and Lincoln counties by nourishing a local food system to ensure healthy food for all. Through Seed to Supper, TRFW is able to give its community members the tools and knowledge to be more food secure in economic hardship, ultimately increasing access to fresh fruits and vegetables and improving community resilience. To learn more about Seed to Supper, visit www.tenriversfoodweb.org/seed-to-supper/. To get involved by serving as a Volunteer Educator, helping to promote Seed to Supper, or making a contribution to support this program, contact Cassie Peters, Executive Director of Ten Rivers Food Web, at cassie@tenriversfoodweb.org, or visit www.tenriversfood web.org.

Join the Seed Swap Lebanon Garden Club, Ten Rivers Food Web, OSU Extension in Linn County Master Gardeners, and Lebanon Public Library invite you to join them on Monday, March 10, from 6-8 p.m., for a presentation on the life and times of Nichols Garden Nursery, our longest running local seed company, presented by Rose Marie Nichols McGee. Following this presentation, there will be a seed swap. Bring your extra (commercial or saved) seeds for others to take samples of, and take samples of other’s seeds. Well-wrapped plants/tubers/bulbs are welcome, too! Bringing seed is not required, but makes the swap more fun. Master Gardeners will be available to answer questions. This event is free and will be held at the Lebanon Public Library at 55 Academy Street, Lebanon.

MARCH 2014


Garden Calendar Planning • Plan your vegetable garden carefully for spring, summer, and fall vegetables that can be eaten fresh or preserved. If you lack in-ground gardening space, plan an outdoor container garden. • Use a soil thermometer to help you know when to plant vegetables. Some cool season crops (onions, kale, lettuce, and spinach) can be planted when the soil is consistently at or above 40 degrees Farenheit.

Maintenance and Clean Up • Lawn mowing: Set blade at 0.75 to 1 inch for bentgrass lawns; 1.5 to 2.5 inches for bluegrasses, fine fescues, and ryegrasses. • Compost grass clippings and yard waste, except for clippings from lawns where weed-and-feed products or herbicides (weed killers) have been used. • Spread compost over garden and landscape areas. • Prune gooseberries and currants; fertilize with manure or a complete fertilizer. • Fertilize evergreen shrubs and trees, only if needed. If established and healthy, their nutrient needs should be minimal. • If needed, fertilize rhododendrons, camellias, and azaleas with acid-type fertilizer. If established and healthy, their nutrient needs should be minimal. • Western Oregon: Prune spring-flowering shrubs after blossoms fade. • Western Oregon: Fertilize caneberries using band fertilizer, broadcast fertilizer or a complete fertilizer or manure.

Planting/Propagation • Divide hosta, daylilies, and mums. • Use stored scion wood to graft fruit and ornamental trees. • Western Oregon: If soil is dry enough, prepare vegetable garden and plant early cool-season crops (carrots, beets, broccoli, leeks, parsley, chives, rhubarb, peas, and radishes). Plant onions outdoors as soon as the soil is dry enough to work.

Insights into Gardening RESCHEDULED TO MARCH 22 Insights into Gardening is a day-long seminar offering practical, handson learning for home gardeners and gardeners-tobe. Whether you are an experienced or novice gardener, new to the area or an Oregon native, you will find plenty of ideas to make your gardening easier, more enjoyable, and more successful. Raffles, exhibits, catered lunch, and books for sale

by Grass Roots will also be available at the event, held at La Sells Stewart Center on the OSU campus. For more information online, go to http://extension.oregonstate.edu/benton or call Pami Opfer at the Benton County OSU Extension Office at 541-766-6750. The event has been rescheduled after a cancellation due to the weather.

