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. ~MICHIGAN REVIEW Vol. 11 No. 10

Nov. 11, 1992

Gender Issues

Shattering the "Glass Ceiling" by Karen S. Brinkman "Smart young women (graduating from college] are going into field s other than higher education," according to University of Michigan Associate Vice President for Student Affairs and Cruef Freedom of Information Officer Virginia Nordby. Some of tha;e women may want to reconsider their career paths, however, based on the experiences of those who have gone before them. If the personal experiences and opinions of some women academics and administrators at the U-M are indications of trends in academia, the so-called "glass ceiling," which supposedly limits women's advancement in the workplace,

Special Gender Issues Issue! Welcome to the Michigan Review's issue on -you guessed it - gender issues. No, it's not a women's issue, or a gender role issue, or a polemic on homoerotic cross-dressing, but the conservative take on what are generally (and, as the editorial on page 4 argues, incorrectly) called "women's issues." Inside you'll find our resident science maestros, Jim Elek and Brian Schefke, discussing the benefits and drawbacks of the so--<:alled "abortion pill," RU 486; an interview of the Sexual Assault Prevention and Awareness Center's (SAPAC) new director, Debra Cain; the latest installment of the Fortnightly Federalist (this week's topic: sexual harassment); and a review of Camille Paglia's new book, Sex, Art, and American Culture. Many of your favorite Review features appear as well. Bon Apetit.

may not operate in the same way or to the same degree in academia as it does in the corporate world. The term "glass ceiling" has been used to describe what some researchers see as an intangible barrier wruch allows women and racial minorities to see into companies' board rooms, but keeps them from being promoted to managerial and executive positions.

A Report on the Glass Ceiling Initiative, issued by the U.s. Department of Labor in 1991, defined the glass ceiling as "those artificial barriers based on attitudinal or organizational bias that prevent qualified individuals from advancing upward in their organization into management

level positions." The report investigates the glass ceiling in corporate America'to determine if it is a problem, what its causes are, and how it can be fixed. Informal Case Studies from Around the U-M Brief interviews with several women professionals at the U-M revealed a wide variety of opinions about how the glass ceiling has functioned in their careers. Nordby, a graduate of Stanford law school, did not say whether her own career had ever been affected by the glass ceiling, but did comment that, "Given my training and lack of academic appointment, I have advanced as far as I

Women's Services at UHS by Beth Martin Those women who have only stopped in Health Services to get their runny nose or sore throat inspected may not be aware of the extensive resources available to women at University Health Services (UHS). The complete health care network at UHS is structured to meet just about every health care need of today's college woman, including nutrition programs and safe sex counseling. A major service offered at UHS is Health Promotions Community Education (HPCE), a service which provides students with counseling on contraception and substance abuse. In fact, in order to get contraceptives from UHS, students need to attend a mandatory contraception education program facilitated ' through HPCE. The program is run by peer educators and presents a discussion on the available options for contraception. The educators do not recommend specific contraceptive choices, but instead advise the use of some form of barrier protection to prevent the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases. In addition, in order to obtain a prescription for birth control pills, a woman must get a

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yearly routine gynecological examination from UHS. Gynecology is the major area for women's health issues, according to Dr. Caesar Briefer, Head of UHS. Whether or not one wishes to obtain the pill or is sexually active, women of college age are at the prime point in their lives to begin visiting a gynecologist. Trus is because gynecologists deal with more issues than just sexuality, according to Dr. Ronald Mulder, Director of Gynecology at UHS. A routine exam, Dr. Mulder notes, "addresses the normality of reproductive organs and rules out any disease that may be present, such as congenital abnormalities of the uterus and the reproductive tract" He added that "a majority of abnormalities are found during the first exam. Therefore it is the best time to pick up these changes." A routine gynecological exam usually consists of a breast exam and a pelvic eXaIl\ and is sometimes accompanied by a Pap smear, a lab test that detects early signs of cancer and also certain types of infections. Health Services currently con-

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might have hoped to at the University." Sarah Humphreys, formerly a professor at the University College of London, joined the U-M department of history faculty in 1985 as a full professor. Asked whether the glass ceiling played a role in her career, she replied, "No, I don't think so. It really doesn't seem to be a problem." Sexual Assault Prevention and Awareness Center Director Debra Cain and U-M General Counsel Elsa Cole also said that they have not experienced the glass ceiling, but they attribute their fortune to the types of places at wruch they have been employed. "I have not had o~casronto [experience the glass ceiling1" said Cain. "Where I came from was a primarily female staff." Noting the lack of a glass ceiling in her career, Cole said, "I think that's largely because I've worked in the public sector for my whole career." Cole believes that it is easier for women to be hired and advance in the public sector. Chemistry professor Seyhan Ege received her Ph.D. from the U-M in 1956 and returned in 1%5 to teach. In considering her career, Ege was uncertain whether she had experienced a glass ceiling because "so many things go into a career, especially an academic career." She added that, "It may be more evident

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INSIDE Serpent's Tooth Science Poli Sci Letter Interview: Debra Cain Federalist Paper Paglia Review

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November 11, 1992

THE MICHIGAN REVIEW

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According to the Detroit Free Press, "Diamond Golf Company has created a golf ball especially for women. The Sunburst balls are supposed to give their best performance with the typically slower swing of female golfers." Cmon. After years of fighting the evil, white male power structure, the last thing women need is balls. Chalk one up for the "family values" crowd. Professors William Axinn of the University of Chicago and Arland Thornton of the University of Michigan,· after conducting a study of couples, concluded that people who live together before wedlock are more likely to get a divorce than those who wait until marriage for cohabitation. We won't rub it in or anything, but Dan Quayle told you so. A survey of women's investment skills by Oppenheimer Funds of Denver, Colorado, revealed that women tend to be more adept at handling household money matters (such as grocery shopping and paying bills) than they are at making long-term cash investment decisions. Considering Congress' utter inability to balance even its own members' checkbooks, the election of Senators Diane Feinstein, Barbara Boxer, and Carol Moseley Braun could prove to be a boon.

boldly states, "Money for preventive health care. Money for evironmental s0lutions. Money for day care. Money for reparations to the Third World. No profits for arms sales. No profits for using a woman's body. No profits for polluting. No profits for drug sales. That's, that's, that' s SOCIALISM!" Yep, and that' s, that's, that' s STUPID! Continuing with MIM, they report in the Notes #66, July 1992: "[Flor the Summer 1992 MIM Theory has brought out a double issue "Gender & Revolutionary Feminism" that sweeps aside the trite feminism of Virginia Slims ads, appeals to the old boys on the Supreme Court and pointless marches to 'take back the night' with more police and rape laws. MIM Theory No. 2 & 3 takes back the whole day. It doesn't patronize 'women's issues.' It tells the truth: Patriarchy will only be crushed through an armed revolution led by a vanguard party." That would be an armed party of women, if MIM is Iwin2 to be consistent. But

Speaking of our new president-eled, we would like to thank the 57 percent of the electorate who didn't vote for him.

At the American Psychological Association's annual convention this past August, psychologist Ellen McGrath revealed an interesting fact: women's depression can actually be healthy. Said McGrath, it would be unhealthy not to feel victimized by "typical female experiences." Oh? And what might those be? Despair at not seeing the word "wymyn" in college textbooks? The emotional outrage of "physcological rape" (like when a male chauvinist pig smiles at you)? The discrimination of being booted out of Drake's for loitering? Or is it the horror of playing with a Barbie doll that actually has the gall to say, "Math class is tough"? Fight the power! Quote of the issue: ''The reasonable man adapts to the world around him. The unreasonable man expects the world to adapt to him. Therefore, all of the worl d' s progress is made by unreasonable men."

Come, Mistress Judy.

Women aren't sup posed to pl~y wi dolls - wewouldn' want to gender social ize you. What y need are some build ing blocks and a littl consbuction set."

In Monday's Daily, Athlete-of-the-Week Rachael Geisthardt was identified not once, but twice as a Freshman. Gasp!

The Campus Mfairs Journal of the . t·; \ . University of Michigan; ~

II

In his November 5 sketch, liberal Daily cartoonist Greg Stump noted that it was "Most likely the last cartoon on the 1992 presidential 'election, I swear." Damn. We were hoping it would be his last cartoon, period.

After his first telephone conversation with Russia's Boris Yeltsin, President-elect Clinton proclaimedt "We had no substantive conversations." Yet it was reported in Moscow that Yelstin had not only offered deeper cuts in nuclear weapons, he had invited the Slickster to Moscow for a future summit. Worried yet? Clinton did, however, affirm to'Yelstin his support for "free-market economics in Russia." Now, wouldn't it be nice if Billy supported market principles in his own country?

are so ... phallic!

Run along, Millard. oU'veobjedifiedand arginalized my . .ughters enough as ~{ tIS, (Hmph! Men!}." .

