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For all environmentalist, health & food enthusiast. For the local farmers, and all hands involved in food production. For the people who chose to eat less meat, in efforts of giving back to the environment, knowing that all meat comes from living, breathing creatures. For my family, to better health.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to extend my sincere gratitude and appreciation to my dissertation supervisor Dr. David Grierson, for his esteem knowledge and continuous guidance throughout the process of my writing progression. I would also like to thank dissertation advisor, Jacqueline Lister, for her teachings and dedication to the coursework. With special thanks to my mother for her patience in countless proofreads.








I. BREAD OUR DAILY BREAD From Seed to Load...and to the shelves Food Mile


II. VEGETABLES GREEN FINGERS Eat Your View The Green Mile Summative Carbon Footprint: Vegans, Vegetarians & Omnivores


III. CHEESE CRYING OVER SPILLED MILK CAFO Food Mile Summative Carbon Footprint of Cheese


IV. CHICKEN PATTY CHICKEN RUN Factory Farm Food Process & Production Food Mile Summative Carbon Footprint of Broiler Chicken



PART II: FOOD, ARCHITECTURE & US. CONSEQUENCES Diet & Lifestyle Environmental Impact




MITIGATION St. Werburghs City Farm, Bristol | UK. Inglorious Fruits and Vegetables, Provins | FR. INFARM, Berlin | DE. Fruta Feia, Lisbon | PT.


SITOPIA Arcosanti, Phoenix | USA.










Often we are reminded that we are what we eat, but how seriously we address the food we consume is highly questionable. What used to be the fundamental essence for survival is in total reverse as of now; to the way we consume our meals. Everyone eats, but who amongst us are mindful about the food we do eat? The food system of today plays a greater role than we would care for. This is a deeply alarming fact because it indirectly controls our daily lives. The coexistence of world hunger and spiking obesity rates send alerting signals of a severe flaw in our food distribution system. It is not the inefficiency of food production because hunger is not caused by scarcity, but by the collateral effects of poverty and lack of democracy. What happened to the good old days where a marketplace was the center of the city and also the hearts of the people? Livelihoods depended upon sales of produce and purchasing them was a part of our social lives.

“Don’t eat anything your grandmother wouldn’t recognize as food.” – Michael Pollan. Food Rules, An Eater’s Manual.

Just like the ancient Greek Agora, a designated open place of assembly. Numerous tented stalls formed a marketplace, where merchants traded and craftsmen sold goods. A place to exchange knowledge and food clearly defined the Agora; social life in the market. We no longer know where our food comes from seem to answer fairly to the aforementioned question. We allowed large food retailers to widen our relationship with food by supporting cheap and convenient supermarket products. We can reverse this short-sighted cycle by the choices we make, through the food we put on our plates today.



The objective of this dissertation is to trace the food chain of the 21st century diet. Awareness is key to where our food comes from because what we feed ourselves is related to a series of world crisis. By addressing the current relationship between food and us in response to architecture, we are able to discover the serious ecological footprint and impact on the planet. Due to the inequality of food distribution, the act of eating differs from developed countries as over-consumption because of wealth; while undeveloped countries remained in starvation and under-nourishment. On one hand, the poor gets poorer because of our demands for cheap food, we do not value the labour of those who grow our food, mostly in developing countries; developed countries with the capability to afford food are over-nourished with distressing obesity rates. The convenience of pre-packed ready meals sold in every supermarket shelves, incorporated with health assurance and nutritional benefits, what used to take hours in the kitchen for preparation now only requires a fraction of that time and a beep away; from the microwave oven, onto your dinner table. Not to mention these highly processed foods contain low dietary nutrients and high food additives, it is no wonder heart attack is the number one cause of death in our society today. Inspired by London based architect, lecturer and writer, Carolyn Steel through her book Hungry City, which connects the dots of food and cities by analyzing and tracing the steps of food production and its food mile. She mentioned that we buy 80% of our food from supermarkets. This modern food distribution system that continuously shapes our cities are blinding us from the transparency of our food chain, widening our relationship with food, from farm to table. Due to our oblivion to survive in today’s urban lifestyle, we succumb to the paradigm of convenient food. In defence of augury, this study gives us insight of what we can choose to do in favour to respond to these dire crisis.



BURGER CONSTRUCTION To deconstruct a burger, you would get: the bun, meat patty, dairy cheese, hints of vegetables and ketchup. Now, reconstruct the same burger, but this time from its sources. That burger may cost as cheap as 99p, or as expensive as £12 served gourmet. Regardless of which, it doesn’t seem like the first impression would be the cause of its cost of vast difference. Do we really know where our food comes from?



Since the beginning of agriculture, wheat has been grown on a massive scale. Hence, bread is a popular staple food worldwide. Due to local traditions and availability of ingredients, there is a diverse variation of bread making, and its outcome of types, textures and sizes to compliment various meals.

added to give bread its rise. Flour is the main and base ingredient for any loaf of bread, most conventionally of wheat. Water acts as the binding agent and salt adds flavour to the loaf. So why are calcium propionate, niacin and diglycerides fatty acids included on the ingredient label of any commercially packed loaf of bread on supermarket shelves?

Traditionally, bread is made of flour, water and salt. Yeast is FROM SEED TO LOAF… and to the shelves.

FIGURE 1. Land used for wheat production on a global scale in comparison to the plot area of the UK.

Wheat is British’s No.1 grown crop. According to records1, 2/5 of arable land in Britain is used to sow wheat, producing 13-17million tonnes per year. In 2006, total global wheat production was almost 600 million tonnes. This is equivalent to 9 times the size of the land of UK!

would stay edible for more than a day, or literally having a longer shelf life for sales, efforts such as adding unpronounceable additives and enhancements were made for the mentioned reason. How both MORRISONS and TESCO are able to price a pack of 6 pieces burger bun at as low as 65p as further analysed in FIGURE 2.

Commercial bread produced in factory is more or less made the same way as one would homemade, with the exception that it is produced on a much larger scale to meet supply demands across the country’s supermarket shelves. Over the years, more methods of improvement were applied into the industrialised bread making process.

One could conclude that this is a win-win scenario; people are fed, sales are made. However, the paradox remains debatable if one were to question: What exactly are we paying for, OR more importantly, what exactly are we feeding ourselves?

Since industrialisation, the fundamental of bread making has been unrecognizably altered. To ensure that store bought bread is perfectly shaped, coloured and

The case of low cost food is equivalent to low quality nutritional consumption. 9

FIGURE 2. Comparison of ingredients in store bought bread; Morrisons (L) vs. Tesco (R).

Based on FIGURE 2, we can analyse the content of our store bought bread, in hand with what we are consuming. By comparing both products, we can identify that DATEMa, or mono- and diglycerides, are present. It replaces natural fat in the bread making process such as butter, due to its inexpensive cost. This additive function as a dough conditioner by speeding up the bread making process, because when more bread is produced in a shorter period of time, more profit is made. Another additive present in both products is a flour treatment agent, Ascorbic Acid. Ascorbic acid is added while baking as it acts as an oxidant in the aid to retain gas in dough, enabling the dough to rise more to give the illusion that it is a bigger and better loaf of bread. a

Other additives found are Calcium Propionate that acts as an antifungal preservative that inhibits the growth of mold for longer lasting bread and reducing agent, L-Cysteine Hydrochloride, which is a natural amino acid used to enhance the elasticity of the dough, with the awful possibility of deriving from animal hair and feathers2. From wheat to bread, the ingredients that go into production had come a long way since supermarket domination of supply and demand. Is it worth paying less for food while getting more additives and preservatives in our diets?

Diacetyl Tartaric Acid Esters of Monoglycerides. An emulsifier used in baking to strengthen the dough through strong gluten network properties. 10


FIGURE 3. Food mile of a loaf of bread from field to plate.

According to FIGURE 3, wheat grains are milled into flour for further production including bread after harvest. Grains are transported and stored in silo at factories, along with the other essential raw ingredients for bread making such as yeast, salt, additives etc. The process of production includes sifting of flour, mixing and kneading bread

dough, followed by proving or fermenting, before it is ready to be baked, cooled and packaged. After individually packed and labeled according, these factory-produced bread will be transported to its supplied supermarkets to be sold on shelves, and bought home by consumers.


