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THE MICHIGAN REVIEW Volume 7, Number 8

April 1989

What About the Rest of the World?

AJso: ~ . New Traditions: Politicizing the.Text



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April 1989

The Michigan Review 2

Serpent's Tooth Congrats to the b-ball team on winning the national championship. Go Blue!!!

Congrats also to the new MSA president and vice president, Aaron Williams and Rose Karadsheh. A new breeze is blowing.

Jason Feingold of PIRGIM recently com-

plained to the Daily that he found Review advertisements placed over PIRGIM posters. What's wrong with trying to clean up the environment?

Of course, Feingold's singling out of the Review from all the other student groups who place their fliers on top of others had nothing to do with the fact that the Review

ran an anti-PIRGIM guest editorial in the last issue. Yeah, righL

Don't forget to celebrate White Heterosexual Upper-Middle Class Male Awareness Week next week. Events include a sterilization demonstration (free castration kits will be distributed) and a bonfire of Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues.

Letters to the Editor A Chance to Speak The following is an edited version of a. letter submitted to the Michigan Daily's Opinion Page editors in the early weeks of this semester, which the Opinion Page staff felt was unfit to print: To the Daily:

tion between Arafat and his second-incommand. Or perhaps the PLO goal of eliminating Israel "in stages" has yet to change. Until such time as he is truly willing to set aside death threats and massacres as a tool of policy, and until such time as he is willing to recognize Israel in deed as well as in word, Ararat is not yet ready to talk about peace, and neither is the PLO.

This past December, Yasir Arafatofthe Palestine Liberation Organization allong Keith Hope last acknowledged "the right of all parties President ofTagar concerned in the Middle East conflict to exist in peace and security, ... including the Typho Undercover state of Palestine, Israel, and other neighI recently uncovered the following bors." It was a welcome and long overdo memo and would lilce to share it with your evenL However, we of Tagar do not for a readers. It seems to explain a lot of recent moment deny what Arafat is. He is the campus events. same man who personally ordered the death of Cleo Noel, U.S. ambassador 10 TO: -Michigan Diddly infiltrators Sudan, in March 1973. He is the same man who ordered the Coastal Road Massacre in FROM: Alfred Butler, chairman of the which 34 Israelis and one American were Evil Committee for a Right-wing Takekilled in March 1978. And be is the same over of the Marxist Stupid Assembly man who very nearly succeeded in carryDATE: March 1, 1989 ing out yet another series of terrorist attacks against American, Israeli, and The public phase of our campaign for French Jewish targets, before the terrorist office is going reasonably well. We now cell sent by AI Fatah was captured by have a fairly full slate of candidates and we French police, in March, 1987. We are should have plenty of volunteers camsobered by this bloodshed. Nonetheless, paigning for us during the March 21-22 we remain hopeful that a real initiative MSA elections. towards peace is possilile. Our private phase involves triggering Sadly, it has already become apparent the "outhouse effecL .. The outhouse effect that this particular "initiative" is li ttle in<X'e is similar to the greenhouse effecL The than another play of rhetoric. Arafat has latter occurs when carbon dioxide buildup already issued death threats to at least one traps heat in the atmosphere leading to furPalestinian Arab, Bethlehem Mayor Elias . ther C02 buildup, leading to higher temFreij, who dared to propose a cease-frre in peratures, and eventual frying of the violence against Israel. And on Dec. 18, planet. The outhouse effect occurs when five days after Arafat's supposed change in leftist rhetoric on a campus gets so strident policy, Abu Iyyad. Arafat'-s right-hand that it turns off most students, causing the man, announced that the PLO's goal releftists to be even morestrident, thus turnmained the establishment of, "at fJI'St, a ing off even more students. Evenbplly the small state, and with AIlab' s help, it will be . leftists get into such a cyclical frenzy that made large, and expand to the east. west, they explode and turn off everyone eJse; nonb, and south •... I am interested in the thus the "outhouse effect" (ci. DiddJy ediliberation of Palestine, step by step." torials). Apparendy, there is a lack of communicaTbeDiddly' s opinion page is already one

of the most hated symbols on campus. Now that we have infiltrated the opinion page staff, we can easily ensure that our people will be elected to run the Marxist Stupid Assembly. All we have to do is make it clear that our party is the enemy of the Diddly's opinion page, make sure that silly strident attacks against our party appear almost daily on the opinion page, and convince news writers that it is their moral duty to write weekly puff "news" pieces promoting groups like the Puerile Interest Gals and Guys in Michigan (pIG-

THE MICHIGAN REVIEW The Campus Affairs Journal of the University of Michigan

Editor-in-Chief Marc Selinger

Publisher Mark Molesky Arts Editor Jennifer Worick \ I

Assistant Editors Ian Beilin Matthew Lund Associate Publisbers Vicky Frodel Personnel~anager

John Miller

Executive Assistant Dana Miller


We right-wingers are guaranteed of victory once you (the Diddly infiltrators) convince opinion and news staffers that it is vital for them to prevent our ascension to power by writing the most slanted and slanderous articles possible. You should have little difficulty-these staffers are so caught up 'in their self-righteousness that they don 'teven realize how negatively their audience reacts to their character assassination. IC at all possible, make sure that the Diddly's opinion page runs an attack on us on the flfst day of the election. Ideally, the piece would be written by a Marxist Stupid Assembly or PIGGIM member (preferably both). This would give us the campaign trifecta: running against the people who control the Marxist Stupid Assembly, commonly viewed as .idiots, running against PIGGIM, commonly viewed as greedy, and running against the Diddly's opinion page, commonly viewed as stupid. A slogan lilce "We're the Diddly's worst nightmare" will do ~onders in convincing otherwise apathetic students to vote. Theeffort is up to you. I know it has been .hard for you to keep a straight face while writing editorials like "Boycott Boys' Life M8gaziRe Because It's Sexist and They Won,'t Print Any of the Feminist Party Jokes We Submitted." But the ordeal will be SOQI'I over.

