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November-December 2017 Volume 37, Issue 6

Non-Profit Org. U.S. Postage PAID Permit #115 Albany, OR

Extending Knowledge and Changing Lives in Linn and Benton Counties

Mid-Valley Residents Pitching In for Science Each morning, rain or shine, dozens of midWillamette Valley residents venture outside their homes to check a rain gauge for precipitation. Using smart phones or computers, they then post the readings on a national database. Once a week or so, many of those same residents measure native plant development and post those findings on a separate national database. The citizen scientists, as they are called, are participating in Oregon Season Tracker, an Oregon State University Extension program that is part of a national network of volunteers who are adding to scientific databases and gaining perspective of occurrences in their own backyards. Oregon Season Tracker started in Benton County in 2014 in partnership with researchers at the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, which is located near Blue River, Oregon. It has expanded until today 16 Oregon counties are represented and three more are coming on line this fall. In the program, directors recruit, train and support local

PHOTO BY JODY EINERSON

By Mitch Lies, GROWING Editor

Participants in Oregon Season Tracker document plant development. Their observations are reported through the National Phenology Network, Nature’s Notebook.

volunteers who contribute to a national phenology network called Nature’s Notebook, and the Community Collaborative Rain Hail and Snow Network, or CoCoRaHS. “Our goal is to get Oregon Season Tracker throughout Oregon,” said Jody Einerson, an educational program assistant for OSU Extension in Benton County, who serves as statewide coordinator of the Season Tracker program. Citizen science is nothing new, Einerson said, noting

that it dates back to the turn of the 20th Century when the Audubon Society used data collected by citizens in what is known as the first Christmas Bird Count. But it is growing in popularity. CoCoRaHS, the national precipitation database, dates to 1998 when a Colorado State University scientist formed a volunteer reporting network in response to his failure to notice the encroachment of what turned out to be a devastating storm.

“There were not enough rain stations out there to gather the data, so he took this out to citizens,” Einerson said. CoCoRaHS has become more refined over the years, until today volunteers in programs such as Oregon Season Tracker post data under a designed set of protocols that enable scientists in many organizations, such as the National Weather Service, to use the data.

Citizen Science Opportunities The online portion of Oregon Season Tracker fall training is now open. It includes approximately two to three hours of self-paced work, which participants can do on their own schedule. To register, go to the Oregon Season Tracker Website: http:// oregonseasontracker. forestry.oregonstate.edu/ become-ost-observer-itseasy Participants also must participate in an OST skills building session. The next and final skills building session for this fall is scheduled Wednesday, November 15, from 6-8 p.m. at the Linn County Extension Office, 33630 McFarland Road, Tangent. Cost is $40 per individual or family sharing materials. Cost includes a programapproved rain gauge. Linn County Extension Association scholarships of $10 are available to Linn County residents. More information on the fall training session and future trainings can be obtained by contacting Jody Einerson at jody.einerson@ oregonstate.edu or by calling 541-766-6311.

Continued on Page 17

INSIDE: We need you! Adult 4-H Volunteer Leaders sought in Linn and Benton Counties

http://extension.oregonstate.edu/linn

NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2017 —

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November-December 2017 Volume 37, Issue 6

Non-Profit Org. U.S. Postage PAID Permit #115 Albany, OR

Extending Knowledge and Changing Lives in Linn and Benton Counties

Mid-Valley Residents Pitching In for Science Each morning, rain or shine, dozens of midWillamette Valley residents venture outside their homes to check a rain gauge for precipitation. Using smart phones or computers, they then post the readings on a national database. Once a week or so, many of those same residents measure native plant development and post those findings on a separate national database. The citizen scientists, as they are called, are participating in Oregon Season Tracker, an Oregon State University Extension program that is part of a national network of volunteers who are adding to scientific databases and gaining perspective of occurrences in their own backyards. Oregon Season Tracker started in Benton County in 2014 in partnership with researchers at the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, which is located near Blue River, Oregon. It has expanded until today 16 Oregon counties are represented and three more are coming on line this fall. In the program, directors recruit, train and support local

PHOTO BY JODY EINERSON

By Mitch Lies, GROWING Editor

Participants in Oregon Season Tracker document plant development. Their observations are reported through the National Phenology Network, Nature’s Notebook.

volunteers who contribute to a national phenology network called Nature’s Notebook, and the Community Collaborative Rain Hail and Snow Network, or CoCoRaHS. “Our goal is to get Oregon Season Tracker throughout Oregon,” said Jody Einerson, an educational program assistant for OSU Extension in Benton County, who serves as statewide coordinator of the Season Tracker program. Citizen science is nothing new, Einerson said, noting

that it dates back to the turn of the 20th Century when the Audubon Society used data collected by citizens in what is known as the first Christmas Bird Count. But it is growing in popularity. CoCoRaHS, the national precipitation database, dates to 1998 when a Colorado State University scientist formed a volunteer reporting network in response to his failure to notice the encroachment of what turned out to be a devastating storm.

“There were not enough rain stations out there to gather the data, so he took this out to citizens,” Einerson said. CoCoRaHS has become more refined over the years, until today volunteers in programs such as Oregon Season Tracker post data under a designed set of protocols that enable scientists in many organizations, such as the National Weather Service, to use the data.

Citizen Science Opportunities The online portion of Oregon Season Tracker fall training is now open. It includes approximately two to three hours of self-paced work, which participants can do on their own schedule. To register, go to the Oregon Season Tracker Website: http:// oregonseasontracker. forestry.oregonstate.edu/ become-ost-observer-itseasy Participants also must participate in an OST skills building session. The next and final skills building session for this fall is scheduled Wednesday, November 15, from 6-8 p.m. at the Linn County Extension Office, 33630 McFarland Road, Tangent. Cost is $40 per individual or family sharing materials. Cost includes a programapproved rain gauge. Linn County Extension Association scholarships of $10 are available to Linn County residents. More information on the fall training session and future trainings can be obtained by contacting Jody Einerson at jody.einerson@ oregonstate.edu or by calling 541-766-6311.

Continued on Page 17

INSIDE: We need you! Adult 4-H Volunteer Leaders sought in Linn and Benton Counties

http://extension.oregonstate.edu/linn

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Who We Are

Office locations and hours

The Benton County office is located at 4077 SW Research Way in Corvallis. Office hours are 8 a.m. until 5 p.m. Monday through Friday. Telephone: 541766-6750. Fax: 541-766-3549. http://extension.oregonstate.edu/benton. The Linn County office is located at 33630 McFarland Rd (on the corner of Old Highway 34 and McFarland Road), in Tangent. Office hours are from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m., Monday through Friday. Phone 541-967-3871. Seed Certification phone 541-967-3810. http://extension.oregonstate.edu/linn.

Program Staff Phone Numbers

Linn County 4-H Youth Development Robin Galloway Linn County 4-H Youth Development Andrea Leao Benton County 4-H Youth Development Carolyn Ashton Benton County 4-H Natural Science and Benton County Leader Maggie Livesay Field Crops* Vacant Livestock & Forages* Shelby Filley Dairy* Jenifer Cruickshank Commercial Swine & Forage* Gene Pirelli Small Farms* Melissa Fery Small Farms* Amy Garrett* Small Farms & Groundwater Education* Chrissy Lucas Community Horticulture* Brooke Edmunds Community Horticulture* Pami Monnette Forestry, Natural Resources* Brad Withrow-Robinson Forestry and 4-H Youth Jody Einerson Family & Community Health (FCH)* Jeanne Brandt FCH & SNAP Ed* Tina Dodge Vera SNAP Ed* Brooke Jackson SNAP Ed* Karina Goicochea SNAP Ed* Yosvan Campos EFNEP* Monica Echeverri * Multi-county assignment

541-730-3469 541-730-3534 541-766-6750 541-766-6750

541-672-4461 971-600-1222 541-623-8395 541-730-3538 541-766-6750 541-766-3556 541-730-3470 541-730-3471 541-967-3871 541-766-6311 541-730-3544 541-730-3541 541-766-6750 541-766-6750 541-967-3871 541-730-3542

Administration and program support serving Linn County

Office specialist Office specialist Office manager & Linn County Leader Seed certification Seed certification

Laurie Gibson JoLynn O’Hearn Michele Webster Doug Huff Tom Manning

541-248-1088 541-967-3871 541-248-1087 541-967-3810 541-967-3810

Administration and program support serving Benton County Office specialist Office manager Office specialist

Kelly Cotter 541-766-6750 Liz McGovern 541-766-6750 Andrea Watson 541-766-6750

Interim Regional Administrator GROWING editor

Lindsey Shirley 541-967-3871 Mitch Lies 541-967-3871

Oregon State University Extension Service offers educational programs, activities and materials without discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, national origin, age, marital status, disability, disabled veteran or Vietnam-era veteran status. Oregon State University Extension Service is an Equal Opportunity Employer. Reasonable accommodations to persons with physical or mental disabilities will be provided. Please notify the Extension office five working days prior to the event you are interested in attending to request reasonable accommodations.

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By Mitch Lies, GROWING Editor The year was 1951 and a small southwest Oregon 4-H dairy club had just claimed Coos County’s coveted herdsmanship award. The only problem was the leader’s 9-year-old daughter, Nellie Oehler, played a pivotal role in the win, and the club banned girls from membership. “My dad said, ‘Well, I guess we are going to have to give the trophy back,’” Oehler said. “That was how I got to join the dairy club. From then on it was boys and girls. And there were a lot of girls that joined.” That girl who paved the way for girls to join her local 4-H dairy club today is 75 years old. And she still is participating in 4-H, and still bringing home awards. Oehler on Oct. 6 was inducted into the National 4-H Hall of Fame in a ceremony at the National 4-H Youth Conference Center in Chevy Chase, Maryland. She joined 16 others as 2017 inductees. She was the only Oregonian honored. “I was very surprised I was selected,” she said. “This is such a wonderful honor. It is very rewarding and quite humbling.” According to Maggie Livesay, county leader for Benton County Extension, Oehler has touched the lives of thousands in her career as a 4-H leader, a 4-H Extension agent for Linn and Benton counties and as a Family and Community Health Extension agent and specialist for Lane County. With Family and Community Health, Oehler co-created the statewide Master Food Preserver program, a 40-hour course in which students learn how to can, pickle, dry and freeze food safely and nutritionally. Oehler also is credited with launching Extension’s statewide food preservation and safety hotline, which opens annually in July and runs through mid-October. It is her participation in 4-H, however, where she arguably has made her biggest contribution. Raised by Dutch immigrant

PHOTO PROVIDED

The Oregon State University Extension offices in Linn County and Benton County offer practical, lifelong learning experiences. We sponsor conferences, workshops, demonstrations, tours, and short courses. We recruit, train and manage volunteers who assist us with community outreach and education. Our Extension faculty and volunteers answer questions and give advice by phone, in person, through e-mail, and on our Websites. We provide brochures and flyers with specific information on a variety of subjects. We are funded by a cooperative partnership between Oregon State University, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and our local counties.

Fifty-two Years in 4-H Nets a Hall of Fame Nod

OSU Extension 4-H Youth Development Program Leader Pamela Rose, left, with Nellie Oehler at the National 4-H Hall of Fame induction ceremony held on October 6, in Chevy Chase, Md. Oehler, of Corvallis, was one of 16 inductees.

parents on a dairy farm outside of Coos Bay, Oregon, Oehler said 4-H has been an integral part of her life for as long as she can remember. “I can’t remember a time when I wasn’t doing something in 4-H,” Oehler said. In fact, I told my mother in the fourth grade that I was going to be a 4-H agent. My mom said, ‘Oh, that is a great career, but you might change your mind,’ but I never did. I became a 4-H agent, and it was wonderful.” In her 52-years with 4-H, Oehler (pronounced eye-ler) has served as a leader of large livestock clubs and consumer science clubs. She has served on multiple 4-H advisory committees, as sheep superintendent at the Benton County Fair and as a 4-H judge at the Oregon State Fair and county fairs. As a 4-H agent, she started the 4-H program for developmentally disabled adults, helping clients to knit, set tables, read food labels, cook, and practice personal hygiene in preparation for moving into group homes. For more than 20 years, Oehler held the title of “Dorm Mom” at the Oregon State Fair, helping provide a safe place to stay for hundreds of 4-H and FFA members who showed at the fair. Pamela Rose, Oregon’s 4-H Youth

Development Program leader, said Oehler “has made such an imprint on the Oregon 4-H program. We are truly grateful for Nellie’s service and incredible contributions to improving 4-H for so many young people.” One of her greatest joys, Oehler said, has been watching students evolve into mature, young adults. “I’ve had rich kids, poor kids, the in-between kids, kids with problems. I’ve had them all, and they are all great kids. And if you can do one little thing for a child, that is very rewarding.” Oehler, who lives on a farm outside of Corvallis, continues to serve as 4-H leader for a Benton County livestock club and a consumer science club, and she plans to continue to do so for the foreseeable future. Two of her three grandsons participate in the livestock club, she said, and she would like to see them and other current students through the program. The third grandson, incidentally, now just four years old, is also expected to participate in 4-H. “He lives next door and is with me all the time on the farm,” Oehler said. “He is going to be in 4-H. I’m sure of that.” You wouldn’t expect it any other way.

http://extension.oregonstate.edu/benton


Brooke Edmunds 541-730-3470 brooke.edmunds@ oregonstate.edu

Community Horticulture

Pami Monnette 541-730-3471 pamela.monnette@ oregonstate.edu

Dirty Your Hands, Feed Your Brain as a Master Gardener Kris LaMar and Barb Cary live at opposite ends of state and have never met, but they’ve got a lot in common. Both women are up to their trowels as Master Gardeners. A shade under 3,000 Oregonians join the two women who went through the intensive two- to threemonth course that covers everything from soils to disease diagnosis. In return, they agreed to volunteer to advise gardeners and potential gardeners with the research-based information they learned in class. The program – part of Oregon State University Extension Service – reached 106,000 people in 2016. “Becoming a Master Gardener is a fantastic way to increase your knowledge of sustainable gardening, to meet like-minded gardeners and to give back to your community,” said Gail Langellotto, statewide coordinator of Oregon State University Extension

Planning PHOTO BY LYNN KETCHUM

By Kim Pokorny

November-December Gardening Calendar for Western Oregon

Master Gardeners get as much as they give, says Gail Langellotto, OSU Master Gardener coordinator.

Service’s Master Gardener program. “People are excited about growing their own food and gardening for wildlife. Master Gardeners help people understand how to meet their goals in a way that protects and conserves natural resources.” LaMar, who has been a Master Gardener for five years, knew nothing about

the program until she saw something about it in the newspaper. At the same time she was qualifying to be a Master Recycler. Once she got her hands into compost and saw the overlap, she was hooked. She took both courses and has become one of the most active Master

• November: Force spring bulbs for indoor blooms in December.

Maintenance and clean up • Check stored flower bulbs, fresh vegetables, and fruits for rot and fungus problems. Discard any showing signs of rot. • Place a portable cold frame over rows of winter vegetables. • Place mulch around berries for winter protection. • Cover rhubarb and asparagus beds with composted manure and straw. • Rake and compost leaves that are free of diseases and insects. • Clean and oil lawnmower, other garden equipment and tools before storing for winter. • Drain and store hoses carefully to avoid damage from freezing. Renew mulch around perennial flower beds after removing weeds. • Protect tender evergreens from drying wind. • Tie limbs of upright evergreens to prevent breakage by snow or ice. • Leave ornamental grasses up in winter to provide winter texture in the landscape. Cut them back a few inches above the ground in early spring. • Early November: Last chance to plant cover crops for soil building. You can also use a 3- to 4-inch layer of leaves, spread over the garden plot, to eliminate winter weeds, suppress early spring weeds and prevent soil compaction by rain. • Watch for wet soil and drainage problems in yard during heavy rains. Tiling, ditching, and French drains are possible solutions. Consider rain gardens and bioswales as a long-term solution. • Take cuttings of rhododendrons and camellias for propagation; propagate begonias from leaf cuttings. • Prune roses (tea and floribunda, but NOT climbers and

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Your Winter Gardening & Gift Headquarters • Colorful Conifers • Specialty Decorated Wreaths • Hostess & Holiday Gifts • Houseplants • Bonsai

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Holiday Open House November 11 & 12 10 am - 4 pm

5740 NE Hwy 20, Corvallis, OR (541) 753-6601 • GarlandNursery.com http://extension.oregonstate.edu/linn

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What Does That Mean? Experts Take On Gardening Jargon Garden jargon can leave a smart person feeling dumb, and let’s not even talk about Latin botanical names. Really, let’s not. Instead, we’ll concentrate on common terms used as if everyone should know them. Like what’s a cover crop or cold composting? What’s a hardiness zone? And what, for goodness sake, is an open-pollinated plant? Let’s find out. A handful of Oregon State University Extension Service experts step up with definitions. Here we go. Annual vs. biennial vs. perennial: An annual plant lives its life cycle in one season. Its whole reason for being is to grow, flower, produce seed and die. Biennials like sweet William, hollyhock and some vegetables live for two years. A perennial plant lives from year to year. Herbaceous perennials – like peonies or delphiniums – die to the ground each year and return the next. Tender perennials are perennials that are native to warmer climates than where you live and may not live through winter. Open-pollinated vs. hybrids vs. heirloom: Openpollinated vegetables are pollinated by insects, birds, wind or humans. As long as varieties don’t share pollen and you save the seed, the next generation (or offspring) will be “true to type.” In other words, the next year’s vegetables or fruits will be the same as the ones produced by the parents. Many, but not all, open-pollinated plants are heirlooms, which developed as families and communities gathered and saved seed from the best plants

PHOTO BY TIFFANY WOODS

By Kim Pokorny

“Hot Compost? Cold Compost? What does that mean? Basically,the cold compost method produces compost in one to two years. Hot composting takes three to six months.

and passed them down generation to generation. Like antiques, when these open-pollinated plants get to a certain age (50 is accepted), they become heirlooms. Hybrids are bred from two different varieties for characteristics like disease resistance or higher yield. They won’t come true to type. Seeds or plants must be purchased each year. Broadcasting vs. side dressing: Broadcasting is spreading seed or fertilizer by scattering by hand or with a specialized tool. Broadcasting is a great way to fertilize large areas, including lawns. Side dressing means applying fertilizers in a shallow furrow or band along the side of vegetable row crops or in a circle around individual plants. Row cover fabric: Row cover fabric is made of spun polyester and is permeable to air and water. It traps heat and can increase air and soil temperatures by 4 to 7 degrees, helping to create earlier crop yields and to extend the crop season. The fabric also can be used to provide a measure of pest protection. For crops like carrots, beets, and greens, it can be laid directly on top of beds with some slack so that

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the plants push the material up as it grows. For bigger plants like broccoli, use bent electrical conduit or heavyduty wire supports to keep the fabric suspended above the plants. Secure the fabric to the soil with bags filled with soil or sand, boards, rocks, etc. It’s important to perform bug check and good hygiene under row cover fabric. The slugs really like it there as much as the veggies. Fabric or plastic that lays on the ground to raise the temperature of the soil and keep down weeds is called non-organic mulch. Incongruous elements: Gardeners tend to be in a rush to add something to the landscape, a plant, a fountain, a bench. But one more thing won’t always make it better. In fact, adding too much can make the garden look messy and unorganized. Landscape architects often use a first step when redesigning a garden by subtracting “incongruous elements,” or things that don’t add to the overall aesthetic. Gardeners can do it, too. If something doesn’t work, edit it out and then begin adding things back in with more thought to how everything works together. Starting small, area by area, makes the job easier. Hardening off: When you’ve planted seeds indoors, they need a period to acclimatize to outdoor conditions when it’s close to planting time. To assist them, the containers of seedlings should be taken outside for a few hours a day, increasing the length day by day. After a week, the plants are ready to be planted. The process can start with hardy plants like broccoli, cabbage, onions and Brussels sprouts once the outside

temperature is consistently above 40 degrees. Wait until it’s 45 degrees for half-hardy plants – lettuce, celery, endive – and 50 degrees for tender plants such as squash, pumpkin and corn. A temperature of 60 is necessary for cucumbers and melons and 65 for basil, tomatoes and peppers. Hardiness zone: Plants live within a range of temperatures or “hardiness zones,” which are based on average annual minimum temperatures. Zones go from 1 (minus 60 degrees) to 11 (only hardy to 65 degrees). For instance, plants that can survive down to 0 degrees are in Zone 7. There are two sources to find your climate zone. By far the most widely used is from the U.S. Department of Agriculture. When shopping for plants, check the map to find your zone and then check the plant label before buying. The other source of hardiness zones is Sunset, which indicates zones with different numbers than the USDA and was developed with different parameters. Most plants are not labeled with the Sunset hardiness zones. Nitrogen fixing: Plants need nitrogen to live, but most can’t get it on their own since it exists as a gas in the atmosphere and plants can’t use nitrogen as a gas. There are a few plants, however, that can draw nitrogen from the air and store it in their roots. They’re called “nitrogen fixers.” Once they die, they decompose and release the nitrogen into the soil for other plants to use. Common nitrogen fixers are legumes such as peas and beans. Gardeners often plant nitrogen fixers (called cover

crops or green manure) such as crimson clover, Austrian field pea and common vetch as crops wind down in late summer. Once spring arrives (before plants go to seed), they’re cut down and tilled under, leaving nitrogen in the soil for that years crops. Hot vs. cold compost: A hot compost pile, which takes a bit of effort, will be ready to go into the garden within three to six months. It’s called hot because to kill the weed seeds and pathogens, the pile must heat up to 141 to 155 degrees, which means it has to be turned regularly and kept moist. Most people don’t get it that hot, so the advantage is how quickly the compost is ready. Cold composting is simply tossing garden debris into a pile, a throw-as-you-go method. A cold compost pile will take a year or two to break down. For both techniques, avoid tossing in plants that have gone to seed or are diseased. To speed up the process, use smaller pieces of material. Organic vs. natural vs. non-organic vs. synthetic: Organic and natural are used interchangeably as are non-organic, chemical and synthetic. To make it clear, we’ll use organic and synthetic. Organic fertilizers and pesticides are derived from mineral, plant or animal sources. Synthetic products are made by humans using methods different than those nature uses, and the chemical structures may or may not be found in nature. For gardeners who want to buy organic products, look for the Organic Materials Review Institute

Continued on Page 5

http://extension.oregonstate.edu/benton


Horticulture Happenings ... NOVEMBER

Save the date!