FIGURE 4. UK’s wheat production and usage statistics.

is it worth paying less for food and compromising on quality? By purchasing cheap food in supermarkets, allowing more additives and preservatives for longer shelf life, we blindly support the efficiency and sufficiency in modern food distribution system in big retail chains. While in return, bringing harm to our health.

FIGURE 4 shows the rise by 39% in wheat production from 2013 to 2014 in the UK3. According to DEFRA, 80% of the milled flour from wheat grains are used to make bread. We can assume that the food ratio converted will be equally distributed in feeding the nation. Arguably,


GREEN FINGERS At an early age, we learn about germination. With sufficient sunlight, the right amount of water and temperature, seeds on a bed of nutritious soil will

sprout within a day or two. Depending on the type of plant, its growth rate of production varies. Here, we analyze the growth requirement of lettuce.

FIGURE 5. Seed germination process.

EAT YOUR VIEW After sprouting, a head a lettuce grows from seed to salad bowls in 6-8 weeks4. It can be easily grown from your background in a container of any sizes, as long as there is a framed structure, lined with wire mesh base and hardware cloth. Compartmentalisation for modular production is entirely up to you. The idea of ‘eating your view’ not only advocates one’s understanding of where food comes from, what it was like before it arrived on to your plate, it contributes to the


environment during photosynthesis, not forgetting its natural landscaping functionalities. However, environmental contribution changes when the discussion is taken on a larger scale of vegetation production to feed people in cities. From seed to salad bowls, or slide in between the layers of our burger construction, we can analyse its carbon footprint during post-harvest, cooling and storage, transport and distribution.


Although the contribution of greenhouse gases emission from vegetation is much less significant than the meat and dairy industry as compared in later chapters and summarised in FIGURE 26. Calculation records worked out that about 0.33% of UK’s total Carbon Dioxide emission comes from agriculture. This amount is estimated to double up when taking into account of transportation means5. The mass production of lettuce grown locally in the UK requires intense energy in lighting and heating greenhouses due to its climate3. When imported from overseas, critical factors to ensure the freshness of these salad leaves during transport and distribution must not be neglected, as lettuce perishes at a fast rate. Hence, precise logistics measures are needed to ensure these greens stay fresh throughout their entire life cycle from sprout to shelves. Here, one can debate to whether it is more rational to invest in energy efficient greenhouses for locally grown produce, or lengthening the food chain, by importing our greens.



FIGURE 6. Food ratio conversion of vegetables vs. meat

In relation to prior discussion, comparisons can be made of land area used for vegetation to feed humans, versus agriculture crops grown as feed for livestock.

Sustainability Secret, an average person on a vegan diet uses 1/6 acre of land for food. Compare that to a person on a vegetarian diet, 3 times of land area is used, whereas an astonishing 18 times of land area is needed to cater for a person on an omnivorous diet.

Of equal amount of land area, approximately 16,800 kilograms of vegetables can be produced, while only 170 kilograms that of meat production6. That is almost 1,000 times the amount of edible food produce to feed us!

The obvious plus side to eating more greens whether on a vegan, vegetarian or omnivorous diet is that all vegetables are whole foods, as we all recognized in its raw state. In the end, the lifestyle choices any individual decides will have significant environmental impact.

According to the documentary Cowspiracy: The

FIGURE 7. Comparison of land area needed based on lifestyle choices. 19


Cheese is the by-product of milk, of which the milk protein Casein coagulates and is acidified by the addition of enzyme Rennet. The source of dairy products comes from cow’s milk. In 2013, 13,215 million litres of milk were produced in the UK7, with Holstein Friesians to be the most popular breed,

dominating 55% of all 1.78 million dairy cows8. This is because of its high milk yielding production ability of an average of 7,655 litres, through 3.2 lactations annually9.

LIFE CYCLE OF DAIRY COWS In the 21st century commercial dairy farming, newborn calves are taken away from their mothers 1-3 days after birth. They are separated by gender; female calves will inherit the same fate of living milk machines whereas male calves will be sold for veal meat as they are seen worthless in the dairy production sector. We do not think twice of dairy products besides the seamless green pastures of cows feeding on nature’s gift on farmlands. However, the milk factory of today is far from that. These creatures spend their entire lives indoors on hard concrete floors, with their udders connected to a milking apparatus as shown in the figure below.

FIGURE 8. Scenario of 21st century commercial dairy farming.


FIGURE 9. Mastitis infected cow.

Given the facts that an average lactating cow is forced to produce milk 3 times a year with artificial insemination, this unnatural phenomenon causes most dairy cows to suffer from Mastitis, a painful inflammation of breast tissues in the udders. With the extra kilos of milk to carry, it is physically challenging for these mammals to support their own weight, hence becoming lame. In a poorly ventilated environment of high humidity, infections are housed to spread.


FIGURE 10. Cattle feedlot, California USA.

In other words, Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation, or in simpler terms factory farming, is the production of animals in volumes in supplying for the demand of consumers today. Over the course of the 20th century animal agriculture, this practices the confinement of animals for more than a month, in an unfavourable and unnatural habitat of growth.

In this case, dairy cows in factory farm go through the high volume assembly line production, depending on corn or grain feed due to cost efficiency. This outcome goes against the nature intended feed of grass, which in no surprise causes ill health and diseases. Rumen Acidosis is a common disease amongst CAFO cattle. The cause of this phenomenon is the excessive ingestion of carbohydrate such as grains and cereals that are indigestible by cows naturally. This is a metabolic disease when pH values falls below 5.5 in the rumen of the cows. Consequently, secreting more acid-producing bacteria, worsened when absorbed through the rumen walls.

Over the past 5 years, the number of dairy cows in the UK had dramatically reduced by 6.7%10. Ironically, it is recorded that there is a 6.2% increase in milk delivery just in the previous year, amounting in 1,155 million litres in 201411. A rational respond: Where did all these milk come from?


FIGURE 11. Fistulated ‘hole-y’ cows.

Technology enabled factory farmers to fit a cannula, which acts as a porthole to direct access into the cow’s rumen in order to manage its digestive tract. The oddity of this 20cm diameter hole of fistulation in cows seems inhumane; definitely unnatural, although it is for the examination of the well being of the cow’s digestion. Factory farmed dairy cows today have an average lifespan of just 4 to 5 years, only a quarter life in comparison to a healthy cow, that could live up to 20 years old. With the objective to rear as many cattle as the space could accommodate for maximum profit at the end of the line, alongside minimising human labor; the animal’s liberty to move around is limited in effect to reduce its energy consumption, and efficiency is the ultimate goal.


FOOD MILE We know now where our milk comes from in order for cheese production. The manufacturing process of cheese after coagulation when Rennet is added includes setting, cutting, cooking and draining of the curds. After which, it will be milled and salted, followed by packaging and pressing to be left to age for a period of time, depending on the taste, type and texture desired.

Unless you buy organic, and know your cheese monger, you would get cheese in its rustic state. In reality, we purchase most of our cheese products from shelves of supermarket aisle. In 2012, more than ÂŁ35 million were spent on advertising cheese itself in the UK. Making it the second largest dairy expenditure followed by yogurt advertisements12.

FIGURE 12. Packed cheese: Mature Cheddar by Morrisons

Based on this equation, a lorry carrying 35 tonnes of cheese per kilometre will amount an average of 2.6 kilograms of Carbon Dioxide emission. Still, we continually demand for lower prices when we can easily purchase 250 grams worth of cheese at as low as ÂŁ1.89 today.

As informed on its website, this product is produced in Bradford, BD3 7DL, UK13. It is then distributed to the whole of Great Britain over a distance depending on its destination. For instance, it will take 326.4 kilometre driving from Bradford to Glasgow. According to The Atlas of Food, the comparative emission of Carbon Dioxide emission from transporting 1 tonne for 1 kilometre by a 35 tonne lorry is 50-99 grams14.

FIGURE 13. Food conversion ratio of transporting cheese and its Carbon Dioxide emission.



FIGURE 14. Carbon footprint of cheese production.

According to DEFRA 2012, the average purchase of cheese per person is 114.1 grams weekly. For every litre of milk, 1000 litres of water is required15. Hence, 160 ml of water is needed to meet our daily cheese consumption of an approximately 16 grams. Based on previous discussion, 7.6 million litres of water is consumed by dairy cows over a lifetime of 5 years, through 3 lactating cycles, producing 7,655 litres of milk.


