Page 1


CONTENT PREFACE

07

MANIFESTO

09

INTRODUCTION

13

FOOD, ARCHITECTURE & US:

15

19 24 28

SOCIAL FOOD

FOOD ORGANIZATIONS & FOOD STORES. FOOD EVENTS & MOVEMENTS. FOOD POLICIES.

ANTIDOTE:

THE CITY’S ANTIDOTE FOR FOOD SURPLUS

ARCHITECTURAL CONCEPT & IDEOLOGY.

SECONDHAND:

CANDLERIGGS QUARTER

SITE ANALYSIS SITE HISTORY

PHASE 01.

33

36

41 42 46

SITE STRATEGIES

50

THE DEPOSITORY

60

MASSING SPATIAL SEQUENCE: ARRIVAL, SORTING & STORAGE & WASTE MANAGEMENT. FOOD HALL. EATERIES. SEATING ARRANGEMENTS. ATELIER/WORKSPACE. FOODSCAPE.

76 88 94 96 104

THE DIVISION

112

PHASE 02.

128

64 66 68

CONCLUSION

139

REFERENCE

142

APPENDIX

147


PREFACE

The exploration of this thesis began from an environmental concern regarding carbon footprint in the food mile of today’s post production and its distribution system. It is not the inefficiency of food produced but its methods of distribution in order to meet demands had resulted in an alarming food waste statistics. Research prior to this proposal, the ultimate question was: “Do we know where our food comes from?”. In attempts to familiarize with reasons that causes food waste, analysis were done about a diversity of food cultures, historical evidence of the way we eat and feasibility studies on food spaces from a domestic kitchens, commercial market places, to industrialized food processing factories that led us chronologically to this problem of massive food surplus. It is obvious that our 21st century pattern of living had changed the way we eat. By understanding the relationship between food, architecture and us, we are able to tap into local efforts that would impact on a global scale through the focus of food surplus. Hence,

SECONDHAND: What could we do with post produced food that would otherwise go to waste? This project sets in the context of Glasgow city in urban relevance to socio-cultural behavioral patterns toward convenient food available. A handful of citizens are aware of the current issue and are pushing efforts positively to intercept food through the celebration of surplus rather than disregarding them as waste. The aims is to provide a place for such advocation through the reevaluation of over production. Of which, SECONDHAND FOOD is food surplus intercepted.

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FOOD;

VISCERAL ASPECT FOR SURVIVAL.

THE ACT OF EATING; A VOICE FOR SOVEREIGNTY.

SECONDHAND;

THE CITY’S ANTIDOTE FOR FOOD SURPLUS.

EXISTENCE;

NON-EXISTENCE WITHOUT FOOD SURPLUS.

ALL ACCESS;

REMOVING SOCIAL EXCLUSION. Spoil by choices, how do we relate to the consequences of over produced food outside our first world bubble? The fact that we live in the comfort of affordable and accessible food had disengaged us with global crisis such as 1/3 of the food produced goes to waste. The absurdity to meet supermarket’s cosmetic standards of aesthetic produce had contributed to food waste, causing producers to throw away perfectly edible food. In a justified comparison, 1/9 people goes to bed hungry every night. This phenomena of unsustainable eating had exacerbated the degradation of the environment, both natural and built, resulting in climate change and more. Food sovereignty is the demand to acknowledge and validate the food mile contributed to our environment. In order to take control and make changes to reduce food waste through the interception of food surplus; edible food that would otherwise go to waste. SECONDHAND is proposed as a place within the context of the city as an antidote to address common food issues dealt by city dwellers. The fundamental notion of SECONDHAND is its aim to cease in existence, as long as the issue of food surplus can be resolved. Food shapes our city, so does the society and architecture plays the role to design for both. Through collaborative efforts and awareness in education, SECONDHAND aims to remove social exclusion when it comes to food, simply because everybody eats. Whether an organic food market for the elites on the weekends, or a meal savaged from food banks in food shelters, this is a thesis about food surplus in contribution to a societal shift through architecture in an urban context.

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INTRODUCTION

The challenge of this project is to propose an architectural intervention for the awareness of food waste through food surplus, metaphorically saving food that is still edible but past its best before date. It is a first world dilemma of cheap and affordable food that gave us a free pass to omit a mindful mentality of food production, but more importantly its impact on social and environment health through the culture that we build. What the role of architecture can contribute in bringing like-minded people through collaborative efforts in approach of this issue. What happened to the good old days where a marketplace was the center of the city and also the hearts of the people? Just like the ancient Greek Agora, a designated open place for assembly. Numerous tented stalls formed a marketplace, where merchants traded and craftsmen sold goods. A place to exchange knowledge and food clearly defined the Agora; social life in the market. The recovery of SECONDHAND food focuses on contextualizing and creating a destination based on macro and micro levels of feasibility. Transformable spaces and modularity; adaptability of possible scaled down versions for mobility- in order to cover a wider area. The ideology to recover; heal, FOOD- in the context of Glasgow city ignited the idea for a place as an antidote for food surplus. Application of food spaces such as layout of kitchen amenities for best efficiency, open plan market halls, supermarket display arrangements for visual attraction and the consideration of a space that invites mobile food vendors and pop up food events through activists are a few of the main intentions to recreate a place for SECONDHAND food. In conjunction with the events of various food waste policies and its recent updates, set a guidelines for community based participation and involvement in a shared space, creating social life through grassroots activities that encourages the usage of food surplus to be intercepted and redistributed. As a results, a new typology that aims to enhance the urban fabric of the city through the reevaluation of SECONDHAND food and to revitalize the mental health of its community, through the celebration of food.

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01| FOOD IDENTITY

02| FOOD MAP

ILLUSTRATION: OKAYAMA GO GO GOURMET CORPS

ILLUSTRATION: ‘LONDON FOOD ESSENTIALS’ BY LIVI GOSLING

16


03| DINE IN

04| EAT OUT

ILLUSTRATION: ‘BROOKLYN’ BY ADRAIN TOMINE

ILLUSTRATION: ‘MURAKAMI’ BY HARRIET LEE-MERRION

17


18


SOCIAL FOOD

FOOD ORGANIZATIONS AND FOOD STORES.

The key people through non-profit organizations throughout the UK and a few of its international affiliations in contributing to the greater cause of dealing with food surplus and waste by various interception methods. These organizations are aware of the environmental degradation caused by the over production of food. Thus, attempting to make changes through local acts, promoting grassroots activities for communities, subtly raising awareness through the way we eat. These organizations take form in a diverse range, from brewers that uses breadcrumbs that would otherwise been tossed, turning them into locally produced ale and beer; mobile application that connects people with exchanging of extra food lying around their pantries, and even eateries that goes by a “pay as you feel” policy when turning surplus food into meals for everyone without social stigma. All this in the hopes of making a point that food surplus are still edible, and we should make the ethical connection before feeding bins. FOOD ORGANIZATIONS, UK I. THE REAL JUNK FOOD PROJECT II. OLIO III. FARESHARE IV. THE TRUSSELL TRUST V. GROCYCLE VI. TOAST ALE FOOD EVENTS & MOVEMENTS I. GLASGOW RESTAURANT FESTIVAL, UNITED KINGDOM. II. FEEDING THE PLANET, ENERGY FOR LIFE! MILAN EXPO 2015, ITALY. III. SLOW FOOD MOVEMENT, INTERNATIONAL.. IV. ACROSANTI, PHOENIX, USA. FOOD POLICIES I. FRANCE SUPERMARKET BANNED FOOD WASTE

INGLORIOUS FRUITS & VEG

TESCO FOOD WASTE RECYCLING

II.

UNITED KINGDOM

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FOOD ORGANIZATIONS UNITED KINGDOM.

THE REAL JUNK FOOD PROJECT

“We believe that this has to stop, and it needs to happen in our lifetime, to ensure the next generation do not suffer from our ignorance.” -ADAM SMITH,

co-founder of The Real Junk Food Project.

Pioneered by ADAM SMITH and co-director JOHANNA HEWITT, much they wish to contribute for their meals, the idea is to get the Leeds, UK, witnessed the scale of commercial food waste while society thinking about how they value food as a resource. working as chefs in Australia. Decided to make a change for this FEED BELLIES NOT BINS. absurdity of waste into feeding those in need. He realized that in order to make global environmental impacts, he first need to start from his hometown. Hence, returning home to Leeds, and starting up The first Real Junk Food Project. The goal is to reduce edible waste through the interception of food from supermarkets, restaurants and other sources that would otherwise go to trash. Along with like-minded people, they collaborated within the community, adopting a Pay As You Feel (PAYF) Policy. The aim is for an alternative to the conventional payment system, of not having a price value to any produce in the cafés. It liberates people to use their skills and attributes (or money) to pay for their meals, as a sign of support. There were people who offered to do maintenance work in the cafés, some even exchanged a rack of spices for a meal. THE C-SIDE CHALLENGE, BRIGHTON,UK. Ultimately, stripping off the monetary value of food intercepted into meals that are still nutritious. THE REAL JUNK FOOD PROJECT is a collaborative effort between catering professionals and activists to bring about radical change Brits throw away 7.2 million tonnes of food and drinks, worth £12 in our food system. They are now a global, organic network of billion, from homes annually a. By making people think about how cafés spread across the globe, with eateries in the UK, Europe and Australia. . gov.uk, 2010 to 2015 government policy: waste and recycling, Appendix 4: Food Waste

a

20


ILLUSTRATION: GEORGINA TEE

THE FIRST REAL JUNK FOOD PAYF PROJECT LOCATION, LEEDS, UK. IMAGES: TRJFP.org

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OLIO

FARE SHARE

THE TRUSSELL TRUST

THE FOOD SHARING REVOLUTION

FIGHTING HUNGER, TACKLING FOOD WASTE.

TACKLING UK POVERTY TOGETHER.

Free mobile app which connects neighbors with each other and with local shops and cafés so surplus food can be shared, not thrown away. From ‘best before’ food to cupcakes from an amateur baker, the list goes on when it comes to edible food, that would otherwise go to waste.

Redistribution of good food destined for waste to charities and community groups who transform it into nutritious meals for vulnerable people. The food we redistribute is fresh, quality and in date surplus via refrigerated vans from the food industry and the charities that can be found across the UK.

Partners with local communities to help stop UK hunger. How it works: 1. FOOD IS DONATED. Large collections not only from supermarkets, but schools, churches, businesses and individuals.

OLIO is super easy in making these food accessible to the community by posting a photo with a description, price (if applicable), and when and where the item is available for pick-up. Simply browse available items near you, request and arrange a pick-up via private messaging.

In aims to be a well-run, values-based and highly respected organization, FareShare works hard to secure relationships of donor and recipients across different levels of activities. Through ever improving technologies of food management and online communications.