Joe Typlto

Production Assistant Rannie o 'Halloran Editor Emeritus Seth Klukoff

Staff Mark Binelli, Karen Brinkman, Mark Brodson, Judy Cheng, Rick Dyer, A.M. Elen, Brian Gambs, Stephen George, Melissa Gessner, Ash Jain, Jeffrey Leiman, Ajay'Mehrooa, Peter Miskech, Chris Moore, Carol Nahra, Jim OUevaere, Belinda Pen, Lisa Perczak., Brian Portnoy, Perry Shorris, John Transue, Eli:;abeth Weinstein, . Chau-Ye Wu The Michigan Review is an independent, non-profit student journal at the University of Michigan. We welcome letters and articles and encourage comments about the journal and issues discussed in it. We are not affiliated with any political patty. Our address is:

Suite One 911 North University Ann Arbor, Mich. 48109

(313) 662-1909 Copyright 1989

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The Michigan Review



From the Editor

A Year in Review With the academic year coming to a close, it now seems to be a good time to assess what the Michigan Review has done during the past year and to look ahead to the coming year. In the eight monthly issues published this year, the Review examined an array of controversial issues, including racial tensions, studentgovemment, free speech, the curriculum, and the arts. The Review also interviewed a number of important local figures, including President James Duderstadt, outgoing MSA President Michael Phillips, and the local congressional and mayoral candidates. Rather than serving extensively, as it has in the past, as a forum for such issues as the Strategic Defense Initiative or the Nicaraguan contras, which the NationalReview or theNew York-Times can cover better than any student publication, the Review focused on what it is most capable of addressing: campus issues.

In addition to refming its purpose, the Review has become much more visible. Besides increasing circulation to its highest level ever (10,000 copies per month), the Review received substantial publicity in other campus and off-campus publications as well as through television and radio shows. Whereas in the previous academic year the Review had lost its audience, as evidenced by the fact that students often asked, "What is the Review?" this

year the Re~iew seems to have established a presence on campus. Despite the success of the past year, the Review has certainly oot reached its potential. The Review could still make many improvements, and we will try to implement them for the coming year. There is also plenty of room on the staff for enthusiastic students interested in journalism. So if you match that description, come join the Review.

Until then, enjoy the last issue of the 1988-89 year, have a good sum mer, and be sure to look for the Reyiew in September.

~~ Marc Selinger is a junior in political science and the editor-in-chier of the

Michigan Review.

T1te·'Rnlt1r Wish~ a rond far~D to our cndoatiDl seniors: .Photographer AM Elm will iectiYt. a ~II ia ~""UDicaticJa aDd work OR aD iDttnsbip in photojournalism. ~ a .........', • .~ ~aad work for

Staft'wrltfr Sltve Georp.,.

a pdroItum rInD iD Chit-ago.

Staffwriter Carol Natara dnat.~ a .......s. EaalWt- ,.,cItoIou ad 110ft to EDaIaDd, wben • fiDeI a jOb writ.lJIa or w.orkJN Wida a ~,......

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I I I Yes! I want to support the Michigan Review! I I Here's my tax-deductible contribution to help sustain the University of Michigan's independent campus affairs journal. I under- I I stand that with my contribution of $15 or more, I will receive a I one year's subscription to the Review. I

Contents Serpent's Tooth Letters to the Editor From the Editor From Suite One: Editorials Coyer Story What About the Rest of the World?, by Brian Portnoy Campus Affairs Essay New Traditions: Politicizing the Text, Anonymous Counselors: Do They Make the Grade?, by Elisabeth Weinstein

2 2 3


Baseball Pix, by Seth Klukoff

• Cover Photo by A.M. Elert








5 8

Am Books in Review A Radical Reminiscence, by Bryan Case

I am enclosing:




_$100 Other

Make checks payable to ''The Michigan Review" Send to: The Michigan Review/Suite Onel911 North University/Ann Arbor, MI 48109

I Please send my subscription to: I. I Name: I Address: I I

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The Michigan Review 4

April 1989

From Suite One: Editorials

The Conservative Surprise ., Last month's Michigan Student Assembly election produced some unexpected results as Engineeringjunior Aaron Williams and LSA junior Rose Karadsheh of the Conservative Coalition party captured both the presidency and vice presidency. Many people on campus were stunned that a party with the word "conservative" in its name could achieve victory at a "liberal" university. But a closer look at the campaign reveals that several factors produced this electoral "surprise." In the fIrst place, Conservative Coalition was certainly helped by the ineffectiveness of the other parties' campaigns. The Student Power party ran as if it were on a moral crusade. Its central campaign pledge, "to empower women and minorities on campus," was of the utmost importance because the "interests" of women and minorities, it claimed, cannot be met unless the number of women and minorities in power is made propOrtionate to their representation in the population. But in boasting that two-thirds of its candidates were women and one-third were minorities-not "proportionate" quantities-Student Power offered race and gender as the sole criteria by which to elect representatives. This sort of "benign" racism and sexism, although popular among certain segments of the campus population, proved unacceptable, and properly so, to reasonable students. The other two parties, United Students and Students' Choice, were unsuccessful, in part, because they failed to convey messages which could distinguish them from other parties. The Conservative Coalition, on the other hand, made clear that it was striving to make MSA more fiscally responsible and more accountable to students. While the three other parties supported the mandatory class on racism, the Conservative Coalition stood flTffily against it. In part, the conservative victory reveals the distrust and disdain which large numbers of students have for the moral propagandizing that a mandatory class on racism would promote. The Conservative Coalition was also aided by its strong stance against the PIRGlM (Public Interest Research Group in Michigan) fee, which was decisively rejected. Another factor may have been that students were simply fed up with the McCarthyite tactics of those such as Rackham graduate student and MSA

Rep. Corey Dolgon, who in a March 21 editorial in the Michigan Daily urged students not to vote for the "racist" and "far-right" Conservative Coalition. Despite a significant victory, Williams cannot afford to rest on his laurels since his party did not gain enough seats fora majority on MSA. To overcome this, he needs to build a coalition by courting moderate and conservative representatives who were not up for reelection, as well as the more moderate members of United Students who won. Onl y through skillful political maneuvering will he be able to create the political base necessary to address MSA's many problems.