Every 100 grams of maize feed supplies 360 kcal16. Based on this calculation, a 400 kg dairy cow requires 7160 kcal energy, which amounts to 1988.89 grams of feed, daily. According to the general nutritional standards, an average men only requires 2500 kcal for moderate daily activities. It is no wonder to why half of the world’s agriculture crops goes to feeding livestock, while one-third, 45% of the world’s fresh water is used for the very purpose.

"The greatness of a nation and its moral progress can be judged by the ways its animals are treated." – Mahatma Gandhi

Along with 23 kilograms of faeces and 10 kilograms urine per day, contributing to 6% emission of Methane gas of its daily energy intake. In 2006, UN concludes that rearing cattle produces more greenhouse gases than driving cars!

It may sound as though 1 acre of land, the size of a football field, is cleared every second for grazing seem absurd. Try taking into account the land needed to grow its feed, a single cow would take up 2 to 5 acres of land17! Dairy production further exacerbates world environmental crisis as statistics shown that 51% of all greenhouse gases comes from animal agriculture, of which 43.4% of the world’s Ammonia emission (Battye et al. 1994), and 36.4 kilograms per day of Carbon Dioxide.

Summarily, people are forced to compete with livestock for food. Knowing the irrational food conversion ratio, especially when we demand for processed food, in this case - Cheese; lengthens our food chain.

FIGURE 15. Daily consumption and waste produced of dairy cow.



Since the horse-meat scandal began about a year ago, uprising concerns had led people resorting to white meat. There has been a constant increase in poultry production since 1990 to 2012 as recorded by DEFRA 201118. Today in the UK, we eat over 25 kilograms of poultry meat per person per year as it is perceived as a

healthy and nutritious source of protein. The significant demand for chicken on the table opened a large window for profit for suppliers globally. Neglecting animal welfare, intensive farming methods for cheap meat industrial production implies environmental pollution and human health impact.


FIGURE 16. Number of days to raise a broiler chicken in comparison.

Commercially reared chickens that prioritize the production of meat instead of eggs are known as Broiler Chickens. It has been popularized in the UK since the late 1950s, having over 870 million slaughtered in 201219. Back in 1950, it would take 84 days to raise a 2 kilograms chicken20. A researcher from University of Arkansas compared this extreme growth rate to humans; we would be 156.4 kilograms by the age of 2 years old 21!


The unfortunate reality is that most of the lives of these chickens were confined under intensive factory farming and production in order to meet our demands on the table. While we enjoyably consume 4 times the amount of chicken meat today as compared to 30 years back, the factory-farmed chickens that we buy were pushed to their biological limits to maximize profit. With technology advancement of genetic selection and growth promoting antibiotics, on an unnatural diet, these broilers grow at an alarming rate of just 45 days to meet market weight.

FIGURE 17. Broiler chicken breed: ROS 308

ROS 308 is the ideal broiler chicken species because of its desirable genetic qualities and physical build up that meets buyers demand. Due to immature rapid growth rate, the legs of these chickens are usually undeveloped and unable to support its body weight; they become lame

and are prone to many diseases. Of which includes Coccidiosis, parasitic disease causing the damage of intestinal wall of chickens. It is infectious through contact with faeces or infected tissues22. In unsanitary indoor accommodations, they become highly infected.



FIGURE 18. Factory farmed poultry.

Fundamentally, the minimal space density of birds in factories to live comfortably is 3 birds/m2 23. Of course, the well being of the birds is better if more space is provided, allowing them to move about as they would in their natural habitat. Sadly, the current accommodation in most farms is 22 birds/m2, more than 7 times the ethically allocated space. Optimum light and airflow are essential for any living beings for sight and psychological comfort. In an over-


heated and humid environment as such, these broilers pant out water from their breath in order to cool down. A dusty blanket of feathers and litter hanging in the air of these sheds, along with stenches of faeces and Ammonia from their excretes make the air quality unhealthy to breath. It is advised that factory farm workers do not expose themselves to Ammonia level of more than 35ppm per minute24. However, in these inhumane sheds, the level of Ammonia is exposed to broilers at 72ppm per minute, for weeks21.

FIGURE 19. Chicken suffering from hock burns.

usually dealt with by the trimming of their beaks. According to the guidance of Poultry Farming: Welfare Regulation UK, it is stated that a qualified adult above 18 years old can carry out beak trimming on reared meat chickens or egg-laying hens when necessary on birds, preferably on day-old chicks, or less than 10 days old26. Most often these are done without any anaesthetic.

Hock Burns are physical signs to identify chickens that suffer from the aforementioned illness. It is the result of burned skin on the leg from Ammonia in litter. Professor Donald M. Broom, University of Cambridge, went on a ‘Hock Burn Hunt’ and had no problem finding chickens sold on refrigerated shelves of all the BIG 4b in the UK, and concluded that as buyers, we can ourselves identify and decide whether or not to purchase them21. As they rapidly increase in size, the spaces shared decrease simultaneously. This overcrowding scenario deteriorates the quality of conditions for the well being of the livestock, not to mention, it encourages cannibalism in order for survival. Raised in windowless sheds, most chickens we buy from the supermarket had never seen daylight in their entire lifetime25. One of the unfavourable social behaviours that eventually lead to cannibalism is feather pecking. These aggressive birds act out under stressful conditions and are b

FIGURE 20. Infrared beak trimming machine.

UK’s top 4 dominating supermarket chains: Tesco, Asda, Sainsbury’s and Morrisons. 33


FIGURE 21. Farm to factory; production line of broiler chickens.

Quintessentially, we assume that fresh chicken from the slaughterhouse is minced and made into burger patties, along with fresh ingredients such as eggs, flour and herbs seasoned to make the meat served on our plates, just like our mothers would. Truth is, as 6 weeks old broiler chickens will be collected efficiently though machines rather than workers, pushed into crates for transport in the night, as it is supposed to be a calming experience for the chickens as they go on a fearful and fatal journey to the processing plant. Stacked in trucks, they are driven to slaughter. Upon arrival, the birds will be hung upside down onto conveyors, drown in electrified salt water, also known as a stun cabinet, for 7 seconds. Not dead but paralysed, they proceed to get their throats cut and left to bleed until dead27. In order to ease the de-feathering process, the carcasses are immersed and scalded in hot water, after which proceeding to the evisceration area where their internal organs are removed.


The cleaned carcasses will then be cooled for cutting into parts, or to be packed. It is during this chilling period too, that some may be pre-cooked for convenient meals. The on-going dispute of having no meat in a meat patty is arguable with just a twist in policy without violating the food industry’s guidelines for food process and production. According to the Food Standards Agency (FSA), burger products are classified in to standard and economy. The difference is that of a standard chicken burger needs to consist of a minimum of 55% meat, but only 41% if labeled value or economy. Judging by the interest in profitability, it is not difficult to believe that the deliciously affordable chicken that we eat in our burgers could be the pinkish sludge controversy that chef Jamie Oliver recreated in efforts to educate children of what goes into one of the nation’s favourite processed food; chicken nuggets28. In which he created an unappetizing mixture by blending the carcass and leftover meat of a whole chicken after its prime cuts. Industrially called “Mechanically-Separated Meat”, then mouled into what we recognised as patties, sausages or nuggets; breaded and fried.

FOOD MILE In the hour long video, Britain’s Really Disgusting Food, Episode 1: Meat, host Alex Riley of BBC investigated that it is ironically cheaper to farm chickens in other parts of the world such as Brazil, presumably due to its massive crop production hence cost efficient feed for the birds; salted and frozen, then exported to the Netherlands.

Here, the birds are defrosted and desalted in order for rehydration, proceeding to refreeze again before finally exporting to the UK for further meat processing and manufacturing. In the end, he studied that because these meat were salted and frozen, only a fraction of the EU Tax is implied.

FIGURE 22. Everyday Value Breaded Chicken Burgers by Tesco

FIGURE 22 is an example of many British’s highly processed and traded food product. Tesco’s Everyday Value Breaded Chicken Burgers (8pcs) which cost only 97p, at 12p per piece. With ingredients consisting of only 47% chicken,

controversially a product of the UK, overlooking the miles it travelled from farm source on to our dinner plates. In addition, UK’s poultry meat of import and export value in 2012 is summarised and illustrated in FIGURE 23.

FIGURE 23. Trade value of UK poultry meat in 2012. 35


FIGURE 24. Carbon footprint of chicken patty production.