Family And Community Health

Janice Gregg 541-967-3871 x2830 gregg.@oregonstate.edu


MARCH 2014

Eat more whole grains WILD RICE

Coconut Oil is All the Rage

541-967-3871 x2932 tina.dodge@oregonstate.edu



Wild rice is not technically rice at all, but the seed of an aquatic grass originally grown by indigenous tribes around the Great Lakes. Today some commercial cultivation takes place in California, the Midwest, and even in the Willamette Valley, but much of the crop is still harvested by Native Americans, largely in Minnesota. In the Willamette Valley wild rice is grown near Brownsville, Ankeny Lakes, Mount Angel, and Coburg. The flood-prone clay soil of the valley grows wild rice very well. Harvest time: Wild rice seeds are harvested by combine in late August through September. For replanting, the seeds must be stored in refrigerated

Tina Dodge Vera


water all winter, or else they won’t germinate. For culinary use, the fresh wild rice must be cooked, in big propane-heated rolling drums, within 72 hours of harvest. Otherwise, it rots. It’s quite a process going from seed to the parched, cleaned stuff you’d want in a bag to take home and cook. Rice is harvested at 40 to 50 percent moisture. So it wouldn’t keep at all. It has to be cooked down

until it’s a stable product you can put in your cupboard and store. Wild vs. cultivated: Genetically, the only difference between the two kinds of rice is “shatter-resistance”; the domesticated seed stays on its head for harvesting. Preparing wild rice: Precook the wild rice, then incorporate it into other dishes. Steam in at least a 2-to-1 ratio of water to rice, with a touch of oil.

Health gurus, TV doctors, and tons of blogs have all been abuzz with a new health food trend, rhapsodizing about the wonders of coconut oil. But is all this hype actually merited? After all, wasn’t coconut oil once touted as the evil ingredient in movie popcorn? What has changed? Anything? The Facts. Let’s take a look at the science first. Studies have been done to see whether coconut oil could be a tool that would help people lose weight, repair brain damage caused by Alzheimer’s disease, and reduce their cholesterol levels, therefore reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Unfortunately, not one peer-reviewed study proved that coconut oil could live up to its reputation as a panacea for all that ails us. Coconut Oil: What’s In It? — Coconut oil is mostly saturated fat - 92% saturated fat to be exact. Saturated fat is the main culprit when


One cup of dry rice yields at least 2 cups cooked. You can extend wild rice by combining it with an equal amount of brown rice since they have about the same cooking time. The strong flavor and high price of wild rice mean that it is most often consumed in a blend with other rices or other grains. Wild rice has twice the protein and fiber of brown rice, but less iron and calcium.

Rice Salad Serves 4 Rice salad can be as simple or as complex as your imagination allows. This is one of the simplest, but it does contain one unusual ingredient - raspberry vinegar - that contributes an unmistakable and delicate taste. Serve this salad on fresh spring greens. Salad 1 cup cooked wild rice 1 cup cooked rice, white or brown, as desired ½ cup slivered almonds ½ cup chopped scallion, white and green parts Salt and freshly ground pepper (to taste) Vinaigrette 3 Tbsp. raspberry vinegar 6 Tbsp. mild-flavored oil Pinch of fresh thyme Directions Mix the wild and regular rice with the almonds and scallion and season with salt and pepper. Mix the raspberry vinegar, oil, and thyme until well blended. Add the vinaigrette to the rice mixture, mix well, and refrigerate for a couple of hours to blend the flavors. Serve chilled or at room temperature.

you’re looking for what produced the high blood cholesterol levels in the American diet. For comparison, 63% of the fat in butter is saturated. As far as the scientific community is concerned, not much has changed. Coconut oil does contain medium-chained fatty acids (MCTs), which are known to be easily digestible and not cause the same damage to the cardiovascular system as short and longchained fatty acids. That said, coconut oil is not 100% MCT oil, a fact that the medical media folks have left out. The truth is that it may actually only contain 10% MCTs. And while MCT oil may increase HDL (good) cholesterol, it also raises LDL (bad) cholesterol at the same time, and any food that raises LDL should not be consumed in abundance. Coconut Oil: When to Try It — Using coconut oil in cooking and baking is a good alternative for