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We are tile Establishment Special Issue Editor

Tony Ghecea

Editor~in-Chief

Adam DeVore

Publisher

Karen S, Brinkman

Executive Editors

Andrew Bockelman Joe Coletti

Contributing Editors

Beth Martin Jay D. McNeill Tracy Robinson Stacey L. Walker

Music Editor Literary Editor

Chris Peters Adam Garagiola

Assistant Editors

Ryan Boeskool Brian Schefke

Copy Editor MTS Meister Systems Analyst

Shannon Pfent Doug Thiese Mitch Rohde

Business Assistants Peter Daugavietis ChetZarko Staff , Eddie Amer, Eric Berg, Michele Brogley, Jerry Czarnecki, Erica DeSantis, James E. Elek, Joe Epstein, Frank Grabowski, Nate Jamison, Ken Johnston, Eric Lepard, Mary the Cat, Bud Muncher, Crusty Muncher, Dave Perczak, Drew Peters, Dan Reback, Renee Rudnicki, Will Ryan, TS Taylor, Perry Thompson, Corey Tobin, Martin Vloet, Michelle Wietek, Matt Wilk, Tony Woodlief.

Editors Emeriti

Brian Jendryka John J. Miller

The Mi chigan Review is an independent, student-run journal at the University of Michigan. We neither solicit nor accept any dona· tions from the University of Michigan. Contributions to the Mi chigan Review are tax-deductible under Section 501(cl(3) of the Internal Revenue Code. The Review is not affiliated with any poli tical party. Unsigned editorials represent the opinion of the editorial board. Signed articles represent the opinions of the author and not necessarily those of the Review, We welcome letters and articles and encourage comments about the journal 3.!'d issues discussed in it.

SUITE ONE 911 NORTH UNNERSITY AVENUE ANN ARBOR, MI 48109-1 265 T EL.

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FPC< (313)936-2505

Spotted: a recent flyer by the Maoist International Movement (MIM), which

Copyright 1992

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November 11. 1992

THE .MICHIGAN REVIEW

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The Pros and Cons of RU 486 by James Elek and Brian Schefke

administered 36 to 48 hours later Evidence also exists that RU 486 could plans to market RU 486 in this country A controversial drug in recent years increased the success rate to 96 percent. have applications outside the realm of due to the highly charged p olitics has been RU 486. The conflict over the It was also discovered that the 96 percent pregnancy. In test-tube studies, RU 486 surrounding abortion, despite appeals use of this so-<:alled abortion pill" stems success rate could be achieved with has slowed the growth of tumors with from the legislatures of New Hampshire from its ability to expel an embryo from pregnancies advanced as far as seven progesterone ' and California. a woman's uterus early in her pregnancy. weeks. receptors, such as wet! as New RU 486, which is now marketed in Despite these successes, there were as certain York Cit y France under the name mifepristone, was , side effects. The expulsion of the embryo mayor David breast cancerS; synthesized in April of 1980 by scientists and uterine lining Was accompanied by RU 486 is also . Dinkins to working for the French pharmaceutical uterine bleeding. In 4 to 5 percent of the being studied prOvide RU 486 company Roussel-Uclaf. It arose fro":, subjects, this bleeding was heavy, as' it as a treatment for clin i cal the study of how steroids bind and often is in a typical miscarriage. In some for Cushing's w' trials. The activate receptors exceptional cases, . sy ndrome, a controversy (areas on ON A transfusions were di sorder that continues: where gene necessary. In light leads to such transcription and of these risks, it symptoms as James Elek is a protein syntheSiS was suggested hypertenSion, junior , in begin). RU 486, as that the rapid fat physics and a a steroid, binds prostglandin be storage and staff writer for strongly to the adrrlinistered in a osteoporosis. the Review. progesterone ,facility where RU .486 is · Brian Schefke receptor ir cells. women could be . currently isa junior in Since it takes the monitored for available in France, Britain, Sweden, and chemistry and cellular and molecular place of progesseveral hours and China, although it is still'unavailable in biol!)gy cind assistant editor of the terone on those Review. . t rea ted if the United States, even for research DRUG G IST . ,:';;""i!'" r e c e p tor s, it I C om plica t i on s purposes. Roussel':;'Uclaf says it has no .. effectively blocks the activity of arose. Abd ominal pain due to the progesterone in animals. . contractions was also re'p orted . .. This blockage is significant because Furthennore, physicians in the field progesterone is an essential hormone in reported that three women had severe human and animal pregnancies. disturbances in. heart function after Progesterone promott'S the growth of the receiving the prostglandiri"orie of. which placenta; a thickening of the uterine wall resulted in a , fatality. This suggests a to which m.e embryo attaches ~uring . danger inperfonning the technique on . pregnancy, and it relaxes the .uterine women who either hilVe heart disease or muscle to f0restall contr.actions that could are at high risk for it, such ~s heavy expel the : ~'mbryo. If'the growth of ; smokers. · , . .. progest e ~one is blocked by. R ~J~, an. As a result, eifprts to improv e the embryo can more easily be-expelled, thus technique have begun. The World Health facilitating an abortion. . Organization' (WHO) is researching the The drug was first tested on human ···· effectiven.ess oHower doses 9fRU 4S6, volunteers in October 1981. Irlnine of the with ' apparentsuccess~ The 'drug/ s ; eleven women given the drug, the embryo inventor, Etienne-Enlile Baulieu, has · was expelled from the uterus. Larger-experir1ented · withadif:f.~i.en.l ' . . · scale studies were c;onducted in 1985, p,Ostgl<mdin than .the.one currently used;- . with an 80 percent success.rate; with the intentof reducing the side effects. The method, however, worked only New evidence has surlacedthatRU , about a weekafter menstruation would ,. 486cari prevent pregnanoesas wen as, have been expected to begln;'Since many interrupt them. Scottish researchers at . These big 19" x 27" great looking wall posters women have pregnancy tests only after the University of Edinburgh conducted, a have full color photographs with the season schedule. that time, the applicability of RU 486 was . sfudy involving . 800 .,,,omen . and Stop by and pick them up while supplies last. limited . . adolescents. The w6menwere divided One possible explanation for the into two groups: one group received a failure of RU 486 to work in 20 percent of dose of RU ·. 486 within 72 hours of the cases is that the drug by itself could intercourse, ,while anofhergroup not induce the uterine contractions received the standard "morning aftefi' Main Bookstore : 549 East UniverSIty necessary to expel the embryo. New tests treatment of estrogen.followed by a dose Art/Engineering Store and were begun wh ere RU 486 wa s of progestogen 12 hours later. Electronics Showroom : administere.d in conjuncti on with Based on probability, 23 pregnancies 111 7 South University prostglandins (chemicals that can cause should have developed in each group. Phone : 313-662-3201 contractions of the uterine muscle). No pregnancies occurred in the RU 486 Monday-Friday 9 :00-6 :00 The results improved dramatically. group and four occurred in the standardSaturday 9 :30-5:00 THAN A BOOKSTORE Sunday Noon to 4 :00 A 600 milligram dose of RU. 48b, therapy group, an insignificant combined with prostglandininjections difference: U

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THE MICHIGAN REVIEW

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November 11, 1?92 ; 7"

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Are There Really Women's Issues? Partly due to the media and partly as a result of feminist usage, the phra~ "Women's Issues" has gained currency in many circles. Typically used to denote topics such as abortion rights, the glass ceiling phenomenon, and gender equality in the workplace, this phrase is but one symptom of an increasingly prevalent mindset, a world view which not only condones, but actually encourages, the interpretation of social issues as consisting of conflicts between or among groups with divergent political interests. Aside from the air of separation and distinction that phrases such as "gay rights," "black issues" and "women's issues" imply, they share at least two features: each views "groups" as monolithic, and each presupposes that different groups withiJl society have competil}g, irreconcilable interests. As a way of interpreting the world, such notions of group identity are hardly new. This "tribal thinking," as one might call it, has endured for eons in one form or another. In the Old World: the Yisigoths evinced it literally pefore the Inquisition eVinced it religiously. Hegel's idealistic dialectic gestured toward it, and Marx subsequently reified it by turning the idealistic dialectic into a materialistic dialectic and defining tribes in terms of economic classes. The new tribalism, however, is often more subtle than its predecessors. Of course, one still sees outbursts of nationalism, a p<)triotic form of tribalism. Likewise, the ethnic conflicts which have recently erupted in regions of Europe, the Middle East and India. to mention but a few, all thrive on a tribalistic notion of identity. , The tribalism evinced by much modem political rhetoric, however, as subtle as it may be, may ultimately threaten the very society which it is invoked to improve:As it elevates various notions of group identity to prominence, it de-emphasizes the important notion that we all share a common humanity. If a free and open society is to endure, its members must refuse and resist the temptation to conceive of themselves as constituting competing groups; instead, they must see themselves as individuals who share a common humanity and who ultimately share an interest in maintaining a free society in which all participants are accorded their due respect and treated with dignity. The influence of tribalistic thinking is more prevalent than one might believe. When speaking of abortion as a "women's issue," for instance, a more fundamental question overlooked. Suppose, for the sake of argument, that whether to have an abortion is the soI~ prerogative of each pregnant woman. Many so-<alled pro-choicers

