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Chap 1 – Intro to the Human Body levels of organization (atomic/molecular, organelles, cells, tissues, organs/organ systems and organisms) and three main characteristics of life (detection/reception, metabolism, and reproduction) Homeostasis-maintenance of a constant internal environment despite alterations of the external or internal conditions Negative feedback strives to keep changes small/positive feedback allows for large changes until restored.

Negative feedback

positive feedback

Lateral (further to the side) to medial (towards the middle): sagittal plane; superior (top) to inferior (bottom): transverse (horizontal); anterior (to the front) to posterior (to the back): frontal (coronal when referring to the brain) midsagittal plane is unique because it divides the body in half resulting in bilateral symmetry (dividing the body in half to produce to equal sides with the same structures on both sides) Thoracic cavity: divided into left and right by the central mediastinum (contains the heart, esophagus, thymus and trachea); abdominal and pelvic form abdominopelvic cavity (contains all of the digestive organs such as the liver, spleen, stomach, gallbladder, small and large intestines, and appendix; also the bladder, ovaries, and uterus are specifically in the pelvic portion); divided by the diaphragm; pericardial cavity (heart) and pleural cavities (lungs) occupy thoracic cavity abdominopelvic cavity contains peritoneal cavity – peritoneum is membrane surrounding most digestive organs Serous membranes - visceral membrane (next to organ); parietal membrane (next to body wall); the space in between the visceral and parietal layers is the cavity visceral peritoneum/parietal peritoneum - locations in peritoneal cavity; the visceral peritoneum is right up against the organs. The parietal peritoneum is snugly tucked up right next to the body wall know what retroperitoneal means (inside the abdominopelvic cavity but outside of the peritoneum) and what organs are retroperitoneal (pancreas, kidneys, bladder, sex organs)

Chap 2 – Chemical Level of Organization Definitions: {Matter – anything that has volume and takes up space /Elements most elementary form of matter that cannot be easily degraded into its components /Atoms most basic form of an element /atomic number number of protons in the atomic nucleus /mass number number of protons plus neutrons in an atomic nucleus /isotopes alternate form of an atom that has the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons /molecule two or more atoms bonded together /ion an atom that has either gained or lost an electron /chemical bond union of two electron structures /ionic bond bond between an anion (negatively charged ion) and a cation (positively charged ion) resulting from when an electron is transferred from one atom to another /covalent bond the sharing of electrons to fill the outer electron shell /hydrogen bond forms only with a polar covalent bond involving an electronegative atom; found in water, DNA, and proteins; similar to an ionic bond in type and strength /energy capacity to do work /potential energy energy at rest /kinetic energy energy of motion /chemical energy potential energy of a chemical bond /electronegativity when an atom has a stronger attraction for another atom’s electrons in a covalent bond/ hydrophilic water loving


/hydrophobic water hating /solution results from dissolving a solute in a solvent /solute molecule that is dissolved in a solution /peptide bonds covalent bonds between peptides during the formation of a protein / activation energy energy that has to be overcome for a chemical reaction to occur /acids molecules that donate hydrogen ions /bases molecules that donate hydroxide ions (OH-) or hydrogen ions (H+) /salts molecules that donate ions to a solution other than hydrogen or hydroxide ions /denaturation breakdown of a polypeptide/protein to its primary structure; two major factors are decreasing pH and increasing temp / valences “holes” in the electron shell of an atom. Valence is calculated as the maximum number of electrons in the shell minus the number of electrons that are present (valence electrons)} “Big 4” - C, H, O , N Possible short answer: {know location in atom and charge of protons; neutrons; electrons} Let’s do a made up atom with 5 protons and 3 neutrons nd

2 shell

e-

1st shell

eP+ N0 P+ P+ N0 P+ P+ N0 nucleus

ee

-

e-

electron vacancies (valences) account for C, H, O, N being so important to life understand difference between nonpolar and polar covalent bonds nonpolar covalent bonds involve exactly equal sharing of electrons while polar covalent bonds involve electronegative atoms (typically N or O) that do not share electrons equally hydrogen bonds – know under what conditions they will form only occur with polar covalent bonds present and electronegative atoms be able to recognize difference between dehydration synthesis/condensation and hydrolysis reactions


