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March-April, 1987

Volume 5 Number 7

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page 2 THE MICHIGAN REVIEW

March-April, 1987

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ierpent's mootlJ ileluxe M Vote Blue!!! Oh, that's over now? Sorry.

Following the tradition on campus, we at the Review have devised our set. of 12 demands. And here they are:

**

Here's an exciting course to. take next semester: The Theory and Practice ofModem Literary Criticism from Marxism and Psychoanalysis to Structuralism. Semiotics and Deconstruction. This fun filled course will examine the contemporary rejection of the principles of new criticism and the development of alternative critical perspectives redefining the nature and function of the text, the author, the reader, critical evaluation, and the outermost boundaries of literature itself. Yes, this is really a course in the Career Development curriculum of the Pajama U (The Residential College to the rest of us)-We wonder if they'll be using Barbara Foley's latest book.

1). Professors Bert Hornback and

Steve Rosenstone (our favorite upper class, northeastern elitist liberal from Yale) must be moved to the fiction section of the library. 2). The creation of a nudist awareness day. If you wear your clothes, you are a skinophobic. 3). An orientation workshop on the writings of Burke, Goldwater, Will, Watt, and Tanter. 4). Grape juice before every protest on the Diag. 5). Canonization of Preacher Mike and a free tape of his greatest sermons. The package will include the Stoney Burke-Preacher Mike Debates. 6). Gee, its getting hard to think of any more demands. Oh, wait, here's one.

** All points bulletin: The Marines are looking for a few good eunuchs .

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7). We will build a Pizza Hut on the

Diag to protest US investment in the . Soviet Union. Proceeds from pizza sales will go to the Review. 8). Mandatory distribution of Soldier of Fortune magazine in dormitory mailboxes. Also included will be an autographed copy of Vanna White's autobiography. 9). A negative checkoff on the SVF for the Beastie Boys. 10). Condoms for the Burpman. 11). We demand the Student Publications Building, or at least all the computer disks that people give to the Daily. 12). Yay!! The last one, this is tough. No classes on Arbor Day. 13). Wait, we overstepped the bounds of normal decency. WE HAVE THIRTEEN DEMANDS. wE: LIED. Knee braces for President Shapiro to be used at public addresses.

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We hear that a few fraternities were

.disaPPQinted. tb,at ,the .T~and As w~re

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going to strike.

mayoral election-and Nicaragua is one step closer to democracy.

..

.

**

**

There is no truth to the rumor that the nuclear disarmament groups on campus are going to paint the famous inflatable Beastie Boys prop as a missle and orotest it.

One reason for Pierce's stunning defeat was the public's disdain for the excesses of the Sister City program. The voters in last year's city election supported the program. However, they did not expect the mayor to propose legislation for and send garbage trucks to Juigalpa, especially when Ann Arbor has crucial problems, of its own to solve-such as the high crime rate and poor infrastructure maintenance.

** Times they are a changin' in A-squared. The Pinkertons, a left-wing theater group, were booed after performing in front ofa class. It look,S like guerilla theater is going the way of the Seattle Pilots, Supertrain and the U-Cellar.

The MSA elections were real fun, We had a g()odtim~, ran a campaign, babbled the usual garbage, stood on the Diag and shouted at people, bought buttons, put up posters . . . and lost. But seriously, we tried hard, got our message out, and amassed a constituency that will be heard from in the near future. To all who supported us in our sometimes quixotic quest for MSA fame and glory (?), thank you for you support and Go Blue!

From the didjaknow department: If .Big,EdPierce wars~lectedmayor.he would have pressed for an increase in the siie of the Sister City Task Force from seven to eleven members. He would have also sought to increase its funding by $1,000-2,000. Ann Arbor taxpayers can now breathe a sigh of relief. (And feel a lot safer too).

** Here's one from the Yale Daily News Insider's Guide to Colleges. 13th ed.: "The student government-the Michigan Student Assembly-is certainly active, but students say it's not very effective." So, maybe we'll form a party to try to change that. Nah.

**

President Shapiro is attempting to push through a code and is justifying it due to the racist incidents. We told you so. see page 15

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THE MICHIGAN REVIEW page 3

March-April, 1987

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Dvmw Publisher David Katz

Associate Publishers Kurt M. Heyman Mark Powell

Editor-in-Chief Seth B. Klukoff

Executive Editors Steve Angelotti Paul Seltman

Entertainment Editor Gloria Sanak

Personnel Manager Marc Selinger

Elections Editor Big Ed Pierce

to~'1:~'"

Stfl/J Patrick Batcheller Craig Brown C. Brandon ,Crocker Daniel Drumm Rick D)'f'r.",:<',,;."':" "'"

S(~'e

George "

Leonard Greenberger Asha Gunabalan

David Norquist Patrick Paiis Donna Prince William Rice

D,ehbie ~hlussel Tracey Stone Joseph Typho '. David Vogel

HONORARY ADYISORY BOARD: C. William Colburn. Paul McCracken. Stephen Tonsor

SUPPORTERS: Gerald R . Ford. R. Emmett T.vrrell. Jr., Norman Podhoretz. Irving Kristol. William F. Buckley. Jr.. Edwin Feulner Jr. , The Michigan Review welcomes. appreciates. pleads for letters from our fans. admirers, adversaries (at your own risk, of course), and groupies. If you want tQ see your letter on these pages (page 9, actually), please temper your writing to no more titan two dOllbk-spoced, typt-lI'ritten p~s. Also, let us know your name. where you iive imd YOllr phone number. But your response is not only limited to a leller. YOII may also submit an article. All work will be rel'iewed by Ollr impeccable editorial staff and considered in light ofstructllre and content. Articles can be sent to Ollr spaciolls, modern corporate office in the Michigan League. Well. aCll/ally. here is the mailing address: The Mkhigan Review Suite One 911 North University Ann Arbor. MI 48109 The Michigan Review is an independent, student-run journal at the University of Michigan. This means that no one controls us. We are in no way, shape, or form representative of the policies of the Administration and accept no dough from the University. Typesetting is provided by Trade Graphics, Inc. Our printers are Observer and Eccentric (But not in that order). Copyright 1987

!J1rom litt iEbilor

The Daily Blues It backfired. What was supposed to be 'a humorous April Fools Day editorial by the Michigan Daily became the target of religious bigotry charges by a group called Students Against Religious Intolerance, and others. The editorial, entitled "God is Dead," included such lines as "God died at 3: 13am on April I," "The woman identified as Mary Magdeline, kept shouting 'I've kicked the habit,' " and described the pope as carousing around Italy, drinking a lot of wine with a naked lady on his lap. Now, I am sure that people found this editorial humorous. I found parts of it funny as well. And the Daily correctly asSerts that some people were offended by the editorial and some were not. Great. Yet, there are several larger issues involved here which call into question the already tenuous credibility of the Daily. The Daily's ' editorials regularly champion the causes of various minorities on campus and point out the many instances of intolerance towatd the minorities and other groups, such as the gays and lesbians. In recent months, the Daily has addressed us in serious tones about the evils of racism, bigotry and intolerance. Oearly, the Daily attempts to be at the forefront of educating the campus about these issues. Thus, given that the Daily strives to be enlightened about such issues, one would assume that they would take great care not to offend any group, even when writing a harmless April Fools editorial.

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However, a group of students, some of whom belong to SARI, (a group whose mandate is to fight incidents of religious intolerance) were particularly offended by this editorial, which was written by a self-proclaimed agnostic. The writer, and the majority of the Daily editorial board, thought the editorial was funny . A segment of its readers did not. As a result, SARI protested the Daily and issued a set of demands, one of which was a simple public apology by the newspaper. An analogous situation is the recent WJJX incident. The callers who told the racist jokes thought the jokes were funny. The disc jockey also thought the jokes were funny. The black minority on campus did not. As a result, they protested and the University shut down the station. Finally WJJX and the disc jockey in question issued a . public apology and the station is back the air. ' , Yet, the Daily has refused to acknowledge SARI's demands. A simple apo~ogy would do, but the Daily remains dead set against it. The Michigan Student Assembly has even condemned this incident of religious intolerance and has asked the Daily to apologize. Had the editorial poked fun at blacks, hispanics, gays, or lesbians, a protest would have followed, an apology demanded and an apology granted. The Daily even issued an apology in December when they were inundated with letters condemning an allegedly racist cartoon on their editorial page. So what is the problem

on

now? The problem, perhaps, is that the Daily views incidents of racism, bigotry a路nd intolerance on campus with one eye open and one eye closed.

**************

In other matters, watch for a surprisingly new Michigan Review in September (Yes, we will be back). We are planning expanded coverage of campus affairs, an expanded arts section and a presidential contenders interview series (and ~ese are just some of the changes). We would also like to wish everybody a happy; and productive summer. AD<\ when you return in September, don't forget to read Blue!

l!

~~ Seth B. Klukoff is a Senior in Political Science and Editor-in-Chief of the Review

The Review wishes best success and fortune to our graduates: Charles Lipsig, B.S. in Statistics; Staff Writer 1985-86, Personnel Manager 1986-87 Joseph McCollum, M.S. in Industrial and Operations Engineering; Staff Writer 1982-1984, Executive Editor 1985-86, Associate Publisher 1986-87 Patrick Palis, B.A. in Political Science; staff writer 1986-87. ,r路:~~

Your dedication and conlribution will be sorely missed.

