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UPDATE people helping people grow


Old Armory, Fourth & Lyon, Albany, Oregon 97321, Phone 541-967-3871







Work in OSU Extension’s Native Seed Certification Program Preceded Nelson’s Checkermallow Project According to Melanie Gisler, Institute for Applied Ecology, work on native seed certification began prior to the Nelson’s checkermallow project. “OSU Extension’s Seed Certification Specialist Barry Schrumpf helped to guide the process for certifying large scale seed collections in the Willamette Valley in 2005.” Barry consulted with the Institute on how to document and track the seed and how to put the seed in production. “It was important for us to include seed certification to document the quality and source through testing,” says Melanie. The crop inspection phase legitimizes the seed and then a nonbiased third party takes a sample and brings it to OSU for the testing. “We can find out if there are noxious weeds and other inerts that we don’t want in the seed,” she adds.

A threatened native wildflower named Nelson’s checkermallow is repopulating open spaces on private farms and public lands thanks to the work of a local farmer who raised native plant seeds that became a companionable habitat for the wildflowers. Peter Kenagy is a North Albany farmer and an expert in growing all types of seedsincluding native plant seeds. Kenagy is producing seed varieties critical to conservation in the rich silt loam soils of his 450-acre farm on the Willamette River. While he didn’t produce the Nelson’s checkermallow seed for this project, he did raise a variety of seeds that were important to the successful growth of the checkermallow. Nelson’s checkermallow, Sidalcea nelsoniana, is a spiked perennial bearing pinkish-lavender flowers that typically bloom between late May and mid-July. The native wildflower has been listed as threatened by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) since 1993. When the recovery plan for the native checkermallow was published, several natural resource entities took on




Peter Kenagy checks the progress of seed being conditioned in his seed cleaner. He specializes in growing seeds, including native seeds for habitat restoration. The threatened Nelson’s checkermallow, above at left, is making a comeback in the Willamette Valley thanks to the strategic efforts of Institute for Applied Ecology, OSU Extension Service, Kenagy and other natural resource entities.

the task to increase populations of the wildflower in the Willamette Valley. Institute for Applied Ecology (IAE), based in Corvallis, led the effort and engaged partners including Oregon Watershed

Enhancement Board (OWEB), USFWS, USDANatural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), and private landowners. “The Nelson’s checkermallow is indigenous to the

Willamette Valley from north of Monroe up to lower southwest Washington,” says Peter Moore, Restoration Ecologist for IAE. See CHECKERMALLOW on page 2




Blooms soon!

Continued from page 1 their own way - made from a rich chest“Our first step in restoration was to do nut-colored wood. The cleaner, which weed control and bring in a plant community that was competitive but diverse,” was built in the 1950s rapidly shimmies large trays with tightly-woven screens says Melanie Gisler, Director of Habitat that sift the seeds as they sort by size and Restoration for IAE. “So, that is when we separate the debris from the seeds. got involved in collecting genetically-di“The Nelson’s checkermallow was severse material from many different lected for large scale recovery because it species to create habitats that were stable had good potential for delisting,” says enough to introduce a threatened plant like checkermallow,” she adds. Among the Gisler. “We knew where the populations were, we knew how to many varieties of collect the seed, it’s plants selected for the easy to propagate and habitat were flowering it’s successful in the forbs such as Oregon “WE HAD TO CREATE propagation site,” she sunshine and slender HABITATS THAT WERE STABLE explains. cinquefoil, and In 2010, Gisler and graminoids such as ENOUGH TO INTRODUCE Moore, took the seeds tufted hairgrass, CaliA THREATENED PLANT produced by Kenagy fornia oatgrass, oneLIKE CHECKERMALOW.” and other growers and sided sedge and established the habitat poverty rush. MELANIE GIISLER, IAE plant communities in To produce the 16 restoration sites in larger supplies of the pre-determined renative plant seed covery zones designeeded for the plant community; IAE made arrangements with nated as Corvallis West and Salem West. Once the habitat was predominantly a the NRCS Corvallis Plant Materials Cennative plant community, they planted out ter (PMC) and several growers including checkermallow seeds, plugs and rhizomes farmer Peter Kenagy to grow out, clean that were produced at PMC. and deliver the larger quantities of seed According to Moore, the colorful native for native prairie habitat establishment. is well on its way to a comeback. Initially, Kenagy had experience producing native the plots were planted with five pounds of seeds for City of Portland plant environcheckermallow seeds per acre. These ments. seeds grew into plants, flowered, and Producing specialty native seed takes produced their own seed. “At six sites meticulous management of farmland, inalone, the population has blossomed to a puts and equipment. “We would plant combined 90,000 plants, more than four rows of one type of seed plugs, then meeting the objective of 40,000 plants switch to another variety,” says Kenagy. The plants were inspected regularly in the for the two recovery zones.” The seed production fields exceeded the scientist’s field to ensure the variety wasn’t mixed expectations - two quarter acre plots at with something undesirable. If an invaPMC produced 80 pounds of seed in the sive plant appeared, the entire plot had to be plowed under. At harvest time, Kenagy first year and 250 pounds last year. “We were shocked at how much seed was promade sure the varieties of seed stayed duced!” says Gisler. The results indicate pure and did not mix with the next one that the seed production for native prairie harvested, “When changing seed varispecies, as designed by IAE and grown by eties, the combine equipment has to be Kenagy and others was the ideal environcleaned thoroughly before you move to a ment for success. new variety,” he explains. Kenagy keeps a The impact of Peter Kenagy’s work will stable of the massive combines in his continue for years to come, as the prairie shed, so he doesn’t have to stop and take recovery zones serve as a growing site for the time to clean the same machine durthe valuable seed, and as a source of food ing specialty seed harvest. for native pollinators such as butterflies The native seeds are grown and and bees. Chances are quite good that cleaned right on Kenagy’s farm. He has Nelson’s checkermallow will be delisted set up a seed cleaning operation in a hisas it is used by conservation groups and toric wooden barn close to the growing naturally spreads to other prairies and fields. The A.T. Ferrell Co. “Clipper” wetlands in the Willamette Valley. Super 29D seed cleaners are beautiful in




Hang in there! Spring is coming soon.

UPDATE is online! Do you enjoy reading the UPDATE newspaper each month? Did you know that it is available online in full color? On the front page of our website http:// /linn/, you will find the latest edition, and then below it a link to visit archived issues. If you ever

wanted to go back and get one of the great recipes from the Family Community Health page, or find out what was in the Monthly Garden Calendar on the Lawn and Garden page, this is the place to find it. Check out our website for lots of other useful in-

formation, too. You can browse through and download 4-H forms, learn what upcoming events are happening in and around our county, browse the OSU Publications available for print-on-demand, or just enjoy our Spotlight on Linn County Extension stories. Stop by and check it out!

JOIN LCEA! YES, I want to support the Linn County Extension Association. Here is my annual membership donation. Name_________________________________________________________________________________ Address_______________________________________________________________________________ City____________________________________________________ Zip____________ Phone______________________ Email_________________________________________________ ____$250 Sponsor ____$100 Benefactor ____$50 Sustaining Member _____$25 Contributing $______ Any amount Make checks payable to “Linn County Extension Association,” P.O. Box 1851, Albany, Oregon 97321

Linn County Extension Association UPDATE — people helping people grow UPDATE is a monthly publication owned and administered by the Linn County Extension Association, a 501(c)(3) federal income tax exempt organization. The Albany Democrat-Herald, under a contract with the Linn County Extension Association, prints UPDATE. Content of UPDATE is furnished by Linn County Extension Association members, Linn County Extension service agents

and other organizations that contract with Linn County Extension Association to print a newsletter for their constituencies. Advertising is provided by the Albany Democrat-Herald and does not reflect any product endorsement by the above Association, Agents or Service. The Albany Democrat-Herald is located at 600 Lyon St., S.W., Albany, Oregon. Telephone 541-926-2211.