• November 1 from 5:30-6:30 p.m. The Beer Garden talk series – The Wonders of Beekeeping & Honey @ 2 Towns Cider House on HWY 34 in Corvallis • November 2 from 10 a.m. to noon Mason Bee Cocoon Cleaning Workshop @ The Linn County Extension Service office • November 4 from 10 a.m. to noon Mason Bee Cocoon Cleaning Workshop @ The Lebanon Senior Center • November 7 from 1-3 p.m. Linn County Master Gardener Board Meeting @ the Linn County Extension Service office • November 8 from 5:30-6:30 p.m. The Beer Garden talk series – Sex in the Garden: The Wild World of Insects @ Calapooia Brewery in Albany • November 9 from noon to 2 p.m. LinnBenton Master Gardener Annual Graduation & Awards Luncheon @ The Historic Old School Café on HWY 20 in Corvallis • November 13 from 1-3 p.m. Benton County

Master Gardener Board Meeting @ the Benton County Extension Service office DECEMBER • December 1: Application Deadline for the 2018 Linn-Benton Master Gardener Program! • December 4-7: OSU Extension Annual Conference @ LaSells Stewart Center at OSU • December 5 from 1-3 p.m.: Linn County Master Gardener Board Meeting @ the Linn County Extension Service office • December 11 from noon to 1 p.m. New Master Gardener Orientation @ the Benton County Extension Service office • December 11 from 1-3 p.m. Benton County Master Gardener Board Meeting @ the Benton County Extension Service office • December 12 from noon to 1 p.m. New Master Gardener Orientation @ the Linn County Extension Service office • December TBD: Benton County Master Gardener Greens Party @ The Benton County Fairgrounds

Master Gardener Awards Luncheon Nov. 9 We are thrilled to celebrate another year of our incredible volunteers in the Master Gardener Program. This awards luncheon will recognize all of our new Master Gardener trainees who completed their volunteer hours and are now certified MGs! We will also be recognizing our veteran Master Gardeners who are the back-bone of the program. These are the volunteers who certify each year, who dedicate hours and hours of volunteer time to an impressive array of horticulture projects, and who strive to bring the most current, research-based gardening advice to their communities. Friends, family members, and community partners are encouraged to attend! Our 2017 MG Awards Luncheon will be held at the Historic Old School Café on HWY 20 in Corvallis at noon on November 9.

Insights Into Gardening Saturday, February 10 LaSells Stewart Center • 875 SW 26th Street • OSU Campus, Corvallis A fun day of research-based classes on gardening topics for everyone from beginners to experienced gardeners. Parking is free. Sign up on-line after January 1.

Jargon continued from Page 4 (OMRI) and Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA) seals. The most misunderstood thing about organic pesticides is that they are not toxic. That’s not true. For example, nicotine, which is used in some pesticides, is highly toxic. Read the label when you buy a pesticide to determine its ingredients, which pests it targets and any cautions. Always follow the directions. More information about all aspects of gardening is available in Extension’s Growing Your Own publication. http://extension.oregonstate.edu/linn

Calendar continued from Page 3 ramblers) to around 3 feet in height to prevent winter damage. • Turn the compost pile and protect from heavy rains, if necessary. • Do not walk on lawns until frost has melted.

Planting/propagation • Plant window garden of lettuce, chives, parsley. • Good time to plant trees and shrubs. Consider planting shrubs and trees that supply food and shelter to birds (sumac, elderberry, flowering currant, and mock orange). • Early November: Still time to plant spring-flowering bulbs, such as tulips, daffodils, hyacinths, crocuses. Don’t delay. • Good time to plant garlic for harvest next summer.

Pest monitoring and management

• Rake and destroy leaves from fruit trees that were diseased this year. Remove and discard mummified fruit. • Check firewood for insect infestations. Burn affected wood first and don’t store inside. • Treat peaches four weeks after leaf fall spray for peach leaf curl and shothole diseases. • Moss appearing in lawn may mean too much shade or poor drainage. Correct site conditions if moss is bothersome. • Check for rodent damage around bases of trees and large shrubs. Remove weeds to prevent rodents from using them as hiding places. Use traps and approved baits as necessary. • Avoid mounding mulching materials around the bases of trees and shrubs. The mulch might provide cover for rodents.

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Family and Community Health

Please join us in welcoming two new nutrition education team members to our community! We are so happy they are part of our team!

Angela sets up trays for canning stations during evening classes.

It was a busy, productive year for our 2017 Master Food Preservers. Check out some of their photos from summer programs.

Salsa ingredients prepared for students by Angela, Rita and Maria.

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Ellen distributes vegetables during the hands-on fermenting sessions at the Mother Earth News Fair. Local MFPs assisted numerous speakers with their sessions. PHOTO PROVIDED BY JEANNE BRANDT

Cindy helps participants evaluate the ingredients in their drink choices at Get Outdoors Day 2017.

PHOTO PROVIDED BY JEANNE BRANDT

Shona and John set up and staff the Mother Earth News Fair booth where thousands of visitors received Extension and Food Preservation information.

PHOTO PROVIDED BY JEANNE BRANDT

Karina Goicochea will be providing nutrition education through our schoolbased “Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program – Education” Program (SNAP-Ed). She is building on her undergraduate public health degree and currently working on a Masters in Public Health.

Applications for the 2018 Master Food Preserver volunteer training will be available in February 2018. The training will be 8 weeks, on Tuesdays starting April 17, 2018. 

PHOTO PROVIDED BY JEANNE BRANDT

Monica Echeverri will be providing nutrition education in the community through our Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP). She relocated recently from California to continue her education. She would like to complete a Masters in Nutrition. She LOVES cooking and food. Check out her Instagram “Meals by Monica” https://www.instagram.com/ mealsbymonica/

Master Food Preserver Training: Save the Dates PHOTO PROVIDED BY JEANNE BRANDT

Welcome new Nutrition Education Program team members

Tina Dodge Vera 541-730-3541 tina.dodge@ oregonstate.edu

PHOTO PROVIDED BY JEANNE BRANDT

Our Master Food Preserver Hotline is now closed for the season, but it is still possible to find research-based information for complete, up-to-date food preservation information. Visit http://extension.oregonstate. edu/fch/food-preservation.

Jeanne Brandt 541-730-3544 jeanne.brandt@ oregonstate.edu

Benny Beaver joins MFPs to learn about dehydrating foods at Get Outdoors Day 2017.

http://extension.oregonstate.edu/benton


Meat-eater vs. Vegan: Separating Truth from Trend By Maia Penchansky, OSU dietetic intern The 2015 U.S. Dietary Guidelines support a plantbased diet. However, that does not prevent the rampant availability of contradictory nutrition information, leaving the average consumer in the dark when it comes to deciding what to eat. One ongoing debate is between a plant-based diet and a diet containing animal products. A vegetarian diet can mean many things. The primary criterion is an avoidance of meat. Many vegetarians also see an increased consumption of fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts, grains, and soy. However, with modern food technology, a vegetarian diet does not necessarily equate a healthful diet. After all, French fries are vegetarian! Generally, the categories of vegetarianism are as follows: • Pescatarian: Avoids all meats except fish and seafood. Still consumes eggs and dairy as part of a healthy diet. • Lacto-Ovo Vegetarian: Avoids all meat products, but still includes eggs and dairy in their diet. • Vegan: Avoids all animal products, with varying levels of strictness. Vegans may also avoid gelatin and honey. The Low Down: Meat is a complete, good source of protein, Vitamin B12, and iron. The combination of fats and protein can keep us full and fueled between meals. If you decide to go vegan, you may need to take supplements to replace the missing

nutrients (specifically, B12). Dietary guidelines recommend eating around 4 to 6.5 oz. of protein daily, and meat can certainly fit into this recommendation in a healthy way. Most vegetarian sources of protein are incomplete, meaning they do not contain high enough levels of all nine essential amino acids. However, combination foods such as beans and rice can provide a complete protein that is entirely plantbased. You do NOT need to consume these foods in the same meal as long as you are getting them both in a day. If you are careful, a vegetarian diet can absolutely be nutritionally adequate. In fact, many studies link vegetarian diets with a lower risk of heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, and some forms of cancer. That said, comparable results were seen in meat eaters who consumed high proportions of fruits, vegetables, and legumes, indicating that you may not need to cut meat out entirely to get all the same benefits. There are many personal reasons to avoid animal products, such as promotion of ethical treatment of animals and a desire to support more sustainable agricultural practices. Generally, it stands that adopting a primarily plant based diet is a healthful option. This means filling ¾ of your plate with vegetables, fruits, and grains, while providing a small allowance for animal products if you so choose. This recommendation aligns with the USDA’s MyPlate recommendations. If you decide to avoid meat, there

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are several ways to do so that can provide an adequate and balanced diet. However, health claims are complex and a decision to eliminate animal products should not be made lightly. Let’s explore a few of the popular health claims. Claim # 1: “Meat causes cancer.” A higher consumption of red meat is associated with an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. For example, one recent study cites an 18% increase in risk with consumption of 50 g of red meat per day. A similar trend is seen in highly processed meat products such as deli meat and hot dogs. Studies support the World Cancer Fund’s recommendation to limit red meat and processed meat consumption. That said, an occasional hamburger isn’t going to give you cancer in one day. Additionally, there are plenty of lean meats that can provide valuable protein and essential nutrients without an elevated risk for cancer development. Claim # 2: “Eggs raise your cholesterol.” We now know that dietary cholesterol is not linked to the cholesterol in the blood we associate with heart disease. Eggs are high in cholesterol and fat, but are also great sources of affordable protein, fat-

soluble vitamins, and many other essential nutrients. In fact, several studies have shown that a moderate consumption of eggs actually has the ability to decrease the risks of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and blood pressure. Claim # 3: “Regions that consume more dairy have more incidence of osteoporosis” or “Dairy is essential to avoid the risk of osteoporosis.” Some studies show that populations who consume higher levels of dairy products have higher incidence of osteoporosis and fracture; however, there are many other variables to consider. For example, regions where dairy consumption is higher often have colder, icier winters, which potentially leads to the higher fracture rates. The claim that dairy is essential is also an extreme perspective that isn’t entirely true. While dairy products do contain high levels of calcium and vitamin D, some plants contain the same amount – if not more – calcium than dairy. However, the presence of compounds in leafy greens makes the calcium less absorbable than calcium from dairy, and vegans may need to fortify their diet. Claim # 4: “Eating soy based products increases the risk of breast cancer.” Many vegetarians turn to

soy as an alternative meat product. Soy is a complete protein and contains a phytoestrogen that mimics human estrogen. Since estrogen levels influence breast cancer development, soy consumption for those at risk is called into question. The debate about soy is controversial and new research is still emerging on its impact on breast cancer cell growth. Many studies show that soy can be protective against breast cancer development, whereas others indicate that components in soy may actually encourage cancer cell growth. This research is relatively new and general recommendations are to eat a moderate amount of soy if you are a survivor or highrisk. The Bottom Line: The general guideline to fill most of your plate with plant-based foods still remain the most effective way to prevent disease. There are many ways to healthfully incorporate animal products into a primarily plant-based diet. When buying meat, look for lean cuts, and trim visible fat before cooking. Remove skin from chicken or turkey. Roast, grill or broil meat, poultry or fish instead of frying. When cooking meat, avoiding charring. Finally, if a burger or a steak is what you crave, don’t deny yourself the treat, just make it a special occasion meal rather than the norm, and be sure to surround that steak with plenty of fruits and vegetables. For reference information, contact Tina Dodge Vera. NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2017 —

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Regular Vacuuming Important for a Healthy Home Vacuuming a home is rarely an enjoyable task. However, if your family has members with allergies or asthma, regular and thorough vacuuming of carpets and furnishings can be an effective way of controlling symptoms. The increase in the number of asthma cases has heightened our awareness of how indoor air quality affects our general health. Asthma is one of our nation’s most common chronic health conditions. Many substances can aggravate allergies or increase the severity of asthma symptoms in individuals who are sensitive to these allergens or irritants. Vacuum cleaners can remove many of these irritating particles from the air. The filtration efficiency of a vacuum cleaner may significantly affect airborne dust and allergens in indoor air. To prevent these minute particles containing allergens from being re-circulated into the air, a vacuum cleaner’s filtration system must be very efficient at trapping small particles. To really get a carpet clean, pass the

vacuum cleaner over the target area as many as eight times. Only use vacuum cleaner bags until they are half filled. As the bag fills up with dirt and dust, airflow becomes limited and the vacuum cleaner loses its suction capacity. Using a vacuum that has a HEPA or ULPA filter may help reduce allergens. HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) is a filter that meets standards for collecting 99.7 percent of all particles at 0.3 microns (a human hair is about 60 to 80 microns). Most HEPA filters are disposable and must be replaced every 6 to 12 months. A HEPA filter is placed at the last stage of filtration. Then, all the air flowing through the vacuum must pass through the HEPA filter. ULPA (Ultra Low Penetration Air) is a filtering efficiency specification for filters that retain all particles to 0.12 microns at an efficiency rate of 99.999 percent.

If your family has anyone who suffers from chronic allergies or asthma, a central vacuum system is the best choice. Dirt is either collected in a container in the basement or garage or pumped directly outside the house, not back into the indoor air. Central vacuum cleaners are more expensive, and consideration should be given to the cost of installation as well as the design. What other options are available? Micron and electrostatic filters have high filtration efficiencies, around 98 percent at 0.3 microns. These filters trap fine dust particles and create an electrostatic charge as air passes through them. Micro-lined vacuum bags are available for most major vacuum cleaners. What do you look for in a vacuum cleaner to reduce allergens? • Be sure the cleaner has enough motor power to suck up all particles. Uprights typically have

• •

7- to 12-amp motors; most experts prefer 12amp units. Amperage alone does not indicate cleaning power; the vacuum design is important, too. Look for a completely sealed unit. HEPA filters are of no use if particles can escape through the sides of the cleaner. Look for a vacuum with an exhaust filter; some even have motor filters. Read the label on the filter you are buying. Some are “true” HEPA filters, while others are “HEPA-like” or “HEPAtype.” The latter two do not meet the standards to remove the most minuscule particles. There is no guarantee that a HEPA filter in a vacuum will prevent dust from escaping into the room. Many models without a HEPA filter have performed just as well in emission tests conducted by Consumer Reports. Performance depends on the design of the vacuum. An upright vacuum or a canister with a power nozzle is best for carpet.

• A canister vacuum with a power nozzle is good for cleaning blinds, upholstery, draperies, etc. The Carpet and Rug Institute (CRI) says a good vacuum cleaner should do these three tasks well: • Remove soil from surfaces • Contain dust within the filtration bag and the machine itself • Keep carpet clean without damaging it Most importantly: The vacuum must be used regularly. It offers no protection against allergy and asthma triggers while parked in the closet. Source: University of Illinois Extension, U of I, Urbana Champaign, College of ACES References: • Healthy Indoor Air for America’s Homes www. healthyindoorair.org • Carpet and Rug Institute www.carpet-rug.com • Consumer Reports www. consumerreports.org

Anchors Help Avoid Furniture and Appliance Tip-Overs Many parents and caregivers may not be aware that one of the top hidden hazards in the homes where young children live or visit is unsecured and unstable TVs, furniture and appliances. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) urges families to take a moment to inspect and secure these items to prevent any more tragedies. Anchoring

furnishings to walls can also reduce damage and danger in the event of an earthquake. It should be part of your disaster preparedness. Typically, injuries and deaths occur when children climb onto, fall against or pull themselves up on television stands, shelves, bookcases, dressers, desks, chests and appliances. In some cases,

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televisions placed on top of furniture will tip over and cause a child to suffer traumatic and sometimes fatal injuries. Nearly all injuries and fatalities involved children five years old and younger. To help prevent tip-over hazards, the CPSC offers the following safety tips: • Furniture should be stable on

its own. For added security, anchor chests, dressers, TV stands, bookcases and entertainment units to the floor or attach them to a wall. • Place TVs on a sturdy, lowrise base. Push the TV as far back on its stand as possible. • Mount flat-screen TVs to the wall or to furniture to prevent them from toppling

over. • Place electrical cords out of a child’s reach and teach kids not to play with them. • Keep remote controls and other attractive items such as toys off the TV stand and the tops of furniture so kids won’t be tempted to climb for them.

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Groundwater Protection Education

Chrissy Lucas 541-766-3556 chrissy.lucas@ oregonstate.edu

By Heath Keirstead, Communications and Community Engagement Manager, Benton Soil & Water Conservation District Prairies and Pollinators By now you have probably heard that honey bee populations are in decline. Many of our native bees and other pollinators are also suffering. The number one cause for the decline of native species is loss of habitat. In the Willamette Valley, less than one percent of the original prairies remain. One way to help pollinators, then, is by providing prairie habitats. Of course, large scale prairie conservation is a critical strategy, but the creation of small, backyard stepping

stones benefits pollinators as well. Urban Meadows Urban meadows are small scale managed prairies. In the upcoming months, Benton SWCD invites you to learn more about urban meadows and how to incorporate them into your landscapes. According to West Multnomah SWCD, “meadowscaping is the practice of designing, planting, and managing an urban meadow to provide ecological functions and benefits...This landscaping practice uses a diversity of native plant species that are deep rooted and drought resistant, offers habitat and forage for birds, pollinators, and beneficial insects, improves water

infiltration and stores carbon (Zimmerman 2010 and Xerces Society 2013).” (Excerpt from the Meadowscaping Handbook by West Multnomah Soil & Water Conservation District) Mark Your Calendar for Meadowscaping Benton SWCD has planned a series of workshops, tours, and plant sales to encourage urban meadow creation in Benton County. We hope you join us at these events - we think you will get as excited about bringing prairies home as we are! Providing for Pollinators – November 16 at CorvallisBenton County Public Library, 6-8 p.m. Experts from the Plant Materials Center will lead this fun event and get you

excited to enhance your pollinator habitat! They will explain how to provide critical pollinator habitat in an urban/suburban setting. Topics will include: site preparation techniques, species selection, seeding/ planting methods, and maintenance. Bringing Prairies Home: Providing for Pollinators – January 10 at CorvallisBenton County Public Library, 6-8 p.m. Join BSWCD for a viewing of select chapters from the video Hometown Habitat: Stories of Bringing Nature Home, followed by a robust panel discussion of the importance of providing native prairie plants for pollinator habitat, what’s being done, and how you can get involved in the effort.

PHOTO PROVIDED BY BENTON SOIL & WATER CONSERVATION DISTRICT

Meadowscaping in Benton County

Bumble bee on checkermallow in field of Oregon.

Native Plant Market – February 24, 2018 In order to offer the maximum variety of native plants for your urban meadow and restoration projects, we will no longer be accepting pre-orders for our February sale. Stop by the Native Plant Market from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. on February 24. We will have more than 100 species of native plants and seeds, books, and other useful planting supplies! We will accept cash, check, and cards at the market.

Winterizing your Water Well System Winter is coming soon and it’s time to weatherize your system. Over the last few years we have had some pretty cold stretches. Freezing temperatures always bring a flood (pardon the pun) of calls to our offices with questions about how to unfreeze pipes, deal with broken pipes, and

safety of drinking water. If you haven’t already, it’s time to winterize your water well system to prevent frozen pumps, pipes, and stop potential damage to your water system. Frozen Pumps and Pipes A frozen water pump causes more than the inconvenience of losing

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water for a while; it can also mean burst pipes, cracked water pumps, and flooding once the frozen pipes warm up again. The root cause of this problem is when air surrounding a water pipe drops below freezing, any heat in the water will transfer to the air and cause the water to freeze. The smaller pipes always freeze first because of the larger relative surface area. Therefore, the 1/4-inch lines to the pressure switches, which turn the pump on

and off, will be the first to freeze. A frozen pressure switch will not start the pump. A small heat source, like a heat lamp or heater directed at the pressure switch will remedy this. Just remember that heat sources should be used prudently as overheated materials can ignite and start a fire. Always follow manufacturer’s instructions. Structural Protection Pumps that are above ground usually have a small well house built over them

to protect the pump from the elements. A well-built pump house, whether built of wood, blocks, or metal should have insulation in the walls, the door and the ceiling. Seal any cracks or other openings. If your pump house has windows – add a layer of plastic inside and out. Bubble wrap can also be used as a layer of protection, lightly spray the window with water, place bubble wrap with the bubble side to the glass and it will

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Forestry and Natural Resources PHOTO BY BRAD WITHROW-ROBINSON

Learning in the Woods Upcoming Events

Swedish Historical Society members outside a small Swedish church in Mist, Oregon. PHOTO BY BRAD WITHROW-ROBINSON

Here are some of the woodland events offered by OSU Extension in partnership with local Chapters of OSWA and other supporting organizations. All are open to the public. Find registration and other information on the Upcoming Events page of the Forestry and Natural Resources page of the Benton County Extension website www.extension. oregonstate.edu/Benton/ forestry/events, or sign up for the Needle and receive notices in your email.

At Hull-Oaks Lumber Company. PHOTO BY BRAD WITHROW-ROBINSON

• Wood Spalting Tour at the OSU Applied Mycology Lab: Wednesday, November 1, Corvallis. • Wildfire Preparedness Workshops for Farm and Forest Owners, Thursday, November 9, Mill City.

Looking at a steam donkey and other old equipment at Camp 18. PHOTO BY BRAD WITHROW-ROBINSON

• Oak mistletoe and wildlife tour, Saturday, December 2, Lane and Benton Counties.

Doug Decker describes the fire map at the Tillamook Forest Center.

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Brad WithrowRobinson 541-766-6750 brad.w-r@ oregonstate.edu

Jody Einerson 541-766-6311 jody.einerson@ oregonstate.edu

Swedish Visitors Come to Learn Our Forest History By Brad Withrow-Robinson, Forestry & Natural Resources Extension Agent, Benton, Linn and Polk Counties When I was on the Forest Tour to Sweden and Norway in June 2016, I learned that the Scandinavians are serious about their history as well as their forests. So it should really come as no surprise that a group from the Swedish Forest History Society would visit Oregon to learn about our Forest History. Touring from Seattle to San Francisco, the group spent several days in Oregon moving down the lower Columbia to the Coast, then going through the Tillamook State Forest on the way to the Valley. Along the way they heard about the significant role Swedish, Norwegian, and Finnish immigrants played in the development of the region in general, and the timber industry in particular. The Scandinavian immigrants were experienced and hardy woods workers and also pioneering business entrepreneurs who left an enduring mark on the region. At Camp 18, railroad and forest historian Ed Kamholz talked about the evolution of logging methods in the US, and they saw some of the equipment involved in hauling very large logs out of the woods. At the Tillamook Forest Center, they learned about the Tillamook Burn, its effect on the environment, communities and forest policy that led to the creation of the State Forest there. They went on to visit some family forest landowners in Washington County, the Holiday Christmas Tree farm and also a logging operation on Starker Forest land in Benton County to see how things are done today. They also spent a morning

at the Hull-Oakes Lumber Co., a unique piece of living history outside Monroe. An important part of their trip was connecting with local members of the American Forest History Society, the FHS (http://www.foresthistory. org/). Doug Decker, past director of the Oregon Department of Forestry (the State Forester) and incoming chair of the FHS was preaching to a visiting choir when he talked about the importance of history in understanding the present and informing the future. His point was that to understand current policy and management directions, we really need to understand how we got here. History is very interesting in itself, but it also has an important role to play in understanding our current situation and future options. Even while driving forward, it is helpful to keep an eye on the rear-view mirror every once in a while. This was an important observation to make on their visit to the Tillamook State Forest while large fires burned through the Columbia Gorge and elsewhere across the state. To manage our forests and other natural resources, the public needs some understanding of how we got to where we are (history) as well as the current constraints and limitations as we move forward. The Swedish visitors knew that. It showed in the nature of their questions. How well do most of us Oregonians understand that? I’d encourage you not to take our history, or its impact for granted. Why not visit the Tillamook Forest Center http:// tillamookforestcenter.org/ this year? It is a great facility and an excellent opportunity to learn about a key event that shaped the forest, our attitudes, and policies for generations.

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Seedling Sale and Goods from the Woods Fair

Featured Ask an Expert Question— Composting: Should I Turn, Cover or Both?

Pre-sales items are boxed and ready to go. PHOTO BY BRAD WITHROW-ROBINSON

You can find all sorts of project materials or finished products.