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March-April, 1987

page 4 THE MICHIGAN REVIEW

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Indian Reminiscences by Asha Gunabalan I was brought up in India for the first sixteen years of my life, before immigrating to the United States. I feel sad and sorry for the second-generation Indians on campus. They seem to be missing something-their sense of identity. (There are about 160 Indian students on campus, most of whom are children of the Indians that migrated to the US in the 1960s). They look like Indians, have Indian parents who have become assimilated into the American culture, and visit their relatives in India once in a while. Yet, they are confused. They are unsure of what culture to identify with and, moreover, are unsure of how to be happy with themselves once they have made that choice. Years and years have gone by in which different ethnic group:, have come to this country. And each .generation becomes more Americanized. It is painful to watch the younger

For example, my neighbor hated her landlord and constantly complained to my grandparents about her. Yet, my neighbor would continue to help her landlord cook and even babysit for her children. Indians tend to be very helpful to one another in a simple way. If my family ran out of tomatoes or eggs, my grandmother would send me to her friend's house to fetch some. One of my cousins got married in a mandir (a place where one gets married) near my house and we had fifty guests who had to stay overnight. We did not have the room for all these people, but our neighbors opened their doors, and a few of our guests spent the night in some of our neighbors' houses. It was such a good feeling to be part of this strong, tightly-knit community. Much attention is given to being together, whether with friends or family. Our festivals are celebrated

I feel sad and sorry for the second-generation Indians on

with their blessings. When my sister got married, she and her husband received the blessings of several of my aunts, uncles, grand aunts and grand uncles. Before I departed for America, I had to visit most of my relatives and receive their blessings. Marriages and births are very joyful occasions. When a cousin gets married, all the immediate relatives and friends meet in the cousin's house at least a week before the wedding and help out with all the preparations. We, as youngsters, had the best deal. We did not have to help out too much and could spend a lot of time teasing the new bride and bridegroom. I can go on with a lot more examples of everyday Indian life. Yet, I

with many other people. There are four major festivals that are celebrated in Southern India. On these days, people wake. up early, wear new clothes, cook delicacies, offer them, and pray to God. Then they distribute these delicacies to their friends and relatives and go to each other's houses, chat for a while, and eat some more. The older people like to gossip while the youngsters play some indoor games, such as chess, table tennis, or parcheesie. If it is nice out, they may play football, cricket, or badminton. I will discuss some ofthe customary habits of the Indian family. As soon as a visitor comes to the l!ouse, they are offered something to drink, usually water because it is hot outside. After a while, they are offered some tea or coffee and snacks or a meal, depending on what time they arrive. It is common practice to go to one another's house without calling to make sure that the people are home. It is also considered appropriate to stay there for four or five hours and have a meal. It is imperative that youngsters always respect their elders. I remember my grandmother yelling at me and smacking me (right in front of our guests, too) because I refused to offer my seat to one of my aunts. Older relatives are held in utmost respect and deference. Before venturing out to do anything, it is a "good omen" to go

n

Asha Gunabalan is a Sophomore in LSA and a staff writer for the Review.

WHATISA REPUBLICAN PARTY REPTILE?

... campus..They.seem to be missing sQmething-theirsense 'of identity. . generations go through this process and lose their ethnic identities. The second-generation Indians, whose parents were born and brought up in India, have the hardest time during their adolescent years. The pressures that they experience are so different from the pressures that their parents experienced in India. Thus, it is very difficult for the adolescents and parents to understand each other. About 80% of Indians are Hindus. Yet, it takes more than being a Hindu to be Indian. Although we may learn a lot about Hinduism, or any religion for that matter, we cannot understand the people who actively practice that religion. Most of the popular books on India state that Hinduism is such an integral part of our lives. I thought it might be interesting to describe a few customs of the people ofIndia as I remember them. This will give you a sense of what everyday life is like, as seen through the eyes of a youngster. People in India seem to gossip a lot, and they seem to talk behind each other's back all the time. Yet, people remain friends for ' years and good friendships are valued quite highly on the ladder of social values. In general, Indians are loyal to one another and do not gossip about those they are loyal to. Furthermore, Indians feel an obligation to family anf friends, even though they may not like each other.

feel badly for the second-generation Indians because they have never really been part of Indian culture. They may have never felt the feelings of an Indian and it is sad that they did not experience our rich culture. I hope that most of these second-generation Indians will make it a point to spend at least two to three years in India. Maybe, they will discover more of themselves and what it is to be Indian.

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......

THE RPR AGENDA: OPPOSED TO: • aerobics taxation without tax loopholes • jewelry on men • government interference in private affairs (unless the government brings over extra girls and some ice)

IN FAVOR OF:

O'RouRKE $6.95 paperback

• guns, drugs, fast cars • free love (if our girlfriends don't find out) • a firm stand on the Middle East (raze buildings, burn crops, plow the earth with salt, and sell the population into bondage)

"REPUBLICAN PARTY REPTILE is hilarious. I laughed so hard reading this book that my armchair needs reupholstering. P.J. O'Rourke has to be the funniest writer going, and boy does he go. This is highoctane wit, S.J. Perelman on acid." . - Christopher Buckley author of The White House fv1ess ,~~ ~,

THE ATLANTIC MONTHLY PRESS DISTRIBUTED BY LITTLE BROWN AND CO.


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March-April, 1987

THE MICHIGAN REVIEW page 5

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What is the Free University? by Steve George Free University. Sounds interesting, but what is it? Some kind of tuition waver? Well, no, not actually. Not even close. The Free University (Free U) is an organization which "attempts to provide learning possibilities in an atmosphere not Qased on hierarchy," according to Free U "Contact Person" Dave Buchen. In short, the Free U is an organization for anti-organization. The Free U is a product of the 1960s. It has existed as a small group, seperate from the University of Michigan, since about 1968. Although no written history was available, word . 9Lw,91J,tp" ,fep()rt.s ~bat it badbee.p """""'supported by Canterbury House until last year, when the. coordinator moved out of Ann Arbor. Since then, Buchen and his associates have picked up the orphaned program and have continued to offer their unique university philosophy. The Free U consists of a group of volunteers dedicated to an unstructured education without a defined curriculum or screened faculty. This raises a serious question about the objectivity of the material. There are . no judgments made about the qualifications of the teachers (who are called " Resource People"). Buchen admits that bias may be introduced in the classes, but defends this weakness by pointing out that a screening pro- . cess also introduces bias since it subjects the curriculum and professors to the standards of the University. The Free U has a "hands off' approach to teaching which is consistent with its anti-hierarchical vision for education. The classes themselves, as one might imagine, are not designed to attract the average student. With courses such as "Beyond Monogamy" and "Feminist Newspaper", it is evident that the Free U targets a more progressive crowd, including students as well as Ann Arbor residents. Contact Person Buchen describes a few course offerings:

Anarchist Potluck: "Anarchists and friends can meet people who are likeminded. " Beyond Monogamy: "A course where people can explore the possibility 0/ a series o/relationships rather than with just one partner." Secret History 0/ the Twentieti Century: "What they don 't teach you in high school. Topics include general worker strikes, early US milttary aggression in Central America, and government suppression 0/ the working class. "

To some, the Free U classes may seem ideal. There are no exams, no assigned readings, and attendance is optional. Buchen explains that a Free U student wants to escape traditional classroom education in favor of a more intuitive devefopment based on discussion and debate. This a shortcoming of the Free U. Since the classes do not have any defined

curricula, they may become sidetracked in digressions as the result of intense discussion and debate. According to Buchen, the Free U had a reasonable turnout this year, with some classes drawing ten or twelve people while others drew only . one or two. One class, "Anarchist

gather knowledge. However, the Free U has some bugs to work out. Since many people have never heard of the Free U, it is clear that their advertising is inadequate. Moreover, they must expand their student body beyond a' small group of progressives in order to bring in more

(Contact Person) Buchen explains that a Free U student wants to ~scape traditional classroom education in favor ofa more intuitive development based on discussion and debate. Potluck", had thirty attendants. Many variety. If there is no dissent in these of the classes meet on a regular basis classes, they can rapidly become little while others meet only once and form more than organized propaganda a discussion group. Buchen praises sessions where impassioned extremthis group for allowing learning based ists can preach their views. With a upon an intuitive insight into the little effort, the Free U could cast value of others. away these restraints and move forThe Free U is not a bad idea. It ward to achieve its admirable, if encourages open forums on issues and idealistic, objectives. offers a starting place for people with ~ common interests to unite. It offers an innovative alternative to a lecture/- Steve George is a Junior in Chemical recitation program. Because the Free Engineering, a staff writer for the U has small classes and encourages Review, and a Free University alum, interaction, it can be a viable place to Class of '87.

Can the Foundations of Llberb' Crack?

Please

SUPPort

the Mlchl.an Review.

After All. Uberb' Entails ReSPonsibilItY.

Please MakeltCQntributions Payable to: The Michigan, ~eview, Suite One, 911 North University, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 48109.


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page 6 THE MICHIGAN REVIEW

March-April, 1987

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iteuiew 1J1orum

V oter Apathy by Marc Selinger

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"The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every second year by the people of the several States. . . " -Unite.d States Constitution Every American citizen 18 or older can register to vote. Whether male or female, black or white, rich or poor, educated or uneducated, each individual is guaranteed the right to select those government officials who best represent his or her point of view. This democratic process, in theory, grants everyone an equal share of influence in affecting the political system. As luring as the process seems, voter apathy becomes more '\'idesprad with each election. The failure of political candidates to address issues of major concern, the decline of the party system; and the difficulties involved in registration and voting discourage many people from voting. .Those who remain un4eteved ~OQ,­ sider voting to be a tivil duty and have. an .above-average ability to deal with the bureaucracy. As the better educated members of society, they are gaining more governmental influence while the less educated people withdraw from the political scene. . Clearly, this inequality in representation violates the democratic ideals of the Constitution. Then, does the voting process need to be reformed? In order to answer this question, a look at the exact nature of voter apathy is essential. The decline in voter participation through the past few decades has been quite dramatic. While over 63% of the voting age population cast ballots in 1960, the turnout in the last Presidential election was ten percentage points lqwer. Voter interest is even less for midterm elections, Last year's election produced a turnout of 37%, almost four percentage points lower than in 1982 (U.S. Bureau of the Census). Indeed, the American public is losing interest in elections. One of the reasons for this drop in voter participation is the mudslinging that now dominates many political campaigns. For instance, when a series of negative commercial advertisements by gubernatorial candidates in Texas and Senatorial candidates in California and Missouri preceded the 1986 elections, an unusually steep decline in voter turnout from the previous midterm election resulted (New York Times, Nov. 8, 1986). People who live in such troubled

