1 July-September 2011
Peluquería con charros y computadora. (Barbershop with charros and computer.) Cover photograph: “Tres colonias” barbershop. Tehuantepec street, between Monterrey and Medellín, Col. Roma, Mexico City. ®Georgina Mexía-Amador, 2011.
Micolo’s Barbershop is a three monthly, nonprofit electronic publication. Authors are responsible for the texts they sign. Editors do not share necessarily the points of view of the authors. Register pending. Mexico, 2011.
3rd Street of San Francisco and Puente del Espíritu Santo, Mexico City
Direction, edition and design Georgina Mexía-Amador Direction of translation Fabiola Mercado Translators Georgina Mexía-Amador Fabiola Mercado Nayelli Pérez Editorial Committee Jan Markus Amundsen Nayelli Pérez Victoria Ramírez Contributors César Abril Carlos Ascencio Marisol Vázquez Alonso Zamora
table of contents 5 Preliminary words 8 Installing in the Genealogies. Predecessors and Contemporaries •Georgina Mexía-Amador 10 Maya Poetry by Wildernain Villegas 15 Melancholy and Utopia (An Invitation to Virgil) Acorn Eating People •Rafael Mondragón 20 Natalia Lafourcade, the Vive Latino and Postmodernism •Carlos Ascencio 25 Interview with ISOL. Children’s Literature Authors •Marisol Vázquez y Georgina Mexía-Amador 35 Carlos Sandoval: Emergent Mexican Art 46 in gestation: “Delirium” •Paulina Bermúdez/“From the Abyss” •Juan José Rodríguez García 49 Theater 51 Nirvana in Mexican Decadent Movement •Georgina Mexía Amador, Minh Hien Nguyen Thi, Julio Ruelas 60 Travels and Literature: SRI LANKA •Walter Keller-Kirchhof and Francisco Bulnes 80 Impressions of a Trip to Súkstad •Jan Markus Amundsen 96 Illuminations. Literature Snapshots •Alonso Zamora 87 Poetry from Canada: Albert Moritz 92 Reviews 95 Contributors 97 Illustrations’ Credits
Dear readers from around the world: Most of the times, the preliminary notes are the first section that appears in a magazine, but only once we stand before the first preliminary notes. Thus, it is not just a question of describing and presenting the content of the current issue, but of introducing the project the readers have before them. It is about seducing them, about inviting them to visit periodically the pages we will offer from now on until budget, failure of lack of will puts an end to the project (and we hope this happens to us within in a long, long time). Therefore, you have in front of you a magazine whose origin is rooted in 19th century Mexico, since we can venture to say that the origin of Mexican literature and the production of literary magazines can be confined to that century. When Mexico City was the size of what nowadays is the city’s Downtown, there was a very famous barbershop whose owner was a Frenchman, M. Micoló. In that place, just as one of our 19th century Modernist writers tells us, Manuel Gutiérrez Nájera, Mexican intellectuals knew everything concerning arts, sports, literature, politics… More than that, Micoló was a man who knew everything and was also known everywhere. Parting from this idea of reaching most of the aspects of culture is the reason why we have named our project “Micolo’s Barbershop”. However, an idea that had its origin in the 19th century had to be updated in our context, and this is why we are interested in dealing with the inclusion of different points of view and in a dialogue between a wide range of interlocutors. The attempt of such aim is what you have in front of you, dear reader.
Our first section is entitled “Installing in the genealogies. Predecessors and contemporaries”, in which we will revise the different Mexican literary magazines that have been published, since Mexican literature was mostly divulged through them. Our project wants to be part of this long history of publications and that is why we could not ignore this fact. We also introduce poetry in Maya language by Wildernain Villegas, who in 2008 obtained the Nezahualcóyotl Award, destined to the works written in indigenous languages in Mexico. We are happy to have him since we did not want to confine indigenous literature to governmental publications that still follow a paternalistic perspective towards anything that has to do with “Indians”. We rather think that literature is Universal and we oppose to any classification parting from race or ethnic background. We have chosen to remark the poem written in Maya language. The translation and the photographs are by our editor, Georgina Mexía-Amador. Rafael Mondragón, poet and young scholar at the National University offers us an essay that parts from a painting by Giovanni Franceso Barbieri, “Il Guercino”. Through its pages we walk by the Arcadia, by the Latin’s melancholy of Polybius until we reach one of Don Quixote’s banquets, since all of them deal with acorns. In our section entitled and devoted to “Music”, Carlos Ascencio elaborates an interesting criticism on exponents of modern Mexican music, specifically of the singer and musician Natalia Lafourcade; on the Vive Latino, one of the most popular rock music festivals in Latin America, and on Postmodernism. He opens a window into the manipulations and changes within musical industry and for these reasons we think this section is an important part of the cultural dialogue we seek. Music is followed by the interview that our team made to Isol, a renowned Argentinean author of children’s books that has been translated to many languages (English, German, Norwegian, Portuguese) and has been greatly awarded. We think that approaching the reader to the complexity of children’s literature was vital since the acquaintance with reading and books begins in a great amount of cases during childhood. Samples from the work of Isol illustrate the interview. We present as well the works of a young Mexican artist, Carlos Sandoval, who has experimented during his career with different techniques and themes, such as painting, 3-D, showcase intervention, the exvoto (a trend of Mexican painting in which a miracle is portrayed and is offered as a thanksgiving to the Virgin or a saint, generally painted by common people) and illustration. In our section entitled “in gestation”, we present novel writers. Paulina Bermúdez and Juan José Rodríguez García offer us a couple of poems. The former is a BA student at the National University and the latter is editor of a literary magazine from San Luis Potosí, México.
In our section devoted to theater, still small, we included a fragment from William Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream, in which we wish the readers will find out the problems of theatrical representation stated by the characters. The picture that accompanies this section belongs to a Korean trolley turned into a peculiar theater named “La otra nave” (The other ship), which is found in one of the many parks in Mexico City. In our aim of “geographical inclusion” (which has been always present amongst Mexican writers and literary magazines) we make a couple of trips to other latitudes: in “Nirvana in Mexican Decadent movement”, Georgina MexíaAmador explores the reception that the word nirvana had amongst Mexican writers of the 19th century. The photographs accompanying this article were taken by a Vietnamese friend, Minh Hien, during her visit to Laos, in Southeast Asia, while the illustrations belong to Mexican Decadent painter Julio Ruelas. In this same line of non temporal and non spatial dialogues, we also present photographs of Sri Lanka by our German friend Walter Keller-Kirchhof, illustrated with fragments of Francisco Bulnes’ diary, a 19th century Mexican who travelled to Sri Lanka and other regions of the world. We hope this couple of adventures will turn out to be for the reader a “nirvanic” experience. In the same spirit of travels and diaries, anthropologist Jan Markus Amundsen offers us in this first delivery, his impressions of a trip to a “primitive” village in the Scandinavian forest. Afterwards, Alonso Zamora tells us a luminous anecdote of the great Portuguese writer Fernando Pessoa, in his section entitled “Illuminations. Literature Snapshots”. Afterwards, we present three unpublished poems by Albert Moritz, who has been awarded with the Griffin Prize in 2008. We feel very honored to have the privilege of offering our readers these pieces of his unknown work. Finally, the reader will find a section of reviews and the profiles of our contributors.
The images that illustrate this issue of our magazine belong to the urban landscape of Mexico City, which may be also common to many other cities in the world. One of the concerns of Mexican literary magazines has been the transformation of the city (the arrival of electric light and cars, for instance), and even when we do not claim to be an “urban” magazine we are aware that its name and context are inevitably linked to the city. We have then chosen to illustrate our pages with graffiti, light regulators, posters, buildings and other everyday presences; even when we have not decided to make “art” from them, we do consider that as a part of the urban landscape they could become interesting interlocutors of the texts.
Text and translation from Spanish by Georgina Mexía-Amador
…I do not need to clarify that we did not pay the contributions for Rueca, not even the foreign ones, which had not been published before in most of the cases. This was surprising for some of our friends. We did not get surprised, because people is always generous when we talk of disinterested works, few are the people who are not generous, despite of what can be thought of. Carmen Toscano talking about Rueca, a Mexican magazine published by women. The release of a magazine or of any periodical cultural is not only subject to the size of the budget or to the almost suicide sacrifice of its editors to found it and keep it alive; […] other than this necessary material platform, there is an exigency of intellectual, ideological and spiritual order. Elías Nandino talking about Estaciones, literary magazine.
e open this section of Micolo’s Barbershop with a
authors from other parts of the world, and, especially, for offering
couple of epigraphs by two Mexican writers who
their work without expecting anything in return but to have offered
founded two of the most important literary magazines
a product of high quality. We are also not interested in economical
during the 20th century. Mexican literature is found in the
retribution and that is why the access to our barbershop is
magazines. From their pages sprouted the writers that nowadays
completely free. Nobody has demanded a payment for contributing
are indispensable references. And writers that have been forgotten
with us, nor have we received a single cent for working on it. And
with the passing of time have been rescued from them as well. It is
such has been the history of our most important magazines, such as
in Mexican literary magazines where we find the culture, the needs,
Renacimiento, by Ignacio Manuel Altamirano, and Manuel Gutiérrez
the history, the encounters, the polemics, the gestations, the
Nájera’s Revista Azul, two of our major 19th century writers.
different forms of working the beauty of language of our writers. But
In the same way we are aware of our predecessors, we do
not only of Mexico, but also of almost all the world, because we have
not ignore either our contemporaries, who divulge and offer quality
always looked for what is beyond our borders. And this is the reason
literature by means of paper or the web. Inside our barbershop, we
why we also want to dedicate this section to our readers from
like them and read them as well. Carmen Toscano, one of the editors
outside, because they will undoubtedly find themselves in these
of the magazine called Rueca —one of the few magazines made by
pages. We know that our little country is not very well known
women in the early 20th century—, once said that the world of
outside… thus, let us show it to you through its literature and
Mexican literary publications was like an archipelago, in which each
island barely interacted with the others. To some extent, this is true,
In our task of searching for our predecessors in terms of
since each literary group has created its own magazine, sometimes
literary magazines, we also want to be part of this history of
closing the door to people not belonging to their circle. We think
publications, even when we don’t make use anymore of manual
that, at some point, this image of the islands is still valid, and being
presses, types and paper, but of pixels. We have discovered in our
aware of this, we want to build bridges between our island and the
search, that these magazines have had the same concerns: the
rest. We want to dialogue with both our predecessors and our
inclusion of new voices; the dialogue between generations and
contemporaries, and wish to share this talk with our readers from
different political and religious positions; the rebellion against
around the world. In our next issue, we will begin with a trip to the
cultural monopolies. They have always, always felt interest for what
literary magazines of the 19th century, since we have looked back to
happens in the different areas of art, for translating and introducing
it in search for the name of our magazine and the spirit behind it.
Photos and translation by Georgina Mexía-Amador
“The reading of poetry must not be an effort of understanding but an abandonment of will… It is precise to empty of ourselves so that the other, who will inhabit us for an instant, finds a clean atmosphere, an available space. Its stay must be pleasant for it will always be too short.” Rito de iniciación (Initiation Rite), Rosario Castellanos.
First moisture The sun inside me sings to you The sacred green trees kiss your hair
K’iine’ ich teen ku k’ayikech
Day shelters the syrup of its hours
Ya’axche’ob ku ts’u’uts’ko’ob u tso’otsel a pool
Night rises and sows its moon
K’iin ku ts’áaik u paynum ch’ujuk súutuko’ob
I sip your body full of instants trees and stars
Ku líik’il áak’ab yéetel ku pak’ik uj Kin xúuchik a wíinklal chuup yéetel súutuko’ob che’ob yéetel éek’o’ob A wiimo’obe’ najilo’ob k’u ku xululo’ob tu’ux yaan éek’o’ob A peele’
joonaj ku je’epajal utia’al u p’atik u k’áasil in
juunil táankab Ko’olel
jumil ixi’in ku k’áaxal
Your breasts are temples that end in stars Your sex
an opening door
leaving the ruin of my solitude outside
Woman melody of raining corn You flood the entire night with Whispers of my thirsty hunger of you The butterfly in your hand caresses my back I strip in you the true beauty of rivers And your hip dances following the rhythm of pantings Our breath germinates fireflies
Bulu’áak’a’ ka bulik yéetel ki’iki juumo’ob in uk’aj wi’ijil ti’
The urgency of my touch shakes in you
And I become silence in your lightning
U péepenil a k’abe ku jáaxtik in paach Ti’ teech kin síilik u jach jats’uts’il áalkab ja’ob Yéetel ku yóok’ot a k’uul ti’ jéesbal Ak múusiik’e’ ku xitik kóoyao’ob Ti’ teech ku xíixmukuytaj in taltanbal Yéetel kin suut ch’ench’enkíil tu jaats’ a cháak.
