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The New Realm

In recent years, myriad computational technologies and theories has been applied to work with creative ideas to open a new chapter in the design field. Through explorations, they further branch into many unprecedented realms that produced innovative design solutions.

Yet beyond this, a computational approach to architecture enables the generation of the previously unseen. Forms that can longer be conceived of through traditional methods become possible. New realms open up. ————Michael Hansmeyer

This semester, we were asked to incorporate some avant-garde digital technologies to our design. Progresses in exploitation of these amazing computer generated design will be recorded in this journal and followed by exercises on utilizing latest design tools such as Rhino and its grasshopper plug-in. Furthermore, a design task of a gateway for Wyndham City was set out so that we can embrace the revolutionary design ideas better through actual practice. The objectives will be to keep improving our design skills based on previous 2 studios while coming to realization that architecture, as many of other areas in the design field, has came to the age of pioneering dominated by digital technologies.



Wyndham City Gateway Project Major Concerns interpreted from brief.

Case for Innovation Architecture as discourse - The Tower of Nests - Driftwood Pavilion - Land of Giants Reflection + Preliminary Expression of Interest Computational Architecture - Innovation in system - Innovation in process Scripting and Programming - Hyposurface



CUT. Experiments

Matrix. Input/Association/Output Further explorations Case Study - Spanish Pavilion Reflection on Case Study Developing ideas through model making

Preliminary Narrative

Preliminary Narrative Refining after Feedback More experiments



Gateway Project




As the Wyndham City Gateway Project will be the major project for this studio, the design brief, as a crucial key to a successful design, need to be understood well and analysized first. Therefore, the journal will start with the brief, requirements and expectations from the client will be extracted to gain a general understanding of the design and to set goals.


Requirements, Concerns and Goals

With the emerging parametric tide pushing design into the new era, advanced technology and ways of thinking will be incroporated into the project for Wyndham City, aiming to add highlights to local community upon meeting its requirements from given brief.

According to the brief, Wyndham city needs better living condition and aesthetic streetscapes, more open spaces and parks. A harmony between natural environment and human activity need to be maintained while applying modern concept. The design needs to work with local history and culture, creating a sense of pride to express Wyndham City’s value seen in the past and future.

Location and raised concerns - On urban growth boundary where residential and commercial meets undeveloped plain - Sense of arrival, fresh experience Design Concerns and Requirements: - Exciting and eye-catching - Inspiring and enriches the manicipality - Longerity, survive the first glance - Need significant impact, iconic feature - Dialogue between the design and its landscape - Work with speed, passing motorists


Architecture is after all a form of art that speaks a language, to communicate and to serve its targeted audiences. To understand the high appreciation of architecture as discourse, research of successful precedents will be conducted. By looking into how they deliver ideas through design method, hopefully, some of their clever ideologies could give inspiration and be further developed in the Gateway Project.

The Tower of Nests

Towards the Future Metropolis.

ARCHITRCTURE AS A DISCOURSE The Tower of Nests is a conceptual future project of a high-rise structure designed as a habitat for human, birds, insects and wildlife in Shanghai. Regarding environmental issues, this project contributes a new vision in urban architecture to achieve the balance between industrial development and the nature. In order to build a better society, the designers promote sustainability and harmony with nature.

‘We need to learn how to coexist with nature. We propose a building that aims to become a symbol; not of power nor wealth, but of a new era of harmony and interplay between nature and mankind.’ In this sense, the tower is not only a built environmental factor but also a language call on the responsibility in maintaining the natural environment as human and animals are brought closer and the contact becomes richer than ever. In this sense, this tower contains a greater value in rooting a sustainable future.

The Driftwood Pavilion The impending digital tide.