conomie stratas. Similarly, Demoregions as the farm belt and the crats have become more mainstream, oil-rich Southwest become disenrecognizing the excessi veness of some chanted when each candidate only social programs and the need to avoid discusses the incompetency of the appearing weak on defense. To many other candidate rather than proposing Americans, the political spectrum has solutions to major problems. narrowed so much that the two parties While certain areas are· not voting do not profess very different policies. because of a disillusionment with the Without much choice available, political process, the public as a whole- . potential voters have nothing motiseems apathetic because the nation is vating them to visit the polls. relatively secure. The economy is still Compare this to Western Europe, experiencing an expansion characte. where voter turnout averages in the rized by low inflation and moderate eightieth percentile. Countries such as unemployment; most people do not ind the United Kingdom have Italy feel affected by the enormous budget much higher unemployment -and and trade deficits. In addition, no inflation rates than the U.S. Meancurrent political issue is controversial while, Germany's environmental enough to reverse the trend of deconcerns arouse much more dispute clining electoral participation. For than in America. The dominant parexample, it is not likely that the ties in each country often pro!-,use Iran-Contra Affair will send more diametrically opposed solutions to people to the polls in 1988 than in problems. When voters go the polls in 1984. After all, the turnout in the 1976 France, a much bigger difference elections, two years after Richard exists between a Socialist and Gaullist Nixon resigned over Watergate, was than ·between two American candi- lower than in197:f serious -ecodates (Comparative Politics 86/87). nomic or political crises exist which Apparently, Europeans are less apacould attract more than a temporary thetic about politics because .their notice from the overall voting popuchoices can produce much greater lation. changes than in America. Another factor in the American The average American adult rna) voters' apathy may be the decline of also avoid elections because of the the American party system. The complexity involved in registration Democratic Party used to be the voice and voting. While the typical Uniof the poor and the laborers, while the versity of Michigan student might Republican Party represented the laugh at this, the people who receive a wealthy. Political evolution, including much lower level of education (e.g. the Reagan Revolution, altered this sixth-grade drop-outs) lack the ability status quo. Republicans now come to perform such relevant tasks as from each of the the various socio-e-

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filling out forms or meeting deadlines. According to Raymond Wolfinger and Steven J. Rosenstone, co-authors of Who Votes?, " . .. schools provide experience with a variety of bureaucratic problems . . . Successive exposure to elections. . . imparts skills that many young people lack when they reach the age of voter eligibility ." Indeed, the registration and voting process requires a learned ability to deal with bureaucratic barriers. Absentee ballots are not readily available, and people called out of town on short notice do not have time to attain them. For those who move, some states require sGveral months of residency before eligibility to vote is granted. With each of the fifty states having its own registration laws, frustration can develop · and deter · people from voting. According to Arthur T. Hadley. author of The EmpTY Polling Booth, almost one-fifth of the nonvoters are deterred from voting by such frustrations with the bureaucracy. sec page 7 Marc Selinger is a Freshman in LSA and the Personnel Manager of the Review.

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March-April, 1987

THE MICHIGAN REVIEW page 7

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Apathy continued from page 6 European nations, on the other hand, utilize permanent registration. When citizens of the United Kingdom reach the legal age, they are automatically registered. If they move to another district, they are compelled by law to reregister. Richard Brody, a professor of political science at Stan. ford University, believes that such countries "have overcome one of the key obstacles to electoral participation." In Australia, which has permanent registration and fines imposed on those who fail to vote, the turnout rate is 90%. The Netherlands, when it repealed a similar mandatory voting law, witnessed a sharp drop in voting. According to Brody, "the message from that is, if you compel people to register and vote, they will; if you do not, fewer will" (USA Today, April 1986). Thus, many eligible voters are discouraged by the mudslinging, the lack of crucial issues, the decline of the party system, and the complexity of the registration and voting system. ...y.,,', ,; But according to W.o~fi nger? professor "",·",'i'" ' of political science at Berkeley, and Rosenstone, a professor of political science at the University of Michigan, the less educated members of society are not voting while those who are well-schooled continue to do so. "Education," they believe, "increases one's capacity for understanding complex and intangible subjects such as poltics, as well as encouraging the ethic of civil responsibility" (Who

...

Votes?).

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Ifpeople are to remain attracted to the political process, candidates and party leaders should dedicate themselves toward promoting issues over mudslinllinll.

Surely, not every 'educated' person is voting, but a high percentage do. The U.S. Bureau of the Census reports that in 1980, voter turnout of junior high school graduates was approximately 40%, less than 60% for high school graduates, but almost 80% for college graduates. According to Graham Allison, Dean of the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, "the government derives its just powers from the consent ofthe governed; if half the people don't vote, where does authority come from to make choices about foreign and domestic policy, about sending marines to Lebanon or restructuring taxes" (Christian Science Monitor, Oct. 12 1984)? Appareritly, the auth()rity coin~s mostly from the better educated segments of socie'ty. It might not seem so terrible that the 'educated' people have a growing influence in determining govern mental policy. But this means that the less educated are not being consulted over decisions which directly concern them. For instance, when the need for a draft occurred during the Vietnam War, the people conscripted were not attending or bound for college. Due to the fact that the uneducated were not

electing government leaders, they were sent off to war without their indirect consent. That was not represelltative government at its best. The logical conclusion might be that the United States Government should impose mandatory voting, as Richard Brody suggests, so that everyone is represented equally. A vote, however, only has true value when people, without being coerced, choose to do so. As Roger-Noel Babar, who heads an anarchist group opposed to the mandatory voting law in Belgium, argues, "if you're obliged to speak it's

Permanent registration, on the other hand, does not appear to violate any civil liberties or democratic ideals. Rather, it makes life easier for citizen and government alike. Even reducing the residency requirement to 30 days in every state would increase the pool of potential voters. Other measures which could simplify the election process include a greater distribution of absentee ballots and a two day election period rather than one day to give more people time to vote . . Some of the major causes of voter apathy, however, require more than just the passage of law~ in order to be eradicated. Clearly, Aunerica's children need to remain in' school longer to learn the value of civic responsi-

The faiiure of political candidates to address issues of m.ajor concern, the decline of the party system, and the difficulties involved in ' registration and voting disco.urage many people.from voting. not democratic." The voting requirement also creates resentment toward,> the government. According to Loel Mayer, elections expert at Brussels Free University's Institute of Sociology, "political apathy is considerable in Belgium and I think the obligatory vote is partly responsible for that" (Wall Street Journal, June 18, 1984).

bility and how to cope with the bureaucratic factors of registration and voting. If people are to remain attracted to the political process, candidates and party leaders should dedkate themselves toward promoting issues over mudslinging. Only if these actions are fulfilled will the dangers of voter apathy be resolved.

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Itn tUemoriam

. iaral1 tlollllarll 'ower On Tuesday March 24, 1987 UM Regent Sarah Goddard Power ended her life in a fall from the Bell Tower. Her ceaseless devotion to the students at Michigan and humanitdrian causes throughout the world will be sorely missed by all.

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March-April, 1987

8 THE MICHIGAN REVIEW

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PIRGIM Uncovered The Public Interest Research Group in Michigan, coming off its expensive victory in the MSA elections, is now pushing its refundable fee scam to the Regents. PIRGIM outspent its opposition 50-1 in recording its 70% victory. PIRGIM supporters increased the ctTective spending margin by removing most opposition posters from campus. PIRGIM has recently developed a reputation for anti-democratic behavior-note their blockade of the door at an MSA meeting to prevent opposing MSA members from voting. The issue of the unfairness and unconstitutionality of PIRG fees has been covered often in the past. Other issues involving PIRGIM's refundable fee proposal and its campaign have not been covered. PIRGIM's campaign strategy was to swamp the campus with posters pleading "Save PIRGIM". PIRGIM claimed that they would leave campus if they lost the election, due to financial duress. And they did not want just any old funding privileges-they had to have a probably unconstitutional refundable fee scam, where students would be charged a PIRGIM fee unless they checked "no" at CRISP- then they get a r:efund. If not, "PIRGIM will die." So the threat ofPIRGIM "dying" was a key element in their victory. But how valid was the threat? Looking at documents submitted by PIRGIM to MSA, we learn some interesting things. In each of the last two years PIRGIM has had projected expenditures .~~~9.f~7Q~~.Tney \Y,~AA~ ~MA.SUll>lijses,~9~1'~&4;>y~~$,~0~OOO. Not bad for a "poor'" group that is near death and miedsto be "saved" with a massive transfusion of U-M student money. (Source: PIRGIM estimated budgets, 9jl/85-8!31/~6 and 9/1/86-6/30/87). How does PIRGIM raise money? Their expected income from canvassing over the next two years is $142,400. That is plenty of money

(enough to set up a trust fund and run a student newspaper forever). PIRGIM also receives tens of thousands of dollars through grants and the AT&T Divestiture Fund. PIRGIM is not dying: it is not even unhealthy. (Source: PIRGIM budgets.) PIRGIM does not want a "positive" check-otT like it once had h('r\'. It is true that PIRGIM does not deserve a positive check-otT or 0111' special funding privileges. But suppose they had ~ positive check-ofT (the system that the PIRGIM posters proclaimed \vOltld "kill" PIRGIM)? What does PIRGIM say about such a system? "The positive checkoff certainly cannot support any growth (our emphasis) in PIRGIM activities." It will only raise from $20,000-$31.600 per year, which is not enough (in addition to the $60,000+ from canvassing) for PIRGIM to live on. (Source: PIRGIM's memo "Budget Scenarios Based on Level of Funding"). PIRGI.M does not need U-M money to survive. PJRGIM is greedy and sees an opportunity to pull the wool over the U Iliversitfs eyes. It is clear that PIRGIM could use more money. So could all of us. But they are not dying, they are financially healthy, they collect plenty of money. they have enthusiastic canvassers around the state, they are doing all right. Ifstudents believe that PIRGIM is representing them they will gladly give PIRGIM money. PIRGIM should concentrate on representing students rather. than promoting ill-conceived, unfair funding scams . This is especially true given that PIRGIM has clearly misrepresented its financial situation. It is inconceivable why the University should consider special privileges for a group whose tactics are misleading and anti-democratic.