vegans and bakers who are looking for a substitute for lard or other solid vegetable oils; it has a mild, sweet flavor and is solid at room temperature. But don’t be fooled by the hype: Replacing all of the fat in your diet with coconut oil will not benefit your brain, heart, or waistline. The guideline still stands at keeping fat intake to 30% of your diet, and saturated fat to less than 7% of your total daily calories in order to keep your heart healthy. Variety is also key. There is no one “super food” with the ability to protect our bodies from disease. And in the case of coconut oil, the scientific fact remains that it should be consumed in small amounts on occasion, and not thought of as the wonder food to be eaten at every meal. By Beth Rosen, MS, Communicating Food For Health, February 2014


MARCH 2014


Stuff, stuff, and more stuff

Class Offered

Stuff. Most of us have it — tools, toys, knick knacks, collections, clothes, files, school papers, tech gadgets, appliances, etc. Many of us save and collect items. Some of it was given to us as a gift, some was inherited, some bought, and other stuff seems to just miraculously appear. According to Jean-Paul Sartre, French philosopher, “to have” is one of three basic forms of what we do as humans (the other two are “to do” and “to be”). What do we do with it all? Sometimes we keep it, try to organize it, store it somewhere else or sometimes the stuff piles up in a room, on a desk or in a drawer. Regardless, taking care of the stuff (or even the act of trying to ignore it) requires our resources of money, time, and energy. These resources can be better spent in many other areas of our lives. If the stuff becomes clutter or becomes overwhelming, it can add stress to our home or work life. A search on Google for “cleaning clutter” shows more than 9 million results, and “organizing” brings up 125 million hits. Stuff is obviously on our minds and many consultants and companies make a living helping others take care of what they have.

Organizing and cleaning will make a big difference. But sometimes we fix a space only to have it fill up again. In order to get rid of things and to truly get rid of the clutter habit, it is helpful to understand why we keep what we do and how to deal with this cycle. I got this as a gift or it was inherited. Ask yourself: Does this bring me happiness or truly serve a purpose? If not, find someone else who would really like it, or donate or sell it. You can take a picture of the item as a keepsake instead of keeping the item itself. You can also choose just one piece, especially if it’s a set of something, and donate the rest. If you pass an heirloom along to another family member who wants it, then you can still enjoy the piece without owning it. I spent money on it — I have to keep this to get my money’s worth. Ask yourself: Is the frustration worth it? Are other costs worth keeping the item? Ask if anyone wants to buy it, give it to someone who wants it, or donate or sell it. I’ll save this for when I get older or when I am retired or when I…We’re trying to capture and save memories to relive them at some later point.

What is missing in the here and now that makes us put so much energy into what we collect, shuffle, store, and organize? Think about future moments. Won’t we always want to live in the moment and keep on having new moments, instead of looking back through boxes? Ask yourself: Do I really need all of these papers and scraps? How can I live in the here and now? I might need this one day. That’s what is so difficult — we don’t really know what we will need. Here are some strategies for avoiding this trap: • Set a limit for what you can keep (e.g., 10 food containers and recycle or throw out the rest, 4 packages of nails or screws and give the rest to a local charity or vocational school). • Focus on using what you have at home and not buying more of that (e.g., craft materials). • Remind yourself that if you do need something in the future, you can figure it out (either using something you already have on hand or getting something from a neighbor, for example) - you do not have to keep everything. Adapted from University of Missouri Extension News

Eat plenty of fiber for good health

SPICES OF INDIA When: March 27, 9:30-11:30 a.m. Where: Lebanon Senior Center How many spices in your cupboard originate from India? Explore the array of spices and herbs of India and how they are used in family meals around the world as well as Indian homes. Discover new flavors and health related claims made about many of these spices. Cost: $1.00. Contact: Please call 541-967-3871 to register for this class. The lesson can be re-taught; call to request leader and participant materials.