EXTENSION OFFICE HOURS The Linn County office of the OSU Extension Service is located in the Old Armory Building on the courner of Fourth Avenue and Lyon Street in Albany. The office is open from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Monday through Friday. Phone 541-967-3871. Seed Certification phone 541-967-3810. OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION FACULTY AND PROGRAM ASSISTANTS SERVING LINN COUNTY 4-H Youth Development — Robin Galloway 541-967-3871 x 2399 4-H Youth Development — Karissa Dishon 541-967-3871 x 2395 Commercial Agriculture (CA) CA Field Crops — Paul Marquardt 541-967-3871 x 2394 CA Livestock & Forages — Shelby Filley* 541-672-4461 CA Orchard & Berry Crops — Ross Penhallegon* 541-344-1709 CA Small Farms — Melissa Fery* 541-766-6750 CA Small Farms — Amy Garrett* 541-766-6750 CA Vegetable Crops — Danny McGrath 541-967-3871 x 2397 Community Horticulture — Barb Fick* 541-967-3871 x 2393 Family & Community Health (FCH) — Janice Gregg 541-967-3871 x 2830 Community Horticulture — Pami Opfer 541-967-3871 x 2836 FCH Oregon Family Nutrition Program (OFNP) — Tina Dodge Vera 541-967-3871 x 2392 FCH OFNP — Adejoke Babatunde 541-967-3871 FCH OFNP — Iris Carrasc• 541-967-3871 FCH OFNP — Leonor Chavez 541-967-3871 FCH OFNP — Ana Lu Fonseca 541-967-3871 Forestry, Natural Resources — Brad Withrow-Robinson* 541-967-3871 ADMINISTRATION AND PROGRAM SUPPORT SERVING LINN COUNTY Office Manager — Rosemary Weidman 541-967-3871 x 2396 Office Specialist — Laurie Gibson 541-967-3871 x 2391 Office Specialist — Michele Webster 541-967-3871 County Leader — Danny McGrath 541-967-3871 x 2397 Regional Administrator — Derek Godwin 541-967-3871 Communications, editor -— Mary Stewart 541-967-3871 SEED CERTIFICATION** Doug Huff, Tamara Fowler



Joy Chase Robin Galloway

UPDATE MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE Laurie Gibson Peter Kenagy Kate Schell Janice Gregg Jim Monroe Mary Stewart, Editor

LINN COUNTY EXTENSION ASSOCIATION BOARD MEMBERS Kent Burkholder Peter Kenagy Ken Pearson Joy Chase Amy Krahn Tim Rice Sally Corrick Ben Krahn Al Severson Betty Goergen Burt Morris Oregon State University offers educational programs, activities and materials — without regard to race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, national origin, age, marital status, disability, and disabled veterans or Vietnam-era veteran status — as required by Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Oregon State University is an Equal Opportunity Employer.

Don't give up on Cover Oregon just yet! People in our community that have been without insurance coverage are benefitting from Cover Oregon. Open enrollment continues through March 31. All medical plans offered through Cover Oregon are qualified health plans that include the essential health benefits as defined by the Affordable Care Act. We invite you to visit to learn more and sign up for updates. You can also get free assistance from certified insurance agents or community partners, or from Cover Oregon?s trained specialists. Locally, Linn County Health Department and Benton County Health Department is helping people find the right medical coverage for individuals and families. Call 541-967-3888, or call and leave a message at 541-766-2130. Someone will return your call within 48 hours.



Annual dinner coming up! YOU ARE INVITED TO THE LINN COUNTY EXTENSION ASSOCIATION DINNER AND MEETING Please join us on Tuesday, February 18, 2014! New Location: Albany Eagle’s Lodge 127 Broadalbin St NW Albany, OR 97321 Social Hour 5:30 PM to 6:30 PM Dinner served at 6:30 pm Program: GMO’s in Todays World Anti-GMO? This is an extremely controversial topic in our local commu-

nity and worldwide. Come and learn the basic facts about GMOs and form your own educated opinion. Our speaker is Dr. Steven H. Strauss, a Distinguished Professor of Forest Biotechnology in the Department of Forest Science at Oregon State University, and has a joint appointment in the Molecular and Cellular Biology Program. Strauss directs the OSU Program for

Outreach in Resource Biotechnology, aimed at promoting public understanding, and facilitating science-based public debates in food and natural resources biotechnology (http://agsci.oregon He has advised governments and written in many scientific journals about national and international regulations on field research and com-

mercial development of genetically engineered crops and trees. You may register using the coupon on this page, or you may call our office 541-967-3871, and we will take your registration over the phone. We must let the caterer know how many will be attending so that he may order the food by Monday, February 10. Please RSVP before that date.

Melissa Ferry 541-766-6750 melissa.fery


Commercial Agriculture

Small Farms

From the Ground Up

Program offers more classes

Feb. 12 — Small-Scale Poultry Production Learn the ins and outs of raising chickens, turkeys and other poultry. This class is designed for those interested in raising poultry for eggs or for meat. Dr. Jim Hermes will cover topics including hatching eggs, brooding and raising chicks, poultry nutrition, flock & bird health, breeds of poultry, and housing for poultry.

Feb. 19 — All About Fruit Trees Learn how to produce the different tree fruits

that grow well in the Willamette Valley. The class will review the growing of apples, pears, prunes/plums and nuts which are typically more suited to this climate. We will also cover some information about peaches and cherries which are more difficult to grow in cool and wet conditions in the spring.

March 12 — Growing Berries & Grapes Learn about the best berries to grow in the lower Willamette Valley. This class will cover varieties, how to grow the berries, irrigation, soil needs, insects and diseases that you will need to look out for while growing blueberries, strawberries, blackberries. Gooseberries or currants and grapes, which can be a tad more diffi-

cult to grow will also be covered.

April 9 — Growing Vegetables A gardening class that goes deeper. From variety selection to planting and from fertilizing to harvesting, discover all that goes into growing vegetables. The information from this class can be easily transferred to those interested in diversified fresh vegetable production as a small business venture.

May 14 — Marketing and Processing your Farm Products Come away with an understanding of wholesale and direct marketing channel options for the crops and livestock you produce. Case studies will show how some local

farmers use multiple marketing opportunities. Learn about some of the food safety, licensing, and processing requirements for selling agricultural products. Develop some next steps for your farming venture.

June 4 — Diagnosing Plant Problems As people grow different crops, these crops magically have a lot of different problems appear. This class will help you diagnosis plant problems. We will be looking at the myriad of insects, weeds, diseases, viruses that can affect the tree fruits, berries, vegetables and ornamental plants.

Classes fill up quickly! Register for individual classes by calling 541463-6200.

Oregon Small Farms Conference What: Oregon State University Campus in Corvallis at the LaSells Stewart Center and CH2M Hill Alumni Center When: Saturday, February 22, 2014

541-766-6750 amy.garrett


OSU Extension Service, the Small Business Development Center, and Lane Community College are teaming up to offer classes designed for beginning farmers and others interested in expanding their knowledge about agriculture opportunities on a small-scale. The classes will be held at the LCC campus at 4000 East 30th Avenue, Building 17, in Eugene each month from 6-9 p.m. Participants may register by calling LCC’s SBCD at 541-463-6200.

Amy Garrett

This daylong event is geared toward farmers, agriculture professionals, food policy advocates, students and managers of farmers markets. Twenty-four sessions

will be offered on a variety of topics relevant to the Oregon small farmers. This year there will be a session track in Spanish. Speakers will include farmers, OSU Extension

faculty, agribusiness, and more. Farmer, writer, and photographer Michael Ableman has been announced as the Keynote Speaker at this year’s conference.