Z!

The Jackson-Shapiro Accord The Reverend Jesse Jackson should be praised for bringing a swift and peaceful end. to two weeks of racial strife on campus. We at the Review were .encouraged by his uncharacteristic restraint in approaching the problem. Furthermore, we are glad to see the University reaffirm its commitment to minority recruitment and retention, and to combatting racism. It can only be hoped that the seeds sewn by the "Jackson-Shapiro Accord" will bear the fruits of wisdom and equality. We are concerned, however, that these hopeful seedlings will be killed by an early frost-a frost that is foreshadowed by the Accord itself, and the demands that preceded it. The question here is one of legitimacy. First, under what authority did Mr. Jackson negotiate with the Shapiro Administration on behalf of minority students? Jackson, who has never held public office, does not legitimately represent anyone, let alone all minority groups, or even all blacks. Many people might like Jackson enough to vote for him ifhe were running for office, but that is not the test of legitimacy. Jackson was not a legitimate counterpart in negotiations with the University, and the University was not obligated to accept him as such. But for the success of the negotiations in ending tensions, the willingness of the few to grant someone the power of arbitration for the many is a very dangerous precedent.

The question oflegitimacy also arises in the demands, by UCAR and BAM III, that preceded the Accord. One of the demands, to which the University acceded, included provisions for the creation of the office of Vice-Provost for Minority Affairs. This is in addition to the position of Vice-President for MinOlity Affairs, created several years ago by Shapiro. This means that there are now two offices which are specifically designed not to address the concerns of all students. The creation of dual sets of offices, one for all students and one exclusively for minority students, is a drive towards separatism and likewise a dangerous precedent. There can be no legitimacy outside the interests of all people. UCAR and BAM apparently felt that the Shapiro Administration was not adequately addressing their concerns when they issued their demands. In other words, these students were calling into question the Administration's legitimacy. Unfortunately, since the Administration . ihlet, with Jackson and gave in to certain demands, thus spurning appropriate notions of representation and endorsing separatism, it has called called its own legitimacy into question.

II.


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March-April, 1987

THE MICHIGAN REVIEW page \}

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The USS Michigan: Champion ·of the ~eas by Mark

P()w ~ il

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Fo r those unaccustom ed to thinking of Mi chigan . literall y or figurati ve ly, as th e st rong arm and nerves of th e nation 's defe nse, an edu ca ti o n was available on N orth Campus Thursday, Feb. 19. Capt James S. Baumstark of the Go ld Crew of th e Trident submarine USS ;\4ichigan , a nd o ne of hi s engineering officers, 198 3 U M and Naval ROTC graduate Lt. Mike Monroe, spoke to and took questions from a group of approximately 70 students and faculty. Capt. Baumstark and Lt. Monroe gave an 80 minute presentation on the Trident (or Ohio class, after the first Trident, commi ss ioned in 1981) submarine and on the Michigan jn particular. T he M ichigan , SSBN 727 , commissioned in 1982, was the second boat in the class-of which just 6 are currentl y operational-and, like all Tridents, is based at Bangor, Washington . The two offi ce rs took turns explaining the ship's features and systems, and the nature a nd facets of her missi on , with man y slides of the ship and her Bangor port facilities as well as charts illustrating the scale of a Trident boat and comparing her to the Soviet SSBNs (or boomers, in informal parlance). Explained as well was the fact that Michigan, besides being the namesake of the great ship, is the ho m e of the low-frequency (ELF) radio equipment by which the Na vy and our National Command Authorities (NCA) communicate with our submarines. During the presentation, the two officers frequently exchanged lively banter, which almost seemed to belie their professional roles and illustrated the closeness and camraderie which have traditionally been typical of submariners. The Michigan'not only won last year's Trident-squadron awards for battle-readiness, engineering, and anti-submarine warfare (ASW), but also boasts the highest personnel retention rate of any ship in the U.S. Navy. Following the question-and-answer period, which elicited queries on a wide range of submarine and geomilitary subjects, an informal reception was held at which the students and faculty could meet Capt. Baumstark and Lt Monroe. Lt. Bob Coburn of Ann Arbor-Detroit Naval Recruiting was on hand to speak with those for whom the presentation had sparked interest in a Naval career.

The Michigan not only won last year's trident-squadron awards for battle readiness, engineering, and anti-submarine warfare (ASW), but also boqsts the highest personnel retention rate of any ship in the U.S. Navy.

pabilities are. T here are 6 Oh io cl ass boats currentl y o pe ra ti o na l: Ohi(! . M ichiga n, Florida, Gcorgia . /l cllrr ,I f Jackso n. a nd .. lIaha m {1 . .. lIaska wa s co mmission ed in 1986" \vit ll N('rada du e this year and T enness('e' in 1989. with the new D-5s. A Triden t IS ex pected to be at sea-its exac t location unkn own even to our own a uthorities, li stening to everything and transmitt ing nothing to maintain undetectabilit y- 66% of its operational life, normall y spending 70 days at sea and 25 in" po rt . Each Trident ha s two sepatate c~ews (Mic higan 's a r e des ign a ted (of course!) G o ld and Blue), each operating the boa t whi le the other is ashore. AJichiga n, with its Blue crew, is currently so mewhere in the North Pacitic, according to Capt. Baumstark. H ow do M ichigan a nd her sister ships stac k up ag.1inst the Soviet SSBN varsity. the Tvphoon class? The Soviet subs are much noisier than o urs, and must deploy into the Atlantic through th e BIG (Bri tain-Iceland -Greenland) gaps , which are well covered by the U.S. SOSUS (Sound Surveillance System) and U .S.jN ATO ASW forces , as are their main Pacific ro utes. Despite being bigge r than the Trident-the same length but half again as widethe 7)phoons deploy 20 SLBMs, 4 fewer than Trident. see page I ~

The Trident submarine is the nation's (and argu~bly the world's) most potent weapon system. A Trident, which displaces 19,000 tons, is 560 feet long and 42 feet wide with a crew of 14 officers and 140 enlisted, carries 24 130,000 lb. Trident C-4 missiles (SLBMs). Beginning in 1989, the new Trident D-5 will supplant the C-4s on the existing Ohio class boats and will be installed on the Tennessee, due to be commissioned that year. The Navy will not acknowledge specifics on the missiles (nor on an Ohio class boat's performance beyond certain modest limits nor, indeed, whether or not a ship is carrying nuclear weapons at all), but according to the weapons literature the C-4 has a range of 4600 km, carries 10 warheads (MIRVs: Multiple Independently-targeted Reentry Vehicles) of 100 Kiloton individual yield, with a CEP (Circular

Error Probable, the radius inside which the warhead has a 50% chance of impacting) of 250 meters. The D-5 makes significant improvements over all the specs: a range of 7400 km, allowing the Trident to strike from positions much farther from Soviet shores; 14 (!) MIRVs of 150 Kilotons apiece and a CEP of 200 meters. What makes these weapons more worrisome to the enemy is the relative invulnerability of their platform-the Ohio class boat, which to the best of anyone's public knowledge at present is still virtually undetectable while on patrol. The wiSdom of the Navy's policy of silence on th~ specifics and the presence of nnclear weapons is readily apparent: while most people trust sources such as Jane's Fighting Ships, we-and the enemy-do not know for sure just how great the systems' ca-

Mark Powell is a Junior in Russian and East European Studies and an Associate Publisher of the Review.


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March-April, 1987

page 10 THE MICHIGAN REVIEW

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At the Diddly by Joe Typho We here at the Michigan Didd/y's editorial page are upset about the sickening outburst of racist incidents on this campus. We have decided, as an important campus media outlet, to take a strong stance on these issues. Therefore, you will never see any racist, sexist, or homophobic comments in our paper. Our official satirist has been told to calm him(Her)self down , and She has agreed to do so. We will never again display intolerance, so we now confine our jokes and weird capitalization practices to the catholic Church, the Pope, and goD. As our satirist notes, we could phone Catholics and insult them individually, but it's so much easier to write an editorial. After all, there is no problem wiih religious intolerance on this campus. None at all. We know this is so because we asked Bruce Crepetelli (not to be confused with the other Bruuuce: "Blind faith in Bruce Springsteen can get you killed.")

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It's been a great year here at the Diddly's editorial page. We've printed all sorts of provocative editorials, including our famous "January is Fascist" editorial. That one got some negative responses; some people complained that it was pointless. That would never stop us. We' ve got space to fill. But our highlight had to be the Ramsey Clark episode. Former Attorney General (and hip rad lover) Clark spoke on campus and some Iranian moderates (or so Ronnie sez) and their supporters, upset with Clark's 1979 Teheran visit, threw raw ground beef at Clark. Some of the hamburger stuck to his glasses, causing panic among his granola-eating supporters, who feared Clark would inhale red meat fumes and mutate. We denounced the moderates' actions because the meat did not match the wine served at the dinner. Some of the moderates' supporters wrote in stating that they didn't throw

meat but instead, in the spirit of good etiquette, sprayed wine coolers. Then someone wrote an anonymous letter stating that S(h)e threw away thousands of copies of the Ann Arbor Observer because the letters in "Ann Arbor Observer" add up to 666 and thus the Observer is the Antichrist. Bad arithmetic, weird politics-instant journalism- we ran it. Speaking of spraying things, the antics of the infamous Beastiality Boys rap group were interesting, sexist, disgusting, and completely inappropriate for our arts page. It was terrible when "the Boys" (girls)(inclusive language-you never know) inflated two 20-foot fingers to produce a "V" sign in their song " Nixon Agonistes, Garry Wills Sucks". An onstage tribute to Richard Nixon is just a little much. We wrote a gnarly editorial denouncing it, but someone lost the computer disk. We refuse to run an ything unless it's submitted on disk (no, there's no truth

to the rumor that we sell the submitted disks to students at low prices for easy cash)(cash for cache?). Our final controversy was with the Puerile Interest Gals and Guys in Michigan (PIGGIM). Well, it wasn't a controversy-not to us. We had repeatedly supported PIGGIM's demands for money, a nicer office, money, a new name, money, peace on earth, and money. Then someone suggested that we put our money where our mouth was. We have. We've closed down the Diddly and plowed all our money into PIGGIM posters. So the next time you see one of those PIGGIM posters, with the "missing children" mouthing ballooned platitudes, remember the Diddly. It's pur sole legacy. Bye.

season strong and qualify for the regional championship game against their archrivals. You will have to gur-ss what happens next or at least see the movie. Coach Dale arrives in Hickory as a new and suspicious character, and leaves a hero. In between, he manages to set everyone and everything straight (Sort of like Howard Cunningham mixed with Frank Furillo). He gets an alcoholic father, stunmngly portrayed by Dennis Hopper, to dry himself out and become his assistant coach and regains his own confidence. He instills confidence in his players

and makes them winners. It's all very corny. but a lot of fun as well . So, if you are into films with deep meanings, avoid this one. If you crave highlight films with Michael Jordan slam dunks, forget it. But if you simply feel like enjoying yourself, having a few laughs, and getting excited, do not miss Hoosiers.

f!

