Issuu on Google+

ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR The University of Melbourne Lee Qianning Michelle | 590224

Infobox Vienna Central Station Source: http://www.karamba3d.com/infobox-competition/


6 7 9 10 12

Architecture as a Discourse Previous Studio Works Experience with Digital Architecture Alila Villas Uluwatu Row House

13 Computing in Architecture 14 National Musuem of the American Indian 18 Milwaukee Art Mtusuem 20 Parametric Architecture 21 The Guangzhou Opera House 22 Parametric Design Experience 24 Case Studies •Dynamic Performance of Nature Cut Case Study 2.0 26 BKK- Pavilion for the New Architecture 27 Reverse Engineering

CONTENTS


‘Architecture should speak of its time and place, but yearn for timelessness.’

ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 4

-Frank Gehry

ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 5


ARCHITECTURE AS

PREVIOUS STUDIO WORK

A DISCOURSE “Allowing nature to evolve into an interactive space.”

I

grew up in Singapore and is always very fascinated and excited about design and facades of houses especially shophouses since I was young. My passion in design of houses then grew and playing with lego became my favourite past time as I can build whatever designs I wanted in my ‘house’. I came to The University of Melbourne straight to 3rd year as I graduated in Singapore Polytechnic with a Diploma in Architecture which was given extra credit points and advance standing. A few months before starting University I work in a local architecture firm for 3months and work on a university project located in Singapore and I also had attachments to an architecture company during my studies in Singapore Polytechnic. However, I prefer to do residential landed projects as a smaller group of architects are involved and the project takes a shorter period of time to complete unlike commerical projects which requires large amount of planning. Heeren Shophouse, Malacca Malaysia http://www.scdaarchitects.com/web/index.html

ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 6

D

uring my 1st year in Singapore Polytechnic, we are to proposed an Eco House for a family of 4. The design concept was, t. As the owner wanted the house to be ecofriendly, nature is seeped into the space and less enclosures is used. The spaces between the outdoor and indoor spaces are interconnected and the outdoor deck is built bigger for interactive purposes. A courtyard and open terrace is placed in the middle of the house to allow the spaces to be interactive. To allow nature to seep in, protruding elements are built and there is a use of large transparent sliding glass doors and window panels. Thress bushes and water features are also placed around the house to block off unwanted views and sounds which gives the owner a sense of privacy. Weighing openness and enclosure, the use of less walls and columns allow air ventilation throughout the house. The house is also cross ventilated to allow the air to cool the interior spaces.

ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 7


“The juxtapositioning of spaces and having connections between the public and the dancers.�

Moving on to the 3rd year final year project, we proposed a dance centre for T.H.E Dance Company. The site is located within the Central Business District of Singapore and walking distance from numerous historical sites, monuments and institutions. The aim of the company is to create a building that reflects its unique function as a dance centre, to focus on the experience and expression of movement in space and to create space that inspire learning and creativity. Thus the concept was to explore the movement of a dancer which I came out strategies such the juxtapositioning of spaces and having connections between the public and the dancers.

Planter boxes are located directly outside every units to allow users to be closer to nature. In addition, green walls and planter boxes with creepers are located at the shelthered terraces allowing users to relax and view nature.

In my 2nd year, we design a SOHO (Small Office Home Office) for an Artist. I came out with the design intent experiencing tranquility within living spaces. The strategies were to allow the views to be facing greenery, having a quiet and condusive environment and lastly a spacious work area and at the same time having a clear segegration between work and living spaces.

Double volume spaces are designed to allow maximum interaction between the dancers and the public.

The feature space of the dance centre is the resource centre located on the 4th and 5th storey. It is cladded with curtain wall. Part of the 5th storey floor uses glass structural floor. This allows light to pass thru to the 4th storey and the users from 5th storey is able to see the users on the 4th storey. Users from the 4th and 5th storey are able to having connection with each other. The 4th storey of the resource centre is mainly for the public while the 5th storey is mainly for the dancers.

ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 8

ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 9


EXPERIENCE WITH

DIGITAL ARCHITECTURE

D

igital architecture is the ‘in’ thing in this century where many architects use to generate and share their ideas. One of the Architects that uses digital architecture is Frank Gehry. Hand built models are built to capture the design intent. After these models are refined, Gehry Partners uses Catia software to create threedimensional computer models. In prior to digital architecture, I have used 3d softwares such as 3d Studio Max, Google Sketchup,Vray (a plug-in for Sketchup), Autocad and Revit Architecture to generate forms for my project massings. I also used these programes to do renderings of exterior and interior views for my projects. I prefer using Revit to render and draw out my plans as when I draw out my walls in plans, the 3 dimensional view of the wall is automatically shown. In addition, the elements used in Revit are able to be edited with different physical properties such as the materials, dimensions and internal/ external locations. I haven exactly used Rhinoceros and Grasshopper for my previous projects thats why I am pretty excited to start this semester to learn more about these programmes.