Willamette Valley Tree Fruit Growers Association Are you a commercial tree fruit grower? If so, have you heard of the Willamette Valley Tree Fruit Growers Association (WVTFGA)? The WVTFGA is a membershipbased collaborative of commercial tree fruit growers that exists to share best management practices and provide relevant education for its members. The WVTFGA hosts two events annually for members: a summer tour and a winter meeting. The summer tour is an opportunity to highlight

various orchard operations around the Willamette Valley as a means of sharing innovative cultural techniques and best management practices. The winter meeting includes presentations focusing on Integrated Pest Management (IPM), especially for new and emerging pests, such as the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB) and Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD). The winter meeting generally is approved for four pesticide recertification credits. If

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you’re an organic grower, don’t let the credits fool you! Management practices include both conventional and organic, but the majority of information, such as pest identification and life cycle, are relevant to all production systems. If the WVTFGA sounds like it may be of interest to you, please fill out a brief online survey at http:// oregonstate.qualtrics. com/jfe/form/SV_ beicOpLR5fnWWK9 or contact Jeff Choate at 541-344-1709.

Q: Hello, I am a home gardener that recently set up a simple three-sided compost bin made out of wood pallets. I have been putting in my leaf debris, grass clippings, chicken feathers, and home fruit/vegetable scraps. I was under the assumption that simply piling up these ingredients and letting them sit in the elements would eventually result in compost. However, the Internet is full of people who think that you should always turn your compost, and/or that leaving a compost pile uncovered in the Oregon rain will diminish its nutrient value. Help! How do I compost? - Benton County, Oregon A: The answer to your question is “Yes.” You can turn your compost or you can never turn it. You can cover it in our Oregon wet winter or you can leave it to the elements and not cover it at all. You can cold compost or you can hot compost. In the end of either of these methods you will have the same ‘Great’ soil supplement. The difference is hot Compost bin made of pallets. composting gives you a usable product quicker. The other benefit of hot composting is you have a better chance of killing weed seeds and some pathogens in your compost pile. To hot compost you need to be sure that your compost pile is moist; located in full Sun if possible, turned periodically, and covered in the winter so that is doesn’t get too cold and wet. In our wet winters both methods of composting will slow down due to the colder temperatures, with the hot method cooling less that the cold method. Here is a link on Coffee grounds and composting http://extension.oregonstate.edu/gardening/node/1009, and another on timely composting tips http://extension. oregonstate.edu/gardening/2015/11/clueless-aboutcompost-expert-shares-timely-tips. One last tip – when searching the Internet for gardening information the best and most dependable information comes from websites that are educational institution (.EDU) and the government (.GOV). Don Lauer Master Gardener OSU Extension Benton County PHOTO BY TERRIE SCHWEITZER

of the species are suited to smaller places around a home, with spring flowers and/or nice fall colors. A portion of the money earned each year is used to help fund educational programs for youth in Linn County, including 4-H and college scholarships. The plant list/information sheet and seedling order form are available on line, as of mid- November. Links can be found at the Benton County FNR Extension upcoming events page http://extension. oregonstate.edu/benton/ forestry/events. Seedling pre-orders are always encouraged. For questions or additional information, please contact Bonnie Marshall at bonniem@wvi. com or 503-769-6510.

PHOTO BY BRAD WITHROWROBINSON

The Linn County Chapter of Oregon Small Woodlands Association is once again sponsoring its annual Seedling Sale on Saturday, February 3, from 8 a.m. to noon, or while supplies last. The 2018 Goods from the Woods, a local woods products fair, is also returning, and will feature many products and crafts on sale that are made from native local woods. Location of both events is the Santiam Building at the Linn County Fair and Expo Center on Knox Butte Road in Albany, near I-5, Exit 234. The sale is a service to the community, providing a great opportunity for local homeowners to pick up small amounts of trees and shrubs that may otherwise be hard to obtain. Some

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Commercial Agriculture Commerical Livestock and Forages PHOTO BY KATPAU

By James M. Thompson, OSU Extension Sheep Specialist (retired) As sheep producers approach the start of another breeding season, they should take time to evaluate flock performance from the previous year. This will allow them to see where improvements might be made in their production calendars in order to improve production efficiencies. Many sheep producers have counts on their flock by month and this is the basic information that can be converted to percentages or averages to be used in the evaluation of flock production. Some of the calculations that can be used are: • Percent of ewes exposed that lamb = # of ewes that lambed x 100; # of ewes turned to rams. • Percent of ewes that settle on first cycle = # of ewes lambing in 20 days x 100; # of ewes turned to rams. • Percent of lamb crop born of ewes exposed = # of lambs born x 100; # of ewes turned to rams. • Percent lamb crop born of ewes lambing = # of lambs born x 100; total # of ewes lambing. • Percent of lamb mortality from birth to weaning = # of lambs that died x 100;

Shelby Filley 541-672-4461 shelby.filley@ oregonstate.edu

Evaluation of flock production # of lambs born. • Average weaning weight = total pounds of lamb weaned*; # of lambs weaned*. * Note: Number and pounds of lambs weaned could just as well be marketed, but in either case include replacement lambs. Each of these calculations has an impact on production efficiency. Let’s take a look at the first calculation: Percent of ewes exposed that lamb If you calculate this statistic and come up with a value of 96 to 100 percent for your flock, classify this as “excellent.” Be honest with yourself when making these calculations and include the total number of ewes that were present in the block when the rams were turned with the ewes, not the number present at lambing time. Rate your flock as “good,” if you fall in the 90 to 95 percent level and anything less than 90 percent as “poor.” If your flock falls into the low good to poor category, prebreeding and breeding management practices should be evaluated. One of the first things to consider is your rams. What do you know with regards to their fertility and aggressiveness during breeding? Consider a complete breeding soundness examination and ELISA test for epididymitis in the rams of your flock. Research conducted at Colorado State University indicates that fewer open ewes at the end of the lambing and a smaller ram to ewe ratio is needed when highly fertile rams are used. Rams need to be in proper

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body condition (not too thin, not too fat), free of parasites, and sound on their feet and legs at the start of the breeding season. The ram is expected to get as many ewes bred in the early part of the breeding season, so give him every advantage to make this happen. Also, do not mix ram lambs with mature rams and expect to get good results. Switching next to the ewe flock, make certain your ewes are also in a healthy, thrifty condition prior to and during breeding. Flushing and body condition at breeding influences number of lambs born, but it also may have an effect on embryo survival. Consider when you expose your ewe flock to the rams. Although having lambs born early in the lambing season might be beneficial it is of little value if some of the ewes in your flock are in anestrus for the majority of your breeding season. If breeding ewe lambs or yearlings for the first time, breed them separately from the older ewes. If you breed ewes to lamb at one year of age make sure they have enough time to recover from the stress of raising lambs prior to the start of the next breeding season. Diseases causing abortions can have an effect on the

number of ewes lambing of those exposed. Do you vaccinate for vibrionic and enzootic abortions? Talk with your veterinarian to plan a preventive health program against abortion losses, as well as other health problems in your flock. By now it is apparent that a number of factors influence the number of ewes that lamb of those exposed. Likewise, the other calculations mentioned at the start of this article respond to sound management practices to increase production efficiency. Percent of Ewes that Settle on First Cycle This measure of performance is determined by dividing the number of ewes lambing the first 20 days of the lambing season by the number of ewes exposed. In most cases, it is desirable to have this value as close to 100% as possible provided you have the facilities and labor to lamb that many ewes over this period of time. Provided you can handle the ewes, a value of 70% or greater would be something to aim at in this category. Achieving a high percentage of ewes that lamb over the shortest possible time span allows for more uniform and potentially heavier lambs

Leadership change for Linn County Livestock Association Please contact Shelby.filley@oregonstate.edu, or 541-2363016 for more information about the change and upcoming meeting to officially hand over the gavel. Oregon Sheep Growers Association – OR Forage & Grasslands Council Fall Tour, Conference, and Meeting, Thursday, November 30, through Saturday, December 2. More information will be available soon. Check the OSGA website at http:// sheeporegon.com/ .

FIRST OF TWO PARTS

Part two will be published in the January-February issue

at weaning. Also, the lambing season does not get as extended and extra labor can be justified when a high percentage of ewes lamb the first three weeks of the lambing period. If low values are observed in this category, consider first the date that you turn the rams with the ewes. Are the ewes cycling at this time or are they still in the anestrous period? Taking advantage of the “ram effect” by the use of teaser rams prior to the start of the normal breeding season can help to overcome this problem and result in a greater percentage of ewes that lamb the first part of the lambing season. Research has shown that a greater response to the ram effect occurs when sexually aggressive rams are selected to be used as teaser rams. Other factors to consider when trying to improve on this measure of performance include nutrition and body condition score of the ewe flock. Ewes on a low plan of nutrition and low body condition score will begin cycling later in the season than those on higher levels of nutrition. Finally, do not forget to consider the ram battery that you are using. Observe the rams to see if they are covering the ewes and showing any interest in the ewes. One of the best ways to determine if the rams are working and the ewes are cycling is through the use of a marking harness. By changing colors every 17 days, you are also able to determine if any ewes are returning to estrus and can alert you to any possible ram fertility problems. Also, maintain rams in a proper body condition prior to breeding and avoid fat rams.

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Melissa Fery 541-730-3538 melissa.fery@ oregonstate.edu

Amy Garrett 541-766-6750 amy.garrett@ oregonstate.edu

Commercial Agriculture Small Farms

Orchard Management Series For small-scale tree fruit producers

A 3-part class series focusing on tree fruit production on small farms. Thursday, December 14: Pruning Fruit Trees • 1-3 p.m. on-farm location in Lebanon. Thursday, January 11: Site Selection and Pest Management • 6-8 p.m. at the Linn County Extension office in Tangent. Thursday, January 25: Nutrient Management • 6-8 p.m. at the Linn County Extension office in Tangent.

Tuition for the series is $40/person or $60/2 farm partners. Registration is available at: http://smallfarms.

oregonstate.edu/southvalley/events Space is limited to 30 participants.

Save the Date! 2018 OSU Small Farms Conference is February 24th Institute. He is credited with helping countless farmers make the transition from conventional, chemical-based farming to organic methods.

Featuring Jeff Moyer of the Rodale Institute Jeff Moyer is a worldrenowned authority in organic agriculture. His expertise includes organic crop production systems with a focus on weed management, cover crops, crop rotations, equipment modification and use, and facilities design. Jeff is perhaps most well known for conceptualizing and popularizing the No Till Roller Crimper for use in organic agriculture. In 2011, he wrote Organic No-Till Farming, a publication that has become a resource for farmers throughout the world. Jeff brings a farmer’s perspective and approach to issues in organic agriculture. He currently serves as Chairman of the Board of The Seed Farm, and is a board

member of the Soil Health Institute, PA Farm Link, and IFOAM North America. He is a past chair of the National Organic Standards Board and a founding board member of Pennsylvania Certified Organic. Jeff was named Executive Director of Rodale Institute in September 2015 after spending the last four decades at the

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As always, the OSU Small Farms Conference will feature: • Educational sessions in English and Spanish on farming and the food system • Exhibits by more than 50 organizations • The best locally sourced lunch you can get in February • Networking and local beer and wine tasting during Think with a Drink. Registration and more information will be available mid-December at http:// smallfarms.oregonstate.edu/ sfc

Have you heard? Do you want to support Oregon farmers that raise animals on pasture, but don’t know where to find them? Friends of Family Farmers (FoFF) has launched Oregon’s first-ever statewide pasture-raised product guide, featuring the farms and ranches in the Oregon Pasture Network (OPN) (available at www. OregonPastureNetwork.org). The OPN is a program of FoFF designed to encourage and promote producers across the state who raise livestock and poultry on pasture through both marketing support and networking. OPN members use techniques like rotational grazing, which not only makes for healthier and happier animals, but also generates a long list of positives, such as protected water quality, improved soil health, enhanced biodiversity, and carbon sequestration. With public demand for pasture-raised and grass-fed animal products growing, the OPN Product Guide not only provides a platform for OPN members to list their products, but it also provides access to a market that consumers are increasingly interested in. The OPN currently has about 40 farms and ranches across Oregon and will be growing in the coming months – as the Network continues to grow, so will the Product Guide. If you have a pasture-based operation and are interested in joining the OPN, email OPN@friendsoffamilyfarmers.org for more information. Check out the Product Guide at http://www. friendsoffamilyfarmers.org/opn-product-guide/.

ATTRA Publication Has Advice for Building Partnerships with Processors Your meat processor is your partner in taking an animal from pasture to plate. Farmers who want to sell meat directly to restaurants, grocery stores, or consumers need a reliable and skilled partner: the meat processor is an essential team member and an asset to the business. This publication, Working With Your Meat Processor, suggests some key ways to work effectively with a meat processor and lists resources for further information. You can find the publication available free online at https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/summaries/ summary.php?pub=567. NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2017 —

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Commercial Ag Agriculture Commerical

Key Discovery Found in Effort to Manage Slugs Oregon State University slug specialist Rory McDonnell said he has uncovered what could lead to a breakthrough in the effort to manage slug pests in Oregon. In a report on his first year’s progress into managing slugs in Oregon, McDonnell unveiled that he and a colleague found the parasitic nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita in Oregon. The nematode is the active agent of a popular slug control product in Europe that is not available in the U.S., in part because the active agent was not known to be present in the U.S. Finding it here, McDonnell said, could allow a chemical manufacturer to seek registration for the product in the U.S. “It is a very important discovery, because it represents the first time that this nematode species has been found in the United States outside of California,” McDonnell said, “and it potentially opens up Oregon as a state where this (parasitic) nematode could

be used as a biological control agent.” Among next steps, McDonnell said researchers need to compile data on how lethal the nematode is to key slug and snail pests in Oregon and to native species, as well. In initial tests, results have been encouraging. “We know that it is lethal to the gray field slug, (the most damaging slug pest in Oregon),” McDonnell said. “We found slugs dying within 48 hours, and 100 percent of the slugs were dead in our replicates within three or four days. “I think nematodes are going to be an important tool for managing slugs here in Oregon,” he said. McDonnell came to Oregon last summer to help manage a multi-million dollar problem in Oregon agriculture. Between crop damage and control costs, slugs costs Oregon grass seed growers more than $90 million annually, and slugs are a significant problem in nursery crops, Christmas trees and other crops. Among findings from his first year here, McDonnell

PHOTO BY MITCH LIES

By Mitch Lies, GROWING Editor

Oregon State University slug specialist Rory McDonnell, pictured on an Oregon Christmas tree farm, said the state has lived up to its reputation for high slug populations: “Over the past year, I have seen absolutely enormous populations of the gray field slug,” he said.

said that Oregon has lived up to its reputation for high slug populations. “Over the past

year, I have seen absolutely enormous populations of the gray field slug,” he said,

“bigger populations than I’ve seen anywhere else in the world.” In 2016, gray field slug populations peaked in the first half of November, he said, then declined in December and January with the onset of winter storms. “That was expected,” McDonnell said. “But what was surprising to me is that even during these really harsh conditions, some of the mature adult slugs remained very active.” McDonnell found that most egg-laying occurred February through March, with a peak in early March. “From a control perspective, it is really important to kill egg-laying slugs before they release their eggs into the environment,” he said. “If they are not killed, you are likely to have very severe slug problems come the fall, and possibly into the following spring, as well.” McDonnell, who hails from the Republic of Ireland, came to Oregon from University of California at Riverside, where he spent five years as a research specialist.

Agricultural Business Management • Agricultural Sciences Animal Science • Animal Technology Animal Technology: Horse Management Crop Production • Equine Science Horticulture • Profitable Small Farms Veterinary Assistant

linnbenton.edu/programs 14 — NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2017

http://extension.oregonstate.edu/benton


Hazelnut Acreage Increasing Rapidly If you’ve driven around Benton or Linn Counties recently – or anywhere in the Willamette Valley – you likely encountered a new hazelnut orchard somewhere in your travels. Hazelnut orchards in the Willamette Valley are hardly a new phenomenon, but there was a time not too long ago when the trend was going in the opposite direction, with orchards being removed due to Eastern Filbert Blight (EFB). The most prevalent hazelnut cultivar, ‘Barcelona,’ is moderately susceptible to EFB, but one of the most common pollenizers, ‘Daviana,’ is highly susceptible. Thanks to Dr. Shawn Mehlenbacher and the hazelnut breeding team at OSU, several EFBresistant pollenizers were released in 2002, and since then a half-dozen EFBresistant cultivars have been released for the kernel and in-shell markets. With the availability of EFB-resistant cultivars has come a wave of new planting that peaked with a little more than 9,000 acres planted in the

PHOTO BY LYNN KE KETCHUM K ETCHUM

By Jeff Choate

Aerial image indicates a first year hazelnut orchard (below) where last year was a grass seed field (above).

Willamette Valley from fall of 2015 through spring of 2016. According to the 2012 Census of Agriculture, there were about 37,000 acres of hazelnuts in Oregon. Unfortunately, the Census of Agriculture is only taken every 5 years, and 2017 data will not be available until early 2019. With thousands of acres being planted each year,

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the Hazelnut Marketing Board needed more frequent updates than just every five years in order to forecast yield, so they contracted with Michael McDaniel of Pacific Ag Survey to provide yearly updates. Michael uses aerial imagery to assess the acres of hazelnuts each year. There are currently 69,226 acres of hazelnuts within 10

western Oregon counties. Of that acreage, 28,854 acres are considered mature (11+ years), 8,757 acres are 6-10 years old, and 31,615 acres are 1-5 years old. In other words, an average of more than 6,000 acres of hazelnuts have been planted in Oregon each year for the past five years! On a more local level, Benton County has 3,820 acres of hazelnuts, and Linn County has 8,170 acres. The age breakdown is as follows: Benton, 622 acres mature (11+ years), 682 acres 6-10 years old, and 2,506 acres 1-5 years old; Linn, 1,643 acres mature (11+ years), 1,122 acres 6-10 years old, and 5,405 acres 1-5 years old. Perhaps you’re wondering how Michael can identify the age of hazelnuts from an aerial image. The answer is simple: he can’t! However, he can detect changes over time by comparing current year photos to previous year photos. For example, if last year’s photo shows a grass field and this year’s photo shows a new orchard, then the orchard is known to be in its first year.

Establishing Equitable Leases for Hazelnut Orchards Wednesday, November 29, 9 a.m. to noon, Lane County Extension Office, 996 Jefferson Street, Eugene. Clark Seavert, Professor of Applied Economics at OSU, will be the instructor for this class, which will include information on “AgBiz Logic,” – an interactive online version of the hazelnut Enterprise Budget that can be customized to each user’s specific circumstances. Please RSVP with Jeff Choate, preferably by email, jeff.choate@ oregonstate.edu, but phone is okay, too, 541-344-1709.

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PHOTO BY LAURIE GIBSON

Drop! Cover! Hold On! The Great Oregon Shake Out

Millions of people worldwide practiced how to Drop, Cover, and Hold On during the Great Shake Out Earthquake drills held on October 19, at 10:19 a.m. Why is it important to do a Drop, Cover, and Hold On drill? To react quickly you must practice often. You may only have seconds to protect yourself in an earthquake, before strong shaking knocks you down – or drops something on you. Practicing helps you be ready to respond. • If you are inside a building, move no more than a few steps, then Drop, Cover and Hold On: - DROP to the ground (before the earthquake drops you!), - Take COVER by getting under a sturdy desk or table, and - HOLD ON to it until the shaking stops. Stay indoors until the shaking stops and you are sure it is safe to exit. In most buildings in Oregon you are safer if you stay where you are until the shaking stops. • If you are outdoors when the shaking starts, you should find a clear spot away from buildings, trees, streetlights, and power lines, then Drop, Cover, and Hold On. Stay there until the shaking stops. • If you are driving, pull over to a clear location, stop, and stay there with your seatbelt fastened until the shaking stops. Once the shaking stops, proceed with caution and avoid bridges or ramps that might have been damaged.

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By Mitch Lies, GROWING Editor The Hazelnut Growers Bargaining Association announced last month it reached a minimum hazelnut price for the 2017 crop of 96.5 cents a pound. “The price is lower than probably the growers were expecting,” said Doug Olsen, president of the association. “But that is where the market came out, and it is a good place to start so we can move this crop.” Several factors combined to push the price below last year’s initial minimum of $1.18 a pound, including what grower-representative Terry Ross characterized as a “massive” Turkish crop. “The Turkish crop is up 150,000 to 200,000 tons to about 750,000 tons,” Ross said, “and their quality is really good. “Also, the Turkish lira continues to fall against the dollar,” he said, increasing the attractiveness of the Turkish crop to importers. Turkey leads the world in hazelnut production. Still, growers were looking for a higher minimum price, particularly because yields fell well below expectations. The USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service is projecting the 2017 Oregon crop at 36,000 tons, which is 20 percent below last year’s harvest of 44,000 tons. The yield decrease comes despite the fact acreage is up. Also, Ross said, the USDA estimate may be high. “As of today, we presume that may be optimistic,” he said.

PHOTO BY MITCH LIES

Several members of the OSU Linn County Extension staff took a few minutes out of their busy day to Drop, Cover, and Hold On, during the Great Oregon Shake Out on October 19, at 10:19.

Up-tick in World Supply Drops Hazelnut Price

Young hazelnut trees, like these, are sprouting up on thousands of acres across the Willamette Valley as growers increasingly look to diversify their crop mixture. The Hazelnut Growers Bargaining Association estimates that 75,000 acres are planted to hazelnuts in the valley, with 45,000 in production.

The association estimates the current hazelnut acreage in Oregon at 75,000 acres, with about 45,000 of those acres in production, up from 32,000 acres five years ago. Oregon grows just under 100 percent of the U.S. supply of hazelnuts. This year’s minimum price agreement came nearly a month later than last year’s, and was reached only after the association brought in a mediator to help reach an agreement. “What happened is there was a large disparity between packers on what the initial minimum price should be,” Ross said. The HGBA went through the numbers of supply and demand and determined that the right price was somewhere in between (the packer proposals), he said. The 96.5 cents a pound initial minimum falls well below the $1.70 a pound

initial minimum price of 2014, which stands as the highest ever initial minimum for field-run hazelnuts, but is an average price over the course of the past 15 years, Ross said. “If you run a 10- and a 15-year average, it is in the middle,” he said. “It is just a reality that Oregon has to live with in a worldwide supply and demand system,” Ross said. “Even though our crop is short, we are still only 3 to 4 percent of the world’s supply. “That is the disappointing part of it; that it is a shorter crop and a lower price,” Ross said. “The price, I think, is where it needs to be so we can move this crop and not have carryover into next year’s crop, which in theory, should be a larger crop,” Olsen said.