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Joe Typho isa graduate student in the School of Natural Resources and Buddhist Studies and was recently kicked off the Marxist Stupid Assembly for failure to use inclusive language .

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!fSouins in mruirw

Hoosiers ORION PICTURES PllODUCERS: Carter De Haven and Angelo Pizzo DIRECTOR: David Anspaugh by Len Greenb.erger If you like fun , corny and predictable movies, this one is for you. Hoosiers takes place in the early 1950s in the small town of Hickory, Indiana. The folks in Hickory are much like those in any small Indiana townvery suspicious of change and completely devoted to basketball, "the greatest game ever invented." The movie opens with Norman Dale, played by Gene Hackman, arriving in town as the new basketball coach. Coach Dale is greeted coldly by a teacher at the school, Barbara Hershey, and his new team. DAle acts quickly during the first two minutes of his job, kicking the former coach and two of the seven players off the team. Needless to say, this act does not sit .well with the good people of Hickory. With only six players (one of the earlier dismissals rejoins the team at

the direction of his father), Coach Dale begins the season. The team loses its first three games, causing the frustrated fans to draft a petition calling for Dale's dismissal. There are two interesting subplots in Hoosiers. Coach Dale discovers why the Barbara Hershey character has been so unfriendly toward him. She does not want Dale to pressure one of her prize students to play ball. She would rather see the student obtain a scholastic scholarship and enter the "real world", which must lie someplace outside of Hickory. The Hershey character has not been able to leave Hickory. Predictably, Dale does not pressure him to join the team. At the same time, the teacher (Hershey) discovers why Dale had not coached for twelve years. He punched one of his college players in the jaw during a game (no, this is not a Bobby Knight bio), and was barred from coaching at the college level for the rest of his life . But back to basketball games. As if you coulO not guess, the Hickory Huskers begin to win. They finish the

n

Len Ureell!....:rger is a Junior in Political Science and a stafT writer for the Review.


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THE MICHIGAN REVIEW page II

March-April, 1987

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Baseball Predictions, 1987 by Charles D. Lipsig

NOTE: These predictions were made the day before the season started. Furthermore, any influence by the editorial board and staff upon the predictor was ignored as much as possible.

AMERICAN LEAGUE lAST If the Cleveland Indians win their division , they will be the seventh team to do so in seven years. And they have a good chance to win it. The Indians have the best hitting in the majors, with a solid batter at every position. Last year's RBI champ Joe Carter, Cory Snyder, and first baseman Pat Tabler carry the best bats. Rick Dempsey is the type of catcher who can bolster the confidence of young pitchers and help them improve. Tom Candiotti , Ken Schrom and ageless Phil Niekro shpuld be able to win with the offense they have behind them. Ernie Camacho Ed Vande Berg snd Steve Carlton will lead the bullpen. The New York Yankees have three probable hall of famers in Don Mattingly, Rickey Henderson and Dave Winfield , one of baseball's best relievers in Dave Righetti and an abundance of choice in the starting rotation, which is led by Dennis Rasmussen, Joe Niekro and Rick Rhoden. Their constant problem is that they have trouble playing as a team, caused, for the most part, by the interference of owner George Steinbrenner. If Steinbrenner can avoid causing dissension on his team, the Yankees will win the A.L. East. Unfortunately, this possibility seems unlikely. The Toronto Blue Jays have the best home run hitting outfield in the majors with George Bell, lloyd Moseby and last year's home run champ Jesse Barfield. Tony Fernandez is one of the best offensive shortstops in the majors. However, the starting pitching will have to recover from last year's horrendous season where Dave Steib managed only a 7-12 record. If the starters can pitch well, relievers Tom Henke and Mark 'Eichorn can finish off many wins for the Jays. The Boston Red Sox feel as if they have something to prove this season. Unfortunately, they probably will not be able to. Roger Clemens' efficiency is questionable, considering his lengthy spring training sulk, and Oil Can Boyd seems unable to go through a season without some sort of personal problem interfering with his effectiveness. Jim Rice, Bill Buckner and Dwight Evans are still effective, but age appears to be catching up with them. Marc " my father is not a nepotist" Sullivan will attempt to replace Rich Gedman behind the plate-at least until May I . At least Wade Boggs can be relied on to hit consistently. The Milwaukee Brewers are the team of 1988, young and still honing their skills. Robin Yount (would you believe he is only 31!) provides a good bat and Rob Deer gives good power in the outfield. Greg Brock, who appears to have won Milwaukee's first base derby, should giv~ the Brewers a second consistent power hitter. Teddy Higuera and Juan Nieves

kad a young starting staff and Mark Clear and Dan Plesac head up the relief corp. Catcher B.J. Surhoff will make a run at rookie of the year. Picking the Detroit Tigers sixth is a dangerous prediction around here, but I'll stick to it. Jack Morris has been pouting all winter, when he has not been ranting, and Dan Petry still has to prove that he is back from his elbow surgery. Alan Trammell and Lou Whitaker provide the Tigers with a top double play combo, but with the exception of often-injured Kirk Gibson, there are no consistent bats in the outfield. The combination of Matt Nokes, Dwight Lowry, Mike Heath and Orlando Mercado maybe able to replace Lance Parrish , but they cannot all play catcher at once. Cal Ripken , Sr. takes over as manager of the Baltimore Orioles, but he has basically the same material that the Oriioles had last year. Catcher Terry Kennedy may swing a better bat than his predecessor but cannot provide the leadership that Rick Dempsey did . Cal Ripken, Jr. is an all-star shortstop but one can only hope that age and injury have not caught up with Ray Knight at third and Rick Burleson at second. Eddie Murray seems to have gotten over last seaso'n's pout with the management. Don Aase provides excellent relief but the best E.R.A. last year among the starters was Mike Flanagan's 4.24.

AMERICAN LEAGUE WEST The Texas Rangers made a run at first with a team comprised mainly of rookies. With last year's experience under their belt , the Rangers should do better. Pete Incaviglia, Oddibe McDowell and Ruben Sierra comprise a very skilled and young outfield; McDowell is the oldest at 24. Pete O'Brien at first and Scott Fletcher at short are two of the most underrated infielders in the majors. Charlie Hough heads an otherwise very young corp of pitchers. Bobby Witt struck out more than one an inning last years; the problem is that he walked about as many. If he gets any control, he could become an all-time great. The Minnesota Twins have added reliever Jeff Reardon to their bullpen and that may make ,all the difference. Part of the problem for the starters, including Bert Blyleven and Frank Viola, was that there was not much of a bullpen to go to if they got in trouble. Power hitting should be little problem as outfielders Kirby Puckett . and Tom Brunansky, first baseman Kent Hrbek and third base man Gary Gaetti each hit at least 20 homers for the Twins last season, impressive numbers even if they do play in the Homer Dome. The KallSllS City Royals are a team of questions. Can George Brett hit over .300 after hitting only .290 last year? Can Steve Balboni recover from his back injury? Can Bo Jackson or Kevin Seitzer play well in left field? Can Bret Saberhagen recover from his record of 7-12? Can Dan Quisenberry or someone else take control of the bullpen? The Royals' place in the standings de~nds on how many of these

questIOns can be answered affirmatively. In any case, Frank White only gets better at second. Danny Tartabull should provide years of good service in right field and center fielder Willie Wilson is a solid leadoff batter. Wilson and Bo Jackson could be the faslest pair of outfielders in the majors.

The Oakland A's will have Reggie Jackson and Ron Cey this year. Unfortunately, it is 1987, not 1977. Still, the A's could threaten. Starters Joaquin Andujar and Moose Haas ans reliever Jay Howell will be key factors in the pitching staff if they can avoid injuries. In the outfield, Jose Canseco and Mike Davis can be relied on for home runs. Carney Lansford and Alfredo Griffin are fine infielders on the left side, but first and second are up for grabs. Rookie catcher Terry Steinbach had 132 RBIs in AA ball, then hit 2 homers in 15 at bats during his September stint at Oakland.

fhe California Angels won last season with a large number of older players and it should lake at least a yt'ar for the Angels to regroup around the rookies. The pitching slafT is still strong. Kirk McCaskill and Mike Witt will continue to be excellent in starting roles and Donnie Moore will be a solid closer. But rookies such as second baseman Mark McLemore . catcher Darrell Miller and outfielders Devon White and Mark Ryal will need some time to adjust to the majors .. Centerfielder Gary Pettis, DH Brian Downing and first baseman Wally Joyner will prevent the offense from stagnating in the meantime . Watch the Angels in 1988. The Seattle Mariners will not lack hitting this season. Catcher Scott Bradley wields a good bat and backup Dave Valle hit .340 and 5 home runs in 53 at bats last year. First baseman Alvin Davis, third baseman Jim Presley an~ left fielder Phil Bradley all hit power for average. Heavily underrated Ken Phelps hit 24 home runs in only 344 at bats in 1986; he may play more this season. Mickey Brantley and John Moses will compete for the center field spot. One possible outfield alignment could be Bradley, Brantley and Bradley-it will torture the sportscasters. Unfortunately, the pitching staff is dismal with the likes of Scott Bankhead, Mark Huismann, Pete Ladd, Mike Morgan, Bill Swift and Mike Trujillo being the best, such as they are. Finally we come to the Chicago Wlriu Sox. Greg Walker at first base and Harold Baines in right are the Sox' best hitters, but both are coming offinjuries. Ozzie Guillen has a good glove at short, but will have to hit better than .250 if the White Sox are to survive. DH-catcher Ron Hassey batted see page 14

Charles D. Lipsig is a Senior in Statistics and is the outgoing Personnel Manager of the Review.

