Issuu on Google+

THE OFFICIAL GUARDIAN ANGELS TRAINING BOOK: 4. USE OF FORCE MANUAL

International Alliance of Guardian Angels

Version 1.2 2005


4. USE OF FORCE TRAINING MANUAL 4.0 USE OF FORCE AND TRAINING Table of Contents Use of Force .........................................................................................................2 Physical Training Basics .......................................................................................4 Training Rules .......................................................................................................7 Interdisciplinary Forms/Martial Arts .....................................................................11 Warm Up Exercises.............................................................................................15 Stretching Exercises............................................................................................17 Falling and Rolling...............................................................................................22 Mock Situations...................................................................................................26 Compliance Situations..............................................................................28 Arrest Situations .......................................................................................31 Self-Defense Situations ............................................................................34 Belt Rank System................................................................................................37

Copyright Š 2003 Guardian Angels

Page 1

Guardian Angels: 4. Use of Force Manual


Guardian Angels Use of Force

3 LEVELS OF FORCE The Guardian Angels use three separate and distinct levels of force: compliance, arrest, and self-defense force. These levels depend on the situation and threat level. Force is defined as making bodily contact with another person to impede, move, restrain, or strike them. If you stop someone from walking forward by placing your hand on his shoulder, you are using force. If you are moving someone by grabbing his arm, you are using force. If you swat a person’ s finger away from your face, you are using force. It is extremely important to understand when and how to use force. The inappropriate and illegal use of force will result in discipline and if necessary discharge. You or the organization may also be held liable for any damages and legal action including imprisonment. Compliance Force Compliance force is used when you simply want someone to comply with you and you are protecting your individual and civil rights. You are both authorized and encouraged to use compliance force in order to protect your personal space and person. If someone grabs your arm, take the person’ s hand off you. If someone does not respond to this, you may have to elevate force to compliance deterrence. You may have to put someone in a temporary wristlock if they continually grab you. Compliance force DOES NOT include any kind or type of strike. This includes punching, kicking, elbow and knee strikes, biting, and head butting. Compliance force does include touching, grabbing, pressure points, wristlocks, arm locks, headlocks, and pushing. Make sure that when you push someone back, your hand does not leave his body until the very last moment. If your hand leaves his body, and you make contact again, this may be considered assault or battery. Arrest Force Arrest force is used ONLY when you are arresting someone. It includes takedowns, throws, tackling, grappling, submission holds, wrestling, arm bars, headlocks, leg locks, and ankle locks. Arrest force DOES NOT include any kind or type of strike. If you are unable to restrain a person, DO NOT strike him. If, however, he is striking you, and you cannot stop him any other way, you should consider your life to be in danger. Multiple strikes to your head, neck, and organs can result in serious or life threatening injury. In this case, you may elevate force to the next level.

Copyright Š 2003 Guardian Angels

Page 2

Guardian Angels: 4. Use of Force Manual


Self-defense Force Self-defense force is used whenever you feel your life is in danger, another person’ s life is in danger, or there is a threat of serious bodily injury. You should act in a lawful and reasonable manner to protect that life. Both compliance and arrest force use what is considered “soft”styles of martial arts. Self-defense force may include the hard styles of boxing, kickboxing, Karate, Kenpo, and Taekwondo. Discretionary Tactics IMPORTANT: When a Guardian Angel feels that his life is being threatened or anyone else’ s life is being threatened, he should always act in a lawful and reasonable manner to protect that life. It is important to understand the distinction between Compliance and Arrest Force Training and Self-Defense Force Training. While we advise you to use our compliance and arrest force tactics, the self-defense force tactics are to be used at your own discretion and risk. They should be considered as options designed to help you protect your life and supplement your pre-existing self-defense skills. They should not in any way be construed as the regular, accepted, or mandatory Guardian Angel methods. Potentially dangerous and life threatening situations:  You do not believe you or your patrol is large enough or capable enough to protect you from a person or group of people attacking you.  A person is continually striking you, and you are unable to stop him using grappling or wrestling techniques.  A hostile group numerically outnumbers the patrol.  An automobile or vicious animal is attacking the patrol.  Someone is attacking the patrol with a weapon. A weapon may be: A. Any sharp object (e.g. screwdriver, pencil, or syringe). B. Any blunt instrument (e.g. stick, wrench, or hammer). C. Any sized object being projected through the air (e.g. beer bottle or rock).