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Mid-Valley Residents Pitching In for Science Continued from Page 1 To date, Einerson said, 242 people have completed the Oregon Season Tracker training. Participants are asked to post precipitation reports daily. Plant phenology reports are posted once a week, except during winter months, when plants are largely dormant. Commitment for volunteers is minimal, Einerson said, involving less than five minutes a day for the precipitation reports and 15 minutes a week for plant observations. The program accommodates lapses in reporting, Einerson said, allowing participants to post multi-day reports if necessary. “If they are gone for vacation, they just report the total when they get back,” she said. “We don’t expect that they report every day, but we ask them to try to do it as often as possible.” In the plant phenology program, citizen scientists flag, or identify, one or two native species and track the plants’ developments over time. Their observations are reported through the National Phenology Network, Nature’s Notebook, which was established in 2007. The programs benefit both the scientific community and

the individual participants, said Brad Withrow-Robinson, forestry and natural resources Extension agent for Benton, Linn and Polk counties. “A lot of us think of ourselves as fairly tuned in on the seasons,” he said, “but when you are actually going out and paying very close attention to the plant stages, it is surprising how much more you notice. “I was surprised at how early a couple of plants came out,” Withrow-Robinson said. “I kind of knew they were early, but when I actually find out how early, I was shocked. I think a lot of our volunteers are enjoying discovering things like that.” “I find that in talking to people that one of the key things they like about the program is being involved in helping science,” Einerson said, “and they are enjoying getting a better understanding of what is happening in their yards, gardens and woodlands.” Data collected through the citizen science programs is available for anyone to see, Einerson said, and precipitation data posted by 9 a.m. shows up that same day on an online map that can be accessed through the network’s website, CoCoRaHS.

org. “It is really powerful in that just like the researchers, you can see what is happening,” Einerson said. One of the ideas behind starting Oregon Season Tracker was to push people to become more aware of their environment and how climate affects that, Einerson said. “The idea was that by getting people involved in watching weather and watching plant reactions that would create a greater awareness of what is going on around them, and how what happens with one affects the other,” she said. “It is also getting people involved in science, helping them understand that science is something that we all use, and that you can be comfortable with it,” she said. “The (identification and reporting) protocols are easy enough that you don’t have to have a science degree to do this. And they are contributing to the greater bank of knowledge out there. Researchers can’t be everywhere. Volunteers can cover a lot of places that researchers can’t be, and their data can be really important. It is a way to be contributing to the bank of science knowledge, and people like that.”

Several Science Projects Open to Volunteers By Mitch Lies, GROWING Editor In projects available through Oregon State University, citizen scientists are helping researchers accumulate data on native bee populations, on vegetable variety characteristics for breeding purposes, as well as on precipitation and plant phenology through Oregon Season Tracker. “There are a lot of different ways people can engage in citizen science,” said Brooke

Edmunds, Community Horticulture Extension agent for Linn and Benton counties. “There are the national projects, and there are the more homegrown projects, where we are trying to engage folks with individual research projects.” The data collected by citizen volunteers often provides vital information for research, Edmunds said. “In the (vegetable) variety evaluations, for example, if the citizen science volunteers weren’t collecting data, it may not get

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collected. They are definitely providing invaluable assistance to go out and walk and evaluate all of these varieties. And all of that is going to be turned into something that is going to be published and publicly available, which will be a great resource for gardeners in the state.” For more information on Citizen Science (In the Garden!), go to http://blogs.oregonstate. edu/gardencitizenscience/ or contact Edmunds at brooke. edmunds@oregonstate.edu.

Winterizing your Well Water System continued from Page 9 stick until you remove it. Bubble wrap can be used with the additional plastic covers. It is important to have some heat in the pump house such as a thermostat controlled baseboard heater, heat lamp, or other heat source. The temperature doesn’t need to be super warm, but enough to hold between 35 and 42 degrees at the minimum. Make sure all openings and doors are closed properly, keeping the heat in and the wind, which wicks the heat away, out. Insulation for a Well House Pump and Pipes Insulation of any type will help to slow the transfer of heat in the water to the surrounding air but spending a little extra for thick fiberglass or foam rubber sleeves specifically designed for this purpose is worth the cost. Covering your pipes with foam insulating sleeves will prevent freezing for a number of hours even in a power failure. Heat tapes are also available to wrap around pipes and use on the very coldest of nights to keep the pipes from freezing up. Tips for Inside Faucets Letting a faucet drip during extreme cold weather can prevent a pipe from bursting. It’s not that a small flow of water prevents freezing; this helps, but water can freeze even with a slow flow. Opening the faucet reduces pressure that builds between the faucet and an ice blockage. If there isn’t excessive water pressure, the chances of the pipe breaking is reduced even if it completely freezes. Yes, a dripping faucet wastes some water, so only pipes vulnerable to freezing (ones that run through an unheated or unprotected space) should be left with the water flowing. The drip can be very slight. Even the slowest drip at normal pressure will provide pressure relief when needed. Where both hot and cold lines serve a spigot, make sure each one contributes to the drip, since both are subjected to freezing. If the dripping stops, leave the faucet open, since a pipe may have frozen and will still need pressure relief. You can also help keep pipes from freezing by opening cabinet doors and letting warmer air into places, such as under the bathroom sink. If you do experience a frozen pump, pipes, or faucets, call a professional to help remedy the situation without damaging your water system.

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Benton County 4-H Youth Development

Share Your Favorite Food! The 4-H Favorite Foods Contest will be held on Saturday, January 20, from 10 a.m.-2 p.m. Any Benton County youth, ages 5-19, are invited to participate in this fun event! 4-H enrollment is not required to participate. Each participant brings one food item that they made at home. They also bring a place setting for one person (with a centerpiece), the recipe for the food item and a menu for the meal. A friendly judge will visit with the participant and evaluate them on their knowledge of nutrition, the table setting, centerpiece, and taste of the food. Contact the OSU Benton County Extension office to register 541-766-6750.

Benton 4-H Enrollment Oregon 4-H enrolls youth based upon their age as of September 1, 2017: • 5-8 year olds are Cloverbuds • 9-11 year olds are Juniors • 12-14 year olds are Intermediates • 15-19* year olds are Seniors (*Students who are 19 on 9/1 and have not yet graduated from high school may participate in the upcoming 4-H program year.) The annual enrollment fee before January 15, 2018, is $25 for ages 9-19 for the first 2 family members (the 3rd & additional family members will be $7 each) and $7 for ages 5-8. After January 15, the cost will increase to $30 per member, for the first 2 family members (the

PHOTO BY NATIONAL 4-H COUNCIL

PHOTO BY BENTON COUNTY 4-H

4-H Member participates in a past favorite foods contest.

Maggie Livesay 541-766-3550 maggie.livesay@ oregonstate.edu

Carolyn Ashton 541-766-3555 carolyn.ashton@ oregonstate.edu

Youth conducting a 4-H club meeting.

3rd & additional family members will be $10 each). Completed enrollment forms are due with payment by January

15. Enrollment forms are available to print from our website and available in our office.

Benton County and Linn County Extension programs may offer opportunities that are only open to the residents of their respective counties. Please check with your county Extension Office if you have any questions about participation eligibility for specific programs. 18 — NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2017

http://extension.oregonstate.edu/benton


PHOTO BY BENTON COUNTY 4-H

A 4-H Teen Teacher educates a participant about baking.

SALE!

Teens As Teachers –

Now Accepting Applications Apply now! This program is for youth in grades 9-12, who are interested in receiving training on how to teach elementary-aged youth about nutrition, exercise, and environmental health related topics. Teens will learn how to create and teach lesson plans while gaining leadership, public speaking, facilitation skills, confidence, and team building. Teens who are interested are encouraged to complete an

application (due by November 9) and attend training on Saturday, December 2, from 9 a.m.-2 p.m. at the Benton County OSU Extension Office. If selected to participate in the program, team members will be given additional subject matter training in nutrition, exercise, and environmental health related topics. Applications can be found on-line at: http://extension.oregonstate.edu/ benton/4h.

Ecology Field Cards Exploring Habitats of the Willamette Valley, Oregon

Are you looking for a durable, scientifically accurate, graphically rich educational product? The Ecology Field Cards developed by Oregon State University Extension Service, Benton County offer educator’s a new field ready product to use with students in and out of the classroom!

To Order Contact: Benton County OSU Extension Service 4077 SW Research Way Corvallis, OR 97333, 541-766-6750 http://extension.oregonstate.edu/benton/

Members with Special Needs All youth are welcome in 4-H. Clubs are encouraged to invite youth with disabilities into their groups, enriching the lives of all the youth involved. If you have members in your 4-H club with disabilities or special needs who require special accommodations for participation in 4-H activities, please contact the OSU Benton County Extension Service at 541766-6750 well in advance of any activity. Our goal is to reach all youth who wish to participate in 4-H.

Adult Volunteers Wanted The Benton County 4-H Program is actively looking for adults who want to share their time and talents with youth, aged 5-19. Are you interested in making a positive impact on youth? Do you have an expertise that you want to share? Do you want to learn new skills? Volunteers will receive training, support from OSU faculty and staff, and from other 4-H volunteer leaders, as well as access to project and resource books and materials. If you are interested in volunteering with the Benton County 4-H Program, please contact our office for more information. Our next training will be on Wednesday, November 29, 6-8:30 p.m.

Benton County 4-H Scholarships Card Sets Each set illustrates and describes 50 organisms (plants, fungi, birds, mammals, reptiles and amphibians) commonly found in a particular habitat type. An educator’s guide accompanies each set and includes activities and locations appropriate for field study, key terms for plant identification, glossary of terms, and supplemental materials. Sets include: Douglas-fir Forests, Oak Woodlands, Riparian Bottomland Forests, Wetland/Wet Prairies, and Upland Prairies. On Sale until December 31, 2017 for $30/set

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Sample Ecology Field Card—Oak Woodlands Set

There are more than nine Benton County 4-H scholarships totaling $14,500 available to current Benton County 4-H members in 12th grade. All graduating seniors are eligible to apply. Applications are due January 15, to the OSU Extension office Benton County (except the Horse Leaders Scholarship, which is due April 15). For more information, visit http:// extension.oregonstate.edu/benton/forms Scholarship Donors: • Moos Family – In Memory of Steve Moos • Decker Family • Hitchcock Family • Bateman Family and • Benton County 4-H Horse Project Leaders Committee NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2017 —

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Linn County 4-H Youth Development

Robin Galloway 541-730-3469 robin.galloway@ oregonstate.edu

Andrea Leao 541-730-3534 andrea.leao@ oregonstate.edu

4-H Seeking Adult Volunteers

4-H Open House Linn County 4-H held an open house event on October 5th during National 4-H Week. Linn County Youth Leadership Team members and adult 4-H volunteers brought samples of projects, and project animals, and talked to prospective new leaders and members about getting involved. Families learned about the range of 4-H topics available to youth ages 9-19.

4-H Science News What is NEW in 4-H Science? 4-Hers can rock some geology! The Oregon 4-H Earth Science Leader guide has been revised and updated. This 115-page guide to hands-on geology learning can be downloaded at no charge by visiting http://oregon.4h. oregonstate.edu/projects/natural-science/geology. There are 9 chapters that help learners discover Oregon’s geologic history and processes from the Wallowa Mountains to the Klamath Mountains. At the bottom of the web page is a link called Enrichment Resources for Members and Leaders. This link takes you to a page with links to resources supporting each chapter of the guide. These include maps, handouts, videos and E-Learning modules. Check it out and learn about Oregon’s amazing geology. For more information, contact Virginia Bourdeau at Virginia. bourdeau@oregonstate.edu.

Benton County and Linn County Extension programs may offer opportunities that are only open to the residents of their respective counties. Please check with your county Extension Office if you have any questions about participation eligibility for specific programs. 20 — NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2017

As a program educator, the new 4-H year brings excitement to see all the new projects and faces. But with that excitement there is also stress and anxiety. Each year the Linn County 4-H program has to turn away potential new members to the 4-H program because we don’t have enough volunteers. 4-H is the largest out-ofschool youth program in the United States. There are more than 6 million 4-H members nationwide, and thousands of young people participate in Oregon 4-H each year. Through 4-H,

young people learn and grow in partnership with caring adults to develop the skills and confidence needed to become contributing, productive, self-directed members of society. Because 4-H uses an active, learnby-doing approach, young people see how their actions make a difference in the lives of others and the world around them. Without more adult volunteers, we are missing the chance to give these young people the opportunity to experience such an amazing organization. Are you interested in

making a positive impact on youth? Do you have some skills that you would like to share? Volunteers receive training, support from OSU faculty and staff and from other volunteers. We also provide project resources that include books and materials. 4-H isn’t just about animals and the county fair; there are leadership, science, art projects as well. If you are interested in becoming a volunteer, please contact JoLynn or Andrea at the Linn County Extension Office 541-967-3871.

Paint Nite Fundraiser for Linn County 4-H Bring your friends and support Linn County 4-H at this fun event. Everyone 15 years and older are invited to participate in this fun evening. We will be providing yummy snack foods, nonalcoholic drinks, and all the painting materials needed to create a unique, fun painting. An artist will be there to help us to complete this beautiful painting. What: Fundraiser for Linn County 4-H Association Join Us: Thursday, December 7, at 6:30 p.m. at the Linn County Fair & Expo Center Cost: $45 Pre-Registration is required. The link to learn more and register for the event: https://www.paintnite.com/events/ peace-on-earth-at-linn-county-fair-expocenter-10024419 This is the painting that we will be doing at the 4-H paint night fundraiser. Don’t miss out on the fun!

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Oregon ATV Safety Youth Rider Endorsement Program helps youth get certified included: an appropriately sized ATV in good running condition, and wearing personal protective equipment. All students reviewed safe, smart, and ethical ATV riding and showed that they knew the riding range rules and range hand signals before they fired up their quads for the test. During the hands-on test the Instructor verified physical riding skills through evaluation of their ability to: start, stop and turn quickly, weave, perform evasive moves and traverse obstacles. Mental and physical riding skills were evaluated using an OASYREP satisfactory/ non-satisfactory scoring system.

PHOTOS BY DAVID WHITE

The Oregon ATV Safety Youth Rider Endorsement Program (http:// oregonatvsafety.com/ ) plays an integral role in helping young (6-15 years old) ATV (4 wheeler and Side by Side) riders get endorsed so they can have fun and stay safe while riding on Oregon public lands. Classes allow youth riders to learn or demonstrate safe mental and physical riding skills. These young riders had taken an on-line class (www. rideatvoregon.org) and obtained their ATV Safety Education Card. For the hands-on safety certification class, there was a list of qualifications. These

Youths learn about and demonstrate safe riding practices on their ATVs at recent endorsement classes.

Local businesses support youth at 4-H & FFA Youth Livestock Auction As the new 4-H year begins, we would like to take the opportunity to thank the Linn County Youth Livestock Auction volunteers for putting on an outstanding event for the 4-H and FFA youth of the Linn County. This volunteer group works effortlessly to recruit supporters to the auction, organize the event,

and to make sure in the end all of the youth experience a high quality event to sell their projects. The auction would not be successful without the amazing businesses and supporters that come and spend their hard earned money supporting the youth. Some of the top buyers at the 2017 auction include; Rick

Franklin Corporation, Crop Production Services, Albany Eastern Railroad, Advanced Mechanical, Knife River, Linn Vet Hospital, Ram Trucking, and Stahlbush Island Farms. For a complete list of 2017 supporters, and to learn more about the Linn County Youth Auction, please visit www.lcyla.com.

Linn 4-H Enrollment Oregon 4-H enrolls youth based upon their age as of September 1, 2017: • 5-8 year olds are Cloverbuds • 9-11 year olds are Juniors • 12-14 year olds are Intermediates • 15-19* year olds are Seniors (*Students who are 19 on 9/1 and have not yet graduated from high school may participate in upcoming 4-H program year.) The annual enrollment fee before January 31, 2018, is $25 for ages 9-19 for the first 2 family members (the 3rd & additional family members will have no charge) and $7 for ages 5-8. Contact the Extension Office for more information, 541-967-3871.

Country Living Close to Town Sitting on just over 2 acres, this beautiful home is perfect for 4H projects or a small ranchette! 4 bed, 2.5 baths, 2529 sq ft with a large deck perfect for enjoying the outdoors. Also features a finished hog house, chicken coop, play house, and tree house. WVMLS# 722359

$425,000

http://extension.oregonstate.edu/linn

405 Landmark Drive, Philomath, OR 97370 landmarkrealtyoregon.com (541) 929-2586 • 800-346-0630 Big enough to handle all your needs, small enough to care

NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2017 —

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Anchors Help continued from Page 6

Dirty Your Hands continued from Page 3

• Make sure free-standing ranges and stoves are installed with anti-tip brackets.

Gardener volunteers, teaching classes, monitoring the Clackamas County speakers bureau and, most of all, answering hundreds of questions – 2,200 since she started a little over a year ago – in Ask an Expert, an online question and answer service through Extension. “I can stay home in my jammies,” she said. “I don’t have to drive. I can answer questions from all over the world. It’s wonderful because I get to learn all this, too. Like an insect that lives in Mozambique or India or Norway. I’ve found my niche. I can’t think of a better way to spend my time.” LaMar makes a good point. Master Gardeners don’t stop learning after finishing the course. When they can’t immediately diagnose and solve a problem, they turn to the wealth of research from OSU, other universities and reputable sources. The breadth of activities Master Gardeners do for volunteer hours is wide. Some answer questions via email or phone hotlines, Langellotto said. Others spend time teaching in learning gardens, community gardens, even correctional institutions. Cary, a Master Gardener

Consumers can visit their local home improvement store to purchase anti-tip devices. An online search for “anti-tip strap” or “anti-tip kit” will result in a variety of purchase options. Install the anti-tip devices according to manufacturer instructions, and always double check the attachment points to make sure the device is secure. https://www.anchorit.gov/ PHOTO PROVIDED BY CALAPOOIA WATERSHED COUNCIL

These kids got the unique opportunity to experience Salmon Watch. Our area is one of the only places in the world where people can see wild salmon in their natural life cycle: going from their birthplace in a creek or stream, out to the ocean, then returning to the exact spot years later to spawn and die.

Linn-Benton Salmon Watch Getting children to rivers to practice hands-on science can be a life changing event. Our area is one of the only places in the world where people can see wild salmon in their natural life cycle: going from their birthplace in a creek or stream, out to the ocean, then returning to the exact spot years later to spawn and die. In Linn County, the Calapooia Watershed Council coordinates a youth outreach program called Salmon Watch. This year almost 1100 Linn County students participated, with the guidance of almost 200 volunteer instructors and parent chaperones. They got hands-on science at Northside Park in Sweet Home, and Waterloo Park near Lebanon. In Benton County, the Benton Soil & Water Conservation District organizes field trips at Clemens Park, on the Alsea River. Teachers prepare the students with in-class background information then the 5th or 6th graders take a field trip to a river when salmon are spawning. The students participate in four activities: water quality testing, aquatic macroinvertebrate collection and identification, riparian area study and fish biology.

since 2013, works in a preschool that’s next door to a food bank where she volunteered. “They jumped on it,” she said. For an hour a week for 18 weeks, Cary spends time with 3 and 4 year olds, reading books, germinating seeds, planting, watering and harvesting. A tomato taste test is always a winner. “It’s fun, so fun,” she said. “The little kids are really engaged and we get positive feedback from the parents. We use it as a carrot for good behavior and it works.” You don’t have to be an experienced gardener to sign up for the classes. In fact, many people join to learn more about their own garden. LaMar, who was a judge in Portland for 25 years, grew houseplants and container plants. Cary was too busy during her career days to garden, but once she retired and moved from Orange County, California, to Brookings she got busy. Both said being a Master Gardener has helped enormously. While Cary took the class in person, LaMar took the online course – a new option – and recommends it to people who can’t make it to classes. “Master Gardeners tend to be retired,” she said.

“I’d like to see more young people get involved and the online course offers that flexibility.” The OSU Extension LinnBenton Master Gardener Program is NOW Accepting Applications! The application period for the 2018 Master Gardener program is now open and ENDS December 1. There will be mandatory orientation dates for all applicants during the second week of December. The classroom portion of the MG program will run for 9 consecutive weeks on Thursdays, 8:30 a.m. to 4 p.m., beginning January 25 and ending March 22 in Tangent, OR. In addition, applicants must be willing to access online training modules and attend several workshops during the growing season. For applications and more information, please contact: Pami Monnette Linn-Benton Master Gardener Program Coordinator Linn Phone: 541-967-3871; Benton Phone: 541-766-6750 E-mail: pamela.monnette@ oregonstate.edu.

Thinking about an orchard, planning to plant a berryy bbatch? It’s time to order bare root for next season. Take advantage of our pre-order der pricing and our best selection of the season; order by November 30th. 6600 SW Philomath Blvd, Corvallis 541-929-3524 | www.shonnards.com

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Open 7 days

LCB 5718 http://extension.oregonstate.edu/benton


Calendar of Events for Linn and Benton Counties 9

29

Mason Bee Cocoon Cleaning Workshop, 10 a.m. to noon, Linn County Extension Office

Linn/Benton Master Gardener Awards and Graduation Luncheon, 12pm-3pm, Historic Old School Café, Corvallis

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Living on the Land Series, Weed Management, 6-8 p.m., Lane County, for additional information, go to the website: http://bit.ly/LaneSmallFarms. Preregistration required.

4-H International Exchange - Outbound Applications due, to the State 4-H International Program Office, Ballard Hall, 541-737-1303

Benton County 4-H New Leader/ Volunteer Training, 6-8:30 p.m., Benton County Extension Office Benton County 4-H Horse Bowl Contest, 6-9 p.m., Benton County Extension Office

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Benton County 4-H Teens as Teachers applications due, Benton County Extension Office

10

Linn and Benton County Extension Offices closed for Veteran’s Day

November 2017 2

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4-H Wildlife Steward Educator Professional Development Workshop, Artist & Scientist; Nature from Two Perspectives, 9 a.m.-3 p.m., Finley Wildlife Refuge Benton County 4-H Awards Banquet, 6-8 p.m., Benton County Fairgrounds Auditorium

14-16 Willamette Valley Agriculture Expo, Linn County Fair and Expo Center 15

December 2017 2

Benton County 4-H Teens as Teachers Training, 9 a.m.-2 p.m., Benton County Extension Office

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Benton County 4-H County, State & National Scholarship & Awards Workshop, 6-8 p.m., Benton County Extension Office

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Linn and Benton County Extension Offices closed for Christmas

Oregon Season Tracker Training, 6-8 p.m., Linn County Extension Office

23-24 Linn and Benton County Extension Offices closed for Thanksgiving

Statewide Outdoor School program is up and running with new OSU leader and funding process By Gail Wells The new statewide Outdoor School program, approved by Oregon voters last November, has a new leader and a new pipeline for funds to flow to school districts and education service districts to pay for youth outdoor education programs. The new program will provide at least three consecutive days of outdoor education to Oregon’s fifthor sixth-graders as part of their school experience, said Kristopher Elliott, a science educator who was hired by Oregon State University Extension to lead the program. An Outdoor School may run as long as six days and may include overnight stays. Last November, voters approved Ballot Measure 99, designating funding for Outdoor School programming for school districts and

education service districts (ESDs) to serve fifth- or sixthgrade students in Oregon. The 2015 legislature had already charged OSU Extension with administering the statewide program when funding became available. In July of 2017 the legislature approved $24 million for the program’s first two years. Elliott, who holds a doctorate in science education from Oregon State University, said his fifthgrade outdoor education experience was a pivotal influence in his life. “I was from a small town in the Sacramento Valley, and I had the opportunity to spend five days on the northern California coast,” he said. “We took night hikes through the redwood forests. I experienced a tide pool for the first time, and I learned the names of the organisms that lived in it. I want every young person to have that kind of experience.”

http://extension.oregonstate.edu/linn

Outdoor educational experiences were common for Oregon’s middle-schoolers in the 1960s and ‘70s, but recession-related funding cuts and property tax limitation measures forced many school districts to reduce or cut their outdoor programs. “Our task now is to support, to the maximum extent possible, all school districts and education service districts that would like to provide Outdoor School programs for the 201718 school year,” said Elliott. The funding process, outlined on the Outdoor School website, requires two steps, Elliott explained. First, school districts and ESDs must enter into an intergovernmental “master agreement” with Oregon State University. Many districts have already completed their master agreements; those that haven’t may request

the forms by emailing odsaccounting@oregonstate. edu. Once the master agreement is complete, a funding application must be submitted. These will be made available by the first week in October to districts that have completed their master agreements. Districts must submit funding applications by Nov. 14. OSU Extension will review applications and notify districts of funding by December. School districts and ESDs are free to design their own outdoor curriculum, Elliott said, as long as the instruction meets the educational goals set forth in the 2015 legislation. “We know some districts may not have a lot of experience in developing outdoor education,” he said. “During the first year, we’ll try to connect these districts with others that have more-established programs.