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Rose Karadsheh

It's Howdy Doody Time! Last year on graduation day, some seniors decided that they were not interested in what graduation speaker Dr. Marshall Shulman had to say. But instead of sitting quietly and waiting until his speech had ended, saving their criticism for later, they decided to stage their own impromptu protesl By coughing, yelling, and talking amongst themselves, they forced Dr. Shulman to cut short"his speech and retire to his seat noticeably upset. Some of the students later charged that his speech was too long-winded and that his topic, the Soviet Union, had no direct relevance to them or to the graduation celebration. And besides, it was unbearably hot in those long robes. One can easily sympathize with these students. With many looking ahead to a night of beer, dancing, and juvenile ribaldry, a professor pontificating about the recent changes in the Soviet Union must have seemed rather absurd. Though Perestroika may in fact transfonn the entire society of a major nation, mastering its intricacies is not a prerequisite for admission to Dooley's. After all, four long years of studying everything from primate behavior to the Byzantine empire ceItainly entitles graduating seniors to more than another dry lecture. The administration needs to attract speakers who can not only identify with students but who can entertain them.

We need Buffalo Bob. Friend of Howdy Doody, superstar of the Cold War era, this man of stature would perfectly complement the intellectual aspirations of these particular students. Associate professors would flock to hear their childhood hero, and anti-elitists would cheer the choice of someone who does not sport a Ph.D. and hangs around with a marionette. Although Buffalo is a white male and thus in most civilized quarters would be justifiably vilified, an apologetic speech entitled "I Repent" should placate the masses. For those who doze off during air raids, we could have a laser light show with a hundred, no, a thousand points oflight. Dancing girls riding bare-back: on white stallions could escort the new graduates to the platfonn to receive their diplomas. Daring East European aCrobats could parachute out of burning zeppelins. We could have a limbo contest. How can anyone celebrate without one? And after the ceremony, members of PIRGlM could leap out of the crowd and clean up the whole mess. When will the administration ever learn that some students, if given a choice between the ivory tower and the "real world," will invariably choose the latter?

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The Michigan Review

April 1989 5

Essay: Academic Affairs

New Traditions: Politicizing the Text Anonymous "It is the sorry fate ofliterature to fall into the hands of schoolmasters and examiners who care for her dowry more than for her charms." Doubtless, the feminist critics of our day would assail the metaphor, but ignore the meaning, conveyed by George Sampson's statement 61 years ago. This would not seem the least bit unnatural , for it has been the fate of literature during the last three decades that its dowry has become its charm. The phenomenon is evident in the University of Michigan English Department's requirement that students concentrating in English should complete at least one English elective "focusing on the culturallradilions of women, minority ethnic groUPS. and people of color" (emphasis added)~ It is here that the distinction between.Englisbsttldies and the social sciences is severel}i:'bluned, and the one intrudes upon the other. This new phenomenon treats "cultural tradition" as primary and relegates literature to derivative status. The issue lies with equating social inquiry with literary inquiry and the methodology involved in such an equation. This social lr~ent oflite@t~ j~J~ in some, but;iiOi ioan. of the NewT,rnditions courses, which represent an 'attempt to bring new categoriesot textualthpught to . '. students. And whether its numerous practitioners apply feminist, deconstructionist, or Marxian methodology to textual study, the basic opemting premise is the same. Literature is to be valUed for its underlying cultQral and poJiti~~ontentand not for its. . .' PrJmafacie a~ttIeliC. IJ}Wt. .l~fac4i,teS::'. . . tlletic meriti$'~d).esi,con~dtred'tiivi~:by the New Traditlomsts. But perhaps thi~iS~ bitunfairtothe New Tt.aditionis,~,,J~meydQ· nol pCrc~ive any . 1V).. rtA.;';;'~; .·. ·ee.ll:n..erary i..nq .... i~ an.'d. the .'

text is one of many forms of cultural production." This is why one must "include the political nature of textual study," since the text and the methods of investigating it emerged from "already existent political contours." Therefore, the distinction between English and social science has been abolished-at least in certain minds. For with all the strong historical attention to . .)( ,, "'io ~t i Mh ( !\ '!lJland) "I




If I have learned anything from the plore and disrupt" "I try to create a vacrhetoric of diversity at the U-M, it is to uum," he said, and then informed the audirecognize and remove from thought th.e ence of 13 that he does not ' require his prejudice that places the leuers ' A' and 'z' students to write "a traditional English at opposite ends of the alphabet. The most paper ," but rather to work on a "project" of ardent promulgator of such rhetoric that I . sons. One of his students, Alexander said. have mel is English Professor William wished to present "a politiCal water ballet." "Buzz" Alexander who teaches a course on The point here is that the New Tradition"Literature and Social Change." In his ists do not move outside of the text to .. (') engage the student in peripheral questions ,· , 5. that would allow him to reenter the text, ;

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cause. or supposed cause, there does not dass he exammes"Greek,ShakespeNeaI), arise a logical relation to meaning within and 'non-pOlitical' modern drama 'to put the literary text. Yet, the New Traditionists issues of social' change in perspective ... proceed to treat capse as if itwere the plays by progressive groups of the last2S meaning to be investigated; Stich is the years, guerilla theater, Chicano th~ter... illogical reasoning by.wbich the discipJi-Cuba's EscambI1Y~~e,(, Baran's

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inquliyi:sei$Sed:Eriglish ~s a studY, . · :guarHh.,,{'Qf dtW~loprhent, anqq~ .' notofserrum~csorthebeautYpf11ierature,porary ~ssrootsthealer" (fromlheWln. butofhistQJ:ica)cau~~cff(X:1. Gregerter 1989 LSACourseguide). 1 bad-.t.b;e .. '. son explams ~t her students "read poems • .' opportunity .to hear Alexander ·spelik M . for tlies~ieXr; forme' coliteStation'be- ' "The Politics 6fEngli$.)j:(eJa~e" ~(.: ;;;;;ience§,; "'The texi is:~liticru," tween the sexes for power-linguistic Canterbury House on Feb. 16.,a1ld power, power to control language and linstruck by his noble stature. One senses in according 10 Assistant English Professor guistic paradigms" (emphasis added). him a humble demagogue with a finn de-. Linda GregerSon, who teaches a class That is politicsatthe expense ofLhe text. If votion to his mission. called "Writing the Female Body: Cultural Spenser's Faerie Queen is only a poem During his presentation •. Alexander Poetics and Gender in the English Renaisabout linguistic subjugation, I might as spoke not so much about literature as about sance." One must take into account the well drop my English major and become an the oppressive nature of the college class"pressure of econom ics and social class on room. But he did make his methodology engineer. the production of literature," because "the quite clear. He spoke continuously of an "unjust status quo" which he "wants to disCorrection rupt" and how he structures his class accordingly. H! allQws groups to fonn in his The article "BBA: Way to Go?" (Review, February 1989) erroneously reported that class, "groups of working-class people, about 3000 students apply each year for the BBA program and that only one in 10 is women, and veterans," who then proceed admitted. The 3000 figure actually applies to the MBA, not the BBA. program. to teach the class. Such a method, AlexanBetween 650 and 700 students apply to the BBA program and about one OU1 of two or der claims, "creates opportunities .to ex320 are admitted. .U .