We often hear that we should get plenty of fiber to help with digestion, but fiber provides many other benefits as well. Fiber helps to reduce the risk of heart disease by helping to lower cholesterol, lowering high blood pressure, and preventing obesity. Soluble fiber, like that found in beans, barley, and oats, helps to lower cholesterol by soaking up cholesterol-rich bile acids in the intestinal tract so they can be excreted. The risk of developing high blood pressure is also decreased by keeping blood cholesterol in check. High blood pressure often occurs because arteries have been clogged and damaged as a result of high cholesterol.

Many of the foods high in fiber are naturally low in calories. This includes fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. When a person consumes a variety of these plant-based foods, they feel full sooner and longer, and consequently, eat less. Consuming more fiber is a good way to limit calories in order to manage a healthy weight. The Institute of Medicine recommends that men up to age 50 consume 38 grams of fiber every day and women of the same age group consume 25 grams per day. Men over the age of 50 should consume 30 grams of fiber and women should have 21 grams. MyPlate recommends that the average American consumes 2½ cups of vegetables, 2 cups of fruit and 6

ounces of grains every day. If you do as recommended and make half of your grain choices whole grains, you are well on your way to consuming all of the fiber you need for the day. Can’t think of ways to add fiber to your diet? • Try eating an orange at breakfast instead of drinking the juice. The orange provides 3 grams of fiber but the juice only provides ½ gram. • Add vegetables to your pizza. • Be generous with the vegetables in casseroles and soups. • Start the day with a whole grain cereal. One cup of cooked oatmeal provides around 4 grams of fiber. • Switch from white rice

to wild or brown rice. • Beans are a great source of fiber — ½ cup of kidney beans provides 7 grams of fiber. Include beans in your meals two to three times a week. • Add sunflower seeds, walnuts or almonds to salads or enjoy a handful for a snack. There is one important thing to remember about fiber. Fiber soaks up fluid in your digestive tract so when you increase the fiber in your diet, be sure to increase the amount of fluid you drink as well. An additional benefit to consuming more fiber is that the foods that contain fiber are rich in many other nutrients as well. You are really giving your body a boost by including a variety of fiberrich foods in your diet.

Soil & Water Conservation District 12

Kevin Seifert, 541-926-2483 â—† http://www.linnswcd.org/

MARCH 2014

On Riparian Planting




Hard working students install trees.

Linn SWCD Watershed Technician Kevin Seifert and NRCS District Conservationist Nathan Adelman teach students how to plant tree species in riparian restoration project.

A riparian area is where February started off as a the water plants meet the pleasant month. The very land plants, specifically first part of the month along streams and rivers. didn’t hold the snow, freezing rain, and localized Riparian areas have plants such as willows and flooding of the rest of the rushes that require a lot of month. A sunny day on water. These February 1, green, lush 2014, lent to a are great outing A riparian area corridors only about 4 to restore a is where the water percent of riparian corthe land surridor on plants meet face, but White River the land plants, roughly 80 Lamb proppercent of erty, located specifically the animal on Fish along streams life relies on Hatchery and rivers. these areas Drive south of for food, Scio. cover, or When Joe water. Riparian areas are and Ellen Nieslanik devery fertile and resilient to cided to relocate from damage because of sedinorthwestern Colorado in ment deposits and the August of 2012, they purconstant supply of fresh chased a 155-acre farm in water. Scio, Oregon and started Riparian areas are exWhite River Lamb Comtremely important to pany. As they discovered wildlife, fish, livestock, the carrying capacity of and humans. The vegetatheir newly-purchased tion in these areas plays a land, they realized the key role in protecting need to make improvewater quality and providments. They have iming food and protection proved the property to infor fish and animals. Ricrease holding capacity parian areas also play an and conserve their reincreasingly important sources. Making contact with the role in recreation, by providing shade, a place to district when they were in fish, and scenic beauty. the process of purchasing In the past, riparian their property, led to a areas were often considworking relationship with ered sacrifice areas bepartners to enhance their cause they were such a property and improve small part of the landconservation and wildlife scape and were difficult to aspects, while still meetmanage. During the past ing production needs. 20 years, the importance Using NRCS (Natural Reof riparian areas has been source Conservation Serscientifically proven. vice) programs and techMany ranchers and nical guidance from partlandowners are continuners, they have enhanced ously working at improvmany parts of their proping their riparian areas erty including a riparian because poor riparian habitat.