Generally, an average broiler chicken of 2.2 kilograms requires 3,200 kcal29 calorie intake weekly, of which amounts to 700 grams of feed daily, including 200 ml of daily water consumption per bird. In relative conversion, this would mean that for every chicken slaughtered for meat, 29.4 kilograms of feed has to be supplied for growth

and 8400 ml of water for as long as its 6 weeks lifespan. FAO 2013 30, poultry production chain contributes to 20% of carbon dioxide in the global greenhouse gases emission. For every kilogram of chicken meat produced, 4.57 kilograms of Carbon Dioxide is contributed to polluting the environment.

FIGURE 25. Daily consumption and waste produced of broiler chicken.

This monoculture practice is not sustainable economically as well as environmentally as British farmers made just 3p per chicken in 2002, and gradually drop to 1.9p by 2005. 36

With an average profit of ÂŁ1.20 each bird sold, the rest of the cost goes to production, which includes the growing, slaughtering and transporting31.


FIGURE 26. Carbon Dioxide emission from primary food production, UK 2009.

To summarise the data analysed in all 4 chapters in PART I of this study, the bar chart in FIGURE 26 shows comparative evidence of Carbon Dioxide emission of each food group, in the UK, that are relatively involved in the construction of a burger. Global scale consequences are discussed in the following chapters in PART II: Food, Architecture And Us.




“More than 7 billion people in the world today, and almost 1 billion will go to bed hungry tonight.” 32 USAID 2014

I. FOOD CRISIS DIET + LIFESTYLE OVER+UNDER NOURISHED In 2012, over 60% of the world’s population were overweight, whereas one out of six children were underweight33. The coexistence of this crisis has been clearly divided amongst the industrialised countries that had sufficient availability to food and developing countries with inadequate food security. Although the world cereal production increased about 7% in 2013 to replenish global food stock34, it has failed to solve world hunger.

NUTRITIONAL TRANSITION The shift of dietary consumption of the traditional staple food to a highly refined and processed diet is how we define this epidemic lifestyle transition, which is the major cause of health related diseases. Diets of the world depend greatly on its geographical location and climate, the ability to develop technologies for the purpose to feed. Every nation has its own staple food, be it rice in the East or potatoes in the West. Regardless of which, staple food are good source of carbohydrates to provide us with nutrients that gives energy to go about our daily routine. However, diets since industrialization had evolved alongside the inventions for convenience, we eat less from a plant source, and more of animal by-products, replacing carbohydrates with sugar and fats.

OBESITY The act of eating more than needed, along with the evolutionary change in the traditional diet of fruits, vegetables and grains to a diet high in meat and dairy intake, is leading our nation to fatal coronary diseases. In many developing countries such as China and Brazil, a Western Diet had been widely adopted with the rise in fast food chains.

PROCESSED FOOD There is no denying about the perks of convenience when it comes to processed food. This applies to any food that has been altered from its natural state, with applied methods of freezing, canning or dehydrating. Big chain retailers today even take it to the next level by introducing ready meals, that claims to provide health benefits while not disclosing its actual nutritional fact, marketed with their superb advertising capabilities.

MALNUTRITION Premature death amongst many children in poor countries such as Africa and South East Asia is caused by nutritional deficiency. It is the lack of certain nutritional groups that inhibits growth and causes infectious diseases. Enough food is produce, however there is still a shortage of food supply around the world, better said as: unequal food distribution.



FIGURE 27. Environmental predictions by year 2050.

In PART I of this study, the issue of how food gets from field to plate is addressed. Carbon footprint is calculated for each food group, with the support and evidence that severe environmental impact is occurring as we continue to demand and eat the way we do.


Generalised in FIGURE 27 , 10 million km2 of land needs to be cleared by 2050 for agriculture and farming purposes. This is equivalent to an emission of 3,000 tonnes of CO2 35. In addition, agriculture contributes to 75% of global deforestation 36.


FIGURE 28. Illustration of Methane production.

Annually, livestock and their byproduct contributes to 32,000 million tonnes of Carbon Dioxide, 51% of the global greenhouse gas emission37. According to NASA38 , Methane has 86 times more global warming power than Carbon Dioxide, in which adds on to global concern since rearing just a single dairy cow contributes to 171840 litres/kcal of Methane gas. What more the entire CAFO as discussed in PART I ?



FIGURE 29. Water consumption and conversion ratio.

Livestock grazes 45% of Earth’s total land39, where animal agriculture consumes up to 76 trillion gallons of fresh water every year40. For every pound of cheese produced, 900 gallons of water is needed41. If current trend continues with an alarming


decrease in rate of fresh water supply, along with the constant increase in world population, many will suffer from water scarcity by 2050. Countries such as India and China that practice intensive agriculture will experience water stress, poorer regions in Bangladesh and Africa will further strive for sanitised water in order to survive.


FIGURE 30. Food wastage in relation to production.

Approximately 1/3 of the food produced is lost to waste42. Food wastage differs in regions, industrialised countries waste food due to the over production and over sufficiency. While on the other hand, developing countries lose food due to spoilage during the transport and processing period caused by the lack of modern infrastructure and technology.


DEFINE THE RELATIONSHIP So where do we go from here?

As architects and planners, we are able to shape our cities with the fundamental of food as a design tool. Just like the generations before us did, prioritising the supply of food to where we live. The relationship between cities and countryside were structured with roles designed as a cycle of sustenance. Agriculture and livestock were produced in the countryside and supplied to the city through means of transportations.


The beginning of a society has never fail to commune from riverbanks or fertile lands because it is obviously the best source of produce. Sprouting communities in favour of locations and natural terrains, ensuring food growth and supply to feed the people. Civilisation had taught us to respect the land. In reverse, we gradually build our cities against nature, resulting in concrete jungles of metropolis.

FIGURE 31. Food supply route on Ogilby & Morgan’s map of London, 1676.

Illustrating the food supply routes to the heart of the city from its countryside sources in FIGURE 31, poultry entered the city from the East via Aldgate, roads laid in connection from Leadenhall Market along Cornhill, Poultry Street and Cheapside Streets leading to Smithfield’s Market. Of which nearby is Cowcross Street that suggest clearly how beef was brought into the city and sold at the market. Extensively, Bread Street and Garlick Hill were link from Cheapside Market. Billingsgate and Queenhithe were river ports that served as fish supply, leading along Cheapside via Fish Street. Fruits and vegetables from Surrey and Kent, sold at Borough Market which inks the main crossroad from Leadenhall Street all along London Bridge43. Food shaped the urbanisation of London, as it also shapes many great pre-industrialised cities. In 1477, King James III gave permission for 15 different markets to be operated in Edinburgh. Of which includes a poultry market better known as Market Street today and dairy market for cheese and butter at Lawn Market. The sales of cattle were only allowed outside the city wall at King’s Stables Road probably because markets were recorded to be noisy, smelly and incredibly unhygienic.

With routes leading to cities, which facilitates food processing, storage and distribution. Sales of produce through marketplaces; triggered by senses of smell and sight, be it the food is fresh, preserved or even rotten. Markets were located in the heart of cities, complimented by artery-like roads that spread across town, in order to connect us with food.


FIGURE 32. Mapping: streets named after food source in the central of Edinburgh.

Situated below the castle lies the Grass Market, an important commercial and meeting place in the 19th century. As its name suggests, it was a busy market place where cattle and horses were traded and reared in grass-filled pens. Today, it has transitioned from its overcrowding history to a vibrant commercial mixed-use premise. Up North, off Market Street lies The Fruit Market Gallery. It is to no surprise it was originally a market place for fresh fruits and vegetables back in the days. Historical records explains that the building was successfully preserved


from demolition threats in the 19th century by the Scottish Arts Council, and as to date, remained as an independent gallery. In present context, adaptive reuse and conservations of these notable heritage sites allow us to trace back on historical events that give us an idea of the importance of food, which was and still is to us, and to the city that accommodates it. In return, it had allowed us to identify how the supply of food to the city was governed during the Medieval Era of Edinburgh.