OLIO is most active in greater London and is rapidly rolling out across the rest of the UK.

II. FOOD IS SORTED & STORED. Volunteers check that food are in date and sort them accordingly, boxed up and ready to be given to people in need. III. PROFESSIONAL IDENTIFY PEOPLE IN NEED. In partners with doctors, nutritionist and social workers to discuss issue at hand. IV. FOOD IS RECEIVED. By food banks for final distribution to local communities.

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GROCYCLE A business model developed in aims to reduce the amount of coffee grounds being buried in landfill. Instead, turning the waste into fertile compost for mushroom growing kits. This eco-friendly innovation is easily used with simple steps, from the comfort of one’s home. Not to mention a great gift to advocate and educate the cradle to cradle idea of turning waste back into food. Started in Plymouth, Gro-cycle goes about their local coffee scene collecting used coffee grounds. It took the cafÊ staff awhile to get used to the sight of them walking off with their waste like its gold!

TOAST ALE The only way this company would go out of business is when there is no more surplus bread. I. SOURCING BREAD Surplus bread that would otherwise be wasted, usually artisan breads that are unsold by bakeries at the end of the day and crust ends of loaves that are automatically discarded by sandwich manufacturers. II. BREWING BEER Sliced, toasted and mashed the bread to make breadcrumbs ready for the brewing process. III. BOTTLED AND ENJOY! Profits from the sales will go to FEEDBACK, an environmental organisation that campaigns to end food waste at every level of the food system.

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FOOD EVENTS & MOVEMENTS

GLASGOW RESTAURANT FESTIVAL UNITED KINGDOM.

CELEBRITY CHEFS AND THE SPIEGELTENT IN CELEBRATION OF EVENT.

Pulled together and brought to Glasgow first hand by the city’s best city’s best and most liked restaurants under one roof, simply to chefs and all time favourite restaurants, a 4 week long of unique celebrate food. On top of that, it also had live music and entertaindining experience sited at Candleriggs Square, in the heart of the ment every night, which included 3 bars and a 9 hole golf course! Merchant City. This first time ever event set in the heart of the city not only brings With the erection of an extravagantly beautiful 1920s style people together to appreciate a diverse mix of food cultures, Spiegeltent, symbolizing a traveling, temporary event that could social interaction as a community, giving the town something to talk take place any where desired, all for the fun of dining and an and even boast about, it also informs the significance of a place to unforgettable culinary experience. In which hosted its events- recreate a food scene, temporary; reminding people of the simple Secret Dining, followed by Pop Up Dining, changing up menus daily joys in life, through food, and architecture, closing the gap amongst for interesting and surprising culinary adventures. Also, Dining in different walks of lives. the City is a week long event dedicated to bringing over 60 of the 24


FEEDING THE PLANET, ENERGY FOR LIFE! MILAN EXPO 2015, ITALY.

According to its official website, the Milan EXPO 2015 held recently in Italy is a platform for participating countries to showcase ideas, stimulating experiences of culinary cultures with the main advocation of food issues on a global scale such as food security. It also addresses emerging issues related to health of the planet due to the carbon footprint contributed in food miles in concern with the wellbeing of people. In result, manifesting the urgency of the problem- How to Feed the Planet in global context to inequality. A kaleidoscope of colours that vividly portrayed people in the global landscape, pavilions designed to feel like a kitchen that emanates the smells of spices and fruit, meat and flowers, an experimental center where innovation and new technologies were discussed. Alongside an array of architectural convention, a galore for visitors in enlightenment of futuristics forms for functional spaces. This exhibition includes 7 other sub-themes, of which are- Science for Food Safety, Security and Quality, Innovation in the Agro Food, Supply Chain, Technology for Agriculture and Biodiversity, Dietary Education, Solidarity and Cooperation on Food, Food for Better Lifestyles, Food in the World’s Cultures and Ethnic Groups.

IMAGES: EXHIBITION & DISPLAY AT EXPO, BY AUTHOR.

25


SLOW FOOD MOVEMENT INTERNATIONAL.

COMPARISON OF FAST FOOD vs. FAST SLOW FOOD ILLUSTRATION: AUTHOR.

support convivia, organize events and are a fundamental reference point for members.

A global, grassroots organization, founded by Carlo Petrini in Italy, 1986. In order to prevent the disappearance of local food cultures and traditions, efforts to counteract the rise in demand of people’s interest in the food they eat, the way they eat and where it comes from, and to discover how our food choices affect the world around us. Slow Food believes food is tied to many other aspects of life, including culture, politics, agriculture and the environment.

LOCAL At the local level, groups known as convivia coordinate activities and organize events in cities, towns and communities around the world. To date, there are over 1,500 convivia worldwide.

The few main missions of this movement includesI. Develop ARK OF TASTE: local culinary traditions and foods are celebrated. II. Organize small-scale processing. III. Educate consumers about the drawbacks of commercial agribusiness and factory farms. NATIONAL IV. Educate consumers about the risks of monoculture and reliance on too few genomes or varieties. Independent decision making based on the political guidelines set by Slow Food International. They coordinate Slow Food activities, V. Encourage ethical buying in local marketplaces. INTERNATIONAL Headquarters are located in Bra, Italy – the town in Piedmont where the movement was born. It is where the development of the network and projects worldwide are produced.

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ACROSANTI PHEONIX, USA.

ARCOLOGY= ARCHITECTURE + ECOLOGY

ACROSANTI SITE, PHOENIX, USA.

Inspiring founder of Arcosanti; architect, urban designer, artist, researches from around the globe, increasing chances of craftsman, and philosopher, Paolo Soleri (1919-2013) explored the collaborative opportunities amongst participating institutions. realization of the concept that fuses Architecture with EcologyIn this case, food production is brought closer to consumers, shortARCOLOGY. ening its food chain. Ergo, reducing energy used; less water to grow Being lean is key in the design principles of Arcosanti. It is embod- food, less heat required in greenhouse agriculture, diverting excess ied in the efficiency in designing its city, extensively following its energy for other uses within its city. principle to miniaturize the complexity of a city, into a compacted self-sustaining system of organization. Energy Apron is the nexus of food and energy at Arcosanti. The importance of feeding a habitual environment is highly addressed here. Hence, effort towards a sustainable alternative is made through its agriculture that includes 4 aspects of food production over the years: open field, garden agriculture, orchard production and intensive greenhouse horticulture. Applied throughout its city, local food production demonstrates the efficiency of energy used, through tours, community farmer’s markets and the acknowledgment of food served at its restaurants. By doing so, it provides educational platform through programs available that facilitate the exchange of knowledge of students and MACRO COSANTI: THE VISION. 27


FOOD POLICIES

FRANCE

SUPERMARKET BANNED FOOD WASTE.

FOOD WASTAGE IN LANDFILL.

France has become the first country in the world to ban supermarket from throwing away unsold food that are still in date and edible. It is said to be a step ahead of the UK’s food waste policy that only reached an agreement between government and supermarkets and grocers to cut down on food packaging waste in the supply chain, but still does not imply mandatory rules.

larger. These supermarkets in France will have to sign a donation contract and give food surplus to charities and food banks and those who do not comply with the law will face fines of up to €75,000 (approximately USD$83,550) or 2 years’ imprisonment.

Head of Banques Alimentaires, Jacques Bailet, a network of French Parisian councilor- Arash Derambarsh, introduced this law and en- food banks, states that this new law would considerably improve the forced application to any supermarket that is 400 square meters or quality of food that is currently available to charities and food banks.

ELIMINATING FOOD WASTE.

28


FRANCE

INGLORIOUS FRUITS & VEGETABLES.

Officiated as an experiment in March 2014 in Provins, just outside Paris. Intermarché, one of France’s leading supermarket chain, took action in fighting food wastage by selling ‘ugly’ and ‘imperfect’ looking fruits for 30% lesser than its normal retail prices. These rejected produce would have been thrown away by growers and farmers simply because they do not meet supermarket standards in order for sales. Being an unattractive apple or distorted tomato failed to meet cosmetic standards of perfectionist buyers in stores, as much as 40% of these fresh produces get tossed away, even though it contains the same nutritional values and is perfectly edible. Intermarché gave these rejects its own aisle in supermarkets, with its own labels and price tags, even its own sales receipt names. Les Fruits & Légumes Moches (French) campaign brought the dead ugly back to the beauty of life with superb advertising in collaboration with photographer Patrice de Villiers in capturing the essence of natural growth and appearance of these produce. INGLORIOUS FRUITS & VEGETABLES “Eat 5 A Day” CAMPAIGN.

Furthermore to convince shoppers that these fruits and vegetables are as good as perfect looking ones, efforts had been made in packaged soups and juices made from the inglorious fruits and vegetables, subtlety informing the indifference of its nutrients. With glorious success upon launching, Intermarché decided to pursue this campaign in all of its 1,800 stores across France. Other leading supermarket chains such as Auchan and Monoprix, took up the competition by launching similar initiatives, making satisfied customers even more pleased with the affordability of fresh produce at a fraction of its original cost.

FOOD PRODUCTS MADE FROM ‘UGLY’ CARROTS & ORANGES.

29


UNITED KINGDOM FOOD WASTE RECYCLING.

TESCO

FOOD WASTE RECYCLING

Food banks in the UK appear 3 times more each year. To help meet demand, TESCO divert all fresh food surplus from its distribution centers and online grocery centers to support FareShare, non-profit organization for food redistribution charity. In return, FareShare provides for places such as homeless shelters, breakfast clubs for children and luncheon clubs for the elderly.

In compliance with the Waste (Scotland) Regulations 2012, a food waste collection service has been implemented, commenced in the beginning of the year. This will be a phase-based program, from April 2016-March 2017 whereby households are provided with brown bins and food waste caddies, along with sufficient instruction manuals for the efficiency of this effort in better food waste management.

SURPLUS FOOD TO FARESHARE.

Many of these charities invest into providing support services such Approximately one third of the general waste bin comprises food as counseling for those in need of help. waste. This service will seek to remove this waste from the general waste bin. Food waste that will be collected includes dairy, meat and bones, fruit and vegetables, bread, cakes and pastries, rice and pasta, fish, tea bags and coffee grounds.

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Appendix 2: Recycling and Waste Collection from Households

• Removing centrally imposed recycling targets. This will allow councils to act on their own local priorities, while also improving recycling rates. • Rewarding good waste management to people who reduce, recycle or re-use their waste.

Appendix 3: Bins and Waste Collection

Efforts to working with local councils by: • Increase the frequency and quality of rubbish collections. • Make it easier to recycle. • Encourage reward schemes to increase recycling.