Copyright © 2003 Guardian Angels

Page 3

Guardian Angels: 4. Use of Force Manual


Guardian Angels Physical Training Basics

Breathing In a physical confrontation, most people hold their breath. This is a natural defense mechanism. It allows you to exert a greater amount of energy by burning lactic acid instead of oxygen. Think of lactic acid as jet fuel and oxygen as car fuel. Burning lactic acid is anaerobic exercise. Using oxygen is aerobic exercise. The only problem with anaerobic exercise is that it not only deprives your muscles of oxygen, it deprives your brain of oxygen. You render yourself incapable of complex thinking and judgment. If you were only to react to an immediate threat like your hand being on fire, you do not need complex thinking. However, in a physical confrontation, there are hundreds of things going on, and more importantly, there is always the possibility of a weapon being used. For this reason, Guardian Angels attempt to deal with situations aerobically, using oxygen, and engaging our minds. In other words, we try to keep ourselves from panicking, losing control, and over-reacting. Conditioning When you are out of condition, your body is more apt to use lactic acid for otherwise routine tasks like walking or going up a flight of stairs. Since we are trying to keep your brain fueled with oxygen all the time, conditioning is extremely important. The more conditioned you are, the less likely your brain will shut down in a crisis situation. In addition to this, when you are fatigued, you tend to become more close-minded, irritable, impulsive, and anxious. Our goal on the streets is to be open-minded, positive, tolerant, understanding, disciplined, and creative thinkers. Speed Force is the product of both mass and speed. In some instances, we may be outmassed. We can compensate with faster speed. However, if we work on both our mass and speed, we are able to use more force. This does not mean that we have to use force. On the contrary, it means we do not have to escalate the use of force as quickly. For example, if someone grabbed you, and you are unable to take his hand off us, you might have to escalate the force and resort to a takedown. However, if you had enough force to take his hand off, you remain at the lower level of force. Speed also allows you to more quickly subdue and search a perp for weapons. The quicker a situation is resolved, the less likely friends or a hostile crowd will interfere. Speed then equals safety.

Copyright Š 2003 Guardian Angels

Page 4

Guardian Angels: 4. Use of Force Manual


Power/Weightlifting While some people believe that they can rely on their sheer strength and power to keep them safe, others believe that strength and power have little importance. Neither view is correct. You should do strength training for a number of important reasons:  Strength. You need strength in order to pull people to safety or protect yourself in a life-threatening situation.  Oxygen burning muscles. When you have large muscles, they rely more and more on oxygen to perform many tasks. With small muscles, it would take lactic acid to do the same things like drag a person to safety or arrest a big person. Our goal is to avoid the use of lactic acid.  Weight. It is harder for people to throw or move you around.  Muscle bulk. Muscle bulk can also protect your vital organs from being punctured and your bones from being broken.  Bones. Proper weight training induces your bones to become thicker and stronger.  Super-Sized people. People are simply getting larger and larger. Not only does this make them more threatening and difficult to handle, it also makes it harder to drag them to safety. Flexibility/Stretching All the conditioning and strength training in the world are useless if you strain, twist, pull, or tear your muscles and ligaments. It is extremely important to keep your muscles and joints loose and limber. Most novices become easily frustrated when they first try to stretch. That’ s the whole point, however. If everyone were naturally flexible, you would not need stretching. Stretching is a discipline that takes practice and consistency. Its rewards are priceless. A loose and flexible body also creates a more relaxed and open mind. A tense and tight body creates circulation problems, and this means oxygen depravation to the brain. Tense and tight people are always complaining about migraines and tension headaches. A tense and tight body also sends the wrong message to the public. It makes you appear uncomfortable, angry, and unfriendly. Balance/Leverage When you do weight training, you will mostly exercise your larger muscle groups. This will enable to you move and push heavier things. However, your body is also full of smaller muscle groups designed to keep your body in line and make smaller, more refined body movements. When you stand on one leg, you will suddenly feel all the small muscles go to work trying to keep you balanced. These muscles are extremely important in grappling and wrestling. They not only keep you balanced, they also enable you to use more leverage to better manipulate your opponent. When you neglect to exercise your smaller muscle groups, they can easily become fatigued. Many novice wrestlers with huge muscles are often confused by how much energy they spend. They are trying to use their large muscle groups to do the work of their

Copyright © 2003 Guardian Angels

Page 5

Guardian Angels: 4. Use of Force Manual


small muscle groups. Once they learn to use their small muscle groups, they learn to conserve their energy. Mental Balance Conditioning and strength training may build up your body, but if your mind is prone to over-react, panic, and act impulsively, your body will still fail you. Two athletes with equal conditioning and strength enter an arena. One is a complete novice and is absolutely terrified while the other is a veteran and feels relaxed and confident. Who do you think will win? Many people lose the fight before it even begins. Muhammad Ali was the greatest mental fighter. He psyched out his opponents well before they entered the ring. His opponents expended so much nervous energy before the bout, by the time the bell rang, they were already fatigued. The Psy-Comm Manual focuses on mental exercises designed to strengthen your mind and keep you from over-reacting, panicking, or acting impulsively. One of the important lessons of Psy-Comm is to keep you talking. One of the physical benefits to this is that it keeps oxygen supplied to your brain. In a tense and stressful situation, many people unconsciously hold their breath, hyperventilate, or breathe in a shallow manner. Psy-Comm should be used in conjunction with these physical exercise manuals in order to maximize your physical effectiveness. General Health As a Guardian Angel, you are being trained to value, respect, and care for your community and the people in that community. It does not make much sense if you are not valuing, respecting, and caring for yourself and your own health. Stress is the number one enemy of health. Not only does it directly attack your immune system and physiological balance (homeostasis), but it has numerous indirect side effects. Stress is usually the culprit behind unhealthy habits like overeating, eating junk food, lack of sleep, smoking, excessive drinking, lack of exercise, and impulsive behavior. Combating Stress      

Avoid Stress-Compounding and Reactive Habits: smoking, excessive drinking, eating junk food, watching TV. Deal with the source of stress: problems or unmet needs. Reassess the source of the stress. What is the real problem? Is it that important? Have I looked at all the options? Do I need to change my tactics? Take an active role in solving the problem or fulfilling the need. Indulge in Stress-Reducing Habits: listening to music, writing, reading, meditating, working out, walking, socializing, volunteering, and helping others. Don’ t get worked up. Learn to deal with people directly and assertively. Learn to forgive others and yourself for mistakes and shortcomings.