Make Your Own Seed-Starting Mix Visit Spring Hill Organic Farm on Monday February 3, from 3-5 p.m., to build your own seed-starting mix. The farm is located at 429 North Nebergall Loop NE, Albany, Oregon 97321. This workshop is intended for small farmers interested in scaling-up and saving money on seed-starting media by purchasing ingredients in bulk and mixing their own. We will start with a farm tour of Spring Hill Organic Farm. Participants will then gain handson experience making their own seed-starting media, and leave with some to use at home in addition to some resources and recipes. This workshop will be offered in Spanish (English translation available upon request) Please RSVP to Ana Lu Fonseca at, or 541-207-5509.

SOME FUN FACTS OREGON • The world’s tallest barber shop pole is in Forest Grove. • The Sea Lion Caves are the largest known sea caves in the world. • Pioneer Tabitha Moffatt Brown was named the Mother of Oregon.

Commercial Agriculture

Livestock & Forages

Shelby Filley, 541-672-4461,


Early Nitrogen Application Stimulates Growth BY SHELBY FILLEY

This water year is already well below average and there is no certainty we will get all the rain we need in upcoming months. What we do know is that in order to grow forage we need moisture along with sunshine and fertilizer. See if you can take advantage of early nitrogen application along with some early spring rains to grow some forage while you can. Read through the following information from an article I wrote a couple years ago and contact me for assistance if you need to. Shelby 541-672-4461 or

Every year producers wait for spring forage growth on their pastures; every year wishing the grass would come earlier than it usually does. What can be done to stimulate earlier growth? How can we use our resources more efficiently? These questions come from the reality that pasture forage for grazing livestock is usually lacking early in the growing season and livestock producers must provide costly harvested forages during this time. Traditional timing of mid-spring nitrogen fertilizer comes when growth rate is already accelerated, but does not help with the lack of feed very early in the growing season. Research during the 1980’s in Great Britain showed that early nitrogen application can be advantageous for providing early-season forage. A method called T-SUM

Lambing Time Chores From OSU Sheep Management Calendar by James Thompson, OSU Sheep Specialist, retired




Pasture forage for grazing livestock is usually lacking early in the growing season and livestock producers must provide costly harvested forages during this time. Early nitrogen application can help stimulate early pasture growth.

200 was developed to determine the date of that first application to a pasture. The fertilizer was put on when pasture plants started to grow in mid to late winter, and stimulated more pounds of feed during the first part of the grazing season. Research in Douglas County and elsewhere in Oregon found T-SUM 200 to be useful for providing early forage here also. T-SUM 200 is an accumulation of HEAT UNITS starting from January 1, until a total of 200 heat units are reached. The first application of nitrogen should be applied on or soon after the date that 200 heat

Be ready for first lambs 142 days after turning rams with ewes. • Watch ewes closely, concentrate your labor. The extra effort will be repaid with more lambs at weaning. Additional help might be money well spent. • Provide birthing assistance when needed. • Place ewes that lamb in jugs or lambing pens.

units are accumulated. A heat unit is the average of the high and low temperature for the day, in degrees centigrade. January 1 is the chosen starting date for the accumulation of heat units. It isn’t some magical date after which plant growth starts, but it happened to be a convenient and easy starting point. It is based on the assumption that cool or cold winter temperatures in December or January have caused plant growth to slow down or cease and approximately 200 heat units after January 1 plant growth is initiated. For western Oregon, that accumulation of heat units, degree

• Clip, Dip, Strip, and Sip: Clip the navel to 1-1/2” length; Dip the navel in 7 percent tincture of iodine; Strip the teat of the ewe to remove the wax plug from teat canal; and see that lamb gets first Sip of colostrum. • Check lambs and ewes in jugs several times each day to ensure ewes are claiming lambs and lambs are getting enough to eat.

growing days, usually occurs at the very end of January or beginning of February. Using this January’s actual temperature, plus projected temperatures based on historical data, the estimated T-SUM 200 for this year in the Albany area is mid-February. However, because the forecast isn’t always correct, that date might be different. For detailed information on the T-SUM 200 method and calculations see OSU publication EM 8852, Early Spring Forage Production in Western Oregon Pastures. I hope you can use this information to provide early season forage. The most important caution about using the T-SUM 200 method is that it will not fit every pasture. To minimize loss of nitrogen, fertilizer should not be applied to very wet soils, especially ones with some standing water. And, use caution on sandy soils due to the potential for nitrogen loss early in the growing season. Additionally, producers should not turn livestock out onto pastures until the soils are firm, as this can cause long-term damage from hoof action on softened ground. Use lighter weight animals (stocker cattle or sheep and goats) for these early grazing opportunities. For more on pasture fertility, grazing/haying management, and other forage topics, please attend the upcoming Oregon Forage and Grasslands Council Annual Meeting and Conference at the Salem Convention Center, February 24, 2014.

• Remove ewes and lambs from jugs (1-3 days) and place in groups of 4-8 ewes for further observation and then combine these groups into a workable size unit. Ewes with twins should be separated from those with singles. • Begin to feed ewe at recommended levels for lactation about 3 days after lambing. • Watch lambs for signs of


Annual Forage Conference Oregon Forage & Grassland Council presents the annual forage conference on Monday, February 24, at the Salem Convention Center, downtown Salem. Registration begins at 8 a.m., and the program begins at 9:30 a.m. Cost is $50, which includes a one year membership in Oregon Forage & Grassland Council (OFGC). This year’s featured speaker is Tony Rickard, PhD. Tony’s topics include Forages and Grazing Techniques, Grain Feeding in Pasturebased Systems, and the Story of the Southwest Missouri Grazing Efforts. For more information contact Woody Lane PhD, at woody@ or 541-440-1926, or visit The forage conference will be held concurrently with the Oregon Dairy Farmers Annual Convention.

pneumonia and scours. • Give lambs Vitamin E — Selenium injection. • Vaccinate lambs for soremouth at 1-2 weeks of age if it is a problem in your flock. Also vaccinate lambs for enterotoxemia if ewes were not vaccinated prior to lambing. • Castrate and dock lambs as soon as they are up and off to a good start (2 days to 2 weeks old).

Commercial Agriculture Field Crops 6


Paul Marquardt, 541-967-3871, ◆

THANK YOU Another Successful Ryegrass Meeting For many of you this may not be new news, but I will be resigning my position as the Field Crops OSU Extension Agent for the South Valley effective Jan. 31. This will be my last UPDATE article. I’ve accepted a position to move back to the Midwest to be closer to my son who lives in Minneapolis. I would like to thank everyone I have worked with and supported me over the past year. This valley has a very special group of growers, researchers and industry personnel that I will miss. I’ve really enjoyed working with this group. Even though my tenure here was very short, I’ve learned an extraordinary amount about this incredible area of the country, and I’ll miss it immensely. Thank you for all of your support. Paul Marquardt


CROP NOTES FEBRUARY • Begin planning for spring fertilizer applications in most production fields. As the soil begins to accumulate heat units in late February, fertilizer applications need to begin. • Review current fertilizer management guides, which have been recently updated and edited. These guides can be found on the Willamette Valley Field Crops website • Winter wheat needs nitrogen applications prior to tillering, which usually occurs prior to the end of February. • You can delay fertilizer applications on grass seed fields in areas of standing water until late March and April without suffering yield reductions. • Complete grass control herbicide treatments in winter wheat before March 1 on most fields. • Dormant applications of herbicides in mint production fields should be completed in early February prior to the beginning of regrowth.