Ts’o’ok in kutal in paa’ ka’ éemek le k’ujo’obo’,
Where my voice carves
ka’ u ch’a’ob t’aano’ob jujunp’eelil, yéetel ka’u t’ubo’ob
I have sited here to wait
tu yasab sujuy k’aabil k’iin;
for the gods to descend,
ch’éen ba’ale’ le k’ujo’obo’ yaan súutuke’ ka ta’ajkuba’ob,
take words one by one and submerge them in the purest honey of day;
ku makik u chi’ob, k’a’abéet ti’ob u la’ payalchi’.
but they hide, keep quiet, they need more prayer. I have learnt to find them in the perpetual rush of waves of the oak: they stare at me, trill a prophecy, suddenly they pour the salt of their language in my tongue, and instants become stone where my voice carves.
Ts’o’ok in kanik in kax le k’ujo’obo tu seen ts’íikil ja’il le béeko’; ku paktikeno’ob, bey ch’íich’ ku k’ayo’ob wa ba’ax a’alaj t’aanil, junsúutuke’ ku t’ojiko’ob tin waak’ u ta’abil u t’aano’ob, ix súutuko’obe’ ku súutulo’ob tuunich tu’ux ku póol in t’aan.
Mukulech te’e sujuy t’aana’, kin na’atik u tantanbal u juum a kaal tin t’aan,
kuxa’anech kex ejoch’e’en le bejla’a, ka k’a’ajsik jmeen tu p’atal ti’ teech mantats’il, ka k’a’ajbesik u yóok’ot neek’, u xíitil ak mukub:
You are an enigma in this verse, I guess your voice in my Word, you live, despite the nocturnal present, you remember the jmeen who molded his eternity in you,
ku líik’sik a wool u túunk’ul k’ujo’ob,
you remember the dance of the seed, germinate of our kin:
báaxal pok’ ku k’a’itik náajal, u ts’ook u paylachi’ aj ba’atéel, u noj k’aay u k’i’k’el.
the drum of temples gives you breath, the ballgame that announces triumph, the last prayer of the warrior,
Alux, mantats’il, ch’ul lu’um yéetel a sáasil, táan u páa’tikech in jáal, wek sáas ti’. ta xíimbal kin pak’ik’ in payalchi’, uti’al tuka’aten
they hymn of his blood. Alux, permanence, drench the soil with your clarity, spread light in my awaiting boundary. I sow this prayer in your steps, so that once again,
ti’ amal nal sujuy che’ejnak kool.
to each ear of corn, the cornfield smiles.
Ki’iki óolal k’at, kin k’ubéentik teech u ixi’imil in kukuláankil: Glorious mud,
k’áaxak a k’abo’ob yéetel ka’alak’ u tíitito’ob
I entrust to you the corn of my heartbeats:
may your hands rain shaking trees,
stone by stone,
k’axkech yóok’ol máax okoltik ak taan kóol iik’,
rain over the invader of hope, whistle,
xuuxubnen, chikil u ch’ench’enkíil áak’ab. yéetel u kili’ich chichanil a wíinklal,
rattle the silence of night. With the sacred smallness of your body, make the enemy fly without return.
meent y p’úuts’ul ix ma’ u suut jloob. Alux, uk’ le kúubala’. Sakabe’ u tséent ak k’axt’aan.
Alux, drink this offering. May the sakab feeds our pact.
Poems taken from U K’aay Ch’i’ibal/El canto de la estirpe, book of poems that won the Nezahualcóyotl Literary Award in Mexican Languages in 2008.
By Rafael Mondragón Translation from Spanish by Nayelli Pérez and Georgina Mexía-Amador
he autumnal mane of a tree shucks with the wind passing by. In the background, Leonardo‟s lesson is guessed in a gusty landscape. Two young shepherds
contemplate a skull, left almost by chance on a ruinous stone fence. On the face of one of them, surprise is drawn; on the other one, there is a delicate smile that borders on melancholy. On the stone of the fence a phrase is written: “Et in Arcadia ego” (= “and me, [even] in Arcadia”). That means that for Il Guercino, Paradise is always about to break; death is also in Arcadia. The shepherd reveals his smile, and understands that because of his smile this longing has sense; the beauty that we live, day after day, eludes us; and today only, while contemplating that smile, we knew it. Then we understand she gently came to remind us these things: we do not have to be afraid of it. And we smile filled with melancholy. When one remakes the story of our heavens can sometimes find surprises: acorns, folk songs, dresses made of sheepskin. Long time ago, “Arcadia” was just the name of a town. It appeared for the first time in Polybius‟ writings, a Greek soldier who had to live in Rome, captive since Greece lost the war against the rising and ambitious Empire. In the
GIOVANNI FRANCESCO BARBIERI, “IL GUERCINO” Et in Arcadia ego (1622). Corsini Gallery, Rome
House of Scipio family, Polybius wrote the Histories. In the
And Polybius tells us that all this has sense due to poverty
Book IV, he defended Arcadia, his native land, from all the
only; sadness of a difficult land to cultivate that made people,
cruel jokes of townsmen: Arcadians lived in an inaccessible
who lived from it, sick. That those simple people, his people,
mountainous place; they were hick people due to it, who
learned to sing to heal themselves from pain and sadness: I think it was the people of old who introduced these costumes not as a luxury or as something superfluous, but because they saw that everyone worked isolated and because of this life was harsh and difficult; they also considered the austerity in the costumes that happened to them as a consequence of the poorness of their environment and the sadness of all the region that surrounds them, features that every man have ended assimilating in our nature […]. The former people of Arcadia wished to soften and temper the severity of nature, and so they introduced the art of music, and they established that the majority of assemblies and sacrifices were common, with no differences between men and women, and also instituted choruses for maidens and young boys. They thought up everything, in sum, with the aim of soften and sweeten by means of the institution of some costumes the harshness of their spirit. 3
understood very little of the refined ways of Roman society. Those mockeries hurt Polybius; in an attempt to reply to them, he abandons Philip of Macedonia‟s story (narrated in Book III) and, with the excuse that in certain battle there had been a group of Arcadians, he dedicates the next book to tell the history of his town. Not all Arcadians were as wild as the ones who participated in that battle… No: in that small town there were customs and luminous legends (there are still): It is something known and remarkable that almost only amongst Arcadians the law obliges children to get used to sing hymns and paeans with which each of them, according to ancestral costumes, glorifies the gods and heroes of the country.1 In that small place, men and women grow up while music changes: the learning of a new occupation, births and age changes are marked in Arcadia by the learning of new songs.2 1
(Our English translations are based in the Spanish translation from Latin quoted by the author in the original text: Historias, IV, xx, 8, M. Balasch trad., Madrid, Gredos, 1981. Translator‟s note.) 2 For example, when they grew up, “the youth exercise in military marches following the rhythm of the flute, in a good order, and they train with dances to offer a spectacle to their fellow citizens every year at the theater, by the initiative of the state, that absorbs the costs.” (Historias, IV, xx, 12.).
“They have suffered,” but “we have assimilated.” The Histories, always written in third person (something happened to “them”); 3
Historias IV, xxi, 1-4. (Italics are from the author in the original text in Spanish. Translator‟s note.)
and suddenly, the melancholic trace of the prisoner who, on
civilization.6 All these, stories from a poor town that bears its
remembering his native country, talks about “I” and “we.”
privilege and its punishment even in its etymology: Pliny the
Thanks to that melancholy, Arcadia enters into the field of
elder tells us that, before being known as Arcadia, that region
Literature, and the hunger of its people achieved the dignity of
was called, first, Drymodes (= “wooded”), and after, Pelasgia,7
a legend. Afterwards, Pausanias wrote, in his Description of
because that was the name of the first king that brought them
Greece (c. II a. C.), a whole book about tourist attractions that
civilization, but marked their future: dressed, but with
are worth visiting in that Arcadia.4 On that book he collects
sheepskin (clothes for poor people, as Pausanias notices);8
loads of colorful legends: Pelasgus, the first Arcadian, taught
fed, but with acorns (the most primitive food in the Roman
his subjects to get dressed using sheepskin; he taught them to
live on picking acorns. Lycaon, Pelasgus‟ son, was so cruel
Polybius gave the hunger of his people the dignity of a
that sacrificed a newborn baby on Zeus‟ altar, and due to this
legend and, accidentally, since then he created a legend from
he was turn into a wolf as a punishment for his cruelty. 5 Some
which hunger was going to be talked of with dignity. One day
legends said that he did not remain like this forever, and that
we were in a reunion with Margit Frenk around a table,
he had the chance to return his normal state if after ten years
immersed ourselves in that wonderful practice that is reading
he had not got closed to human flesh. After Lycaon, Nyctimus
aloud. It was the first part of Don Quixote. We were reading the
reigned, and then Arcas did, from whom Arcadia took its name.
Arcas taught them to cultivate fruits, to knit, to spin and to
group of goatherds that offer them a humble meal: nutty acorns
and a half of cheese, “harder than as if was made of mortar”.9
All these are legends where that rural and agricultural element is present, which makes different Arcadians from
Book VIII. (Our English translation follows the edition quoted by the author in the original text in Spanish: M. Cruz Herrero, Ma drid, Gredos, 1994. Translator‟s note.) 5 A different legend about this Lycaon (the lycanthrope) is told by Ovid in the Book I of the Metamorphoses, 209-243.
Don Quixote and Sancho are welcomed by a
Don Quixote finishes eating, and he stays looking at the 6
Arcas himself did not marry a normal woman, but with Erato, a dryad, a nymph of the forests. 7 PLINY, Natural History, IV, x, 6. 8 “That is the fashion in which the poor people of Phocis and Euboea dresses” (PAUSANIAS, Description of Greece, VIII, 5). (For our English translation we used the Spanish version of the text originally quoted by the author. Translator‟s note.) 9 (Our English translation follows the Spanish edition from which the autor originally quotes: Don Quijote de la Mancha, I, xi, p. 121, Francisco Rico: Barcelona, Crítica, 2001. Translator‟s note.)
acorns. And then he starts a speech that later becomes
himself because he could not get a feigned shepherdess‟ love.
famous: he has gone insane and talks about a Golden Age in
Such a humble meal is woven in the space that goes from
the beginning of the world, a happy time where “those living in
desire and reality, as the whole Quixote is woven; as life is.
it were not aware of the meaning of yours and mine”10. A friend
Today, I remember that reunion with a smile and I think about
raises his voice to remember that our nobleman went crazy
the real Arcadia, the one described by Pausanias, where
because acorns are a topic from the Golden Age: on
people ate acorns thanks to a legend: a humble meal that
contemplating them, Don Quixote would have remembered
achieved dignity due to a king‟s mythical action. In the other
about the beginning of Metamorphoses (I, vv. 89-112), where
humble meal, Don Quixote‟s, the vital tradition of poverty is
Ovid talks about the beginning of the world and about a first
mixed with the other tradition, the one of the lost paradise.
age where people did good things because they wanted to, and because of that no armies or laws were necessary; everything was for everybody, and the land gave enough fruit so everybody could eat. People fed from acorns then, “which fell from the bushy tree of Jove” (Met. I, v. 106).11 The goatherds do not seem to be surprised by the crazy man‟s words. Perhaps, they are already used to them: Later, we find out there is a large group of young people that love pastoral novels and have decided to live between the goatherds. After listening to a peasant singing a humble romance, we find with a delicate, courtly song, written by a rich young man that killed 10
Ibid. This is why Virgil says, in the Georgics, when the gods are invoked: “… men changed, a gift of ours, / The Chaonian acorn of fertile ear”: he ceased to eat acorns and began to work the soil, and therefore entered into the Age in which we live. (Our English translation follows the text originally quoted by the author in Spanish: Miguel Antonio Caro: Madrid, Imprenta Central, 1879.Translator‟s note.) 11
experimented with bossa nova rhythms, and in songs like “Mañana olvidaré” showed a more intimate aspect, far from the so called mainstream.
Text and Photos by Carlos Ascencio Translation by Fabiola Mercado
ore than one person may be wondering which is the relation between the three elements that combined entitle this text. And though they might seem
unconnected at the beginning, the link we are trying to present between this great artist (the physical height is insignificant here), the most important rock festival in Mexico and the term Postmodernism, is not that out of place. Natalia Lafourcade is a Mexican singer, composer and producer who began her career in the pop group Twist at the end of the 1990‟s. Even when the project was ephemeral, it created to Lafourcade a stigma of “prefabricated artist”, which remained for some time in the memory of the audience. In the year 2002, she edited her first homonymous album, from which singles such as “En el 2000” or “Busca un problema” were promoted; these songs didn‟t detach from a playful aesthetic, and without high pretenses they resembled the cannons of the fearful term pop. However, in other songs that were not promoted, such as “El destino”, she
It was a little later, in the year 2003 that her first opportunity to step on the scenario of the Vive Latino arrived. It was just the fourth edition of a festival that began five years ago, and whose continuity was not guaranteed (it didn‟t take place in 1999 nor 2002). This festival was organized by OCESA, the hegemonic enterprise of the entertainment industry in Mexico, in which Grupo Televisa has an important participation, and is part of CIE (Corporación Interamericana de Entretenimiento). This May 11th (the festival used to last a day), water, beer, and all beverages were sold out in the Foro Sol, at the peak of the festival; it was not possible to go back to the Autódromo Hermanos Rodríguez after getting out to rehydrate, and even less with any kind of liquid; the outcome of this was that the people fired up.