Copyright © 2003 Guardian Angels

Page 6

Guardian Angels: 4. Use of Force Manual


Guardian Angels Training Rules

Slam and Jam Dojo Respect the place of training like a martial arts dojo whether it is a park, living room, or garage. You do not have to bow when entering or leaving, but understand that this is the place where you will learn to save your own life. Academy of Rocking and Shocking Guardian Angels training is a thinking activity. Do not ignorantly accept everything you learn. Ask questions. Think about why and how it works. During a tense and stressful situation, the goal is to keep your mind active and alert. It would not make sense not to practice this exact thing during training. However, in order to master a skill, you will have to mindlessly repeat it over and over and over. This is called muscle memory. It takes at least 21 times to make your muscles memorize a single move. In other words, once you have used your mind to understand a skill, you will then have to temporarily tune it down in order to allow your muscles to practice the skill. Injury Prevention Injury prevention is the most important training priority. Take the training seriously. Start out slow and smoothly and gradually add speed, intensity, and power. Respect your training partner. Do not horseplay or pull any surprises. Only engage in exercises being covered. Do not laugh at anyone’ s mistakes or shortcomings. If you rob them of self-confidence, you may be endangering his life and this in turn may put your life in danger.

Copyright Š 2003 Guardian Angels

Unconventional training exercises, Reno, Nevada 2001

Page 7

Guardian Angels: 4. Use of Force Manual


Intensity Levels For every single exercise, you will start out at the lowest intensity level. The instructor will then allow you to add intensity if you can prove you understand the technique. 10% 20% 40% 50% 60% 80% 100%

Only go through the motions. Your muscles should not be tense. Add speed to the motions. Add strength and use your muscles. You should be able to do the technique and talk without getting winded. You are beginning to sweat and breath heavily. You are now starting to burn lactic acid. Never go at 100%.

If you are trying to lift a burning vehicle off a loved you, you will go at 100%. You may sprain your back and pass out, but it’ s a risk worth taking. In a physical confrontation, however, you always want to have enough energy left to retreat and pull your partner out. You also want to have enough alertness to watch for weapons. No Surprises/Horse Playing With the exception of mock situations and improvisational training, no one should ever be surprised during training. Both student and instructor should never use a new technique or improvise unless specifically told. Always go over the technique being covered. If someone is surprised, they may respond violently out of instinct or become emotionally upset. If someone does not feel safe in the learning environment, he will not make an effort, and he will never learn. Novices People with no prior training in martial arts or physical combat will usually be very nervous, tense, and giddy. They may tend to giggle and laugh. They will invariably use too little or too much force. Start out slow with novices. Encourage them, but also be tough and repeat exercises until they get it right. After a month of training, they should stop giggling. If they continue, tell them to start being serious. Do not try to “pound them into the ground.” Training should be progressively more intense and difficult. The biggest mistake instructors make is to be either too hard or too easy. The Guardian Angels always train. There is no final graduation from training. Training is a way of life, progress, adaptation, and advancement. In order for people to feel comfortable training, they should first find it rewarding and enjoyable. When you bark orders, harass, and humiliate people in training, they only learn to hate and resent training. Even if you praise them later, they will never truly enjoy training and will always look for others to praise them for motivation.

Copyright © 2003 Guardian Angels

Page 8

Guardian Angels: 4. Use of Force Manual


Self-Proclaimed Experts Most good martial artists will not boast about their skills and expertise. People with extensive physical training whether in the military or law enforcement will also tend to be modest. Years of training should teach them about humility. A faker who is insecure about his lack of skills and expertise will boast and brag about all his alleged styles, schools, belts, and elite military training. If he is not listening or being disrespectful during training, step up the intensity. Put his skills to the test, but do not humiliate him. If he is a true expert, he will learn quickly. If he is a faker, he will want to quit. Fortunately, however, the more skills and confidence a faker acquires, the less he will feel insecure, and the less he will boast and brag about his delusional expertise. Real Experts Real experts pride themselves in their skills and training. It is very important to inform them that the Guardian Angels method will be different and it is uniquely designed to minimize injury and maximize practical street application. Of course, in a self-defense situation, the real expert can do whatever he wants. Tell the expert that he must first learn the Guardian Angels method. After demonstrating proficiency, he may then offer his suggestions. The Guardian Angels method, after all, is built upon experts providing their opinions and expertise. Do not feel threatened by him, but encourage him to learn the Guardian Angels way first. Once he has mastered the Guardian Angels method, he may very well turn into an excellent instructor. Tapping out For many moves, force can be applied progressively up to a point where you can deliver serious injury or knock the person out. It is therefore absolutely important for you to tap out once you feel sufficient pain or discomfort. Do not tap out immediately when you feel pressure. Try to hold on until you feel true pain. At the same time, do not try to be a macho, tough guy. Only novices avoid tapping out for as long as they can. Experts understand that you have to master the move first. You are learning a move not pain tolerance. Those who try to hold out invariably start to avoid training, because they feel it is too painful or get injured. You should enjoy training. Those who say they enjoy pain are not tough. They are either afraid or have emotional problems. Trust your body and develop a long-term relationship with your body. When your body is talking to you, listen. The more you listen, the more your body will allow you to do more strenuous and difficult exercises. The less you listen, the more your body will resist any kind of new and challenging activity. Kata’s and Improvisation Kata’ s are invaluable training tools in the martial arts. They teach the body to automate moves and transitions between moves. They are also time-consuming to learn and perfect. The Guardian Angels method is designed to teach students two simple

Copyright © 2003 Guardian Angels

Page 9

Guardian Angels: 4. Use of Force Manual


techniques for most common situations and also to use psychological and communication techniques. At the same time, we are trained to always keep conscious and improvise. Techniques should always be practiced with a partner. Air partners create a false sense of ease and predictability. For these reasons, we avoid using kata’ s.