+ OH

OH

o

+ H2O

dehydration synthesis or condensation

o

+ H2O

+ OH

hydrolysis OH

possible short answer: {know 4 properties of water and what property causes them} expands when freezing – due to presence of hydrogen bonds temperature buffer – due to presence of hydrogen bonds cohesive – due to presence of hydrogen bonds solvent - polarity know HCl and NaOH define 0 and 14 on the pH scale, respectively carbon atom can share electrons with as many as 4 other atoms; N with 3; O with 2; H with 1 Carbohydrates have C, H, and O in a 1:2:1 ratio; sweet tastes; Know examples of simple carbs or monosaccharides (fructose and glucose); disaccharides (maltose, lactose, sucrose) and polysaccharides (animals: storage form is glycogen; in plants: storage form is starch, cellulose) Lipids: fats and fatty acids (nonpolar); Triglycerides are richest energy source in body; know molecules involved in formation of fatty acids (fats form from fatty acid tails bonding to glycerol heads) all fatty acids have carboxyl groups at one end Know difference between unsaturated and saturated fats saturated fats have no only single bonds between adjacent carbon atoms in the fatty acid chains; maximum number of hydrogens are present and solid at room temperature because the fatty acid chains can lay right next to each other; unsaturated fats have at least one double bond between adjacent carbons in the fatty acid chains so they have less than the maximum number of hydrogens. Because of the double bond, a kink will form in the fatty acid chain making space between adjacent fatty acid chains and so an unsaturated fat is a liquid at room temperature. The second type of lipid includes phospholipids - two hydrophobic fatty acid tails and a hydrophilic head with a phosphate group (amphipathic or amphiphilic) Sterols - four rings of carbons; sex hormones Proteins - Structure of amino acid (central carbon with a carboxyl group on one carbon bond, an amine group on another carbon bond and a single hydrogen on yet another carbon bond; on the fourth carbon bond is the radical group. There are 20 different radical groups for each of the 20 amino acids. Radical groups can be a single hydrogen (glycine) to more sophisticated ring structures (tryptophan or phenylalanine); 20 different amino acids; exhibit four levels of structure Possible short answer: {name four features of enzymes (speed up reactions; reversible; reusable; and selective) and describe four levels of structure} The four features of an enzyme are to speed up reactions (catalyze), selective, reusable, and reversible The four levels of structure are the primary level which is just the sequence of the amino acids in the protein; the secondary structure results from extensive hydrogen bond formation as the protein begins to fold; the tertiary structure involves the formation of ionic bonds between the radical groups of different amino acids; the quaternary structure is when two or more tertiary structures combine together Enzymes lower the activation energy Nucleotide structure: nitrogen containing base; phosphate group; 5-C sugar ATP is the main energy carrier and is formed during energy releasing (catabolic) reactions and is consumed by energy requiring (anabolic) reactions.

Chap 3 – Cell Level of Organization Definitions: concentration amount of solute in a given region of a solution