Driftwood Pavilion is a project that used parametric technology to create a piece of architectural language to make connection with the audiences, to communicate. Through a computer-generated script, the movement of lines was generated in a continuous parallel fashion, creating line drawings which formed the basis of a plan. Designer’s interests revolved around carving, eroding and layering. By such manipulation, a sense of movement is celebrated which gives the structure a living atmosphere. According to William’s article again, such design is becoming a form of art which everyone has their own intepretation. Placed in a public square, while some might find it out of place, some others like me, might perceive the beauty of flowing lines, some can feel sentimental connections to its conceptual links to driftwood and the sea and people who is interested in structures ans spatial arrangement might praise its deeply sculpted form.

Also, thinking about its construction, such smooth lines and complex structure are attained thanks to digital technology. Therefore, the scultural pavilion also spell a new future of fabrication. Referring to Architecture and Visual Culture, communication are needed not only for stakeholders but also for the builders. And through the exploration of innovation on construction, robots are designed to take script of the design and then produce the structure. Such advanced technology used is also to communicate the idea of a digital future.

Land Of Giants

Intelligent Monuments.

The Land of Giants is an award-winning unbuilt project located in Iceland. It is a very smart design, making only minor alterations to existing steel-framed electricity towers, the pylons are then tunred into a humanoid shaped sculpture soaring into the sky. Symbolizing a cultural and humanist value, the pylons are again signs expressing mankind creativity and intellegence. The designers sucessfully elaborated the brilliant idea of turning infrastructure on modern landscape perceived intrusive to art pieces that are functional and at the mean time, aesthetically pleasing. More than that, the pylons can configure to respond to their environment with appropriate gestures. When the carried electrical lines ascend a hill, the pylon-figures change posture, imitating a climbing person which cleverly in a way project moods fitting with their surrounding. The dialogue between the design and its landscape is, in this project, very well stretched out. ‘These iconic pylon-figures will become monuments in the landscape. Seeing the pylon-figures will become an unforgettable experience, elevating the towers to something more than merely a functional design of necessity.’


The Tower of Nests Setting aside the question on whether the tower can be built and will it actually work or not, this concept is very innovative as a architectural project and even more profound as a discourse. And the promoted idea of interplay with nature is exactly what I was looking forward to do in the Wyndham City Gateway project. Since Wyndham city has such a rich history and territories of natural attractions. In this sense, I am looking for a integration or compromise between the new-borned digital star in the thriving industrial world and our Mother Nature’s warm embraces. Moreover, The Tower of Nests was proposed with a skin constructed with natural materials such as wicker, straw clay and stone. Tracing back to early life on earth before human was even born, birds and insects were natural’s architects, therefore, the use of earth material and the concept of imitating structure from nature may be very appealing.

Driftwood Pavilion Sense of movement, celebrated in the Driftwood Pavilion, is one of the key concepts that digital design brings by introducing the smooth flowing lines and surfaces. (Kolarevic) These continuous flowing lines together with the sense of movement are highly appreciated by the audiences, in this case, as they deliver an emotional impact. Evoking emotions is an important connection to make for a successful design with its audience, such approach will be very much effective in the Gateway Project since it needs to be a iconic feature that delivers significant impacts. Also, the sense of movement is very appealing for the motorists moving

Land of Giants Similiar smart design method used in Land of Gianta that alters existing element on site into an affective visual feature was also applied on the ‘House in the Sky‘ project in Werribee region. Inspection on possible resources for alteration located on Gateway site will be included during further design process. As quoted earlier, driving past such design as Land of Giants will be a unforgettable experience, a fun and vibrant experiencial atmosphere will be an essential core in my Gateway design in order to enrich local community and its manicipality. To briefly conclude, general goals set in this phase is to create a fun and experiencial structure that is able to interact and make connections with audiences; to bring laughters, a good mood or even a minor smile that add to its social value; to bring closer nature and promote the harmony; to celebrate the sense of movement.


The rising revolutionary digital forces brought amazing innovations in both design system and process. These innovative thinking and methods will be discovered that might direct some influences on how we approach the Gateway Project design. Following that, the Hyposurface project that expresses contenporary scripting and computer programming culture will be looked into details. Again, it aims to reflect how modern techonologies enable numerous possibilities and brilliant creativities.