Copyright Š 2003 Guardian Angels

Page 10

Guardian Angels: 4. Use of Force Manual


Guardian Angels Interdisciplinary Forms/Martial Arts

The Guardian Angels Use of Force Training is based upon the ideas, styles, and techniques from over a hundred different martial arts forms and arts. Many of our members have martial arts or boxing backgrounds and often times we will invite martial arts instructors to help train our members. Unlike martial arts, however, our techniques have been tested on the streets. We will not use any style or technique that does not work on the streets. Also, we will not use any style or technique that results in unnecessary injury or suffering.

Compliance Force Techniques Aikido (Japan) It is fitting that the most non-violent of the arts is used for compliance force. Aikido focuses on soft, circular, and efficient movement using the energy of New York Martial Arts Training 2001 the attacker against himself. Its techniques are excellent for redirecting and thwarting an aggressive person who has done everything but attack you. Sumo Wrestling Although we do not intend to copy the physical dimensions of sumo wrestlers, we do intend to use their techniques of hand movement, balance, redirection, and lifting. Practicing sumo wrestling is also a good introductory exercise for teaching students to become used to physical contact without the risk of injury.

Copyright Š 2003 Guardian Angels

Page 11

Guardian Angels: 4. Use of Force Manual


Arrest Force Techniques Judo (Japan) Judo is similar to Aikido in that it tends to be a softer art. It provides us with excellent training in taking someone down from a standing position without causing serious injury. American Football There are no greater tacklers than American football players. Since running backs have become so skilled at avoiding tackles, defensive backs have elevated their tackling skills to a science combining speed, power, redirection, and timing. It is also important to note that football players are only allowed safe tackles that do not cause serious injury. For this reason, we similarly do not target and hit the knees, head, or small of the back. Shootfighting (Japan)/Trapfighting (USA) This art focuses on closing the distance and taking down another fighter. This is very useful when making an arrest. Wrestling (Greece) Once you have tackled the perp, he will still resist, and you will still need to control him. Wrestling provides us with ground grappling techniques focusing on leverage, balance, and joint manipulation. Don’ t laugh at professional wrestling. While it is “sports entertainment,”all the techniques are real. Professional wrestler Gene LeBell is one of the most skilled tacticians in the sport, and provides hundreds of excellent grappling techniques. Professional wrestling is designed to avoid injury but also move around 250 lbs monsters. It is highly applicable to what we do. Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu The Ultimate Fighting Championships and other mixed martial arts fighting tournaments have without doubt proven the effectiveness of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu. Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu has simply taken grappling into a new dimension.

Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Submission Fighting Academy, Reno, NV 2001 Copyright © 2003 Guardian Angels

Page 12

Guardian Angels: 4. Use of Force Manual


Self-Defense Force Techniques Kung-fu (China) The first real system of martial arts, Kung-fu mimics the movements of animals. It focuses on striking and blocking techniques. The Northern style focuses on using the feet with a high stance while the Southern style focuses on using the hands with a low power stance. The External styles focus on power and strength. The Internal styles focus on inner-strength and internal control and meditation.

White Tiger Kung-fu, Sparks, Nevada 1996

Jiu-Jitsu (Japan) A similar art to Kung-fu and most likely a derivative of Kung-fu, Jiu-Jitsu is a multifaceted art that covers a broad range of fighting techniques. It also happens to be the father of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu. Karate (Japan) Karate originated in Okinawa but has also been developed by Japan. It has been influenced by both Kung-fu and Jiu-Jitsu. Okinawan Karate focuses on grabbing and control techniques using a high stance. Japanese Karate focuses on striking using a low power stance. Training with unorthodox and make shift weapons is good preparation for throwdowns where weapons are usually involved.

Copyright Š 2003 Guardian Angels

Japanese Guardian Angels martial arts workshop 1999

Page 13

Guardian Angels: 4. Use of Force Manual


American Kenpo Made famous by Ed Parker, this style combines Kung-fu and Karate, but mostly focuses on fist fighting and lightning hand speed. Ed Parker also worked with and helped train the Guardian Angels. Jeet Kune Do Created by the one and only, Bruce Lee, this is a revolutionary, broad ranged, and above all pragmatic fighting art that focuses on speed and mobility. It mimics the Sean Kelley, Ed Parker, Curtis Sliwa fluidity, flexibility, and evasiveness of water. It has many useful applications in the chaos of a throwdown. Ninjitsu (Japan) This may be the anti-thesis of what a Guardian Angel is. Ninja’ s lurk in the shadows while Guardian Angels focus on visibility. Ninja’ s use weapons while Angels are unarmed. However, during a throwdown, this art is helpful in teaching you how to handle or even create weapons out of common, ordinary objects. Boxing (England) and Kick-boxing Boxing provides us with blocking, striking, positioning, bobbing, and weaving techniques. Muay Thai Kick-boxing (Thailand) Muay Thai teaches you how to control attackers with your arms while striking with your feet and knees. Tae-kwon-do (South Korea) Created in South Korea, this art focuses on kicking techniques.