The show of that occasion was composed by artists such as
In 2005, Lafourcade was editing Casa, her second album
Café Tacvba, Molotov, El Gran Silencio, Aterciopelados and
produced by Emmanuel del Real, of Café Tacvba. For that
Resorte, among others. Lafourcade was on stage B, the same in
purpose, she reunited with a group of musicians to form a band
which groups like Babasónicos, Enanitos Verdes or Panda were
called Natalia y Lafourquetina, something unusual in the music
already performing. It is remarkable to say that stages were
industry, where it was customary becoming a soloist after taking
named according to hierarchy simply as A, B, C; this last stage
part in a group, and not the other way around.
was dedicated to electronic music.
Later, she would break new ground when editing Las cuatro
With only a CD in her career, the novel promise was faced
estaciones del amor, an album in which the Orquesta Sinfónica
with a public of colossal magnitudes for the first time, with only 19
Juvenil del Estado de Veracruz participated. In 2009, her fourth
years of age and her meter and a half of height; she didn‟t
album entitled Hu Hu Hu was released, and in 2010 she
manage to tame the spectators who abused their power and
participated in the celebrations of the Mexican Bicentennial, along
didn‟t tire of throwing offenses, condemnations, beer and even
with Alondra de la Parra, Lo blondo and Ely Guerra; she also
shoes at her. Lafourcade did her best to withstand the pressure,
entered music producing (as in the second EP of Carla Morrison,
but finally gave up in her attempt to take her music to that
a young promise from Tecate, Baja California), and films (soon
anonymous crowd. The audience felt the space consecrated to
you‟ll be able to watch her in the film El cielo en tu mirada).
rock had been profaned, a space that was denied to them (at
Just a couple of months ago, in April 9th, 2011, a Saturday,
least in the capital city and in those proportions) for a quarter of a
Natalia Lafourcade was part again of the twelfth edition of the
century, since the mythic festival Rock y Ruedas, in Avándaro,
“Vive”, as the Hispanic American festival of musical culture is also
took place in 1971. For the audience, a sacrilege had been
known. After that traumatic experience in 2003, she was ready to
committed and justice had to be attained by their own hands, for
face her demons and make up with the audience that managed to
the organizers themselves programmed an artist that represented
make her leave the stage years before. However, and this is
the bitter enemy of rock, the antagonist par excellence of
where the word Postmodernism surfaces, the public to which she
rebellion: pop. It was curious that only a year later, the word
performed for the first time was not the same as that of 2003.
“rebellious” was trivialized by the media phenomenon of the soap opera Rebelde by Televisa.
This claim seems evident
The desecration of this ritual space (for so it was) devoted to
at first: it is clear that the same
tock music, exposes the shattering of the great paradigms. In
people who went to the show of
music, it has meant the collapse of the barriers between genders,
2003 is not the same than the
for we are in a stage in human history in which everything is
one who now received her with
allowed, in which tolerance and respect for diversity are the more
ovations and applauses. Even
well-worn arguments, and where words like “heterogeneous” or
thinking in a hypothetical way,
“ephemeral” are constant. And because this happened, in my
in spite of them being the same
personal opinion, I crossed the thin line that separated Modernity
and Postmodernism, and stayed, comfortably, thanks to the
ambiguity of the term, in an indecision that makes me enjoy just
contexts would have changed
the same Natalia Lafourcade than Charly Montana or Bomba
from what they were some
Estéreo; Chemical Brothers and Tokio Ska Paradise Orchestra
years ago. Lafourcade herself is not the same person: her music,
than Charly García. We have, thus, a collage of genders, roots,
experience and work have matured, achieving success in
and different styles harmoniously cohabiting in the same
different areas related to the artistic world.
fairground. Everything was organized, sponsored and controlled
But this is not the aspect we want to deal with, but that of
by the same people that invite us to be indecisive, to form a new
the socio-cultural context that has make the audience receive with
anonymous and homogeneous crew, so manipulating us is easier
enthusiasm a proposal that years ago they bluntly rejected. We
in this way and the only “real” decision we have to make is which
do not deny that there have been cases like this in the history of
beer or soda we want to drink.
music. However, what we want to highlight is the fast transition
Without any doubt, in these times there‟s been a greater
that occurred in Mexico, from Modernity to Postmodernism, in the
aperture, a greater approach to what once was called “urban
short period that cover these agitated years of the first decade of
tribes”; there is a constant borrowing of sonorous material that
the 21th century. For us, this transition could be one of the factors
enriches the musical proposals emerging every day. However, a
that helped to disappear the alleged sacredness of a space,
doubt floats in the air: do these “independent” manifestations
allowing the inclusion of pop artists without any resistance.
really honor their name? Or are they the outcome of the decomposition of rock in more attainable musical products, in
order to be consumed by a greater number of people, based on
hats and caps of truck driver. Here we have a clear example: the
mere mercantilist goals?
recent attempt to forbid narcocorridos and the campaigns against
Though we cannot answer these questions with certitude,
perreos, in which reggaeton is demonized for being a dance that
the truth is that the height of the career of all those artists that
favours drugs and sexual violence: Where is the famous
wander constantly between genders, that some years ago would
have been considered antagonistic, has a branched explanation.
To conclude, in this text we do not attempt to favour or
The great industries of the hegemonic power, if not
disfavour the effects of Postmodernism. What
the creators of this boom, have noticed this unusual
we are aiming to is awakening the reflection of
growth and have made the most of this success
the great aperture that is taking place, which
exploiting it and pursuing mere commercial goals.
should be made good use of, and it depends
The idea that rock does not sell anymore is being
very much of how it is used and who owns it.
reinforced by the people in power, to smooth the
The question is whether we keep on letting
way and discourage the competence.
orders be dictated from above about what we
On the other hand, it may be supposed that the positive aspect of the rapprochement between
must or must not tolerate, or if we, from Natalia Lafourcade
beneath, build a criteria of our own to reach
the different musical forms, is that it is now thought in terms of a
higher goals, others than placing an artist in the charts of
mutual acknowledgement of differences and similarities, virtues
popularity against another, that we now choose to make
and defects. However, a broader reading offers a disheartening
view. In my opinion, what happened is the same as in the
In spite of what we may say, think, write or muse about,
constant wars of the United States against the world: the face of
Postmodernism is a reality that transcends the ideological stands
the enemy has changed; now, pop and rock, for example, can
of the individuals; it is an age of contradictions, in which on one
walk the same path, but will never reach an understanding with
hand tolerance is defended, but on the other individualism is
reggaeton or music produced in the north of Mexico. In other
encouraged in an exacerbated way, and a great quantity of
words, we go back to the previous stance in which everything that
discourses are being generated, which constantly surpass, match
did not resemble me was attacked; whatever was different was
and face each other, inevitably. The difference is that now no one
segregated and seen with hostile eyes; now the enemy wears
is going to try, even a little, to tear their clothes apart, isnâ€&#x;t it?, ď€Ś
Makers of Children's Literature Interview Marisol Vázquez and Georgina Mexía-Amador Translation from Spanish by Fabiola Mercado and Georgina Mexía-Amador
We were about to begin the interview with one of the most
where the reader has to posses a background. I like many
renowned authors of children’s books: Isol, from Argentina. Her
authors that write literature for children and I am not a child,
works have been included in the White Ravens list of the
and I think this is the same for other persons. I think that in a
Internationalen Jugenbibliothek of Munich, and has been finalist in
literary magazine approaching the reader to different genres is
the Hans Christian Andersen Award, considered the “Nobel Prize”
very good because, in general, literature must have a good
of children’s literature. It was midday in Buenos Aires and 10 o’clock in Mexico City. We could see the shining of a window behind Isol
quality. There are people who may not be interested in children‟s books and people who will be.
while saying hello to her through the webcam. She was smiling. And
Marisol: You have defined yourself as an author of children‟s
so the talk began…
literature because you generate both the text and the illustrations of a book. Each of these languages has its own
Marisol: We included in our magazine a section about children‟s literature because literary magazines generally tend to address an adult public, while literary production for children
code and they complement each other in order to create stories. You have published books in which you are an author in this whole sense, and others in which you are just the illustrator, for example: Auggie Wren's Christmas Story by Paul
is made aside, as if it was another world (which it is, in another sense). What would you tell to our readers about children‟s literature?
Luján, but why are there no
Isol: Sometimes it is difficult for me to say “children‟s
books where you are just the
literature” because it seems it was written by kids. I think that
generator of the text for others
as most literature, it is written by adults, and though we think it
to illustrate it? What reasons,
has to be read by a child due to certain particularities, quality
born out of art and creativity
must be good enough so that an adult or a child can read it.
make you prefer the language
Children‟s literature has specific features: it has to be more
synthetic, with stories in which knowing something before hand is not to be expected, as is the case of the literature for adults, Secreto de familia, Isol. Mexico, FCE, 2003.
Isol: Well, when I come up with a text I have already
me new elements and I have discovered unexpected
visualized how I‟m going to
illustration techniques to
illustrate it. When I‟ve had
dialog with texts.
some little texts or something
Marisol: Do you accept to
that I think it can be illustrated
work illustrating the books
by someone else, most of the
of any writer or only of
times it lacks the quality my
those with whom you feel
text has when I illustrate it
identified, admire or have a
myself, for there are parts
connexion in some way?
Isol: Yes, I only work
drawings. I would not like to
with texts that identify me,
give my idea, my project, to
that‟s why I don‟t have
an illustrator to whom I have
many things done with
to say “look, the drawing
Auggie Wren‟s Christmas Story. Text by Paul Auster. Ilustrations by Isol. UK, Faber & Faber, 2009.
other writers. I say that
goes here”; he would go
what we do as illustrators also puts us as authors. I make very
crazy. I am not used to generating a text and then say “oh, I
few books a year. I make a book and a half per year. Then, the
don‟t know what image it might have.” In the way I work, it is
book must have something that I like, I must feel that
difficult not to imagine the drawings, and if I really like the text I
something is going to happen with it. It has to be something
get enthusiastic about it and want to do it myself. It is not that I
different from what I have already done. The truth is that
produce a lot of individual texts but I think of projects that entail illustration and text, and when I have to illustrate the text of others I get excited because it sets another structure for me, for it was not generated with its illustrations, it comes to me with its own literary images. I achieve other things, other type of figuration because the imagery of the other person brings
choosing my own projects is very difficult to me, and when I am offered other texts, I have to like them and be inspired by them. Marisol: Tell us about the way in which you generate the graphic discourse parting from the techniques you use for illustration. Why do you choose certain colour palette? What
reading can generate in the story a soft or recharged trace, as
from which one stands is taken into account here, and in that
in Vida de perros (A Dog‟s Life)?
story I was questioning certain truth that the mother told the little boy, like “things must be this way,” and he wonders who he is and how things have to be, and sometimes this leads to more mess, doesn‟t it? And in this book the illustration is linked to the textual discourse. The last book I made, La Bella Griselda (Beautiful Griselda), has a very different colour technique: I did it with four pantone colours: blue, orange, black, and light yellow,
Vida de perros, Isol. Mexico, FCE, 1997.
Isol: For me, this is one of the most interesting things: I have to look for the technique to accompany the story. It is as if you were the director in a movie and you have to say “It is going to be in black and white or in close-up.” What exists around telling the story is going to determine certain atmosphere and is going to take us to a reading. In Vida de perros, for example, it was a time when I was very enthusiastic about a type of painting that is kind of related with the expressionist thing. This was twelve years ago, or more, and I really liked this kind of plastic; it was sort of savage, and was related to a very Argentine illustration style of the period of the books I read when very little, and also to the way the story in Vida de perros had that rebellious thing about conventions, about the primitive and the “cultural.” The side
in a special ink. Then, I used a contour palette (expecting the colours to be the way they should, because
another issue), and I worked with a type of figuration related to my love for the Romanic, for the style of the Middle
Cover of the Norwegian edition of Vida de perros, Gyldendal, 2009.