In general, enabled by the use of computational programming, the design process are much more flexible than drafting by hand, simply by pulling some control bars, adjustment can always be made also following a very logical order that computer generates. Also during the design process, information can be easily extract or exchange according to designer’s needs. (Kolarevic) New perception towards architecture has been pointed out by architects such as Manuel de Landa, similiar to Michael Hansmeyer’s idea taken from nature, architecture aid by computational technology is now conceptualized as an open living system which has its bones and skins, which grows to adapt to the environment. Like the growth of a child, the bones develop together with the skin to make sure it functions the best. Then it comes to my personal interpretation, with the powerful computational technology, parametric architecture is shifting the idea of each design into a living cell.


Computational, digital architectures are defined by computationally-based processes of form origination and transformations, i.e. processes that emphasize logics of the underlying computational concepts such as isomorphic polysurfaces and motion kinematics. —— Kolarevic As a living organism, motion is highlighted in many modern projects such as Greg Lynn’s roof for a bus terminal with its form imitating its surrounding traffic and pedestrians’ movement through a series of data generated to therefore respond to its environment.

Fermid Breathing Light As another mean of applying kinematic movements, Fermid light was designed mimicking the breathing movement of a living organism. Natural inhaling and exhaling movement is controlled by a device underneath, applying external forces to the curled white skin. With no bloby shape and complicated geometry, a skeleton with advanced technology is decorated with texture produced through parametric thinking. The light, however, seems to lack a sense of richness comparing to similiar stunning kinematic designs. But after all, the approach of bring closer the animal kingdom is, as always, fascinating. This can be utilized into the design for the Gateway as a highlight.



‘The design information is the construction information.’ The digital application may further lead to a transformation of the professions and even building industry. A digital continuum from design to production.

Architects had never made buildings. In the past, architects were only meant to produce drawings and drafts. However, nowdays modelling on computers becomes the major focus as another big innovation during an architectural process. By modeling not only the form but the relationships of various factors within a building, these models go beyond static representations and are able to change dynamically to accommodate ongoing changes in the design. Also challenging the role of engineers and builders, design and buildings now can be easily produced following fabrication instructions. In this sense, a digital model provided by designers can lead straight to the actual production.

The structure is a computer generated form with detailed information such as joints, angles, spaces. Designers then literally become the engineer and the The Collaborative Cloud Projectbuilder.

Furthermore, in projects such as the Collaborative Cloud, located in Colorado where houses some highest activity wind corridors. Such information were suppose to be taken by architects as constraints during the developing process. However, with the computational technology, wind data were measured and programmed to be one of the design forces through stimulation. Therefore, wind became the medium for the project which drives design decisions. The process of developing a design to respond to its specific context can now work backwards which makes it work better within that environment. Challenging Kalay’s idea of design are to solve problems, in this case, given context is to solve design problems. Whereas in our Gateway Project, possibility and potential solutions given by the context should be taken into the design process as the Wyndham City has abundant natural resources for innovation.


HYPOSURFACE Hyposurface is a scripted display screen with an elastic architectural surface made up of small metal plates that are controlled by the digital device behind. Enabled by the radical media technology, the plates can move following certain electronic stimuli programmed from inputs such as sound, light and other external forces. R eacting to these inputs, the surface then produce dynamic outputs, similiar to the grasshopper scripting logic we are experiencing. Governed by information, hyposurface is somewhat like a precisely controlled liquid, being able to produce pliable surfaces such as moving waves patterns and even text emerge,

The design intend was to create an eye-catching display system. I believe what makes Hyposurface stand out is the interactivity it offers with its audience. Unique experience of ‘playing with‘ the screen is then a valuable outcome of creator’s free will of designing attained by scripting as discussed in Mark Burry’s article. I personally think the sense of freedom emerged in this project for both designer and user is the future for contemporary architecture. Also, as a project that can physically alter the environment, this interactive surface offers new possibilities for creating responsive environments.