The Outdoor School team will continue to deliver more resources as we fully implement the program.” Elliott received his bachelor’s and master’s degrees from Cal Poly. He has been a high school agriculture teacher and advisor to FFA chapters. Most recently he directed STEM (science, technology, engineering and math) education programs in the Nashville, Tennessee public schools. OSU Extension is developing Outdoor School’s administrative structure and fund-distribution mechanism with help from a diverse advisory committee that includes the Gray Family Foundation, Straub Environmental Center, Women for Agriculture, Oregon Forest Resources Institute, school districts, interested citizens and other community partners. Source: Kristopher Elliott

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Assisted Living at Quail Run Set on 275 scenic acres with lakes, meadows, oak groves, and views of the Cascade Mountains, Mennonite Village is an inclusive community of amazing people. Quail Run at Mennonite Village is Albany’s only not-for-profit assisted living facility. The building is specially designed to accommodate the changing needs of its residents over time. Spacious studio and one-bedroom suites with kitchenettes combine convenience and comfort with 24-hour availability of personal assistance and support. Mennonite Village and its employees foster the respect, care, dignity, and worth of every resident by providing freedom of choice and opportunities for physical, intellectual, emotional, and spiritual growth. Each apartment offers generous amenities and services: • Three farm-fresh meals served daily, from 7 AM to 6 PM • Private dining rooms available for family dining • Weekly housekeeping and linen service • Utilities, including cable television and air conditioning • Pull-cord call system and other optional call systems • Ample closet and storage space • A variety of daily wellness and social activities, both on and off campus • Scheduled bus service within Albany city limits • Laundry room for personal use • Whirlpool bathing options • Full-service salon and nail care options Mennonite Village is an“open campus”that welcomes new residents to all areas of our Village. You do not need to start in independent living. Should a need arise for additional health services, they’re available on campus, and you’ll pay only for the services you use. Mennonite Village is proud to be a smoke-free, tobacco-free community. Mennonite Village is subject to the federal Fair Housing Act, which prohibits any preference, limitation, or discrimination because of race, color, religion, sex, handicap, familial status, or national origin, or intention to make such a preference, limitation, or discrimination.

Mennonite Village Assisted Living 2525 47th Ave. S.E., Albany, OR 541-928-1122 www.mennonitevillage.org www.facebook.com/mennonitevillage


Who We Are

Office locations and hours

The Benton County office is located at 4077 SW Research Way in Corvallis. Office hours are 8 a.m. until 5 p.m. Monday through Friday. Telephone: 541766-6750. Fax: 541-766-3549. http://extension.oregonstate.edu/benton. The Linn County office is located at 33630 McFarland Rd (on the corner of Old Highway 34 and McFarland Road), in Tangent. Office hours are from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m., Monday through Friday. Phone 541-967-3871. Seed Certification phone 541-967-3810. http://extension.oregonstate.edu/linn.

Program Staff Phone Numbers

Linn County 4-H Youth Development Robin Galloway Linn County 4-H Youth Development Andrea Leao Benton County 4-H Youth Development Carolyn Ashton Benton County 4-H Natural Science and Benton County Leader Maggie Livesay Field Crops* Vacant Livestock & Forages* Shelby Filley Dairy* Jenifer Cruickshank Commercial Swine & Forage* Gene Pirelli Small Farms* Melissa Fery Small Farms* Amy Garrett* Small Farms & Groundwater Education* Chrissy Lucas Community Horticulture* Brooke Edmunds Community Horticulture* Pami Monnette Forestry, Natural Resources* Brad Withrow-Robinson Forestry and 4-H Youth Jody Einerson Family & Community Health (FCH)* Jeanne Brandt FCH & SNAP Ed* Tina Dodge Vera SNAP Ed* Brooke Jackson SNAP Ed* Karina Goicochea SNAP Ed* Yosvan Campos EFNEP* Monica Echeverri * Multi-county assignment

541-730-3469 541-730-3534 541-766-6750 541-766-6750

541-672-4461 971-600-1222 541-623-8395 541-730-3538 541-766-6750 541-766-3556 541-730-3470 541-730-3471 541-967-3871 541-766-6311 541-730-3544 541-730-3541 541-766-6750 541-766-6750 541-967-3871 541-730-3542

Administration and program support serving Linn County

Office specialist Office specialist Office manager & Linn County Leader Seed certification Seed certification

Laurie Gibson JoLynn O’Hearn Michele Webster Doug Huff Tom Manning

541-248-1088 541-967-3871 541-248-1087 541-967-3810 541-967-3810

Administration and program support serving Benton County Office specialist Office manager Office specialist

Kelly Cotter 541-766-6750 Liz McGovern 541-766-6750 Andrea Watson 541-766-6750

Interim Regional Administrator GROWING editor

Lindsey Shirley 541-967-3871 Mitch Lies 541-967-3871

Oregon State University Extension Service offers educational programs, activities and materials without discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, national origin, age, marital status, disability, disabled veteran or Vietnam-era veteran status. Oregon State University Extension Service is an Equal Opportunity Employer. Reasonable accommodations to persons with physical or mental disabilities will be provided. Please notify the Extension office five working days prior to the event you are interested in attending to request reasonable accommodations.

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By Mitch Lies, GROWING Editor The year was 1951 and a small southwest Oregon 4-H dairy club had just claimed Coos County’s coveted herdsmanship award. The only problem was the leader’s 9-year-old daughter, Nellie Oehler, played a pivotal role in the win, and the club banned girls from membership. “My dad said, ‘Well, I guess we are going to have to give the trophy back,’” Oehler said. “That was how I got to join the dairy club. From then on it was boys and girls. And there were a lot of girls that joined.” That girl who paved the way for girls to join her local 4-H dairy club today is 75 years old. And she still is participating in 4-H, and still bringing home awards. Oehler on Oct. 6 was inducted into the National 4-H Hall of Fame in a ceremony at the National 4-H Youth Conference Center in Chevy Chase, Maryland. She joined 16 others as 2017 inductees. She was the only Oregonian honored. “I was very surprised I was selected,” she said. “This is such a wonderful honor. It is very rewarding and quite humbling.” According to Maggie Livesay, county leader for Benton County Extension, Oehler has touched the lives of thousands in her career as a 4-H leader, a 4-H Extension agent for Linn and Benton counties and as a Family and Community Health Extension agent and specialist for Lane County. With Family and Community Health, Oehler co-created the statewide Master Food Preserver program, a 40-hour course in which students learn how to can, pickle, dry and freeze food safely and nutritionally. Oehler also is credited with launching Extension’s statewide food preservation and safety hotline, which opens annually in July and runs through mid-October. It is her participation in 4-H, however, where she arguably has made her biggest contribution. Raised by Dutch immigrant

PHOTO PROVIDED

The Oregon State University Extension offices in Linn County and Benton County offer practical, lifelong learning experiences. We sponsor conferences, workshops, demonstrations, tours, and short courses. We recruit, train and manage volunteers who assist us with community outreach and education. Our Extension faculty and volunteers answer questions and give advice by phone, in person, through e-mail, and on our Websites. We provide brochures and flyers with specific information on a variety of subjects. We are funded by a cooperative partnership between Oregon State University, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and our local counties.

Fifty-two Years in 4-H Nets a Hall of Fame Nod

OSU Extension 4-H Youth Development Program Leader Pamela Rose, left, with Nellie Oehler at the National 4-H Hall of Fame induction ceremony held on October 6, in Chevy Chase, Md. Oehler, of Corvallis, was one of 16 inductees.

parents on a dairy farm outside of Coos Bay, Oregon, Oehler said 4-H has been an integral part of her life for as long as she can remember. “I can’t remember a time when I wasn’t doing something in 4-H,” Oehler said. In fact, I told my mother in the fourth grade that I was going to be a 4-H agent. My mom said, ‘Oh, that is a great career, but you might change your mind,’ but I never did. I became a 4-H agent, and it was wonderful.” In her 52-years with 4-H, Oehler (pronounced eye-ler) has served as a leader of large livestock clubs and consumer science clubs. She has served on multiple 4-H advisory committees, as sheep superintendent at the Benton County Fair and as a 4-H judge at the Oregon State Fair and county fairs. As a 4-H agent, she started the 4-H program for developmentally disabled adults, helping clients to knit, set tables, read food labels, cook, and practice personal hygiene in preparation for moving into group homes. For more than 20 years, Oehler held the title of “Dorm Mom” at the Oregon State Fair, helping provide a safe place to stay for hundreds of 4-H and FFA members who showed at the fair. Pamela Rose, Oregon’s 4-H Youth

Development Program leader, said Oehler “has made such an imprint on the Oregon 4-H program. We are truly grateful for Nellie’s service and incredible contributions to improving 4-H for so many young people.” One of her greatest joys, Oehler said, has been watching students evolve into mature, young adults. “I’ve had rich kids, poor kids, the in-between kids, kids with problems. I’ve had them all, and they are all great kids. And if you can do one little thing for a child, that is very rewarding.” Oehler, who lives on a farm outside of Corvallis, continues to serve as 4-H leader for a Benton County livestock club and a consumer science club, and she plans to continue to do so for the foreseeable future. Two of her three grandsons participate in the livestock club, she said, and she would like to see them and other current students through the program. The third grandson, incidentally, now just four years old, is also expected to participate in 4-H. “He lives next door and is with me all the time on the farm,” Oehler said. “He is going to be in 4-H. I’m sure of that.” You wouldn’t expect it any other way.

http://extension.oregonstate.edu/benton


Brooke Edmunds 541-730-3470 brooke.edmunds@ oregonstate.edu

Community Horticulture

Pami Monnette 541-730-3471 pamela.monnette@ oregonstate.edu

Dirty Your Hands, Feed Your Brain as a Master Gardener Kris LaMar and Barb Cary live at opposite ends of state and have never met, but they’ve got a lot in common. Both women are up to their trowels as Master Gardeners. A shade under 3,000 Oregonians join the two women who went through the intensive two- to threemonth course that covers everything from soils to disease diagnosis. In return, they agreed to volunteer to advise gardeners and potential gardeners with the research-based information they learned in class. The program – part of Oregon State University Extension Service – reached 106,000 people in 2016. “Becoming a Master Gardener is a fantastic way to increase your knowledge of sustainable gardening, to meet like-minded gardeners and to give back to your community,” said Gail Langellotto, statewide coordinator of Oregon State University Extension

Planning PHOTO BY LYNN KETCHUM

By Kim Pokorny

November-December Gardening Calendar for Western Oregon

Master Gardeners get as much as they give, says Gail Langellotto, OSU Master Gardener coordinator.

Service’s Master Gardener program. “People are excited about growing their own food and gardening for wildlife. Master Gardeners help people understand how to meet their goals in a way that protects and conserves natural resources.” LaMar, who has been a Master Gardener for five years, knew nothing about

the program until she saw something about it in the newspaper. At the same time she was qualifying to be a Master Recycler. Once she got her hands into compost and saw the overlap, she was hooked. She took both courses and has become one of the most active Master

• November: Force spring bulbs for indoor blooms in December.

Maintenance and clean up • Check stored flower bulbs, fresh vegetables, and fruits for rot and fungus problems. Discard any showing signs of rot. • Place a portable cold frame over rows of winter vegetables. • Place mulch around berries for winter protection. • Cover rhubarb and asparagus beds with composted manure and straw. • Rake and compost leaves that are free of diseases and insects. • Clean and oil lawnmower, other garden equipment and tools before storing for winter. • Drain and store hoses carefully to avoid damage from freezing. Renew mulch around perennial flower beds after removing weeds. • Protect tender evergreens from drying wind. • Tie limbs of upright evergreens to prevent breakage by snow or ice. • Leave ornamental grasses up in winter to provide winter texture in the landscape. Cut them back a few inches above the ground in early spring. • Early November: Last chance to plant cover crops for soil building. You can also use a 3- to 4-inch layer of leaves, spread over the garden plot, to eliminate winter weeds, suppress early spring weeds and prevent soil compaction by rain. • Watch for wet soil and drainage problems in yard during heavy rains. Tiling, ditching, and French drains are possible solutions. Consider rain gardens and bioswales as a long-term solution. • Take cuttings of rhododendrons and camellias for propagation; propagate begonias from leaf cuttings. • Prune roses (tea and floribunda, but NOT climbers and

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Your Winter Gardening & Gift Headquarters • Colorful Conifers • Specialty Decorated Wreaths • Hostess & Holiday Gifts • Houseplants • Bonsai

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Holiday Open House November 11 & 12 10 am - 4 pm

5740 NE Hwy 20, Corvallis, OR (541) 753-6601 • GarlandNursery.com http://extension.oregonstate.edu/linn

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What Does That Mean? Experts Take On Gardening Jargon Garden jargon can leave a smart person feeling dumb, and let’s not even talk about Latin botanical names. Really, let’s not. Instead, we’ll concentrate on common terms used as if everyone should know them. Like what’s a cover crop or cold composting? What’s a hardiness zone? And what, for goodness sake, is an open-pollinated plant? Let’s find out. A handful of Oregon State University Extension Service experts step up with definitions. Here we go. Annual vs. biennial vs. perennial: An annual plant lives its life cycle in one season. Its whole reason for being is to grow, flower, produce seed and die. Biennials like sweet William, hollyhock and some vegetables live for two years. A perennial plant lives from year to year. Herbaceous perennials – like peonies or delphiniums – die to the ground each year and return the next. Tender perennials are perennials that are native to warmer climates than where you live and may not live through winter. Open-pollinated vs. hybrids vs. heirloom: Openpollinated vegetables are pollinated by insects, birds, wind or humans. As long as varieties don’t share pollen and you save the seed, the next generation (or offspring) will be “true to type.” In other words, the next year’s vegetables or fruits will be the same as the ones produced by the parents. Many, but not all, open-pollinated plants are heirlooms, which developed as families and communities gathered and saved seed from the best plants

PHOTO BY TIFFANY WOODS

By Kim Pokorny

“Hot Compost? Cold Compost? What does that mean? Basically,the cold compost method produces compost in one to two years. Hot composting takes three to six months.

and passed them down generation to generation. Like antiques, when these open-pollinated plants get to a certain age (50 is accepted), they become heirlooms. Hybrids are bred from two different varieties for characteristics like disease resistance or higher yield. They won’t come true to type. Seeds or plants must be purchased each year. Broadcasting vs. side dressing: Broadcasting is spreading seed or fertilizer by scattering by hand or with a specialized tool. Broadcasting is a great way to fertilize large areas, including lawns. Side dressing means applying fertilizers in a shallow furrow or band along the side of vegetable row crops or in a circle around individual plants. Row cover fabric: Row cover fabric is made of spun polyester and is permeable to air and water. It traps heat and can increase air and soil temperatures by 4 to 7 degrees, helping to create earlier crop yields and to extend the crop season. The fabric also can be used to provide a measure of pest protection. For crops like carrots, beets, and greens, it can be laid directly on top of beds with some slack so that

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the plants push the material up as it grows. For bigger plants like broccoli, use bent electrical conduit or heavyduty wire supports to keep the fabric suspended above the plants. Secure the fabric to the soil with bags filled with soil or sand, boards, rocks, etc. It’s important to perform bug check and good hygiene under row cover fabric. The slugs really like it there as much as the veggies. Fabric or plastic that lays on the ground to raise the temperature of the soil and keep down weeds is called non-organic mulch. Incongruous elements: Gardeners tend to be in a rush to add something to the landscape, a plant, a fountain, a bench. But one more thing won’t always make it better. In fact, adding too much can make the garden look messy and unorganized. Landscape architects often use a first step when redesigning a garden by subtracting “incongruous elements,” or things that don’t add to the overall aesthetic. Gardeners can do it, too. If something doesn’t work, edit it out and then begin adding things back in with more thought to how everything works together. Starting small, area by area, makes the job easier. Hardening off: When you’ve planted seeds indoors, they need a period to acclimatize to outdoor conditions when it’s close to planting time. To assist them, the containers of seedlings should be taken outside for a few hours a day, increasing the length day by day. After a week, the plants are ready to be planted. The process can start with hardy plants like broccoli, cabbage, onions and Brussels sprouts once the outside

temperature is consistently above 40 degrees. Wait until it’s 45 degrees for half-hardy plants – lettuce, celery, endive – and 50 degrees for tender plants such as squash, pumpkin and corn. A temperature of 60 is necessary for cucumbers and melons and 65 for basil, tomatoes and peppers. Hardiness zone: Plants live within a range of temperatures or “hardiness zones,” which are based on average annual minimum temperatures. Zones go from 1 (minus 60 degrees) to 11 (only hardy to 65 degrees). For instance, plants that can survive down to 0 degrees are in Zone 7. There are two sources to find your climate zone. By far the most widely used is from the U.S. Department of Agriculture. When shopping for plants, check the map to find your zone and then check the plant label before buying. The other source of hardiness zones is Sunset, which indicates zones with different numbers than the USDA and was developed with different parameters. Most plants are not labeled with the Sunset hardiness zones. Nitrogen fixing: Plants need nitrogen to live, but most can’t get it on their own since it exists as a gas in the atmosphere and plants can’t use nitrogen as a gas. There are a few plants, however, that can draw nitrogen from the air and store it in their roots. They’re called “nitrogen fixers.” Once they die, they decompose and release the nitrogen into the soil for other plants to use. Common nitrogen fixers are legumes such as peas and beans. Gardeners often plant nitrogen fixers (called cover

crops or green manure) such as crimson clover, Austrian field pea and common vetch as crops wind down in late summer. Once spring arrives (before plants go to seed), they’re cut down and tilled under, leaving nitrogen in the soil for that years crops. Hot vs. cold compost: A hot compost pile, which takes a bit of effort, will be ready to go into the garden within three to six months. It’s called hot because to kill the weed seeds and pathogens, the pile must heat up to 141 to 155 degrees, which means it has to be turned regularly and kept moist. Most people don’t get it that hot, so the advantage is how quickly the compost is ready. Cold composting is simply tossing garden debris into a pile, a throw-as-you-go method. A cold compost pile will take a year or two to break down. For both techniques, avoid tossing in plants that have gone to seed or are diseased. To speed up the process, use smaller pieces of material. Organic vs. natural vs. non-organic vs. synthetic: Organic and natural are used interchangeably as are non-organic, chemical and synthetic. To make it clear, we’ll use organic and synthetic. Organic fertilizers and pesticides are derived from mineral, plant or animal sources. Synthetic products are made by humans using methods different than those nature uses, and the chemical structures may or may not be found in nature. For gardeners who want to buy organic products, look for the Organic Materials Review Institute

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http://extension.oregonstate.edu/benton


Horticulture Happenings ... NOVEMBER

Save the date!

• November 1 from 5:30-6:30 p.m. The Beer Garden talk series – The Wonders of Beekeeping & Honey @ 2 Towns Cider House on HWY 34 in Corvallis • November 2 from 10 a.m. to noon Mason Bee Cocoon Cleaning Workshop @ The Linn County Extension Service office • November 4 from 10 a.m. to noon Mason Bee Cocoon Cleaning Workshop @ The Lebanon Senior Center • November 7 from 1-3 p.m. Linn County Master Gardener Board Meeting @ the Linn County Extension Service office • November 8 from 5:30-6:30 p.m. The Beer Garden talk series – Sex in the Garden: The Wild World of Insects @ Calapooia Brewery in Albany • November 9 from noon to 2 p.m. LinnBenton Master Gardener Annual Graduation & Awards Luncheon @ The Historic Old School Café on HWY 20 in Corvallis • November 13 from 1-3 p.m. Benton County

Master Gardener Board Meeting @ the Benton County Extension Service office DECEMBER • December 1: Application Deadline for the 2018 Linn-Benton Master Gardener Program! • December 4-7: OSU Extension Annual Conference @ LaSells Stewart Center at OSU • December 5 from 1-3 p.m.: Linn County Master Gardener Board Meeting @ the Linn County Extension Service office • December 11 from noon to 1 p.m. New Master Gardener Orientation @ the Benton County Extension Service office • December 11 from 1-3 p.m. Benton County Master Gardener Board Meeting @ the Benton County Extension Service office • December 12 from noon to 1 p.m. New Master Gardener Orientation @ the Linn County Extension Service office • December TBD: Benton County Master Gardener Greens Party @ The Benton County Fairgrounds

Master Gardener Awards Luncheon Nov. 9 We are thrilled to celebrate another year of our incredible volunteers in the Master Gardener Program. This awards luncheon will recognize all of our new Master Gardener trainees who completed their volunteer hours and are now certified MGs! We will also be recognizing our veteran Master Gardeners who are the back-bone of the program. These are the volunteers who certify each year, who dedicate hours and hours of volunteer time to an impressive array of horticulture projects, and who strive to bring the most current, research-based gardening advice to their communities. Friends, family members, and community partners are encouraged to attend! Our 2017 MG Awards Luncheon will be held at the Historic Old School Café on HWY 20 in Corvallis at noon on November 9.

Insights Into Gardening Saturday, February 10 LaSells Stewart Center • 875 SW 26th Street • OSU Campus, Corvallis A fun day of research-based classes on gardening topics for everyone from beginners to experienced gardeners. Parking is free. Sign up on-line after January 1.

Jargon continued from Page 4 (OMRI) and Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA) seals. The most misunderstood thing about organic pesticides is that they are not toxic. That’s not true. For example, nicotine, which is used in some pesticides, is highly toxic. Read the label when you buy a pesticide to determine its ingredients, which pests it targets and any cautions. Always follow the directions. More information about all aspects of gardening is available in Extension’s Growing Your Own publication. http://extension.oregonstate.edu/linn

Calendar continued from Page 3 ramblers) to around 3 feet in height to prevent winter damage. • Turn the compost pile and protect from heavy rains, if necessary. • Do not walk on lawns until frost has melted.

Planting/propagation • Plant window garden of lettuce, chives, parsley. • Good time to plant trees and shrubs. Consider planting shrubs and trees that supply food and shelter to birds (sumac, elderberry, flowering currant, and mock orange). • Early November: Still time to plant spring-flowering bulbs, such as tulips, daffodils, hyacinths, crocuses. Don’t delay. • Good time to plant garlic for harvest next summer.

Pest monitoring and management

• Rake and destroy leaves from fruit trees that were diseased this year. Remove and discard mummified fruit. • Check firewood for insect infestations. Burn affected wood first and don’t store inside. • Treat peaches four weeks after leaf fall spray for peach leaf curl and shothole diseases. • Moss appearing in lawn may mean too much shade or poor drainage. Correct site conditions if moss is bothersome. • Check for rodent damage around bases of trees and large shrubs. Remove weeds to prevent rodents from using them as hiding places. Use traps and approved baits as necessary. • Avoid mounding mulching materials around the bases of trees and shrubs. The mulch might provide cover for rodents.