Along Lawn Market, the Fish Market Close as described by Lord Cockburn:

“The fish were generally thrown on the street at the head of the close; whence they were dragged down by dirty boys or dirtier women; and then sold unwashed, for there was not a drop of water in the place, from old rickety, scaly, wooden tables, exposed to all the rain, dust and filth.� 44

Today, as the consequent of industrialisation, we design cities to hide the very nature of the food we eat. The design aim is to eliminate anything that is not pleasant to our built environment. Out of sight, we are not aware that most of the food served on the table came from a factory rather than a farm. Out of smell, we rarely recognise the foul smell of raw meat, or even the smell of the ground of freshly grown produces. The convenience of supermarkets serve as pit stops to supply for our daily lives had allowed us to forget the fundamental importance of knowing where our food comes from, and the food that we consume, limiting the variation that intrigues our senses. In no awe, our younger generations had never, or will never , see a live chicken frolicking in backyards but only knowing it by the cling-wrapped, chopped up parts of meat arrayed on the chilled shelves in supermarket aisle.


MITIGATION St. Werburghs City Farm, Bristol | UK.

FIGURE 33. St. Werburghs City Farm.

Situated in the heart of Bristol, this city farm site is sectioned by a playground hidden by trees and trailed sandy paths along a series of playful spaces. Beside it, the award winning City Farm Cafe that serves organic, fairtraded or wild from the farm meals; a community garden on a sloped site with beautiful range of flowers, vegetables and fruits on terraces, nestling among trees; the 2.5 acre boiling wells of wildlife woodland and the 13 acres community allotments. According to their website45, St. Werburghs City Farm is inspired to be a place to connect people, animals and the land, while providing opportunities for likeminded people to meet, gather, learn and play. In return, to promote the well being of their visitors by celebration the course of nature in seasonal change and understanding various natural life cycles. The objective is to close the loop of an estranged relationship between us and food; with our environment and local community.


As a working farm, aiming to educate the community of all ages by facilitating recreational services in a natural environment within the city centre itself, admission at St. Werburghs is free and welcomes those especially of social and economically disadvantaged. To equip them with skills and to provide a wholesome support.

FIGURE 34. Piglets on farm.

A PLACE TO CARE CHALLENGED ADULTS On the farm and community garden, activities and training are offered to adults with learning disabilities or troubled teenagers. These programmes are designed to develop new skills and interest, also to find comfort in a supportive environment, nurturing mental health while cultivating care for the life cycle of living things and the environment. VOLUNTEERS Training programmes are available for those who are willing to pick up a role responsible for the growth of nature. Being involved in real farm work by tending the fields and feeding the flocks act as an eye opener to the handwork that goes behind food production, which enables us to appreciate the food provided on our plates. Not only that, volunteers are given the chance to care for challenged adults by helping them throughout their course on the farm.

FIGURE 35. Group activities- Winter Fayre.

A definite gain in knowing that these activities make real differences in contribution to the society, reducing environmental impact by growing produces and eating organically. By restructuring the food we choose to eat, we reconcile our relationship with food and the environment.



13 acres of communal allotment of which includes 214 plots sited on the sloped banks of Ashley Hill provides the community to grow their own food. With an annual plot rent of just ÂŁ25 for an approximate 75m2 area to grow, and proper knowledge of cultivating plants, we can start growing our own fruits and vegetables. By doing so, we not only know what we eat, and where our food came from, the satisfaction of eating what our very own hands grew; simply priceless. FIGURE 36. Allotment on site.


A PLACE TO LEARN Outdoor learning enables children to develop skills and self confidence that an indoor classroom lacks in teaching. By bringing the classroom out in the natural environment, children can be nurtured from a young age to be hands-on and practical, being educated about biodiversities and wildlife; growing from seed to plant; from soil to plate. At St. Werburghs City Farm, educational visit trips are available for school children, covering a tour on the farm, natural crafts and outdoor learning experiences. Forest School allows dedicated participants to enroll themselves for 2 hours a week course, with the same objective of outdoor learning and bonding with nature. The farm also caters for incubator hires to schools in Bristol aiming to educate children on the development of an egg into a baby chick.

FIGURE 37. City farm ; Chicks incubator.

Slowly but assuredly, these feasible live and practical actions can make a difference in the generation we are nurturing today, for the better of tomorrow.


Inglorious Fruits and Vegetables, Provins | FRANCE.

FIGURE 38. Inglorious Fruits & Vegetable’s “Eat 5 A Day” campaign.

As mentioned in the previous chapter, 1/3 of the food produced in industrialised countries are lost to waste, amounting to the equal quantity of food produced in sub-Saharan Africa (FAO 2013). In 2014, the European Union declared the Year Against Food Waste46. Indeed, to its success of launching the “Inglorious Fruits & Vegetables” campaign in raising awareness of current food crisis, this movement had become viral and spread across the European nations.


Officiated as an experiment in March 2014 in Provins, just outside Paris. Intermarché, one of France’s leading supermarket chain, took action in fighting food wastage by selling ‘ugly’ and ‘imperfect’ looking fruits for 30% lesser than its normal retail prices47. These rejected produce would have been thrown away by growers and farmers simply because they do not meet supermarket standards in order for sales. Being an unattractive apple or distorted tomato failed to meet cosmetic standards of perfectionist buyers in stores, as much as 40% of these fresh produces get tossed away48, even though it contains the same nutritional values and is perfectly edible.

FIGURE 39. Starring (L-R) - “The Grotesque Apple”, “The Failed Lemon”, ”The Hideous Orange” and “The Ridiculous Potato”

Intermarché gave these rejects its own aisle in supermarkets, with its own labels and price tags, even its own sales receipt names. Les Fruits & Légumes Moches (French) campaign brought the dead ugly back to the beauty of life with superb advertising in collaboration with photographer Patrice de Villiers in capturing the essence of natural growth and appearance of these produce.

inglorious fruits and vegetables, subtlety informing the indifference of its nutrients. With glorious success upon launching, Intermarché decided to pursue this campaign in all of its 1,800 stores across France in October 2014. The other leading supermarket chains in France, Auchan and Monoprix, took up the competition by launching similar initiatives46. Customers were happy with the affordability of fresh produce and are able to consume their 5 portions of fruits and vegetables daily, as recommended by nutritionists.

Furthermore to convince shoppers that these fruits and vegetables are as good as perfect looking ones, efforts had been made in packaging soups and juices made from the

FIGURE 40. Products made from ‘ugly’ produce.



“We are the new farmers, and the city is our farm.” 49 INFARM.

FIGURE 41. Event at INFARM.

With the aim to grow locally regardless of seasonal changes without giving up life in the city, INFARM has provided urbanites the tools to grow fresh produce in the comfort of one’s home, hence the movement of indoor urban farming has begun in Berlin. Since its tiny living room forested by piped-garden days, INFARM has grown into a multidisciplinary company of professionals with the same passion and desire to grow fresh food and shape the future of urban farming.


Pioneered by 3 young Israelis, who came to Berlin initially, experimented with hydroponics at home, they soon discovered the potential of micro farming. According to Guy Galonska, co-founder of INFARM: “ The city provided the perfect breeding ground for their growing ambitions. Berlin is a good place to start. Not only is it affordable- where else could we have a space like this? ” 50

FIGURE 42. Restaurant and its green wall.

“By limiting logistics, the micro-environment can be part of the solution to the global food crisis. Currently, food production is out of sight and out of mind. INFARM is the opposite.” adds Galonska. Since November 2013, they moved from a small studio to a former warehouse in the heart of Kreuzberg. Architecturally, INFARM host an event area and café, with an entire wall designated for vertical plants. From periphery view, purple LED light emits through a transparent screen, which houses its famous indoor farming, happens. The team grows a variety of greens from rockets, lettuce to a wide range of herbs. Of which are certainly served in its restaurant.

The decision to grow via hydroponics is made due to its efficiency of plant growth in water rather than soil, since water can circulate and deliver the nutrients with more control. Although it cost more to use LEDs as its lighting source, the technology enables the project to save on energy consumption in the long run as it uses a fraction of energy as compared to other artificial lighting, while having a lifespan of over 50,000 hours.



FIGURE 43. The Contemporary Food Lab, Katz Orange.

FIGURE 44. Weber’s Grill Shop.

Many efforts are made by INFARM for city folks to experience growing their own food, excitingly in collaborations with big commercial companies. Of which includes the pop-up stores collaborated with Mercedes-Benz, and cooking lessons and dining experience at the 25H hotel in Zurich West, with on site micro-green gardens. Contemporary Food Lab is built as part of the Katz Orange restaurant complex as a platform for people who are interested in this new approach to food. Herbs and vegetables grown in horizontal piping tubes were carefully thought of to fit the contemporary design of spaces in the kitchen, in the comfort of experimental chefs.