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maintain that such a right exists precisely because women have a right to control their own bodies. Whatever the merit of their claim, it seems to stem from the intuition that people are entitled to command significant autonomy and self-determination with respect to their bodies and matters biological. It appears, then, that the question at stake is much larger than whether women have a right to abortions. The underlying question if one accepts the our bodies / our choice argument should be seen as asking to what degree people should be allowed to exercise biological self-determination. Consider, too, the issue of equality in the workplace. Many would say that shattering the glass ceiling is a women's issue, that ending racial discriminatipn is a black (or, more generally, minority) issue, and that ending so-called heterosexism is a gay rights issue. But if employers are not to discriminate against employees or job applicants for arbitrary or irrational reasons, is it not sufficient - and preferablesimply to argue that all humans, being essentially equal, are deserving of fair and equal treatment under the law and by all institutions? Clearly it is. The former tactic Balkanizes society; the latter unifies it. It is more than paradoxical to strive for universal equality while consistently defining one's self in terms of a group. Showing such tacit reverence for tribalism, moreover, encourages separatism and indirectly perpetuates the belief that different groups ultimately have divergent interests when, in fact, equality of treatment and expansive liberty, the true ends of the Good aqq Great Society, are in everyone's interest. Rejecting tribalism in all its insidious forms, in contrast, encourages society's members to unite and censure objectionable behavior ,' through widely held but individually advanced mores. The divisiveness wrought by tribalistic thinking, however, encourages peopre to think in terms of interest groups and faction while diverting their attention from a granner, nobler human project. Tribalistic thinking, at root, is noup,Shed't:)y the fallacious belief that groups per se can act; although talking as if this were the case may be convenient and rhetorically inviting, it neglects to recognize explicitly that underlying all group actions are collections of individuals' actions. Although society has progressed toward equality while employing tribalistic precepts, it has done so in spite of, not because of, such thinking. One wonders; consequently, for how long our good fortune will persist. One hopes, sim,dtaneously, that people abandon tribalistic thinking before it erodes the admirable progress that we have made.

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November 11, 1992

Letter to the Editor

THE MICHIGAN REVIEW

5

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Pali Sci Department Answers Charges To the Editor: When Homer writes the Iliad, he begins the story in media res; he can do so since the audience knows the context in which the story of Achilles is set. The Michigan Review began its story of "Thought Policed in Poli Sci 111/1 in media res; the audience, though, does not know the context - neither beginning nor end - and therefore cannot adequately assess the events and words described. It is the purpose of this letter to prOVide that context. Prior to the first paper assignment, teaching assistants in a number of Professor Rosenstone's class[es] handed out a "Checklist for Nonsexist Writing."

The Political Science profession currently encourages scholars in the field to use gender neutral language. Debbie Meizlish handed out this sheet along with a "Guide to Writing Short Essays" in her section and noted that she would not grade down should students use language that was not gender neutral, though she might circle the word when reading he paper. Shawn Brown's response in class was to slam down the handout and make several disgruntled comments to a neighboring student, making evident his annoyance at this request for the gender neutral language that is expected as part of any academic exercise in political science. When Debbie Meizlish received the

paper from Mr. Brown she appropriately sought counsel from Professor Rosenstone who is responsible for helping teaching assistants in his course address all sorts of issues that arise in leading discussions, grading papers, counseling students. Professor Rosenstone met with Mr. Brown. to explain why his actions and comments were unwelcome and offensive and to express his hope that this would be the end of the matter and that there would be no recurrence. In no way was Mr. Brown being censored. He was not graded down for his paragraph. (Indeed, Ms. Meizlish asked other TA's to read and evaluate the

paper just to ensure that she had not done so.) There is a difference between censorship and expressing concern over a student's mode of expression. Mr. Brown did not have to withdraw from Professor Rosenstone's class. By doing so he denied himself the opportunity to learn from one of the leading scholars on American politics in the country and from one of Michigan's most highly rated teachers. His education will be the poorer for it. Sincerely yours, Arlene W. Saxon house Chair, Department of Political Science

AuthorResponds __________________________________________________ As Editor, I am grateful for Dr. Saxonhouse's fonna\ response to "Thought POOa:d in POO Sci Ill," and I en<oorage cthers to express their views in a forum such as this ooe. Dr. Saxonhoose's letter appears to be the Department of Political Science's official respon...<>e, however, and I feel compelled to comment (as the article's author) on Dr. Saxonhouse's analysis. The issues at stake merit careful contemplation. Dr. Saxoohouse intrOOUC€S several i$UeS which are at best extraneous to the ronsideration of Shawn Brown's case and at worst diversionary. Recall that Brown used the following example of a man refusing to participate in a telephcne pou in an €$lY faPOOtical Science 111: Let's say DIve Stud is mtertaining three beautiful ladies in his penthouse when the phone rings.... But since Dave is "tied up" at the moment, he tells the pcllsa to "bother" saneone else,

Deborah Meizlis}), Brown's teaching assistant, responded in a marginal note as fclJows (verbatim~ Yware right This is lu:lim:u; & inapp'opriate & OFFENSIVE. This is completely inappropriate for a serious political science paper. It ccstIpletely violates thatstmdard d ~writlng. I'rdes!u Rcaenstcne (Political Science 111's instructa1has encooraged Ire to interpret this comment as an example of sexual harassment and to take the appropriate formal steps. I have chulm not to do so in this instance. Howeva-, any future comments, in a paper, in a dafs (1' in any dealings w I me \',111 be interpreted as sexual harassment and formal steps will be taken. Professor Rosenstone is aware of these comments - & is prepared to inte!vme. You are forewarned!

Or. Saxonhouse asserts that 'Thought POOced in Poo Sci 111" failed tocontextualize Brown's ront1ict \\lith :tvleizIish and R<R.'fNooe. Dr. Saxonhouse presumably intends both to defend Meizlish's reaction to Brown's paragraph and to vindicate Rcanstone. Let us a.'*- whether she succeeds. Or. Saxonhouse notes that "The Political Science profession currently encourages scholars in the field to use gender neutral language." The profession, however, 00ng an

abstract entity, cannot encourage anything only its constituent members, oc perhaps the declarations of academic associations within the field, may do so. It appears that Dr. Saxonhouse means to refer to the American Political Science Association (APSA), for its journal requires the use of gender neutral language where pa;able. It is faJse to pres.u:ne, however, that APSA speaks with ~onable authaity focthe entire pditical science profession. One might also question the propriety of holding sophomores in introductay rourses to the same standards as "scholars in the field:' The decision to enforce this particular standard is at best aroitrary. Dr. Saxonhouse's poin~ however, is that MeizJish distributed various writing guides and indicated that failure to cemply with them would not detract £rem a student's grade. As Brown has never contested his grade, and as the artide never mentions Brown's grade, it is undear why Dr. Saxonhouse raises the issue. Dr. Saxonhouse proceeds to suggest that Brown created something of a scene upon receiving Meizlish's writing guides. Brown, however, explicitly denies having slammed down the handouts and maintains that he J'l1aieno cfuwuntled ~ he merely rdled his eyes and acknowledged a classmate's remark. Dr. Saxonhouse never asked him about this alleged scene. But suppose that Brown threw an energetic tantrum. It would be specious to assert that because of that past action, his hypothetical example constitutes sexual harassment. Such an assertion implicitly equates Brown's cwasmon to uSng (oc being told to u..<>e) gender inclusive language with shOWing signs of being a latent but guilty sexual harasser - and that is absurd. Can we really say that his allegedly voci£eroos OOjection to Meizlish's writing guides is evidence that his essay's example constitutes sexual harassment? Surely not It is critical to remember that Meizlish's

