Simply Cereal A P U B L I C A T I O N D E D I C A T E D T O B R E A K F A S T C E R E A L April 2010
Which Cereal Reigns Supreme? A SURVEY OF EAST STUDENTS SHEDS LIGHT ON THE DEBATE BETWEEN KELLOGG’S AND GENERAL MILLS
ALSO IN THIS ISSUE BRAND NAME VS GENERIC CEREAL WHAT’S YOUR FAVORITE CEREAL? HEALTH CEREAL CEREAL RECIPES AND MORE
History Kellogg’s is, and always has been, “The Original” when it comes to cereal. Will Keith (W.K.) Kellogg, along with his brother Dr John Harvey Kellogg, invented flaked cereal, and entered the cereal business in 1906. Their first product was Corn Flakes, which used only the corn grit, or “sweet heart of the corn”, instead of the whole corn. To distinguish Corn Flakes from the products of the other 42 cereal companies in Battle Creek, Michigan, Kellogg put his signature on each package. This let the customer know that Kellogg’s Corn Flakes were “The Original”, and became the logo for the Kellogg’s company. By the 1920’s, Kellogg was exporting cereal to England, Australia and Canada. Kellogg introduced ready-to-eat cereals in individual servings; an idea still used in the industry. In 1927, Kellogg’s introduced Rice Krispies, a popular cereal today. During the great depression in the 1930’s, Kellogg decided that instead of cutting back, he should spend more money. He doubled his advertising spending, and Kellogg cereal sales increased. Throughout it’s history Kellogg’s has been used by famous people on journeys. In the late 30’s Adm. Richard E Byrd’s expedition to the South Pole was equipped with a two-year supply of Kellogg’s cereals. During WWII Kellogg’s provided Krations for U.S. armed forces, and had their new recipe, Rice Krispie Treats, mailed to service people all over the world. In 1969 Kellogg’s even went into outer-space as part of the breakfast packs for Apollo 11 astronauts. On October 6, 1951, W.K. Kellogg died at age 91. His body remained in the main lobby of the company office building for three days so that the hundreds of workers along with Battle Creek residents could pay their respects. The rest of the 1950’s saw the introduction of some of the better known cereals today, including: Corn Pops, Frosted Flakes, Honey Smacks, Special K and Cocoa Krispies. The 1960’s also saw a big production of new products, which included: Froot Loops, Apple Jacks, Frosted Mini-Wheats, Bran Buds, Product 19 (the first 100-percent fortified cereal created for consumers), and Pop-Tarts. In the 1970’s Kellogg’s began to shift its focus toward more health conscious products, and introduced labels on the sides of their packages with nutritional information. Up through the 1990’s Kellogg’s continued to expand, adding Eggo, factory production of Rice Krispies Treats, and nutrition bars. Kellogg’s remains the number one selling cereal company today, beating out General Mills and Post.