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sphere and left there to fend for hImself. This is indeed a regrettable situation for English studies. C.S. Lewis summed up this tendency when he wrote "A man Idlo.edifhi ' edf wou uo;;; annoy s son return rom the dentist with his teeth untouched and his head crammed with the dentist's obit., dicta on bimetallism or the Baconian theory.~ Indeed, students should be annoyed that their heads are being crammed with politics and amateur philosophy under the innocuous guise of English. . ~ point to keep in mind is that althou,~the text is treated politicaUy.1he New:rOOitionists do not stop there. ~ow that it. baS been molded to fit pobucal purpose!i, the text is used as a means to further political change. English is only one of many textual battlefields on which the struggle may occur. Th~point,accord· ing to Gregerson, is "Dot jUst to be in our culture, but to chang, it" (emphasis ad~)~ ~~ichisquitebUe; Butit.isnotup to; Jh~ Jn~llij~tsia to deiMmine wblt course oorcultUJe will take but to help us


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April 1989

The Michigan Review 6

Cover Story

What About the Rest of the World? by Brian Portnoy In the 19th century. the English poet

Roben Browning wrote that "All's right with the world." Unfonunately, Mr. Browning, all's not right with today's world. Oppression and civil wars take place in dozens of nations, communist and non-communist. Because global communication has made the world smaller, people are aware of events that occur in the four corners of the world. Consequently, at the University of Michigan, a campus well known for its social and political awareness, many students believe they know what is happening in most areas of the world. But do they? It seems that a selective awareness has taken hold of the U-M campus which prioritizes certain international issues and ignores others. Granted, activism in respect to panicular nations is widespread, if not sometimes overwhelming. Specifically, South Africa, Israel, and Central

Text Continued from previous page understand it. Understanding and demagoguery, however, are often confused in the wonderfully tolerant atmosphere of diversity. For instance, by applying "p0liticized categories ... to look at texts," as Gregerson encourages her students to do, one ends up reading, not the text itself, but one's own politics in place of the text. We

America receive the greatest share, if not all, of campus attention. The Michigan Daily covers a story or features editorials or letters on South Africa, Israel, or Central America almost every day. The most prominent internationally-oriented student activist groups-the Free South Africa Coordinating Committee, the Latin American Solidarity Committee, Tagar, the Progressive Zionist Caucus, and the Palestinian Solidarity Committee-tend to monopolize the campus spotlight. But are students aware, for example, of events in Turkey, Syria, Nigeria, Chile, Nonh Korea, and Cuba? According to Julie Rancilio, U-M coordinator of Amnesty International. "There are a lot of real serious international violations going on that do not get focused upon." She says that there exist "many injustices of similar proponion [to the more highly publicized human rights violations] that are going unnoticed." Brutal, widespread, ongoing

cannot understand past thought by forcibly imposing our own predispositions on it; otherwise we will inevitably find our modern prejudices everywhere we look and end up learning nothing in the process. It is one thing for a Marxian critic to speak of bourgeois individualism as the cause of the English Romantic Movement, and another to say that English Romantic poetry reflects an underlying. bourgeois individualism. The former claim, and its dubious historical merit. belongs to the social

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torture in Turkey and the frequent disappearances of political opponents in Colom-

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sciences. It is only by an illogical extrapolation and the equation of cause and meaning that such a claim may intrude upon English studies and produce the latter claim. The sub-text, if it exists at all and is not a prejudice brought in with the reader, is derivative from the literary text as a social phenomenon and deserves to be treated as such-and not as the literary text. When English deteriorates into politics, then the supposed purpose of the New Traditions has been defeated, which, as Gregerson explains, is "to bring other categories of thought" to students, to make them aware of other "terms and consciousness" that will challenge the privileged status of the "dominant patriarchal hegemony." Such a challenge is based on the need to continuously "reopen the question of canon." Granted, the "hegemonic" canon needs to be examined. but not because we wish to make it suitable to our political ends. For the method that makes texts say what we want them to say is not a liberation but a self-deluding tyranny of thought. What then is the place of the New Traditions? I do not know who the U-M considers a practitioner of the New Traditions, but lronsider them to be psychological. feminist, deconstructionist, and Marxian critics. All these approaches are founded upon an epistemic skepticism that was present in the New Criticism and structuralism (which have been considered unfashionable methods for some time now).

These latter traditions floundered and were discarded because they were basically Romantic movements based on a metaphysical skepticism. The New Traditions offer the same old metaphysics but have stripped away the Romanticism to expose a truly skeptical method. But what has this accomplished? Just as the New Criticism was guilty of abolishing the author, the New Traditions are guilty of abolishing the literary text in favor of a politicized "subtext." In addition, they have abolished the examination of imagination. When a text becomes a strictly political "production" rather than an individual creation, the door is opened to politicize all fonns of thought according to the epistemic choice of a cenain few. This has been the fate of postRomantic criticism beginning with Matthew Arnold For since Arnold's day,literary criticism has consisted of little more than variations on a theme of skepticism which has found its consummation in deconstruction. Where do we go from here? Gregerson's hope is that the New Traditions will "force varied critical assumptions into the open" so that the practitioners of "diverse critical persuasions will have to engage with each other." I share her hope. Only then will the distinction between liberal inquiry and p0litical demagoguery be firmly drawn.

or this essay is an undergraduate in English.