Chaco (left) is a Kick-Boxer and former NY Chapter Trainer, 2000

Tang Soo Do (Korea) A blend of Sobak, Kwonbop, and Japanese Karate Hapkido (Korea) A blend of Korean and Japanese martial arts focuses on grappling, throwing, and restraints.

Copyright © 2003 Guardian Angels

Page 14

Guardian Angels: 4. Use of Force Manual


Guardian Angels Warm Up Exercises

Warming Up Always warm up before stretching, and always stretch before working out. Don’ t worry if you are really tight or do not have any flexibility. Your body will slowly become flexible the more you stretch out. You can warm up with light jogging, jumping jacks, pushups, sit-ups, and football drills. Arm Circles Extend both arms out in a cross. Start with small circles in the same direction. Slowly progress to wide circles like swimming the butterfly. Grabbing Extend both arms out in a cross. With both palms up, making grabbing motions with your hand. Alternate the direction of your palms (e.g., right palm up, left palm down). Bring your arms in front of you and continue. Football Drills Football drills combine numerous different exercises that can be mixed and matched randomly. The exercises include high knees (throwing your knees up as high as you can one at a time), high kicks, sprinting in place, jogging in place, dropping, rolling to one side, rolling to the other, push-ups, sit-ups, flutter kicks (on your back with straight legs, raising each leg one at a time), and bicycling (on your back, making a bicycling motion with your legs). Push-ups Use different variations to the standard hands shoulder length apart. Do push-ups on your fists and diamonds (a diamond is where you make a diamond shape with both your thumbs and index fingers). Also do not always go all the way down or up, stay in the half push-up position for a while.

Copyright Š 2003 Guardian Angels

Page 15

Guardian Angels: 4. Use of Force Manual


Solo Sit-ups Lift your knees as close to your body as possible. When you release, do not lie all the way down, and keep your feet six inches off the ground.

Solo Cross Sit-ups Cross your left knee to your right elbow and then your right knee to your left elbow.

Static Leg Lift Keep your feet about six inches off the ground for as long as you can.

Copyright Š 2003 Guardian Angels

Page 16

Guardian Angels: 4. Use of Force Manual


Guardian Angels Stretching Exercises

Stretching Of those people who do exercise, the most avoided task is stretching. Many people simply do not have the patience or pain tolerance for stretching. Unfortunately, failing to stretch and warm up are some of the leading causes for exercise injuries. When your muscles are tight and you put yourself in an awkward position and apply force, you will strain, sprain, or tear ligaments and muscles. Exercising is a life-long commitment; however, once you suffer a serious injury, exercise may become both difficult and painful. Stretching is absolutely mandatory before engaging in Guardian Angels exercises. Always make sure you are warmed up before stretching. Do not bounce. Do not go too easy or too hard. You should feel constant, yet bearable pain. Count to twenty for each stretch. Do not cheat.

Leg and Back Stretches Stretches your thighs (Quadriceps)

Stretches your hamstrings, back of the thighs (Biceps femoris), and back. You may use a partner to put constant pressure down on your shoulder.

Copyright Š 2003 Guardian Angels

Page 17

Guardian Angels: 4. Use of Force Manual


Stretches your sides or lat’ s (Latissimus dorsi). Try to twist your back so that only one elbow makes contact with your leg.

Stretches your rear end (Gluteus maximus).

Stretches your spine. You may hear or feel a few popping sounds. Try to turn your head all the way to the rear.

Stretches the back of your thighs (Biceps femoris)

Copyright Š 2003 Guardian Angels

Page 18

Guardian Angels: 4. Use of Force Manual


Stretches your back and the back of your thighs (Biceps femoris). Cross your legs and touch your right elbow to your left knee.

Leg scissors. Stretches your thighs (Quadriceps) and back of your thighs (Biceps femoris)

Stretches your inner thighs. As you can see from the model, he needs to work on this.

Groin Stretches Sit down and bring the soles of your feet together. Grab your toes and pull your torso toward the ground.

Copyright Š 2003 Guardian Angels

Page 19

Guardian Angels: 4. Use of Force Manual


Neck and Back Stretches

Stretches your back

Stretches your back. Be very careful with this move. Try to lift the entire body off the ground leaving the person’ s chest on the ground.

Stretches your neck and upper back (Trapezius)

Copyright Š 2003 Guardian Angels

Page 20

Guardian Angels: 4. Use of Force Manual


Stretches the neck and upper back (Trapezius) Look to the side.

Look straight down.

Look up at the ceiling.

Stretches the sides or lat’ s (Latissimus dorsi)

Arm stretches Place your partner in an outside and inside wristlock.

Copyright Š 2003 Guardian Angels

Page 21

Guardian Angels: 4. Use of Force Manual


Guardian Angels Falling and Rolling

There is a right and wrong way to fall. If you fall the wrong way, you can break fingers, sprain ligaments, pull muscles, or simply cause a lot of stress on your internal organs. When you fall wrong, it feels like someone knocked the wind out of you. The correct way to fall is designed to cushion your fall using your muscles as cushions. Bring both your arms out and slap the ground when you fall. This protects your upper back and neck by bringing your shoulder blades together and compressing your shoulder muscles. This also keeps your head from ricocheting off the ground. First begin from a crouching position.