I would like to send a special thank you to everyone that attended, presented, sponsored, and helped organize the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Oregon Ryegrass Growers Association (ORGA), which was held on Wednesday, Jan. 15 at the Linn County Fair and Expo Center in Albany. The meeting was well attended by more than 300 people representing the grass seed industry in the Valley. The agenda this year covered a variety of topics ranging from technology in ryegrass production to alternative and rotational crops and the cover crop market’s impact on Oregon seed production. Tom Chastain, OSU plant physiologist, discussed achieving ryegrass yield potentials and management practices to reach these yields. This presentation included current practices that are being utilized internationally that may benefit grass seed production in the Willamette Valley. The poster session had 12 presenters that covered topics ranging from food security and wildlife management issues to seed certification and current management practices in seed production. The presentation program also included a current market report (by the multi-talented Sam Cable who even managed to include a song in this year’s report), a pesticide label update, and a presentation on quality control issues in exporting agricultural products (i.e. soil




Thanks to the 2013 Oregon Ryegrass Growers Association for all your hard work in making the ORGA Annual meeting a success. At top, pictured from left to right: Kathy Hadley, Joe Kirk, Willie Tenbusch, Darren Hayworth, Ryan Glaser, Andrew Pohlschneider and Jesse Farver. At left, congratulations to Jesse Farver, Kathy Hadley, and Ryan Glaser! The three members of the ORGA board have finished their successful tenure with the board in 2014. At right, George Pugh accepts the 2014 ORGA Service Award.

and pest contamination). Overall, it was a very successful meeting. George Pugh, of Pugh Seed Farm was presented with the 2014 ORGA Service Award for his years of service to the grass seed industry in the Valley. Three board members have ended their 6-year tenure on the ORGA board with the

conclusion of this meeting. The board consists of 9 growers, and the primary purpose of the group is to plan and organize this January meeting, which has become an invaluable meeting to present and learn about current topics affecting the grass seed industry in Oregon. The board is still in

need of a couple of new members for 2014. The group meets a few times a year - once in March and then again in October and November - in the evening, to plan the ORGA meeting, and the time commitment is minimal. Without this board, this valuable meeting would not be possible.

Commercial Agriculture

Orchard & Berry Crops

Ross Penhallegon, 541-344-1709,


Peach Leaf Curl spray

December Freeze Damage

Note: Peach buds have already broken bud, so peach leaf curl sprays are even more critical. Growers who have had problems with peach leaf curl should have given those trees three fungicide spray treatments (October, Dec. 15, Jan. 15) with the last one scheduled for February 15. These sprays are critical and should be done before buds on the peach tree begin to swell in early spring. Since many peach trees have already had their buds break due to the warm late December weather, we will be seeing more peach leaf curl than we would normally expect. Peach leaf curl sprays will help to slow down any infection that has already happened.

After the cold weather in December, many plants were injured. Azaleas and rhododendrons looked bad during that time period with leaves that had lost a lot of moisture but are looking better now that the ground is not frozen and the plants are getting water. Garlic plants have had some leaf burn, plus in many places they were very slow to emerge; Boxwood bushes look poor and yellowish; many different ornamental bushes were hammered by the cold air and affected the leaves, turning them yellowish or light brown; blueberries are showing tip burn from the cold. Many of the plants that were in pots are showing freeze damage after the pots froze solid. With most of these plants, just wait and see if the tissue recovers. By June, the tissues will have recovered or look brown and dead. Around Feb. 15, we can cut a branch with flower buds and see how well they bloom by bringing a sprig of the branch inside and placing it in water. There have been several calls about lawns having areas with a really stinky smell, caused by the cold weather damaging the leaf tissue and/or a problem called gray snow mold. The gray snow mold grows under the snow, which we had for about a week.

Go to: /plantdisease/lawn-and-turftyphula-blight-gray-snow-mold

Cut and remove the damaged lawn. Remove any leaves from the lawn. Reduce thatch and aerate.

Willamette Valley Tree Fruit Growers Association Annual Meeting Feb. 15

The Willamette Valley Tree Fruit Growers Association has their annual winter meeting set for February 15, at the Roth’s IGA conference rooms in West Salem, starting at 9 a.m.

More information will be arriving soon. For more information contact Nik G. Wiman at, or Tony Shepherd at Tony.

PNW Pesticide Short Course



At top, a rhododendron shows stress from freezing weather, while above, a lawn shows patches of gray snow mold damage.

A pesticide short course is scheduled for PNW Ag Chemistry and Toxicology on Tuesday and Wednesday, February 4-5 p.m., at the Lane Community College, Center for Meeting and Learning, Eugene. The conference is for those people needing public, commercial, and consultant pesticide training credit hours. There will be an anticipated 12 hours of credit. Watch this publication for more information in coming months.


Learn to Prune

Get more Berries & Tree Fruits A good time to prune berries or tree fruits is when you have the appropriate amount of time to finish the job, between November and March. Several pruning classes will be offered this winter from the OSU Extension offices of Linn, Benton and Lane Counties. In Linn County, there will be a pruning workshop held on Tuesday, February 18, from 1-3 p.m., at Grandpas Farm Stand, on HWY 226, Albany. To register for this workshop visit or call the Linn County Extension office and we can sign you up. For other pruning classes visit extension. /default/files/documents/ publicpruneclass2014.pdf, or call 541-344-0265 for more information.


HINTS • Apply berry and tree fruit delayed dormant sprays. • Control lecanium scale blueberries. • Finish pruning berries and tree fruits. • Control dead bud and bacterial canker in cherries. • Apply oils to control scale, mites, and aphid eggs.

Barbara Fick 541-967-3871 x2393


FEBRUARY 2014 At right, Pieris japonica, or “Prelude” is a neat, rounded shrub. It has given rise to many noteworthy cultivars. It grows to 12 feet tall and 10 feet wide, producing drooping clusters of delicate blossoms in winter and spring. Use this shrub in a woodland, rock garden, container, or as a foundation plant. Below, at right rhododendron “Superflimmer ” features bold golden variegated leaves. The term “variegated” refers to two-toned foliage. PHOTOS


Community Horticulture


When you think ornamentals, flowers may immediately come to mind. But consider shrubs with vibrant leaves to add interest to your landscape year round. “Always look for different textures,” said Barb Fick, horticulturist with the Oregon State University Extension Service. “I’m always looking for plants with different colors of foliage. Flowers are great but they don’t flower all year and it’s good to have diversity other times of year. When it’s a time of year when flowers aren’t in bloom, your eye is drawn to the color of the foliage.” “We call them the ‘bones of the garden.’ Colorful foliage gives the garden structure. Plants that keep foliage year-round make the garden interesting all year.”

541-967-3871 x2836


with colorful




Pami Opfer

Below are Fick’s recommendations for shrubs with interesting foliage that you can grow in western Oregon. “Variegated” foliage is a term that refers to a leaf that is two-toned in color, a unique characteristic in landscape design. • Rhododendron “Superflimmer” — In the family Ericaceae, this is a newer introduction similar to “Goldflimmer” but with bolder golden variegation. This coldhardy rhododendron features gold and green leaves and blooms purple flowers. “It’s got bright golden yellow foliage with dark green margins — a beautiful year-round foliage color,” Fick said. Make sure your soil is acidic and well drained. This shrub needs full sun. • Gold Leaf Mexican Orange “Sundance” — Scientific name Choisya ternate. “It has great golden yellow foliage,” Fick said.

“It’s nice to have that yellow in a landscape. It’s got white flowers in the spring that are very fragrant.” It needs partial to full sun and well-drained soil.