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Family and Community Health

Please join us in welcoming two new nutrition education team members to our community! We are so happy they are part of our team!

Angela sets up trays for canning stations during evening classes.

It was a busy, productive year for our 2017 Master Food Preservers. Check out some of their photos from summer programs.

Salsa ingredients prepared for students by Angela, Rita and Maria.

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Ellen distributes vegetables during the hands-on fermenting sessions at the Mother Earth News Fair. Local MFPs assisted numerous speakers with their sessions. PHOTO PROVIDED BY JEANNE BRANDT

Cindy helps participants evaluate the ingredients in their drink choices at Get Outdoors Day 2017.

PHOTO PROVIDED BY JEANNE BRANDT

Shona and John set up and staff the Mother Earth News Fair booth where thousands of visitors received Extension and Food Preservation information.

PHOTO PROVIDED BY JEANNE BRANDT

Karina Goicochea will be providing nutrition education through our schoolbased “Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program – Education” Program (SNAP-Ed). She is building on her undergraduate public health degree and currently working on a Masters in Public Health.

Applications for the 2018 Master Food Preserver volunteer training will be available in February 2018. The training will be 8 weeks, on Tuesdays starting April 17, 2018. 

PHOTO PROVIDED BY JEANNE BRANDT

Monica Echeverri will be providing nutrition education in the community through our Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP). She relocated recently from California to continue her education. She would like to complete a Masters in Nutrition. She LOVES cooking and food. Check out her Instagram “Meals by Monica” https://www.instagram.com/ mealsbymonica/

Master Food Preserver Training: Save the Dates PHOTO PROVIDED BY JEANNE BRANDT

Welcome new Nutrition Education Program team members

Tina Dodge Vera 541-730-3541 tina.dodge@ oregonstate.edu

PHOTO PROVIDED BY JEANNE BRANDT

Our Master Food Preserver Hotline is now closed for the season, but it is still possible to find research-based information for complete, up-to-date food preservation information. Visit http://extension.oregonstate. edu/fch/food-preservation.

Jeanne Brandt 541-730-3544 jeanne.brandt@ oregonstate.edu

Benny Beaver joins MFPs to learn about dehydrating foods at Get Outdoors Day 2017.

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Meat-eater vs. Vegan: Separating Truth from Trend By Maia Penchansky, OSU dietetic intern The 2015 U.S. Dietary Guidelines support a plantbased diet. However, that does not prevent the rampant availability of contradictory nutrition information, leaving the average consumer in the dark when it comes to deciding what to eat. One ongoing debate is between a plant-based diet and a diet containing animal products. A vegetarian diet can mean many things. The primary criterion is an avoidance of meat. Many vegetarians also see an increased consumption of fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts, grains, and soy. However, with modern food technology, a vegetarian diet does not necessarily equate a healthful diet. After all, French fries are vegetarian! Generally, the categories of vegetarianism are as follows: • Pescatarian: Avoids all meats except fish and seafood. Still consumes eggs and dairy as part of a healthy diet. • Lacto-Ovo Vegetarian: Avoids all meat products, but still includes eggs and dairy in their diet. • Vegan: Avoids all animal products, with varying levels of strictness. Vegans may also avoid gelatin and honey. The Low Down: Meat is a complete, good source of protein, Vitamin B12, and iron. The combination of fats and protein can keep us full and fueled between meals. If you decide to go vegan, you may need to take supplements to replace the missing

nutrients (specifically, B12). Dietary guidelines recommend eating around 4 to 6.5 oz. of protein daily, and meat can certainly fit into this recommendation in a healthy way. Most vegetarian sources of protein are incomplete, meaning they do not contain high enough levels of all nine essential amino acids. However, combination foods such as beans and rice can provide a complete protein that is entirely plantbased. You do NOT need to consume these foods in the same meal as long as you are getting them both in a day. If you are careful, a vegetarian diet can absolutely be nutritionally adequate. In fact, many studies link vegetarian diets with a lower risk of heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, and some forms of cancer. That said, comparable results were seen in meat eaters who consumed high proportions of fruits, vegetables, and legumes, indicating that you may not need to cut meat out entirely to get all the same benefits. There are many personal reasons to avoid animal products, such as promotion of ethical treatment of animals and a desire to support more sustainable agricultural practices. Generally, it stands that adopting a primarily plant based diet is a healthful option. This means filling ¾ of your plate with vegetables, fruits, and grains, while providing a small allowance for animal products if you so choose. This recommendation aligns with the USDA’s MyPlate recommendations. If you decide to avoid meat, there

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are several ways to do so that can provide an adequate and balanced diet. However, health claims are complex and a decision to eliminate animal products should not be made lightly. Let’s explore a few of the popular health claims. Claim # 1: “Meat causes cancer.” A higher consumption of red meat is associated with an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. For example, one recent study cites an 18% increase in risk with consumption of 50 g of red meat per day. A similar trend is seen in highly processed meat products such as deli meat and hot dogs. Studies support the World Cancer Fund’s recommendation to limit red meat and processed meat consumption. That said, an occasional hamburger isn’t going to give you cancer in one day. Additionally, there are plenty of lean meats that can provide valuable protein and essential nutrients without an elevated risk for cancer development. Claim # 2: “Eggs raise your cholesterol.” We now know that dietary cholesterol is not linked to the cholesterol in the blood we associate with heart disease. Eggs are high in cholesterol and fat, but are also great sources of affordable protein, fat-

soluble vitamins, and many other essential nutrients. In fact, several studies have shown that a moderate consumption of eggs actually has the ability to decrease the risks of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and blood pressure. Claim # 3: “Regions that consume more dairy have more incidence of osteoporosis” or “Dairy is essential to avoid the risk of osteoporosis.” Some studies show that populations who consume higher levels of dairy products have higher incidence of osteoporosis and fracture; however, there are many other variables to consider. For example, regions where dairy consumption is higher often have colder, icier winters, which potentially leads to the higher fracture rates. The claim that dairy is essential is also an extreme perspective that isn’t entirely true. While dairy products do contain high levels of calcium and vitamin D, some plants contain the same amount – if not more – calcium than dairy. However, the presence of compounds in leafy greens makes the calcium less absorbable than calcium from dairy, and vegans may need to fortify their diet. Claim # 4: “Eating soy based products increases the risk of breast cancer.” Many vegetarians turn to

soy as an alternative meat product. Soy is a complete protein and contains a phytoestrogen that mimics human estrogen. Since estrogen levels influence breast cancer development, soy consumption for those at risk is called into question. The debate about soy is controversial and new research is still emerging on its impact on breast cancer cell growth. Many studies show that soy can be protective against breast cancer development, whereas others indicate that components in soy may actually encourage cancer cell growth. This research is relatively new and general recommendations are to eat a moderate amount of soy if you are a survivor or highrisk. The Bottom Line: The general guideline to fill most of your plate with plant-based foods still remain the most effective way to prevent disease. There are many ways to healthfully incorporate animal products into a primarily plant-based diet. When buying meat, look for lean cuts, and trim visible fat before cooking. Remove skin from chicken or turkey. Roast, grill or broil meat, poultry or fish instead of frying. When cooking meat, avoiding charring. Finally, if a burger or a steak is what you crave, don’t deny yourself the treat, just make it a special occasion meal rather than the norm, and be sure to surround that steak with plenty of fruits and vegetables. For reference information, contact Tina Dodge Vera. NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2017 —

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Regular Vacuuming Important for a Healthy Home Vacuuming a home is rarely an enjoyable task. However, if your family has members with allergies or asthma, regular and thorough vacuuming of carpets and furnishings can be an effective way of controlling symptoms. The increase in the number of asthma cases has heightened our awareness of how indoor air quality affects our general health. Asthma is one of our nation’s most common chronic health conditions. Many substances can aggravate allergies or increase the severity of asthma symptoms in individuals who are sensitive to these allergens or irritants. Vacuum cleaners can remove many of these irritating particles from the air. The filtration efficiency of a vacuum cleaner may significantly affect airborne dust and allergens in indoor air. To prevent these minute particles containing allergens from being re-circulated into the air, a vacuum cleaner’s filtration system must be very efficient at trapping small particles. To really get a carpet clean, pass the

vacuum cleaner over the target area as many as eight times. Only use vacuum cleaner bags until they are half filled. As the bag fills up with dirt and dust, airflow becomes limited and the vacuum cleaner loses its suction capacity. Using a vacuum that has a HEPA or ULPA filter may help reduce allergens. HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) is a filter that meets standards for collecting 99.7 percent of all particles at 0.3 microns (a human hair is about 60 to 80 microns). Most HEPA filters are disposable and must be replaced every 6 to 12 months. A HEPA filter is placed at the last stage of filtration. Then, all the air flowing through the vacuum must pass through the HEPA filter. ULPA (Ultra Low Penetration Air) is a filtering efficiency specification for filters that retain all particles to 0.12 microns at an efficiency rate of 99.999 percent.

If your family has anyone who suffers from chronic allergies or asthma, a central vacuum system is the best choice. Dirt is either collected in a container in the basement or garage or pumped directly outside the house, not back into the indoor air. Central vacuum cleaners are more expensive, and consideration should be given to the cost of installation as well as the design. What other options are available? Micron and electrostatic filters have high filtration efficiencies, around 98 percent at 0.3 microns. These filters trap fine dust particles and create an electrostatic charge as air passes through them. Micro-lined vacuum bags are available for most major vacuum cleaners. What do you look for in a vacuum cleaner to reduce allergens? • Be sure the cleaner has enough motor power to suck up all particles. Uprights typically have

• •

7- to 12-amp motors; most experts prefer 12amp units. Amperage alone does not indicate cleaning power; the vacuum design is important, too. Look for a completely sealed unit. HEPA filters are of no use if particles can escape through the sides of the cleaner. Look for a vacuum with an exhaust filter; some even have motor filters. Read the label on the filter you are buying. Some are “true” HEPA filters, while others are “HEPA-like” or “HEPAtype.” The latter two do not meet the standards to remove the most minuscule particles. There is no guarantee that a HEPA filter in a vacuum will prevent dust from escaping into the room. Many models without a HEPA filter have performed just as well in emission tests conducted by Consumer Reports. Performance depends on the design of the vacuum. An upright vacuum or a canister with a power nozzle is best for carpet.

• A canister vacuum with a power nozzle is good for cleaning blinds, upholstery, draperies, etc. The Carpet and Rug Institute (CRI) says a good vacuum cleaner should do these three tasks well: • Remove soil from surfaces • Contain dust within the filtration bag and the machine itself • Keep carpet clean without damaging it Most importantly: The vacuum must be used regularly. It offers no protection against allergy and asthma triggers while parked in the closet. Source: University of Illinois Extension, U of I, Urbana Champaign, College of ACES References: • Healthy Indoor Air for America’s Homes www. healthyindoorair.org • Carpet and Rug Institute www.carpet-rug.com • Consumer Reports www. consumerreports.org

Anchors Help Avoid Furniture and Appliance Tip-Overs Many parents and caregivers may not be aware that one of the top hidden hazards in the homes where young children live or visit is unsecured and unstable TVs, furniture and appliances. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) urges families to take a moment to inspect and secure these items to prevent any more tragedies. Anchoring

furnishings to walls can also reduce damage and danger in the event of an earthquake. It should be part of your disaster preparedness. Typically, injuries and deaths occur when children climb onto, fall against or pull themselves up on television stands, shelves, bookcases, dressers, desks, chests and appliances. In some cases,

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televisions placed on top of furniture will tip over and cause a child to suffer traumatic and sometimes fatal injuries. Nearly all injuries and fatalities involved children five years old and younger. To help prevent tip-over hazards, the CPSC offers the following safety tips: • Furniture should be stable on

its own. For added security, anchor chests, dressers, TV stands, bookcases and entertainment units to the floor or attach them to a wall. • Place TVs on a sturdy, lowrise base. Push the TV as far back on its stand as possible. • Mount flat-screen TVs to the wall or to furniture to prevent them from toppling

over. • Place electrical cords out of a child’s reach and teach kids not to play with them. • Keep remote controls and other attractive items such as toys off the TV stand and the tops of furniture so kids won’t be tempted to climb for them.

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Groundwater Protection Education

Chrissy Lucas 541-766-3556 chrissy.lucas@ oregonstate.edu

By Heath Keirstead, Communications and Community Engagement Manager, Benton Soil & Water Conservation District Prairies and Pollinators By now you have probably heard that honey bee populations are in decline. Many of our native bees and other pollinators are also suffering. The number one cause for the decline of native species is loss of habitat. In the Willamette Valley, less than one percent of the original prairies remain. One way to help pollinators, then, is by providing prairie habitats. Of course, large scale prairie conservation is a critical strategy, but the creation of small, backyard stepping

stones benefits pollinators as well. Urban Meadows Urban meadows are small scale managed prairies. In the upcoming months, Benton SWCD invites you to learn more about urban meadows and how to incorporate them into your landscapes. According to West Multnomah SWCD, “meadowscaping is the practice of designing, planting, and managing an urban meadow to provide ecological functions and benefits...This landscaping practice uses a diversity of native plant species that are deep rooted and drought resistant, offers habitat and forage for birds, pollinators, and beneficial insects, improves water

infiltration and stores carbon (Zimmerman 2010 and Xerces Society 2013).” (Excerpt from the Meadowscaping Handbook by West Multnomah Soil & Water Conservation District) Mark Your Calendar for Meadowscaping Benton SWCD has planned a series of workshops, tours, and plant sales to encourage urban meadow creation in Benton County. We hope you join us at these events - we think you will get as excited about bringing prairies home as we are! Providing for Pollinators – November 16 at CorvallisBenton County Public Library, 6-8 p.m. Experts from the Plant Materials Center will lead this fun event and get you

excited to enhance your pollinator habitat! They will explain how to provide critical pollinator habitat in an urban/suburban setting. Topics will include: site preparation techniques, species selection, seeding/ planting methods, and maintenance. Bringing Prairies Home: Providing for Pollinators – January 10 at CorvallisBenton County Public Library, 6-8 p.m. Join BSWCD for a viewing of select chapters from the video Hometown Habitat: Stories of Bringing Nature Home, followed by a robust panel discussion of the importance of providing native prairie plants for pollinator habitat, what’s being done, and how you can get involved in the effort.

PHOTO PROVIDED BY BENTON SOIL & WATER CONSERVATION DISTRICT

Meadowscaping in Benton County

Bumble bee on checkermallow in field of Oregon.

Native Plant Market – February 24, 2018 In order to offer the maximum variety of native plants for your urban meadow and restoration projects, we will no longer be accepting pre-orders for our February sale. Stop by the Native Plant Market from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. on February 24. We will have more than 100 species of native plants and seeds, books, and other useful planting supplies! We will accept cash, check, and cards at the market.

Winterizing your Water Well System Winter is coming soon and it’s time to weatherize your system. Over the last few years we have had some pretty cold stretches. Freezing temperatures always bring a flood (pardon the pun) of calls to our offices with questions about how to unfreeze pipes, deal with broken pipes, and

safety of drinking water. If you haven’t already, it’s time to winterize your water well system to prevent frozen pumps, pipes, and stop potential damage to your water system. Frozen Pumps and Pipes A frozen water pump causes more than the inconvenience of losing

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water for a while; it can also mean burst pipes, cracked water pumps, and flooding once the frozen pipes warm up again. The root cause of this problem is when air surrounding a water pipe drops below freezing, any heat in the water will transfer to the air and cause the water to freeze. The smaller pipes always freeze first because of the larger relative surface area. Therefore, the 1/4-inch lines to the pressure switches, which turn the pump on

and off, will be the first to freeze. A frozen pressure switch will not start the pump. A small heat source, like a heat lamp or heater directed at the pressure switch will remedy this. Just remember that heat sources should be used prudently as overheated materials can ignite and start a fire. Always follow manufacturer’s instructions. Structural Protection Pumps that are above ground usually have a small well house built over them

to protect the pump from the elements. A well-built pump house, whether built of wood, blocks, or metal should have insulation in the walls, the door and the ceiling. Seal any cracks or other openings. If your pump house has windows – add a layer of plastic inside and out. Bubble wrap can also be used as a layer of protection, lightly spray the window with water, place bubble wrap with the bubble side to the glass and it will

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Forestry and Natural Resources PHOTO BY BRAD WITHROW-ROBINSON

Learning in the Woods Upcoming Events

Swedish Historical Society members outside a small Swedish church in Mist, Oregon. PHOTO BY BRAD WITHROW-ROBINSON

Here are some of the woodland events offered by OSU Extension in partnership with local Chapters of OSWA and other supporting organizations. All are open to the public. Find registration and other information on the Upcoming Events page of the Forestry and Natural Resources page of the Benton County Extension website www.extension. oregonstate.edu/Benton/ forestry/events, or sign up for the Needle and receive notices in your email.

At Hull-Oaks Lumber Company. PHOTO BY BRAD WITHROW-ROBINSON

• Wood Spalting Tour at the OSU Applied Mycology Lab: Wednesday, November 1, Corvallis. • Wildfire Preparedness Workshops for Farm and Forest Owners, Thursday, November 9, Mill City.

Looking at a steam donkey and other old equipment at Camp 18. PHOTO BY BRAD WITHROW-ROBINSON

• Oak mistletoe and wildlife tour, Saturday, December 2, Lane and Benton Counties.

Doug Decker describes the fire map at the Tillamook Forest Center.

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Brad WithrowRobinson 541-766-6750 brad.w-r@ oregonstate.edu

Jody Einerson 541-766-6311 jody.einerson@ oregonstate.edu

Swedish Visitors Come to Learn Our Forest History By Brad Withrow-Robinson, Forestry & Natural Resources Extension Agent, Benton, Linn and Polk Counties When I was on the Forest Tour to Sweden and Norway in June 2016, I learned that the Scandinavians are serious about their history as well as their forests. So it should really come as no surprise that a group from the Swedish Forest History Society would visit Oregon to learn about our Forest History. Touring from Seattle to San Francisco, the group spent several days in Oregon moving down the lower Columbia to the Coast, then going through the Tillamook State Forest on the way to the Valley. Along the way they heard about the significant role Swedish, Norwegian, and Finnish immigrants played in the development of the region in general, and the timber industry in particular. The Scandinavian immigrants were experienced and hardy woods workers and also pioneering business entrepreneurs who left an enduring mark on the region. At Camp 18, railroad and forest historian Ed Kamholz talked about the evolution of logging methods in the US, and they saw some of the equipment involved in hauling very large logs out of the woods. At the Tillamook Forest Center, they learned about the Tillamook Burn, its effect on the environment, communities and forest policy that led to the creation of the State Forest there. They went on to visit some family forest landowners in Washington County, the Holiday Christmas Tree farm and also a logging operation on Starker Forest land in Benton County to see how things are done today. They also spent a morning

at the Hull-Oakes Lumber Co., a unique piece of living history outside Monroe. An important part of their trip was connecting with local members of the American Forest History Society, the FHS (http://www.foresthistory. org/). Doug Decker, past director of the Oregon Department of Forestry (the State Forester) and incoming chair of the FHS was preaching to a visiting choir when he talked about the importance of history in understanding the present and informing the future. His point was that to understand current policy and management directions, we really need to understand how we got here. History is very interesting in itself, but it also has an important role to play in understanding our current situation and future options. Even while driving forward, it is helpful to keep an eye on the rear-view mirror every once in a while. This was an important observation to make on their visit to the Tillamook State Forest while large fires burned through the Columbia Gorge and elsewhere across the state. To manage our forests and other natural resources, the public needs some understanding of how we got to where we are (history) as well as the current constraints and limitations as we move forward. The Swedish visitors knew that. It showed in the nature of their questions. How well do most of us Oregonians understand that? I’d encourage you not to take our history, or its impact for granted. Why not visit the Tillamook Forest Center http:// tillamookforestcenter.org/ this year? It is a great facility and an excellent opportunity to learn about a key event that shaped the forest, our attitudes, and policies for generations.

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Seedling Sale and Goods from the Woods Fair

Featured Ask an Expert Question— Composting: Should I Turn, Cover or Both?

Pre-sales items are boxed and ready to go. PHOTO BY BRAD WITHROW-ROBINSON

You can find all sorts of project materials or finished products.

Willamette Valley Tree Fruit Growers Association Are you a commercial tree fruit grower? If so, have you heard of the Willamette Valley Tree Fruit Growers Association (WVTFGA)? The WVTFGA is a membershipbased collaborative of commercial tree fruit growers that exists to share best management practices and provide relevant education for its members. The WVTFGA hosts two events annually for members: a summer tour and a winter meeting. The summer tour is an opportunity to highlight

various orchard operations around the Willamette Valley as a means of sharing innovative cultural techniques and best management practices. The winter meeting includes presentations focusing on Integrated Pest Management (IPM), especially for new and emerging pests, such as the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB) and Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD). The winter meeting generally is approved for four pesticide recertification credits. If

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you’re an organic grower, don’t let the credits fool you! Management practices include both conventional and organic, but the majority of information, such as pest identification and life cycle, are relevant to all production systems. If the WVTFGA sounds like it may be of interest to you, please fill out a brief online survey at http:// oregonstate.qualtrics. com/jfe/form/SV_ beicOpLR5fnWWK9 or contact Jeff Choate at 541-344-1709.

Q: Hello, I am a home gardener that recently set up a simple three-sided compost bin made out of wood pallets. I have been putting in my leaf debris, grass clippings, chicken feathers, and home fruit/vegetable scraps. I was under the assumption that simply piling up these ingredients and letting them sit in the elements would eventually result in compost. However, the Internet is full of people who think that you should always turn your compost, and/or that leaving a compost pile uncovered in the Oregon rain will diminish its nutrient value. Help! How do I compost? - Benton County, Oregon A: The answer to your question is “Yes.” You can turn your compost or you can never turn it. You can cover it in our Oregon wet winter or you can leave it to the elements and not cover it at all. You can cold compost or you can hot compost. In the end of either of these methods you will have the same ‘Great’ soil supplement. The difference is hot Compost bin made of pallets. composting gives you a usable product quicker. The other benefit of hot composting is you have a better chance of killing weed seeds and some pathogens in your compost pile. To hot compost you need to be sure that your compost pile is moist; located in full Sun if possible, turned periodically, and covered in the winter so that is doesn’t get too cold and wet. In our wet winters both methods of composting will slow down due to the colder temperatures, with the hot method cooling less that the cold method. Here is a link on Coffee grounds and composting http://extension.oregonstate.edu/gardening/node/1009, and another on timely composting tips http://extension. oregonstate.edu/gardening/2015/11/clueless-aboutcompost-expert-shares-timely-tips. One last tip – when searching the Internet for gardening information the best and most dependable information comes from websites that are educational institution (.EDU) and the government (.GOV). Don Lauer Master Gardener OSU Extension Benton County PHOTO BY TERRIE SCHWEITZER

of the species are suited to smaller places around a home, with spring flowers and/or nice fall colors. A portion of the money earned each year is used to help fund educational programs for youth in Linn County, including 4-H and college scholarships. The plant list/information sheet and seedling order form are available on line, as of mid- November. Links can be found at the Benton County FNR Extension upcoming events page http://extension. oregonstate.edu/benton/ forestry/events. Seedling pre-orders are always encouraged. For questions or additional information, please contact Bonnie Marshall at bonniem@wvi. com or 503-769-6510.