Then move to a standing position.

Copyright Š 2003 Guardian Angels

Page 22

Guardian Angels: 4. Use of Force Manual


Finally have someone throw you to the ground.

Copyright Š 2003 Guardian Angels

Page 23

Guardian Angels: 4. Use of Force Manual


Rolling Rolling serves two main purposes. First, when you are thrown to the ground, it keeps you from injuring yourself by falling on top of yourself. Second, it allows you to quickly regain balance and get into a defensible position. Start off by rolling from a squatting position. You are NOT rolling over your head. You are rolling from one shoulder blade to the other.

When you finish the roll, try to regain your balance and bring your arms up to defend yourself.

Copyright Š 2003 Guardian Angels

Page 24

Guardian Angels: 4. Use of Force Manual


Standing Roll

Copyright Š 2003 Guardian Angels

Page 25

Guardian Angels: 4. Use of Force Manual


Guardian Angels Mock Situations

Mock Situations Mock situations or role-playing is used to acclimate students to the chaotic, unpredictable, and multi-faceted situations that may arise on the streets. Mock Situation Actor Rules Actors are the ones who are not being tested. 1.

2. 3.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Do not use real strikes. Use a feigned strike where you wind up, but when you make contact, you are only pushing against the other person’ s body. If an Angel is struck five consecutive times with a strike to the head, they are declared unconscious and must lie still inactive. Do not use any language that insults a particular race, religion, nationality, sexual orientation, gender, age, or disability. Cussing is allowed. Be absolutely serious unless your role calls for levity. If you are not being serious, you will not provide the patrol with a realistic sense of danger or intensity. You are basically undermining their training. Focus on and pick on any Angel who appears weak, lost, or distracted. Never go 100%. Go at 80%. If something goes wrong, call “Time!” Stop immediately if someone calls time or blows a whistle. Do not leave the predetermined situation area. Do not put the patrol in serious risk of harm. E.g., do not throw a real bottle at them, leave a real razor blade on the ground, or use any real weapon. If a bystander thinks the situation is real, call time and stop immediately. Explain to the bystander what is happening. Do not humiliate or embarrass an Angel. E.g., don’ t throw mud at them, pull their pants down, or spit in their faces.

Keep in mind you may use a “Mole”GA to test how the patrol responds to another GA causing a situation or problem.

Copyright © 2003 Guardian Angels

Page 26

Guardian Angels: 4. Use of Force Manual


Mock Games In order to elevate the pressure and fun of these exercises, you can create Mock Games. There is an Alpha Team and Bravo Team. Both teams undergo the exact same situations, but only the first team can watch the second team in alternating fashion. The teams receive a score of 1 through 5 for safety. 0 points: 1 point: 2 points: 3 points: 4 points: 5 points:

The team put someone’ s life in danger. They risked serious injury. They risked injury. They were safe and competent. They immediately dealt with the situation through de-escalation, defusing, or effective control. They exhibited superior ability and aptitude.

One point bonuses are provided for communication, teamwork, professionalism, leadership, and poise. The maximum score is 10. General Pointers  The patrol should always announce itself as Guardian Angels before intervening in any situation.  Partners should always stick together.  PL should take verbal control of the situation.  PL should constantly communicate with members, and members should immediately notify PL if they see anything important.  Patrol should always err on the side of its own safety.  Patrol should neither be too passive nor too aggressive. Coaching When starting out, you may want to use coaching. This means, one Guardian Angel acts as a coach to the Guardian Angels being tested. The coach is basically invisible, and the actors and Guardian Angels should not interact with her. Her job is to constantly give the Guardian Angels pointers. E.g. Raise your voice. Relax. Watch the guy walking behind the patrol. Put your hands out. Tell your patrol to post up. Order a take down. Etc. The coach should not be overbearing and bossy. The coach can also communicate to the PL using earbuds and radios.

Copyright © 2003 Guardian Angels

Page 27

Guardian Angels: 4. Use of Force Manual


COMPLIANCE SITUATIONS

Jekyll & Hyde A person approaches the patrol in a friendly manner but all the sudden becomes aggressive or vice versa. Angel should respond immediately to the change in tone especially from friendly to hostile. Hostile & Friendly A friendly person approaches the patrol. Meanwhile, a hostile also approaches the patrol. PL should ask the friendly to hold on while he or she deals with the hostile. Meanwhile the Second keeps an eye on the friendly. Hostile & Friendly Gauntlet One Angel responds to a series of hostiles, friendlies, or Jekyll & Hydes. Angel should be able to quickly respond appropriately to each different attitude. BUF (Break Up Fight) Two people are fighting. Patrol should break apart the combatants firmly but not aggressively. Patrol should break the combatants’eye contact with each other. One Angel addresses one combatant while the partner shields. Patrol should use loud, commanding orders and take charge of the situation. PL should use conflict resolution and calm down both sides. False Positive A Mole GA claims to have witnessed a perp committing a serious crime. PL should fully investigate the incident before jumping to any conclusions. Loose Cannon Mole Angel behaves inappropriately including cussing, insulting hostiles, and straying from formation. PL should immediately addresses the loose cannon including stripping him if necessary.