areas indicate poor forage production, which can reduce their income. Distinguishing a damaged riparian area from a healthy one is the first step to conserving riparian areas and repairing damaged ones. A healthy riparian area should have a variety of plant species, from sedges and rushes to forbs, shrubs, and trees, although not all streams are capable of supporting the large plants like shrubs and trees. This large variety of plant life ensures that the riparian area can prevent erosion, provide shade, and maintain high water quality, since each plant species plays different roles in the environment. Under technical guidance on planting tech-

niques from NRCS and Linn SWCD, and under the watchful eye of the chaperons Karol and Karoline Fromont , Regis High School students planted more than 1400 plants to enhance riparian habitat. The results of this planting of willows and Oregon ash with some shrub species should increase shading on a tributary stream of Crabtree Creek. Crabtree Creek is essential salmonid habitat and an area of focus for Linn SWCD and NRCS. The day went well, work was brisk as students, staff, and landowners worked side by side to enhance this stretch of stream. To top things off we were done in time for a great lunch hosted by the Nieslanik family.

Linn County Farm Bureau MARCH 2014

Don Cersovski, 541-995-8310


Farm Bureau Scholarship BY MARY GRIMES




Above, Mary Grimes with HD 15 Representative Andy Olson and a lobbyist. Below, Linn County Farm Bureau member Miriam Cersovski serves cake at the Legislative reception held at the state capitol on Feb. 3.

Local folks help out at Legislative reception BY MARY GRIMES

n February 3, at the Oregon State Capitol during Oregon Farm Bureau Women’s Advisory Council’s Legislative Reception, Benton County Farm Bureau member Anne Rigor and LCFB members Miriam Cersovski, and Mary Grimes had a table display with brochures of ag facts


and farm gate values for legislators and the public. The county members met their legislators downstairs at the reception or ventured upstairs to the House of Representative or the Senate offices on either side of the rotunda to visit and talk about issues of interest to farmers and ranchers in this first day of the short session of 2014.

A college degree pays for itself in time and is the best investment anyone can make in themselves. While it is true college is expensive, Linn County Farm Bureau (LCFB) can help with a scholarship. LCFB is promoting involvement with education in agriculture, leadership and attracting new students to agriculture, thus promoting an ag future. The scholarship is at least $1,000 on a yearly academic basis. LCFB usually gives one to three scholarships ranging in value of $500 to $1,000. The 2014 scholarships are devoted to Esther M. Cersovski as memorial scholarships. Mrs. Cersovski spent her life’s work on her family’s farm (now a Century Farm) being involved in teaching all her children and others about agriculture and the many aspects of a rural life on a farm. Applicants need to be Linn County residents at the time of application. If you are a graduating high school senior, continuing college student, or previous LCFB scholarships recipient who is choosing to major in any college discipline in agriculture, horticulture, forestry, or ag supporting endeavor with a 2.8 GPA or higher, and SAT/ACT score letter, community service, school activities, participation in organizations, leadership experience, any work or volunteer experience, and any honors and/or recognition, this scholarship is for you. The deadline to apply is May 1. To apply you will need to have two letters of recommendation, official recent school transcript and our official application. Please pick up the LCFB scholarship at your local high school counselor’s office, or at 33254 Hwy 99E in Tangent, or call 541-926-4883, or contact Mary Grimes at 541-967-7173.