Imaginemyselfplayingwiththisliving surface,Iperceiveitsgeneralsuccess inprovidingafunexperiencetriggering bothaudiences’visualandtactilesense, togetherwiththeatmosphereenriched by the play of colour and light. Regarding the complex machinary device behind the surface, most of the audiences appreciate it due to curiosity. Especially when the device is programmed to allow customerized movement appealing to individual interest. In this sense, hyposurface is alble to deliver advanced technology to the public by making engagement and interactions.

On the other hand, I find the surface a bit ‘cold’ in terms of its material. The cold metal always gives less of the emotions and more of a distance together with the sharp edged geometries. But it somewhat depends on its context, as stated by the designers, this project is expected to be used in commercial purposed occasions which is very appropriate. However, in the Wyndham City Gateway Project, modern but cold materials and mass machinary governed design is less of my interest as it will not connect to the natural landscape.


After being overwhelmed by all the fascinating precedents, certain inputs, associations and outputs were given for us to make our own combinations of matrix by using the Grasshopper plug-in on Rhino. Knowingitworksasyouprovideaninputandconnectitwitha particularassociationandthenitgeneratesaconsequentialoutput, ourtaskwastoplaywiththecomponentsandunderstandhowthey workinordertogetfaimilarwiththesystem.Bycrossmatching components,someleadtonothingorevenfailurewhereassome leadtointerestingdiscoveries.Andoutoftheonesthatturned outwell,patternsaretobeidentifiedandfurther,tobemodified incorporatingknowledgegainedinonlinetutorialsinorderto



INPUT Explicit Grids Surface Grids

ASSOCIATION Image Sampler Curve Attractor Attractor Point


Byrotating,softtexturescanbeachievedwithatrendofmotion.Poetic effect, like the surface of a lake wri-

Waves, tide, cloud. Romantic, natural and soft texture.

Explicit Grid + Image Sampler + Rotate Sense of moving away.

Morie Pattern, visual effects

INPUT Explicit Grids Surface Grids Arbitrary Points

ASSOCIATION Image Sample Attractor Point

OUTPUT Rotate/Extrude

Byextruding,threedimensionalpatternsandeffectsaremadepossible. Play on the angle, when audiencesmoving,differentviewon differentangletillreachtoacertainpointwhereaclearbulgedi-

Sound waves, wind, natural forces.

Patterns as apertures, play with light and shadow.

Playwithpatternsasapertureson thesurface,hollow,elevated(extrude), levels, sizes, shapes, layout.

INPUT Surface Normals Explicit Grids

ASSOCIATION Image Sample Random

OUTPUT Rotate/Extrude

Textures and patterns attached on the surface, which gives more variety since the NURBS surface can be altered with countless possibilities. With surface normal, twisted shapes with smooth surface can better convey the idea of motion. Concept of skeleton and skin.


NEXT How parametric tools such as Grasshopper are used in actual architectural project, and how matrix patterms are applied to add excitement to designs will be explored in the Case study of the Spanish Pavilion. Also, other aspects that make the pavilion successful will be analysized.

Case Study:

Spanish Pavilion

The Spanish Pavilion in 2005 Japan World Expo was designed by Foreign Office Architects, linking Spanish historical legacy with a vision of the future. The pavilion was enveloped with decorative lattices and traceries. The lattice consisted of six different tiles, based in a hexagonal grid, coded with a colour. The specificity of these pieces is that when they are assembled, they never repeat themselves, thus producing a continuously varying pattern of geometry and colour.

The blocks are made of glazed ceramic, a customary technique common on the Mediterranean Spanish coast, but also in traditional Japanese ceramics. The idea of creating a ceramic facade symbolizes the spanish approach to Japan. Recovery of the traditional ceramic lattice from Meditteranean architecture in order to acheive traditional spaces and shadow in the building perimter help in regulating the solar gains and spread of thermal load over the pavilion.