Copyright Š 2003 Guardian Angels

Page 28

Guardian Angels: 4. Use of Force Manual


JFO (Just Following Order) A Mole PL becomes engaged in a personal verbal exchange with a hostile. He starts using profane language. He then orders the patrol to arrest the person who has done nothing wrong. The actions of the person to be arrested are visible to all members of the patrol at all times. Patrol should follow reasonable and lawful orders. Second should step in whenever PL loses his cool. 51/50 A mentally disturbed person approaches the patrol and commences wild and bizarre behavior. Patrol should not be amused, overreact, or under-react. Instead, they should be alert for their own safety and attempt verbal contact and try to calm the person. Gnat A person harasses the patrol and encroaches on the personal spaces of patrol members. Patrol should draw the line and deter the pest with pain compliance if necessary. Touchy Feely A friendly continually touches Angels in a non-threatening manner. Patrol should draw the line, protect their personal spaces, and deter the person. Fake Attack A person feigns attacking the patrol ultimately invades their personal spaces. Patrol should assertively protect their personal space and treat feigned attacks seriously. Horse Play Two or more people are fighting and yelling at each other. At the same time, they are all smiling and laughing. Patrol should immediately recognize the threat level of the situation including talking to the playful combatants.

Copyright Š 2003 Guardian Angels

Page 29

Guardian Angels: 4. Use of Force Manual


Howard Stern A person approaches the patrol and starts asking one question after the other progressively becoming less and less serious. Angel should take charge of the conversation and then cut it off. Debater A person approaches the patrol and argues and progressively uses profane and insulting language. PL should take charge of the conversation and ultimately leave the person alone. Witness A person runs toward the patrol holding certain items and then runs past it. A half minute later a police officer asks the patrol to help identify that person. Patrol should take notice of and remember the person’ s features, clothing, and possessions. Patrol should not take the person down. Patrol should ask him if he is okay. First Aid A person is lying on the ground nearly unconscious and bleeding. PL should approach cautiously and announce self. Patrol should survey the scene for danger. PL tries to wake up the person. If the person does not respond Put on latex gloves and check ABC (Airway, Breathing, and Cardiac response). Call 911 if person remains unconscious. Face Off Two groups are facing off with each other throwing signs and insults. Patrol steps between the two groups in a V Formation. Patrol uses loud, commanding orders to break up the groups.

Copyright Š 2003 Guardian Angels

Page 30

Guardian Angels: 4. Use of Force Manual


ARREST SITUATIONS

Beavis & Butthead A loud mouth approaches the patrol while another person silently approaches the patrol from behind and attacks. Patrol should not be distracted by the loud mouth and maintain awareness of surroundings. Fore and Aft A hostile approaches the front of the patrol. Another hostile approaches the rear of the Patrol. Second should always keep an eye on the rear of the Patrol no matter what is happening at the front. Domestic One partner is beating up on another. While the Patrol tries to detain the attacker, the other partner attacks the Patrol. If two combatants appear to know each other, Patrol should always consider the victim a potential attacker. The Switcheroonie In the first incident, a group approaches the patrol in a friendly manner and then attacks them. In the second incident immediately following, a group of hostiles approaches but does not attack them. Although, the Patrol is startled and buzzed by the first incident, they should recover immediately and treat the next incident with objectivity and calm. Jack in the Box A victim lying down hurt appears unconscious. When an Angel gets close enough, he attacks. Patrol should always approach people lying down cautiously and announce itself. They should try to make verbal contact before physical contact.

Copyright Š 2003 Guardian Angels

Page 31

Guardian Angels: 4. Use of Force Manual


Uncooperative Victim A victim calls out to the Patrol and identifies a person who allegedly attacked him. The victim is visibly hurt and bleeding but not seriously injured. After the Patrol arrests the perp, the victim tries to leave and refuses to cooperate. Patrol should try to convince the victim to stay and press charges. If the victim leaves, the perp must be released. If the victim is seriously injured, you may arrest the perp with reasonable cause for a felony. Police Officer After an arrest, a police officer arrives. PL should order the Patrol to post up. He should inform the officer of the situation in a calm, concise, clear manner. Projectile A person throws an object directly at an Angel. The member attacked should immediately call the attention of the PL. The PL should then order an arrest. Evidence A person stabs another person and runs. As the Patrol pursues the attacker, he subtly drops the weapon in the bushes. Pursuing Angels should pay close attention to the perp as he runs away. Without leaving his partner, one Angel should secure the evidence. The Weasel A person mugs someone and flees. After the Patrol pursues, the perp surrenders and pleads for them not to hurt him. Although the perp appears cooperative, Patrol should none-the-less take him down in order to properly search the perp for weapons. Only for non-violent crimes should you not take down a cooperative perp.

Copyright Š 2003 Guardian Angels

Page 32

Guardian Angels: 4. Use of Force Manual


Divide and Conquer Hostiles attempt to split up patrol. Patrol should stay together, at the least with their partners. Vigilante After arresting a perp, the victim starts to attack the perp. Patrol should protect the perp. If the victim does not back off, Patrol should take down the victim and arrest him for battery.