Appendix 4: Food Waste

Working with: • Waste and Resources Action Programme’s (WRAP) and businesses on voluntary agreements to reduce food and packaging waste. Providing ideas and information to help waste less, through the WRAP’s Love Food, Hate Waste campaign. • A responsibility deal in the grocery retail sector which includes finding ways to reducing household waste from groceries. • Increasing the use of anaerobic digestion.

Appendix 5: Anaerobic Digestion and Energy Recovery from Waste Setting up a £10 million loan fund to support new AD capacity (£3 million of which is for farmers developing small scale AD on their farms) to create an innovation fund to bring down costs of AD projects to develop markets for digestate (a by-product of AD).

Appendix 7: Packaging Waste, Producer Responsibility Regimes

• The UK has a statutory producer responsibility regime for packaging. • This places a legal obligation on businesses which make or use packaging (like raw materials manufacturers, converters, packer/ fillers and sellers) to ensure that a proportion of the packaging they place on the market is recovered and recycled. • In 2011 the UK disposed of an estimated 10.8 million tonnes of packaging waste, of which around 67% was recovered, as compared to year 1998 only 27% of packaging waste was recovered.

(L-R) TESCO & FARESHARE JOINED EFFORT IN HANDLING FOOD SURPLUS, FOOD WASTE BINS FOR FOOD RECYCLING AND COMPOST.

www.gov.uk

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34


THE CITY’S ANTIDOTE FOR FOOD SURPLUS. ARCHITECTURAL CONCEPT & IDEOLOGY

The aim is for a place to heal; recovery of SECONDHAND FOOD, in TO HEAL context of the city. To restore positivity back into good condition. The role of archiA feasibility study was done to familiarize various healing spaces tecture in a rehabilitation process to reconstruct a societal shift in and architectural elements for a place to recover; restoring a state people’s mindset and attitude towards the value of food; waste. of health- mental or physical, and its applied psychology through which precedented the ideology of a new typology in this thesis The aim of this is to provide the necessary environment for communal activities in daily lives in the city. Through which creating a new proposal. identity to recover. To maximize the full potential of utilizing spatial properties to influence people in culture, behavior, mood and health within a right environment that stimulates positive emotions. In return, reflecting in response to the issue at hand.

AN ARCHITECTURAL INTERVENTION FOR THE RECOVERY OF SECONDHAND FOOD IN THE CITY.

Rehabilitation through architecture helps to reevaluate societal conditions in a holistic perspective.

35


TO CONTEXTUALIZE SITED within the proximity of the city; the central, its peripheral radius and then beyond. The idea is to site within the city’s center to highlight the manner of the way people go about their lives, resulting in their behavioural pattern of the way they eat, opting for faster and more convenient food. Collaterally, increasing the demand for quick served food and also its fast rate to produce. Also in consideration of its peripheral radius of numerous restaurants, eateries, bars and cafÊ, there are bound to be a massive amount of food waste and surplus. Therefore, this architectural proposal aims to deal with food surplus from the core of the city, proceeding to its surrounding context and then spreading across the outskirts. Applying that its central hub as a depository that acts as a host to its division units of similar functions to cater for this matter.

36


One method to do so is to hitchhike on the existing infrastructures available in the of the city. The purpose is to address this social issue in current context with minimal footprint to create better instead of more, enhancing the quality of our relationship between architecture and food. By doing so, SECONDHAND becomes the city’s antidote for food surplus through productivity and efficiency of existing amenities. Thus, adopting architectural concepts such as: METABOLIST ARCHITECTURE Organic growth and change of construction, prefabrication, expansion and contraction based on need, core infrastructure and attachable/detachable substructure, replaceable units for an eco-centric sustainability.

‘Major’ + ‘Minor’ STRUCTURES.

ARCHIGRAM Self-contained intelligent units that travels the city and beyond. Independent yet parasitic to host; ‘plug-in’ stations to replenish resources, unload/reload goods.

Mobile Units

SERVICED NOMAD.

ASYLUM Its layout planning was a powerful tool for mental cure by incorporating the social with biological aspect of treatments. The city as a source of vice; curative nature with therapy were doctors ideas of a rhetorical solution.

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ASYLUM

[uh-sahy-luh m]

1.

An institution for the maintenance and care of the mentally ill, orphans, or other persons requiring specialized assistance.

2.

Any secure retreat.

19th CENTURY ASYLUM ARCHITECTURE: The impact of architectural design on treating the mentally ill as cure. Doctors believed that 90% of insanity were curable in largescale buildings, outside the home. Asylum layout planning was considered a powerful tool for mental cure as it incorporates the social as well as biological aspect of treatments. The construction and usage of these quasi-public buildings served to legitimize the developing ideas in psychiatry as both architects and philosophers THE COTTAGE PLAN then stated that the built and natural environment shapes human Later in the 19th century, people were not convinced that the large monolithic asylums lived up to their expectations. So they proposed behaviors. smaller cottage-like structures to replace the Kirkbride Plan. Architects worked in collaboration with psychiatrist to develop facilities to treating patients. It was even more significant in later These cottages of different sizes were arranged in clusters, that development when the approach was channeled to aimed to treat patience more informally and homely as an approach to cure mental illness. Groups were given different occupational deinstitutionalize the concept of a treatment building. task such as gardening, or fixing works in backyards, shops, bakeries etc. With all being a part of one big institution on a designated THE KIRKBRIDE PLAN The idea of this long and linear plan, designed symmetrically larged estate, reconnecting with the surroundings, while permitting indefwith staggered wings was to promoted the moral treatment of inite expansion. patients to be treated with respect, by the encouragement to Based on the ideology of an Asylum and its history of architecturoccupational activities. al planning and how it evolved through time to suit its ultimate Dr. Thomas Story Kirkbride applied a set of planning principles purpose to heal patience, its best potential is tapped when the by classifying the type of illness in order to ease surveillance, architecture planning is based on the Cottage Plan, rather than its along with short wards spatial allocation for good ventilation, and initial layout of the Kirkbride Plan. Although systematic in order of circulation. Patience were allocated through the radiate section treatment, it is proven that communal clusters were more effective from the entrance, from the level of violence; men on the left and because patients were treated as if they were at home. Applications of an informal approach to designing a place to heal. women on the right.

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(L-R) SITE FROM THE JUNCTION BETWEEN TRONGATE & CANDLERIGGS, SITE FRONTAGE, CANDLERIGGS SQUARE FROM MERCHANT SQUARE. 42


CANDLERIGGS QUARTER SITE ANALYSIS

Aforementioned reasons to contextualize this proposal in the heart of the city center, counting on the convenience of existing public transportation, considerations have been analyzed for a suitable site selection. The decision of this particular selected site of the Candleriggs Quarter was made based on a few factors. First and foremost, it is situated in Merchant City, opposite to Merchant Square, also known as the old Fruit Market and City Hall. Its rich history dating back to the 1800s for the purpose of the local working class as a place for trade in which contributed to the economy and social scene of Glasgow through food. By introducing this proposal of a place to intercept food surplus, it relates back to the history of the site, reliving this quarter’s input in shaping the city, enriching its urban fabric once again. In consideration of the various eateries, restaurants and bars surrounding the site, this vibrant quarter is suitable for the proposal in recreating an atmosphere for its people to celebrate the joys of food through many interception ways. Not to mention the recent and on-going Glasgow Restaurant Festival 2016 held on this particular site shows that it is a strategic location to meet the need to host such events. Last but not least, Candleriggs Quarter has been unoccupied and abandoned for a period of time. With a few attempts to regenerate the site by a couple of local developers, the progressive demolition of its remaining structures on site went on for a good couple of year and only recently been completed taken down. This site has been hosting events throughout the year for many year but all temporarily. Thus, well suited for this thesis proposal.

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The site’s main access is from the hustling street of Trongate leading from Argyll Street, conveniently feasible with a bus stop along the street and a few express supermarkets chains along this street works for the intention of this proposal. Besides that, the following analysis and studies enabled a better understanding about the site and its genius loci.

DENSITY FLOW Pedestrian density is heavier along Trongate as it is a main commercial street and the junction at Merchant Square, as it is a well-known social hub for visitors. Vehicular density is low along all streets surrounding the site, except for Trongate as it is the main street leading from Argyll Street.

ENTRY POINTS The site is accessible from all streets around its perimeter- Trongate, Candleriggs, Wilson Street and Brunswick Street. However, entering TRANSITION STREETS the lane from Brunswick Street seems to be suggest a back entry for From the busy street of Trongate and all its commercial activities, services. the street along Candleriggs leads it quieter towards Merchant Square, adjacent to Wilson Street. One would experience a change ZONING PHASES in the public realm when the transitioning from street to street. Due to the essence of this project, it is carried out according to The site becomes a buffer between streets; functions for differphases in development. Phase 01 begins from the approach of the ent uses. Hence, enabling the differentiation of zones into phase main street, progressively transitioning towards the inner side of development through the definition of spatial hierarchy of pubthe quarter, reserved for Phase 02. lic-private realms.

SITE ELEVATION ALONG CANDLERIGGS. 44


I. ENTRY POINTS.

III. DENSITY FLOW.

II. ZONING PHASES.

IV. HIERARCHY OF TRANSITION.

45


SITE HISTORY LISTED BUILDING

(L-R) PAST & PRESENT, COMPARISON OF SITE FROM TRONGATE.

CATEGORY : At Risk LISTING CATEGORY: B OS GRID Ref. : NS 59487 64965 LOCATION TYPE : Urban HS REFERENCE No.: 32785 BUILDING DATE : Circa 1790 ARCHITECTS : James Carswell William Carswell CONDITION : Poor

It is a Category B building and was listed on 04/09/1989.

106-110 (EVEN NOS) Trongate & 3-9 (ODD NOS) Candleriggs 55-69 Candleriggs & 5-15 Wilson Street.

identical block on the east side of the street, but this has now been demolished. First synagogue in Glasgow occupied an upper floor (big timber column in situ). James Carswell and his brother William came to Glasgow from Kilmarnock in 1790 and started building in Candleriggs. An article in the Glasgow Herald asserted “Almost the whole of Candleriggs owes its existence to them, including Commercial Court with its surrounding warehouses; this was the model upon which so many courts have been built by which business is conducted apart from the public street.” The Carswells also built part of Cochrane Street and Ingram Court.

Range of 4 storey warehouses, all in a simple late 18th century style and now partly incorporated into the 1936-1938 Goldbergs department store. The building is in rendered ashlar with single light windows. Modern shopfronts have been inserted at ground floor level. The Trongate elevation extends to 6 bays and features architraved first and second floor windows and a cornice over the ground floor. A wide 5 bay gable looks onto Candleriggs. Alternate first floor windows are corniced. A further block extends along Candleriggs.Itonceextendedthewholelengthof thestreet,buthasnow been greatly demolished. The block was once mirrored by an almost

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GOLDBERGS DEPARTMENT STORE.