perception of whatever Brown did might be real argument against Brown is based largely ill--founded. It is her interpretation that Brown's on ~ that he allegedly said in da9s. If alleged outburst evinced hootility toward her anything, Dr. Saxonhouse's own argument exemplifies how so-called anti-hard$lll€l1t and not merely toward the idea she was advancing or toward her directive to write in policie~,<;.an be used not merely to curtail J:laracirnent but also to chill debate by ffiencing a certain manner. Even asserting that there is a connection between Brown's two actions is disfavcred speech. a highly presumptuous interpretive exercise. Dr. Saxonhouse states, ''In no way was Whatever actually tran5pired, it is absurd Mr. Brown censored." It is true that Brown to suppa;e that Brown was in any pffition to was not stopped from penning his example, intimidate Meizhsh. It is equally ridiculous to and it is presumably true that he would not suppose that a mere allusion to gender or literally be prevented from penning a similar sexuality should be interpreted as 1.1ara%tnent. one in the future. He was, however, i$ued a If all that is required for harassment is for scathing threat which plainly intended to someone to complain that she has been prevent even the merest allusion to ideas offended, then the First Amendment becomes which Meizlish finds ut1&Atling. but a vestigial appendage to the Constitution. Dr. SaxCll'llulse rorrectfy states, however, Pemaps the most unfortunate aspect of that "There is a difference between censorship Dr. Saxonhouse's reply, however, is that she and expreBng <OOCem over a student's mode focu<:es en the use ci genderindusive language. of expression." True, but what euphemism! First, Brown did use gender irIcIuSve language There is also a difference between expn:ssing in his essay (e.g. ''businessperson''). Second, concern and writing, ''You are fcrewarned!" Meizlish and Rosenstone's charge against WhetherdroppingR~sdas5was Brown is not that he failed to use gender a rational deci5ionfocBrown tomakeisand:her inclusive language, but that his example itself interesting question which Dr. Saxonhouse raises but which is ultimately divm:aonary. ought to be seen "as an example of sexual harassment." Brown's use or non-use of In short. she never addresses the original gender indu9.ve language is not the i$ue. article's main ~ namely that it is absurd to According to Brown, when he asked cmstruetherontentciBrown'ser;ay as sexual Rosenstooewhy his example was coru:idered harassment; that Brown's action would not sexual harassment, Rosenstone gave two constitute harassment by ordinary legal cancns;thattheDepartment'spolicyonsexual reasons: first, the example had sexual connotations; second, it made Meizlish feel ~t is dangerously vague and eaSly unccmfcrtable. Brown related that Rcanstone abused; that Meizfuh's actioo exemplifies how said that meeting those two criteria, in his and C6tenfibly benign policies can be deliberately Meizlish's opinion, is sufficient cause for used to chill debate and stifle thought and deeming something to be sexual harassment expre;aon; that the policy seIf-contradictorily Without even questioning the plausibility ci threatens to punish unwel.a:rne speech and to such criteria, it is instructive to note that protect even ci:fensive, inflammatcry speech; Rosenstone apparently found no need to refer and that the policy, as it is structured, actually to Brown's alleged in-class ronduct to support undermines the fundamental presumptions his interpretation of the example. of a free society. The more seriously one takes Dr. IinviteDr.Saxonhouseto~tothe Saxonhouse's contextualization of Brown's substantive i$ues ~ by Brown's case. ' ih~Ore, the dearer: it beCanes that th~ . , • . • . . . . . .. - Adam' fA?VOre

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November 11, 1992

THE MICHIGAN REVIEW

6

Interview: Debra Cain

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SAPAC Director Discusses Sexual Assault On September 29, 1992, Tony Ghecea interviewed Debra Cain, director of the University of Michigan's Sexual Assault Prevention and Awareness Center (SAP AC). Cain, who became SAPAC director on September I, 1992, had spent the previous 15 years serving as director of Help Against Violent Encounters Now (HA\'EN) in Oakland County. She holds a Bachelors Degree in psychology from Iowa State University and a Master's Degree in Business Administration from Central Michigan University.

REVIEW: Do you have a politically active background, and if so, with what groups have you been associated? CAIN: I have been involved in different political campaigns. Because of my work at HA VEN with sexual assault and domestic violence, a lot of the work that I did revolved around the criminal justice system, around women and children who had been victimized either physically or sexually, and therefore were using the court process. A lot of my activity revolved around judicial campaigns, people running for the district or circuit courts, around those who ran for prosecutor, and to a lesser extent with some state representatives and state senators. One of my personal areas of interest was judicial campaigns, because in my experience, the majority of the public knows very little about whom they elect as judges and what those people think and how they're going to be as judges. REVIEW: Your predecessor, Julie Steiner, involved SAPAC in <campus politics through opinion essays in the Daily, Oiag rallies, and the like. To what extent do you see yourself continuing SAPAC's tradition as a voice for leftist and feminist ideals? CAIN: Most of my own political activity \ in the past has been more within a move. ment of people that dealt specifically with violence against women and children. I've been politically involved, but perhaps in a different way from what you've deSdibed. The way that I was involved was as an actiVist making sure that police officers were getting training on domestic violence and sexual assault, not just within individual departments, but also in their training prior to ever becoming an officer; making sure that judges and prosecutors were trained to be sensitive to the unique issues that victims, particu-

larly female or child victims, experience when they encounter a system that is not only apathetic but often hostile to their case. I describe myself as a political activist, but perhaps in a different capacity than what you have described. I believe very much that rape is a political issue. It's a reflection of the way our society views women - as a piece of property - and the fact that we are devalued, and not treated with due respect in court. Is activism around that important? Absolutely. My personal approach has been to do "systems change." As I said before, the legal system and the legislative process have been of real interest to me, as well as sisterhood-types of organizations - I've been involved in the National Coalition Against Domestic Violence, the National Coalition Against Sexual Assault, and local coalitions that deal with those and children's issues. REVIEW: You allude to the idea that society's view of women is a root cause of rape. Could you elaborate on that? CAIN: Rape has to do with, in my vision, inequities of power between the genders. When I say rape I'm including the fact that astronomical numbers of children in this country have experienced sexual assault. For me, much of the reason that this happens and continues to pervade our society with very few repercussions is that women and children have traditionally and historically - and this is not just a philosophic base, but it comes from the law itself - been treated as property and owned by males. The term "rule of thumb," for example, comes from an Old English law that said that it was legal for a man to beat his wife as long as the the stick or rod was no thicker than the circumference of his thumb. Much of Old English law deals with the fact that women were treated as property and as someone who was owned, as were children. That attitude is changing over time, but it is still prevalent in many ways, and until that changes, the whole mentality of it being okay to rape women because "we don't know what we want," or "when we say 'no' we actually mean yes," or "we fantasize about rape," or "it's our fault because of

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the way we dressed or because we chose to walk at night" - all of those ideas will continue to infringe on our rights and our feelings and put all responsibility for rape on us, rather than saying that the rapist is responsible for his own actions, because he used rape to overpower, to dominate, to control, to degrade another person. REVIEW: So there is an inherent power difference which allows men to act on a desire to rape? Do you have any ideas about how to alleviate the power difference you see?

isn't set up to accommodate the fact that when a child comes to sit on the witness stand and testify, they're sitting in a system that was designed for adults. Those are just a few of the ways we live with inequality. I'm acutely aware of that as the mother of a son. I've tried to raise him with different attitudes about women, and it's often a struggle, because no matter what you give him at home, it isn't what he sees in school systems necessarily, it isn't what he sees on television or in the media, it's certainly not what he's hearing in the popular music of the day, and it's not what his peer group is representing to him. It's a struggle to create equality, but the inequalities are there in so many ways that it's almost hard to enumerate what they all are. And so many of them are things that we don't think about on a day to day basis.

CAIN: Tons of ideas. One would be to deal REVIEW: How would you recommend, with the inherent sexism in advertiSing, the way women are objectified and used other than more sensitivity and attenas sexual objects in advertiSing. All youo. __·,,,tion, that we improve the prosecution of have w do is turn on M1V or watch rape and sexual assault? movies and you'll see the powerful conCAIN: First and foremost, I think it's nection - particularly with youth that we're making between sex and vioimperative that we elect people in the elected judicial system who are more lence. It's frightening. The fact that we're representative of the population, so that an extremely violent society to begin with more women are sitting as judges, more is of great concern to me, and also that women are prosecutors, more women violence is becoming a more accepted mode of dealing with one's sexual frusare police officers, more women are hospital emergency room physicians actutrations and anger. ally treating rape survivors, and more We need to find ways of changing people of color are represented in those the inequities in things like work. It's positions. What I experienced when I very difficult - and I say this as a workfirst started at HAVEN, for instance, was ing woman with kids - to be a working person in this society and not have any that we had 16 circuit court judges, and only two of them were women. Now, back-up systems in place. I happen to be after all this time, we're still up to only married to a wonderful man, but it certhree. That's not very many, and that's tainly isn't equal in the division of recertainly not representative of the fact sponsibilities. Trying to find day care that women constitute 50 percent of the and the fact that women are not paid on population. The odds of drawing a judge an equal level with men or that we need who might have a little added sensitivity to take maternity leave and it's used to the plight of a rape survivor or batagainst us and we're put in the "mommy" tered woman are not good. A key way to track - all of those are ways that conchange the judicial system is to is to make tinue to put women at a disadvantage; so that we're never competing on an equal it more representative of our society. footing, because there's always someAnother thing is to realize - and this came home to me in a way that I would thing that's being used against us. never have appreciated had I not had the The legal system and the fact that it's opportunity to work with the system so not really set up to accommodate rape is much - is that the system is really about a big problem. It's a very hostile system who can afford the best attorney. And if for a rape victim to go through; it's really you don't have money, your odds of set up for adversarial relationships, not for a case against somebody with whom getting justice are very diminished. That's you're-intimately involved and who's very dismaying, be<:ause there are prosthe father of your children, whose family ecutors who care very much and are very and your family are strongly connected, competent in rape cases, but they carry huge case-loads and have very fimited with whom you jointly own property. It