/gradient differences in concentration between one region in a solute and another region; from high to low concentration is said to be going “down” the concentration gradient /diffusion passive movement of molecules in a solution froma a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration /osmosis passive movement of water across a semipermeable membrane in the direction of low solute concentration to high solution concentration /tonicity differences in concentration across a semipermeable membrane; in the case of the cell, it reflects the concentration of the extracellular fluid versus the intracellular fluid concentration /organelles cellular compartments that perform specialized functions /chromosome a DNA molecule plus its associated proteins /cytokinesis division of the cell’s cytoplasm normally after completion of the last phase of mitosis Possible short answer: {describe fluid mosaic model: The mosaic part of the model is the 4 parts: glycolipids, phospholipids, proteins and cholesterol. The fluid part is due to the phospholipids that spin or twirl, move sided to side and flex their tails.} selective permeability; know what can cross the membrane and what can’t gases,water and small lipid (hydrophobic) molecules can freely pass through the cellular membrane. Glucose (which is a large hydrophilic molecule) and charged ions (sodium, calcium, phosphorus, chloride, etc…) cannot freely pass through. know how the three different factors affect the rate of diffusion To increase the rate of diffusion: higher temps, smaller molecular size, and larger concentration gradient; to decrease the rate of diffusion: lower temps, larger molecular size and smaller concentration gradient understand why cells usually don’t burst (hydrostatic v. osmotic pressures) Let’s say we are considering the hypotonic state. Thus, there is a lower extracellular fluid concentration than intracellular fluid concentration. So, osmosis will result in water moving across the semipermeable membrane into the intracellular fluid. This is known as osmotic pressure. As water volume increases inside the cell, a pressure develops on the inside of the cellular membrane which is called hydrostatic pressure. In normal conditions, osmotic pressure will proceed to move water into the intracellular environment until it equals hydrostatic pressure at which point osmosis will stop. This can be overwhelmed in unusual situations. know differences between passive transport or facilitated diffusion and active transport passive transport can have two types of diffusion: simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion. In either case, the molecules are going to move down their concentration differences. Simple diffusion involves molecules that can freely pass through the cell membrane while facilitated diffusion requires proteins in the cell membrane that function as channels for molecules that cannot pass through the cell membrane. At no time, does passive transport require ATP. Active transport always requires ATP as it involves proteins in the cell membrane that serve as channels for molecules to be transported AGAINST their concentration gradients. An example is the sodium/potassium ATP transporter common in the digestive and nervous systems. understand endocytosis and exocytosis processes Exocytosis involves the formation of a vesicle inside the cell which may contain items that the cell needs to dispose of or items that may be useful to surrounding cells. Also, it may contain components that are necessary for the cell membrane. Endocytosis occurs through one of three processes. The first is called receptor mediated endocytosis. An external molecule like a hormone or neurotransmitter can bind with a receptor protein found on the cell membrane. This will ignite a series of pathways that will act to draw in the receptor with the hormone or neurotransmitter and the patch of cell membrane it is part of. This results in the formation of a vesicle that will be processed by internal cellular pathways. The second method of endocytosis is called phagocytosis (which is also known as “cell-eating”). This typically is observed with cells of the immune system where they capture external molecules or even say bacterial cells by sweeping bits of cell membrane forward to entrap the material. The entrapped material will be put into a vesicle for further cell processing. Finally, the third type of endocytosis is called pinocytosis (also known as “cell drinking”) that is a random process that most cells perform. Bits of cell membrane will sweep around material that is outside the cell membrane and bring it in forming a vesicle again. This is a completely random process. one purpose of endocytosis and exocytosis is to continually withdraw and replace patches of plasma membrane Components of cytoplasm - 50% cytosol and 50% organelles


Cytoskeleton is microtubules (tubulin) largest of the cytoskeletal elements and involved in a tremendous number of actions in the cell; it is important during mitosis; it functions to place the organelles and keep them positioned; microtubules also form flagella and cilia, actin filaments (microfilaments); know characteristics microfilaments are the thinnest of the cytoskeletal elements and are important during cytokinesis. They form a ring near the cell membrane and have anchors that project out into the cell membrane. When cytokinesis occurs, the microfilaments in the ring begin to tighten and shrink just like a lasso. The attached anchors will then start to pull on the cell membrane. Know centrosome, centrioles are for mitosis They are sort of like the root stock for growing microtubule assemblies that will be important in mitosis. Know differences between cilia and flagella; know they are made up of microtubules cilia are short, number in the thousands per cell, and are typically found lining the respiratory and reproductive tracts; flagella are long, normally only per cell, and is only found on sperm cells Know the organelles and non-organelles of the cell and what each does as follows: Know functions of Ribosomes produce proteins in the cytosplasm; can be free in the cytoplasm or attached to the rough ER /Rough ER has ribosomes attached to its surface; when these ribosomes make proteins, they enter the channels of the rough ER and are modified with sugar or lipid groups as they move through it /smooth ER where lipids are assembled /Golgi apparatus UPS center of the cell; proteins, lipids and carbs are delivered to the Golgi body for delivery to certain cell regions or to the cell membrane /Lysosomes vacuum of the cell; full of about 40 toxic enzymes; get rid of old/decaying organelles; get rid of any cellular debris; made from the Golgi body /Peroxisomes handle detoxification of drugs or alcohol /proteasomes get rid of old proteins /mitochondria power plant of the cell; where ATP is made Nucleus – double lipid bilayer for envelope; nuclear pores (channels that span the entire double lipid bilayer of the envelope); chromosomes; nucleolus (dark region inside the nucleus where RNA and other proteins are put for storage) Chapter 4 – Cellular Function and Mitosis