Ages, but brought of course to a more actual and graphic era. I do not want to give a message with the story; instead, what I look for is that what I say tries to accompany my type of approach to the story. For example, in Griselda you can see heads rolling, but if I had
made it more realistic, it would have been terrible. What I tried
Georgina: Parting from what you just told us, a change in the
was to make it funny, even absurd.
style of your illustrations is evident: from your first books, such
I always prefer that the contour lines defining the image
as Vida de perros, until La Bella Griselda. And thus, such
are not that thin, so that the colours move inside them. I like
transformation has to do with the fact that the stories determine
working with things that seem embossed, such as old books
the technique, the colours.
and the “mistakes” resulting from screen printing: the colour
Isol: Yes, but it also means that 14 years have passed by,
runs and spreads over the outline. For me, this provides
since 1997 [year in which Vida de perros was published]. And
dynamism and freshness to the books, as if the trace was
an artist that is doing the same thing for 14 years is a little
alive. In this way, I keep on finding new things to test, which
weird, isn‟t it?
interest me. The way I choose to narrate graphically will
Marisol: Tell us what influences of other artists can be found
support the interpretation of the story in a certain way.
in your work. Isol: One of the greatest influences for me were some books I had when I was a child: the collection Cuentos de Polidoro (Tales by Polidoro), which was released here in Argentina in the 1970‟s, at the end of the 1960‟s; these were books whose illustrations resembled those of Eastern Europe. They were made by people very aware of what was graphically being made in the world, people who were not thinking that those were just books for kids; the illustrator feeds from many things, and that helps us to not get stuck.
El globo, Isol. Mexico, FCE, 2002.
This was the first
publish it. And I still love these books: one of them is Glasses
(Who Needs „Em?), by Lane Smith, and the other is Teddy!
Where Are You?, a pretty weird book by Steadman. And
Steadman, who is an English or American illustrator, I don‟t
illustrated very way.
specifically for children. I also
father is a painter,
different audiences and can
child I saw many
narrating, and knows how to
find other languages. Then I
had the opportunity to travel to
different ways of
Europe, around the time I
seeing the world.
Cover of the Canadian edition of
made my first book, and I got
This is the reason why I think it‟s very good to have different
Pantuflas de perrito. Text by Jorge
German edition of Secreto de familia. Aufbau, 2010.
styles in the illustrations for children‟s books, because points of
Groundwood Books, 2010.
views are widened. Something that had great influence on me
illustrators who also gave me
were the books of the Fondo de Cultura Económica [a leading
more strength and more inspiration for what I was doing; one
Mexican publishing house with presence in LA, USA and
of them is Wolf Erlbruch, a German who won the Hans
Spain]: I first bought a book by Lane Smith and another by
Christian Andersen Award some years ago, the most important
Ralph Steadman, and then I thought about entering to Fondo‟s
award in children‟s literature. I also saw the books that were
annual competition of illustrated books, A la Orilla del Viento.
being made in France, which have lots of humor and,
Also, seeing that these things got published gave me the idea
plastically, much ambition; for example, one of these authors is
of making a book in my own way, and that someone could
Olivier Douzou. So, these books were very important. I visually
love this kind of books, I enjoy illustrated books as objects and
people in US only, not to me”. I mean, we are used to consume
I enjoy finding good authors. I need to be told something
what they do to the extent that when it happens otherwise is
interesting, not only cute drawings.
sort of weird. We are so influenced by what these Western
Georgina: Just a moment ago, you were talking
countries offer to us. Our Western culture has a lot in common,
about audiences and how your trips to Europe opened new possibilities of graphic and literary influences and, for example, some of your books have been translated and taken to other cultural contexts, such as Vida de perros, published in Norway, and recently Secreto de familia (Family secret), published in Germany and Brazil. Do you think that these problems that arise in childhood could be in a way “universal”? Isol: I work with situations that are familiar to me or that I think they can be sympathetic with a child‟s point of view. Of course I‟m limited to my experience as a Western middle class girl, and the places
La Bella Griselda, Isol. Mexico, FCE, 2010.
where my books have been translated have this kind of
our way of telling tales, for instance. What seems to me quite
audience, more or less, right? I do not know what people in
complicated to translate is sense of humor, since in every
India would think. In Germany, as far as I‟m concerned,
country is different. For example, Griselda may seem in Mexico
Secreto de familia [in German Wie siehst du den haus?] was
like very hard to endure, the thing about heads rolling may
very well received, while It‟s Useful to Have a Duck had also a
seem terrible because in Mexico people is being killed and
great acceptance in North America. And I think, though, that
beheaded unlike here… for now. So, there are things from
this also has to do with the fact that we are consumers of what
reality that may seem scandalous or not parting from a book.
the other countries do. We don‟t say like “this happens to
And talking about language, in Griselda there‟s a part where it
says that the little princess enjoyed to join pieces of a puzzle,
thinking, just as the school does, and we see that all these
and we had a long discussion of what to do in English,
rules are subjective and depend on the context, and I enjoy to
because in “puzzle” we don‟t have the word “head” or
see these things as for first time, questioning why this is good
something that has to do with it, as it happens in Spanish; so
or bad and how this world could be different. This thing about
we had to find something that more or less worked and it was
perspective is what also happens in It‟s Useful to Have a Duck,
complicated. If this happens with such a little book, I don‟t want
in Vida de perros: how one can look at things from another
to imagine how it is like with poetry.
perspective and find new possibilities. And this is the way in
Marisol: We have been talking about the creation of your
which an artist and a child stare at the world: without prejudice,
books, while children only sit down to read them either alone or
without any former idea of things, and because of this they look
with their parents and enjoy your stories. What do you think
for something different from what already exists, in a fresher
about children as an audience of readers?
way. All this allows more freedom outside the culture already
Isol: Well, I really don‟t think much. I see that they have fun
established. I‟m very interested in identity, in having my own
and there are things that really look like what happens to them
criteria. With the Duck I wanted to achieve something short
in reality. There‟s a book
and funny, something that it‟s not
of mine entitled Petit, the
done just with a single look.
Monster, that has to do
I try to make something
with what‟s wrong and
happen and I guess that if adults
right, and I see how the
enjoy it too, they will tell it in a
very little ones love the
different way, and kids will find things interesting depending on
book because they have a cathartic feeling of what
how parents show books to them.
they are told all the time
If adults find it interesting, the kid
of how to be in life. And I
Petit, the Monster, Isol. Canada, Groundwood Books, 2010.
will look differently at the book.
wasn‟t expecting this; one finds an audience of one‟s own. In
Kids find more things from what
this book I enjoy this thing about trying to establish ways of
already exists and they have to share it with the parents. And
so, the parents may even laugh, as it happens with Secreto de
Isol: Well, each of my books has something of its own. For
familia, which is found enormously hilarious by mothers. I
example, the Duck is a book that each time I have the chance
prefer to work with sense of humor, because I enjoy laughing
of showing I do, because conceptually speaking it can
at solemn things and fears I had when
generate a very interesting reaction in
I was a child, like, for example, “How
the audience. And since I waited so
will the others look at me? Am I really
long for it to be released, six years, I
also appreciate it very much.
There are different ways in
There are other books I also
which we face the world around us,
love but I‟m not sure whether they will
and this is common to us human
work with anyone. I know that Secreto
beings. I cannot judge a kid yet; rather
de familia will work pretty well with
I see his world and find that in general,
It‟s useful to have a duck, Isol. Canada, Groundwood Books, 2008.
kids are still very rebellious. I love that.
mothers, but El globo (The Balloon) is much stranger.
My characters, in general, are like that,
The books of mine I like the
they don‟t accept the first thing they
most are those which I consider more
are told of and I got this influence from
original. However, I always try that the
Mafalda, Alice in Wonderland, since
last ones are the ones I like the most.
they are characters that try to reach to
Right now I love Griselda, because it
their own truth about the world. And
deals with another kind of discourse,
this freedom has to do with fun also,
it‟s more complex; in the books I‟ve
and it works with many people, kids and adults. This makes me
made with Jorge Luján, another kind of discourse can be seen
happy because it encourages me to do something very
because the rhythm of the text changes. That‟s why it‟s hard to
me to show my works since I try to change and look for a
Marisol: Is there any of your books that you especially cherish
different style, I mean, “I do this, but I also do this”. I don‟t have
over the rest?
a book which I consider the best, because I try to change and
maybe the first ones are quite out of date in terms of graphic
Marisol: Would you wish to add something else? We talked
now. But if I have to choose one, I guess the Duck is the one I
about the topics we were more interested that you shared with
love the most, it‟s the most original, the most awesome.
us. We are very happy and thankful for your professionalism.
Marisol: What kind of advice would you give to those who
You have left a very good impression in us.
wish to begin in the illustration of children‟s books?
Isol: Well, the only thing that worries me sometimes has to
Isol: I place myself there, because that‟s where I still stand
do with printing presses. Because you work a lot and the last
and well, if you really like this you start to work hard, to try, to
part in the process, that is the press, most of the times, located
research and draw your own path. It‟s a matter of making
in another country, doesn‟t take its job as seriously as it
projects at the level of the people you admire. You cannot be
should. Big publishing houses make so many books that they
so indulgent with yourself. You must enjoy the challenge and
lose control of them at the moment of printing. I wish this
make a book as if it was not of your authorship. There are
wouldn‟t happen. We are talking of illustrated books, I wish
people who think that just because the book is theirs it is
there would be more control and respect for our work. But this
automatically wonderful. If you want something made with
is my only problem, the rest is only happiness to me.
enough quality you also have to show it to other people. The process takes time, and you have to feel free to try different things and never think that you have to find your own style at once. We must look at the books made by other illustrators and look at the things made in other spheres, such as literature, art, museums, because as you become more cultivated, your work will be able to nurture better. When you don‟t have a boss you don‟t have a chance to argue with anyone. So, it‟s good to make projects that are like a small, cheap edition, this is one good option. That‟s the key: find a discourse of your own, and of course it‟s hard when you begin. A book made by oneself is an interesting thing to do. And this was helpful to me.
Intercambio cultural, Isol. Mexico, FCE, 2010.
emergent mexican art
Texts and design: Carlos Sandoval. Translation from Spanish: Georgina MexĂa-Amador
Carlos Sandoval is a plastic artist, currently studying a BA in History of Art at the Lamm House Culture Centre (Centro de Cultura Casa Lamm) in Mexico City. He has participated in a couple of individual exhibitions as well as in four collective exhibitions in Mexico. His work has been part of events such as the Cultural Corridor Roma-Condesa and the contemporary arts festival Zona MACO. He has collaborated in the organization of exhibitions at the National Museum of San Carlos, at the Blue House Museum of Frida Kahlo and the National Museum of Art. His work is included in the catalogue by Lamm House Casa Lamm y sus artistas and in the electronic catalogue Ars-Tesauro sponsored by FONCA, CONACULTA, Laboratorio Arte Alameda and Museum of Art Carrillo Gil.
Yo y mi mu単eca (Me and my doll). Mixed thecnic on wood. 60 x 38 cm 2010.
Taxonomía (Taxonomy). Acrylic on canvas. 20x50 cm 2009.
Wonderland 1.2. Mixed thecnic on wood. 25x20 cm. 2009.
Cambios (Changes) . Acrylic on canvas. 150x50 cm. 2009.
The works of Carlos Sandoval deal with three topics: religion, cultural clashes due to globalization and the concept of simulation. From these three perspectives reflections and bidirectional readings arise between tradition and current happenings, reality and simulation, permanence and transformation. For the artist, it is in everyday reality that juxtaposed relations are established, enunciating the past and time in a symbiosis characterized by exoticism.
Exvoto. Acrylic on canvas. 25x20 cm. 2008.
Los Suicidas (The Suicides). Acrylic on canvas. 25x20 cm. 2010.
Chair. Plastic chair intervened with acrylic paint. 2010.
During 2011, Carlos began the project Espacio vacĂo (Empty Space), that consist in showcases intervention with artistic aims in Mexico City, with the sponsor of Lamm House, Ars-Tesauro and Nodo Espacio. The cycle of interventions implies the participation of a team that will achieve the installation of five showcases with different topics, with the intention of offering the spectator an alternative within contemporary art that has not yet been explored in Mexico. In this way, Carlos Sandoval complements his studies with his artistic practice, with the purpose of not only studying the history of art, but of achieving, within his possibilities, creations that strengthen art in Mexico.ď€Ś
in gestation poetry
Yours, this delirium of mine Yours, the bitter circles under my eyes Yours, this lame blow Yours, my ill insomnia
Yours, my evil life my half life if only I had more to give!
Yours, my seas, my breezes; I give you the hot, bastard winds of your broken affections
Yours, my understanding and respect my notion of living my final end
Yours, my silent desire
Translation from Spanish:
my sad whisper
blossom of those two murderer pillars that move gods and infernal voices
Yours, even my last enlightened point, heavenly body in the sky of your touch; yours, my brakeless madness, slave of your kiss’ firmament;
Yours the drugs guilty of keeping my cardiac lines alive beating, suffering and alive
Yours, my bones marked by your name Yours, my stubborn movements, soldiers of your body
Yours, all my foolish attempts yours, my will attached to your army yours, my deaf “neverminds”
yours, my broken line, lost child in the path resting in the dwelling of your dream
Yours, my changing weather sunny with the contact of your eyes, cloudy if you were hidden by the moments
Yours, this bare confession, safe because is yours… my alien marionette without your strings.