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THE MICHIGAN REVIEW

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time to ptt into any individual case. Yet you're talking about a client who's suffered from severe trauma and the aftereffects of all the devastation of their assault. They really need a lot more coaching and understanding of what it means to them to actually have to sit there especially with cases of incest - and face not only their accuser, but in some cases their accuser who's their father or stepfather or uncle. That's very different, and to just meet with that person once to go over the basics of the case is not enough to really help shore them up and make the system work for them. What I saw over and over again with battered women was that they tended to be very economically dependent on their batterer, and so at the point that they separated from their relationship, he had the money and he got the great attorney, and she had no money and she got whatever she could afford or whatever she got through legal aid. Not to impugn any of those people's legal skills, but they tended to have less time and less experience, and she got eaten alive in court. A lot of those inequities around class or economics, I don't know how to reconcile, except to say that it isn't a fair system, and unfortunately so much of the criminal justice system is not about justice. REVIEW: So you don't have any solid ideas on how to create equality in, for example, legal representation? CAIN: One thing that can be done- and this is a movement that is beginning all across the country - is to have more victim advocacy programs. Some of the emotional support or preparation of people for trial and informing them of their rights doesn't have to be done by a prosecutor but can be done by a victim's advocate. I think that's especially effective when it's done by a rape counseling center or battered women's shelter, because they have a strong knowledge of the issue and an investment in making sure that that person's rights are met. I think that if we educate the legal system, judges can counteract some of the inequities if they're sensitive to what to look for. Through some of the judicial training that I've been involved in in the last couple of years, I've seen more judges coming to an awareness that they could step in and protect a victim's rights when they were sensitive to what the dynamics of the situation were. REVIEW: One of the things you suggest is that women are better equipped to deal with rape victims. Is that an adequate representation of your stand?

CAIN: I don't believe that women are inherently better equipped to deal with it. I think there is a higher likelihood that a female professional may be more understanding. Not all are understanding. But the odds are stronger that a female profeSSional would be more understanding and would present a more empathetic presence to a survivor. Beyond that, however, regardless of how the woman does or does not respond to sexual assault, many sexual assault survivors would prefer to talk to a woman. I'm not saying that all female professionals handle it the way I hope they would, and that no males do. I've seen men who have done a very fine job with it, and women with whom I've been really disappointed. But I think that, all things considered, having a woman in certain roles tends to be a much better balance, and something that's more comfortable for the survivor. REVIEW: I want to throw out a couple of things which have been suggested by different people, usually feminists, as "constructive" ideas on how the problem of rape can be attacked. Would you agree with male curfews? CAIN: On some of these questions, let me first clarify that I'm giving you my answer. I'm not saying that that answer represents SAP AC or the University, because I don't know what the rest of the people here at SAPAC think about this, and I don't know what the University thinks about this. My personal answer is no, I don't agree with curfews. REVIEW: Speech codes? CAIN: No. REVIEW: It has been suggested that language contains a sexist bias, and'that if we actively change language, rather than let it change on its own, we can eradicate the sexism that supposedly pervades it. What do you think of language modification? CAIN: I think that language change is very important and needs to happen. From a woman's point of view, when I hear somebody say" chairman" instead of "chair" or "chairperson," it implies to me, rightly or wrongly, that the majority of people who are chairs are men, and that that's why it says "chairman." So I think that men and women may perceive that real differently. As a woman I'm very conscious of that. When I look at books with my kids, for instance, all the pictures of police are men, and all the pictures of nurses are

women, and all the pictures of doctors are men. I'm sure that the people who drew those pictures in the context of that book would say "Oh, I didn't mean that women can never be doctors.~' And they probably didn't, but unfortunately it's that whole barrage of messages - our language, the pictures that we see, and all the ways that that's presented - that females pick up from the time we're very small. I think that those types of images, particularly because they're so pervasive, are important to convey in a different attitude with a different message.

people - and I'm not saying that that's what they did, I'm just saying that we all find our own way of trying to persuade people. I have my own way, and it's probably very different from theirs. REVIEW: Where do you stand issue of psychological rape?

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. CAIN: As a woman I know it exists, because I have experienced it at various times in my life. Do I think it contributes to why we live in a rape culture? Absolutely. I see rape as happening on a wh~le continuum that goes from the psycho- : REVIEW: Would you agree with govlogical end to the extremely physical form of aggression and rape. I t'1ink that you ernment regulation of the content of speech, advertisement, and the like in can't deal just with the person who is physically forced into some type of sexual order to enforce changes in language activity and ignore the psychological and the media? For example, would you rapes that occur. I don't think they can be support the regulation of ads that supdealt with in the same way, however, posedly objectify women? any more than you can deal with slapCAIN: I feel that the constitutional rights ping someone in the face compared to accorded us in this country are extremely shooting somebody thirty times. important. I hate pornography, and I REVIEW: Do you find that the statistics don't care what any number of studies say, the bottom line is that I know from 15 which ~ often used to depict the prob1!'!l1l ofrape are selectively chosen so as years of working with women and chilto exaggerate the problem artificially? dren who have been physically and sexually assaulted that pornography was a CAIN: No, I don't believe that at alL definite part. Over and over again I heard When I quote the statistic that one in women talk about the ways that their three or one in four women will be sexupartners used pornography as a way of ally abused at some point in her life, often debasing and degrading and humiliatI find that people will challenge it. It's a ing them. Would I necessarily want to pretty staggering statistic. When I first see that constitutionally banned? Probcame Into the sexual assault m<?vement ably not, because the freedom of speech and heard some of those statistics, I is important to me. I would prefer to see thought, "Gee, I sure haven't known that us reach a point as a society where that's many people in my life who were ever such an outrage that it is not done, not sexually abused." because it is outlawed but because it isn't So it's hard to believe that that many sanctioned in our society as an acceptpeople have experienced sexual abuse. able behavior. But then once I got involved in the sexual assault movement, I would go to parties REVIEW: Do you see yourself vocally or places and tell people that I work in a advocating positions on these issuessexual assault center. It continues to as former SAPAC director Julie Steiner amaze me 15 years later how many people and U-M law professor Catherine will take you aside and say "not even my MacKinnon have done - in public fohusband, my mother, my sister, nobody rums, as opposed to merely putting pracknows this, but I was raped in college," tical suggestions to work at SAPAC? and tell you the circumstances. It is amaz.ing how people, when they feel that you CAIN: As I listen to ,some of the politickare a safe person to tell, will come foring that has gone on here before, I think ward and tell you that, but have never I agree very much with the politicS of told a lotoÂŁ other people in their lives. those people. I have great respect for That, to me, is one of the saddest parts of them, and I'm very respectful of the way sexual assault, that not only does it hapthey choose to get their message across. pen in such staggering numbers, but that Yet that's not necessarily the way I will there is such a societal attitude about it choose to get my message across. I am that people don't talk about it. They carry very careful to make sure that it is always that pain deep inside of them and feel dear when I speak for myself and when that they can't talk to anybody, even the I speak for my organization. There may people who are closest to them. So do I be times that I feel it would be more personally have any qualms about those helpful to use particular situations as statistics? Absolutely not. forums to educate rather than alienate / .~--~-~~-

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November 11, 1992

THE MICHIGAN REVIEW

8

\1

Fortnightly Federalist: Paper No. 7

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Defining Sexual Harassment ' by Kurt Schmautz Not long ago, sexual harassment was considered merely a breach of etiquette, the unfortunate habit of certain boorish individuals. Thankfully, society has begun to discard this intolerable attitude and rec~ the harms caused by sexual harassment. Laws and policies combatting harassment have been gradually tightening over the last two decades. Last year, Clarence Thomas' confirmation hearings elevated the sexual harassment issue to national prominence. In the aftermath of the hearings, politicians read the public mood and jumped on the sexual harassment bandwagon en masse, enacting dozens of new laws to eliminate harassment on the job. Although these laws probably advanced their drafters' political aims, they will likely achieve little good and create a great deal of mischief in the fight against sexual harassment. Properly drafted laws, of course, play a necessary role in preventing harassment and punishing wrongdoers. What we must recognize, however, is that the law has its limits. Lawsuits are very blunt instruments for regulating behavior. They effectively deter outrageous conduct and enforce bright-line standards, but they are much less useful under ambiguous circumstances. Furthermore, lawsuits are expensive and slow, not to mention uncertain. They also invite unscrupulous parties (on both sides) to exploit the system, and they rarely satisfy the parties as much as they satisfy the parties' lawyers. In sexual harassment cases, we ask the courts to make a variety of fine distinctions for which they are ill-suited . First, the law is often asked to deal with hotly contested, uncorroborated testimony and conduct which is open to a variety of interpretations. Consequently, fine lines must sometimes be drawn between permissible behavior and harassment under confusing and contentious conditions. Errors inevitably result Moreover, the indiscreet courtroom drama in- . volved in such proceedings is likely to produce many messy conflicts -like the Thomas hearings - which embarrass both parties regardless of the outcome. Second, sexual harassment suits invite courts and employers to monitor and criticize the sex lives of their employees. Because employers are generally liable for acts of sexual harassment by their employees, employers will inevitably have incentives to monitor and interfere in their employees' sex lives. Although many feminists favor the desexualization of the workplace, efforts to for-