General Mills isn’t your average flour company. General Mills got its start in 1866 when Cadwallader Washburn, owner of the Minneapolis Milling Company, opened the first flour mill in Minneapolis. Eleven years later in 1877, John Crosby enters into partnership with Washburn, renaming the company the Washburn Crosby Company. After winning a gold medal at the first international Miller’s Exhibition, Washburn Crosby created the Gold Medal Brand in 1880. By 1921 James S Bell had taken leadership of Washburn Crosby and Betty Crocker was created. In 1924, Crosby Washburn’s first cereal was made: Wheaties. The cereal was created when in 1922, as a result of an accidental spill of wheat bran mixture onto a stove by a worker. By November 1924, the process for creating the flakes had been perfected, and the cereal was named Wheaties, a name picked by an employee that won a naming contest. 1928 was the year that Crosby Washburn merged with several other regional millers to become General Mills. Soon after, in 1931, Bisquick, the first baking mix, is introduced. Ten years later, another major product of General Mills is created: Cheerioats, later to be known as Cheerios in 1946. The technology that helped to create Cheerios was made by General Mills engineer Thomas R. James. He created a puffing gun, which inflates or distorts cereal pieces into puffed up shapes. The technology was first used in 1937 to create Kix cereal, then in 1941 to create Cheerioats. Cheerioats was renamed because of a dispute with Quaker Oats, another company that is known for Oatmeal and the Captain Crunch cereal. Trix cereal was introduced in 1954 as a presweetened, fruit flavored, cereal shaped in round pieces. The Trix Rabbit debuted in a 1954 television commercial. In 1992 the round balls shape for the cereal was replaced with fruit-shaped pieces, and in 2007 the round ball shape was used again. Another famous kids’ cereal was created in 1964. Lucky Charms, a cereal with 25 percent marshmallows and 75 percent oat-based pieces. Lucky, the leprechaun mascot, was used for commercials since the creation of the cereal. In 1962, General Mills went into space aboard the Mercury capsule Aurora 7. General Mills had created the first solid space food, small food cubes developed by Pillsbury’s (A branch of the General Mills Company) research and development department. This food included non-crumbling cake, relish the could be served in slices and meat that did not need refrigeration. General Mills is the second leading cereal brand today, behind Kellogg’s and ahead of Post.
TIMELINE OF CEREAL CREATION
GM= Blue Kellogg’s= Red
Generic Vs. Brand Name Everyone knows Captain Crunch, Cinnamon Toast Crunch and Froot Loops, but what about Berry Colossal Crunch, Cinni Mini Crunch or Tootie Fruites? The latter three are generic or store brand cereals, which provides the buyer with a lower price and a guarantee that the consumer cannot taste the difference. Is this true, or are these just empty promises put on the box to get someone to buy the cheaper generic brand? We put them to the test.
Berry Colossal Crunch 120 1.5g
Captain Crunch’s Crunch Berries Vs. Berry Colossal Crunch The first matchup is between Quaker brand Crunch Berries and 74 cent cheaper (per pound) Malt-O-Meal brand Berry Colossal Crunch. The Malt-O-Meal box looks almost identical to the Captain Crunch, with a yellow box and a spoonful of the cereal in the center. The cereal itself looks the same, with the cereal bits being the same size and colors. If you aren’t very familiar with Captain Crunch, you might believe that Berry Colossal Crunch is the same. But a side-byside comparison tells a different story. Berry Colossal Crunch has absolutely no taste, except a weird aftertaste realized later on. Another thought on why to buy the generic brand is the nutritional difference. The box on the right shows that Crunch Berries have 15 less calories per serving, 1 less gram of sugar, and more fiber. Overall, the extra $.74 per pound is wholly worth it, as it has a better taste and it’s better for you.
Winner: Crunch Berries
26g 1g 1g 13g
Nutrition Calories Total Fat Total Carbs Dietary Fiber Protein Sugars
Captain Crunch 105 1.5g 22.1g .7g 1.1g 11.6g
Total Fat Total Carbs Dietary Fiber
Sugars Vitamin A
32% CinniMini Crunch 170 3.5g
130 1g 28.0g
Froot Loops vs Tootie Fruities The second matchup is also between a name brand, Kellogg’s Froot Loops, and a Malt-O-Meal brand, Tootie Fruities. Tootie Fruities is 87 cents less per pound, and like Berry Colossal Crunch, is a near copy-cat in box design compared to Froot Loops. When Tootie Fruities taste tested, the taste guarantee on the front of the box told no lies. The taste of Tootie Fruities was exactly the same as that of Froot Loops, and the cereal itself looked identical. The only other difference between the two was the nutritional values. In a one cup serving size, Froot Loops had twelve less calories, more vitamin A and C, and less sugar (see second box left). Altogether, though, Tootie Fruites is better because of its lower price and identical taste to the brand name Froot Loops.