GOLDBERGS Situated in the Candleriggs area of Glasgow, this famous department store had rather humble beginnings when it was founded in 1908. Abraham Goldberg, a Jewish immigrant from Eastern Europe, opened a small shop in the south side – but over the years the company flourished into a hundred outlets across Scotland, selling a variety of wares, such as clothing, household good and electrical items. The department store was decorated in marble and brass – with a grandiose in-store water feature. It also had Wrygges in the Eighties – a trendy boutique for 16 to 24 year olds that had a DJ and a soda bar inside. The store closed in 1990 to be replaced by discount retailer Weisfields, which operated until 1999. The site was to be replaced with Selfridges, but they demolished the building and sold the site onto a private developer – for now, the area where the legendary Goldbergs was lies derelict and run-down.

PRESENT DAY, BEFORE FULL DEMOLITION.

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CANDLERIGGS MARKET MERCHANT SQUARE.

traders sell their wares on the pavement and even though they had been offered more salubrious premises away from the street, the following week the traders were back in the old lane with their wares laid out in the traditional manner. Glasgow’s other surviving historic market is the Barras on London Road and Gallowgate.

PAST: CANDLERIGGS MARKET

CANDLERIGGS. The historical street extending from the Trongate to the site of the old candle makers, hence the name. The City Halls line one side of the street and is attached to the old Candleriggs Market (now Merchant Square) and the Fruit Market. City Halls were used as a venue for music, exhibitions and entertainment.

GLASGOW’S FIRST TAKE AWAY EATERY Candleriggs boasted the first fast food shop in Glasgow set up in 1810, Granny Black’s. The proprietors realised that after a few drinks the customers would have a craving for greasy food, so they started selling pies to carry out.

Merchant City is one of Glasgow’s oldest quarters dating back to the 1750s when it was home to the warehouses of wealthy merchants who shipped tobacco, sugar and tea. In the 19th century, the area became home to Glasgow’s central fruit, vegetable and cheese markets. Merchant Square itself is housed in part of the Old Fruitmarket. 78-82 CANDLERIGGS 1817: The Bazaar was constructed to the design of Clelland. 1851: The Bazaar was occupied by 1 Cheesemonger, 8 Fruiterers, 9 vegetable dealers, 2 Onion Merchants, 1 Gardener, 4 Egg & Butter Merchants, 6 Ham Merchants amongst others. 83 KING STREET 1821: King Street was the market place for sheep, cattle and fish with dozens of permanent stalls set up along its length. PADDY’S MARKET Although these old markets are long since gone, Paddy’s Market (founded in the first half of the 19th century by Irish Immigrants) continues as Glasgow’s only daily (except Sundays) flea market. The 48

PRESENT: HEART OF GLASGOW

Merchant City is one of Glasgow’s most vibrant areas with Merchant Square at the very heart of it; home to some of the city’s most exciting independent bars, restaurants, galleries and boutiques. brimming with art, culture, fashion and great food and drink, the beautiful indoor court yard is the perfect place to spend an afternoon soaking up the atmosphere while enjoying a spot of people watching. With a host of eclectic independent bars, restaurants, galleries and quirky little shops to explore, a visit to Merchant City is a must for anyone visiting Glasgow.


GLASGOW’S MERCHANT CITY CANDLERIGGS QUARTER DEVELOPMENT.

27 FEBRUARY 2015 “The Candleriggs project represents a wonderful and rare opportunity to design virtually a whole city block and in a fascinating and rapidly changing part of Glasgow. It has been a pleasure working with our client and with Glasgow City planning department to ensure that this project is real piece of 24-hour city. I believe it will be a major step forward in the already successful regeneration of the Merchant The plans follow a nine month consultation on proposals by City as place to live, work, study, shop and enjoy.” -Richard Murphy. Richard Murphy Architects for a mixed use scheme bounded by Subject to approval works are likely to commence by spring 2016. Wilson Street, Hutcheson Street, Candleriggs and Trongate, which has already been cleared awaiting development. Glasgow’s Merchant City on the up with Candleriggs Quarter plan Mace and Mercer Real Estate, joint venture partners behind Glasgow’s Candleriggs Quarter, have together lodged a planning application for a 1.49ha brownfield site in the heart of the Merchant City.

Arranged around a new central square, to be named Brunswick Place, the scheme offers a range of housing types above retail, food, drink and commercial uses. This includes a total of 512 homes will be provided alongside a 124 room hotel and 597 beds of student accommodation together with a range of retail units. Green roofs, a communal podium and roof top gardens planted with native species and bird boxes have been specified for the full development to improve biodiversity. SOURCE(s): richardmurphyarchitects.com urbanrealm.com/news/5326

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PHASE 01 Includes the design of the project’s main components:THE DEPOSITORY, as the central hub for food surplus drop off and its various interception methods on site. Key spaces that covers what could be done to SECONDHAND food that would otherwise go to waste in contributing back to the society through the works of the people themselves. THE DIVISION, mobilized service units that travels the city and beyond for a similar purpose as its host, scaled down for traveling and easy transportation. These units hitchhike on the existing bus network of the city, going to various sites beyond the center and back by the end of the day for deposition and maintenance. Phase 01 covers the feasibility of how this system works in relation to each other; the city, its people and of course, the surplus food.

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PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION ROUTES & NETWORK.

Mapping of bus routes to/fro various directions, centralized from the site. To show its connectivity to Glasgow’s Buchanan Bus Station, allowing the travel of the proposed Division units in this project to various parts of Glasgow.

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EATERIES & RESTAURANTS WITHIN A 200M RADIUS.

Mapping of the various eateries, bars, cafĂŠ, restaurants and supermarkets within the proximity of the site. These premises are marked in shades of purple, indicating its potential to contribute to the nature of the proposal, dealing with food surplus. In addition, exact locations of the bus stops can be identified on the scale of this plan.

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SECTIONAL ELEVATION

ALONG CANDLERIGGS.

Enhancing the essence of key spaces by bringing in natural lighting from the skylight and defining the hierarchy of spaces by introducing architecture layers horizontally and vertically throughout the building. Relating different spaces through a play with levels within the building, while bridging connectivity of internal and external spaces. An informal place for a casual cause of intercepting food that would otherwise go to waste; SECONDHAND, is the city’s antidote

for food surplus.


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THE DEPOSITORY

The architectural intervention of this part of the proposal is its IV. WASTE:- Allocated space for organic waste and recyclable building on site. This building acts as the central hub for food materials. Also through compost. interception to take place on various levels. These are categorize into zones within the building itself: In addition, the site provides a public park within the city, a green space allocated along Candleriggs. The Depository is equipped with I. ARRIVAL OF SECONDHAND FOOD:- via the Division units, eating ample seating areas at different parts of the building, some design premises and food stores within context of the site, private and intended to compliment its street scape, while others at corners only public drop offs by foot, bike or vehicular means. visible from a certain angle. II. SORTING & STORAGE:- Sorted according to the level of freshness, Ultimately, the essence of this place is to allow the accommodation to be displayed in storage for the use of food interception on site. of various methods of eating and dining; facilitating various outletsfood trucks, pop up vendors, food stalls in a structured hall, creating III. FOOD INTERCEPTION:- Through the following key spaces within intricate spaces that permits changes for an endless amount of communal activities through SECONDHAND food. Thus, the scenes the building: from time to time could never be quite the same. - Food Hall & Eateries - Atelier/Workspace

THE DEPOSITORY PARK ALONG CANDLERIGGS.

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SPATIAL QUALITIES OF VERTICAL ACCESS.

MASSING The building has 2 floors, but triple-storey volume at center space to Vertically, a travelator alongside the main staircase lead visitors to the upper floor. On this level, it is almost an impermanent setamplify its core purpose in physical setting. ting for local entrepreneurs to set up stalls on the large scale balAdjacent to Trongate, a transparent skin approach for clear visibili- cony, embracing the atmosphere from the Food Hall below, fusing ty of the on-going activities within the building in order to appeal activities on both levels as one scene. This floor offsets a leisure and seem inviting to passer-by, at the same time acknowledging its deck area encompassing the floor, facing street views. Allowing an exchange of street life within this roofed space. street value. Towards the back of this floor, is where the Atelier/ Workspace sits. Its intended 2.5mx.2.5m grid floor pattern serves the purpose for the modular units to be added or taken out as desired, expanding spaces when needed, or reducing surface area occupancy when not. Again, its flexibility to accommodate for such architectural qualities is what contributes to the ephemeral aspect of this thesis.

Accessed from its park along Candleriggs, one can be diverted to the Sorting/Storage drop off area or enter the SECONDHAND Store. Various eateries fill this part of the building elevation to give a sense of casual dining and leisure experience in its streetscape. Spreading into areas of the park onto an open aired environment, especially in good weather conditions. An intentionally empty paved area towards the back is to house vehicular or mobile food unit such as food trucks and vendors during events. In all, these parts of the design share an open space; divided through a simple change in floor type- grass to pavement.

Above all, a skylight bringing natural lighting into the building, especially at its core triple height space to enhance the life of food intercepted and the people in place.

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SPATIAL SEQUENCE The following chapters are divided in the order of sequence as listed below. This is done in a way to analyze the detailed spatial qualities through previous research and precedent study of spaces of similar characteristics, varying in scale, and applicable layouts to capture the attribution of the proposed spaces. This sequence begins from within of the building, subsequently unravels its external spaces and faรงade that complimenting the building as a whole. I.

ARRIVAL OF FOOD SURPLUS:SORTING & STORAGE. WASTE MANAGEMENT.

II. FOOD INTERCEPTION: FOOD HALL. EATERIES. ATELIER/WORKSPACE. III. FOODSCAPE. IV.

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SECTIONAL ELEVATION & FRONTAGE.


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SERIES OF EVENTS UPON THE ARRIVAL .

ARRIVAL OF FOOD SURPLUS

Besides food surplus collected via The Division units from places outside the convenience of The Depository, spatial facilitation also caters for the arrival of food from eating premises and food stores within proximity of the site, as mapped out in previous chapter. Not forgetting drop offs from public and private ownerships within walking distance. Basically, anyone with extra food to donate could do so easily.

SORTING & STORAGE. After collection, the surplus food will be sorted according to its level of freshness and categorization as would a conventional supermarket. These food are then displayed, repurchased for a fraction of supermarket prices encouraging people to take advantage of edible food that would otherwise go to waste. WASTE MANAGEMENT. In any events that food is not in good condition to be used, a waste management system of sorting would facilitate for organic disposal or recyclable materials, while referring back to food recycling policy by the local city council. Compost of organic waste is also encourage through means of education in the Atelier/Workspace, if not here.