AND Wl4llt. Wt:RE AT IT,.. LU', ro ~1mUNG AWJr

THI, WALLPAPER.

SRUR\f{ u.s.

EMPJSSY IIifjJJH

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page 12 THE MICHIGAN REVIEW

March-April, 1987

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The Flaws of Protectionism: The Textile Industry by Paul Seltman

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A highly protective policy for the textile industry cannot accomplish the objectives of its supporters and can prove to be more destructive than constructive for both the American and international economies. For the past three years, there has been a heated debate over whether textile firms in the United States should be protected from their foreign competitors. On August 6, 1986, the House of Representatives upheld President Reagan's veto of !pe Textile and Apparel Trade ' Enforcement Act, which, if passed, would have placed massive restrictions on American imports of textiles and clothing. This was not, however, a complete victory for the free trade camp; the same arguments between protectionists and those in favor of free trade will continue, and so wil1 the concessions which each side must make along the way. The cry for protectionism in textiles has centered around the Textile and Apparel Trade Enforcement Act, which was introduced by Representative Edgar L. Jenkins (D-Georgia). This bill's intent was to decrease textile and apparel imports from a dozen countries to below their 1983 levels. Jenkins and others ' felt that quotas were not doing a sufficient job since they are easily avoided. For instance, Hong Kong manufacturers (quota: 14 million wool sweaters annually to the United States) were having their sweaters knit in China (quota: 3.2 million wool sweaters annually to the United States) where labor costs are seventy-five percent less. The sweaters were then shipped back to Hong Kong for final assembly and were charged to Hong Kong's quota. So, China has been able to exceed its import quota to the United States while Hong Kong has remained happy with their lower costs of production. For this reason, one measure of the Jenkins proposal was designed to close this loophole: for quota purposes, the country of origin is considered to be where the material undergoes a " substantial transformatio"n" or "where the goods are cut to shape." This was intended, in the case of the example, to shift the quota charge from Hong Kong to China. The other primary measure of the proposal was to tighten the procedures on the exporting and accounting of shipments. Jenkins introduced this

bill to aid what he considers to be an ailing textile industry. Protectionists believe that the United States textile manufacturing businesses are faltering. Representative Jenkins claims that the industry has been devastated by Asian textile imports and that 300,000 jobs have been lost. According to Representative Joe Kolter (D-PA), the 1985 imports "captured fifty percent of the domestic market," and the growth rate of textile imports has averaged nineteen percent since 1980. However , Congressman Les AuCoin (D-Oregon) countered Kolter's claims with statistics which would seem to eliminate any fear of the downfal1 of American textiles. From January through May 1986, textile exports rose thirteen percent, and apparel exports rose nineteen percent. In the first half of 1986, textile industry employment rose four percent; and in the first quarter, profits doubled for both textiles and apparel. In the past several years, there has been an overall decine in employment in the textile industry. Protectionists argue that further tariffs and quotas are needed to preserve jobs. After all , factories are able to keep more people on the payrol1 when they sell more of their product at an even higher price.

Yet, a free trade supporter insists that if a company cannot keep up with the competition in the world market and job losses are incurred, resources are then liberated for more productive activities. The labor and capital of a faltering firm can always be put to more efficient use somewhere else in the economy. As a matter of fact, a 1979 study in Canada showed that close to seventy-five percent of displaced workers find alternative employment. Nonetheless , the protectionist camp claims that tariffs and quotas protect jobs "efficiently," indicating a proper transfer of the extra-charged money from consumers' pockets directly to the aid of the textile companies. Despite this claim, the free traders argue that only some benefit is transferred to the textile firms while the rest is given to the foreign textile exporters. Since they are deprived of the chance to compete for a larger share of the market, they raise their prices to achieve the greatest protit margin allowable under their restrictions. Jobs may be saved, but not , without bearing a cost of some sort. Another type of cost incurred by saving jobs through the protection of the textile industry is the direct cost itself which is passed on 10 the con-

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sumer. AuCoin referred to the Jenkins bill as "a discreet way of imposing a tax on the American consumer," namely a rise in price of clothing. The Retail Industry Trade Action Coalition also prtdicted that consumers would have to pay seventy thousand dollars for each thirteen thousand dollar job saved by the bill. These figures correspond to the price increases and tariffs necessary to keep textile firms "competitive" in the world market. Protectionists become indignant over the consumer and free trade supporters' cofnplaints of higher prices and point to a "lack of compassion." A higher employment level should be more important than the few extra dollars that consumers will have to pay ' with greater trade restrictions. Where is the American consumer's sense of patriotism and commitment to an industry which is drowning in imports?' Also, consumers should not forget that textile workers are consumers, too, and need money to buy their own necessities. If these workers cannot support themselves because they have. lost their jobs, the growth of the economy slows down-the unemployed must be paid compensation, and they no longer contribute as much to the gross national product. However, AuCoin still argues on behalf of free trade. When peoples' jobs are "on the line," an industry must fight back with greater efficiency of production ; and he feels that the textile incWstry has begun to do so. Still another issue which will never be resolved between the two camps because of differing ideologies is the degree of productivity of the industry and. hence. to what ex'tent it deserves protection . Roger Milliken of Milliken and Co., the third largest tirm in the nation's textile industry, wants import growth restricted at six percent a year. Milliken states, .. We are competing with industries that are being subsidized by their governments in order to get hard cash." He is disturbed because he does not feel that see page 1S

Bitten by the Presidential ... vh, bat .

Paul Seltman is a Sophomore in LSA and an Executive Editor of the Review.


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March-April, 1987

THE MICHIGAN REVIEW page 13

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B. B. King in Concert by Rick Dyer All through March I waited for the concert, occasionally examining the ticket I possessed. I would think back to a year and a half ago when I saw B.B. King in concert in Stamford, Connecticut. That two and a half hour long concert had been the most amazing concert I had ever seen . . . would B.B. King be even better this time around? On Friday April 10th I was there, waiting for the concert to begin. the Michigan Theater was half full already, but I watched the crowd continue to pack in. Some wore suits, others wore T-shirts and jeans, but all looked around impatiently and whispered as they watched the final stage preparations taking place. At 8: 15pm, the lights dimmed and the B.B. King Group took the stage. The crowd went wild, and B.B.'s superb backup band began their len. gthy jam. Meanwhile, B.B. King's guitar, Lucille, sat idly on center stage. The B.B. King Group's two songs were very good, with some excellent solos. But looking around the packed house it was obvious where evryone's attention was-people looked toward the wings, waiting for The Man to amve. Finally, "Ladies and Gentlemeh . . . Mr. B.B. King!" The crowd rose to its feet and roared as The Man stepped on stage, grabbed Lucille, and began his magic with "Let the Good Times Roll". The audience cheered throughout, repeating the chorus

when B.B. lifted his hand to his ear and leaned toward the crowd. From the moment he took the stage, B.B. King had that mystical IT. the special ability to take control of the audience and make them really listen to the music and experience it. Only B.B. King could control the moment long enough to spend four minutes of a song walking around the stage holding up different numbers of fingers representing how many accents the brass section should play. As Neal Cassady says in Kerouac's On the Road. "All of a sudden somewhere in the middle of the chorus he gets it-everybody looks up and knows: they listen; he picks it up and carries. Time stops. He's filling empty space . . . with such infinite feeling soul- exploratory for the tune that everybody knows it's not the tune that counts but IT." When BE. King tells a story, everyone Ibtens-and everyone laughs. When hl' c·:li,.i" "; I", trademark solos, everyone lcall~ lorward to hear what his fingers will produce next. Even during another band member's solo, you still find your eyes moving to B.B. to see what he's doing-and it is amazing how much response The Man can generate from a mere wiggle of his hips . That is the experience of a B.B. JSing concert, and this one was no different. B.B. never made a mistake and never lost the audience. To add to the joy, the members of the B.B. King

Group backed him up perfectly and laid down some incredible solos themselves. However, one flaw prevented this concert from reaching its true legendary billing. At 9:45pm, one and a half hours after the B.B. King Group took the stage and only eighty minutes after B.B. King himself began performing, the concerted ended and the lights came on-without a single encore. To be fair, there was another show at 10:30, but given that the second one was added only a few weeks before the concert, after the first show was sold out, we can assume that B.B.'s most

dedicated fans had bought tickets to the first one. And for $16.50, they deserved to hear more. As the crowd filed out, savoring the experience, it was disappointing to hear the one comment that seemed to be on everybody's mind-Hit was awfully short." This time, the early birds didn't get the worm.

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Rick Dyer is a Freshman in LSA and a staff writer for the Review.

s.o.s.: Saving Our Schools magine what would happen if teachers made the follow· ing demands and refused to teach until they were met.

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We do not wish to teach children who do not wish to be taught. The pres-

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We expect no student to be promoted until he Is sufflcienHy prepared tor the next grade. 'Social promotion" places the unprepared student at greater disadvantage each succeeding year ThiS practice IS, therefore, not only dishonest. but cruel.

We expect to be regularly evaluated by our students, fellow teachers, and administrators. And we demand to be paid and promoted on the basis of merit as determined by those evaluations. In the interests of improving our skills as teachers, we deserve to be informed of our strengths and weaknesses. We then ShOUld be rewaraed on the basis of our

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progress and ability Equal oay for un equal work is unjust and it encourages mediocrity

Finally, we insist that teacher training be rigorous and that certification and subsequent promotion be based on competence. We deSire profeSSional sla tus and the respect of the community ThiS can only be achieved by malf'talnmg the highest profeSSional standaras Teaching is no picniC And the list of teacher grievances coulc be long and demanding Without aver mentioning money But when was the last time you heard of teachers striking on behalf of a return to discipline quality and accountability In education? .