Juan josé rodríguez garcía
FROM THE ABYSS
The beasts are restless at dusk, they work they slash impudence, they feed from it They are like demons, nights and beasts conspire against us, the forgotten prepare us for the insult, for the offense and for the selfishness of the baptized. With the moon, the beasts flare up betrayals
Watch sickened by my cold doings
Their light hurt as much as the hermit’s stink
I have nothing else but these claws and I die, with cool hands, in my own war
Every time the night falls, I hide from myself
in the supposed unconsciousness
I fear myself so much that I do not know me anymore
of hurting myself
I hate the complicity of nights
or in the most accurate of my defective virtues
and I have no other shelter than sinking in the mirror
that is to know how much pain I own deep inside
and cry out at the narcissism of my souls
and how much I can be an asshole
or get drained of poison
to dislocate myself
Translation from Spanish:
Even believing in the cure
with these vague illusions I cannot stop being a beast
with the candor of my fierceness or the sorrow that has bent me for days for nights
At dusk storms flow from me with each of my twisted vices
for hours for years
My feet begin a journey to the abyss
caring about without caring
My eyes break up the rules
being afraid of myself so much
The body I own transmute in fright
as if that beast the mirror keeps
I cannot stop feeling captivated by the flames
was more intelligent and powerful than my wandering innocence
Scenic trolley “La otra nave” Sonora street, next to Parque México, Mexico City. Photo: Georgina Mexía-Amador
T H E A T R e
SNOUT: Will not the ladies be afeard of the lion? STARVELING: I fear it, I promise you. BOTTOM: Masters, you ought to consider with yourself: to bring in (God shield us!) a lion among ladies is a most dreadful thing. For there is not a more fearful wild-fowl than your lion living; and we ought to look to‟t. SNOUT: Therefore, another prologue must tell he is not a lion. BOTTOM: Nay, you must name his name, and half his face must be seen through the lion‟s neck, and he himself must speak through, saying thus, or to the same defect: „Ladies‟, or „Fair ladies —I would wish you‟, or „I would request you‟, or „I would entreat you, not to fear, not to tremble: my life for yours. If you think I come hither as a lion, it were pity of my life. No: I am no such thing: I am a man as other men are.‟ And there indeed let him name his name, and tell them plainly he is Snug the joiner. Act 3, scene 1, A Midsummer Night‟s Dream, William Shakespeare.
NIRVANA IN MEXICAN
l decadentismo en el México finisecular —procurando emular la corriente estética y literaria que surgió
en Francia a finales del siglo XIX—, fue poco más que un grito de rebeldía entre los jóvenes
intelectuales que se extinguió pronto. Su preocupación fue la de sublimar el arte y los sentidos a un
estado que ya no reconociera límites con lo enfermizo, lo macabro, con todo aquello que subvirtiera la moral y el puritanismo: Ciro B. Ceballos se regodeó con una historia de adulterio zoofílico, mientras Bernardo Couto, si acaso el único que se entregó con fe vehemente y ciega al decadentismo, llegó a plantear algo que Thomas de Quincey ya había aventurado: el asesinato como obra de arte. En su cuento “Blanco y rojo”, un cadáver exangüe se desangra como sinfonía cromática, y el artista de tal cuadro aparece como un incomprendido de la sociedad bruta e hipócrita. En este contexto de inversión de paradigmas, no dudaron los decadentistas en incorporar a sus filas estéticas influjos del orientalismo que había comenzado a filtrarse a Latinoamérica por medio del ocultismo y la Teosofía provenientes de Francia. Y entre dichos influjos, estuvo la palabra nirvana, por la que surgió una fascinación que Jorge Luis Borges constata en sus escritos sobre budismo: “Parece imposible, en efecto, que esa palabra tan sonora y tan enigmática no incluya algo precioso”. La atracción por este vocablo llevó a los escritores de finales del siglo XIX a incorporarlo en sus obras —a “prodigarlo”, diría Borges— pero, lo hicieron de manera equivocada —aunque, ¿cómo no hacerlo si los filtros europeos por los que recibieron el
Georgina Mexía-Amador • Text Minh Hien Nguyen Thi • Photos of Laos
nirvana ya habían trastocado su sentido original, como la Teosofía
Illustrations by Julio Ruelas
de Madame Helena Blavatsky y el pesimismo nihilista de Arthur
Fabiola Mercado • Translation from Spanish
he Decadent movement in Mexico at the end of the 19 th century—endeavouring to emulate the aesthetic and literary movement that emerged in France at the end of this same century—was a little more than a rebellious shout among the intellectual youth, which was soon quenched. Sublimating art
and senses to a state that did not recognize boundaries between what is sick, macabre, and everything that subverts morals and Puritanism was their goal: Ciro B. Ceballos gloated over a story of zoophilic adultery, while Bernardo Couto, probably the only one that devoted himself with vehement and blind faith to Decadence, proposed something that Thomas de Quincey had already ventured: murder as an artwork. In his short story “Blanco y rojo” (White and Red) a worn out corpse bleeds like a chromatic symphony, and the artist of such scene looks like a misfit in a brutish and hypocritical society. In this context of inversion-of-paradigms, Decadents did not hesitate in incorporating to their aesthetic ranks influences from the Orientalism that was beginning to leak from France to Latin America through Occultism and Theosophy. Among those influences we find the word nirvana, for which a fascination bloomed just as Jorge Luis Borges points out in his writings about Buddhism: “It seems impossible indeed that that greatly sonorous and enigmatic word did not contain something precious.” The attraction for this term led writers of the end of the 19 th century to include it in their works—“to lavish it,” Borges would say—but they did it wrongly—but how to avoid it when the European filters from which they received nirvana had already disrupted its original meaning, like the Theosophy of Madame Helena Blavatsky and the pessimistic nihilism of Arthur Schopenhauer?
Julio Ruelas, Scorpio-woman, 1904.
Pondering on this, José Vasconcelos states: “Who was the first to think Nirvana as Nothingness, and the same as death and complete annihilation? […] However, some Hindustani sects, the same as almost every European, have interpreted Nirvana as an equivalent of complete annihilation.” To this Fernandez Güell adds: “… Buda never spoke about nothingness […] never preached the annihilation of the spirit but simply its freedom.” And it was the nihilist influence of Schopenhauer and the boredom of end of century what prepared the terrain for the appropriation of the term nirvana among the Mexican Decadents. The first one who used this enigmatic word — whose definition is even elusive depending on the branch of Buddhism from which it is viewed, whether Mahayana, Hinayana, Theravada— was José Juan Tablada. It is attributed to Tablada the inclusion of hai kú to the poetic structure in Spanish, and at that moment, in which he recognizes himself as Decadent, we see his first incursions into the Orient in a letter of 1893 in which nirvana is Julio Ruelas, Sókrates, 1902.
In this letter, Tablada explains that Decadence, as school, allows the entire freedom of the artist, and that boredom and doubt in religious beliefs determine its moral decadence; hyperesthesia and ultra-sensibility characterize the aesthetic refinement of the decadent artist and that motivates his banishment (whether voluntary or involuntary) from the “bourgeois paradise” that does not accept his poetic ideals. What is singular is that all these ideas are explained in a peculiar religious vocabulary that reminds of catholic liturgy, but he does not only use terms like “chapel,” “convent,” “cells,” or “nuns”, but also introduces eastern terms, like “pagoda” and, evidently, nirvana. The paragraph in which this word is found reads as follows:
Our brain is the lazarium of tedium; frequently, the dreams that float in it, writhing in anguished convulsions, at last are fixed in a black circle that has an awful resemblance to the Buddhist zero, to the fatal symbol of Niro창nah.
Buddhist Theravada temple in Vientiane, Laos.
The metaphor of tedium like a black circle, typical of the feeling of the end of century, is striking, as well as its association with this Buddhist zero, the singular graphic form that derives Niroânah from nirvana and also the conception of this term as a symbol. This vocabulary and the images used refer to something fatal, terrible, like the black circle metaphor: the circle refers to the infinite, to the symbol of the Ouroboros, but here Tablada seems to be relating it also to nullity when comparing the circle to the shape of the zero. If this is true, comparison would be contradictory (infinite and void), though no less nightmarish, if we become accomplices of the decadent tone in which Tablada writes. So, this black circle and the Buddhist zero enclose in their eclectic religious imagination both death and weariness; this hypothesis is the outcome of the adjectives with which he refers to the Buddhist zero and
Julio Ruelas, Relentless, 1901.
the Niroânah: “awful resemblance” and “fatal.” However, with what elements does Tablada describe the existence of this Buddhist zero? Why does he conceive the Niroânah as a symbol? I conjecture that in these two concepts, evidently invented by him though he might have taken them from somewhere else, he sees what was already said about the black circle: both the Buddhist zero and this Niroânah are tedium, annihilation, death. It is possible that both are the same thing considering the way the sentence is built: “a black circle that has an awful resemblance to the Buddhist zero, to the fatal symbol of Niroânah.” So, for Tablada nirvana is a funerary symbol, withholder and representative of the tedium and anguish of his school‟s moral decadence. Considering his statement about the doubt his beliefs generated, in other words, the skepticism and the secularization produced by the Positivism that ruled in Mexico at the end of century, it turns out the Christian terminology and the concepts of the Eastern religions are compatible and alike in his eclectic vocabulary; among them Niroânah is the best example.
Buddhist monks celebrating Awk Phansao in October. Vientiane, Laos.
I cannot not say whether the written form adopted by Tablada is a creation of his, a distortion of something he heard or saw it written that way and reproduced it so. What is clear to me is that the concept barely managed to get through the Mexican literates—Amado Nervo uses Nirvana until 1919 in El estanque de los lotos (The pond of lotuses)—and that is the reason why we have in Tablada an exotic spelling and writing. One more mention of nirvana is to be found until 1898, in a biographical sketch of the painter Julio Ruelas by Ciro B. Ceballos, which was published in two versions: the first one, in Revista Moderna (Modern Magazine) in 1898; and the second one in En Turania (In Turania), in 1902. When speaking about Ruelas, Ceballos offers many images in the peculiar style that characterized him— baroque syntax and cultist lexicon—and taking this into account, he offers us this description:
He got over that distraction, crossed his arms, leant the shoulders against the back of the sofa, closed the ironic eyes and stayed for hours immersed in his nirvanish stupor of Brahman, smoking, smoking, smokingâ€Ś
Pha That Luang, Vientiane, Laos.
We can see Ceballos uses nirvana as adjective. Although the word is written in an already familiar way, and adapted at the Spanish phonetic, the fact of introducing it as adjective is an outstanding feature, and even more when linked to “stupor.” The sense Ceballos gives it does not seem to be negative, for he understands it as a synonym of a mystic, spiritual state, a state of meditation, as if Ruelas‟ concentration was a medium for his artistic fulfillment. If we follow that idea, Ceballos‟ description even resembles zen Buddhism, considering its contemplation method, but this would be a wrong interpretation taking into account that the word that follows nirvanish is Brahman, a concept alien to Buddhism; now let‟s remember that Frédéric Lenoir points out in La Rencontre du bouddhisme et de l'occident12 the lack of differentiation between Hinduism and Buddhism in the West since the 18th century. Then, it is evident that Ceballos confounds the field of both terms, nirvana and Brahman, and creates this image of Ruelas in a desire that matches his style: showing
biographical sketch he mentions just as well beings from classic mythology like the nymph Aretusa and the fauns; and from Germanic mythology, like elves and kobolds—among which those exotic words of Eastern origin were missing. Ceballos‟ lexicon includes also archaisms and neologisms—in a section he speaks about “autumnal landscapes”—and based on that I can explain to myself the transformation of nirvana into adjective. Therefore, the image of the “nirvanish stupor of Brahman” is Julio Ruelas, Hope, 1902.
not negative, but it refers to the artistic contemplation, which
This title can be translated as “The W estern Discovery of Buddhism”. This work is not yet translated into English.
borders in its vision in spiritual meditation, and this would be completed by the next repetition: “smoking, smoking, smoking…” However, though this sense of nirvana can be identified in the context of tedium, moral decadence and even artistic contemplation and meditation of the end of the 19 th century Decadence, it is not possible to grasp the right meaning this word has in the different branches of Buddhism. It continues to be an enigmatic and fascinating word, with a mystical unfathomable breath.
Young Buddhist monk in “nirvanish” stupor, Luan Phrabang, Laos.