• “Goshiki” false holly — Scientific name Osmanthus heterophyllus. It looks like a holly plant, but it’s not a holly. New leaves start out reddish-pink, then be-

come light orange and pink, then turn cream, gray-green and gold. This broadleaf evergreen shrub needs partial to full sun and regular watering. “When everything else turns brown, the eye moves to this shrub because it has a spark of yellow,” Fick said. In western Oregon, plant shrubs any time of year when the ground is not frozen, Fick said. For more information about planting and caring for shrubs, view the OSU Extension guides below. • “Conserving Water in the Garden: Designing and Installing a New Landscape” at • “Gardening with Oregon Native Plants West of the Cascades” at • “Mulching Woody Ornamentals with Organic Materials” at

Gardening in the Pacific Northwest Brownbag Series: Winter 2014 Gardening in the Pacific Northwest Brownbags are a series of short lunchtime sessions on popular gardening topics for Linn County gardeners! Bring a sack lunch and meet other gardeners with similar interests. It’s informal, informative, and fun — no reservations needed, and no charge! This event is co-sponsored by LBCC. Classes are held on Wednesdays at Albany Public Library, 2450 14th Ave SE, Albany, and on Thursdays at East Linn LBCC, 44 Industrial Way in Lebanon. Time: noon to 1 p.m., both locations. • Feb.5 & 6 “Get Excited About the Possibility of a Home Orchard” — KJ Lee (Master Gardener and Home Orchard Society) • Feb. 12 & 13 “No Space? Try Community or Container Gardens” — Pami Opfer (Master Gardener Program Coordinator) • Feb. 19 & 20 “Mysterious Mushrooms of Western Oregon” — Steve Carpenter (Mycologist) • Feb. 26 & 27 “Creative Garden Art: How to Create a ‘Living Rug’” — Cynthia Brenneman (Master Gardener)

Insights Into Gardening PHOTOS



Above, “Goshiki” false holly features leaves that turn multiple colors throughout the year. Below, Gold Leaf Mexican Orange “Sundance” has dramatic yellow-green foliage. It needs partial to full sun and grows slowly.

Insights Into Gardening will be held on Saturday, February 8, at the LaSells Stewart Center, on the OSU campus. Insights is a day-long seminar offering practical, hands-on learning for home gardeners and gardeners-to-be. Whether you are an experienced or novice gardener, new to the area or an Oregon native, you will find plenty of ideas to make your gardening easier, more enjoyable, and more successful. For a registration form and more information, please visit benton/sites/default/files/insights_2014.pdf or you may pick up a registration form from either the Linn or Benton County Extension offices.



HorticultureHINTS Planning • Tune up lawn mower and garden equipment before the busy season begins. • Have soil tested to determine nutrient needs. For more information, contact your local Extension office for a list of testing laboratories or view Laboratories Serving Oregon: Soil, Water, Plant Tissue, and Feed Analysis (EM 8677). • Select and store healthy scion wood for grafting fruit and nut trees. Wrap in damp cloth or peat moss and place in plastic bag. Store in cool place. • Plan an herb bed for cooking and creating an interesting landscape. For example, choose parsley, sage, chives, and lavender. Choose a sunny spot and plant seeds or transplants once the danger of frost has passed (late-April or early-May in the Willamette Valley and Central Coast; June or July in Eastern and Central Oregon). • Plan to add herbaceous perennial flowers to your flowering landscape this spring. Examples include candytuft, peony, penstemon, and coneflower.

Maintenance and Clean Up • Repair winter damage to trees and shrubs. • Make a cold frame or hotbed to start early vegetables or flowers. • Fertilize rhubarb with manure or a complete fertilizer. • Incorporate cover crops or other organic matter into soil. • Prune and train grapes; make cuttings. • Prune fruit trees and blueberries. • Western Oregon: Prune deciduous summer-blooming shrubs and trees; wait until April in high elevations of Eastern and Central Oregon. • Western Oregon: Prune and train trailing blackberries (if not done the prior August); prune back raspberries. • Western Oregon: Prune fall-bearing raspberries (in lateFebruary or early-March). • Western Oregon: Prune clematis, Virginia creeper, and other vining ornamentals.


One more fruit tree pruning workshop to be held in Linn County this winter OSU Linn and Benton County Extension will present a fruit tree pruning workshop on Tuesday, February 18, from 1-3:30 p.m., at Grandpa’s Farm Stand, 36483 HWY 226, Albany. OSU Extension agent, Ross Penhallegon will teach the workshop. Ross has more than 20 years of orchard management experience. The class will be held rain or shine. Pre-registration is required. The cost is $20. Please make check payable to OSU Linn County Extension. To register, please visit http://extension., or call 541-967-3871.

• Plant windowsill container gardens of carrots, lettuce, or parsley. • Plan to add herbaceous perennial flowers this spring: astilbe, candytuft, peony, and anemone. • Good time to plant fruit trees and deciduous shrubs. Replace varieties of ornamental plants that are susceptible to disease with resistant cultivars. • Plant asparagus if the ground is warm enough. • Plant seed flats of cole crops (cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, and Brussels sprouts), indoors or in a greenhouse. • Western Oregon: Where soil is dry enough and workable, plant garden peas and sweet peas. Suggested varieties of garden peas include: Corvallis, Dark Green Perfection, Green Arrow, Oregon Sugar Pod, Snappy, Knight, Sugar Snap, Oregon Trail, and Oregon Sugar Pod II.

Family And Community Health

Janice Gregg 541-967-3871 x2830



541-967-3871 x2932


A whole-grain healthy choice OATMEAL Although most of us know we are supposed to eat more whole grains, it can be difficult to know what foods have 100 percent whole grain. Oatmeal is a whole grain because it contains all of the parts of the oat grain including the bran, endosperm, and germ. The interesting thing is that when we eat the regular oatmeal most of us grew up with, we aren’t eating the grain in its original form. We are usually eating rolled oats. Rolled oats have been steamed and flattened. That process decreases the cooking time so old-fashioned oatmeal can be prepared in 10 to 25 minutes. Quick-cooking oats that can be prepared in 3 to 5 minutes have been cut even more finely to reduce cooking time. Some people prefer steel-cut oats. The primary difference between steel cut oats and rolled oats is the shape of the grain. Steel-cut oats are not flattened - the grain is cut into thirds and then packaged for sale. When preparing steel-cut oats, it’s best to use 4 cups of water to each cup of oats. The cooking time for steel-cut oats is 30 to 40 minutes. Steelcut oats have a chewy texture and hearty flavor. A popular product in many households is instant oatmeal. The oat grain is partially cooked,

Tina Dodge Vera

Slow Cooker Steal Cut Oatmeal Ingredients: 8 ½ cups water 2 cups steel-cut oats 1¾ cups milk (or 1 can of light coconut milk) ¼ cup packed light brown sugar ½ teaspoon fine salt 1 teaspoon vanilla extract

Directions: 1. Coat the insert of the slow cooker with a thin layer of fat (use margarine or butter). 2. Add water, oats, milk or coconut milk, brown sugar, and salt. Stir to combine. 3. Cover and cook on low until the oats are cooked through and creamy, about 7-8 hours. Stir in the vanilla and serve. If the oatmeal is too mushy, cook the oatmeal in a heat resistant bowl placed inside the slow cooker. Add water to the slow cooker. This will lengthen the cooking time by 1-2 hours. Other ideas for variety: • Add 1 cup of chopped and peeled apple and ½ cup raisins with cinnamon. • Add ½ cup dried tart cherries or cranberries, 1 tablespoon ground flax seed, maple syrup for sweeter.

dried and then rolled very thin so that the cereal can be prepared quickly. If you read the label of many instant oatmeal packages, you will find that they have nutrients that oldfashioned and steel-cut oats don’t have. These nutrients have been added. A disadvantage of some instant oatmeal is that a significant amount of sugar has been added and the texture is pasty. Look for packages of instant oatmeal that contain less than 7 grams of added sugar per packet.

All oatmeal is a good source of fiber, magnesium, and thiamine. It also contains phosphorus, potassium, iron, and copper. Oatmeal carries a health claim on the food label because of the fiber content. The health claim is that oatmeal — along with a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol may reduce the risk of heart disease. Oatmeal is a good source of soluble fiber, which acts as a sponge in the digestive tract to help remove cholesterol from the body.