There is a back lane entry designated for larger scale drop offs such as from supermarket chains, or institutions by vehicular means. If not so, smaller scale donation can be made via the same department of the building before volunteers proceed to checking the condition of the food donated before sorting and storing them until further use. Here, is also where maintenance takes place and houses The Division units.

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INITIAL FACTORS INFLUENCING DESIGN. 70


WHAT HAPPENS IN THE STORE?

After sorting out all the food that is good to be displayed and resold, the store acts as a reduced price supermarket for these food. Either people walk in to shop as would a normal grocery trip, this store is mostly intended for on-site use. This means that activist and entrepreneurs from the Food Hall, Atelier/Workshop or even temporary food truck owners and pop up stalls and vendors would use these food, intercept it and reproduce into artisan goods. This reinforces the idea for creative collaboration efforts mentioned in the manifesto of this thesis, to bringing people of different backgrounds in contributing their skills for a common goal. STORE ARCHITECTURE Based on the precedent, Original Unverpackt in Berlin, Germany, a Zero Waste concept is advocated through its store architecture through the product displaying designs. Bulk sales reduces unnecessary packaging and users would even bring their own empty containers for a refill. Therefore, the concept of this store also pitches on that idea, aiming to reduce waste. Aesthetically, staging food items to appeal to buyers through the psychology of supermarket shelf displaying methods, such as colour coordination, appropriate shelfing heights and allocation of highly desired food items at the ends of the store so that customers would have to make their way across in order to get it, while unconsciously passing by a series of shelfed items that one might not need, but higher chances of purchasing anyways. Hence, it can be said that the role of spatial design plays in food storage and display is important as it can prevent further unwanted food waste, simply just by presenting items through carefully planned layouts.

STORE ARCHITECTURE AND DISPLAY.

PSYCHOLOGY BEHIND SUPERMARKET SHELF DISPLAYING METHODS. 71


ORIGINAL UNVERPACKT BERLIN, GERMANY.

“Is it possible to make the kind of societal changes to make us live in symbiosis with all the world’s creatures?

YES

But at the moment there are no significant global trends that point in that direction.” -TRISTRAM STUART

Food Waste Campaigner

ORIGINAL UNPACKED- The first supermarket chain concept that dispenses with disposable packaging. Unpackaged shopping means considerably less waste and fewer foods that are thrown away, as everyone purchases only what they need without obliging to prepackaged and priced sales.

subtracted and you pay for the net weight of your groceries. Selling unpackaged groceries is a progressive concept as a solution towards less industrialized consumption.

This system implements Zero Waste which encourages the redesign of resource life cycles so that all products are reused. Shifting from IT WORKS LIKE THIS. You bring your own containers and have those a direct disposal waste system to an eco-friendly cycle of up-cycling weighed. When you get to the till, the weight of your containers is materials and products, instead of contributing to more waste.

(L-R): BULK SALES IN SUPERMARKET, BRING YOUR OWN CONTAINBER CONCEPT.

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WEFOOD

COPENHAGEN, DENMARK.

“A supermarket like WeFood makes so much sense and is an important step in the battle to combat food waste.” -PER BJERRE,

Folkekirkens Nødhjælp

WEFOOD STORE, COPENHAGEN, DENMARK.

(L-R): PRINCESS MARIE IN SUPPORT TO ELIMINATE FOOD WASTE, PEOPLE AT WORK IN EFFORTS TO SAVAGE FOOD SURPLUS.

Denmark’s first food surplus supermarket, WeFood, open its doors on the 22nd February 2016 in its capital city Copenhagen, selling only expired or ‘best before’ produce, that are still perfectly edible but would have been thrown away based on a generic supermarket standards and policy. Products are sold 30%-50% cheaper than a regular supermarket as compensation with aims to raise awareness of the amount of food waste. In addition, to benefit both environmentally conscious shoppers and low income groups.

According to professor Christina Holweg, Vienna University of Economics and Business, Austria, who studies on social supermarkets address this as a “win-win-win” situation for everyone involved. From manufacturers and retailers, customers and non-profit organizations. Not to mention environmental benefits as less food is wasted. She further mentions that it also “helps society to reduce its welfare costs.” In the last 5 years, Denmark had successfully reduced 25% of food waste.

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Ancient Kitchen; Food Preparation and Storage. IMAGE: TRIPOD.COM

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FOOD STORAGE SPATIAL DIFFERENCES.

Whether in homes, or commercial stores, it is essential to understand how history played a part in its evolution of design and influences to designing for the present. PANTRY + REFRIGERATOR As technology advanced during industrial revolution, almost every LARDER household were introduced with individual refrigerator units. With A larder is a spatial usage during the Medieval households as a this convenience, the lifespan of fresh produce were lengthen and place for food and commodity storage. It is a cold area for storing wet and dry storage in the kitchen began to change the layout of meat, fish and other fresh produce such as butter and milk before spatial designs. Pantries were used to store dry goods that do well in methods of refrigeration were made popular. room temperature. It is also used to store kitchen and dinnerwares. A larder should be as cool as it can get. Thus, in the Northern hemisphere, larders and kitchens in houses will be located on the North or East side of the house where it receives the least amount of sun, whereas it is the exact opposite case for the Southern hemisphere.

The importance of food storage throughout history has a few purposes, one of which is to reduce kitchen waste by preserving uneaten or unused food for later use. By doing so, it is a way to be prepared for food scarcity or in a case of emergency.

As for ventilation, many larders have small window openings that are usually covered with fine mesh, also to prevent flies from entering. In older larders, there were even hooks in the ceiling to hang curing meat. There were appropriate shelves for dry storage as well.

Most of all, it shows that people then appreciated the value of food because they knew the efforts and labor into getting the food. With affordable food widely available to us today, it is easy to omit the value of food.

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76


FOOD INTERCEPTION

DEALING WITH SECONDHAND FOOD.

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SPATIAL FLEXIBILITY FOR DIFFERENT LAYOUT ARRANGEMENTS.

FOOD HALL Similar to that of a marketplace, this part of the building is designed to cater for countless numbers of stalls, each with its own unique goods and specialties to offer, the art of arranging products to lure potential customers. Essentially, a covered area with free-standing columns and aisles, with individual stalls set up in between. Rearrange the layout for a different circulation, to achieve a certain desired setting or ambience, this changes up the dynamics of the social vibe. A row of eateries on each sides of the Food Hall enables connectivity of the building’s permanent use and its temporary functions through the diversity of its many stalls. On the other sides; exit from the Food Store, presuming owners of these food stalls had gotten their ingredients from the store in proceeding with the interception of the food, while the other side faces the main street, Trongate, to show connectivity with the city’s context. 79


AXONOMETRIC: BASIC KITCHEN LAYOUT OF THE ESSENTIALS AND ADD ONS.

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VARIOUS FOOD STALL ARRANGEMENTS ACCORDING TO BASIC KITCHEN LAYOUT.

FOOD STALL STRUCTURE The 3m x 3m modular structure of the food stall design aims to provide a basic space with essential amenities, and the rest for its occupants to be experimental in creating the best and most efficient layout arrangement for their own sales and purpose. Although the basic arrangement is adapted from the feasibility of a generic kitchen build up guide, an endless setting of each stall has the potential to create a vast option for individually unique identities. Whether through its function to serve food, or not; to display intercepted food products, or for an on-site cook performances, the list goes on. With all these simultaneously going on, the ever changing atmosphere of the food hall creates a place that highlights the joy of food as one experiences being a part of food interception at best. Through which, the support shown in these local acts would strengthen relationships between people as a community through the exchange of ideas, communication and social interaction.

EXPLODED AXONOMETRY OF A TYPICAL FOOD STALL STRUCTURE.

81

BUILDING COMMUNAL BONDS BETWEEN PEOPLE.


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FOOD HALL SPATIAL CONNECTIVIITY.

83


MARKETPLACES AROUND THE WORLD.

Food markets around the would that exemplifies the essence of culture, diversity, and the sense of space that one relates to excitement and the joys of eating. Through simple arrangements of stalls and seatings, colours complimented atmosphere that enriches the food scene.

MARKTHAL

DAMNOEN SADUAK FLOATING MARKET

BOROUGH MARKET

TORVEHALLERNE

ROTTERDAM, NETHERLANDS.

BANGKOK, THAILAND.

COPENHAGEN, DENMARK.

LONDON, UK.

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PAPIRØEN

SEOCHEON TRADITIONAL MARKET KOREA.

COPENHAGEN, DENMARK.

PSAR CHAA OLD MARKET

LA BOQUIERA

SIEM REAP, CAMBODIA.

BARELONA, SPAIN.

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MERCATO METROPOLITANO MILAN, ITALY.

ILLUSTRATION: mercatometropolitano.com

(L-R): Market Store, Artisan Bakery, Communal Seating Area.

ARTISAN GOURMET BURGER.

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Conceptualized as a real farmers market set in city. 16,000m2; where seminars on issues related to agricultural food sustainability A market with hundreds of producers, street food and regional will be held, and which evening will be transformed into a venue for specialties. More importantly, CULTURE; an open amphitheater more cultural events such as concerts and cinema. where seminars on issues related to agricultural food sustainability

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FOOD LANE BETWEEN BUILDING BLOCKS.

EATERIES ON BOTH SIDES OF THE BUILDING. 88


EATERIES Two rows of eateries make up the sides of THE DEPOSITORY building. One of which faces the park to acknowledge its streetscape along Candleriggs, with intentions to invite visitors. While on the opposite side, the other row is fitted facing the narrow lane between its neighbouring block, the tight space creates the opportunity for a different kind of food scene, adding to the diverse quality of spaces surrounding this building. Unlike the Food Hall, these eateries are designated to operate permanently on site. While complimenting the Food Hall and its outdoor spaces, the aim is to create yet more connectivity to other levels as part of the building. The sketch below illustrates the idea to bringing spaces together, allowing the freedom to indulge in various pocket spaces, while exploring niches of the building. The following precedents of environmentally mindful and socially engaged food joints are some of the few examples that would fit perfectly in these eateries at THE DEPOSITORY in relation to the nature of this project. Whether from a privileged approach or helping the needy, it is of priority to welcome both.

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MANA!

FAST SLOW FOOD. HONG KONG.

(L-R): EATERY CONCEPT: UPCYCLE MATERIALS & PASSIVE DESIGN APPROACH .

EAT LIKE IT MATTERS! Serves healthy, wholesome food and is an eco-friendly alternative to fast food. A place where people have the choice of either getting a healthy to-go, or come to slow down, eat real food and connect with the community. Started in March 2012, by Bobsy, who is passionate about culture and environmental awareness during the social and political people movements of the late 80s and early 90s, which has became the local and organic movement in Hong Kong over the last 20 years. And Christian, who was a high-level athlete at one point understands the importance of food in fueling the body, its nutritions and preventing illness.