The INFARM team believes in sharing information through workshops and lectures that addresses the issues of sustainable living with topics such as Transforming Passive Consumers to Active Producers: Why and how we must decentralize the food system. Besides that, educational topics on hydroponic cultivationSoil Less Cultivation: A detailed look into hydroponic designs and mindful eating experience topic- Flavour, Colour, Nutrition: How growing your own can mean better products and better meals51. Last but not least, Weber’s Architects showed support in this green movement by requesting INFARM to install a green wall in their shop- Weber Grill Shop, located in Hackescher Markt, Berlin.

A truly avant-garde design that is bringing us closer to a better future.” Werner Aisslinger, Studio Aisslinger



FIGURE 45. Opening of MicroGarden.

Partnered with Tomorrow Machine, Stockholm based designers; INFARM successfully developed its very own microgreen growing kit. This practical and playful kit comes with the essentials for the indoor growing of Microgreens. Microgreens are young, edible greens from various kinds of vegetables With intense flavour and aroma, they are concentrated with up to 40 times more vitamins and nutrients as compared to its mature plants.

MicroGarden is a foldable greenhouse inspired by the Japanese art of Origami. It is designed to be transparent in order to observe its growing process. Taking only 3 days to sprout in the dark, grown in a agar-agar gel medium. An additional week in the light, microgreens are transformed and ready to be eaten. From seed to plate in 10 days, growing your own food at home is definitely made easy through the innovation of MicroGardens.

"INFARM has a very creative and innovative approach to food sustainability on a community level." James Griffiths, Swiss-based sustainability expert

INFARM seems to be a suitable solution to homegrown produce for most of us living in the city. With its ever continuing research and experimental attempts to better this movement through advance water systems, light spectrums, plant species and applied technologies, we can

choose to be INFARMers by participating in its efforts. Through its Urban Farming (R)evolution, the future of tomorrow relies on the exchanging of self-grown food through a network of INFARMers. In return, reducing the food mile and energy consumed for food to reach our plates. 59

Fruta Feia, Lisbon | PORTUGAL.

“It’s of course easier to measure the exterior aspect rather than interior features like sugar levels, but that is the wrong way to determine quality.” Isabel Soares, Fruta Feia.

This movement surpassed expectations with another successful story of Fruta Feia (Ugly Fruit) as reported by The New York Times. Pioneered by Isabel Soares, 31, formal renewable energy consultant, Andrea Battocchi, architect, and a handful of volunteers, together they started this food cooperative in Lisbon. They started purchasing and reselling bulks of disfigured, odd shaped produce. Farmers initially hesitated, even suspected they were undercover inspector of sanitation. However, were soon on board with this scheme not only because it gave them extra income, it also avoided addition to the trash pile. Working

closely with the local farmers, a strong bond is built within community. Attractive low prices of equally good produce, many customers choose to support this local agriculture counterculture movement while cutting down on food wastage.

FIGURE 46. Maria Canelas of Fruta Feia at farm site; Paulo Dias in Cambaia, Portugal.

FIGURE 47. Lemons sold.

To top that, Battocchi intends to present their Fruta Feia Project in the upcoming Milan Expo 2015, themed “Feeding the Planet” in efforts to raise awareness and educate the public on an international level52.

“This food is of course cheap, but it’s also local, fresh and would otherwise go to waste, which really bothers me. I’ve looked closely at some of this stuff and can’t see why it can’t make it to the supermarket.” Ana Neves, Fruta Feia.


It is the structure of our food system today that is dominated by big supermarket chains monopolising the power of retail in determining the terms of sales. Along with outrageous marketing standards such as the specification of size and colour consistency, of which does not include the quality of taste and ripeness54. Matters could be improved by prioritising practical sustainability measures of post-harvest and production process, packaging, storing and distributing in attempt to reduce or even avoid food wastage.

Closer to home, Waitrose, in the UK, sold branded damaged apples as “Weather Blemished” in response to support sustainable farming methods, not discriminating weather affected produces from its farm supply. According to UK’s Global Food Security programme, it is reported that initial production and end user consumption of food contributes to the majority of food wastage in the UK. This phenomenon occurs during post-harvest process, package and storage while households contribute to 7 million tonnes of food wastage annually53.

To overcome world hunger in undeveloped countries begins with reducing food wastage in developed countries.

FIGURE 48. “Weather Blemished Apples” by Waitrose


FIGURE 49. Illustration of Sitopia.


\si-’tō-pē-ə\ : An urban community built around its food systems for the betterment of the whole.

According to Carolyn Steel, in her book Hungry City: How Food Shapes Our Lives, she stated: A ‘sitopic’ city would have strong links with its local hinterland through a lattice-like food network, with active markets, local shops, and a strong sense of food identity. Its houses will be built with large, comfortable kitchens; there would be neighborhoods allotment, possibly a local abattoir. The local school would teach kids about food, and children would learn to grow and cook it from an early age. Above all, the city would celebrate food; use it to bring people together55.




FIGURE 50. Arcosanti, Phoenix, Arizona, USA.

Inspiring founder of Arcosanti; architect, urban designer, artist, craftsman, and philosopher, Paolo Soleri (1919-2013) explored the realization of the concept that fuses Architecture with Ecology- Arcology.

This is done by physically compacting its built environment. An obvious urban effect due to this miniaturization is a healthy interaction through communication by individuals from diverse backgrounds, working together as a community in recognizing the purpose of a place like Arcosanti. It is intended to be the utopia that can accommodate a large population, supplying the essentials of a sustainable living: power, air and water purification, climate control, sewage treatment and of course food production.

Albeit experimental, Arcosanti sits comfortably on a 25 acres of a 4,060 acre land in Arizona, Phoenix, USA56. Going against what is known as an urban sprawl, this arcology approaches urban growth by integrating a compact three-dimensional form. This is to reduce land area, and ensuring the efficient use of resources in terms of time and energy, also to bring the community closer, literally.

“In nature, as an organism evolves it increases in complexity and it also becomes a more compact or miniaturized system. Similarly a city should function as a living system. Arcology, architecture and ecology as one integral process, is capable of demonstrating positive response to the many problems of urban civilization, population, pollution, energy and natural resource depletion, food scarcity and quality of life. Arcology recognizes the necessity of the radical reorganization of the sprawling urban landscape into dense, integrated, three-dimensional cities in order to support the complex activities that sustain human culture. The city is the necessary instrument for the evolution of humankind.” 57 —Paolo Soleri 65

FIGURE 51. 3D Compact Miniaturized Building Form, Arcosanti.

One of its aims is to reduce dependency of automobiles within the city. In present context, a typical city devotes 60% of its land to building roads and infrastructures for transport. Through its arcology design of reducing proximity of amenities, it caters for daily activities within reach, and walking would be the main form of transportation58. Ultimately, this close to nature agriculture on site is able to feed its dwellers through local food distribution system, establishing food sovereignty.

“Our monstrous multitudes of automobiles, soon over six billion, will never achieve even a pale approximation of the logistical perfection of any organism. Furthermore, a culture based on the automobile leads to the diaspora of habitat, inevitably segregating people and stifling true novelty, the synergies of culture and civilization� 59 —Paolo Soleri



FIGURE 52. Café, with desert view.

As described on their website:

“The Cafe at Arcosanti features a spacious atrium dining area with a spectacular desert view that offers 3 buffet meals daily. Meals often include eggs and vegetables from our organic farm. Meat, Vegetarian and Vegan choices are provided.” 60



FIGURE 54. GREENHOUSE: The reality.

At Arcosanti, the importance of feeding a habitual environment is addressed. Hence, effort towards a sustainable alternative is made through its agriculture that includes 4 aspects of food production over the years: open field, garden agriculture, orchard production and intensive greenhouse horticulture. Applied throughout its city, local food production demonstrates the efficiency of energy used, through tours, community farmer’s markets and the acknowledgement of food served at its restaurants. By doing so, it provides educational platform through programs available that facilitate the exchange of knowledge of students and researches from around the globe, increasing chances of collaborative opportunities amongst participating institutions.



FIGURE 55: A lean Arcosanti.