Copyright Š 2003 Guardian Angels

Page 33

Guardian Angels: 4. Use of Force Manual


SELF-DEFENSE SITUATIONS

WARNING: Whenever using a fake weapon outdoors, always make sure there is someone looking out for people walking by. Their job should be to inform them that this is only training. Never use a real looking gun in public. Paint a toy gun bright yellow or red or use a water gun. Also, never use a real sharp object. Always use rubber, paper, foam, or other soft, collapsible material. HSD (High Speed Destruction) One or two Angels must protect a fallen person against a circle of hostiles. Angels should intimidate and deter the hostiles with HSD. Arrest & Mob One person attacks the patrol and is arrested. Meanwhile, a mob that outnumbers the Patrol surrounds them and demands his release. The mob becomes increasingly aggressive. The Patrol circles out around the perp using verbal commands to control the situation. If the situation cannot be controlled, the perp should be released, and the Patrol should V Up and retreat. Two on One Two verbally hostile people or two attackers approach one Angel. Angel should try to position the weaker hostile between himself and the other hostile. Angel should use voice and body language to intimidate and deter the hostiles. Arrest & Knife While being arrested, the perp grabs a knife. The first Angel to notice the knife should immediately yell “KNIFE!”followed by “RIGHT HAND!”or “LEFT HAND!” The Patrol should attempt to control the perp’ s wrist first and then take the knife away.

Copyright © 2003 Guardian Angels

Page 34

Guardian Angels: 4. Use of Force Manual


Arrest & Gun While being arrested, the perp grabs a gun. The first Angel to notice the gun should immediately yell “GUN!”followed by “RIGHT HAND!”or “LEFT HAND!” The rest of the Patrol should drop and then crawl to the perp to assist the arresting Angels. Moving Automobile A perp runs into a car and starts the engine. (DO NOT put the car in drive or drive away.) Patrol should never pursue a moving automobile. They should back off and record the perp’ s description, the car’ s description, and its license plate. No one should try to block the path of the automobile. Ambush A person attacks the Patrol and runs. The Patrol pursues him into an ambush. Patrol should always be aware of their environment and not over focus on one perp. Once ambushed, Patrol should immediately abandon the arrest and switch to self-defense mode. Knife or Blunt Instrument Attack A person with a knife or blunt instrument attacks the Patrol. Only three Angels should initially address the perp (PL, her partner, diamond or other). Diamond or other distracts the perp, while the PL and partner Raptors (refer to SelfDefense Force Manual) the perp. Dr. Death Person with a syringe attacks the patrol. (Do not use a real syringe. Or break off the needle.) Patrol should back off and retreat unless the attacker is within striking distance. Gun Attack A person brandishes a gun at the patrol. Patrol should drop immediately, take cover, and call 911.

Copyright © 2003 Guardian Angels

Page 35

Guardian Angels: 4. Use of Force Manual


Hostage by Knife A person holds a knife up to a hostage. Call 911. PL should talk to and calm down the hostage taker. Hostage by Gun A person holds a gun up to a hostage. Patrol should take cover immediately and call 911. Suicide by Knife A person threatens to kill self with a knife. Patrol should keep their distance and call 911. Suicide by Gun A person threatens to kills self with gun. Patrol should take cover and call 911. Throw Down A mob attacks the patrol. Patrol should try to stay together and on their feet. Patrol should V Up or Circle Out.

Copyright Š 2003 Guardian Angels

Page 36

Guardian Angels: 4. Use of Force Manual


Guardian Angels Belt Rank System

In the old days belts were used to keep people’ s robes and jackets from flapping in the wind. Ancient martial artists never wore colored belts. Only recently did students wear white and instructors wear black. Early in the 20th century judo became fashionable in the West. A judo instructor traveled to Paris, and somehow colored belts caught on with the fashionable Parisians. The old myth that time turns your belt dark with grass, blood, dried blood, and then soil is a long-running joke. Since colored belts have acquired traditional status in the martial arts world, we accept it for our Use of Force training. For the same reasons many chapters have adopted military ranks, belt graduations signify steps forward in learning, skill, dedication, and experience. The color system in martial arts, however, is as diverse as the arts. Most arts start with white. That’ s where the similarity ends. Aikido goes straight from white to black. Traditional Judo goes white, brown, black, red/white, red, and then white/white. Traditional Kung Fu uses sashes and goes gold, green, red, black. Most all other arts then follow a general standard. Beginners start with white, yellow, and then sometimes orange. The intermediate level is completely mixed between purple, blue, and green. The advanced level mixes up red and/or brown but always ends with black. Some systems are perverted enough to use camouflage. Then you have stripes, up to four at the end of the belts for white, yellow, and orange, and along the length of the belts higher up. Theoretically there could be up to 26 levels between white and black. It all depends on whether you believe that belt graduations are important to motivate students or simply a distraction. Usually, for kids, small step graduations are important. Most systems call the white belts the 10th gup, level, or kyu. As you progress, the number goes down to 1. Then you become a 1st degree black belt or 1st dan and progress up toward 10th degree or dan. The standards for graduation vary considerably as well. Some systems will graduate you to black in two years (2 classes per week, 208 classes). Some systems sell black belts out of their car trunks. Others are stingy, and you could wait six years or more. Generally, most arts settle with 3 to 4 years (312 to 416 classes). To achieve black belt, our system takes three years at two classes per week or six years at one class per week. Color White Yellow Orange Blue Red Brown Black

Hours 0 13 26 39 52 78 104

Cumulative 0 13 39 78 130 208 312

Copyright © 2003 Guardian Angels

Years 0 0.25 0.75 1.5 2.5 4 6

Page 37

Guardian Angels: 4. Use of Force Manual


4 Use Of Force Manual