Travels and Literature
Photos by Walter Keller-Kirchhoff Texts by Francisco Bulnes Translation from Spanish by Fabiola Mercado
In this section we present a dialogue between photography and literature: Sri Lanka, that island located at the South of India that, even when it has been convulsed by the occupation of Portuguese, Dutch and English, and more recently by the civil war, it does not cease to offer its mysterious beauty to the traveler and the artist. We do not want to approach to her with the eyes of Orientalism or to turn her into an exotic place, but we prefer, though, to give voice to a 19th century Mexican that traveled to that territory, still unknown to many of us. Fragments from Francisco Bulnes, “historiographer of the Mexican Commission sent to Japan by the Supreme Government in order to watch the transit of Venus by the orbit of the Sun”, as he himself tells us in the introduction of his trip chronicle About the Northern Hemisphere, Eleven Thousand Leagues. Impressions of my trips to Cuba, the United States of America, Japan, China, Cochinchina, Egypt and Europe, printed in 1875, accompany the photographies by Walter Keller-Kirchhof. Taken in a period of sixteen years (since 1995), these images tell us of a cultural and religious diversity, of the encounter between the own culture and Western hegemony, of the poverty that does not bury yet the spontaneity of people, of the beauty of a territory yet to be discovered. We wish that the readers share with us this enjoyment and get rid of their former bodies, just as it happens in the legend with which we begin our journey, when crossing in Buddha’s light boat towards this beautiful island. Georgina Mexía-Amador
“Vain exorcism against the void.”
Bharatanatiyam dancer in Jaffna, North of Sri Lanka.
Previous page: Hindu temple in Colombo, Sri Lanka.
An old man selling refreshments along the A9 highway in Northern Sri Lanka.
“More than ten centuries ago, a Chinese pilgrim left Si-an-You to go to India in search of the sacred writings of Buddha’s religion. Seeing his path hindered by the arm of the sea that separated him from Ceylon, he noticed a light boat that sailed toward him, steered by a mysterious pilot. The pilot gestured to the pilgrim, who, trembling, boarded with his three disciples: a monkey, a dog and a man, and was followed by his white horse.”
Sacred cow in Trincomalee beach, Eastern Sri Lanka.
“Suddenly, about the middle of the strait, the pilgrim let out a scream and, terrified, asked: what does that corpse floating on the waves, and in which I recognized myself mean? Do not fear a thing, answered the pilot; you’ve been divested of your old body when approaching this privileged island. At that moment, the boat reached Ceylon’s beach.”
Victims of the February floods. Trincomalee, Eastern Sri Lanka.
“Everywhere, the big trees of dense foliage and penetrating perfume cast their shadow and refresh the burning thirst of the travelers. Among the dark branches, the voice of the Buddhist monks reciting their prayers echoes, and the pilgrim, ecstatic, sees Buddha smiling to him with greater brightness than his emperor.”
ď ž Nallur Kandaswamy, Hindu temple in Jaffna, North of Sri Lanka.
Por todas partes los grandes árboles de espeso follaje y de perfume penetrante, proyectan su sombra y refrescan la ardiente sed de los caminantes. Entre el sombrío ramaje resuena la voz de los religiosos bouddhistas recitando sus oraciones, y el peregrino extasiado vé á Bouddha que le sonríe con mas resplandores que su emperador.
Trip by bullock cart in heavy rain, Sri Lanka Highlands.
“This legend is the Eastern story of Ceylon, the land of wonders and gods, the prettiest pearl of nature, the place where, according to some modern theologians, Paradise on earth was found. Since more than twenty centuries ago Buddhism rules in Ceylon. When this heterodox belief disappeared from Hindustan, defeated by Brahmanism, it took shelter in the enchanted island as in the best of strongholds.”
Harvesting in Northern Jaffna, North of Sri Lanka.
“Today, the believers of the oldest cult sing Buddha’s praises without the edifying zeal that filled the Chinese pilgrim with so much joy: time has toned down the ardor of the faith that has lived with tradition in the twilight of mysteries…”
ď žWoman and Hindu temple in Jaffna, North of Sri Lanka.
Young Muslim boys, Sri Lanka.
“Among Muslims, every physical or psychological function was suppressed, and God was reduced to a metaphysical and abstract concept from which, logically, fatal order emerges.”
ď žMuslim women travelling in Eastern Sri Lanka.
ď žChildren in a pre-school in Point Pedro, Jaffna, North of Sri Lanka.
ď źColombo, Sri Lanka.
ď žOld man in Mankulam, Northern Province, Sri Lanka.
ď žYoung Hindu boys outside a temple, Jaffna, Sri Lanka.
ď žYoung Buddhist monks in Pollonaruwa, Central Sri Lanka.
Buddhist monk, Eastern Sri Lanka.
“[Monks] are seen in the streets of Ceylon getting near the fountains, with their yellow tunics, and filter the water they drink in order to save millions of microscopic animals contained in the liquid. They walk with the head bent, the eyes half-closed and begging Buddha to spare them from finding elephants, horses, women, cars or soldiers, or anything that could disturb their passions or hurt their sensibility […] They well know that action comes from the spirit, which must be closed to every image capable of printing a guilty act. Sight is a cause for perdition as grave as wicked desires, rage, fear and ignorance.”
“Ceylon is the joyous region that envelops the last remains of Gôtama, its left jaw’s incisor tooth. The tooth is found in a little temple near the palace of the ancient kings of Kandy, carefully enclosed in the bottom of six boxes, one inside the other; the first one is made of gold, is five feet long and three feet wide, and is encrusted with diamonds.”
Buddhist monk in front of the Aukana Buda statue, Central Sri Lanka.
Impressions of a Trip to SĂşkstad By Jan Markus Amundsen Translation from Norse to English by the Author.
Diary of Jan Markus Amundsen.
ignore this at times, because what I‟m pursuing is more
Student at the Faculty of Social Sciences,
kind of transcendental: I am seeking for the truth (if such
School of Anthropology.
a thing exists). I know that human kind, among other needs, wants to Lumna. Friday, February 6th.
transcend. I affirm this fact because, otherwise, I wouldn‟t be writing this diary. And I know as well that one of our
The bells tolled in the red church. It is eight o‟clock in the
biggest desires, perhaps the one that obsesses us the
morning. The Murel forest starts to waken covered by the
most, is the search for truth, for one must find answers to
mist while a weak fainting light rises timidly behind the
our questions. And this is exactly the reason why I‟m
suffering this unusually uncomfortable cold winter in this
It is so cold I feel it in my bones. Menacing clouds
little village of fishermen in Sogn.
run through the dark sky. I‟m sure it will snow during the
I left my native city in the beginnings of January (more
day, just as it snowed during the night. I can hear the
or less a month ago), with the mission of finding the
frozen sound of the river crashing on the stones. The
object of my anthropological study. I look forward to
river then reaches the fiord, after a tiring trip from the
become a “social anthropologist” after studying related
stuff at the University for four years. I finished my studies
Few lights in the village have started to lit; few chimneys let go out strips of smoke.
and what‟s next is to devote time to a research with which I can graduate. But all of this means to me something
I rub my hands but the cold does not leave me. Near
more than just a bureaucratic process, because what I
me, the moths fly around a lamp. I am sitting in a wooden
carry inside is an obsession that rooted in my mind some
bench next to my luggage, inside a very poor hut, and I
years since. It has to do with one of the historical facts
try hard that the wind does not reach me here in this
that changed the course of the History of this country: the
corner. And while I find myself here, I wonder how will the
invasion of the “Bearded” of Skagerrak in 1380, almost
rest of this adventure will be, for I accepted to walk by this
six hundred years ago.
hard road that becomes more difficult every time. I try to
In this task, anthropology and history must work together,
“interrelation between the sciences”. Or “interdiscipline”, as it has been also called.
historical discourse what has brought me here, so I can corroborate how much truth there is in it. I became interested in this during my first months at University. Let‟s suppose that random is a fact that
I will explain now what I‟m talking about: Official History
sprouts spontaneously, without any apparent reason.
(capital letters are an irony, of course) says that the
Then, by random, one of my professors, Gunnar Olsen,
invasion of 1380 was “peaceful”. King Guttorm, who was
once his class had finished gave me the copy of an
ruling this country at that time, abdicated in favor of King
anonymous document, written by a historian in 1873, in
Karl Gustav Kenberg, the King of Skagerrak. Historical
which the Official History is completely brought down.
discourse has omitted any information about what
In the first paragraphs of his research, the
happened to King Guttorm. There is no mention either of
anonymous historian talks of his stay at Súkstad, a village
any city or fortress. There are only clouds over this
in the West region of the country, lost amidst fiords and
episode. Only thing that has some light shed on it is that
glaciers, and of which no knowledge was even guessed.
on 1395 the city of Kenberg, founded by King Kenberg,
He mentions how the villagers gave him a manuscript
had become the capital of the kingdom.
written by an Irish monk in 1400, and how he started to
History says that our country, before the invasion of
read a very different version of the facts concerning the
1380, was a territory in which “barbarous pagans” lived
invasion. What he found out from the manuscript is that
and ruled, and therefore it was “necessary” that the
the troops of Skagerrak landed in this kingdom in 1380
country was incorporated to a more civilized culture which
and even quotes the words of the Irish monk, for he was
in addition had become Christian. Furthermore, what
an eye-witness of the destruction of farms, villages and
validated the “incorporation” of this territory with the
massacres the invaders performed. The monk says that
kingdom of Skagerrak, was the marriage between King
the main goal of the “Bearded” was to take control over
Kenberg and a native noble woman, whose name is
the territory, justifying their actions in the native‟s
Kristin. With this sort of arguments the invasion was
paganism and their supposed cultural primitivism. With
justified and it is the blanks and contradictions of this
that purpose in mind, they reached the Murel forest (the forest next to Lumna has the same name, by the way).
Amidst the wood there was the fortress of the kings of
Despite all these things, the copy of this document has
old, the Ottargard castle, surrounded by the capital city of
been transmitted for generations as a secret, without
the kingdom, Súkstad. And once they reached the castle,
being confirmed or rejected at all. Scholars keep asking
there is record of a bloody and terrible massacre, from
themselves if what the historian found is truth or not, but
which the invaders rescued the current queen, after
none of them has been able to prove it. The reason why
Olsen decided to give the document to me is something I
abdicated). The name of this queen was Ridstun. So far,
haven‟t dared to ask him, since the passing of it has been
this is what the historian could find out in the manuscript
always made to the chosen ones. Now I remember the
of the monk. Now, my question is: Did that monk say the
day he gave it to me; he stared at me soundly and asked
me: Would you dare, Jan Markus? Would you go and see
As it was expected, the professors in the University
if this is true?
doubted of the words of their colleague after reading his
Above all the things I‟ve mentioned as worthy of interest
text, in the 19th century. And he must have felt like that
and questioning, what really caught my attention when
man who, in the Platonic allegory of good and truth,
reading the document was that the historian says that the
comes out of the cave in which he has only seen
society he found at Súkstad was “amazingly primitive”, in
shadows and goes back to tell the others what he has
the fashion of the moyen âge.
seen. If someone thinks the others believed him, he is wrong.