The author


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The Michigan Review

April 1989 7

World Continued from previous page bia are two such examples. What are the reasons for this selective awareness? One is that the United States has vested interest in these "popular regions." The United States has economic ties with South Africa, a military-strategiceconomic alliance with the Israeli government, and a strong hand in Central American affairs. This serves to focus national interest on these countries' problems. Moreover, many student activists see the United States as part of the problem, resulting in student protest of both the United States and the nations it supports. Directly linked to the notion that Ameri-

Kenneth Lieberthal says, an "emotional immediacy." In that ~ magnitude of human rights violations grows daily, many people feel these matters require urgent action. Yet, some professors consider other monumentally pressing international problems, each of which holds great longtenn significance for the United States and the future world order, tantamount to the problems addressed on the U-M campus. Lieberthal and U-M political science Professor A.F.K. Organski, for example, both recogniz~ the need to address human rights issues, yet they emphasize East Asia's rise as an economically and politically powerful region and East-West relations (and the shift of the international system), respec-

It seems that a selective awareness has taken hold of the V-M campus which prioritizes certain international issues and ignores others. can interests help detennine students' world perspective is the role of the popular media and its manner of presenting the news. AliMazrui, U-M professor of political science and an expert on African affairs says, "There is a problem of what constitutes news, and part of it is the status of the big powers and whether they are interested in a particular problem." Mazrui suggests that the degree of importance a particular nation or region holds for the superpowers detennines the level of press coverage that area receives. Awareness of only certain regions and their particular problems creates a "snowball effecL" That is, once an area has caught the media's eye, public awareness rises as does activism in response to the crisis in that area. Consequently, there is an increase in coverage of that area which increases awareness, and so on. Not only does this perpetuate extended coverage of certain areas, it also leads to the exclusion of other equally important international stories. ''They [journalists] underestimate how they can create the tastes themselves," says Mazrui. " If you just cater long enough to a particular line of reporting, you will create a constituency for that line of reporting." These preoccupations of the national news strongly influence interest on cam· pus. In fact, campus news may have an even greater preoccupation with certain issues than the national media. Another reason f<X' the campus' limited world perspective is that current attention has, as U-M political science Professor

tively. However, these are all long-term processes more than they are crises that demand immediate action. "It is very hard," says Lieberthal, "to get people emotionally involved in a trend." One last cause . of selective campus awareness is the apparent urgency of a particular crisis. Some students feel that in

a nation like South Africa, events have reached the point where major changes can take place any day. A spokeswoman from the Nelson Mandela-Ella Baker Anti-Racist Education Center says that there is now a "critical juncture" in South African race relations. Since those activists working for their cause feel that their goals will soon be reached, they are motivated to strive onwards with even more zeal. Not only does further highlight the events in that area, but italso lures attention away from severe political and economic problems in other African nations. At present students still have selec tive awareness. In fact, the currenL situation is one in which there exists an open forum which allows students to voice their opinions. The debates and conflict which now rage will, it is hoped, create solutions to the problems which have seized several nations-the problems of which most students are very aware. Furthennore, the spokeswoman from the Anti-Racist Education Center suggests that the struggle in South Africa will have "spillover effects" to other nations facing similar oppression. The fight in one region may spread elsewhere. Mazrui agrees. "Nothing will return to nonnality in the rest of Africa unless that particular problem [South Africa] is solved," he says. The current struggles are seen then not only as positive in themselves, but also as precursors to the fight for freedom, justice, and the end of oppression elsewhere.


3:: m i'i"




Professor Ali Mazrui Also, while still focusing on col,lOtries in, the international spotlight, it ma~ be pos-' sible to inform students of the plight of others less well known . Amnesty International's Rancilio expresses a need for more "articles, infonnation tables in the Fishbowl, Diag protests, and vigils" to bring other crucial problems into the same world spotlighL But whether this alone can overcome students' awareness is far from certain. A more significant change, such as in the way the national and campus media determine which events are newsworthy, may be needed to overcome selective awareness. Brian Portnoy is a sophomore in politi. cal science and a starr writer for the



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The Michigan Review 8

April 1989

Campus Affairs: Academics

Counselors: Do They Make the Grade? by Elisabeth Weinstein

At the University of Michigan, each college has general academic counselors who are available for career counseling as well as help with course and major selection, These counselors advise freshmen and sophomores before they have declared a major and entered a specific department. However, many students at the U-M are dissatisfied with the counseling they have received, LSA sophomore Darby Miller says that the general counselor with whom she met was "helpful for a start," but that in order to make the right decisions for her future, she will have to look elsewhere for advice. Robert Blacher, an LSA freshman, says, "I needed advice about what classes to take in order to prepare for law school, but I did not get the help I needed frorn my counselor." And Elizabeth Fealk, an LSA sophomore, says, "I needed help choosing a major, butthecounselor I spoke to simply looked at my grades and suggested majoring in those subjects in which I did well. I could have done that myself." An engineering student who wishes to remain anonymous says that the geneml counselors in the College of Engineering simply tell students what courses they have to take without making sure that they want to remain in engineering. He also says that counselors do not listen to students or get to know them personally; mther" they tell students what is required and expect them to follow their directions.

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not made up." Most students seem to agree that counselors are helpful in answering their specific questions about requirements. For instance, Katherine Simon, an LSA sophomore, says, "While all of the information about requirements can be found without the help of a counselor, it is much easier to ask someone who already knows." Fealk says, however, that "itcan be frustrating for a student who needs help choosing a major to go into the counseling office in hopes of receiving advice, only to leave

Students who want counselors to make decisions for them expect more from counselors than we are willing or able to give," Many students complain about the lack of concrete advice counselors provide about class selection. "Counselors," says Fealk, "simply look at the classes students have chosen and always say that it looks fine, without giving any advice for career planning." But Bonnie Hoffer, an LSA sophomore, was able to find, after seveml attempts, a counselor who would help her choose classes. "Even more important,