Solid ceramic Hollowed aperture

To reproduce the facade, simply by starting with a hexagonal grid, place number sliders to set the desired number of columns and rows, then noticed on one facade shown in the picture, some of the hexagons are solid tile and some are hollowed, by offseting the hexagons, smaller hexagons will appear to make the hollowed effect. But the offseting command applied to all the hexagons in the grid, in order to only make certain hexagons get that effect, i used list item command learned from EX-LAB tutorials to find specific hexagons that i want to offset. I didn’t really find a pattern in placing the hollowed ones, nor was anything mentioned in its documents, so I just picked random ones to offset. The method of creating apertures on the pattern grid is interesting. It gives more visual variation by contrasting with surrounding solid tiles and it adds a special texture to the surface. Besides, they also have practical uses letting sunshine and lights in, basically functions as small windows. Also the use of light colours and its expression of culture values are inspirational for the Gateway Project when choosing materials.


Based on the key words collected earlier for the Gateway Design, namely nature, sense of movement, fresh experience etc. Following are the three models made out of the three ideas stood out in the brainstrom stage of my deign, aimed to produce a structure that interact with natrual surrounding and emphasize the sense of movement to be fun and engage with its users

Model 01 Birds’ Windows

Apertures opened up to different degrees that create variations, also decorate the surface as patterns.

Model 02 Bloom

A lively metaphor of the blooming process of flowers, apertures applied to play with light.

Three dimensional surface that folds in and bulge out, move as eyes follow its pattern and texture.

Model 03 Breathe




Phase 3: Scripting Architecture


Phase 3: Case

As I perceived, achieving both environmental and social values will be the core to the Gateway Project. The environmental values will be embodied in the idea of bring closer nature by incroporating natural elements or even natural wildlife into the design. The social value will be reflected upon aims to provide playful fun experience when driving past, to light up the mood and a vibrant environment. Then parametric thinking will be applied to develop the major design theme——Motion. A structure that responds to wind force on site with unique effects will be explored further.




Taken a good lesson from tutors’ feedback, I realized the interest in producing a kinetic structure that interacts with wind forces may involve sophisticated data analysis and calculation. Technical difficulties and complexity were underestimated by mistake, while busy getting overwhelmed by all those avant-garde precedents, producing a practical and buildable design for Wyndham City should be top priority. Therefore, preliminary concept will be refined and more practical approach will be explored in further developing process. After discussion with my group members, the exploration of sense of motion will still go on, but we will focus on expressing it through shapes or surface textures. Ideas from precedents such as Greg Lynn’s roof design for the bus terminal in New York which embraces motion in its curvilinear steel frame and the case study which cleverly provides viriation and mode of change through its pattern layout will be taken further.

NEXT The focus of producing a sense of movement will be shifted from a three dimensional fashion to a two dimensional one by creating visual illusion and impact. So the structure can be simple and a static one but decorated with patterns or spatially arranged in a way to produce a visual impact. The following will be exploration on visually effective patterns.

Pattern overlay So I go back to the case study to seek for more inspirations and potentials that I neglected before. When moving the hexagonal grid in photoshop that I exported from Rhino, I accidently moved the grid on one layer that create a series of overlaid pattern change with the grid on the layer below which is very interesting, similar to the Moire Pattern effect that tutor mentioned in feedback.

Effect of pulling the hexagonal grid horizontally.

Effectofrotatingthehexagonalgridabovewhichismoreinteresting.However,itmight notbeseenbymotoristsonthehighwaysincetheyaremovinginahorizontaldirection.

Moire Pattern

Then taking ideas explored from CUT pattern experiments, a hexagonal grid layer was combined with a circle matrix grid and circles near the center of hexagons are set bigger than the others so when view in front it has a spherical effect. Therefore, again, applying Kalay’s searching approach, effect of overlaying various geometries will be examined later. When two similar, repetitive, grid-like patterns of lines, circles, or arrays of dots overlap with imperfect alignment on a screen, a pattern of light and dark lines appears. This is called a moiré pattern. In some cases, moiré patterns can also be created when two or more different geometrically regular patterns are superimposed. It can be composed of multiple colours and be either continually changing or still. It is, however not a physical pattern etched in the original structures but rather an optical illusion created in the vision of the viewer. From Amidror’s “Preface” in The Theroy of the Moire Phenomenon.