More publications available! PNW 655, Raspberry cultivars for the Pacific Northwest • Authors: Chad E. Finn, Bernadine C. Strik, Patrick P. Moore • New February 2014, 11 pages, NC • https://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/bitstream/ handle/1957/45870/pnw655.pdf This replaces EC 1310, Raspberry Cultivars for Oregon PNW 656, Blueberry cultivars for the Pacific Northwest • Authors: Bernadine C. Strik, Chad E. Finn, and Patrick P. Moore • New February 2014, 13 pages, NC • http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/bitstream/ handle/1957/45871/pnw656.pdf This replaces EC 1308, Blueberry Cultivars for Oregon

Robin Galloway 541-967-3871 x2399 robin.galloway@oregonstate.edu


MARCH 2014

4-H Youth Development

Karissa Dishon 541-967-3871 x2395 karissa.dishon@oregonstate.edu


4-H W.O.R.L.D. 4-H W.O.R.L.D. (Western Oregon Retreat for Leadership Development) was held at the Oregon 4-H Center in January. This leadership retreat is for youth in grades 7-12 who are interested in: • Developing leadership skills in a retreat setting • Meeting new people from other Western Oregon counties • Building self-confidence and self-awareness • Developing appreciation and encouraging involvement in community service, and • Having fun The retreat featured

4-H Health Kids Club in Mill City Making good food choices got students at Santiam schools in Mill City rewarded recently. OSU Extension Education Program Assistant Anne O’Rourke observed what students were selecting for their lunch, and what they ate from their plate. Door prize tickets were given out, and four good eaters were randomly selected as winners. They each received a gift bag with fun 4-H and OSU Extension items. Pictured in the colorful mural are: Ava

Harris, Payton Peters, Preston Tinney and Gage Twede. In the school commons Anne is conducting classes on making good food choices as a lifestyle. She’s introducing students to preparing and eating fresh fruits and vegetables, which will eventually be grown in the greenhouse at Santiam Middle/Senior High. An afterschool garden club is also starting, so youth will know how to grow their own food at home in the future.

classes on topics such as: improv, public speaking, get-acquainted games, leadership, teamwork, and organizational and time management skills. Participants gained ideas for teambuilding and participated in a great community service project. It was also a great opportunity to learn from other youth and make new friends. Next year’s leadership retreat will be both planned and conducted by a regional youth governing board. Please watch your local newsletters and websites for more information and registration forms.

At right, Morgan Lekkerkerker is a member of the Clever Clovers 4-H club with projects in archery, photography, veterinary science, and communications. She was among 4-H members who made polar fleece lap robes as a community service project at 4-H W.O.R.L.D.




Foods Contest The annual Linn County 4-H Foods contest is April 11 and 12, in Brownsville. Members must be enrolled in the foods project area to participate in the contest. Classes included in the contest are After School Snacks, Breakfast Quick Breads, Foods of the Pacific Northwest, Mini-Meals, Pre-Package Preparation, Measuring Contest, Quick Fix Meals, and 4 for 6-8-10. Full class descriptions can be found online with the rest of the Foods Contest materials. The public is welcome and encouraged to attend. The contest is held at the Brownsville Christian Church and there is a great viewing area. If you have any questions regarding the contest, please contact Suzanne Wallace, wallace.3sn@centurytel.net or 541-466-5859.


MARCH 2014


Fashion Revue Following last year’s successful inaugural event, Linn County will once again be hosting a Fashion Revue contest. The Linn County Fashion Revue and Presentation Contest will be held Saturday, April 26.Registration forms are available online. Fashion Revue will include two ready-made divisions, as well as the traditional contests. “My Favorite Outfit” is an outfit of the members choosing that they already own. This can be a favorite dress that they wore to a special occasion, a team uniform that is special to them, or an outfit that highlights their fashion style. The second ready-made division is based on consumerism. The member selects one article of clothing for $25 dollars or less, and then accessorizes it with items from their own closet. The traditional divisions are modeling an outfit or article that the member has made. For more information, contact Karissa Dishon karissa.dishon@oregon state.edu.