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IMAGES: mana.hk 91


SOCIAL BITE SCOTLAND, UK.

SANDWICH SHOP WITH A DIFFERENCE. Menu is created by Michelin star chef Mike Mathieson, priced value community through their ‘Suspended Coffee and Food’ initiative, a for money, delicious handmade food prepared daily by staff that are pre-donation of food waiting to be claimed in store, they also en1 in 4 of formerly homeless people of the community. gage in the social welfare of the local homeless by providing jobs and a place to make a living, in order to narrow the gap between the 100% (every single penny) of their profit goes to a charitable people in the community for a sense of belonging. social cause. The Social Bite do not just feed the local homeless

(L-R) THE SOCIAL BITE, PEOPLE AT WORK.

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THE PROJECT CAFE GLASGOW, UK.

This cafe sees itself as a social enterprise that aims to provide a community platform through its food, bringing people together for creative and social exchange. Its cafe as the event space that had been used for exhibitions, workshops, classes, gigs, book launches, playgroups and of course, a place to grab a bite.

“By the term thoughtful food, we wish to express the pride and consideration that goes into our kitchen and comes out in our food. It is a privilege and a great pleasure to serve honest and wholesome meals to our community. We are delighted to have locals bring us their surplus garden or allotment veg in exchange for coffee and cake.�

Besides that, The Project Cafe is conscious about its food sources, choosing to support local producers in efforts to reduce its food mile footprint. Only serving vegetarian cuisines, they stock up their vegetables from Pillars of Hercules, in Fife, and Organic World and Roots and Fruits in Glasgow. Their other dry goods comes from Green City Wholefoods Co-operative, a wholesaler based in the East End of Glasgow.

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SEATING ARRANGEMENTS

DIFFERENT WAYS TO EAT, SIT & DINE; INTERACTIONS. 94


SEATING ARRANGEMENTS This section studies the seating arrangement that results in different human interaction. How simple rearrangements of seats can change the dynamics of one’s eating and dining experience. Designed to accommodate people who enjoys a communal meal, getting to know strangers or just the enlightenment of small talks, inward facing or face to face seating arrangements encourages it and is ideal to build a stronger community and bonds between people. While the flexibility of seating arrangement can be explored for an opposite scenario when personal space is desired, inverting the seating arrangements facing outwards, one gets to enjoy personal territory.

SOCIAL EATING; CUSTOMERS WAITING IN LINE. 95


96


01.

ATELIER/WORKSPACE The floor pattern of this area is in a 2.5mx.2.5m grid for the intended purpose of its modular design to increase or reduce area of space. As its name suggest, this is a designated part of the design for hands-on works, such as slow food production, learning about compost, holding seminar and talks, or even a gallery for exhibition. Based on the architectural concept of the Metabolist, the feasibility for organic growth that creates the ephemeral scenarios of how users use these spatial properties to creating their own community, expanding from a small scale relationship between organizations, into bigger scale cooperation.

02.

For example, as mentioned in earlier chapters about organizations that are already dealing with food surplus- GroCycle: turning used coffee grinds into a nutrient-rich medium for growing mushrooms, and TOAST Ale that uses breadcrumbs that would otherwise been thrown away to brew artisan beer could potentially work together in collaboration for a shared product. If not so, communication amongst these like-minded people encourages information and knowledge exchange to improve their acts of a common goal. The diagrams show how this growth may occurs, not only horizontally but also vertically. Spaces created are only limited by one’s imagination. Further on in this chapter, research and analysis regarding the methodology of Slow Food and Compost were documented for the reference to spatial usage of this area of proposal.

03. 97


ATELIER/WORKSPACE SHARED COMMUNAL SPACES.

98


ATELIER/WORKSPACE VARIED SPATIAL ARRANGEMENTS.

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100


SLOW FOOD

PRESERVATION METHODS.

TYPES OF FOOD PRESERVATIONS FEASIBLE APPLICATIONS WITHIN THE CITY.

With the initial intention to preserve local traditions, regional cuisines and the ecosystem, the slow food movement was founded by Carlo Petrini in 1986 to protest against the opening of a McDonald’s fast food franchise in Rome. Over time, this movement that advocates a cultural shift towards slowing down in the speed of life.

With the ideology of slow food in the city, and dealing with post production, the aim is to counter the rate of consumerism as food and reconsidering the value of food, appreciating how it got to where it on supermarket shelves or our dining plates in a restaurant. Through indirect educational facilitating the activities of slow food, recreating a communal space for secondhand food, dealing with post produce. Instead of feeding bins, proposing to redirect As often quoted in the slow movement community, “It is not about food chains of people in the city. doing everything at a snail’s pace, but at a right speed.” Being mindful and doing things as best as possibly can, rather than as When it comes to food preservation methods, there are many to fast; quality over quantity. Other slow movements includes slow choose from. To ensure that food does not go to waste before it turns fashion that opposes mass production of clothing, encouraging the bad, adequate preservation may be applicable in order to reduce reduction rate of consumerism and slow travel that advocates wastage, just like how our ancestors in ancient times did. However, one’s state of mind of engaging with a different environment for adapting to the context of the fast pace lifestyles of people in the fuller and more personal experience, instead of just following a city, consideration of space availability, light and darkness, climate guidebook. condition, and duration is vital.

101


INSIDE A COMPOST BIN LAYERING OF ORGANIC WASTE.

102


COMPOST

WASTE MANAGEMENT.

ESSENTIAL FACTORS TO COMPOST AFFECTS TO SURROUNDING ENVIRONMENT.

Composting is the anaerobic process for microbes and insects to break down organic matters back into the soil. It is an inexpensive and naturally sustainable cycle to transform waste back into earth to be reused as a rich fertilizer for growing medium. This practice has been increasingly adopted in many households and even cities are trying to put this culture to practical use rather than contributing to the landfill in plastic bags.

To design a facility for composting, important factors should be taken into consideration as how the process will affect its surrounding site context. Key component to a successful compost is a balanced amount of moisture and warmth for its biological process to occur, and the consideration of the smell it gives out.

Storage for compost bins should be in a sheltered area with access to good drainage and water supply. As it is the process of breaking Food waste in the city can be compost on a larger scale if it had the down organic waste, it is best to place these compost bins directly facilities to do so. Instead of commissioning private sectors into on the soil for easy maintenance. treating this as a business rather than a priority to combat environmental issues, the process of collection and separation of waste The most important is obviously its waste; a 1:1 ratio of green waste materials should be made easy for the people prior to encouraging to brown is essential to composting. a systematic and practical habit that is sustainable with little efforts.

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FOOD TRUCK SCENE AT THE DEPOSITORY’S PARK.

The street cafe provides a unique setting, special to cities: a place where people can sit lazily, legitimately, be on view, and watch the world go by. -CHRISTOPHER ALEXANDER, Author of A PATTERN LANGUAGE.

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FOODSCAPE

STREET CAFE + FOOD STANDS.

There is always a ritual at a street cafe: sipping coffee or tea, a small bite to eat, intimate conversations with a couple of people, nodding in agreement or laughing over the top. It is the atmosphere create in this sort of space that amplifies the desire to do so, while watching people carry on with their routines out and about, and the be watched in return. Whether a window seat to exhibit the entire scene, or alfresco along the facade of the premise; a street cafe is a public affair. As oppose to a street cafe, that is attached to a building, food stands are liberated of that. Food stands are similar to food trucks and food carts, except immobile. Food stands may appear insensitively to the urban landscape, but people love it for the reason that it brings them together, it is not about the highly processed food it sells, but the contribution to the social life within a district is its significance. It is as if it were meeting points at a playground for grown ups.

carts together forms a public space in the open. Taking a step further, a few more additional series of the food cart series becomes a familiar sense of a food market setting. If there were clean surfaces, or a place to lean on, people would naturally stay a little longer for a breather before proceeding with their routines. Even better if it is located where there are green pockets, with fresh air in the middle of a concrete jungle and tar paved roads. Both typologies bring people together through the ability to bring the smell of food into the fabric of the city, naturally drawing people into its respective premises, creating communal activities and contributes to the life of cities.

The following elevational perspectives illustrates the essence of THE DEPOSITORY in context of the site in treating its streetscape in regards to the aforesaid ideas of foodscape. Sensitivity to its surrounding buildings while establishing a new typology on the Most of the time, food carts stand alone. However, a series of food urban fabric.

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THE DEPOSITORY; TRONGATE FRONTAGE OPENED DECK PANELS FOR CONNECTIVITY WITH ITS STREETSCAPE.


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SECTIONAL ELEVATION; ALONG TRONGATE. SHOWING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FOOD, ARCHITECTURE & US.


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THE DEPOSITORY; TRONGATE FRONTAGE SENSITIVITY OF MATERIALITY TO COMPLIMENT ITS EXISTING CONTEXT.


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THE DIVISION Taken into consideration of various traveling food units- food trucks, food vendors, even trolley that moves along within the narrow aircraft’s galley; portable food dispenser units such as a gum-ball and vending machines alike, the design is influenced by mobility and portability, as well as the efficiency in storage and feasibility in usage anywhere, everywhere. A minimalistic design approach compacted with compartments to store food surplus drop offs, multifunctioned panels as its external protective layer and also a surface top for food interception. Its unique design gives it its identity no matter which part of Glasgow it travels to. On site, it functions as a unit that facilitates the way THE DEPOSITORY does, except that it is scaled down for its purpose to serve at different locations, that is transported by the public bus system available. These units are designed to trail behind buses, and attaching more units as the buses pick up from bus stops around town and beyond. Depending on the demand and popularity at specific sites, more than one unit could be detached from its transport and serve the community before returning back to its host in the city, where maintenance and up-keeping of these units are ensured, ready for its next cycle of service. 117


FOOD ON WHEELS FOOD CARTS + FOOD TRUCKS.

FOOD TRUCK SITE in AUSTIN, TEXAS.. PHOTO: HUFFPOST

POPULAR STREET FOOD in L.A., CALIFORNIA. PHOTO: KOGI BBQ

Be it food trucks, food vendors, a push-cart of edible goodies, the MOBILITY integration of mobile food has contributed to the life of a city with The difference in mobility is based on its mode of travel. Food carts could be hand-towed, peddled by cycling or animal driven, while diversity of ethnic cuisines and variation of experimental food. food trucks are motorized by fuel. A few decades ago, a peddling mobile unit that sold food mirrors a cheap and convenient gritty food at construction lots or dirty alleys. SPATIAL DIVERSITY A mobile kitchen facility on the street to cater for local pedestrians However, the food scene has changed over the years as trending can be found just about anywhere in towns or cities. Some incorpomobile dining spots just about any city you live in. Each of these rate sitting areas, or a space for stand-eating, of both serving food mobile food vendors contributes to the character of our built through an opening. Storage of ingredients, preparation and cookenvironment with its own unique characteristic, that is what made ing surfaces are spatially incorporated inside of the mobile vehicle. The difference between a food cart and a food truck is also the ability us fall in love with these moving vehicular food places. to cook inside of its vehicle.