HILLSDALE COLLEGE For a set of 36 oltheae short, Informottve eS$Ova. send $10.00 to "Allernottve.". Hlllidole College, HlUldole. Michigan 49242

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page 14 THE MICHIGAN REVIEW

March-April, 1987

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Baseball continued from page II .:.;53 in I)U at bats after commg over from the Yankees. The rest of the starters are of questionable quality. Relievers Bobby Thigpen, Bob James and Ray Searage are solid. But s,alters Jose DeLeon, Royd Bannister and Neal Allen had troubles allowing few enough runs that the relievers made any difference.

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NATIONAL LEAGUE EAST Never mind that Seth Klukoff is a raving Phillies Phanatic, this pick was made independent of any outside interference. The acquisitions of outfielder Mike Easler and catcher Lance Parrish can only improve a lineup led by third baseman Mike Schmidt, second baseman Mike Schmidt and first baseman Von Hayes. The starting pitching is somewhat weak, but Bruce Ruffin, Shane Rawley, Kevin Gross and possibly Don Carman should be adequate for the offense. Steve Bedrosian is a top reliever and Tom Hume is a good set up man . Watch for rookie reliever Michael Jackson to be a thriller for years to come. The New York Mets managed to have more off the field problems than any other team, although that seems normal for any New York team that wins the World Series. While they wait for Dwight Gooden to return from drug rehabilitation, the Mets will have to hope that Ron Darling can be as effective as he usually is and that Bob Ojeda and Sid Fernandez are not one year wonders. Roger McDowell will be out for a while with a hernia, so Jesse Orosco will have to carry the bullpen load . Darryl Strawberry and Kevin McReynolds lead the outfield, Keith Hernandez is a top first baseman and Gary Carter is an excellent catcher, despite recent injury problems. But it is hard to imagine a team which starts Wally Backman at second, Howard Johnson at third and Rafael Santana at short repeating as division winners. The St. Louis Cardinals are baseball's answer to the roadrunner when they are on base. Unfortunately, the Cards got on base a lot less last year than when they won the pennant. Vince Coleman had 107 steals, but only batted .232 in 1986. Similarly, Willie McGee decreased his average to .256 and 19 steals. Both will obviously have to improve this season and are expected to do so. The Cardinals will also have to find some power. Andy Van Slyke led the team with only 13 home runs but has since been traded . Jack Clark had 9 homers in 232 at bats. Catcher Tony Pena will add some power. The victims of this lack of offense was the starting pitching. John Tudor, Danny Cox and Ken Forsch all had fine E.R.A.s, however, the most games an y of them one was 14. Todd Worrell was excellent in relief with 36 saves. The Pittsburgh Pirates cannot blame their last place finish on a lack of effort. They have been shifting around a variety of young players in an attempt to find a combination that will work . Two key

outfielders were acquired dunng the last . days of spring training-John Cangelosi and Andy Van Slyke. They, along with Barry Bonds, Mike Diaz and RJ. Reynolds give the Bucs a solid choice of promising young outfielders. The infield is solid at second and third with Johnny Ray and Jim Morrison, respectively. First baseman Sid Bream is steadily improving. The pitching, however, is weak. Rick Reuschel leads the starters, hopefully with help from Bob Kipper and Doug Drabek. Don Robinson provides steady relief. The Chicago Cubs got Andre Dawson for his bat. The problem is that their starting pitching needs the help. No pitcher won in double figures last year. Rick Sutcliffe will have to recover from a 5-14 record. Dawson will be fine in the outfield, but Bob Dernier will have to improve on last year's .225 batting average. The infield is solid with Keith Moreland moving to third, Shawon Dunston at short and Leon Durham at first . Jody Davis provides able duty at catcher. The Montreal Expos invited almost every unemployed pitcher and catcher to their spring training, and with good reason. Floyd Youmans is the only reliable uninjured starter the Expos !.tave. The presence of Tim Burke and Randy St. Claire allowed the Expos to trade Jeff Reardon . Infielder Vance Law may find himself doing a fair amount of pitching this season. The catching is not that bad. Mike Fitzgerald is an underrated ~atcher with excellent defensive skills and a little power in his bat. The outfield will suffer until Tim Raines returns on May I , but Mitch Webster is a competent player. Hubie Brooks was an all-star shortstop last season until he was injured. Still, the Expos need help.

NATIONAL LEAGUE WEST The San Francisco Giants were a good young team last season. The Giants' outfield is strong with Chili Davis, Candy Maldonado and Eddie Milner as top players. Will Clark and Robby Thompson played solid first and second base respectively as rookies, and they will surely improve. Third baseman Chris Brown batted .317 in 416 at bats. Catcher Bob Brenly has good power but keep him away from third base. Mike Krukow won 20 games last season and Mike La Coss had several effective streaks as a starter. Jell Robinson and Mark Davis provide good relief. The Cincinnati Reds are on the verge of becoming anothet: Big Red Machine. A lot of people are talking about Eric Davis as the newest baseball superstar and a surefire MVP candidate. But the Reds also have Dave Parker, who had 31 homers last year, and Kal Daniels, who batted .320. UM great Barry Larkin gets the nod at short and Ron Oester is always steady at second. John Franco, Rob Murphy and Ron Robinson are top relievers. If st:"'rtt'rs Mario Soto and Tom Browning ren.1\ er from off seasons. the Reds may ovt>rta«' the Giants. The Housto" Astros are another team which has something to prove. but will not be able to do so. The starters are deep with Mike Scott, Bob Knepper. Jim Deshaies and Nolan Ryan. Dave Smith and Charlie Kerfield are fine relievers. Outfielder Kevin Bass hits for power and average. First baseman Glenn Davis hit 31 homers last season and Bill Doran is perhaps the best second baseman in baseball. For the Astros to re)'Cat they will need to repeat what they did last year. That may be difficult.

CURES FORAlDS

The San Diego Padr~s are another team to watch for in 1988. The Padres will be playing Benito Santiago at catcher. Stan Jefferson in center, Joey Cora at second and Randy Ready will see some action at third. The outfield includes Tony Gwynn and John Kruk, who both batted over .300. Steve Garvey is always solid at first base. Eric ShOW and Andy Hawkins lead the starters, but only had 10 wins each last season. Rich Gossage and Lance McCullers anchor the bullpen. The Atlanta BrilV~s lost Bob Homer, so It seems at first glance that they would be unlikely to improve in the standings. The Bra\' e~ are not much better than last year. but there are some improvements. Andres Thomas is expected to replace Rafael Ramirez at short. Dale Murphy is moving to right field after what was, for him , an off season. Rookie Dion James will take over in center. Ozzie Virgil should improve behind the plate aftet an off year. Starter Rick Mahler can be counted on for 15 wins and former Tiger Randy O'Neal will get the chance he never received in Detroit. The Braves will not win many, but .500 is a reasonable goal. How the mighty LoJ A."B~kJ DodS~rs ha ve fallen. Last season, due in part to injuries, Steve Sax was the only Dodger to have more than 430 at bats. The biggest loss was Pedro Guerrero, who only had 61 at bats. Mariano Duncan provided some stability at short and outfielders Mike Marshall and Franklin Stubbs hit for power but had low averages. Fernando Valenzuela won 21, but the other starters were less effect ive. Orel Hershiser, for example, 14-14. Tom Niedenfuer and Ken Howell combined for 23 saves and will be joined by Matt Young, acquired from Seattle during the off-season.

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THE MICHIGAN REVIEW page 15

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Textile continued from page 12 the industry deserves its problems, for over the past ten years productivity has risen by four percent each year. Milliken believes that protectionism is warranted in the case of his industry. Congressman Kolter agrees with him, claiming that foreign nations purchase less and less of our agricultural products as time goes on while continuing to flood our domestic market with apparel. Still, AuCoin points out that the twelve textile-producing nations which the Jenkins bill targets imported fifty billion dollars in United States agricultural products in 1985. Not only is this a large quantity of exported agricultural goods, but too great of a protective shield, AuCoin warns, will cause restrictive import retaliation as China restricted wheat imports a few years ago. This brings us to the first of two main problems the free trade camp has with the Jenkins bill: the threat of trade war and its predicted effects. After the bill was first introduced in March 1985, China fired a " warning shot" two months later by ordering half the usual number of airplanes from Boeing and eighty-five percent less wheat. The Chinese were demonstrating the. give-and-take which results from overt protectionism: America can save garment workers' jobs, but only at the expense of idle workers and machines in other areas of production. Foreign retaliation can possibly produce higher costs in the economy as a whole than the protectionism itself is worth. The other primary problem, according to the free trade supporters, is that the bill cannot close the quota loopholes as intended. Under dictation of the bill, a country without a quota can cut the fabric, then ship it to another country with a quota for its manufacturer, and then send it to the U.S. from there. Because of the "substantial transformation'" rule, the , country without the quota and cutting the material would be designated the country of origin. Also, manufacturers with a smaller share of their country's quota for a product can have a team of their own cut fabric in another country with no quota and then send it back for assembly. In this fashion, these manufacturers could ship all that they wanted. Upon close analysis, one has to take a freer trade stance for the welfare of the domestic and international economies. With the passage of {he Jenkins bill, Hong Kong's knitwear industry would have had to alter its production process dramatically. Hong Kong's firms would have been forced to buy advanced, more automated knitting machines and to retrieve most of their operations from