Oatmeal is not only a good breakfast cereal, but is great used in many kinds of baked products. Try adding a tablespoon of rolled oats to smoothies. It will help thicken but not change the flavor of the smoothie. Here is a recipe for oatmeal in a slow cooker. Start it in the evening and have it ready in the morning. If you have extra, it refrigerates very well. Just add some milk, dried fruit and nuts (if desired), stick it in the microwave and eat. It’s a great quick breakfast.

ARE YOU CIVIL? “Is there a vaccine to cure rudeness?” When: Thursday, February 27, 9:30 -10:00 Where: Lebanon Senior Center Title: Is there a vaccine to cure rudeness? We’ll have an honest conversation about civility. Examine making a habit out of kindness, nurturing social relationships, and promoting decency. Can we teach civility to the upcoming generations? Please call 541-967-3871 to register for this class. The lesson can be re-taught; call to request leader and participant materials.



Ideas on How to Celebrate February Observances ow can you help celebrate some of the many observances througout February? Have chocolate for dessert or Valentine’s Day? Put some cherries on your hot breakfast cereal? Serve baked potatoes for dinner? Here are just a few suggestions:


Ahh, Chocolate-Studies have found that dark chocolate has promising health benefits, but the health benefits depend on how the cocoa is processed. Natural cocoa powder that is not “Dutch” processed has the most flavanols, followed by unsweetened baking chocolate, then dark and semi-sweet chocolate. So what is the recommendation? Remembering that chocolate will add calories, fat, and sugar to your diet, one ounce of dark chocolate is beneficial each

day as long as you stay within your overall calorie limits. Want to satisfy your chocolate craving? It is interesting to note that semi-sweet chocolate chips have 20 percent fewer calories than chocolate bars. Are you good to your heart? Healthy lifestyles can help decrease some risk factors that increase our risk of heart disease (age, family history, gender). What are some of these? • Don’t smoke (even electronic cigarettes!) • Eat at least five servings

of fruits and vegetables a day • Eat a variety of whole grains • Eat fish two times a week • Eat fat-free or low-fat dairy products • Limit alcohol to one to two drinks per day • Eat foods high in soluble fiber (oats, apples, citrus fruits, beans) • Exercise at least three times a week • Watch salt content of food, especially in processed, convenience and fast foods • Eat a few more meals without any meat

These are some of the Food, Nutrition Health Observances for the month of February: • American Heart Month • Black History Month • Cancer Prevention Month • Cherry Month • Children’s Dental Health Month • Chocolate Month • Hot Breakfast Month • Potato Lover’s Month • Snack Food Month

February is Snack Food Month Jump-Start Your Savings Make your snacks healthy We all eat snacks and need to have a snack every now and then to carry us to another meal. For children, snacks are a very important part of their nutrition. What we choose for a snack can be adding more calories and little nutrition to our diets. Think about using fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and low fat protein and dairy choices for the snacks you give to your children and the foods you choose for yourself. Many times our snacking takes place during a fun event that can call for high fat and high calories foods (remember what you ate during the Super Bowl?). When watching TV, “mindless” eating can lead you to eat more than you would if you weren’t watching TV. On such occasions, here are some tips to help you make better choices: • Try baked chips instead of regular potato chips. Another idea is to take 100% whole wheat pita bread or corn tortillas, cut it into triangles and bake in the oven to make your own healthy chips. • Ditch the chips and cut up fresh veggies with dip.Instead of high-fat dip for your baked chips or fresh veggies, serve hummus or salsa. • Remember that drinks contain a lot of calories, be choosy and make low calorie choices.

Flavored seltzer water is a great low calorie choice. How you eat also influences how much you eat. Try these tips to change your snack time environment: • Keep food packages and platters in the kitchen. You’ll need to get up from your comfortable seat and get more food when you’re hungry. If the food is right in front of you, you’re more likely to eat it. • Think about portions for food. Take your foot-long sub

and cut it into smaller portions. Serve yourself one portion and bring it back to your seat. Want more? You’ll need to get up and get another portion from the kitchen if you’re still hungry. • Think about portions for snacks. Keep bowls of chips or other snack foods in the kitchen. Serve yourself a small amount. Then go back to the TV or event. You’ll have to get up and get more from the kitchen when you’re ready for more.

Money is so easy to spend; it slips through your fingers like water. Even with the best intentions to put a little money aside every month, we often find there’s nothing left when the month comes to a close. But saving doesn’t have to be hit-or-miss. There are simple tricks that can help you pay yourself first. A great place to start is with your annual income tax refund. You can use some or all of it to start on the road to a lifetime of saving. A lot of people, especially low-income people, get a fairly sizable tax refund. That’s the one time of year when they actually have some money to think about. So it’s a perfect time to think about paying yourself first. You can set aside some of your refund to build an emergency fund. Research shows that a $500 emergency fund is enough to keep most people out of trouble if something goes wrong. Another tip: When you pay off a loan, continue to make that payment, but pay yourself rather than the creditor. When you do little tricks like that, you’ll be amazed at how much you can put aside

without really feeling it or without it having an effect on your family. There are so many ways in day-to-day life in which nickels, dimes and dollars slip away unnoticed. Sometimes dropping a habit can keep money from leaking out of your budget. Eating out is probably one of the biggest thieves of loose change and small bills. If one person in the family is spending $5 a day eating out and you didn’t do that for a year, you’d have almost $2,000 by the end of the year. Little by little, it all adds up. Saving for an emergency, retirement or a financial goal is a worthwhile pursuit.

Soil & Water Conservation District 12


Kevin Seifert, 541-926-2483 ◆

Tips for Managing Drainage We have been dry this year. According to the weather sites on the web we are behind almost 8 inches for December. Even with the recent rainy Saturday that dumped four feet of snow on Mt. Hood, we are behind. Some Oregonians say the rains always even out… just when you don’t want them to. So, is the Farmer’s Almanac right? Are we going to end up with above average rainfalls this spring? What do you do with the extra water this spring? The extra water pools, ponds, and courses across the land, but most of it still needs to drain to our streams and rivers. As we alter our land uses, building houses, roads, and other structures, new problems and concerns arise regarding drainage of surface water. These problems and concerns have become more prevalent by the encroachment of urbanization on our rural lands. Recently, several problems have arisen in the urban/rural interface; in one instance, considerable fill soil was brought in before new housing was constructed causing flooding of an existing house. Attention needs to be given to the potential effect the additional fill will have on the natural drainage course. Whose problem is this? How do




Looking at the way water exits your field for future management.

we come to a resolution? Was there a problem in the first place? Drainage issues can lead to property damage and civil suits. In order to avoid problems, we need to understand our drainage rights in Oregon. The State of Oregon observes the Modified Civil Rule when it comes to assessing liability for flooding, erosion, and drainage alterations. Under this rule, adjoining landowners are entitled to have the normal or historical course of natu-

ral drainage maintained. This means that a downgradient owner must accept the surface water that naturally drains onto his land from an up-gradient neighbor. However, the up-gradient owner may not do anything to change the natural system of drainage so as to increase the natural burden across the down-gradient property. The down-gradient owner may not obstruct the run-off from the upper land, if the upper

landowner is properly discharging the water. For a landowner to drain water onto lands of another in the State of Oregon, two conditions must be satisfied initially: first, the lands must contain a natural drainage course; and secondly, the landowner must have acquired the right of drainage supported by consideration. In addition, because Oregon has adopted the modified civil rule regarding drainage, these basic elements must be

followed: • A landowner may not divert water onto adjoining land that would not otherwise have flowed there. “Divert water” includes, but is not necessarily limited to: ◆ water diverted from one drainage area to another; and ◆ water collected and discharged, which normally would infiltrate into the ground, pond, and/or evaporate. • The upper landowner may not change the place where the water flows

onto the lower owner’s land. (Most of the diversions not in compliance with this element result from grading and paving work and/or improvements to water collection systems.) • The upper landowner may not accumulate large quantities of water, and then release it, greatly accelerating the flow onto the lower owner’s land. This does not mean that the upper landowner cannot accelerate the flow of water at all; experience has found drainage to be improper only when acceleration and concentration of the water were substantially increased. If you are concerned that your drainage has been changed by an adjacent property, try to document the changes with pictures; historical aerial photos of drainages may also be available. Generally, working with your neighbor is the best way to resolve drainage issues. Inundation of rains keeps Western Oregon green, it also hampers the ability to grow some of our cool season grasses and food crops. Drainage is of concern to everyone; make sure you think of the application before you install a BMP (best management practice). I hope you all have dryer feet than normal this year. This is general information not to be taken as legal advice.