PHOTO BY BRAD WITHROWROBINSON

The Linn County Chapter of Oregon Small Woodlands Association is once again sponsoring its annual Seedling Sale on Saturday, February 3, from 8 a.m. to noon, or while supplies last. The 2018 Goods from the Woods, a local woods products fair, is also returning, and will feature many products and crafts on sale that are made from native local woods. Location of both events is the Santiam Building at the Linn County Fair and Expo Center on Knox Butte Road in Albany, near I-5, Exit 234. The sale is a service to the community, providing a great opportunity for local homeowners to pick up small amounts of trees and shrubs that may otherwise be hard to obtain. Some

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Commercial Agriculture Commerical Livestock and Forages PHOTO BY KATPAU

By James M. Thompson, OSU Extension Sheep Specialist (retired) As sheep producers approach the start of another breeding season, they should take time to evaluate flock performance from the previous year. This will allow them to see where improvements might be made in their production calendars in order to improve production efficiencies. Many sheep producers have counts on their flock by month and this is the basic information that can be converted to percentages or averages to be used in the evaluation of flock production. Some of the calculations that can be used are: • Percent of ewes exposed that lamb = # of ewes that lambed x 100; # of ewes turned to rams. • Percent of ewes that settle on first cycle = # of ewes lambing in 20 days x 100; # of ewes turned to rams. • Percent of lamb crop born of ewes exposed = # of lambs born x 100; # of ewes turned to rams. • Percent lamb crop born of ewes lambing = # of lambs born x 100; total # of ewes lambing. • Percent of lamb mortality from birth to weaning = # of lambs that died x 100;

Shelby Filley 541-672-4461 shelby.filley@ oregonstate.edu

Evaluation of flock production # of lambs born. • Average weaning weight = total pounds of lamb weaned*; # of lambs weaned*. * Note: Number and pounds of lambs weaned could just as well be marketed, but in either case include replacement lambs. Each of these calculations has an impact on production efficiency. Let’s take a look at the first calculation: Percent of ewes exposed that lamb If you calculate this statistic and come up with a value of 96 to 100 percent for your flock, classify this as “excellent.” Be honest with yourself when making these calculations and include the total number of ewes that were present in the block when the rams were turned with the ewes, not the number present at lambing time. Rate your flock as “good,” if you fall in the 90 to 95 percent level and anything less than 90 percent as “poor.” If your flock falls into the low good to poor category, prebreeding and breeding management practices should be evaluated. One of the first things to consider is your rams. What do you know with regards to their fertility and aggressiveness during breeding? Consider a complete breeding soundness examination and ELISA test for epididymitis in the rams of your flock. Research conducted at Colorado State University indicates that fewer open ewes at the end of the lambing and a smaller ram to ewe ratio is needed when highly fertile rams are used. Rams need to be in proper

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body condition (not too thin, not too fat), free of parasites, and sound on their feet and legs at the start of the breeding season. The ram is expected to get as many ewes bred in the early part of the breeding season, so give him every advantage to make this happen. Also, do not mix ram lambs with mature rams and expect to get good results. Switching next to the ewe flock, make certain your ewes are also in a healthy, thrifty condition prior to and during breeding. Flushing and body condition at breeding influences number of lambs born, but it also may have an effect on embryo survival. Consider when you expose your ewe flock to the rams. Although having lambs born early in the lambing season might be beneficial it is of little value if some of the ewes in your flock are in anestrus for the majority of your breeding season. If breeding ewe lambs or yearlings for the first time, breed them separately from the older ewes. If you breed ewes to lamb at one year of age make sure they have enough time to recover from the stress of raising lambs prior to the start of the next breeding season. Diseases causing abortions can have an effect on the

number of ewes lambing of those exposed. Do you vaccinate for vibrionic and enzootic abortions? Talk with your veterinarian to plan a preventive health program against abortion losses, as well as other health problems in your flock. By now it is apparent that a number of factors influence the number of ewes that lamb of those exposed. Likewise, the other calculations mentioned at the start of this article respond to sound management practices to increase production efficiency. Percent of Ewes that Settle on First Cycle This measure of performance is determined by dividing the number of ewes lambing the first 20 days of the lambing season by the number of ewes exposed. In most cases, it is desirable to have this value as close to 100% as possible provided you have the facilities and labor to lamb that many ewes over this period of time. Provided you can handle the ewes, a value of 70% or greater would be something to aim at in this category. Achieving a high percentage of ewes that lamb over the shortest possible time span allows for more uniform and potentially heavier lambs

Leadership change for Linn County Livestock Association Please contact Shelby.filley@oregonstate.edu, or 541-2363016 for more information about the change and upcoming meeting to officially hand over the gavel. Oregon Sheep Growers Association – OR Forage & Grasslands Council Fall Tour, Conference, and Meeting, Thursday, November 30, through Saturday, December 2. More information will be available soon. Check the OSGA website at http:// sheeporegon.com/ .

FIRST OF TWO PARTS

Part two will be published in the January-February issue

at weaning. Also, the lambing season does not get as extended and extra labor can be justified when a high percentage of ewes lamb the first three weeks of the lambing period. If low values are observed in this category, consider first the date that you turn the rams with the ewes. Are the ewes cycling at this time or are they still in the anestrous period? Taking advantage of the “ram effect” by the use of teaser rams prior to the start of the normal breeding season can help to overcome this problem and result in a greater percentage of ewes that lamb the first part of the lambing season. Research has shown that a greater response to the ram effect occurs when sexually aggressive rams are selected to be used as teaser rams. Other factors to consider when trying to improve on this measure of performance include nutrition and body condition score of the ewe flock. Ewes on a low plan of nutrition and low body condition score will begin cycling later in the season than those on higher levels of nutrition. Finally, do not forget to consider the ram battery that you are using. Observe the rams to see if they are covering the ewes and showing any interest in the ewes. One of the best ways to determine if the rams are working and the ewes are cycling is through the use of a marking harness. By changing colors every 17 days, you are also able to determine if any ewes are returning to estrus and can alert you to any possible ram fertility problems. Also, maintain rams in a proper body condition prior to breeding and avoid fat rams.

http://extension.oregonstate.edu/benton


Melissa Fery 541-730-3538 melissa.fery@ oregonstate.edu

Amy Garrett 541-766-6750 amy.garrett@ oregonstate.edu

Commercial Agriculture Small Farms

Orchard Management Series For small-scale tree fruit producers

A 3-part class series focusing on tree fruit production on small farms. Thursday, December 14: Pruning Fruit Trees • 1-3 p.m. on-farm location in Lebanon. Thursday, January 11: Site Selection and Pest Management • 6-8 p.m. at the Linn County Extension office in Tangent. Thursday, January 25: Nutrient Management • 6-8 p.m. at the Linn County Extension office in Tangent.

Tuition for the series is $40/person or $60/2 farm partners. Registration is available at: http://smallfarms.

oregonstate.edu/southvalley/events Space is limited to 30 participants.

Save the Date! 2018 OSU Small Farms Conference is February 24th Institute. He is credited with helping countless farmers make the transition from conventional, chemical-based farming to organic methods.

Featuring Jeff Moyer of the Rodale Institute Jeff Moyer is a worldrenowned authority in organic agriculture. His expertise includes organic crop production systems with a focus on weed management, cover crops, crop rotations, equipment modification and use, and facilities design. Jeff is perhaps most well known for conceptualizing and popularizing the No Till Roller Crimper for use in organic agriculture. In 2011, he wrote Organic No-Till Farming, a publication that has become a resource for farmers throughout the world. Jeff brings a farmer’s perspective and approach to issues in organic agriculture. He currently serves as Chairman of the Board of The Seed Farm, and is a board

member of the Soil Health Institute, PA Farm Link, and IFOAM North America. He is a past chair of the National Organic Standards Board and a founding board member of Pennsylvania Certified Organic. Jeff was named Executive Director of Rodale Institute in September 2015 after spending the last four decades at the

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As always, the OSU Small Farms Conference will feature: • Educational sessions in English and Spanish on farming and the food system • Exhibits by more than 50 organizations • The best locally sourced lunch you can get in February • Networking and local beer and wine tasting during Think with a Drink. Registration and more information will be available mid-December at http:// smallfarms.oregonstate.edu/ sfc

Have you heard? Do you want to support Oregon farmers that raise animals on pasture, but don’t know where to find them? Friends of Family Farmers (FoFF) has launched Oregon’s first-ever statewide pasture-raised product guide, featuring the farms and ranches in the Oregon Pasture Network (OPN) (available at www. OregonPastureNetwork.org). The OPN is a program of FoFF designed to encourage and promote producers across the state who raise livestock and poultry on pasture through both marketing support and networking. OPN members use techniques like rotational grazing, which not only makes for healthier and happier animals, but also generates a long list of positives, such as protected water quality, improved soil health, enhanced biodiversity, and carbon sequestration. With public demand for pasture-raised and grass-fed animal products growing, the OPN Product Guide not only provides a platform for OPN members to list their products, but it also provides access to a market that consumers are increasingly interested in. The OPN currently has about 40 farms and ranches across Oregon and will be growing in the coming months – as the Network continues to grow, so will the Product Guide. If you have a pasture-based operation and are interested in joining the OPN, email OPN@friendsoffamilyfarmers.org for more information. Check out the Product Guide at http://www. friendsoffamilyfarmers.org/opn-product-guide/.

ATTRA Publication Has Advice for Building Partnerships with Processors Your meat processor is your partner in taking an animal from pasture to plate. Farmers who want to sell meat directly to restaurants, grocery stores, or consumers need a reliable and skilled partner: the meat processor is an essential team member and an asset to the business. This publication, Working With Your Meat Processor, suggests some key ways to work effectively with a meat processor and lists resources for further information. You can find the publication available free online at https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/summaries/ summary.php?pub=567. NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2017 —

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Commercial Ag Agriculture Commerical

Key Discovery Found in Effort to Manage Slugs Oregon State University slug specialist Rory McDonnell said he has uncovered what could lead to a breakthrough in the effort to manage slug pests in Oregon. In a report on his first year’s progress into managing slugs in Oregon, McDonnell unveiled that he and a colleague found the parasitic nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita in Oregon. The nematode is the active agent of a popular slug control product in Europe that is not available in the U.S., in part because the active agent was not known to be present in the U.S. Finding it here, McDonnell said, could allow a chemical manufacturer to seek registration for the product in the U.S. “It is a very important discovery, because it represents the first time that this nematode species has been found in the United States outside of California,” McDonnell said, “and it potentially opens up Oregon as a state where this (parasitic) nematode could

be used as a biological control agent.” Among next steps, McDonnell said researchers need to compile data on how lethal the nematode is to key slug and snail pests in Oregon and to native species, as well. In initial tests, results have been encouraging. “We know that it is lethal to the gray field slug, (the most damaging slug pest in Oregon),” McDonnell said. “We found slugs dying within 48 hours, and 100 percent of the slugs were dead in our replicates within three or four days. “I think nematodes are going to be an important tool for managing slugs here in Oregon,” he said. McDonnell came to Oregon last summer to help manage a multi-million dollar problem in Oregon agriculture. Between crop damage and control costs, slugs costs Oregon grass seed growers more than $90 million annually, and slugs are a significant problem in nursery crops, Christmas trees and other crops. Among findings from his first year here, McDonnell

PHOTO BY MITCH LIES

By Mitch Lies, GROWING Editor

Oregon State University slug specialist Rory McDonnell, pictured on an Oregon Christmas tree farm, said the state has lived up to its reputation for high slug populations: “Over the past year, I have seen absolutely enormous populations of the gray field slug,” he said.

said that Oregon has lived up to its reputation for high slug populations. “Over the past

year, I have seen absolutely enormous populations of the gray field slug,” he said,

“bigger populations than I’ve seen anywhere else in the world.” In 2016, gray field slug populations peaked in the first half of November, he said, then declined in December and January with the onset of winter storms. “That was expected,” McDonnell said. “But what was surprising to me is that even during these really harsh conditions, some of the mature adult slugs remained very active.” McDonnell found that most egg-laying occurred February through March, with a peak in early March. “From a control perspective, it is really important to kill egg-laying slugs before they release their eggs into the environment,” he said. “If they are not killed, you are likely to have very severe slug problems come the fall, and possibly into the following spring, as well.” McDonnell, who hails from the Republic of Ireland, came to Oregon from University of California at Riverside, where he spent five years as a research specialist.

Agricultural Business Management • Agricultural Sciences Animal Science • Animal Technology Animal Technology: Horse Management Crop Production • Equine Science Horticulture • Profitable Small Farms Veterinary Assistant

linnbenton.edu/programs 14 — NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2017

http://extension.oregonstate.edu/benton


Hazelnut Acreage Increasing Rapidly If you’ve driven around Benton or Linn Counties recently – or anywhere in the Willamette Valley – you likely encountered a new hazelnut orchard somewhere in your travels. Hazelnut orchards in the Willamette Valley are hardly a new phenomenon, but there was a time not too long ago when the trend was going in the opposite direction, with orchards being removed due to Eastern Filbert Blight (EFB). The most prevalent hazelnut cultivar, ‘Barcelona,’ is moderately susceptible to EFB, but one of the most common pollenizers, ‘Daviana,’ is highly susceptible. Thanks to Dr. Shawn Mehlenbacher and the hazelnut breeding team at OSU, several EFBresistant pollenizers were released in 2002, and since then a half-dozen EFBresistant cultivars have been released for the kernel and in-shell markets. With the availability of EFB-resistant cultivars has come a wave of new planting that peaked with a little more than 9,000 acres planted in the

PHOTO BY LYNN KE KETCHUM K ETCHUM

By Jeff Choate

Aerial image indicates a first year hazelnut orchard (below) where last year was a grass seed field (above).

Willamette Valley from fall of 2015 through spring of 2016. According to the 2012 Census of Agriculture, there were about 37,000 acres of hazelnuts in Oregon. Unfortunately, the Census of Agriculture is only taken every 5 years, and 2017 data will not be available until early 2019. With thousands of acres being planted each year,

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the Hazelnut Marketing Board needed more frequent updates than just every five years in order to forecast yield, so they contracted with Michael McDaniel of Pacific Ag Survey to provide yearly updates. Michael uses aerial imagery to assess the acres of hazelnuts each year. There are currently 69,226 acres of hazelnuts within 10

western Oregon counties. Of that acreage, 28,854 acres are considered mature (11+ years), 8,757 acres are 6-10 years old, and 31,615 acres are 1-5 years old. In other words, an average of more than 6,000 acres of hazelnuts have been planted in Oregon each year for the past five years! On a more local level, Benton County has 3,820 acres of hazelnuts, and Linn County has 8,170 acres. The age breakdown is as follows: Benton, 622 acres mature (11+ years), 682 acres 6-10 years old, and 2,506 acres 1-5 years old; Linn, 1,643 acres mature (11+ years), 1,122 acres 6-10 years old, and 5,405 acres 1-5 years old. Perhaps you’re wondering how Michael can identify the age of hazelnuts from an aerial image. The answer is simple: he can’t! However, he can detect changes over time by comparing current year photos to previous year photos. For example, if last year’s photo shows a grass field and this year’s photo shows a new orchard, then the orchard is known to be in its first year.

Establishing Equitable Leases for Hazelnut Orchards Wednesday, November 29, 9 a.m. to noon, Lane County Extension Office, 996 Jefferson Street, Eugene. Clark Seavert, Professor of Applied Economics at OSU, will be the instructor for this class, which will include information on “AgBiz Logic,” – an interactive online version of the hazelnut Enterprise Budget that can be customized to each user’s specific circumstances. Please RSVP with Jeff Choate, preferably by email, jeff.choate@ oregonstate.edu, but phone is okay, too, 541-344-1709.

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PHOTO BY LAURIE GIBSON

Drop! Cover! Hold On! The Great Oregon Shake Out

Millions of people worldwide practiced how to Drop, Cover, and Hold On during the Great Shake Out Earthquake drills held on October 19, at 10:19 a.m. Why is it important to do a Drop, Cover, and Hold On drill? To react quickly you must practice often. You may only have seconds to protect yourself in an earthquake, before strong shaking knocks you down – or drops something on you. Practicing helps you be ready to respond. • If you are inside a building, move no more than a few steps, then Drop, Cover and Hold On: - DROP to the ground (before the earthquake drops you!), - Take COVER by getting under a sturdy desk or table, and - HOLD ON to it until the shaking stops. Stay indoors until the shaking stops and you are sure it is safe to exit. In most buildings in Oregon you are safer if you stay where you are until the shaking stops. • If you are outdoors when the shaking starts, you should find a clear spot away from buildings, trees, streetlights, and power lines, then Drop, Cover, and Hold On. Stay there until the shaking stops. • If you are driving, pull over to a clear location, stop, and stay there with your seatbelt fastened until the shaking stops. Once the shaking stops, proceed with caution and avoid bridges or ramps that might have been damaged.

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By Mitch Lies, GROWING Editor The Hazelnut Growers Bargaining Association announced last month it reached a minimum hazelnut price for the 2017 crop of 96.5 cents a pound. “The price is lower than probably the growers were expecting,” said Doug Olsen, president of the association. “But that is where the market came out, and it is a good place to start so we can move this crop.” Several factors combined to push the price below last year’s initial minimum of $1.18 a pound, including what grower-representative Terry Ross characterized as a “massive” Turkish crop. “The Turkish crop is up 150,000 to 200,000 tons to about 750,000 tons,” Ross said, “and their quality is really good. “Also, the Turkish lira continues to fall against the dollar,” he said, increasing the attractiveness of the Turkish crop to importers. Turkey leads the world in hazelnut production. Still, growers were looking for a higher minimum price, particularly because yields fell well below expectations. The USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service is projecting the 2017 Oregon crop at 36,000 tons, which is 20 percent below last year’s harvest of 44,000 tons. The yield decrease comes despite the fact acreage is up. Also, Ross said, the USDA estimate may be high. “As of today, we presume that may be optimistic,” he said.

PHOTO BY MITCH LIES

Several members of the OSU Linn County Extension staff took a few minutes out of their busy day to Drop, Cover, and Hold On, during the Great Oregon Shake Out on October 19, at 10:19.

Up-tick in World Supply Drops Hazelnut Price

Young hazelnut trees, like these, are sprouting up on thousands of acres across the Willamette Valley as growers increasingly look to diversify their crop mixture. The Hazelnut Growers Bargaining Association estimates that 75,000 acres are planted to hazelnuts in the valley, with 45,000 in production.

The association estimates the current hazelnut acreage in Oregon at 75,000 acres, with about 45,000 of those acres in production, up from 32,000 acres five years ago. Oregon grows just under 100 percent of the U.S. supply of hazelnuts. This year’s minimum price agreement came nearly a month later than last year’s, and was reached only after the association brought in a mediator to help reach an agreement. “What happened is there was a large disparity between packers on what the initial minimum price should be,” Ross said. The HGBA went through the numbers of supply and demand and determined that the right price was somewhere in between (the packer proposals), he said. The 96.5 cents a pound initial minimum falls well below the $1.70 a pound

initial minimum price of 2014, which stands as the highest ever initial minimum for field-run hazelnuts, but is an average price over the course of the past 15 years, Ross said. “If you run a 10- and a 15-year average, it is in the middle,” he said. “It is just a reality that Oregon has to live with in a worldwide supply and demand system,” Ross said. “Even though our crop is short, we are still only 3 to 4 percent of the world’s supply. “That is the disappointing part of it; that it is a shorter crop and a lower price,” Ross said. “The price, I think, is where it needs to be so we can move this crop and not have carryover into next year’s crop, which in theory, should be a larger crop,” Olsen said.

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Mid-Valley Residents Pitching In for Science Continued from Page 1 To date, Einerson said, 242 people have completed the Oregon Season Tracker training. Participants are asked to post precipitation reports daily. Plant phenology reports are posted once a week, except during winter months, when plants are largely dormant. Commitment for volunteers is minimal, Einerson said, involving less than five minutes a day for the precipitation reports and 15 minutes a week for plant observations. The program accommodates lapses in reporting, Einerson said, allowing participants to post multi-day reports if necessary. “If they are gone for vacation, they just report the total when they get back,” she said. “We don’t expect that they report every day, but we ask them to try to do it as often as possible.” In the plant phenology program, citizen scientists flag, or identify, one or two native species and track the plants’ developments over time. Their observations are reported through the National Phenology Network, Nature’s Notebook, which was established in 2007. The programs benefit both the scientific community and

the individual participants, said Brad Withrow-Robinson, forestry and natural resources Extension agent for Benton, Linn and Polk counties. “A lot of us think of ourselves as fairly tuned in on the seasons,” he said, “but when you are actually going out and paying very close attention to the plant stages, it is surprising how much more you notice. “I was surprised at how early a couple of plants came out,” Withrow-Robinson said. “I kind of knew they were early, but when I actually find out how early, I was shocked. I think a lot of our volunteers are enjoying discovering things like that.” “I find that in talking to people that one of the key things they like about the program is being involved in helping science,” Einerson said, “and they are enjoying getting a better understanding of what is happening in their yards, gardens and woodlands.” Data collected through the citizen science programs is available for anyone to see, Einerson said, and precipitation data posted by 9 a.m. shows up that same day on an online map that can be accessed through the network’s website, CoCoRaHS.

org. “It is really powerful in that just like the researchers, you can see what is happening,” Einerson said. One of the ideas behind starting Oregon Season Tracker was to push people to become more aware of their environment and how climate affects that, Einerson said. “The idea was that by getting people involved in watching weather and watching plant reactions that would create a greater awareness of what is going on around them, and how what happens with one affects the other,” she said. “It is also getting people involved in science, helping them understand that science is something that we all use, and that you can be comfortable with it,” she said. “The (identification and reporting) protocols are easy enough that you don’t have to have a science degree to do this. And they are contributing to the greater bank of knowledge out there. Researchers can’t be everywhere. Volunteers can cover a lot of places that researchers can’t be, and their data can be really important. It is a way to be contributing to the bank of science knowledge, and people like that.”

Several Science Projects Open to Volunteers By Mitch Lies, GROWING Editor In projects available through Oregon State University, citizen scientists are helping researchers accumulate data on native bee populations, on vegetable variety characteristics for breeding purposes, as well as on precipitation and plant phenology through Oregon Season Tracker. “There are a lot of different ways people can engage in citizen science,” said Brooke

Edmunds, Community Horticulture Extension agent for Linn and Benton counties. “There are the national projects, and there are the more homegrown projects, where we are trying to engage folks with individual research projects.” The data collected by citizen volunteers often provides vital information for research, Edmunds said. “In the (vegetable) variety evaluations, for example, if the citizen science volunteers weren’t collecting data, it may not get

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collected. They are definitely providing invaluable assistance to go out and walk and evaluate all of these varieties. And all of that is going to be turned into something that is going to be published and publicly available, which will be a great resource for gardeners in the state.” For more information on Citizen Science (In the Garden!), go to http://blogs.oregonstate. edu/gardencitizenscience/ or contact Edmunds at brooke. edmunds@oregonstate.edu.