Precedent 1

Brisbane Girl’s Grammar School During research, I found Moire Pattern a challenging but interesting one, then I started to look for relative precedents. Brisbane Girl’s Grammar School was one of them. The Façade of this building is an series of arranged aluminum slats overlaying a wall painted with a series of black and white stripes, arranged to create a Moire effect. In this case, Moire pattern was created as a coating for the building to produce an expressive and interactive outlook which respondes and changes when people walk past. In the Gateway Project, similar performative approach can be taken to interact with the motorists driving past.

Precedent 2

This is a lighting device project that used moire pattern as a interesting highlight. The particualr pattern, as most of the moire effect, was comprised of two same components (mirrored pattern could achieve the same result). By rotating the pattern, it turns out to have a dizzy and 3D illusion. In my earlier design ideas, I thought about making a structure that performs like a windmill react to wind force. However, in this case, the light is supported by electricity and a photoresistor that

respond to lights. As illustrated above, the top layer spins around under the forces, creating a swirling effect with the bottom layer. Due to our Gateway project is on a much larger scale, such approach will be inappropriate. But the swirling effect and the delusion are very interesting, and our group took it further into the Gateway design inspiration.

We found the swirling effect fascinating, it was able to create a mysterious, exciting and dynamic atmosphere and most importantly, it has a spatial delusion producing a three dimensional experience out of a two dimensional image.


Through early research and photos and drawings on LMS, information about the site was generally well understood. The following will be a general conclusion of information that are relative to our design. Also, by listing out useful links, we wish to seek more ideas that could add highlights to our design.

Wyndham Marine Harbour, Sensory Gardens, Werribee Zoo, Wyndham Art Gallery. KEY POINTS: nature, culture, freedom

According to the statistics, the Average Annual Daily Traffic volume on the part of Princes Hwy where our site sits amount to approximately 42,000, including approx. 10% heavy vehicles and 90% light traffic. Since most of the light traffic are local residents and visitors, we aim to make our design simple and easy to appreciate for the public. au/Home/

Conceptual Illustrastion KEY POINT: TRANSITION Since the site is located at where developed city meets intact natural land, we want to emphasize the idea of transition.

As illustrated above, our design aims to play a role that transit people coming from the busy city to the arms of nature. Combing with the magical swirling effect mentioned earlier, we came up with an idea that went dramatic: like the magical 9 3/4 train platform in Harry Potter and more like the idea of how Alice fell into the rabbit hole and traveled to wonderland, we want to create a experiential tunnel that gives the transition of place and mood. This sense of changes could also emphasize Wyndham’s growth and development. And the mysterious quality of the tunnel will also be a metaphor of opening up towards the future, towards the prosperity of Wyndham City. To meet the aesthetic requirement, the shape of the tunnel will be developed into an interesting and outstanding one. Moire pattern will be utilized as the skin of the tunnel to create illusional effect to add more excitement and magical charm to the tunnel. Also, in order to respond to the motorists, the pattern will perform a speedy effect. moving with the people drive by.



In this sense, our design will be comprised of two main focuses, one is to develop a form for the tunnel and the other one is to play with its skin——Moire Pattern and see what visual effect can we achieve. In our design process, these two tasks were carried out at the sam time. The following will be the development of form and pattern.



Soft Material: Stocking, Fruit Net, Ribbon, Hard Material: Plastic Grid, Iron Wire Grid Rubbish Bin Made Out Of Metal Net

The grid-like materials are in different density and quality, the soft materials are in different thickness and texture in order to test out their ability of producing moire pattern.

Meanwhile, taking on the flow lines used in Wyndham City’s logo, and Borrowing the brilliant ideas of twisting and rotating effect that was used a lot in the Matrix exploration, we aim to let the shape express the sense of change and movement. At the other end, the grid material from physical experiment gave inspiration of making expressive pieces out of squares. And then, when the former idea met the latter, we came up with a twistGrid ing square framing structure.