Linn County Farm Bureau FEBRURY 2014

Don Cersovski, 541-995-8310


This year’s LCFB Farm Family of the Year and Gerald Detering Award is presented to Denver and Shay Pugh of Shedd/Halsey. He attended grade school and high school in the CentralLinn School District. He was the kid to beat in the many FFA contests of the Upper Willamette District where he served as an officer in Central-Linn FFA. A fourth-generation OSU alumni, he furthered his education with a BS degree in Agriculture from Oregon State University. He did an internship on a research farm where he worked “after hours” and weekends and spring break, all while assisting on his family farm all summer and between college quarters. He is a very dedicated and hardworking individual, with a great work ethic, common sense, and the ability to know when to economize. He can lead selflessly because he sees the bigger picture. He is very savvy and business-oriented as well as a hands-on kind of person. Shay Pugh grew up and attended school in California. She got her degree from Southern Oregon University in nursing. As a youth she enjoyed riding her horse, as well as track and field. Her love of horses and running has continued into adulthood - she has a yearling Appaloosa that she is training Western. Her love of running has taken her to




Linn County Farm Bureau outgoing chairman, Don Cersovski, presents the award for the 2013 Linn County Farm Bureau Family of the Year and Gerald Detering award to Denver and Shay Pugh at the January meeting.

marathons and halfmarathons. She is very warm and friendly to those who know her. The two got married in 2012. This summer they became the proud parents of a daughter. Denver began his farming career fresh out of college, and even earlier, because he has been farming with his family since he was a youngster. He is a sixthgeneration Century Farm manager, owner and operator of a seed farm that now cultivates 3,200 acres. He grows four types of grass seed: annual ryegrass, perennial ryegrass, orchard grass, and tall fescue, with other crops including meadow foam and wheat, and cover crops like white radish seed. He sometimes

uses the cover crop to clean his field. He mainly grows proprietary grass seed. Denver and his family have participated in various grass seed trials and field days with retired OSU agronomist, Mark Mellbye over the years. For fun, he likes fishing or riding motorcycles, but mostly he enjoys all the good friends he has made over the years at the many organizations he participates in. Some of the groups that Denver and Shay Pugh are involved in are the Oregon Ryegrass Growers Seed Commission, where he is chair, and the Oregon Seed Council. He serves on the E.R. Jackman Friends and alumni board at OSU, is a member of Seed League, Wheat Growers Association,

and the Ryegrass Growers Association. He has been captain of the Halsey-Shedd Volunteer Fire Department since his college days. He is involved with the CentralLinn FFA Alumni Association. Anytime you look around, there he is, keeping informed as to what is taking place. He is a staple to assist with the LCFB Young Farmer and Rancher Tractor Driving contest each year…you might say he is up to his eyeballs in agriculture. He was at the fire station volunteering the night of the LCFB annual meeting in November, because of a miscommunication and invitation on our end, so we invited him to our January meeting for the official presentation. Congratulations to Denver and Shay Pugh!


Food Check-out Week BY MARY GRIMES

The week of February 16, 2014, is national Food Check-out Week observed by the American Farm Bureau Federation, Oregon Farm Bureau, and Linn County Farm Bureau. Nationwide, each February, the farm bureau’s membership (made up of US farmers and ranchers) celebrate with consumers the nourishing and affordable food they have been able to provide. So that families can enjoy this array and abundance of produce and products, the American Farm Bureau has created nutritious, affordable menus on-line at the American Farm Buruea website to help consumers stretch their food dollars. In celebration of this event each year, the Oregon county farm bureaus donate funds for the Oregon Farm Bureau Women’s Advisory Council (OFB WAC) to purchase groceries for the two Ronald McDonald House Charities (RMHC) in Oregon. Also, the OFBF WAC uses funds from its auctions to help. This year, the WAC will meet in Portland in February to purchase the groceries and deliver them to the RMHC in Portland. Then, in June, they meet in Bend to purchase groceries for the Bend RMHC. The RMHC help families with sick or injured children with a place to stay while their child is in the hospital or has an away-from-home doctor’s appointment. The stays are referred by the attending physician and payment is free or on a sliding scale. Many families across Oregon use these wonderful oasis’ that help to keep the family together in a safe and affordable environment. Farm Bureau works with the charities to help feed these families at the two Ronald McDonald Houses each year. In 2012, more than 600 nights were spent at the Ronald McDonald Houses by Linn County residents. If you want to donate to these worthwhile charities, please contact Mary Grimes at 541-967-7173.

Legislative Reception 2014 BY MARY GRIMES

On Monday, February 3, the Oregon Farm Bureau Women’s Advisory Council will hold the Legislative Reception at the Capitol in Salem. We will begin midmorning with refreshments and the event is open to the public. This is the time of year the OFB Women gather to set up displays about our counties, update our agricultural history with top commodities and farm gate receipts, and invite our legislators down stairs to our reception. We lobby the legislators on any given topics that are affecting our farm or ranch operation in our region or state. The Slow Moving Vehicle bill that passed this past June, unopposed, is a case of our steadfast lobbying and working with our leaders who listen. Linn County Farm Bureau Women will be there and we hope to see our Linn County folks at the reception. You are invited.

4-H Youth Development

Robin Galloway 541-967-3871 x2399




4-H Camp Counselors Needed The Linn-Benton-LincolnTillamook-Lane 4-H Camp will be June 19-24, at the 4-H Center near Salem. Adult staff and counselors will arrive on June 18. Now is the time to apply as a volunteer for this wonderful week-long experience. To apply, submit an application form, a reference form, and a 4-H Enrollment/Health Form. All are available at: /linn/4-h-camp. Forms are due to the Linn County Extension office by February 14. There are three categories of positions at camp. Counselors for 4th-6th grade campers must be in 9th-12th grade. Counselors for 7th-8th grade campers must be in 12th grade or have completed high school. Junior Staff must have completed high school and have camp experience. All Junior Staff are strongly encouraged to have a current First Aid/CPR certificate prior to the beginning of camp. They must also be registered as 4-H leaders, who go through training and a criminal background check. All new applicants must attend Counselor Selection Day, March 8, at the Linn County Extension Office in Albany. Required counselor training will be May 17-18, at the 4-H Center. There will also be three paid positions for Camp Skills Instructors to work at the 4-H Center all summer. They will assist camp staff with teaching, supervising campers, and other duties. Job descriptions are also on the website. For more information call Robin Galloway at 541-967-3871, or email

Karissa Dishon 541-967-3871 x2395

Animal Science Learning Kits Now Available

Linn County Horse Bowl Contest A fun night of knowledge, competition, camaraderie, pizza, and more! The top award winners include Junior Champion Alexis Melton, Intermediate Champion Hannah Turner, Intermediate Reserve

Champion Tessa Plagmann, Senior Champion Randee Randall, and Senior Reserve Champion Sadee Hoffman. A big thank you goes to Lisa Plagmann for handling the scorekeeping for the night, and

to Donna Randall for moderating the competition. If you are still interested in learning more about the horse knowledge contests, contact Karissa Dishon, karissa.dishon .

Scholarships, Grants and Financial Aid There are many resources available to help you find scholarships, grants, and financial aid to finance your college education.

Through Oregon 4-H there are scholarships available to college bound high school seniors, who are current Oregon 4-H members.