Many students feel they do not receive all the help they need, while counselors feel that it is not their job to make decisions for students. however, was the fact that this counselor just as confused as before." gave me confidence, Allhough my future Many students, including Fealk, seem to plans are not definite, he made me realize feel that counselors are not helpful in that I had many good options of classes to choosing a major. But Dunn says that, take. I left his office feeling much better." "academic counselors are not here to make As Hoffer points out, it is important to decisions for students. We are just here to help them decide what they want to do.;' know what you expect from a counselor Mary Parker, another LSA academic counbefore you meet with him. Another common complaint from stuselor, says, "Students often know much more about themselves than they realize. dents is that the counseling system does not provide enough individual attention. Sometimes just having someone to talk to Appointments usually last for only 15 and ask questions can make a student realize for himself what he would like to do." minutes. Also, many students say they are And LSA counselor Mark Anema says, unable to. make appointments with tbe "Students must realize that a counselor~s .same Collnselor more than once ~i~r job is to help them figure out foithem. ' ' 009u~the counselor's sched~ is fined' se~ves what they are interested in mther when they go to make an appointment, or than to tell them what it is they should do. because they forget who their previous coUnselor was. Alycia Spector, an ~A freshman, says she tried to make a cmplSelt ing appointment to discuss her ~.. term schedule, but found none were available until after registmtion (CRISP). Although these kinds of problems can be expected when attending a large university, Hoffer says, "It is possible to. get to know a counselor , but it does take a little bit of time on the students' part. Students must be willing to put in the time to find someone with whom they get along, and then continue to see the same counselor. If students.~o this, I think it will be easier for a counselor to help because he will know moreabout a student than he can possibly learn in one I5-minute session." :tvfany general counselors advise students to seek academic advice at least once a semester, and one counselor suggests that students

set up as many as three appointments per semester with a counselor. The better a counselor gets to know a student, the easier it is to help him on a personal level. Some people still believe that changes should be made in the counseling system. Blacher suggests that students be given an assigned counselor who they could get to know, and that they be required to meet with their counselor periodically. According to Blacher, this would alleviate the problem of students not ketting appointments when they need them and would promote more interaction between counselors and students. This kind of system is in place in the College of Engineering, Students in Engineering are sent a form once a semester telling them to make an appointment with a counselor. Although they do not have assigned counselors, they are required to make an appoinunent bef<lre they can register for classes. In addition, Simon believes the system should be modified so that a student could always be able to see a counselor if necessary. The UM may have to hire more counselors if many students have trouble getting. appointments. Fealk aoo proposes a solution. "When I was having SO much trouble deciding on a major and had no idea about career plans,l was never told by my counselor where to get more help," says Pealk. "Counselors should infonn students about where to go for help. I spoke to several cOUO$elors and was never to.ld to. go to the eareerCenler, wbere I could get question"swhi¢b· asked what I liked to dB: and ··gav~ cateet suggeslions, work ona~m­ puter, andlOOlt'tbrough books to find out on my own more about what I might want to do." C~ljt.t.ote,veryone is sati:,'fi:ed with the general academic counseling system at the U·M: Many students feel that they do not receive all the help they need, while cOWlselors feel that it is not their job to make decisions for students. There exists a discrepancy between the needs of students and the abilities and desires of counselors. But until the counseling system is improved, students should make the most of academic COunseIDrs by setting up periodic appointments with a carefully chosen counselor and by asserting themselves in order to make sure the counselor is aware of their particular interests and needs.

Elisabeth Weinstein is an LSA sophomore and a stair writer for the Revitw.


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The Michigan Review

April1989 9

Arts: Books in Review

A Radical Reminiscence e; fl'ICt. '" g Fraser interprets the 1950s as a time of ~ deadlock, superficial affluence disguising ~ an abyss of emptiness, and failure.

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1968: A Student Generation in Revolt. Ronald Fraser, ed. Softcover, $14.95. Pantheon Books, 1988. 408 pp. by Bryan Case

In 1968, the United States witnessed the culmination of activities by many student movements in the Western world. Student protest organizations managed to increase their memberships to unprecedented heights and grew powerful enough to threaten the government of France. Twenty years later, several books were published addressing that chaotic time. Ronald Fraser 's collection of oral histories, 1968: A Student Generation in Revolt, stands out as a superb work of history and an excellent introduction to 1960s radical politics. With the aid of eight scholars, Fraser has assembled the oral testimonies of over 230 people who witnessed or participated in the student movements of the 1960s. 1968 takes an international view of student radicalism. Domestic actions and ideas are constantly related to and compared with those of other nations. . The book does not begin with 1968, but instead with the 1950s. In fact, it does not reach the year of its title until halfway through the book. This is so because the author provides a significant amount of background material, which greatly enhances the readers ' understanding of the subject. For example, the strife tJetween the leading groups of the French May 1968 pseudo-revolution would have seemed silly and wasteful without discussion of the historical roots of this factional con-


"Institutionalized racism and discrimination at a time of so-called liberal progress was but one ofthe contradictions of post-war Western societies which could mobilize student protest. Peace through the threat of nuclear extinction; colonial wars at a time of decolonialization; oppression and poverty--both material and spiritual-in the midst ofconsumerist abun-

dance .. . were among the others. It would be .. . around one or more of them simultaneously that much of the student protests of the 1960s would mobilize." According to Fraser's scathing indictment of that period, some sort of response was demanded. University and college students were a logical source for rebellious criticism, given that increasing numbers of students were being sent to school away from home, enjoying the benefits of their parents' material wealth. Students form the core of 1968, and with good

reason. Student movements remained largely confined to college campuses; with the exception of France in May 1968, when national unions temporaril y went on'strike in support of student strikes. they were never able to attract the support and cooperation of any social group with political power. Student activism started out small around 1960. British students joined Bertrand Russell's campaign to abolish nuclear anus. Some American students be路 came involved in the battle against SouthSee next page

IfYou Think This Year's New GMAT Section Is Easy, Try Solving This. Directions: For the following question. select the best answer cboice provided. 1. Only if we know human nature can we know the nature of the true good for human beings. And only if we know the nature of tbe true good for human beings can we arrive at an idea of the truly just society. Thus . if we know human nature and the nature of tbe good for human beings . we can arrive at an idea of the truly just society. Which of tbe following points out a potential ftaw in the reasoning above? (A) Wbat one buman being thinks is good might well be something that another human being thinks is not good. (8) Many people have arrived at ideas of the just society. and all of them have been slightl y different. (e) It is quite possible to know human nature without in any way being able to know what is tbe good for human beings. (D) Philosopbers have argued for centuries over what specifically defines human nature, without coming to a general agreement. (E) Arriving at an idea of the just society may require more than knowledge of human nature and knowledge of the good for buman beings.