Everyone say CHEESE! County Photography Clinic Are you working on a Photography project and want to expand your skills? Do you enjoy taking pictures and want to learn more about the mechanics behind photography? If either of these sentences fit you, the upcoming Linn County Photography Clinic is for you. We will be holding a photography clinic on Sunday April 13, from 10 a.m. to 3 p.m. at

the Linn County Fair and Expo Center. The clinic will be held in the conference rooms and participants are encouraged to bring your own lunch. You must pre-register for the clinic by April 9, in order to attend, and space is limited so don’t delay. Registration forms are available online. A minimum of 20 participants is required in order hold the clinic. We have industry profes-

sionals coming to help teach including Kris Stalnaker of Stalnaker Photo Studios who will be teaching action photography. You don’t want to miss this opportunity to learn from the best in the business! Other topics include learning about camera to subject distance, composition, macro photography, preparing to take a photograph, and camera positioning.




Linn County had 15 participants at this year’s High Desert Leadership Retreat (HDLR). They are: Faith Black, Kelton Bruslind, Svea Bruslind, LR Burns, Valerie Clouse, Kalista Cooper, Riana Martin, Brittany Poteet, Kaitlyn Poteet, Randee Randall, Caleb Simonis, Michael Tolle, Melissa Walker, Hayden Nichol, Sydney Nichol.

Desert Retreat Teaches Skills The High Desert Leadership Retreat (HDLR) was held at Eagle Crest near Redmond from January 17-20. A record number of 15 Linn County youth attended to challenge their minds and bodies by engaging in skill building and asset development. Whether learning about character education, conflict resolution, mentoring, college preparation, healthy lifestyles, cultural diversity, program planning, presentations, public speaking, or even rubbing shoulders with elected officials, youth in 7th through 12th grades participated in hands-on activities, workshops and seminars designed to enhance their capabilities in school, at home, on the job, and in life. Both 4-H and non 4-H members attended this popular leadership skill building program. The mixture of educational programs, recreational activities, and living experiences provided memories and friendships that will last a lifetime. An example of two popular classes included:

Teambuilding in Action It’s hard to meet new people and know what to do and say. With teambuilding you learn fun new ways to get others to be enjoying meetings, and working together better, when people know each other more. Class participants did a series of short activities which don’t require any props. They included simple “games” for: ice breakers, coop-

eration & communication, challenge & problem solving.

Breaking the Code on Bullying Do you see bullying at school or other events with kids your age? What can you do about it? In this class they did some prevention simulations that can help you understand your role and know your options as a bystander of bullying. Don’t worry, you won’t be singled out in role-playing. But you will take the part of a character in a scenario, and feel emotions as the story is carried out. Topics may include: excluding others, drinking, cyberlies, put-downs and more.

Nasty Stuff in Fast Foods To feel healthy and look good we need to eat well. Have you ever paid attention to what is in items you get from popular fast food restaurants? It’s scary to see the amount of sugar, salt and fat in many popular drinks, sandwiches and even salads. Come check out what you’re eating now…and become aware of healthier options in the future. This class will be taught by 4-H Youth Advocates for Health (YA4-H!) and a 4-H agent who tries to eat right. The retreat is only possible with adults serving as chaperones, drivers, teachers, and mentors. Special thanks to Donna Randall and Christy Poteet, Linn County 4-H Leaders, who served in all these roles with class!

Forestry & Natural Resources 16

Brad Withrow-Robinson, 541-967-3871, brad.w-r@oregonstate.edu, http://extension.oregonstate.edu/linn

MARCH 2014

UPCOMING EVENTS MARCH Additional details of these and other events can be found on the Forestry and Natural Resources website for Benton, Linn and Polk Counties http://extension.oregon state.edu/benton/forestry/events, and will be sent out electronically through the Needle. To subscribe to the Needle please email Jody Einerson (jody.einerson@oregon state.edu).