Winner: Tootie Fruities
Cinnamon Toast Crunch VS Cinni Mini Crunch The last matchup is between a supermarket brand, Acme’s Cinni Mini Crunch and General Mills’ Cinnamon Toast Crunch. Because Cinni Mini Crunch is Acme’s brand, it is only available there, at about $2 less for the 17oz box. The taste of Cinni Mini Crunch is near the taste of Cinnamon Toast Crunch, but the crunch part of the cereal seems to be missing. The texture of the cereal in general is much different between the two products, and the Acme brand just looks less appetizing. The Acme brand is worse for you (see right), with 40 more calories per serving, and more fat and sugar. Though the Acme Cinni Mini Crunch costs less, it is worth it to spend more to get the real deal.
24g 1g 1g 10g 15% 10%
Winner: Cinnamon Toast Crunch
Nutrition Calories Total Fat Total Carbs Dietary Fiber Protein Sugars VitaminA VitaminC
Cinnamon Toast Crunch 130 2.8g 23.9g 1.1g 1.6g 9.9g 20% 12%
Thinking Outside the Bowl A different way to eat cereal
Cereal shouldn’t just be eaten out of a bowl with milk. There are many things that cereal can do, from spicing up a dish to taking a staring role as a breading. A handful of Cocoa Krispies, or any other chocolate cereal for that matter, spread on top of a batch of brownies can give them that crunchy goodness to go along with the brownies’ gooeyness. A few cups of ground Cheerios can make an excellent, and healthy, crust for a pie. Still not convinced? Check out these ideas for thinking outside the bowl when it comes to using breakfast cereal. Breakfast cereals can taste like candy, so why not use them like candy? For example, take a scoop of your favorite ice cream, in this example vanilla, and mix some Froot Loops, or Tootie Fruities, into the ice cream. Not only will it make the dessert look colorful but also so much more flavorful. Or, if you are in the mood for pie, make a peanut butter pie with a Reese’s Puff’s crust (see recipe insert). But the fun doesn’t stop at dessert. You can make all sorts of dinner specials with cereal. David Hoffman is the author of The Breakfast Cereal Gourmet, a cookbook that takes cereal like Cinnamon Toast Crunch and Lucky Charms and makes recipes like “Lucky Charmed Utah Lamb” and “Cap’n Crunch Crab Cakes”. Cereal like Corn Flakes can be made into a breading or coating for fried chicken or onion rings (my personal favorite). Eating cereal with little kids can be much more fun that making Cheerio necklaces. Try making a baked Macaroni and Cheese with a crushed Cheerio topping instead. Just top the Mac and Cheese with the Cheerios right before you put it in the oven. If you’re running low on time, make a trail mix out of Raisin Bran Crunch, Chex and Wheaties. Or you can take a bag of popcorn and add your favorite cereal. The possibilities are endless. There are many things you can do with cereal that are much better than just adding milk. Cereal can be made at any time, not just for breakfast. Try using cereal as a breading or simply as a topping for brownies or ice cream. Just remember to think outside of the bowl. Photo (Above): Courtesy of Bryan Sheehan
Reese’s Peanut Butter Pie What You’ll Need: Crust: 1c Crushed Reese’s Puffs 1tbsp Sugar ¼ C Softened Butter 1 Egg yolk, slightly beaten
A different reason to eat cereal
Today’s society has drawn a big focus on health and nutrition. To keep up with this new focus, breakfast cereals have adapted from mostly sugary kids cereals with animal mascots to more serious, healthy options. Some cereals have become less about the fun and more about the nutrition. Probably the best known “health cereal” is Cheerios. Cheerios’ main health claim is that it is heart Filling healthy. This is due to its one gram of soluble fiber per cup. According to the AHA (American Heart 3oz Cream Cheese 1 Association), soluble fiber has been associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. The /3C Peanut Butter recommended daily value for soluble fiber to be most effective is three grams per day, which can also be gotten 8oz Cool Whip from beans, peas, oat bran and barley. 