bid office romances - even if they were entail liability under the harassment laws, tected speech? The fact that the victim is both legal and desirable - would seem firing, transferring or disciplining the emupset due to perceived sexual harassto be nearly, if not completely, imposployee may leave the employer liable for ment does not justify the restriction of sible to enforce. Thus, many sexual hawrongful discharge or sanction. Employthe purported harasser's speech. People rassment laws become clubs wielded byers will find it difficult to defend sancalso become upset when Nazis march in . disgruntled partions taken in their neighborhoods, but that does not ties rclther than WHAI YOIJ ..) \j$,, ' I h <'1.:'J2 ':-:' 1(0\. , t \. response to bealter First Amendment rights. 5~IO c.oul-D B e v ' 'A ";n.~ D f1,. havior which Finally, we might worry about the scalpels for preI t--! \€Il-.PRE'if\) l{:; , 0U VJ ~ " . the t:'mployee effects of new sexual harassment laws on cisely separating acceptable beSC.Y.IJI\L + I"l \'\ \ L~ did not realize work relationships. The potential emhavior (which HPRI\'S"\ \\ '" . . . • was harmful barrassment of even completely unwarshould be kept and might genranted allegations of harassment may be private) from unerally be consufficient to damage work relationships. acceptable hasidered innoMale employees who are averse to riskrassment. cent. This uning their reputations may be reluctant to Conceptual avoidable Iisocialize, travel, or work late with female difficulties with ability will proemployees. This may hinder the develmany of the new vide another opment of beneficial work relationships laws created for powerful inwhich are useful to both men's and dealing with centiveforemwomen's careers. Yet such seemingly sexual harassployers to try to paranoid behavior may be a rational rement highlight monitor their sponse to ambigous harassment stanem pi 0 ye e 's dards. When impropriety remains undethe limitations of courts. Lawmaksexual hilbit". fjned, avoiding the appearance of impro- . ers have Next'_" '~'Priety becomes that much more imporsexual hara<;sment laws m;1V. surprl"t.lnt. ~truggled, with littlf> success, to provide ingly enough, invoke senous First Criticizing the law, however, is much an objective definition of harassment. Amendment concerns in some cases. easier than fixing it. We must work harder They have generally allowed victims to to fight sexual harassment through eduWhile threats directed at particular indidefine harassment for themselves, vastly viduals receive no protection, many hacation and moral suasion. When such expanding the potential for abuse of the strategies seem mundane or rassment cases do not involve such blalegal process. In practice, these definitant conduct. Can the law forbid employunpromising, it is useful to remember tions encourage hypersensitive individuees from asking one another out on dates? that the law frequently fails. In our politials to make damaging and often Can it punish a second or a third request cal culture, politicians often think that unsubstantiated allegations. after a firm "no?" If such behavior constichanging the law will always solve probUnfortunately, courts are turning to lerns. But legal solutions, like the games tutes harassment, the government turns this new approach with some frequency . employers into workplace censors. found in circus side-shows, are not as Recently, in Ellison v. Brady, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals adopted the Other First Amendment problems easy as they appear. Society pays up perspective of the "reasonable woman" arise when a complaint is made about a front, but it rarely wins the prize. in order to evaluate sexual harassment "hostile working environment." Can the claims. Without discussing the implicagovernment bar locker-room language Kurt Schmautz is a third-year law stuin offices and require that racy pictures tions of its new approach, the court noted dent and a member of the U-M Federalthat its "reasonable victim standard .. . be removed? If so, how can this speech be ist Society. distinguished from other forms of proclassifies conduct as unlawful sexual harassment even when harassers do not realize that their conduct creates a hostile working environment." To justify this approach, the court adopted the position that federal law does not assign fault to harassers, but seeks only to improve women's working conditions. This stance simply ignores the reality of harassment charges. The employee who unwittingly "creates a hostile working environment" can, by the reasonable victim standard, be convicted of potentially career-ending and assuredly reputation-damaging charges. This new standard places additional employers in a n~win situation. Employers will now need to deal with ambiguous employee behavior which other employees consider harassment. While ~;~~Db~\BDv~~t;~t=~ ~\;· . allowing the conduct to continue may

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RE-ELECT:

Brian S.

Independent/or M.S.A. Engineering Rep. Kight Supports:

• Professional Student Government • Fairer Engin. Group Funding • Fighting Codes That Violate Your Rights • Commission & Budget Reform

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November 11, 1992

THE MICHIGAN REVIEW

9

Book Review â&#x20AC;˘ '!ii''"

Paglia Bashes Away Sex, A~ and American Culture Camille PJ9l1a Vintage Books Softcover,331 pages $13.00

by Eddie Arner Camille Paglia first crashed the cultural s<;ene in 1990 when she published her superb book, Sexual Personae. Ol'\e ot the most controversial and outspoken critics of the current state of American academia lind contemporary feminism, Paglia possesses a wide breadth of knowledge and razor-sharp wit which make Sex, Art, and American Culture an enlightening and enjoyable book. Culture is a collection of essays by and inter~e~s with Paglia accumulated over the past two years. Throughout her work she espouses a libertarian view of government, the restoration of common sense to feminism, and the extensive reform of American universities. Culture will disappoint neither her fans nor critics. She begins with a pair of articles on perhaps the only woman more controversial than herself - Madonna - of whom she is incredibly supportive. The first artic~e of the book is both a defense of Madonna's steamy "Justify My Love" video and a critique of Madonna's own defense of the video. Paglia describes the video as pornographic and decadent, and defends MTV's decision to ban it as indicative of a corporate resolve lo~g overdue." She writes: "'Justify My Love' is truly avant-garde,at a time when that word has lost its meaning in the flabby art world. It represents a sophisticated European sexuality of a kind we have not seen since the great foreign films of the 1950s and 1960s. But it does not belong on a mainstream music channel watched around the clock by children." Madonna! s defense of the video was to call it a "celebration of sex" and cite her social acti'1sm. Paglia defends the video's artistic merits but asserts instead that art and artists nave no "moral responsibility to liberal social causes." This theme reappear~ in her defense of Robert Mapplethorpe. One of the book's most interesting articles is The Joy of Presbyterian Sex, in which Paglia assaults the 200-page report, written by the Special Committee on Human Sexuality of the Presbyterian Church, called Keeping Body and Soul Together. This report, which was overwhelmingly rejected by the Presbyterian Church's General Assembly, endorses both extramarital II

affairs and homosexuality. The report presents itself as expertly researched, profound, and caring. Paglia. however, calls it "a repressive, reactionary document" with a naIve and sentimental view of human nature. The report claims that human nature and sexuality are basically good. This is diametrically opposed to Paglia's view of human nature, documented in Sexual Personae as that of a dark force which is kept in check by civilization. Echoing Freud, Paglia writes that" aggression and eroticism are deeply intertwined." She asserts that to understand "the dark drama of sex, you must absorb not only Freud, with his crucial theories of aggression, conflict, and ambivalence, but Kraft-Ebing, who catalogs the eternal perversities and crimes of sexual desire." The report repeatedly quotes Kate Millett (who considers freud a "~xist") and Carolyn Heilbrun, both of whom Paglia sarcastically refers to as "those intellectual giants." Paglia asserts that the report's "unctuous normaliZing of dissident sex is imperialistic and oppressive. The gay world is stripped of its outlaw adventures in toilets, alleyways, trucks, and orgy rooms .... Gay love is reduced to a hice, neat, middleclass couple moving in next door on Father Knows Best." Says Paglia, "This is censorship in the, name of liberal benevolence.'! Paglia is disgusted by the report and correctly asserts that "the committee seems to have jumped from the softspoken, lily-white pre-Freudian WASP world into the strident, petulant postFreudian feminist camp without doing its homework in between." Paglia elaborates this view of feminists in a pair of articles on the rape debate and her piece on the Thomas/Hill controversy . She describes Hill's testimony as "intelligent and sincere," but rejects her claim of sexual harassment and her image as a feminist heroine. She writes, "what transpired between her and Clarence Thomas we can never know. That Hill was distressed by references to sex may indeed be the case. But since they were never threatening and never led to pressure for a date! I fail to see how they constitute sexual harassment." Of course, sexual harassment was not really the issue at all, Paglia insists. It was merely a "smoke screen, cynically exploited to serve another issue, abortion rights. Paglia is firmly pro-choice but rightly asserts that there should be no single-issue litmus test for appointees to 1f