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China. Additionally, expensive autoFrom the·logic department: (quotes mation would not have been a comfrom two black campus leaders) plete solution for the loss of China's Quote: "Blacks cannot be racist." cheap labor; and more machinery would have taken away too much continued from page Quote: "Tearing down the anti-aparflexibility, which gives Hong Kong theid shanty is racist." knitters their competitive edge (a In Hockey news: The Dead Wings Fa.ct: One of the people who tore greater. aesthetic value). Moreover, are once again the Red Wings. In this down the anti-apartheid shanty at passage of the bill might have set a • case only, better red than dead. Best of Dartmouth is black. detrimental precedent for providing luck to Jacques Demers and the Red Therefore: Blacks can be racist or strong import protection to individual Wings in the Stanley Cup playoffs (or - tearing down the shanty is not neeesindustries. Fortunately, the bill failed until they meet the Flyers). saril.1' racist. to pass. Overall, then, one should evaluate protectionism as a poor political and The Other Newspa oer has anA Question for PIRGIM: What do economic '-choice and as a practice nounced that they will Lse something you and Oral Roberts have in comwhich one would not want to prolifcalled "gender-inclusi ve-language" mon? You will both die if you don't erate throughout the major industries. for ever and ever. They want to receive immediate financial support. Its defenders base its raison d'etre on change the way we thInk about steOur PIRGIM friends liked that greater levels of employment and reotypical gender role5-. Gee, and we poster so much that they hung one in more of a cushion with which to thought they were just supposed to their office. We wonder what they did develop productive efficiency. Proreport the news. with all the other posters that they tore tectionism fails on both of these down. accounts. First, " protection alters the Another question for PIRGIM: If distribution of employment all}ong Here's a Quicky quiz, courtesy of you were so bad off financially, how industries, but it does not affect the author Thomas Sowell: were you able to afford your massive total level of employment." Second, Which of the following" U.S. PresiMSA election poster drive? protection tends to attract scarce redents is blamed for not stopping Yet another question for PIRGIM: sources into areas where we do not apartheid? Why do all your poster children look have a comparative advantage in I). Harry Truman like milk carton kids? ptoduction. This has precisely been 2). Dwight Eisenhower One more: Where's the beef? the case with the textile industry. 3). John F. Kennedy However, two extreme choices have 4). Lyndon Johnson been considered, without a glance at a 5). Richard Nixon new middleground. Gary Clyde HufThe Review is psyched about next 6). Gerald Ford bauer has devised a plan for "trade year's UM baskeltball team. We drooi 7). Ronald Reagan relief' which hands the power of over a potential starting lineup of And the answer is . . . #7. Alt~)Ough control to the International Trade Gary Grant, Rumeal Robinson, Glen apartheid has existed since the TruCommission. The commission's duty Rice, Terry Mills, and Mark Hughes. man administration, only Ronald is to create tariffs in order to give Moreover, we drool over the bench of Reagan is held responsible for South some "breathing room" to tradeSelin Higgins, Kirk· Taylor, Chris Africa's problems. flooded industries and to give moneSeter, Demetrius Calip, Loy Vaught, . tary support to weak plants so that Mike Griffin, J.P. Oosterbaan, Jack they may shut down in a more orderly In BOY-ing news: Sugar Ray Leonard Kramer, and Steve Stoyko. In Fact, fashion. The idea is to start with a we have drooled so much that our defied all odds and stunned Marvecertain tariff level, reduce it periodimouths are dry. Anyway, watch out lous Marvin Hagler in the WBC cally, allowing additional foreign U.S., here come the Wolverines! Middleweight Championship. This frrms' products to compete for the was clearly the fight of the decade and greater available market share created will be remembered for a long time. by the exit of the weak companies. For all Hagler's pre-fight bragadocc'io, The tariff would rise again to its he knew, as did Leonard, that Leonard pre-assistance level within ten years. had his number. This' plan creates a "meaningful adjustment" for the international marketplace where countries can work together and make a common commitment. For instance, the key to one scenario of the plan would be for continued from page I} Japan to create an "exit program" for citrus farmers and for the United The Soviets' lead in MIRVing their States to create an "exit program" for Thus, our forces charged with deland-based missiles is reversed under the automobile industry. stroying these boomers before they the oceans: their best SLBM, the Hufbauer's plan indirectly gives the destroy our cities have their work SS-N-20, carries just 6 warheads and ultimate commentary on why promore than cut out for them. They will is less accurate than the C-4/D-5, with tectionism can be a destructive have to charge in close to the Soviets' a CEP of 1000 meters. However, each force-it destroys cooperation andnorthern coasts at the very outset of a warhead is more powerful, with a commitment among nations. Without conflict. U.S. Qualitative superiority is yield of 500 Kilotons; and the misthese two factors, the domestic and not so great that the numbers do not sile's range, 9000 km, is great enough international economies falter in count, and Soviet numerical superto enable the SS-N-20 to hit U.S. growth and efficiency; countries are iority in, for instance, SSBNs, is 2.5 to targets from Soviet home waters-a inhibited from producing more of 1. Hopefully, conflict will never come, highly disturfung fact, making some- but when and if it does our forces will what they produce efficiently and are what inconsequential our ability to face an enormous challenge. Then encouraged to produce more of what bottle the ocean-deployment routes ,,again, prevailing against enormous they produce inefficiently. This is and obviously making ASW more challenge is the history of the United what happens when trade is not aldifficult, closer to the loving touch of States Navy. lowed to run its course and the law of the Soviet Air Force. comparative advantage is stifled. ~

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March-April, 1987

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Conflic of Visions •

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As a young man. Thomas Sowell wondered why certain newspaper editors and politicians always opposed each other on the issues of the day. They were issues which seemingly had nothing to do with each other-monetary policy, judicial policy, abor tion- but the politicians and editors predictably lined up "left to right" on every single issue. Today, Dr. Thomas Sowell is a renowned black scholar and a Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution at Stanford University. Sowell explores the very question which troubled him as a youth in his new book entitled A Conflicl of Visions. He postulates that there are two "visions" which form the foundation of .all political thought-the constrained and the unconstrained. In other books, Dr. Sowell has clearly made himself a proponent of the constrained vision, but in this one, he has risen above political considerations and endorsed neither vision. This feat is remarkable, since in most cases the vision controls the person's selection and interpretation of facts. However, the neutral view gives the book some additional credibility. Of the two visions, the unconstrained is more optimistic. One with this vision wants to understand why there is crime, war, or poverty. Under this vision, human nature is essentially noble; people pursue activities for their own sake. Exisiting institutions corrupt mankind; avaricious world leaders and munitions manufacturers start wars; people commit crimes because of their (institutionally created) poverty; punishment for such crimes is vengeance. Meanwhile, in the constrained vision, which endorses monetary and judicial restraint, individuals are undeniably competitive. One who utilizes the constrained vision views a world of limited resources and unlimited wants. This vision seeks to explain law and order, peace and wealth. Systems such as governments are necessary to stop individuals from killing or stealing any more than they would do otherwise. Individuals pursue activities because of rewards and punishments, and since there are natural incentives to commit crime, artificial punishments must be created to stop crime. Sowell does not put it this way, but in a certain sens( someone with the constnllned vision grades individuals on their l\'~ \ il h ; \lId

processes on their intents. Conversely, one with the unconstrained vision grades individuals on their intents and processes on their (thoretical) results. As Sowell observes; the doctrine of "equality of opportunity" comes from the constrained vision. Similarly, the doctrine of "equality of opportunity" comes from the unconstrained visi0n. In Enquiry Concerning Political Justice. William Godwin termed intentional benefit as "virtue," intentional harm as "vice," and unintentional harm as "negligence." He did not give consideration to unintentional benefit, but it is this factor that formed the centerpiece of capitalism in Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations. The capitalist unwittingly helps others when he sets out to make a profit for himself. Oliver Wendell Holmes, another adherent of the constrained vision, said "If . . . a man is born hasty and awkward, . . . his slips are no less troublesome to his neighbors than if they sprang from guilty neglect . . . the courts which (his neighbors) establish decline to take his personal equation into account." Still others with the constrained vision see the irrelevance of intent to results. Nonetheless, the two visions grade individuals and processes on different standards. What if the processes do not respond? One with the constrained vision realizes that a tradeoff, and not a ~olution, is possible. The system was not unresponsive; one side happened

new to lose, However, if there is process, one with the con' Ii'Jined vision considers the costs of installing the new process and the losses from the new constraints. The constrained vision sees the harmful effects of an increase in the minimum wage. The constrained vision weighs the lives lost in a revolution against the benefits gained. One with the constrained vision thinks that processes are shaped best by evolution and experience; the process is as it is for some good reasons. Sowell calls this concept "systematic rationality." As Lord Peter Bauer said, "The market system delivers the goods people want, but those who make it work cannot readily explain why it is so. The socialist or communist system does not deliver the goods, but those who operate it can readily explain away its failure ." This statement seems to contradict the intent/ result rule, but the point is that the unconstrained vision relies on articulated rather than systematic rationality. On paper, Central Planning would seem to outdo laissez-faire, but empirically. capitalism outdoes communism. Sowell's book raises some interesting questions. One is "Why does a person develop one vision rather than another?" Perhaps the answer is psychological. Those who ask, " why is there poverty?" never saw what it was like to build wealth from scratch. With poverty in the midst of plenty. the obvious "solution" is to redistribute wealth . Those who ask "why is there wealth?" are ones who do seek to accumulate it. Their devotion to the market system convinces them that there are not many solutions, merely

t radeofTs. They realize that this is a c'onslraincd world , perhaps because the y are fru strated by constraintsand call for "laissez f~1ire" in the marketplace. At the same lime. those with the unconstrained vision are frustrated by processes rather than constraints. Although Sowell attempts to avoid it, another legitimate question is, "which vision is better?" The answer, of course,' depends on your perspective. One with the constrained vision will say that his vision is better. and he will draw some fine empirical evidence from Sowell. The American Revolution succeeded because it entrusted complete power to no one. The French Revolution succeeded because it entrusted complete power to no one. The French Revolution failed because it gave "power to the people." In tum, one with the unconstrained vision will support his vision with some fine articulated rationality about equality. Sowel1's book offers some interest· ing insights on how people arrive at the political philosophies that they do, and it suggests to anyone involved in shaping political phil o sophy ("Conflicts of interest dominate the short run , but conflicts of visions dominate history") the appropriate ~ battlegrounds to pursue.

Joseph M. McCollum is a graduate student in Industrial and Operations Engineering and an outgoing Associate Publisher of the Review.

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