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The Michigan Review

April 1989


Radical Continued from previous page

Student movements were never able to attract the support and cooperation of any socifll group with political power.

ern segregationism. Italian SbJdents at several universities successfully fought for scholastic refonn. French students joined the movement opposing the Algerian War. Compared to the actions of the late l%Os and early 1970s, most of these movements were mild and limited In 1961, Russell's Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament staged a sit-down in Trafalgar Square, a quiet predecessor to the seizure of buildings at Columbia University some years later. In the early 1960s, student movements in Western nations grew. Victors of the antiracist conflict in the American South returned to the North to combat racism there. But in the North, discrimination was more subtle and difficult to eradicate, compelling activists to broaden their criticisms of American society. At the same time, students from all nations criticized the Vietnam War. President Lyndon Johnson's stepping-up of American involvement in the Vietnam War further drove students into opposition and radicalism. Ideologies began to play an increasingly important role in student thought Students sought justification for their opinions and guides for their actions in leftist thinking. The popularity of socialist and Marxist ideas, as well as Marxist splinter and revisionist factions, drove students to demand


ralicaIcbang,es in society_ Thesepoposed cb:mgesmnged from increasing student participa600 in f3culty hiring at the university level to such iot:emationaI events as ending the war in Vietnam. The rise of the 00I1IllerCUltnr began to have a profomtd ·effect 00 student politics. Beginning with the beatniks and continuing tbrougb the bippies, counserculture clements--books clothing, haimtts, and

less strongly committed to each movement dropped out, leaving behind a core of devoted radicals. These radicals grew more confrontationalist in their tactics-even confronting police forces in street battles. Their demonstrations changed from polite statements of belief to attempts at winning support from the poor and the working class. And their criticisms of specific state policies widened into indictments of society as a whole. The 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago was a strong embarrassment 10 conventional politics. Mayor Richard Daley launched brutal police attacks on demonstrators. These assaults were reported by journalists who were physically beaten and who broadcast the one-sided violence of the convention to a national audience. Riots broke out in 126 cities. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated. Student strikes shut down campuses across the country. Discontent with the state of affairs in America grew to near revolutionary proportions. In France, a student-called general strike almost over· turned the de Gaulle regime. In spite of a devoted membership, the revolutions failed to materialize, and student groups began to weaken in disappointment Movements all over the world continued to protest and ag ita te for change, but never with the drama and magnitude of 1968. Some students thought that they had been too conciliatory and, like the Weathennan faction of Students for a Democratic Society in the United States, grew even more radical and militant, going under· ground to work for a revolution that was never to happen. The 1970s saw the replacement of confrontations between state and student with the complacency of the 1950s. Fraser views the student protests as noble and not entirely unsuccessful. Stu-

music-infuserl ~t movements with enagy and a sense of common purpose. Acrording to Frnser, rock 'n' roll was social criticism you could dance to. The intensity of opposition to activists, [3I1ging from editOOal critici!m in newspapers to FBI infiltration of activist groups., contritmtcri to the radicafu:atioo of srudenl movements. Sou.rhem nigbtriders coodocted l.errorist campaigns against antisegregationists, Malcolm X was assassinated in 5965, the American fedccal government 100k strong measures againsl drafl


2D Italian swdent leader was lynched in 1966,,:andaGennanstudent was fatally . . by police during a proleSl in 1967. Out of fear of sucb reprisals, thosI;

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dents did playa crucial role in bringing about the desegregation of the American South, ending the American involvement in Vietnam, and in democratizing many universities. For Fraser, the significance of the movements lies in their wholesale opposition to authoritarianism. "Overall," he writes, "one of the major effects of the student rebellion has been a generalized disrespect for arbitrary and exploitative authority among the 1968 and succe.eding generations in the West, a lack of deference towards institutions and values that de· mean people, and a concomitant awareness of people's rights." By using oral histories, the author does well in depicting the student movements of the 1960s. Fraser has done a phenomenal job in gathering an impressive amount of primary-source information and combining data from several countries. He closely meshes recorded accounts with his own narrative, fonning a coherent and well· documented history. To assist the reader, Fraser includes a l6-page chronology of events at the end of the book. Given the controversial nature of student protest, the reader should expect some degree of bill., from the author. Although Fraser projcc L) a sligh! bias towards the students, he manages to keep it to a mini· mum. Heduly records every failure as well as every success. However, to provide more balance, Fraser could have included testimonies of those opposing the students, such as FBI agents or policemen. In spite of the otherwise sufficient background material presented, Fraser writes little about leftist political theory. He quotes Marxists, anarchists, situationalists, syndicalists, Maoists, and others without really defining their views. A brief discussion of compartnive ideologies would have been very helpful to the average reader. 1968: A Student Generation in Revolt contains a wealth of infonnation on student radicalism in the 1960s. Students today, radical or not, could learn much from the tragic events that lead up to their apex in 1968.


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The Michigan Review

April 1989 11


Baseball Pix by Seth Klukoff . Baseball prediction season is here! Tis the time of the year when the experts, after spending a few days in the Rorida sun, spew their findings all over the nation's sports pages and magazines. And they are usually wrong. So, now it's my tum.

Besides, Oddibe McDowell is nobody's savior. Are the Orioles the Miami Heat of Major League Baseball? Or are they the Phillies of the AL East? Or are they a bunch of Ripkens masquerading as ballplayers? Who are the Orioles anyway? A team without Eddie Murray and other living things.