Being lean is key in the design principles of Arcosanti. It is embodied in the efficiency in designing its city, extensively following its principle to miniaturize the complexity of a city, into a compacted self-sustaining system of organization. Energy Apron is the nexus of food and energy at Arcosanti. As previously stated, by reducing the proximity of its urban environment, immediate access to spaces blurs the separation of indoors and outdoors. In this case, food production is brought closer to consumers, shortening its food chain. Energy Apron also aims to grow crops seasonally, providing variation of crops while accommodating the natural climate conditions and changes. Ergo, reducing energy used; less water to grow food, less heat required in greenhouse agriculture, diverting excess energy for other uses within its city.


“Arcology is capable of demonstrating a positive response to the many problems of urban civilization, those of population, pollution, energy and natural resource depletion, food scarcity, and quality of life. The city structure must contract, or miniaturize, in order to support the complex activities that sustain human culture and give it new perception and renewed trust in society and its future. A central tenet of arcology is that the city is the necessary instrument for the evolution of humankind”. 61 —Paolo Soleri


Arcosanti welcomes approximately 50,000 visitors annually. Continuous planning, landscaping, cooking and ceramic making ensure the maintenance of its intended built environment to house 5,000 residents upon completion, with its natural surrounding. Through which, energy efficiency along with the appropriate technologies applied, a holistic resolution of passive design to reduce ecological footprint can be achieved, reconnecting us, humans with nature. Hence, increasing its intended ‘lean’ factors of a sustainable design.

For decades now, many seem to question the ability of this experimental project to come to completion in order to accomplish all its ambitious visions for the better of a self-sustaining living condition. Instead of approaching architecture through green-washed methodology, maybe the question should be reversed by asking: Why aren’t we approaching environmental crisis by first making an ultimate lifestyle choice of the food we put on our plates today?



Just like the past, we cannot deny the fact that a city is shaped by food. Regardless of the scale of a city, it was and still is conceived by the supply of food. The difference is that in the past, food is integrated to the heart of the city through roads linking from its sources, ie. countryside farms and river banks; present, food security of a city depends on the radius coverage supply of a supermarket within neighbourhoods. Factories of production is usually unseen, and do not want to be seen. It is possible that this fundamental fact has been forgotten as we become more obsessed with feeding, instead of eating. The ideal Sitopia could not be built overnight, it has to be a constant effort of nurture and humane awareness. By connecting the social and physical aspect of food, we can bring people together with the natural environment, making it possible for cities to be a place that celebrates food.

whether industrialised or localised. Engaging in this manner of eating, we can slowly gain food sovereignty; being in control of the way our food is produced, traded and served on our plates.

We can decide how food shapes our lives and the city. To be an Ecological Gastronomec, the choice is always ours to make; what to eat for dinner, where to buy, from whom and how. By demanding for food chain transparency in support of ethical management and distribution of our food, simply with the access to small scale food production,

To conclude, the analysis done and information conveyed regarding ecological footprint in relation to the food choices we make, it is time to close the loop between our food with our build environment. We can respect nature by listening to the cries of its current environmental disasters. To fight these crisis globally, we should address them locally; beginning with the food on our dinner plates tonight.

The powerful alliance between consumers and producers is able to create a huge impact on large food corporations that dominates global food system right underneath our nose. EAT YOUR VIEW. We can decide on what we taste, making connection to the food on our plate to someone or somewhere, chickens are living animals; farmers grow carrots. Starting by showing support to locally grown produce and paying more for the quality of nutrients we get in return to feed ourselves by which food accumulatively shapes our city.



Someone who recognizes the importance of food and uses the knowledge in order to eat ethically. 62 75


FIGURE 1. Land used for wheat production on a global scale in comparison to the plot area of the UK. ILLUSTRATED: Author

FIGURE 11. Fistulated ‘hole-y’ cows. DATA & INFORMATION: The Most Disgusting Thing You Want to See.

FIGURE 2. Comparison of ingredients in store bought bread; Morrisons (L) vs. Tesco (R). ILLUSTRATED: Author DATA & INFORMATION:

FIGURE 12. Packed cheese: Mature Cheddar by Morrisons DATA & INFORMATION:

FIGURE 3. Food mile of a loaf of bread from field to plate. ILLUSTRATED: Author FIGURE 4. UK’s wheat production and usage statistics. ILLUSTRATED: Author DATA & INFORMATION: DEFRA, Farming Statistics- 2014 Wheat and Barley Production UK, Oct 2014. FIGURE 5. Seed Germination Process. ILLUSTRATED: Author FIGURE 6. Food ratio conversion of vegetables vs. meat ILLUSTRATED: Author FIGURE 7. Comparison of land area needed based on lifestyle choices. ILLUSTRATED: Author FIGURE 8. Scenario of 21st century commercial dairy farming. DATA & INFORMATION: FIGURE 9. Mastitis infected cow. DATA & INFORMATION: FIGURE 10. Cattle feedlot, California USA. DATA & INFORMATION: Imhoff, Daniel, CAFO: The Tragedy of Industrial Animal Factories, Earth Aware Editions, 2010 PHOTO COURTESY: Gary Crabbe 76

FIGURE 13. Food conversion ratio of transporting cheese and its Carbon Dioxide emission. ILLUSTRATED: Author FIGURE 14. Carbon footprint of cheese production. ILLUSTRATED: Author FIGURE 15. Daily consumption and waste produced of dairy cow. ILLUSTRATED: Author FIGURE 16. Number of days to raise a broiler chicken in comparison. ILLUSTRATED: Author FIGURE 17. Broiler chicken breed: ROS 308 ILLUSTRATED: Author DATA & INFORMATION: FIGURE 18. Factory farmed poultry. ILLUSTRATED: Author DATA & INFORMATION: Samsara, Dir.Ron Fricke. Magidson Films. FIGURE 19. Chicken suffering from hock burns. ILLUSTRATED: Author DATA & INFORMATION: Live Fast Die Young- The Life of a Meat Chicken, Dir. Compassion in World Farming. FIGURE 20. Infrared beak trimming machine. PHOTO COURTESY: Peter Bell

FIGURE 21. Farm to factory; production line of broiler chickens. ILLUSTRATED: Author

FIGURE 29. Water consumption and conversion ratio. ILLUSTRATED: Author

FIGURE 22. Everyday Value Breaded Chicken Burgers by Tesco. DATA & INFORMATION:

FIGURE 30. Food wastage in relation to production. ILLUSTRATED: Author

FIGURE 23. Trade Value of UK Poultry Meat in 2012. DATA & INFORMATION: Poultry Pocketbook 2013, Chapter 5, AHDB,

FIGURE 31. Food supply route on Ogilby & Morgan’s map of London, 1676. ILLUSTRATED: Author DATA & INFORMATION:

FIGURE 24. Carbon footprint of chicken patty production. ILLUSTRATED: Author

FIGURE 32. Mapping: streets named after food source in the central of Edinburgh. ILLUSTRATED: AUTHOR

FIGURE 25. Daily consumption and waste produced of broiler chicken. ILLUSTRATED: Author


FIGURE 26. Carbon Dioxide Emission From Primary Food Production, UK 2009. ILLUSTRATED: Author DATA & INFORMATION: Audsley, E., Brander, M., Chatterton, J., Murphy-Bokern, D., Webster, C., and Williams, A. (2009). How low can we go? An assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from the UK food system and the scope to reduce them by 2050.

FIGURE 34. Piglets on farm. PHOTO COURTESY: FIGURE 35. Group activities- Winter Fayre. PHOTO COURTESY: FIGURE 36. Allotment on site. PHOTO COURTESY:

TABLE 13. Greenhouse gas emissions (CO2e/kg) from the production of commodities in the UK, the rest of Europe (RoE) and the rest of the world (RoW) for direct UK consumption. FCRN-WWF-UK.