Woodland Information Night This annual event provides local landowners with brief updates on a variety of topics of interest or concern. This year’s topics are likely to include, what else but the weather and its effects on woodland management, ODF’s new online notification system, and wildlife damage. Sponsored by the Benton and Linn County Chapters of the Small Woodlands Association and OSU Forestry & Natural Resources Extension. Date: March 4 Time: 6-8 p.m. Location: Corvallis Benton County Library, main meeting room, 645 NW Monroe Ave., Corvallis

Check out our online resources! Want more news and information about forestry and natural resources? Then subscribe to the Woodland Compass, and Needle, the OSU Forestry & Natural Resources Extension electronic news bulletin and announcements for Benton, Linn and Polk Counties. The Compass delivers

more in-depth information about the art and science of taking care of your woodland property than space allows in UPDATE. It provides interesting and practical information about tending your woodldands, whether you are growing trees for quality lumber, improving wildlife habitat,

Discover Your Forestland This is an online discovery of available information. Learn where to find aerial photos, topography maps, soils maps, species, etc., pertaining to your land. Co-sponsored by Linn County Small Woodlands Association and OSU Extension. Date: Tuesday April 22, 2014 Time: 7-8:30 p.m. Location: LBCC Lebanon Center, Computer Lab Event is free, and registration is not required.

2014 Starker Lecture Series The 2014 Starker Lecture Series “Working Forests Across the Landscape” continues in April and May. http://starkerlectures.forestry.oregonstate.edu/ April 10: Lecture 1 (Rescheduled due to snow) “Forestry Diversity: A Key to Oregon’s Future.” John Gordon. April 24: Lecture 3-”Beyond Boundaries: Social Challenges and Opportunities in Forest Landscape Management.” Paige Fischer. The lectures will be held in 107 Richardson Hall from 3:30 p.m. to 5:00 p.m., with a reception following the event. A limited number of dedicated parking spaces are for the off-campus people attending the lectures. Parking is available on a first-come, first-served basis, if you email Jessica.fontaine@oregonstate.edu to reserve a space before the lecture. You will be notified if parking is no longer available.

as a recreational retreat, or all of the above. The Compass is sent electronically every other month. Timely announcement of events and happenings are sent out electronically through the Needle, as needed. So if you are not receiving the Woodland Compass, subscribe now!

Email Jody Einerson at jody.einerson@oregonstate. edu) or call the Benton County Extension Office, 541-7666750, and give us your name, email and mailing address and phone number (to keep email lists current). Best of all, it’s FREE, so be sure to sign up family members for their own copy!


onderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) is an iconic tree of the American west, from the Dakotas west and from southern British Columbia to northern Mexico, it is commonly associated with warm dry places. Yet we have a distinct race of ponderosa pine that is native and very well adapted to the Willamette Valley, locally know as Valley pine. Like the familiar “Yellow Bellies” of Central Oregon, Valley pine is a sun-loving tree that likes shoulder room to grow. Unlike its east-side cousin, Valley pine is adapted to a wide range of soil conditions, tolerating dry and droughty sites (as many would expect), but also tolerating wet,


poorly drained soil conditions common to the valley, an unusual trait among our native conifers. In the valley, natural stands were found on the valley floor and buttes alike. Plantations of young trees have become a common site in the Willamette Valley in the last couple decades thanks to the work of the Willamette Valley Ponderosa Pine Conservation Association, OSU Extension and other partners. Mature ponderosa pine grows to 180 feet and may be up to six feet in diameter. Its needles are long (5-10 inches) and in bundles of three. Most other pines found in the Valley will have bundles of 2 or 5 needles. But what distinguishes ponderosa pine is its brown to orangey bark, with a tell-tale jigsaw puzzle pattern. Ponderosa pine has a light, soft textured wood, prized for lumber and for making of interior moldings, doors, and window frames.

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