American League East This year the Yankees have pitching, American League West with the acquisition of Andy Hawkins. In The Athletics, unlike some pennant facl, they have so much pitching, ooth . winners recently, improved themselves starting and relief, that they should send during the off-season. For example, they some to the PhiIlies, who don't have any. signed Mike Moore to oolster a strong Also, the addition of second baseman starting rotation. Mark McGwire, Jose Steve Sax solidifies an already strong infield. New skipper Dallas Green, the forCanseco, Carney Lansford, and Dave Henmer Cubs general manager and Phillies manager, should fit in nicely with owner George Steinbrenner. Or maybe not. Or maybe John Tower gets along well with Sam Nunn. Or maybe not. For some reason, the sports mag gurus are turned on by the Brewers. "Wtiat youth!" . they exclaim. Shortstop Gary Sheffield, who is Dwight Gooden's cousin, should win Rookie of the Year. Bul, the Brewers' success hinges on their pitching. They need a full year from Teddy Higuera, Juan Nieves, and Mike Birkbeck in order ~g stay in the pennant race. And they should also learn how to beat the White Sox. derson may be the "Murderers Row" of the late-1980s. And catcher Terry Steinbach With the exception of the Yankees, the Blue Jays have the most talent in the divihas made people forget Orlando Mercado. The Rangers will prove that trading for sion. With George Bell, Jesse Barfield, Fred McGriff ... Wait! Haven't the predic- 'Rafael Palmeiro and Jamie Moyer, and . tion czars been writing that for a few years? signing Nolan Ryan, was meaningless. But Well, I won't finish that sentence. Well, why am I picking them to finish in second maybe, with Dave Stieb, Jimmy Key, place? Just a hunch. I would have picked the Twins to finish Kelly Gruber ... Sorry all you Tiger fans. I know you're in second, but they traded for Wally Backman, a former Met. More importantly, disappointed because I didn't pick them to however, the Twins still ha ve a weak pitch. finish in fifth place. Bul, I foresee good things for the Tigers this season. If new ing staff. How long can they rely on Frank Viola and, to a lesser extenl, Allan Anderthird baseman Chris Brown keeps his head son? Another question: How long can in the game, like he was unable to do in San Manager Tom Kelly sit on the dugout Francisco and San Diego, if Trammell and Whitaker stay healthy, if Morris reoounds bench with his cap draped over his head, from a mediocre season, if Mau Nokes hits without moving? like his rookie season, and if Sparlcy can I would have picked the Royals to fmish master the English language, the Tigers in second, but they haven't improved eican win the division. ther. So Mark Gubizca had a good season I'm sick and tired of reading aoout last year. So Bret Saberhagen is still a solid Margo Adams. And I'm really sick and pitcher. So Kevin Setzer is good for a .320 season. So what? When the only acquisitired of reading aoout the Red Sox soap opera. Who cares aoout a bunch of overtion of relevance is Bob Boone, a steady paid, overrated· (with the excepuon, of but very old catcher, ·inspiration hardly follows. course, of Wade Boggs), over-'youknow-what athletes? I would llave picked the White Sox to The Indians began last season as the fmish second, but they need full seasons surprise team in the division. But. to no from Harold Baines, Carlton Fisk, Ivan one's surprise, they collapsed. I'd be surCalderon, and Greg Walker to be respectable. This team is on the move, however. I prised if they do any better this seas~.

like the young pitching staff, anchored by Melido Perez and Jack McDowell. I would have picked the Angels to finish second, but I'm not crazy. And I'm picking the Mariners to fmish lasl, because I know better, I think.

The Phollies, oops, I mean Phillies are a shadow of their former selves. In Veterans Stadium run impostors, miscreants, ·and jesters. The Vet is but a shell of the glory once unfurled. The ghosts of Lozinski, Carlton, Bowa, Maddoll, et al. wretch. Only Mike Schmidt remains from the wonder years, and his next life beckons. Enough said?

National League East It pains me to pick the Mets to fmish in firstplace. But let's be pragmatic. Not only is this team loaded, but it is very anxious after losing to the Dodgers in the League Championship Series. Add sure-bet NL Rookie of the Year Greg Jeffries to the lineup, and the Mets should win the NL East in a walk.

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The Cardinals are competitive every other year. So this year they may be in the race for the pennant. If young pitchers Joe Magrane and Cris Carpenter stay healthy, the Redbirds can win the division. If nolo look for a bunch of dead birds in the August heat. And I don't mean the Phoenix team. Last year, the Pirates appeared to be the Brewers of the NL East. Everyone went ga ga over their youth. The Pirates are talented, rio question. But, they did not add to their talent during the off-season. There's an old saying, though I don't know who said il, that gOod broth congeals over time if not mixed. . First, there was night baseball at Wrigley. Then came private clubs on the Wrigleyville rooftops. What's next for the Cubs, a pennant? Well, when you trade away a .300 hitter, Rafael Paimeiro, for a wild reliever, Mitch Williams, and some questiOn marks, don't bother ordering playoff tickets. Though Dawson, Grace, Sandberg, and young hurier Mike Harkey will provide excitement for the bleacher bums,e~tmanyasweatbeadtoformon

Managef'OOn Zimmer's bald pate. The ExJKis are a collection of journeymen, have-nots, and never- would-be's ... It's beyond me why the prognosticators like ·this team. Maybe it's the uniforms. Nab.

National League West Conventional wisdom dictates picKing the Padres to win the division. And it'seasy to see why. The Padres have a nucleus of good young players, like Roreqo Alomar, Benito Santiago,andJohn Kruk.ln the offseason, they signed free agent Jack Clark and picked up pitcher Walt Terrel in a trade with the Tigers. But I'm going to pick the Astros to win instead. Although they lost Nolan Ryan to free agency, the Astros signed former Blue Jay Jim Clancy to stabilire the pitching staff. Glenn Davis, . Kevin Bass, and Glenn Young are always threats. The problem with the Padres is not a lack of talent. Manager Jack McKeon will have to blend his individual stars into a team. And then maybe, just maybe. the Pads will challenge. The Reds have a strong pitching staff, with Danny Jackson, Rick Mahler, Tom Browning, and Jose Rijo. The Reds have oodles of talenl, with Kal Daniels, former University of Michigan stars Chris Sabo and Barry Larkin, and Todd Benzinger. The Reds have Pete Rose as manager, who has a passionate love 9f the game-baseball, that is. But they lack a bench and a . bullpen. I was tempted to pick the Dodgers to win the division especially with the addition of former Oriole Eddie Murray. But Tommy Lasorda was lucky last year, and the division is tougher. Moreover, Orel Hershiser, everybody's AU-American, is not going to repeat last season. No way. What happened to the Giants last year? They had lots of injuries and tried to rush their minor league stars into the lineup. This year, the Giants will be a team of recovering veterans and untested rookies with a frustrated manager, Roger Craig. Are the Braves still America's team11f ~,why? And is it true that someone named Nixon is their manager? Will Dale Murp.y ever be the same? Seth Ktukoff is s graduate studentst ·~orthwestern Unversity's Medill SdIooI or Journalism and the editor emeritus of tbe R,t/kw.

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