1c 4x Sugar Another aspect of health cereal is fiber content. A daily recommended value of dietary fiber is between 25 and 30 grams. Some cereals, like General Mills’ Fiber One, offer up to 57 percent (14 grams) of Recipe: the daily value in one serving. Other cereals that are high in fiber include Post’s Shredded Wheat (6 grams per 1. Mix ingredients for crust serving), Kashi Go Lean Crunch (8 grams per serving) and bran cereals like Kellogg’s Raisin Bran and Raisin together and spread it evenly in a Bran Crunch (11.8 grams and 7.5 grams respectively). greased pie tin. Chill for 1 hour. Even cereals known mostly for being sugary kids’ cereals have made a push to include fiber. 2. Mix ingredients for filling Kellogg’s Apple Jacks for example, have three grams of fiber per one cup serving. General Mill’s “Breakfast well. Pour into crust. of Champions”, Wheaties, also offers three grams of fiber per serving. Many General Mills and Kellogg’s 3. Chill for at least 4 hours cereals offer between .6 and 3 grams of fiber per serving. before serving. But just how important is health when it comes to cereal? In a survey of 50 Cherry Hill East High School students, participants had to rank factors in importance from one to five, one being the most important in deciding on a cereal. The five categories were: box/ cereal design; brand; health/ nutrition; price; and taste. Health/nutrition was ranked as one or two in 48 percent of the surveys, and the average rating was a 2.64. Another piece of data from the survey showed that 58 percent of the participants eat cereal so that they can “have a breakfast”. Many studies suggest that having a breakfast increases performance in school. A 2001 study conducted by the Group of Analysis for Development (GRADE) in Lima, Peru, compared the cognition and learning skills between students that had been fed breakfast and those who had not. According to GRADE, the students who had eaten breakfast had better learning and cognition skills, and suggest that eating breakfast can lead to improved capacity for active learning, better short term memory, and even better school attendance because of better health. Cereal has many nutritional benefits. From fiber and vitamin content to helping to increase performance in school, cereal has become a great option for a healthy breakfast. Photo from clker.com
The Battle Of the Cereal Giants Round 1:
Battle of the brands
Kellogg’s and General Mills are the two giants of the cereal business. Together they make up GM 46% over 65 percent of the market in terms of sales. But which giant reigns supreme? According to market share data from the tracking firm Information Resources, Kellogg’s makes up 34 percent of the market Kelloggs while General Mills is three percent behind at 31 percent of the cold-cereal market. Sales is not the only thing, though, 36% In a survey of 50 Cherry Hill East High School students, participants were asked to specify Other which cereal brand was their favorite. Unlike in the market data, General Mills was the favorite with 46 18% percent, 10 percent more than Kellogg’s. The other 18 percent was made up of Post, Kashi, Quaker and students who had no preference. (see graph). General Mills may be the top choice because of the focus on taste. 78 percent (18 out of 23) of those who preferred General Mills over Kellogg’s said that taste was the most important factor in deciding on a cereal. Eric Kessler (’12), who eats cereal more than ten times a week, said in an online interview, “I prefer General Mills because of their big variety and because of the taste. [General Mills] has a much better taste than Kellogg’s in general.” Kellogg’s has a similar following for those seeking great taste, with 66 percent (12 of 18) of those who prefer Kellogg’s saying that they care the most about taste. “I like Kellogg's over General Mills because the cereal is sweeter, and General Mills is healthier. I don't eat cereal for breakfast. More as a snack or treat, so I prefer the sweet fix over the health food in that case.” Emily Bevington (’13) said in an over-the-phone interview. In the end, General Mills is preferred 10 percent more by East students according to the survey. That’s enough to declare the winner of this round General Mills.