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IDENTITY Efforts in experimenting with different styles of signage design and compact architectural and interior design arrangements and decor, along with the authenticity of their menus are what sets them apart, in hand with more options for their customers.

MODULAR DESIGN; IDENTIFIED BY COLOURS. ILLUSTRATED: AUTHOR

MODULAR DESIGN Since its trending days, designers and architects have been collaborating with mobile food owners to come up with designs of a cheaper, faster and more convenient modular and even prefabricated approach to upscale this project. In aims of supporting and celebrating the culture of food on wheels, integrating Food+People+City, in a built environment. Hence, colors and pattern of design play significant identification tools, especially when scaled down to its details- seats, cutleries, take out boxes and overall branding and packaging.

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ELEMENTS + TYPOLOGY VARIATIONS AND IDENTITY.

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TYPES & TRENDS OF FOOD TRUCKS Of what probably began from a basic survival family business of immigration through selling food on the streets, to convenient indulgence of a cold treat during a hot summer day by introducing ice cream trucks. How a decade ago, the trend of mobile food was calorie dense tacos and greasy hot dogs as compared to the current hipster vibe approach of mobile green juice on the go for health junkies. A variety of the different types of food trucks over the decades of its evolution. NUCHAS FOOD TRUCK in TIMES SQUARE, NYC. PHOTO: ROAMINGHUNGER

Some may be against the ideas of mobile food trucks on pristine streets or business district as it may seem like an eyesore of down-grading the social class. Since this mobile food scene was generally pioneered by immigrants years ago, there is an undeniable disgust feeling towards the pollution of its well-suited dress code arena of finance such as on Wall Street in New York City. Not forgetting the additional noise and odors of ethnic world food.

FAMILY BUSINESS; STREET VENDORS in PENANG,MALAYSIA. PHOTO: LOCA4MOTION

As we’ve progressed into a new era, we become more culturally intuned with diverse ethnicities, embracing cultures from all walks of lives, more often of times through food. Interestingly, the notion of how the change in food trend affects architecture though food on wheels in the urban context.

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VENDING MACHINE AUTOMATED FAST FOOD.

An automated machine that is designed to dispense items such as snacks and beverages after inserting credit tokens are known as vending machines. This coin operated machines were developed in England in the early 20th century to dispense postcards and tobacco. Vending machines in Japan are known as JidĹ?-Hanbaiki. Japan has the highest number of vending machines per capita in the world of about 1 machine : 23 people. The variety of products sold in vending machines seems endless, and never uninteresting. With its attractive colours and machine design to attract convenient sales all over the city or town, it also adds character to a place. Distinctive machines that takes into account to blend in to its site context further shapes the landscape of a certain area.

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AMSTERDAM; FEBO OUTLET. PHOTO: AUTHOR

FEBO Automat in the Netherlands is similar to a snack bar with the exception of its intention to be automatic, as its name suggests. It consists of a full floor to ceiling wall of coin operated food machine, with each box-like compartment displaying a hot snack such as a burger, a tray of chips or a croquette that is refilled from the back of the machine’s wall. That is where the hands of the kitchen prepares to resupply the food as customers buys them.

IN JAPAN; A Wide Variety of Vending Machines Available. PHOTO: PINTEREST & GOOGLE IMAGES.

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AIRCRAFT CROSS SECTION ALLOCATED GALLEY SPACE.

FLIGHT ATTENDANTS AT WORK.

SECTION; FUNCTIONAL FOOD STORAGE FOR MOBILE SERVICE.

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GALLEY

LOCOMOTION.

IN-FLIGHT GALLEY; Food Trolley Functionality. PHOTO: MEDIPLAST & TYPEPAD

The designated compartment for food preparation in a locomotive vehicle is called a galley. Whether in ships on sea, trains on railway tracks or in commercial airplanes up in the air, food is a secondary service but not less important. Spatial allocation is usually limited in an efficient and compact layout with longitudinal worktop units and overhead cabinets. Galleys usually facilitates the storage of cooked food and an assorted range of beverages. Food is usually not cooked in the vehicle but reheating may be required. Hence, the use of appliances such as microwave or electric kettle may be incorporated during its facility design. Trolley filled with trays of cooked food not only acts as a storage space but also used for serving on board passengers and is designed to travel to and fro within the narrow width of aisles between seats. The efficiency of a compact and mobile storage trolley needs to be maximized, allowing the attendant to minimize steps as space is limited on board.

In-flight Dining Scenario.

DINING ON BOARD

After the food has been served, it is another challenge to design for compact eating. Foldable table surface is incorporated to the seat design, allowing it to be put away when not in used, maximizing space availability. Functional designs for the flexibility in spatial usage.

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PHASE 02 Upon the success of THE DEPOSITORY + THE DIVISION units, Phase 02 encourages the organic growth for expansion of its communal activities as needed. The possibility is endless as structures can be temporary according to functional purposes of events. As Phase 01 will always exist to serve as its core structure to facilitate any additions to this proposal, so long as there is the issue of food surplus in the context of the city to be dealt with, there would be a need of a place for its citizens to intercept through new and creative ways in its celebration of food.

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WORKSPACE Similar to the proposed ATELIER spaces, workspaces of modular structures arranged in a layout for communal communication, eases collaborative efforts of like-minded organizations to work together towards a common goal. The spaces are flexible to any formal or informal use, depending on its users. Whether an office space, studio, a place for slow food to preserve, ferment or dehydrate; compost or gardening, the options are endless. OUTDOOR LEARNING Through indirect education and awareness by the nature of this project, what better way for an out-of-the-class setting learning environment. Basic pavilion structures and shelter provides room for creative learning. Who said a classroom has to be rectangle in plan? Modular structures could facilitate a similar setting while blurring the lines between the indoors and outdoors.

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FOOD, ARCHITECTURE & US. IN AN URBAN CONTEXT.

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SLOW FOOD “In the end, Slow Food really isn’t just about the food. It’s about community, craft, collaboration. The bringing together of all of these amazing architects, designers, artisans and alchemists to create what will truly be a feast for all senses and sensibilities. This endeavor represents the perfect pairing —and then some.” -ALLISON ARIEFF, Writer & Editor

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CONCLUSION

Aforementioned stated that the exploration of this thesis began from an environmental concern, in specific regards to post production of food, its distribution system and its carbon footprint in food mile that triggered the global food waste statistics drastically.

“What could we do with post produced food that would otherwise go to waste?�

At hindsight, the architectural proposal may seem to be a Utopia for elites as such an upper-classed weekend market selling only organic produce or a scheme for roof top gardens in the city, as if allotments were to be fully utilized. However, the implication of this thesis counters that by asserting social inclusion of food interception activities to generate a sense of community through the celebration of food; one’s eating and dining experience.

To answer the question asked at the beginning of this documentaSECONDHAND FOOD tion alongside supporting precedents through networks, organizais food surplus intercepted. tions, activists; professionals and social workers alike, it is foremost a philosophical interest of societal wellbeing that brought forth The efficacy of this thesis proposal tended to the objectives to cease the tangibility of a place that would potentially act as the antidote in existence as long as there is a presence of food surplus would ubiquitous in an urban context. inspire the community to be imaginative in reinventing public spaces, taking ownership of overlooked spaces in the pubThis proposal theorizes an alternative method of an architectural lic realm for social activities through grassroots involvement. interventions to create a place to stimulate social interconnections Successfully creating a sense of belonging, vitally communal, with the environment- natural and built, through the subject of food accessible to people from different backgrounds and culture while surplus; emphasizes the necessity for an ecological affair dealing eliminating social prejudice in a unified identity of this place. with the impact of current food distribution system that had resulted in the absurdity of massive food surplus. In hopes to foster social SECONDHAND aspires to close the loop between food, integration through the exchange of knowledge, creating dialogue architecture and us. and conversations by participating in activities on site, encouraging collaborative efforts from people of a diverse background.

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REFERENCE

FOOD, ARCHITECTURE & US: SOCIAL FOOD

FOOD ORGANIZATIONS: THE REAL JUNK FOOD PROJECT, UK. http://therealjunkfoodproject.org/about/ FOOD EVENTS & MOVEMENTS: SLOW FOOD www.slowfood.com Peters, Katrin, & Eisenack, Marco, Slow Down in Munich, www.issuu.com, 2014. Petrini, Carlo, Slow Food: The Case for Taste, Columbia University Press, 2001. FOOD POLICIES: FRANCE SUPERMARKET BANNED FOOD WASTE. France Passes ‘Pioneering’ Food Waste Bill to Ban Supermarkets from Binning Unused Food, Samuel, Henry, Paris, France, telegraph.co.uk, 10 DEC 2015.

UNITED KINGDOM FOOD WASTE RECYCLING. Tesco to Give Surplus Fresh Food to FareShare to Help, Charities, Smithers, Rebecca, The Guardian, UK, 16 OCT 2013. GLASGOW FOOD WASTE POLICY , GOV.UK 2016.

ANTIDOTE:

THE CITY’S ANTIDOTE FOR FOOD SURPLUS ARCHITECTURAL CONCEPT & IDEOLOGY. Insane Asylum Plans Galbraith, David, oobject.com

Asylum Architecture Roberts, Andrew 1981- The Lunacy Commission Middlesex University web, London. Architecture of Rehabilitation: Rehabilitation and Reinsertion Centre for Adolescent Offenders. Solines, Patricio, docs.rwu.edu/Architectural Theses/96, 2014.

French Supermarket Banned from Throwing Away & Spoiling Unsold Food, Payton, Matt, independent.co.uk, 5 FEB 2016.

Architectural Spaces & the Reformation of Drug Addicts. Stephanidou, Ermina, academia.edu, 2011.

In Global First, All French Supermarkets Are Now Legally Required to Donate Unsold Food to Charities, Lo, Karen, The Daily Mail, 5 FEB 2016.

SECONDHAND:

French Law Forbids Food Waste by Supermarkets, Chrisafis, Angelique, The Guardian, Paris, France, 4 FEB 2016. INGLORIOUS FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, FRANCE. Godoy, Maria, In Europe, Ugly Sells in this Produce Aisle, www.npr.org, June 2014. Intermarché–“Inglorious Fruits and Vegetables”, www.theflexitarian.co.uk, December 2014. Minder, Raphael, Tempting Europe with Ugly Fruits, New York Times, May 2014. “Too Ugly for Supermarket”, Daily Mail UK, September 2013.