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the Supreme Court. The next article, Rape and Modern Sex War, reiterates Paglia's critique of feminism s naIve view of sex and gender and maintains that the sexes are, and always will be, at war. She writes that' "academic feminism is lost in a fog of social constructionism. It believes that we are totally the product of our environment." This Rousseauian view is stupid and dangerous to women. " Young women, "misled by feminism' do not expect rape from the nice boys from good homes who sit next to them in class." Paglia advocates common sense and personal responsibility over feminism's date rape slogans. She cafls frat parties "Testosterone Flats," and argues that a girl who gets drunk ,at a party and goes upstairs alone with a brother is an utter moron who deserves a good piece of the blame for what may ultimately happen to her. Whether or not she considers the scenario itself a rape is unclear. This idea of 'blaming the victim! is heresy in feminist circles, but Paglia has little fear of being burned at the stake. "[T]he date rape controversy shows feminism hitting the wall of its own broken promises,ff Paglia writes. liThe women of my Sixties generation were the first respectable girls in history to swear like sailors, get drunk, and stay out all night - in short act like men. We sought total sexual freedom and equality. But as time passed, we woke up to cold reality. The old double standard protected women. When anything goes! it's women who lose,'! she adds. That is the central lesson that feminists have not learned. According to Paglia, the sexes are fundamentally different and there is no way to change that. The articles Junk Bonds and Corporate Raiders and The M.l. T. Lecture are critiques of the current state of academia, specifically the humanities. Junk Bonds is an 8O-page polemic which uses a pair of book reviews as the basis for a wider critique of univerSity-level education, especially the current prominence of theorists such as Derrida, Lacan, and Foucault. The article begins ,With a merciless trashing of David Halperin's One Hundred Years of Homosexuality and a lesser whipping of John Winkler's The

Constraints of Desire. Paglia sees Halperin!s work as having "only one coherent aim: the nomination and promotion of David Halperin as a major theorist of sex.'! Paglia, however, notes that "Halperin, like most of the American academics who have wandered into sex studies, lacks the most elementary

understanding of the basic disciplines of history, anthropology! and psychology necessary for such work.!! Halperin! s work, in Paglia's opinion, is shoddy scholarship made possible by his lack of knowledge. Winkler, unlike Halperin! can write and research well! but he, too, wanders too far outside his field of expertise to be a truly effective scholar. The errors of Halperin and Winkler are repeated on a larger scale in the humanities departments of American universities. Lacan, Derrida. and Foucault are the current fad in literary criticism circles, Paglia notes, but they are not understood by the majority of people teaching their theories. What we now have are "narrowly trained English profs who know nothing of art history or pop culture [but] think they can just wade in with Lacan and trash everything in sight" Paglia writes, "Lacan! Derrida, and Foucault are virtuoso wordsmiths without historical or political expertise, even in their own country. Their American popularity has been an asinine "~piS'O({e in the musty academic chronicles.1f This lack of cross-disciplinary knowledge, Paglia claims, shared by these three Frenchmen and the majority of people reading and teaching their theories, is the basis of Paglia! s consequent suggestions for acad'â&#x201A;Źmic reform. She advocates the abolition of the Modern Language Association conference culture and the dismantling of the "publish or perish!! standard which produces works like Halperin's. ' In addition, Paglia suggests that" all undergraduate teachers should be generalists. The curriculum should be radically restructured.!' Paglia!s plan would include three large areas: science! social science, and humanities. All present humanities departments would be dissolved into each other. The M.l. T. Lecture adds a few minor reforms: an end of 'minority' designations, increased use of part-time teachers! and the restoration of order and discipline to public school education. Paglia's overall stress on a broadbased knowledge of liberal arts throughout the book, however, comes off like a R05S Perot ego trip. The criticisms are valid, but the self-referent~al style quickly becomes annoying. Eddie Arner is a senior in English and political science and a staff writer for the Review.

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THE MICHIGAN REVIEW

10

Glass Ceiling Continued from Page 1

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"""", it exists. 'There is a glass ceiling, but I think I've broken through il" Goldenberg . joined the U-M faculty in 1974, worked her way up to full professorship in the department of p0, litical science, and was named LSA Dean in 1989.

in a corporation where there is a structural hierarchy. An academic career is more personal and not so hierarchical." Ege also noted that career advancement for anyone individual may depend > Adapting to a greatly on an acaMale-Domidemic department's nated Workplace ' needs. Ofcourse, the o th er influence ofa glass interviewees, howceiling. in a ever, thought that woman's career the glass ceiling had implies by defini. played some role in tion the existence their careers. of a male-domiEconomics pronated workplace. fessor Michelle Some women inWhite expres~d a terviewed felt that unique view of the if they had glass ceiling in adapted -their academia. "I don't .. . . ' work or manageVlrgrma No~dby, Ass~Clate VP for ment habits or really think about the glass ceiling in Student Affalrs a~d ChIef Freedom of styles to such a terms of the UniverInformation Officer situation, it was on sity. I think professors have two sides to a subconscious level. Others, however, have made more obvious - and sometheir careers - one is in the University arid one is outside of it In my own career, times creative - adaptations. I have focused more on the outside asNordby, who has been at the U-M peet of it in research, so I view the glass for approximately 20 years, said that she ceiling more in terms of my profession as has consciOUSly adapted to a primarily · a whole," she said. male workplace. "Over the years,"you "I have certainly felt at times that the make adaptations. I've followed . the glass ceiling has had an effect on my sports pages carefully. I've always been career, particularly in terms of getting interested in women's athletics, but I've papers published," White explained. followed men's sports so that 1 can be a "One area of dis(Timination which I . part of the conversation of a male-domihave noticed is that women economists' nated office. It dominates the office," said work receives less publicity and is not as Nordby, Such adaptations, she noted, much in the have allowed · public eye. her to partici- ' Women are I've followed the sports pages pate in thenon-.: . rarely quoted in carefully ... so that 1 can be a part work,-rel.ated the medIa on ,f h' . . I' · dISCUSSIons economic top- OJ t .econver~attonof a rna e- ' that oc~ur Just ics outside of. domlnated office. before and after issues .which -Virginia Nordby.' meetings when ' deal dlrectly , . e mp loy ee 's with women," gather wound' White noted. the coffee'pot. On the other hand, White pointed Hu~phreys, who specializes in an,. out that being a woman has.worked in 'dent and Greek history, said th.:ttone her favor in other areas of her career. "I way women maywork against male COfYl-, think I have sometimes benefitted from petition is to take risks in their careers by being a woman in my profession. There going into less popular fields. "l 'went are co'1ferences which try to achieve a into an unconventional field. I felt I had gender balance and I think I have nothing left to lose," Humphreys said. benefitted from that," she said. Cain suggested that the subject matDean of the College of Literature, ter of her work forces her to adapt to Science and the Arts (LSA) Edie male-dominate.d situations. Anytime Goldenberg said that although she does I've dealt with male-dominated situanot believe the glass ceiling has impeded tions, I've adapted my style, whether it . her career at Michigan, .she .does believe be.wor.king with the police,.the medical /I

she credits some of her success to the women who were supportive of her when she came to the University and who made sure that she got on the tenure)rack. Ege notes that the situatiohis not, however, simply a matter of more women being hired. "I have certainly noticeq an The Glass Ceiling Over Time All the women interviewed said that improvement in the sense that more women apply for, are considered for, since the time their careers began, they have:noticed an -,--_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _-:-_ _ _ _ _--, and are hired for jobs. It's a improv~ment in . [The glass ceiling1 may be more change in the women s stand'd . . . . h ing in the work- evl ent ln a corporation were total atmoplace. there is a structural hierarchy. An sphere. But it Nordby for.- ' d .. . . I works both merly Dire<:t'or ofaca emu career IS more persona ways: you can't hire more the Office of Af- . and not so hierarchical. women if more firmativeAction, -Seyhan Ege said, "If you go . ._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.....;;...-..1 women don't back twelve apply." years, there have been tremendous gains at the U-M. It has occurred because of a Raising the Roof . commitment on the part of the people Ege's comment makes' reference to doing U,l e hiring. There h~s been a conthe . heart of the controversy over the scious effort to break down harriers. Afglass ceiling. Proponents of the glaSs ceilter that, women advanced based on ing theory claim that the explanation for meril" the small numbers of women in management level positions is simply discrimiCole said that when she beganprClctieing law in 1974 in.the state ofWashipg.... "'''·~>nation. Others, however, claim that the ton, it was reasonably rare for WOrntm to effect of ~ .glassceiling is n~t ne~es.,sarily be litigating. Often, she notes, when she due sole)y to discrimination ~4" ~~'more . filed a motion in court, the courtroom complex problems. would fall silent as she made her presenAccording to Cain, "The "Yay women tation because it are forced to make was so rare to see · decisions that men a woman doing never face [stich as . such work. choPSing pet~een a Once a few career arldraising a women gain entry family 1creaJes the to higher level poglass c€i~i~g:' . sitions, they pave Other ' fact ors the wayfor other whiCh may h~t be as women, say·s . . evident; however, Cam .."} have seen ' do playa role 'in the numbers of women , WOlnen gain access to posItions promoted to mannever before held . agement level posiby women Auring tions, In ~cademia, my IS-year cafor example, 'a poreer,and they tential employee's .haVelirollght in educational level is other women with . of primarY. importhem. I have felt tance, but advanced very .muc.h degrees not be. me.tlto~by other . ing . earn~d by as women whom I · . Edie Goldenberg, Dean of the College of many women as men. ;. '. have worked ' Literature, Science and.the Arts with. I think The Chronicle of women feel a responsibility to help other Higher Edut;ation Almanac shows that in women.'! 1991, only 36.8 percent of all Ph.D.s were Cole agreed. '1 think women are very being earned by women. In engineering, open to hiring other women. They know that figure is less than ten percent, and in that what is important is the quality of the physical sciences, less than;20:P ,ercent work done," she said. of all doctorates were being :a:¥.ic(rded to . ~ ~ -; ~ Ege, who authored the textbook used . . ' . Please See PageJV; ~ ;! • for organic chemistry at the U-M, said ,