So, this is what started to obsess my mind, awaking motivations and fears. From the beginning I
After receiving the copy, Gunnar Olsen told me that the
knew the risks of accepting this task. But even when I
polemical text was forgotten until it was found again in the
knew that it was like entering a cave without a single light,
first decades of the 20th century. Once it was found,
I took the risk. Though, when the moment of packing my
scholars made the same questions: How come this
things and leave approached, I hesitated. Fears and
historian contradicts Official History? But I would have
doubts blinded me for days, and I even thought of
asked them: Is it not that you seek truth above all and
abandoning this project. And in those moments, three
that you doubt of what it has been told to you?
persons were there to support me: my father and my
professors Gunnar Olsen and Anne-Grethe Halvorsen.
took them as deities. Above all, what I felt was the hunger
Without them, I wouldn‟t be here.
of adventure. But once I arrived to Lumna, I realized the
Once I decided to face the darkness of this cave, I
real difficulty of what it really meant to be an
traced the itinerary guided by the words of the
anthropologist: a mixture of a stranger, a victim and an
individual in white that looks through a microscope,
“Two days distance in car [carriage] from Lumna to
apparently detached. Also, that thing of being friendly and
Northeast, and a day distance Southwest from Hréober,
sociable was the most difficult thing, even when in the
the village of Súkstad rises in the valley of the Murel. The
safety of the classroom seemed to be so easy, as if
wooden walls of the village can be seen from the
people were not people. The first impressions were
enough to sadden my spirits. I asked myself, sunk in
A couple of weeks ago I sent a telegram to my father
desperation: Did I travel from my city for days, passing
and Olsen from The Port, letting them know I was about
the tunnels of the Jostedal mountains, to reach this place
to take the train to Lumna. And once I reached Lumna I
following the mists drawn by a mysterious historian? It
asked myself: what will happen when I pronounce
was theory against practice. I was so afraid of being
between these rustic villagers the word Súkstad? I
rejected by the villagers. When walking by the streets in
confess I was scared to death.
the hills, people stared at me with both curiosity and
When being at the University, I heard incessantly
hostility. I was a stranger, an intruder; my physical
the qualities the anthropologist must develop in order to
features are so different from theirs. For days I wondered
introduce in the “primitive” communities. The main quality
how I was going to start asking them about my real
was a high ability to interact with people and learn their
interest. That was my first obstacle and the second one
culture and language; his character must be sociable,
was the language, since most of the villagers in Lumna
friendly and very smart. It seemed so obvious and easy,
speak an antique form of our language.
since the day for trying that for ourselves was so far
I did not know how to solve these problems, until I
away. The diaries of the ethnologists and anthropologists
remembered something that, under other circumstances,
I read seemed a novel: their difficulties, their triumphs,
would have been obvious. I mean that before beginning
how sometimes the natives were hostile towards them or
the on campus research, the anthropologist must have
the first notions of the culture of study. So, I discovered
of my words and phrases in the contact with the native
that the only way in which I could begin to approach to
speakers (books and grammars are awful to learn a
them was lying about myself. The anthropologist must
language but are a good start point at some level), and I
never reveal his real intentions. So, I changed my name, I
became prepared to leave for Súkstad, my final
pretended I was lost and orphaned and once they
destination. But then, once I started to be confident with
accepted me (or felt pity) I attentively listened to the way
some of the villagers (that in no way was easy) my new
they talked. That was how I could start to get closer to
question was: How will I start to get information about
them. I laughed when they laughed and I incorporated
Súkstad among this people? Who is going to talk to me
more words of their language in my vocabulary. In those
about this place? In what moment I can mention about it?
moments I used to think that if it was so hard for me, a
I lied all the time about my intentions, but I told
young man of 23 years old, it would be even more difficult
them what I had read in the historian‟s text without
for my female colleagues, since patriarchy is still
mentioning at all the University and my city. Because
dominating these societies.
what I was really interested in was whether Súkstad still
The matter of language was crucial. I had begun
existed or not. And once I dared to pronounce the name
basic lesions of
to them, to my utter surprise they told me that the village
anthropologist (and mainly one under the rule of Lévi-
is still on foot… and that it is inhabited.
Strauss‟ structuralism as I was) is also a linguist, and one should arrive on site with some knowledge of the language of the community to study. I rearranged some
To be continued in the next issue.
The Initiation From the biography of Fernando Pessoa, by João Gaspar Simões:
Literature Snapshots By Alonso Zamora Translation from Spanish by Fabiola Mercado
About “Illuminations” Some of us have gazed in the night of our earthly prison at the burning light of something that is not life. This is what is pursued here. The purpose of this section is to present illuminating snapshots about literature. Commentary will be inexistent or brief. We do not want to interpose between mind and light. We do not pursue the material light but that light Coleridge referred to when he said “As light to the eye, even such is beauty to the mind.” Here we present our votive offering to that light.
Doctor Jaime Neves, the poet’s cousin, who had seen him recently, forbid him from drinking: one more cup of liquor and it’d be over. The poet said, serenely, like someone truly convinced of the nonexistence of death: “Novice, there is no such thing as death.” And he kept on drinking. "Em flagrante delitro". A picture of Fernando Pessoa in the Bodega Abel Pereira da Fonseca, sent by the poet to Ophelia Queiroz in 1929.
She says one word: “Ridge” and you look at it floating there alone though it’s vanished now, has returned again into the mind’s dark dictionary and
Has she gone mad? What sentence did it leave
silence that takes back
behind it or fly
this room and your ear.
to join, what work gang
But her saying it still quivers, the flower
or purgatory of words? Who are its
on the stalk of your
wife and its brother
memory of her
words, its family of
speaking. You’re a stem
a moment, its place,
connecting her “Ridge”
to the endless root
its village of words
of the word buried
to give it a life,
in language, its loam quaking on a core of metal on fire. Why that one word here?
to come before it, last after, and be grandparents to it, graveyard and church bells, and at last ghost town? They never appeared.
It rose alone and its “rrr” and its “dge” were the mud on stone of the ridges of her native town and its “id” was the light of the sun rising or setting out from the long forested heights.
You chose the right path in life though as it assures you it abashes you with dominating beauty at each bendâ€” for instance these lines of Neruda you desire the way at eleven you desire a girl: to write just one verse like them, to know the fruitful softness, the whispering of shadows
You two are orphaned, alone, and in guarding you
in light-sprinkled entrances, the female
through forests and the pillared eyes and arms of men
strangeness of their male force. Neruda:
he reaches his own manhood while remaining
as his century passed and the astonishment
the adolescent of many promises, the slender
surrounding him subsided, in you it grew, it grows: as the dead fall away, nothing happens except the living is laid bare
alpha point of unhewn roads. You can feel the feminine abundance and the feminine void grow alert to him, his new powerâ€”can feel
more living. You look up from his book
the rising of their hunger,
and are more in the world more world,
their devouring and their tenderness
and you look up from the world and go back to his book as another earth, another early home and childhood. He shelters you even though he overshadows you, not like a giant or a father but an older brother, still a child himself.
as they watch him pass and engulf him, their necessity, their compassionâ€” all the things that to a woman love is, so different from you own love and so dark that you have to long and long endlessly to penetrate it.
My poems, as a making real of my thought you can’t claim to be a record with lacunae, a whole music with holes and tears of silence. You’re only, in a sea, some islands, huge swelling sea, sporadic islands, not even an archipelago—each isolate fleck a prison world of beauty and hopelessness that we can walk across in a single hour, see across in one glance, despairing remnant of a drowned world, universe of nostalgia in a nutshell, in the god’s temple the carven image of a city never built, then covered by the waters.
David Damrosch and Gayatri Spivak “Comparative Literature/World Literature”
The Master of Go. Yasunari Kawabata This work by the great Japanese novelist is about a Go tournament (a game that resembles chess) that was played in 1938, sponsored by the Nichinichi Diary, of which Kawabata was correspondent, and which was the farewell of a Master of the tradition facing a champion of the new generations. The novel throbs with details that characterize the exquisiteness of Japanese literature since the Genji Monogatari or The Tales of Ise, like the colour of the rain, the particular shape of a cloud, the
One of the activities within the annual meeting of the American Comparative Literature Association (ACLA) in Vancouver, Canada, was the plenary session between David Damrosh (Harvard University) and Gayatri Spivak, in which they dialogued about comparative literature and world literature. They both agreed and questioned the imperialistic methods of comparative literature, since a hegemonic perspective against the Other prevails, while they also criticized critical approaches such as “postcolonial studies”, established within the dichotomy colonizer-colonized in countries occupied by the English. Damrosch suggested widening the amount of languages of study in order not to always depend of translations, since they are an indirect version of the original
blooming of trees. As the death of the Master draws near, the
text. At this point, he referred his difficulty of studying náhuatl at the United States, and
narrator (Kawabata‟s autobiographical fiction) recalls having
how that brought him to Mexico, where he met Miguel León-Portilla. What Damrosch
seen on his face a large brow, the apparent augur of a long life.
states stimulates the argument that indigenous literatures‟ criticism must yield: studying
The encounter of the two players before the Go board turns out
the texts in the original language instead of always using the Spanish translation.
to be overwhelming for them, for the spectators, for the reader.
Spivak, on the other hand, with the complexity (or unintelligibility) that characterizes
At times, the game seems to be endless: the Master is very ill
her, spoke of the necessary suspension of identity when dealing with the study of world
and Otake, his rival, often stands up to go to the bathroom
literature and questioned the concept of “global village” standing from the paradigms of
between turns. Both get ill and Kawabata questions the way the
domination from which literature is still studied. And she pointed out for the European
art of playing Go has been degraded to a mere media
context (from her solid Western education), that even the more well-known figures such
competition. As the narration of the game goes on, the reader
as Beethoven and Rembrandt (each of them according to their system of
finds the diagrams of the Go board and the way the stones
representation) are susceptible to be universalizable but not universal. What worries us
move: White for the Master and black for Otake; this is an interesting inclusion, for it also implies a graphic reading. In short, the game (and the novel) is the transition between tradition, respectful to a certain extent of the rituals, of time and what is modern and “sporty”, where the only important thing is winning.
is that the perspective from which both scholars criticized all these issues does not cease to be a hegemonic one, for they used the terms of “North America” as a synonym of only Canada and US, while they were looking for an attempt of “recognizing” those other zones of world literature. And even when we confess our admiration towards Spivak, the colonialism from which she speaks is the one that England had over India; it is evident that it cannot be in a different way, but it is clear that for this case Latin America is absent. Thus, we cannot talk of “postcolonial studies”
César Abril Translated from Spanish by Fabiola Mercado
in Latin America. Summing up, this was a complex conference whose statements keep on raising questions. Text and translation by Georgina Mexía-Amador
Medieval Fashion at the Morgan Library & Museum, New York From May 20th to September 4th, 2011, this museum presents the exhibition “Illuminating Fashion: Dress in the Art of Medieval France and
Making use of miniatures and the recreation of
medieval garments, the exhibition aims to illustrate the changes in fashion during the two hundred years before the Renaissance and explore the historic and social factors that led to such transformations, as well as illustrating the symbolisms behind the garments considering the colours and the context in which they were used. The exhibition is available online, with a virtual tour in which every manuscript is digitalized; thanks to this, visitors can get near with the zoom tool to see the miniatures and the rich details not only of the clothes, but of the entire visual whole that comprises images and calligraphy. Each manuscript is accompanied by a card that contains details about its history and the images there represented, as well as historical and social notes about the garments. For those who are curious about manuscripts and medieval art in general, the possibility of this online tour will be an “illuminating” experience.
Benjamin Bagby (Illinois, USA), interpreter and co-founder of medieval music ensemble Sequentia, presents in this website his project of interpreting Anglo-Saxon poem Beowulf accompanied by an harp, just as the Germanic and Northern European bards did during the Middle Ages. One of the more studied aspects of Beowulf is its oral origin, which is evident in the rhetorical formulae, epithets, formal structure and the inclusion of stories within the main story shared by Germanic cultural context. Wishing to portray this aspect of Beowulf, Bagby presented his epic performance in 2006 and his presentation in Helsingborg, Sweden, was released in DVD. The website includes information about Beowulf, the planning of the project, gallery of images, links to articles and a short video in which Bagby‟s performance can be watched. His style of singing and playing the harp will
The Morgan Library & Museum, 225 Madison Avenue, New York, NY
undoubtedly resemble the work he did with some of the poems belonging to the Edda (Sequentia, Edda. Myths from Medieval
On-line exhibition: •http://www.themorgan.org/collections/works/IlluminatingFashion/ César Abril Translated from Spanish by Fabiola Mercado
Iceland, 1999), since the harsh and cold beauty of the medieval harp accompanies the enchanting words in this distant and forgotten language. For those who wish to penetrate the most seductive and dark hidden places of Medieval England Bagby‟s project will become a great discovery. •http://www.bagbybeowulf.com/index.html Text and translation by Georgina Mexía-Amador
Mercurio de las voces y el deseo Literary Magazine
Niwemang (Half Moon) (Iran-Austria-France-Iraq, 2006. Dir. Bahman Ghobadi) Shut away from the rest of society, 1334 women inhabit a village in the wild mountains of Iran because they broke one of their prohibitions: singing. Defying the omen of his death and the rules, even after Saddam Hussein fell, the old musician Mamo decides to travel with his sons to the Iraqi Kurdistan to give a concert and revitalize the music that was forbidden during the dictatorship. But the orchestra he directs with his sons has a special member: a woman, Heshow, who they have to hide from the military posts. Women cannot sing, and even less in
This is an independent, three monthly magazine whose first
public. However, Mamo persists in attaining his last wish… for he has already
issue was released in November 2009. It had its origin in the
foretold his death. One night, Heshow abandons them and leaves a piece of paper
minds of a group of Hispanic literature students of the San Luis
with tree written words; one of them is “Niwemang.” Mamo has been assaulted
Potosi Autonomous University, México. In four issues (the last
during the trip by different visions: one of them is the half moon seen from his
one released in February, 2011), they have compiled the
tomb, and the other, a woman dragging his own coffin through the snow. Mamo
literary production of young creators and consolidated figures
falls ill and when he is about to go back to Iran, a beautiful woman appears out of
from different parts of the country. Poems, narrations and
nowhere in front of him and his sons, who offers to be the substitute singer. Her
essays dialogue between them in an impeccable and simple
name: Niwemang. By the Kurdish-Iranian director, Bahman Ghobadi, this film is a
edition, with an eye-catching cover and pages including graphic
formidable fusion of Kurdish music (such as the majestic pieces “Lay Lahen” and
works according to the topic of each number. Fertile pages that
“Vernal Presence” by Hossein Alizadeh), of the supernatural and of comedy,
have nothing to do with the barren environment of the city in
masterfully embodied in the character of Kako. But the film also denounces the
which this magazine is produced; leafing through it is worth a
non-recognition of the Kurdish independence and the censure of art. Niwemang
try: it is an oasis in the desert.
was filmed to celebrate the 250 anniversary of Mozart‟s birth, and is mainly spoken in Kurdish.