CANDLERIGGS QUARTER

SITE HISTORY Who Remembers Wimpy on Union Street, Here are other old Glasgow spots we miss. O’Neill, Christina, Evening Times, June 2015.

PHASE 01.

THE DEPOSITORY FOOD HALL MERCATO METROPOLITANO, MILAN, ITALY. http://mercatometropolitano.it

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FOOD STORAGE ORIGINAL (Unpacked) UNVERPACKT, BERLIN, GERMANY. http://original-unverpackt.de WEFOOD, COPENHAGEN, DENMARK. Social Supermarkets a ‘WIN-WIN-WIN’ for Europe’s Poor, Graslie, Serri, npr.org, December 2013.

THE DIVISION

FOOD ON WHEELS From Chuck Wagons to Pushcarts: The History of the Food Truck Butler, Stephanie, history.com, August 2014. Street Meat: The Rise of NYC’s Halal Cart Culture Danovich, Tove, eater.com, July 2015.

Denmark Opens First Food Waste Supermarket Selling Surplus Produce, Payton, Matt, Independent.co.uk, February 2016.

10 Food Trucks You Need To Visit In Austin, TX VanWettering, Sarah, March 2014.

The World’s First Supermarket Selling Only Expired Food Has Opened in Denmark, Wang, Amy X., qz.com, February 2016.

OTHERS READING MATERIAL Public Markets: An Ecological Perspective on Sustainability as a Megatrend, Luca M. Visconti, Yuko Minowa and Pauline Maclaran, Journal of Macromarketing Vol. 34(3) 349-368, New York, USA, 2014.

ZERO WASTE Zero Waste infographics for the CCPA, drawingchange.com, 28 MAR 2013. THE STORY OF STUFF PROJECT storyostuff.org, DEC 2007. EATERIES MANA! FAST SLOW FOOD, HONG KONG. http://mana.hk ATELIER/WORKSPACE COMPOST How Cities Compost Mountains of Food Waste Howard, Brian Clark, National Geographic, June 2013. Why Compost. recyclenow.com. Composting. huttcity.govt.nz

A. Food Choice and Sustainability: Why Buying Local, Eating Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work.  Oppenlander, Richard, Langdon Street Press, USA, NOV 2013. Trends in UK Food Production, Global & UK Supply, Food Pocket Book, 2013. Crop Prospect & Food Situation, FAO 2013. Global Food Losses and Food Waste, FAO 2011. FILMS/DOCUMENTARIES Supermarket Secrets, UK TV Channel 4- TwentyTwenty, 2005. 45 Days: The Life & Death of a Broiler Chicken, Dir. chickenindustry.com, March 2006. Live Fast Die Young- The Life of a Meat Chicken, Dir. Compassion in World Farming, 2007.

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FILMS

DOCUMENTARIES

LITERATURE

01| THE HUNDRED FOOT JOURNEY DIRECTOR: LASSE HALLSTRÖM, 2014

01| HUNGRY FOR CHANGE DIRECTOR: JAMES COLQUHOUN, LAURENTINE TEN BOSCH, CARLO LEDNESMA, 2012

01| IN DEFENSE OF FOOD AUTHOR: MICHAEL POLLAN, 2008

02| CHOCOLAT DIRECTOR: LASSE HALLSTRÖM, 2001 03| TAMPOPO DIRECTOR: JÛZÔ ITAMI, 1985 04| JIRO DREAMS OF SUSHI DIRECTOR: DAVID GELB, 2013 05| TOAST DIRECTOR: S.J. CLARKSON, 2010 06| BREAKFAST AT TIFFANY’S DIRECTOR: BLAKE EDWARDS, 1961 07| EAT DRINK MAN WOMAN DIRECTOR: ANG LEE, 1994

02| FAST FOOD NATION DIRECTOR: RICHARD LINKLATER, 2006 03| COWSPIRACY DIRECTOR: KIP ANDERSEN, KEEGAN KUHN, 2014

02| FOOD AND THE CITY AUTHOR: JENNIFER COCKRALL-KING, 2012 03| HUNGRY CITY AUTHOR:CAROLYN STEEL, 2008

04| A BITE OF CHINA PRODUCTION: CHINA CENTRAL TELEVISION, 2012

04| JAPANESE WOMEN DON’T GET OLD OR FAT AUTHOR: NAOMI MORIYAMA & WILLIAM DOYLE, 2007

05| BEGIN JAPANOLOGY PRODUCTION: NHK JAPAN, 2007-PRESENT

05| FOOD RULES AUTHOR: MICHAEL POLLAN, 2009

06| SUPERMARKET SECRETS PRODUCTION: BBC ONE, 2013

06| THE CHINA STUDY AUTHOR: T. COLIN CAMPBELL & THOMAS M. CAMPBELL, 2004 07| THE ATLAS OF FOOD AUTHOR: ERIK MILLSTONE & TIM LANG, 2003

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APPENDIX

SITE:

CANDLERIGGS QUARTER EVENTS & DEVELOPMENT

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GLASGOW CITY COUNCIL:

RESIDENTIAL FOOD WASTE BINS OFFICIAL LETTER & LEAFLET

FIRST GLASGOW:

GLASGOW BUS ROUTES TIMETABLE, NETWORK & DESTINATION

FARESHARE:

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FOOD DONATION FAQ

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MERCHANT CITY FESTIVAL 2014.


CANDLERIGGS MARKET ALONG WILSON STREET.

GOOD FOOD GLASGOW GLASGOW RESTAURANT FESTIVAL 2016.

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SITE DEMOLITION PHASES.

SITE DEVELOPMENT August 1996: Consents are granted for the redevelopment of the January 2009: The Evening Times reports that Selfridges have no site including restoration, part demolition and façade retention immediate plans to build the proposed mixed use development to provide 49 flats, shops, rooftop restaurant, business centre and that was planned for the site. offices. The plans are subsequently abandoned. July 2009: The Evening Times and The Metro report on plans to September 2000: Local planners report that the building has stood clear the site and convert it to a public park and a car park while empty for over 10 years. External inspection reveals that the render Selfridges consider the full and permanent redevelopment of the on the Candleriggs elevation is starting to peel and vegetation is site. This may involve demolition of derelict buildings on the site. growing from the wallhead. The Trongate elevation is tied and the A planning application for temporary land use is expected to be parapet cracked. The downpipes appear faulty, leading to water lodged soon. A public consultation event is being held at the City leaks. Iron oxide has started to streak the Candleriggs elevation. Halls on July 15th from 4pm-8pm. Permissions are granted for mixed use development, including September 2009: External inspection finds that the building has residential, hotel, commercial, retail and leisure uses. changed little since the previous visit, although it is heartening to December 2000: Permissions are sought for mixed use develop- note that although the ground floor retail units are vacant they have ment between 5-67 Candleriggs, 10 Hutcheson Street, 106-172 been repainted. Trongate, 7 Wilson Street and 5-7 and 16-44 Brunswick Street. The proposals include selective demolition, refurbishment and June 2010: Selfridges lodge an application to demolish Smith‘s new build for residential and commercial uses. SCT welcomes Court to create a 24 hour car-park, as a short to medium term use the application as constituting a significant focus to the Merchant until a longer term solution for the site is proposed. Should the City Townscape Heritage Initiative, though it expresses concern scheme be approved the developers envisage temporary markets, at some design elements and the proposed loss of some ancient landscaping and an outdoor cafe area for the space. The Glasgow thorough fares. Evening Times reports on a number of objections being lodged against the scheme, including the Merchant City Townscape May 2002: SCT receives reports that some emergency works Initiative and the Merchant City Community Council. SCT lodges an have been carried out following a collapse onto Candleriggs. The objection, acknowledging the poor condition of Smith‘s Court, property has now been purchased by Selfridges. Discussions are querying whether the quality of design and level of aspiration of the continuing with regards to a proposed department store on the site application is sufficent for the Glasgow Central conservation area, and noting the application does not address the derelict condition of 4 listed buildings. of the remaining buildings on the Selfridges development site. June 2004: External inspection reveals the building to remain at November 2010: External inspection finds the building remains risk. Part of the Candleriggs elevation has now been demolished. derelict and continues to deteriorate. The supporting girders are September 2007: External inspection reveals that the building is rusting. There are missing slates from the roof. The east elevation now supported by four sets of girders. All the windows have been is becoming increasingly discoloured suggesting damp problems. covered in plastic sheeting. The render is cracked in many places The paint on the parapet is cracking and flaking. and there is spalling at roof level. ARCHITECTURE OF GLASGOW (1987) Gomme and Walker 1987, p54. Information by courtesy of the Buildings of Scotland Research Unit. © Crown copyright, Historic Scotland.


FORMER SELFRIDGES SITE REJUVENATION. The massive scheme will result in a new hotel, shops, restaurants, bistros, homes and a public square. The development will include 135 flats for sale on the Wilson Street/Candleriggs corner, 377 flats for rent along Candleriggs, a 124 room boutique hotel facing the public square, a 597 bed student block fronting Hutcheson Street and 57,000sq ft of shops, restaurants and bistros. The site, which is bounded by Wilson Street, Hutcheson Street, Candleriggs and Trongate has been lying derelict for more than 15 years. A wide range of uses are planned for the area which is seen as the last piece in the regeneration of Merchant City. They will surround a new central square called Brunswick Place in honour of the first Canadian Prime Minister Sir John Macdonald who was born in Glasgow 200 years ago in a property in that street.

PHOTO: HIDDENGLASGOW,JULY 2013.

“We are extremely excited with the plans that have been developed so far which we believe provides a comprehensive mixed use scheme that will cater for all age groups. That part of the development fronts on to a section of Argyle Street that has needed a boost for some time is an added plus.”

A new pedestrian route will run from the south west of the site to the north-east connecting Argyll Street to Merchant Square and the City Halls. Car parking will only be available for the privately owned flats as the scheme is within walking distance of the main commercial area, rail and bus stations. However secure cycle parking will be provided throughout the development. Properties will feature green roofs and roof top gardens planted with native species and bird boxes.

-DAVID GROVER

Mace chief executive officer

REVEALED: FORMER SELFRIDGES SITE TO GET A £110M REJUVENATION Nicoll, Vivienne, Evening Times, February 2015. ii


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Post Graduate Architectural Thesis.  

Secondhand- Food Surplus. An architectural thesis proposal for a place to deal with food surplus as an antidote for the city.

Post Graduate Architectural Thesis.  

Secondhand- Food Surplus. An architectural thesis proposal for a place to deal with food surplus as an antidote for the city.

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