profession, or funding sources. In terms of violence against women and children, women have a much different take on that. They connect to the issue. My pre~ntati.onstyle reflects that difference."

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November 11, 1992

THE MICHIGAN REVIEW

Music: Concert Preview

11

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Whigs to Hit the Pig by H. Rosa Muncher

Afghan Whigs came to Washington, D.C. last summer on the same weekend as Lollapalooza and U2. Yet in this political town during a political year, the band with a semi-p olitical name remained non-political. Frontman Greg Dulli strode on stage at the 9:30 Club at about 11 :00 p.m., wearing a black and white "Born Again Lesbian" button. Without mentioning anything about the elections or voting (thank goodness), he led his four-piece band through the best 90 minutes of rock music the Capitol had heard for months. This outfit from Cincinnati is often lumped together with the Seattle regulars, mostly because the group has released a pair of albums on the Sub-Pop independent label. The sound, however, comes much closer to something on the east coru,t fuzzcore. Afghan Whigs' walls of guitar noise owe a lot to Amherstbased Dinosaur, Jr.

This genre has come into its own of late, as the J. Mascis trademark begins to show its influence on many young bands, from Buffalo Tom to Swervedriver. And while Afghan Whigs fit rather comfortably into this category, they stand apart as probably the best able to craft a song . Congregation, which came out last spring, displays this ability again and again on tunes like the vampiric "I'm Her Slave," the vengeful "Conjure Me," and the rousing "Turn on the Water." Dulli's vocal style has prompted half a zillion comparisons to Paul Westerber and his grainy, . controlled rage. He doesn't share Westerberg's knack for aphorism, but his lyrics,

women. Asked what can or should be done about the glass ceiling; Goldenberg sug· gested, "More women need to be chosen for what are called 'line assignments:' chairs, deans, directors. We need for women to be chosen to show leadership skills; then they will develop their skills and be visible to assume even higher roles." Nordby similarly thought that women must begin to receive increased recognition for the work tRat they do. "I think it's important that we make a conscious effort to bring in highly talented women as consultants, visiting professors and guest lecturers," she said . Unfortunately, it is not always clear that academic institutions interested in achieving proportional gender representation in the workplace will, in the long

The Afghan Whigs

Expect a top-form live show. Dulli often banters with the crowd between songs, guitarist Rick McCollum shoegazes behind his draping hair, bassist John Curley bobs about a cramped stage, and drummer Steve Earle slams through each number. The Whigs will draw primarily from Congregation, but also pull a few gems from 1989's Up In It, like the marveloc3 "Retarded" and its catchy riff. See them at the Blind Pig on November 12, before a major label gets a clue, signs them to a sweet deal, and they become the next ex-Sub-Pop sensation. H. Ross Muncher is related to both H. Ross Perof and Crusty Muncher. He is weaseling money out of the former, as the latter is poor.

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UHS

Glass Ceiling Continued from Page 10

revolving around domination and betrayal, hold their own in the indie rock circuit. Best of all, they come with no pretensions attached.

run, be able to succeed in their endeavor. With relatively low numbers of women earning Ph.D.s and with a diminishing percentage of them going into academics as more are attracted to and employed in the private corporate world, it appears that America's colleges and universities may be pursuing unreachable goals. Because equality in society must be assessed on a society-wide basis and not merely by reference to certain professions, one might, in fact, find reason for optimism in universities' hiring plights. It may be the case that where the numbers of women are not increasirig in academia, they are gaining Significantly in other fields. Karen S. Brinkman is a senior in French, communication and fine arts. She is the publisher of the Review.

Continued from Page 1 ducts apprOximately 10,000 gynecological exams per year, which means well over fifty percent of the university's female population receives exams, according to Dr. Mulder. In addition to gynecology and other general medical services, UHS has nutri· tionists on staff to deal with women's eating concerns. For women who are excessively concerned with physical appearance, or for those who are concerned about developing any type of eating disorder, UHS offers a program entitled "(Too) Focused on Food." UHS refers students suffering from anorexia or bulimia to counseling services or Riverview, a psychiatric clinic in Ann Arbor, since UHS is not responSible for the mental health aspect of students. Other programs within Health Ser·

vices are coordinated with sororities and residence halls. This programming is planned using two guidelines - what UHS knows will work from previous experience and what services women's groups request that UHS provide. The variety of staff available to assist women includes women clinicians, General Practitioners, board certified internists, nurse practitioners, and physicians' assistants. ApprOximately 70 peer health advisors are also on hand to deal with alcohol or substance abuse problems, as well as safe sex and contraception issues. Any questions regarding UHS's ser· vices can be answered by dialing their information number, 764--8320. To schedule an appointment, call 764-8325. Beth Martin is a senior in English and a contributing editor of the Review. Karen Brinkman contributed to this article.

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THE MICHIGAN REVIEW

12

November 11, 1992

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Crusty's Corner

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White People Goin' Buck Wild by Crusty Muncher

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I'm hot a big techno/ dance fan, but I am kind of excited about the Communion Tour that makes a stop at Industry this Friday night. Meat Beat Manifesto and lntramarine are a part of the show and they are two of the most exciting groups in the genre. Manifesto, comprised of British musicians Jack Dangers and Johnny Stevens, have a new LP available entitled Satyriccm. A tour press release accurately dubs the group's music as a "bone crunching mutant white punk version of hip hop." The beats are always abrasive, but I could do without the artsy-Brit vocals. Ultramarine, on the other hand, are a mellow duo

programming soothing beats pleasing to any PM Dawn or Soul II Soul fan. UK dance faves Orbital are also on the bill... "It is exciting because things are taking off for us," says Down By Law vocalist/ guitarist Dave Smalley. "We are selling records so I'm too busy to go back to college. School was fun, but hopefully I'm done with all of that." As a memher both of Dag Nasty and All, two of the most popular West Coast sissycore (read: melodic poppunk) bands, Smailey finetuned his pipes and song writing talents while returning to college for

With the help of Ice Cube, Da Lench short spurts when he could find the time. He has finally sold his pencils and textMob have released an album entitled books, found the perfect band, and reGuerillas in tha Mist. The title track is the first single and the group is on tour with leased his best work to date, the new Down By Law album entitled Blue. the Beastie Boys and the Rollins Band. Smalley grew up on the early meGroup member J-Dee describes performing for mostly white audiences: "It's cool lodic British punk of bands like The Jam, Generation X, and and I'm happy The Clash, and is they like the muquite a Bob Mould sic. I'm glad I experienced the fan. Hence, the Lolapalooza tour record is a hybrid with Ice Cube beof the California cause I would sissy-core sounds have been of old (Descenshocked. I'd never dents, Dag Nasty) seen so many and the post-punk sounds of Minnewhite people go apolis (Hiisker Dil, buck wild like that Soul Asylum). in my life." Buy Blue today Crusty Muncher and go see Down cut and tied your By Law with Wool . . ht at St. Da Lench Mob. J-Dee,_,.,,,,. Shorty, and T-Bone umbilical cord. Fn'd ay rug ~Andrew's. It's only five bucks...

The Conservative Coalition Team. LS&A

Engineering

Timothy R. Morales Steven E. Hunt Jr. Tracy Robinson Kreg Nichols Brian Hunt Jacob Stern Mike Christie Jr. Ryan Boeskool

Brenton L. House Mark Biersack

Rackham

Medicine

Michael L. Fagg

Education Jeff Parker

Music Mattie Mierzejewski

Ie \e Ie

Working to eliminate the University Speech Code. Striving to make MSA fiscally responsible. Taking action to improve the quality of education.

Mike Lee

Vote NO on Speech Code and Fee Hike.

•• MSA Elections •• lues & Wed Nov 17·18

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