Form Description


‘FRAME’ was the first model we made in Rhino, however, it turns out to be too short since after calculation, under Princes Hwy’s speed limit, motorists will be inside the tunnel for less than 1 second. Since Moire can give dizzy feelings, we aim to keep the time in the tunnel around 3 seconds due to safety concerns. 3 seconds might seem a bit too short but it is long enough to undertake a shock of the exciting moire effect. In order to produce moire pattern, an outer layer was added to work with the inner one.
















Site Plan

We decided to place the tunnel near the intersection between Princes Highway and Geelong Road Exit, so that it plays its magic transiting people coming from the Melbourne city to the Wyndham City and then if they return to Melbourne, they could view the outlook. Also, Caltex Service Center is not far away and from this angle, the tunnel can be seen there but not a clear whole version which might set off their curiosity.

Material In one of the case studies——De Young Museum, copper was cleverly used as the skin of the building that changes through time due to weathering. We found the approach very subtle and brilliant, we have been looking forward to borrow this idea to our design. The change of colour not only can emphasize the theme of growth but also motion and movement. In addition, since our client requires a piece that survive the first glance, this change can then give a different experience once in a while. Then we decided to use copper on the outer layer so that motorists on the adjacent lane will also be able to see it, and stainless steel on the inner one.


Spatial pattern as ornament for buildings is becoming a popular trend in the deisgn field led by OMA, Zaha Hadid etc precursors. Enabled by digital technology, patterns and ornamentation are reorienting towards a more conceptual , dynamic, intangible effects and types to enhance culture, social, environmental performance in a signle pattern design system. The ultimate goal might be hard to reach now, but in this Gateway Design, the moire pattern, as an ornamental element, aims to perform also as an expression. The following will be the development of the moire pattern skin.

Experiment By folding the grid and opening it up into different angles to see how was the moire pattern affected. The bigger the angle, the denser the grid-like pattern

By folding the grid and moving the top layer against the bottom one to see how was the moire pattern affected. The bigger the angle it rotates, the denser the grids.

EFFECT: GRID, ARRAYS, CURVES By rotating one square over another or having a smaller square inside another, both of them can produce grid-like pattern, curves occur at where lines intersect

We surprisingly found when we leave a single layer of grid on the table, itself can produce a moire effect.

By folding the grid and applying forces on different points, we found that generally, curve patterns center around the point where force is applied.(where two layers are the closest on the tunnel)


Stocking obtain pretty good quality producing moire pattern, there is a possibility of choosing soft membrane as the skin of the tunnel, but it might be more appropriate for art piece at a smaller scale.


It was found that the ribbon performs better under lights, but it has extremely dense woven texture

Soft Net

Fruit net and such soft and loose materials performs the worst out of all, no evidence of moire pattern can be observed, not even under light.

Materials in different colours were also prepared for the experiment, however, we have already decided to use copper, and its colour will change through time. At the other end, our group member discovered a straight line moire effect out of unexpected projection modeling on computer program as below:


Wyndham City, located in the state of Victoria, is looking for a successful design solution to be applied to the Western Interchange. A fast-growing municipality, Wyndham is in need of a display that will reflect this as well as their ideal of change, progress and prosperity. Our proposal successfully envelops all these concepts of movement in space and time in a provocative playfulness where light and form combine to illustrate the city’s intention. Two geometric overlapping elements are placed on the street to create a tunnel, which when crossed, will bring as a result a fantastic change of perspective. As the cars enter the city, the tunnel works as a vortex that will create the illusion of fast-paced change and the patterns created by the perforated surfaces and light will further accentuate the city’s view of the future. Wyndham is addressing the issue of their image by insisting on installations that will be ground-breaking and representative of what they ultimately aspire to become: a city that lives in the latest, most innovative ways. Our proposal creates and reflects this investment in tomorrow’s city, enhancing the surrounding environment and turning a regular freeway into an eye-catching monument, a symbol of the city and its progressive identity. The ‘tunnel name’ will indeed become a part of Wyndham, conveying its desire of moving forward in time and becoming a new and pioneering entity.