Founders: Lilia Ávalos, Yael González, Alejandro Lárraga, Nelly Gutiérrez y Juan José José Rodríguez García, whose poem “From the Abyss” is included in this number. Printed format. Contributions: email@example.com César Abril Translated from Spanish by Fabiola Mercado
Georgina Mexía-Amador Translated from Spanish by Fabiola Mercado
Paulina Bermúdez. She‟s currently a student of the BA in Development and Intercultural Administration at the Faculty of Philosophy and Literature of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). “I love poetry because either being lonely or not it opens its doors to me. I feel serious about what I do and I think I do better each time. I struggle during life with those closing seasons, with people that just leave without a farewell; betrayal; abandonment; solitude that becomes tears and bitterness… But there is one thing that will never leave me and that will always take me with it: writing.” Francisco Bulnes (Mexico, 1847-1924). Mexican writer and polititian who, during the dictatorship of Porfirio Díaz, took part in the group known as “The Scientists”. In his literary works he devoted to demystify great figures of Mexican history, such as Benito Juárez and Porfirio Díaz. He used to entitle his Works as “The truth about…” or “The big lies about…” He was one of the first Mexicans who travelled to the Far East, since he was a member of the commission that travelled to Japan and Europe; in his trip, we visited Sri Lanka and other Asian countries. He also wrote theater and won a National Award for that. Isol (Buenos Aires, 1972). Illustrator and sometimes also a writer of her books. She has published more than 20 books in different countries. Her speciality is narrating through the dialogue between images and text. Her work has been internationally renowned and has been won the Golden Apple Award in 2003, and has been finalist in the Hans Christian Andersen Award in 2006 and 2007, being selected as one of the five best illustrators of children‟s books in the world. http://www.isol-isol.com.ar / http://isolisol.blogspot.com Walter Keller-Kirchhof (Alemania, 1951). Currently holding the post of Senior Advisor in the Performance Improvement Project in the North and East of Sri Lanka. The project is being financed jointly by the German and the Australian Government and works to improve public service delivery through a number of activities. He has been engaged mainly in Asian countries before moving to Sri Lanka and they include India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Timor Leste. Between 1985 and 2003 he worked as a journalist and photographer. Rafael Mondragón (Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico, 1983). Scholar at the Faculty of Philosophy and Literature at the UNAM. He has published in Mexican literary magazines such as Acequias, Alforja, Periódico de poesía and Tierra Adentro. His published books are Los mejores poemas mexicanos, de 2005, Espacio en disidencia and Anuario de poesía mexicana 2007. Albert F. Moritz. His book The Sentinel (2008). received the annual $75,000 Griffin Poetry Prize, the most prestigious award for a single poetry volume in the English-speaking world. In 1993, a volume of his poems in Spanish translations by Gilberto Meza, Ciudad interior, was published by the Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas press. He was an invited poet at the Fourth Poetry Festival: Languages of the Americas: Carlos Montemayor, in October 2010 at UNAM. He currently teaches at the University of Toronto.
Juan José Rodríguez García. He was born in San Luis Potosí, Mexico, in April 14th, 1988. He currently studies the last year of the BA in Hispano American Literatures at the Autonomous University of San Luis Potosí. He is editorial director of the independent literary magazine Mercurio de las Voces y el Deseo. He loves the desert and the rainy days, loves reading and considers himself and emergent writer. If he had to choose a place to live it would be the wuthering heights: yes, he is a chronic romantic.
Julio Ruelas. (1870-1907). Painter and engraver from Zacatecas, Mexico. His best known works are the illustrations he made for the literary magazines Revista Moderna and Revista Moderna de México. His style includes macabre characters such as satyrs, corpses, skeletons, Scorpio-women, Salomes. Because of his th style he is considered a representative of the Decadent movement, at the end of the 19 century. He studied at the Karsruhe Academy in Germany, and died in Paris. He is buried at the Montparnasse graveyard.
Wildernain Villegas Carrillo (Peto, Yucatán, Mexico, 1981). He has a BA in secondary education, and a specialization in telesecondary. He has got scholarships from FONCA and the Cultural Institute of Quintana Roo, Mexico. He won in 2005 the Award for Indigenous Youth and, in 2008, he obtained the Nezahualcóyotl Award for Indigenous Languages. He has translated poems into Maya language and his texts have been published in regional and national magazines. His goal is to share with the new generations Maya culture through literature.
Jan Markus Amundsen (Osberg, 1976). Anthropologist and Linguist, he studied at the University of Bergen, Norway. His thesis was about the historical discourse within a “primitive” village in Western Norway. He is a graduate student in Scandinavian Languages and Literatures. He has published essays on medieval literature in publications in Norway and Iceland. This is his first incursion in the Latin American context.
Carlos Ascencio (Mexico City, 1986). He is currently studying a BA in Ethnomusicology at the National School of Music of the UNAM. He is currently working as contributor of the radio broadcast Mercado Negro, which plays Latin American indie music in the broadcasting station Ibero 90.9, and was nominated as radio broadcast program of the year in the last edition of the Indie-O Music Awards. He has also taken part as editorial assistant in the Indie Rocks! magazine. He won the 2nd place in the 1st Universitary Broadcasting Station Contest of Radio UNAM, in the category of musical broadcast.
Carlos Sandoval (Mexico City, 1986). Emergent artist. He is studying a BA in History of Art at the Casa Lamm Cultural Center. He has taken part in individual and collective exhibitions. He has colaborated in the organization of exhibitions at different museums. His works appear in the catalogue Casa Lamm y sus Artistas (Lamm's House and its Artists) by Galería Casa Lamm and in the Diccionario de Artistas Emergentes Ars-tesauro (Ars-tesauro Dictionary of Emergent Artists). He currently coordinates a series of installations at the Balmori Building, in the Colonia Roma, in Mexico City.
Marisol Vázquez (Mexico City, 1979). She studied a BA in Pedagogy at the Faculty of Philosophy and Literature at the UNAM. She has a Masters in Educational Informatics by the Universidad del Desarrollo Empresarial y Pedagógico (UNIVDEP). She has labored in the fields of Human Resources, Museopedagogy, Special Education, Vocational Orientation, Educative Software, Books for Youths and Children and Cultural Administration. She currently directs Arte con Letra. Alonso Zamora Corona (Mexico City, 1985). He has a BA in Hispanic Literature at the UNAM. He won the José Emilio Pacheco Poetry Award, in 2006, by the Universidad Veracruzana. His thesis dissertation dealt with the infinite in the works of Arthur Schopenhauer, Georg Cantor and Jorge Luis Borges. He currently studies Masters on Mesoamerican Studies, with a thesis on the relation between Venus and sacrifice in the mythology of the wirrárika (huicholes).
Georgina Mexía-Amador (Mexico City, 1985). She abandoned a not very promising career as pianist in order to devote to Literature. She studied English Literature at UNAM and her dissertation won the First Colin White Award. She studied Norwegian Literature at the University of Oslo. She worked as editorial assistant at Fondo de Cultura Económica, where she got acquainted with the works of Isol. She has read papers in literary conferences in Mexico, USA, Canada and Brazil, as well as her own literary works. She currently studies a Masters in Literature at UNAM, in addition to reading, writing and beginning the direction of this magazine.
Créditos de las ilustraciones p. 3: Madero and Palma streets, Mexico City’s Downtown. Image taken from the book Cine y sociedad en México. Vivir de sueños. Vol. I 1896-1920 by Aurelio de los Reyes (we could not locate date nor author of the picture since our source does not specify them either). Mexico: UNAM, 1996; p. 60. p. 4: Light regulator amidst the ruins of Relox building. Insurgentes South Avenue, Mexico City. Georgina Mexía-Amador, 2006. p. 8: Collage made of Mexican literary magazines: Cover from Revista Moderna Portada de la Revista Moderna, México, 1.ª quincena de junio de 1903, año VI, n.º 11. Carátula y «Máscara de Amado Nervo» por Julio Ruelas. Taken from Biblioteca Virtual Cervantes’ website: http://bib.cervantesvirtual.com/bib_autor/lopezvelarde/graf/fotos/contextoc/100_s.jpg Cover of the second Revista Azul, México, marzo de 1907, tomo VI. Taken from Biblioteca Virtual Cervantes’ website: http://bib.cervantesvirtual.com/bib_autor/lopezvelarde/pcuartonivel.jsp?conten=imagenes&pagina=imagenes16.jsp&fqstr=1&qPagina=0&qImagen=3 Cuadernos del unicornio. Image taken from: http://www.liveauctioneers.com/item/8685272 Tierra adentro. Cover taken from: http://www.conaculta.gob.mx/tierra/images_cont/revista/047_060/revista_047.htm El corno emplumado. Cover taken from: http://lahistoriadeldia.wordpress.com/ La palabra florida. Cover taken from: http://www.nacionmulticultural.unam.mx/eliac/produccion/02palabra.html Nuni. Cover taken from: http://www.excentricaonline.com/libros/wp-revistas-single.php?id=244_0_6_0_M El Hijo Pródigo. Cover taken from: http://www.mercadolibre.com.ar/jm/img?s=MLA&f=96766344_2688.jpg&v=E
p. 8: Detail of light regulator between the ruins of the Cine Continental, Coyoacán Av. Corner with Eje 4 Xola, Mexico City. Georgina Mexía-Amador, 2011. p. 15: Landscape in a rural road from San Antonio Rayón to Tecuantepec, Veracruz, Mexico. Georgina Mexía-Amador, 2007. p. 20: Poster on one of the walls of the ruins of the Cine Continental, Coyoacán Av. Corner with Eje 4 Xola, Mexico City. Georgina Mexía-Amador, 2011. p. 25: Illustration for a postcard of the Fondo de Cultura Económica in Spain, on ocassion of the Festival “Viva América”. Isol, Leer es descubrir. Vengo del Nuevo Mundo (no date). p. 27-34: Images belonging to the works of Isol were taken with her permission from her website: www.isol-isol.com.ar p. 46: Sticker on a light regulator between the ruins of the Cine Continental, Coyoacán Av. Corner with Eje 4 Xola, Mexico City. Georgina Mexía-Amador, 2011. p. 49: Scenic trolley “La otra nave”, México Park, Sonora Av., Mexico City. Georgina Mexía-Amador, 2006. p. 51: Window from a Buddhist temple in Vientiane, Laos. Minh Hien Nguyen Thi, 2008. pp. 52, 53, 55, 58: Illustrations by Julio Ruelas were taken from: Carlos Monsiváis, Antonio Saborit and Teresa del Conde, El viajero lúgubre. Julio Ruelas modernista, 1870-1907, México, RM-Museo Nacional de Arte-Patronato del Museo Nacional de Arte, 2007, pp. 40, 100, 106, 101, 76. p. 80: Church at Sogndal, Norway. (Original image in color). Georgina Mexía-Amador, 2002. p. 87: Windows of a building standing in the corner of Insurgentes Av. Corner and Universidad Av., Mexico City. Georgina Mexía-Amador, 2006. p. 92: Gayatri Spivak picture taken from: http://fctworld.org/bpc-third_balvant_parekh_distinguished%20lecture-gayathri.htm p. 93: a) On-line exhibition “Illuminating Fashion: Dress in the Art of Medieval France and the Netherlands” with the image of the Roman de la Rose manuscript. Taken from: http://www.themorgan.org/collections/works/IlluminatingFashion/manuscript.asp?page=4 p. 93: b) Home page of “Benjamin Bagby’s Beowulf” website: http://www.bagbybeowulf.com/index.html p. 94: a) Cover of the 4th issue of Mercurio de las voces y el deseo, February 2011. p. 94: b) Image of the film Niwemang taken from: http://www.pozorcompany.com/half_moon_polumesec.html p. 95: Building in ruins in Insurgentes Av., between Sonora and Querétaro streets, Mexico City. Georgina Mexía-Amador, 2006. p. 98: “Del Valle” barbershop. Moras st., between Parroquia and Félix Cuevas, Mexico City. Georgina Mexía-Amador, 2011.
lapeluqueriademicolo.com Facebook: La peluquería de Micoló/Micolo’s Barbershop
Three monthly, on-line magazine. Literature, arts, travels, reviews, music. Made in Mexico for the World. Bilingual edition English-Spanish...
Published on Jul 5, 2011
Three monthly, on-line magazine. Literature, arts, travels, reviews, music. Made in Mexico for the World. Bilingual edition English-Spanish...