Round 2: Favorite overall cereal
Everyone has a favorite. Whether it be a favorite sports team, favorite place or favorite food. Cereal is no exception. People like cereal for different reasons. Some eat cereal because of its health benefits while some only care about taste. Some people have a favorite cereal because it is the cereal they have always eaten. A recent survey of Cherry Hill East High School students asks the participant to name their favorite cereal. The most popular cereal was General Mills Cinnamon Toast Crunch with 12 percent of people listing them as their favorite. Tied for second were Post’s Honey Bunches of Oats and Quaker’s Captain Crunch with 10 percent, and tied for third were Kellogg’s Frosted Flakes and General Mills’ Lucky Charms with 8 percent. Possibly the most interesting fact pertains to people who said they preferred Kellogg’s over General Mills. 55 percent (10 out of 18) of these people picked other cereal brands as their favorites. Eight people picked General Mills’ cereals, and two picked Quaker cereals (Captain Crunch). People who preferred General Mills were more loyal to the brand, with about 56 percent (13 of 23) sticking with a General Mills cereal as their favorite. Post was a surprise finisher, as it took 10 percent with varieties of Honey Bunches of Oats, and another 2 percent with Fruity Pebbles. Similar to this was Quaker with varieties of Captain Crunch, which also took 10 percent of the votes. Some people like General Mills, others like Kellogg’s or Post. Based on the results of this survey, having a favorite brand does not necessarily dictate what your favorite cereal is. Because General Mills had the most popular cereal, Cinnamon Toast Crunch, they are the clear winner for this round. Photo(right) from: Clipartof.com
Scorecard: Round 1: General Mills Round 2: General Mills Round 3: Kellogg’s Winner: General Mills
Round 3: Mascot Battle Royale
Imagine you’re walking and all of a sudden you see a tiger, a vampire, a leprechaun with magical powers and an insane bird right in front of you. No, you haven’t stumbled into a scary forest; you’re in the cereal aisle. When you think about it, the mascots that represent the cereals we all love are pretty ferocious. Take Tony the Tiger for example. He’s a talking Tiger that is smart enough to play sports with little kids! He could rip one of those kids in half and eat them in a heartbeat. But could the mascots from Kellogg’s take down Count Chocula and his crew? In this article there will be three matchups: Tony the Tiger vs. the Count; Snap, Crackle and Pop vs. Lucky the Leprechaun and the Trix Rabbit; and Dig ‘Em the Sugar Smacks frog vs. Sonny the Cocoa Puffs bird. Matchup 1: Tony the Tiger (Kellogg’s) vs. Count Chocula (General Mills) A tiger fighting a vampire: sounds like the newest teen romance novel. But in reality, this would be the most amazing fight ever to be seen. Assuming that Tony is a Bengal Tiger, which has an average height of about 10 feet and an average weight of 550 pounds, he is definitely a big bad cat. Count Chocula, being a crazy vampire, would only need one good shot at Tony to win in the fight. But, judging by Tony’s uppercut he proudly displays in each commercial, he would be able to fend the Count off. The winner of this fight would be Tony, but not by much. Matchup 2: Snap, Crackle and Pop (Kellogg’s) vs Lucky the Leprechaun and the Trix Rabbit. (General Mills). This fight would be insane. Snap, Crackle and Pop have the teamwork that only a set of brothers would know. But the lethal combination of a fighting leprechaun and a rabbit who never gives up would be too much. The Rice Krispies gang would throw all they had at the duo, but Lucky would throw a marshmallow power at them and the fight would be turned around. Hands down the General Mills crew would win this one, even if they’re a man down. Matchup 3: Dig ‘Em (Kellogg’s) vs. Sonny It all comes down to this: The final battle. The cool, composed Dig ‘Em against the near mental patient Sonny. Sonny buzzes around the room spinning and yelling about Cocoa Puffs as Dig ‘Em jumps up and down and avoids all blows. Just one sugary smack to the face from Dig ‘Em would knock some sense into Sonny. Battle over, Kellogg’s wins.