Winterizing your Well Water System continued from Page 9 stick until you remove it. Bubble wrap can be used with the additional plastic covers. It is important to have some heat in the pump house such as a thermostat controlled baseboard heater, heat lamp, or other heat source. The temperature doesn’t need to be super warm, but enough to hold between 35 and 42 degrees at the minimum. Make sure all openings and doors are closed properly, keeping the heat in and the wind, which wicks the heat away, out. Insulation for a Well House Pump and Pipes Insulation of any type will help to slow the transfer of heat in the water to the surrounding air but spending a little extra for thick fiberglass or foam rubber sleeves specifically designed for this purpose is worth the cost. Covering your pipes with foam insulating sleeves will prevent freezing for a number of hours even in a power failure. Heat tapes are also available to wrap around pipes and use on the very coldest of nights to keep the pipes from freezing up. Tips for Inside Faucets Letting a faucet drip during extreme cold weather can prevent a pipe from bursting. It’s not that a small flow of water prevents freezing; this helps, but water can freeze even with a slow flow. Opening the faucet reduces pressure that builds between the faucet and an ice blockage. If there isn’t excessive water pressure, the chances of the pipe breaking is reduced even if it completely freezes. Yes, a dripping faucet wastes some water, so only pipes vulnerable to freezing (ones that run through an unheated or unprotected space) should be left with the water flowing. The drip can be very slight. Even the slowest drip at normal pressure will provide pressure relief when needed. Where both hot and cold lines serve a spigot, make sure each one contributes to the drip, since both are subjected to freezing. If the dripping stops, leave the faucet open, since a pipe may have frozen and will still need pressure relief. You can also help keep pipes from freezing by opening cabinet doors and letting warmer air into places, such as under the bathroom sink. If you do experience a frozen pump, pipes, or faucets, call a professional to help remedy the situation without damaging your water system.

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Benton County 4-H Youth Development

Share Your Favorite Food! The 4-H Favorite Foods Contest will be held on Saturday, January 20, from 10 a.m.-2 p.m. Any Benton County youth, ages 5-19, are invited to participate in this fun event! 4-H enrollment is not required to participate. Each participant brings one food item that they made at home. They also bring a place setting for one person (with a centerpiece), the recipe for the food item and a menu for the meal. A friendly judge will visit with the participant and evaluate them on their knowledge of nutrition, the table setting, centerpiece, and taste of the food. Contact the OSU Benton County Extension office to register 541-766-6750.

Benton 4-H Enrollment Oregon 4-H enrolls youth based upon their age as of September 1, 2017: • 5-8 year olds are Cloverbuds • 9-11 year olds are Juniors • 12-14 year olds are Intermediates • 15-19* year olds are Seniors (*Students who are 19 on 9/1 and have not yet graduated from high school may participate in the upcoming 4-H program year.) The annual enrollment fee before January 15, 2018, is $25 for ages 9-19 for the first 2 family members (the 3rd & additional family members will be $7 each) and $7 for ages 5-8. After January 15, the cost will increase to $30 per member, for the first 2 family members (the

PHOTO BY NATIONAL 4-H COUNCIL

PHOTO BY BENTON COUNTY 4-H

4-H Member participates in a past favorite foods contest.

Maggie Livesay 541-766-3550 maggie.livesay@ oregonstate.edu

Carolyn Ashton 541-766-3555 carolyn.ashton@ oregonstate.edu

Youth conducting a 4-H club meeting.

3rd & additional family members will be $10 each). Completed enrollment forms are due with payment by January

15. Enrollment forms are available to print from our website and available in our office.

Benton County and Linn County Extension programs may offer opportunities that are only open to the residents of their respective counties. Please check with your county Extension Office if you have any questions about participation eligibility for specific programs. 18 — NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2017

http://extension.oregonstate.edu/benton


PHOTO BY BENTON COUNTY 4-H

A 4-H Teen Teacher educates a participant about baking.

SALE!

Teens As Teachers –

Now Accepting Applications Apply now! This program is for youth in grades 9-12, who are interested in receiving training on how to teach elementary-aged youth about nutrition, exercise, and environmental health related topics. Teens will learn how to create and teach lesson plans while gaining leadership, public speaking, facilitation skills, confidence, and team building. Teens who are interested are encouraged to complete an

application (due by November 9) and attend training on Saturday, December 2, from 9 a.m.-2 p.m. at the Benton County OSU Extension Office. If selected to participate in the program, team members will be given additional subject matter training in nutrition, exercise, and environmental health related topics. Applications can be found on-line at: http://extension.oregonstate.edu/ benton/4h.

Ecology Field Cards Exploring Habitats of the Willamette Valley, Oregon

Are you looking for a durable, scientifically accurate, graphically rich educational product? The Ecology Field Cards developed by Oregon State University Extension Service, Benton County offer educator’s a new field ready product to use with students in and out of the classroom!

To Order Contact: Benton County OSU Extension Service 4077 SW Research Way Corvallis, OR 97333, 541-766-6750 http://extension.oregonstate.edu/benton/

Members with Special Needs All youth are welcome in 4-H. Clubs are encouraged to invite youth with disabilities into their groups, enriching the lives of all the youth involved. If you have members in your 4-H club with disabilities or special needs who require special accommodations for participation in 4-H activities, please contact the OSU Benton County Extension Service at 541766-6750 well in advance of any activity. Our goal is to reach all youth who wish to participate in 4-H.

Adult Volunteers Wanted The Benton County 4-H Program is actively looking for adults who want to share their time and talents with youth, aged 5-19. Are you interested in making a positive impact on youth? Do you have an expertise that you want to share? Do you want to learn new skills? Volunteers will receive training, support from OSU faculty and staff, and from other 4-H volunteer leaders, as well as access to project and resource books and materials. If you are interested in volunteering with the Benton County 4-H Program, please contact our office for more information. Our next training will be on Wednesday, November 29, 6-8:30 p.m.

Benton County 4-H Scholarships Card Sets Each set illustrates and describes 50 organisms (plants, fungi, birds, mammals, reptiles and amphibians) commonly found in a particular habitat type. An educator’s guide accompanies each set and includes activities and locations appropriate for field study, key terms for plant identification, glossary of terms, and supplemental materials. Sets include: Douglas-fir Forests, Oak Woodlands, Riparian Bottomland Forests, Wetland/Wet Prairies, and Upland Prairies. On Sale until December 31, 2017 for $30/set

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Sample Ecology Field Card—Oak Woodlands Set

There are more than nine Benton County 4-H scholarships totaling $14,500 available to current Benton County 4-H members in 12th grade. All graduating seniors are eligible to apply. Applications are due January 15, to the OSU Extension office Benton County (except the Horse Leaders Scholarship, which is due April 15). For more information, visit http:// extension.oregonstate.edu/benton/forms Scholarship Donors: • Moos Family – In Memory of Steve Moos • Decker Family • Hitchcock Family • Bateman Family and • Benton County 4-H Horse Project Leaders Committee NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2017 —

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Linn County 4-H Youth Development

Robin Galloway 541-730-3469 robin.galloway@ oregonstate.edu

Andrea Leao 541-730-3534 andrea.leao@ oregonstate.edu

4-H Seeking Adult Volunteers

4-H Open House Linn County 4-H held an open house event on October 5th during National 4-H Week. Linn County Youth Leadership Team members and adult 4-H volunteers brought samples of projects, and project animals, and talked to prospective new leaders and members about getting involved. Families learned about the range of 4-H topics available to youth ages 9-19.

4-H Science News What is NEW in 4-H Science? 4-Hers can rock some geology! The Oregon 4-H Earth Science Leader guide has been revised and updated. This 115-page guide to hands-on geology learning can be downloaded at no charge by visiting http://oregon.4h. oregonstate.edu/projects/natural-science/geology. There are 9 chapters that help learners discover Oregon’s geologic history and processes from the Wallowa Mountains to the Klamath Mountains. At the bottom of the web page is a link called Enrichment Resources for Members and Leaders. This link takes you to a page with links to resources supporting each chapter of the guide. These include maps, handouts, videos and E-Learning modules. Check it out and learn about Oregon’s amazing geology. For more information, contact Virginia Bourdeau at Virginia. bourdeau@oregonstate.edu.

Benton County and Linn County Extension programs may offer opportunities that are only open to the residents of their respective counties. Please check with your county Extension Office if you have any questions about participation eligibility for specific programs. 20 — NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2017

As a program educator, the new 4-H year brings excitement to see all the new projects and faces. But with that excitement there is also stress and anxiety. Each year the Linn County 4-H program has to turn away potential new members to the 4-H program because we don’t have enough volunteers. 4-H is the largest out-ofschool youth program in the United States. There are more than 6 million 4-H members nationwide, and thousands of young people participate in Oregon 4-H each year. Through 4-H,

young people learn and grow in partnership with caring adults to develop the skills and confidence needed to become contributing, productive, self-directed members of society. Because 4-H uses an active, learnby-doing approach, young people see how their actions make a difference in the lives of others and the world around them. Without more adult volunteers, we are missing the chance to give these young people the opportunity to experience such an amazing organization. Are you interested in

making a positive impact on youth? Do you have some skills that you would like to share? Volunteers receive training, support from OSU faculty and staff and from other volunteers. We also provide project resources that include books and materials. 4-H isn’t just about animals and the county fair; there are leadership, science, art projects as well. If you are interested in becoming a volunteer, please contact JoLynn or Andrea at the Linn County Extension Office 541-967-3871.

Paint Nite Fundraiser for Linn County 4-H Bring your friends and support Linn County 4-H at this fun event. Everyone 15 years and older are invited to participate in this fun evening. We will be providing yummy snack foods, nonalcoholic drinks, and all the painting materials needed to create a unique, fun painting. An artist will be there to help us to complete this beautiful painting. What: Fundraiser for Linn County 4-H Association Join Us: Thursday, December 7, at 6:30 p.m. at the Linn County Fair & Expo Center Cost: $45 Pre-Registration is required. The link to learn more and register for the event: https://www.paintnite.com/events/ peace-on-earth-at-linn-county-fair-expocenter-10024419 This is the painting that we will be doing at the 4-H paint night fundraiser. Don’t miss out on the fun!

http://extension.oregonstate.edu/benton


Oregon ATV Safety Youth Rider Endorsement Program helps youth get certified included: an appropriately sized ATV in good running condition, and wearing personal protective equipment. All students reviewed safe, smart, and ethical ATV riding and showed that they knew the riding range rules and range hand signals before they fired up their quads for the test. During the hands-on test the Instructor verified physical riding skills through evaluation of their ability to: start, stop and turn quickly, weave, perform evasive moves and traverse obstacles. Mental and physical riding skills were evaluated using an OASYREP satisfactory/ non-satisfactory scoring system.

PHOTOS BY DAVID WHITE

The Oregon ATV Safety Youth Rider Endorsement Program (http:// oregonatvsafety.com/ ) plays an integral role in helping young (6-15 years old) ATV (4 wheeler and Side by Side) riders get endorsed so they can have fun and stay safe while riding on Oregon public lands. Classes allow youth riders to learn or demonstrate safe mental and physical riding skills. These young riders had taken an on-line class (www. rideatvoregon.org) and obtained their ATV Safety Education Card. For the hands-on safety certification class, there was a list of qualifications. These

Youths learn about and demonstrate safe riding practices on their ATVs at recent endorsement classes.

Local businesses support youth at 4-H & FFA Youth Livestock Auction As the new 4-H year begins, we would like to take the opportunity to thank the Linn County Youth Livestock Auction volunteers for putting on an outstanding event for the 4-H and FFA youth of the Linn County. This volunteer group works effortlessly to recruit supporters to the auction, organize the event,

and to make sure in the end all of the youth experience a high quality event to sell their projects. The auction would not be successful without the amazing businesses and supporters that come and spend their hard earned money supporting the youth. Some of the top buyers at the 2017 auction include; Rick

Franklin Corporation, Crop Production Services, Albany Eastern Railroad, Advanced Mechanical, Knife River, Linn Vet Hospital, Ram Trucking, and Stahlbush Island Farms. For a complete list of 2017 supporters, and to learn more about the Linn County Youth Auction, please visit www.lcyla.com.

Linn 4-H Enrollment Oregon 4-H enrolls youth based upon their age as of September 1, 2017: • 5-8 year olds are Cloverbuds • 9-11 year olds are Juniors • 12-14 year olds are Intermediates • 15-19* year olds are Seniors (*Students who are 19 on 9/1 and have not yet graduated from high school may participate in upcoming 4-H program year.) The annual enrollment fee before January 31, 2018, is $25 for ages 9-19 for the first 2 family members (the 3rd & additional family members will have no charge) and $7 for ages 5-8. Contact the Extension Office for more information, 541-967-3871.

Country Living Close to Town Sitting on just over 2 acres, this beautiful home is perfect for 4H projects or a small ranchette! 4 bed, 2.5 baths, 2529 sq ft with a large deck perfect for enjoying the outdoors. Also features a finished hog house, chicken coop, play house, and tree house. WVMLS# 722359

$425,000

http://extension.oregonstate.edu/linn

405 Landmark Drive, Philomath, OR 97370 landmarkrealtyoregon.com (541) 929-2586 • 800-346-0630 Big enough to handle all your needs, small enough to care

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• Make sure free-standing ranges and stoves are installed with anti-tip brackets.

Gardener volunteers, teaching classes, monitoring the Clackamas County speakers bureau and, most of all, answering hundreds of questions – 2,200 since she started a little over a year ago – in Ask an Expert, an online question and answer service through Extension. “I can stay home in my jammies,” she said. “I don’t have to drive. I can answer questions from all over the world. It’s wonderful because I get to learn all this, too. Like an insect that lives in Mozambique or India or Norway. I’ve found my niche. I can’t think of a better way to spend my time.” LaMar makes a good point. Master Gardeners don’t stop learning after finishing the course. When they can’t immediately diagnose and solve a problem, they turn to the wealth of research from OSU, other universities and reputable sources. The breadth of activities Master Gardeners do for volunteer hours is wide. Some answer questions via email or phone hotlines, Langellotto said. Others spend time teaching in learning gardens, community gardens, even correctional institutions. Cary, a Master Gardener

Consumers can visit their local home improvement store to purchase anti-tip devices. An online search for “anti-tip strap” or “anti-tip kit” will result in a variety of purchase options. Install the anti-tip devices according to manufacturer instructions, and always double check the attachment points to make sure the device is secure. https://www.anchorit.gov/ PHOTO PROVIDED BY CALAPOOIA WATERSHED COUNCIL

These kids got the unique opportunity to experience Salmon Watch. Our area is one of the only places in the world where people can see wild salmon in their natural life cycle: going from their birthplace in a creek or stream, out to the ocean, then returning to the exact spot years later to spawn and die.

Linn-Benton Salmon Watch Getting children to rivers to practice hands-on science can be a life changing event. Our area is one of the only places in the world where people can see wild salmon in their natural life cycle: going from their birthplace in a creek or stream, out to the ocean, then returning to the exact spot years later to spawn and die. In Linn County, the Calapooia Watershed Council coordinates a youth outreach program called Salmon Watch. This year almost 1100 Linn County students participated, with the guidance of almost 200 volunteer instructors and parent chaperones. They got hands-on science at Northside Park in Sweet Home, and Waterloo Park near Lebanon. In Benton County, the Benton Soil & Water Conservation District organizes field trips at Clemens Park, on the Alsea River. Teachers prepare the students with in-class background information then the 5th or 6th graders take a field trip to a river when salmon are spawning. The students participate in four activities: water quality testing, aquatic macroinvertebrate collection and identification, riparian area study and fish biology.

since 2013, works in a preschool that’s next door to a food bank where she volunteered. “They jumped on it,” she said. For an hour a week for 18 weeks, Cary spends time with 3 and 4 year olds, reading books, germinating seeds, planting, watering and harvesting. A tomato taste test is always a winner. “It’s fun, so fun,” she said. “The little kids are really engaged and we get positive feedback from the parents. We use it as a carrot for good behavior and it works.” You don’t have to be an experienced gardener to sign up for the classes. In fact, many people join to learn more about their own garden. LaMar, who was a judge in Portland for 25 years, grew houseplants and container plants. Cary was too busy during her career days to garden, but once she retired and moved from Orange County, California, to Brookings she got busy. Both said being a Master Gardener has helped enormously. While Cary took the class in person, LaMar took the online course – a new option – and recommends it to people who can’t make it to classes. “Master Gardeners tend to be retired,” she said.

“I’d like to see more young people get involved and the online course offers that flexibility.” The OSU Extension LinnBenton Master Gardener Program is NOW Accepting Applications! The application period for the 2018 Master Gardener program is now open and ENDS December 1. There will be mandatory orientation dates for all applicants during the second week of December. The classroom portion of the MG program will run for 9 consecutive weeks on Thursdays, 8:30 a.m. to 4 p.m., beginning January 25 and ending March 22 in Tangent, OR. In addition, applicants must be willing to access online training modules and attend several workshops during the growing season. For applications and more information, please contact: Pami Monnette Linn-Benton Master Gardener Program Coordinator Linn Phone: 541-967-3871; Benton Phone: 541-766-6750 E-mail: pamela.monnette@ oregonstate.edu.

Thinking about an orchard, planning to plant a berryy bbatch? It’s time to order bare root for next season. Take advantage of our pre-order der pricing and our best selection of the season; order by November 30th. 6600 SW Philomath Blvd, Corvallis 541-929-3524 | www.shonnards.com

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Open 7 days

LCB 5718 http://extension.oregonstate.edu/benton


Calendar of Events for Linn and Benton Counties 9

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Mason Bee Cocoon Cleaning Workshop, 10 a.m. to noon, Linn County Extension Office

Linn/Benton Master Gardener Awards and Graduation Luncheon, 12pm-3pm, Historic Old School Café, Corvallis

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Living on the Land Series, Weed Management, 6-8 p.m., Lane County, for additional information, go to the website: http://bit.ly/LaneSmallFarms. Preregistration required.

4-H International Exchange - Outbound Applications due, to the State 4-H International Program Office, Ballard Hall, 541-737-1303

Benton County 4-H New Leader/ Volunteer Training, 6-8:30 p.m., Benton County Extension Office Benton County 4-H Horse Bowl Contest, 6-9 p.m., Benton County Extension Office

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Benton County 4-H Teens as Teachers applications due, Benton County Extension Office

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Linn and Benton County Extension Offices closed for Veteran’s Day

November 2017 2

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4-H Wildlife Steward Educator Professional Development Workshop, Artist & Scientist; Nature from Two Perspectives, 9 a.m.-3 p.m., Finley Wildlife Refuge Benton County 4-H Awards Banquet, 6-8 p.m., Benton County Fairgrounds Auditorium

14-16 Willamette Valley Agriculture Expo, Linn County Fair and Expo Center 15

December 2017 2

Benton County 4-H Teens as Teachers Training, 9 a.m.-2 p.m., Benton County Extension Office

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Benton County 4-H County, State & National Scholarship & Awards Workshop, 6-8 p.m., Benton County Extension Office

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Linn and Benton County Extension Offices closed for Christmas

Oregon Season Tracker Training, 6-8 p.m., Linn County Extension Office

23-24 Linn and Benton County Extension Offices closed for Thanksgiving

Statewide Outdoor School program is up and running with new OSU leader and funding process By Gail Wells The new statewide Outdoor School program, approved by Oregon voters last November, has a new leader and a new pipeline for funds to flow to school districts and education service districts to pay for youth outdoor education programs. The new program will provide at least three consecutive days of outdoor education to Oregon’s fifthor sixth-graders as part of their school experience, said Kristopher Elliott, a science educator who was hired by Oregon State University Extension to lead the program. An Outdoor School may run as long as six days and may include overnight stays. Last November, voters approved Ballot Measure 99, designating funding for Outdoor School programming for school districts and

education service districts (ESDs) to serve fifth- or sixthgrade students in Oregon. The 2015 legislature had already charged OSU Extension with administering the statewide program when funding became available. In July of 2017 the legislature approved $24 million for the program’s first two years. Elliott, who holds a doctorate in science education from Oregon State University, said his fifthgrade outdoor education experience was a pivotal influence in his life. “I was from a small town in the Sacramento Valley, and I had the opportunity to spend five days on the northern California coast,” he said. “We took night hikes through the redwood forests. I experienced a tide pool for the first time, and I learned the names of the organisms that lived in it. I want every young person to have that kind of experience.”

http://extension.oregonstate.edu/linn

Outdoor educational experiences were common for Oregon’s middle-schoolers in the 1960s and ‘70s, but recession-related funding cuts and property tax limitation measures forced many school districts to reduce or cut their outdoor programs. “Our task now is to support, to the maximum extent possible, all school districts and education service districts that would like to provide Outdoor School programs for the 201718 school year,” said Elliott. The funding process, outlined on the Outdoor School website, requires two steps, Elliott explained. First, school districts and ESDs must enter into an intergovernmental “master agreement” with Oregon State University. Many districts have already completed their master agreements; those that haven’t may request

the forms by emailing odsaccounting@oregonstate. edu. Once the master agreement is complete, a funding application must be submitted. These will be made available by the first week in October to districts that have completed their master agreements. Districts must submit funding applications by Nov. 14. OSU Extension will review applications and notify districts of funding by December. School districts and ESDs are free to design their own outdoor curriculum, Elliott said, as long as the instruction meets the educational goals set forth in the 2015 legislation. “We know some districts may not have a lot of experience in developing outdoor education,” he said. “During the first year, we’ll try to connect these districts with others that have more-established programs.

The Outdoor School team will continue to deliver more resources as we fully implement the program.” Elliott received his bachelor’s and master’s degrees from Cal Poly. He has been a high school agriculture teacher and advisor to FFA chapters. Most recently he directed STEM (science, technology, engineering and math) education programs in the Nashville, Tennessee public schools. OSU Extension is developing Outdoor School’s administrative structure and fund-distribution mechanism with help from a diverse advisory committee that includes the Gray Family Foundation, Straub Environmental Center, Women for Agriculture, Oregon Forest Resources Institute, school districts, interested citizens and other community partners. Source: Kristopher Elliott

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Assisted Living at Quail Run Set on 275 scenic acres with lakes, meadows, oak groves, and views of the Cascade Mountains, Mennonite Village is an inclusive community of amazing people. Quail Run at Mennonite Village is Albany’s only not-for-profit assisted living facility. The building is specially designed to accommodate the changing needs of its residents over time. Spacious studio and one-bedroom suites with kitchenettes combine convenience and comfort with 24-hour availability of personal assistance and support. Mennonite Village and its employees foster the respect, care, dignity, and worth of every resident by providing freedom of choice and opportunities for physical, intellectual, emotional, and spiritual growth. Each apartment offers generous amenities and services: • Three farm-fresh meals served daily, from 7 AM to 6 PM • Private dining rooms available for family dining • Weekly housekeeping and linen service • Utilities, including cable television and air conditioning • Pull-cord call system and other optional call systems • Ample closet and storage space • A variety of daily wellness and social activities, both on and off campus • Scheduled bus service within Albany city limits • Laundry room for personal use • Whirlpool bathing options • Full-service salon and nail care options Mennonite Village is an“open campus”that welcomes new residents to all areas of our Village. You do not need to start in independent living. Should a need arise for additional health services, they’re available on campus, and you’ll pay only for the services you use. Mennonite Village is proud to be a smoke-free, tobacco-free community. Mennonite Village is subject to the federal Fair Housing Act, which prohibits any preference, limitation, or discrimination because of race, color, religion, sex, handicap, familial status, or national origin, or intention to make such a preference, limitation, or discrimination.

Mennonite Village Assisted Living 2525 47th Ave. S.E., Albany, OR 541-928-1122 www.mennonitevillage.org www.facebook.com/mennonitevillage

OSU Growing November-December 2017  
OSU Growing November-December 2017