ALL Oregon 4-H scholarship applications must be signed and approved by Robin or Karissa, who will then forward them to the State 4-H office by March 1.

To see the state opportunities go online to http://oregon.4h. state-4h-scholarships. Good luck!

The OSU Linn County Extension office has many animal science learning kits available for Linn county 4-H clubs check out. They may be checked out to any enrolled leader for a two-week period. The kits are excellent tools for involving youth in challenging, learn-bydoing activities. Contents help youth to develop both their life skills and project skills. The kits are designed as a series of mini-learning stations, which can be used with a facilitator at each station. Participants rotate from station to station attempting to perform specific tasks. The station facilitator allows participants to test their own knowledge and abilities before giving them any hints. This technique is referred to as experiential learning, or learning by doing before being told or shown. Then the facilitator explains answers so the participant will learn and remember information from each station. 4-H Club leaders can also choose to just use one topic from the kit to supplement a club meeting. Contents include topics such as; anatomy, breeds, trimming hooves, judging, medicines, cuts of meat, safe animal handling, facilities, and more. The office has kits for all species of both large and small animals. A deposit is required, since the kits are extensive and expensive. Contact Michele at, or just come into the office to see the kits and check one out.



Tips for saving more money America Saves Week is February 24-March 1. Visit http://america to learn more about this tip. 1. Monday February 24: Save for Emergencies • How to do it: Find ways save. Here are 54 ways to get you started. 2. Tuesday February 25: Pay Off High-Interest Debt • How to do it: Find places to cut your spending so that you can pay down your debts faster. • Find places to trim your expenses.

Linn County Youth Leadership Team Do you have a youth in 7th-12th grade that would like to be more involved with Linn County 4-H or would like to take on a leadership role at the county or state level? The Youth leadership team is looking for more youth who are dedicated to “Making the Best

Better,” and who want to help make our county and state 4-H programs the best they can be. The team meets once per month to improve leadership skills and work on projects of the youths choosing. This is an exciting addition to our 4-H of-

ferings, and we already have some really terrific youth involved. An example of a project led by the leadership team is the county wide community service project held in November. The opportunities for leadership and growth are almost limitless. We had a

great meeting in January and the youth will be helping with the Livestock Clinic Day on Feb. 9. We will also have our monthly meeting following the clinic. If you are interested in joining in on the fun, contact Karissa Dishon at karissa.dishon@

New 4-H Program Starts in Mill City OSU Extension in Linn County has started a new Healthy Lifestyles and Nutrition Education Delivery program based out of the Mill City schools. Anne ORourke is an Education Program Assistant who will be working two days a week. She teaches classes and delivers curriculum for making

healthy food choices and growing and using food. Initially the focus will be to get the greenhouse at Mill City High School back into production. Anne will use the greenhouse to grow fresh food, which youth and families can consume. Eventually, she hopes to produce enough vegetables to supply the

salad bar for the school cafeteria. To teach a 4-H Garden Club Anne will use OSU Extension Service-approved curricula, materials and information. Program participants will also receive instruction on nutrition and preparing garden produce for their meals.

3. Wednesday February 26: Save Automatically • It can be hard to put aside money for savings. But there is an easy way to save money without ever

missing it -make your savings automatic in 2014. 4. Thursday February 27: Save for Retirement • How to do it: Participate in a work-related retirement program or open up a Roth IRA. Already saving? Increase the amount you save toward retirement by 1% in 2014. 5. Friday February 28: Save at Tax Time • How to do it: Use IRS Form 8888 to split part of your refund into a savings account. 6. Saturday March 1: Assess Your Savings • How to do it: If you only do one thing for America Saves Week, visit and Assess Your Savings.

Forestry & Natural Resources 16

Brad Withrow-Robinson, 541-967-3871,,





FEBRUARY Additional details of these and other events can be found on the Forestry and Natural Resources website for Benton, Linn and Polk Counties http://extension.oregon, and will be sent out electronically through the Needle. To subscribe to the Needle please email Jody Einerson (jody.einerson@oregon

Linn County Chapter of Oregon Small Woodlands Association Seedling Sale Date: Saturday, Feb. 15, with many native species offered Location: Santiam Building at the Linn County Fair and Expo Center, 3700 Knox Butte Road in Albany. This is near I-5, exit 234. Time: from 8 a.m. to noon, or while supplies last If you have any questions please contact Fay or Sherm Sallee at 541-451-5322. E-mail:

Goods from the Woods Fair featuring local woods & wood products on display and for sale Date: Saturday, Feb. 15 Location: Santiam Building at the Linn County Fair and Expo Center, 3700 Knox Butte Road in Albany. This is near I-5 Exit 234. Time: from 8 a.m. to noon

Managing Forest Roads on Family Forest Lands — Recognizing, Understanding, Addressing Problems This field trip/workshop will look at issues common to older roads common on family forest properties. Sponsors include Benton County Small Woodlands Association, the Marys River Watershed Council, Starker Forests, Oregon Department of Forestry and OSU Extension. Date: Friday, February 21 Location: Philomath area Further details to be announced in the Needle.

2014 Starker Lecture Series The 2014 Starker Lecture Series will present three lectures and a capstone field trip this year. This year’s theme is “Working Forests Across the Landscape.” Please save the following dates: Feb. 6, Lecture 1 — “Forestry Diversity: A Key to Oregon’s Future.” John Gordon, Pinchot Professor Emeritus and Former Dean, Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies. Feb. 27, Lecture 2 — “Forest Ecology and Management at the Landscape Level.” Tom Spies, Research Forester, USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, Corvallis.

Red-winged Blackbird

Male, above, and female Red-winged Blackbird

will disperse somewhat,moving into preferred nesting habitats. Our forest property happens to border a small pond, and it is in marshes and ponds just like these that a male will typically set up a territory, flashing his bright red epaulets (shoulder patches) to drive away other males.He will also dive bomb all sorts of interesting targets, including horses, cattle, and people, if he perceives them as a threat to his domain. Females arrive a little later, drawn to the best nesting habitats,not to the flash of red on the male’s shoulder. The RWBB is polygynous, which means that one male bird typically has multiple females in his harem; a male might have as many as 15 nesting females in his territory. Breeding RWBBs feed primarily on insects when they are available,yet another reason to appreciate them.

Many of us smile when we hear the song of this beautiful, gregarious bird lifting at dawn and dusk from the wetter places on your forest property, even during the winter. The Red-winged Blackbird is probably the most abundant bird in North America. Its breeding range goes into Alaska, down into Central America, and east to Newfoundland; its permanent range is found across most of the United States. Here in the Willamette Valley, the RWBB is a permanent resident, but some migrants may be mixed in with the large winter flocks of different black birds you see in the fields. It has been documented that some winter flocks can contain millions of Red-winged Blackbirds. Really! In the spring, these flocks



Unfortunately it is true that the beautiful holiday greenery with showy red berries can be a weed to hate. Introduced as a landscape ornamental or grown commercially for the greenery trade, it can be a nasty weed found spreading in Northwest forests. Birds disperse the seeds that establish into plants, which in turn spread further by suckering, sometimes making dense patches. This plant will grow as a single stem tree or multi-stem shrub, and can reach more than 50 feet tall, shading out native plants. Holly is found in well-drained soil, and grows in full sun to dense shade. The dark green

shiny leaves have sharp spines and are arranged alternately along the stem. There are separate male and female plants. The female trees produce the familiar red berries in winter which are poisonous to humans. Once established in a forested area they can be hard to eradicate. We do have a native plant with similar looking leaves that grow in our forests. The Oregon grape also has shiny leaves with spines, but the leaves are compound with five or more leaflets. Look for the vivid yellow flowers and blue berries in summer to help you identify them. Our native is always a shrub, and a component of a diverse understory in the forest.




English Holly

Update 2 3 2014  
Update 2 3 2014