Possible short answer: {Differences, similarities of DNA and RNA} Differences are that RNA is single stranded while DNA is double stranded; RNA has a ribose sugar while DNA has a deoxyribose sugar; RNA has uracil as a base while DNA has thymine as a base; Similarities are they both have sugar-phosphate backbones; they both have nitrogenous bases; and they both have 5 carbon sugars 3 types of RNA: mRNA (instructions for building proteins); rRNA (manufacturing plant) and tRNA (parts supplier) Transcription (DNA to RNA) occurs in the cell nucleus, while translation (RNA to protein) occurs in the cytoplasm Define chromosomes DNA molecules + associated proteins; humans have 46, centromere region of duplicated chromosome where they are joined together, sister chromatids each particular strand of a duplicated chromosome, genes short stretches of a DNA molecule that code for a protein Genetic code is used to translate the 4 bases of RNA into the 20 amino acids of proteins; all “words” in mRNA that code for an amino acid are 3 letters long and are called codons Know interphase and its three stages (G1, S, G2) Interphase is a period of cell growth and development; The first stage is G1 where proteins, lipids, and carbs are made in great abundance; S is part of interphase when the single chromosome duplicates; G2 is when special proteins are made for mitosis Know that mitosis is a nuclear division process Know major events in mitosis stages: prophase – duplicated chromosomes shrink, spindle apparatus forms, and nuclear envelope disappears; metaphase – duplicated chromosomes line up at equator; anaphase – duplicated chromosomes separate; telophase – separated chromosomes relax and nuclear envelope reforms Know that chromosome numbers do not change during mitosis


Know that the division of the cytoplasm is termed cytokinesis Chap 5 -Tissues - Know characteristics/definition: Tissues/extracellular matrix/Epithelium/glands/ membrane - possible short answer: list 5 functions of epithelia - be able to determine epithelial tissue type when provided a word description: Types: Simple squamous, simple columnar, simple cuboidal, pseudostratified, stratified squamous, transitional - basement membrane is the hallmark of epithelial tissue/little intervening material between cells/avascular/know surfaces (apical, basal and 2 lateral surfaces) - - know three types of cell junctions/locations/features - differences between exocrine/endocrine glands; three types of glands based on secretion modes - Connective tissue makes up part of every organ in the body/abundant extracellular matrix. * Possible short answer: functions of connective tissue - blasts, cytes, and clasts – what they do - adipocytes - extracellular matrix has ground substance (hallmark of connective tissue) plus three types of protein fibers - Collagen is the most common protein in the human body - hyaluronic acid (energy) and proteoglycans (water storage) are found in ground substance; consistency of ground substance is what determines the function of that connective tissue - mesenchyme cells are stem cells that manufacture all CT during damage in adulthood and embryonic growth - loose (areolar and reticular) possesses fibroblasts and has a syrupy ground substance; areolar has both elastin and collagen fibers and is found just under the epidermis; reticular has reticular fibers that serve to filter fluids such as lymph, found in lymph nodes and liver; - dense (irregular and regular) has less ground substance which is firm and has fibroblasts; dense irregular forms capsules around organs and has collagen fibers that are randomly oriented, dense regular has parallel collagen fibers and forms tendons and ligaments - cartilage: 3 types – hyaline, fibrocartilage and elastic cartilage; cells are chondroblasts and chrondrocytes; Hyaline cartilage is found in joints; fibrocartilage is found between vertebral discs and elastic cartilage is found in the earlobes - bone has a hardened ground substance due to presence of calcium salts stored as hydroxyapatite; cells are osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteogenic cells - blood is the fluid CT that has no collagen or elastin; formed in the bone marrow and contains RBCs, WBCs and platelets - possible short answer: know the three categories of internal membranes, special names for certain tissues, characteristics and components

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