EAST ELEVATION On the top surface of the tunnel, the Moire Effect will be a expanding grid which emphasize the expansion of space; the experience of escaping and seeking freedom; transition from narrow city streets to wild natural land; opening up arms to embrace beautiful nature. KEY POINTS: nature,relief,embrace,openingup WEST ELEVATION expanding, transition

On the side surface of the tunnel, the two layers will produce a rotating straight line effect. Like in Mario’s Racing Game, the rotation of the straight line will be like pulling the gear stick that send you to the acceleration zone. This can create a sense of movement and speed as if the tunnel is magical and in motion. The illusion could further enhance the motion and speed theme in concept. KEY POINTS: speed, magic, movement, fun, illusion




MODEL The Magical Tunnel



Constuction Details



iv el D

Pan e t ima

x pro Ap


Panels: - Measurements: 2.5x2.5x.1 m but can vary depending on tunnel necessities - Installation: they will be held together by a clasp system set up on the frames where nails perforate the panel and will be hung from horizontal frames. - Panels will be cut to adapt to tunnel structure Frames: - Material: stainless steel - Installation: each individual frame will be connected to the others by a long horizontal frame on top, from which panels will be able to hang as well. - Frames will be anchored to the ground by means of a foundation held on a concrete footing.


LACK OF EXPERIMENT AND CONFIRMATION From tutors’ feedback, we realized our experiment method needs to be improved. Photos taken on the day when we did the physical experiment on Moire Pattern shown a single piece of plastic grid could produce Moire effect by itself. However, we did not consider the possibility that this can be a off-chance result influenced by external factors such as lights. Experiment on such intricate design element need to be done repititively to then come to a reliable conclusion. PRACTICALITY As the tutors pointed out, some aspects about our design might not be practical in real life. Details we left out might not seem to be such big a deal in simulative design project, but in ones in real life, there will be much more to consider and improve.



To be honest, I was not a big fan of any digital technology at all and I swore I’d withdraw the subject if it isn’t compulsory, but now I’m glad that it is and I learned so much. I am truly grateful for the enlightenment from tutors and lecturers. Digital technologies weren’t introduced, not even mentioned much in the previous two studios. To look back now, it was like walking on rough ground till Studio Air, we started climbing moutains. Through weeks of struggling, I gained skills in building model in Rhino and creating simple design piece in grasshopper. To me, the best part is to be finally educated by amazing pieces and numerous possibilities that were achieved and could only be achieved by digital technology. During the research on parametric precedents, many of the avant-garde concepts and ideas completely changed my understanding of architecture. The scientific and logical approach seems challenging but very exciting at the same time; revolutionary concept of architecture as living organism brings both buildings and fantasies to live; some unexpected and unprecedented design achieved by new technology seems to say with creativity and wisdom, anything can turn magical.



Given the chance of marrying all these fresh knowledge to our own design, I was actually a bit lost in the beginning, busy getting all so overwhelmed, leaving basic things I learned from the other two studios behind. Then it came to realization that the essence of design still remain the same, more advanced tools are to assist better designs. So later in the Gateway project, me and my group member were able to put a positive circle between these new knowledge and the actual project, that is to let a good proposal lead the digital charm and then use it to push the design onto another level. Also during the design process, I found the unexpected results brought by computation generated design intrigging. It’s like a huge cosmos, full of uncertainty that you need to keep digging and exploring, and that is a very good spirit to have. Last but not least, the fabricating section where I used lacer cutting machine for the first time was an excellent experience, learned handling a model in a very different way.




REFERENCE: Department of Infrastructure (DoI) 2002, Assessment of the Victorian Freight Task, prepared by Maunsell Australia in association with National Institute for Economic and Industry Research, DOI, Victoria. Davidson, Michael W. and Kirill I. Tchourioukanov. “Moire Patterns.�


Studio Air  

Journal final

Studio Air  

Journal final