FIGURE 37. City Farm ; Chicks incubator. PHOTO COURTESY:

FIGURE 27. Environmental predictions by year 2050. ILLUSTRATED: Author

FIGURE 38. Inglorious Fruits & Vegetable’s “Eat 5 A Day” campaign. PHOTO COURTESY: Patrice de Villiers DATA & INFORMATION:

FIGURE 28. Illustration of Methane production. ILLUSTRATED: Author


FIGURE 39. Starring (L-R) THE FAMOUS 5 - “the grotesque apple,” “the failed lemon,” “the disfigured eggplant,” “the ugly carrot” and the “unfortunate clementine.” PHOTO COURTESY: Patrice de Villiers DATA & INFORMATION:

FIGURE 49. Illustration of Sitopia. ILLUSTRATED: FIGURE 50: Arcosanti, Phoenix, Arizona, USA. PHOTO COURTESY: Joshua Lieberman DATA & INFORMATION: before-and-after-utopia

FIGURE 40. Products made from ‘ugly’ produce. PHOTO COURTESY: Patrice de Villiers DATA & INFORMATION:

FIGURE 51: 3D Compact Miniaturized Building Form, Arcosanti. PHOTO COURTESY: Joshua Lieberman DATA & INFORMATION:

FIGURE 41. Event at INFARM. PHOTO COURTESY: FIGURE 42. Restaurant and its green wall. PHOTO COURTESY:


FIGURE 43. The Contemporary Food Lab, Katz Orange. PHOTO COURTESY:


FIGURE 44. Weber’s Grill Shop. PHOTO COURTESY:


FIGURE 45: Opening of MicroGarden. PHOTO COURTESY: Merav Maroody

FIGURE 55: A lean Arcosanti. PHOTO COURTESY: Cosanti Foundation DATA & INFORMATION:

FIGURE 46. Maria Canelas of Fruta Feia at farm site; Paulo Dias in Cambaia, Portugal. PHOTO COURTESY:Patricia De Melo Moreira (NYTimes) FIGURE 47. Lemons sold. PHOTO COURTESY:Patricia De Melo Moreira (NYTimes)


FIGURE 48. “Weather Blemished Apples” by Waitrose DATA & INFORMATION:





BREAD: OUR DAILY BREAD 1 Donsky, Andrea and Tsakos, Lisa, Scary Ingredients Used in Bread Manufacturing,, August 2013. 2 Whitley, Andrew, Bread Matters, Fourth Estate, 2006. FEATURED IN: The Shocking Truth About Bread,, August 2006.

3 DEFRA, Farming Statistics- 2014 Wheat and Barley Production UK, Oct 2014. REFERENCES: i. HOW BREAD IS MADE: FROM GRAIN TO LOAF virtual university students, ii. HOW BREAD IS MADE, THE FEDERATION OF BAKERS FACT SHEET No.7 V18-10-11, October 2011

iii. The Wheat Market, SOURED: TNS Worldpanel, November 2009.

VEGETABLES: GREEN FINGERS 4 Masley, Steve,Growing Lettuce Organically. 5 FCRN, Fruits and Vegetables & UK Greenhosue Gas Emission: Exploring the Relationship, September 2006. 6 Kanyama, Carlsson, Farm Energy Centre, Food Miles Study, DEFRA 2006. REFERENCES: i. Cowspiracy: The Sustainability Secret, Dir. Andersen, Kip & Kuhn, Keegan, A.U.M. Films, June 2014. CHEESE: CRYING OVER SPILLED MILK 7 Average Milk Yield. DEFRA. June 2014. 8 The Structure of the GB Dairy Farming Industry- What drives Change, DEFRA, January 2013. 9 A Brief History of Holstein Breed, Holstein UK, 2007. 10 UK Cow Numbers,, January 2014


11 12 13 14

UK Monthly & Annual Milk Deliveries,, November 2014 UK Dairy Advertising Expenditure,, August 2013 Millstone, Erik & Lang, Tim. The Atlas of Food: Who Eats What, Where and Why, Greenhouse Gases, University of California Press, 2008 15 Mekonnen, Mesfin & Hoekstra, Arjen. A Global Assessment of the Water Footprint of Farm Animals Products, Netherlands, Ecosystem, 2012. 16 FAO, Numerical Conventions, Weights and Measures, Annex 19. 17 Oppenlander, Richard A. Food Choice and Sustainability: Why Buying Local, Eating Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work.  CHICKEN PATTY: CHICKEN RUN 18 Trends in UK Food Production, Global & UK Supply, Food Pocket Book, 2013 19 DEFRA 20 Supermarket Secrets, 2005. UK TV Channel 4- TwentyTwenty. 21 45 Days: The Life & Death of a Broiler Chicken, Dir., March 2006. 22 Chalmers, Sarah, The Real Price of the £2 Chicken. Daily Mail (Online). 2007. 23 Small-Scale Poultry Production, Chapter 4, General Management. FAO, 2008. 24 NHS, UK, 2014. 25 Live Fast Die Young- The Life of a Meat Chicken, Dir. Compassion in World Farming, 2007. 26 GOV.UK, 2013. Poultry Farming: Welfare Regulation. Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs. 27 Chicken, Volume 5, 2006-2014 28 Jamie Oliver’s Food Revolution, Episode 2, Dir. Jamie Oliver, American Broadcasting Company, 2011. 29 Nutritional Requirements of Poultry, Table 3, Merck Manual, 2010-2014. 30 FAO 2013, Greenhouse Gas Emission from Pig and Chicken Supply Chains, A Global Life Cycle Assessment. 31 Material Safety Data Sheet, OSHA, December 1999.



CONSEQUENCES 32 USAID 2014. 33 WHO 2012. 34 Crop Prospect & Food Situation, FAO 2013. 35 Tilman, David, Agriculture, Diet & The Environment, Institute of Medicine, 2011. 36 Agriculture & Food, UNEP, Business, Sectoral Activities. 37 Goodland, Robert and Anhang, Jeff, LIvestock and Climate Change: What if the key actors in climate change were pigs, chickens and cows? World Watch, November/December 2009. 38 NASA, Methane: Its Role as a Greenhouse Gas.,Jet Propulsion Laboratory. 39 Thornton, Phillip, Mario Herrero, and Polly, Ericksen. Livestock and Climate Change. Livestock Exchange, no.3, 2011. 40 Pimentel, David, Water Resources: Agricultural And Environmental Issues.BioScience 54, no.10, 2004. 41 Meateater’s Guide to Climate Change & Health, Environmental Working Group, 42 Global Food Losses and Food Waste, FAO 2011. DEFINE THE RELATIONSHIP 43 Steel, Carolyn, Hungry City, Market & Supermarket, Chapter 3, London: Vintage, September 2013. 44 W.T.Fyfe, Edinburgh Under Sir Walter Scott, London, Archibald Constable & Company LTD.1906. REFERENCES: i. Trew, Jonathan, Edinburgh Old Town Food History,, May 2014. ii. The Grassmarket, 2015. iii. The Fruitmarket Gallery, About Us,, 2015.


MITIGATION 45 REFERENCE: Cockrall-King, Jennifer, Food and the City, Urban Agriculture and the New Food Revolution, New York, Prometheus Books, 2012. 46 Godoy, Maria, In Europe, Ugly Sells in this Produce Aisle., December 2014. 47 Intermarché – “Inglorious Fruits and Vegetables”,, June 2014. 48 UN Environment Programme. 49 InFarm- The Next (R)Evolution In Urban Farming. Dir. INFARM, May 2014. 50 Holmes, Natalie, Inside Berlin’s Food Revolution: Architecture, Cities, Design,, 2014. 51 Galonska, Erez, INFARM- Join the Indoor Farming ‘R’evolution,, June 2014. 52 Minder, Raphael, Tempting Europe with Ugly Fruits, New York Times, May 2014. 53 “Too Ugly for Supermarket”, Daily Mail UK, September 2013. 54 NRDC (Natural Resources Defense Council) SITOPIA 55 Steel, Carolyn, Hungry City, London: Vintage, September 2013. 56 Acrosanti, Last Modified: Feb 2015. Cosanti Foundation, 57 Introduction to Arcology, 58 What is Arcology, 59 Arcology Design, 60 Food,Café at Arcosanti, 61 Lopez, Oscar, Paolo Soleri’s Arcosanti: The City in the Image of Man,, September 2011. REFERENCES: i. Tortorello, Michael, An Early Eco-City Faces the Future,, February 2012. CONCLUSION 62 Petrini, Carlo, Slow Food: The Case for Taste, Columbia University Press, 2001.


Food + Architecture & Us  

Bsc Hons Architectural Studies, Year 4 Dissertation. A study about the relationship between FOOD + ARCHITECTURE, and its impact on the env...

Food + Architecture & Us  

Bsc Hons Architectural Studies, Year 4 Dissertation. A study about the relationship between FOOD + ARCHITECTURE, and its impact on the env...