Source: http://www.archithings.net/digital-design-miniproject-by-faculty-of-architecture-and-design-at-aalborg-university

ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 11


WOHA, ALILA VILLAS ULUWATU, ULUWATU, BALI, INDONESIA, 2009 “The design of this hotel and villa is a fusion of vernacular architecture with a modernist design and uses Balinese architecture.”

Source: http://housevariety.blogspot.com.au/2011/10/alila-villas-uluwatu-by-woha.html#.UEUqxpbvr0M

A

lila Villa Uluwatu sits on a ecologically sustainable development located in the southern cliffs of Indonesia, Bali. The design of this hotel and villa is a fusion of vernacular architecture with a modernist design and uses Balinese architecture. The buildings are inspired by the local farmer terraces. Thus rather then using typical steep pitched Balinese pavilions which would have block the paranomic views, loose piled limestone boulders and a terraced low pitched roof are used. The material of the roof is natural insulating and it blends with the natural landscape.

The villa rooms are designed more like a inhabited garden rather than an interior room like any other villas. This make staying in Alila Villas interesting as it would make us feel closer to nature. The room allows extensive sunlight to enter which would reduce the use of artificial lighting. Every villa has a pool overlooking the sea which makes us ‘wake up to nature’ every single morning. The materials used around the villa are mostly natural or sourced locally such as stone walls, timber, bamboo and even coconut. This makes the building environmental friendly. Source: http://housevariety.blogspot.com. au/2011/10/alila-villas-uluwatu-by-woha.html#.

Source: http://housevariety.blogspot.com. au/2011/10/alila-villas-uluwatu-by-woha.html#.

ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 12

ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 13


TADAO ANDO, ROW

HOUSE (AZUMA HOUSE), OSAKA, 1975

‘In its simple but rich spatial composition, in its expression of enclosure, and in the way light gives character to daily-life spaces, this house encapsulates an image of my architecture.’ -Tadao Ando

A

ndo’s work is sensitive towards the relationship between nature, climate and also subject to social and cultural influeneces. The house sits on a simple, narrow rectangular site and is divided in two spaces. Ando designed the house to be in contact with light, air, rain and other natural elements to connect back to the Japanese life-style. The living areas in the house surround an inner atrium which is exposed to wind and light to allow the user to interact with the environment. The courtyard separates the living room from the kitchen, dining and bathroom. An internal private street is designed within its enclosure to give users a sense of itimacy and privacy which separates the children’s room from the master bedroom. I like how Tadao Ando design his houses to be closer to the environment. This allows the use of less energy and electricity and it makes me feel relax and at peace when I am closer to nature. Source: http://livegso.blogspot.com.au/2010/10/light-artist-tadao-ando.html

Source: http://www.ananasamiami.com/2011/01/row-houseazuma-house-by-tadao-ando.html ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 15


COMPUTING IN ARCHITECTURE

Source: http://fineartamerica.com/featured/home-architecture-plans-soultana-koleska.html http://www.southcoastarchitecture.com/services/

I loved logic, math, computer programming. I loved systems and logic approaches. And so I just figured architecture is this perfect combination.� -Maya Lin

The 21st century digital age has brought computers to a whole new level. We can say that using the computers are inevitable. Many Architects in the industry has been using computers as a tool to communicate their design concepts and ideas to their clients. In architectural design, it uses both sides of our brain- the analytical and the creative. Computers never get tire or make any silly arithmetrical mistakes, it also helps us in collating all the infomation, storing it into its memory and has different types of programmes which helps us in completing our tasks efficiently.

ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 16

As our human memory do not have the ability to store every single memories we have, the computers are really good in this area. For example, it could store our work and even what we do on the programmes that we use in the computers. Communication plays an important role in sharing information between humans, especially in communicating with designers, architects and their clients. Computers are able to represent ideas graphically and numerically. For example, it allows architects to work on 2-demensional and 3-demensional programmes such as computeraided design to draw out plans or 3-demensional models. Images to show ideas are easily found on the internet or architects could easily use programmes such as Adobe Photoshop to communicate their ideas. In addition, audios can also be used to communicate ideas. For example, a song, audio message or a video will allow the client, designer or an architect to understand or learn about situation better or would even give them inspirations for their design work, As computers advance, more programmes are invented and it help designers to communicate with one another. Computers help to preserve the drawings as compared to the hand drawn drawings. Bolder, more organic and innovative designs were designed by architects with the use of digital architecture. The forms of the buildings are slightly more complex and has curvilinear forms. Some of the examples are from Frank Gehry’s Walt Disney in Los Angeles, California, National Muesuem of American Indian and Milwaukee Art Museum.

ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 17


JONES & JONES ARCHITECTS AND LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS LTD, NATIONAL

MUSEUM OF THE AMERICAN INDIAN, WASHINGTON, D.C, 2004

Source: http://inzumi.com/en/travel/point-of-interest/d_id/New-York-City/c_id/ Sightseeing/p_id/National-Museum-of-the-American-Indian


MiniCAD is used in designing the National Museum of the American Indian. The programe is much easier for designers and architects as there are many basic drawing tasks and it thinks in a graphical manner rather than in engineering terms. In addition, MiniCAD’s method of sketching is more intuitive and user friendly as compared to other CAD softwares or programmes. The programe was implemented into one of the major projects at the exbition gallery in the National Museum of the American History, ‘Audubon & the Smithsonian’. Minicad helped the designer in designing the project efficiently as many of the symbols and elements that the designer had created could be reuse in the exhibit. Not only it helped to save time and effort, MiniCAD allowed the CAD model to do ‘flyovers’ of the 3D models, where visitors and designers are able to see the exhibit case-by-case. Furthermore, MiniCAD not only saves times in modeling in 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional, it also helps to save time in coordinating efforts as well. The data stored can be read by AutoCAD. Also, the Cultural Resources Centre (CRC) is also designed by Computer-aided Design (CAD) programe. The design of CRC represents a Native approach to architecture and its landscape shows a flow with the building. The roof of the building are curve with an organic shape and the radial walls compliments with the spiral forms which are commonly found in nature.

T

he fast paced world including digital technology and computer-aided design have radically transformed the design and efficiency of Architectural drawings and planning. The National Musuem of the American Indian in Washington, D.C. designed by t and SmithGroup. The form of the Musuem is organic and innovative, far different from the designs of classical and old traditional museums. One unique feature of this building is the organic flow of the facade is brought into the interior of the building where the walls are mostly curved with almost or no sharp corners.

Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/75905404@N00/669287692/ sizes/l/in/photostream/ http://siarchives.si.edu/blog/challenge-preserving-digital- architectural-drawings

ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 20

From clockwise direction (far left to above): A typical 2D CAD drawing which portays an aerial view of the plan for the NMAI, Main Entrance of the NMAI, Framework of the spiral-shaped roof at the main entrance, Cultural Resource Centre, Interior of the Cultural Resource Centre

Plans, sections and elevations are cadded out to show its precision so that the engineers were able to read from the plans efficiently. With the aid of CAD programe, the design of the organic facade was able to come to realization. Less work was needed to hand drawn and computers were able to calculate the length and degree of the roofs and facades.

ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 21


SANTIAGO CALATRAVA, MILWAUKEE MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE, WISCONSIN

ART “This is a monumental project, encompassing an exceptional architectural and engineering masterpiece”. -Russell Bowman Director Milwaukee Art Museum

Source: http://www.jjr-us.com/index.aspx?id=1092&section=34

The Milwaukee Art Museum (MAM) also known as the Quadracci Pavilion is located on Lake Michigan in Milwaukee, Wisconsin and designed by Spanish architect T. It’s most interesting feature of the building is its movable sunscreen - the Burke Brise-Soleil with a 217-foot which could be raised and lowered to provide shade to the interior of the musuem. Calatrava’s buildings are known to be innovative, cutting edge and has a flowy and curved form. He often uses materials like steel, concrete, glass and also computer modeling for his compositions and forms which make his structure possible. Source: http://mam.org/info/details/quadracci.php

ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 22

He added Quadracci Pavilion to the Milwaukee Art Museum in 2001. The Quadracci Pavilion served as the grand entrance to the expanded museum. The structure of the roof has seventeen built A-frames. Calatrava and his team used computers to design the A-shaped rafters were custom-fabricated. The A-frame shapes were determined digitally from a computerized model. These frames the movable wings of the Brise Brise-Soleil which allow natural lighting into the building during day and artificial illumination at night. To see if the structure works, it was modeled out using CAD program as a truss in the finite element analysis.

Source: http://www.jjr-us.com/index. aspx?id=1092&section=34 ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 23


PARAMETRIC ARCHITECTURE “As a style, parametricism is marked by its aims, ambitions, methodological principles, and evaluative criteria, as well as by its characteristic formal repertoire.” -Patrik Schumacher

Above: Parametric Design Studies on Novel Interiorities for Existing Structural Systems / 0RN8 Source: http://www.evolo.us/architecture/parametric-design-studies-on-novel-interiorities-for-existing-structuralsystems-0rn8/

However every tool we use has a downside to it. Parametricism too, has a number of disadvantages. Parametric software such as Bentley’s GenerativeComponents which is based on their Mircostation CAD software is very complex and it requires extensive training and amount of time to master. The softwares and also relatively expensive. Thus it is difficult to introduce to individuals, schools and even smaller architectural practices.

Above: Parametric Design Studies on Novel Interiorities for Existing Structural Systems / 0RN8 Source: http://www.evolo.us/architecture/parametric-design-studies-on-novel-interiorities-for-existingstructural-systems-0rn8/

Other alternatives are using Grasshopper, a plug-in for Rhino but it does not slove the problem of the issues of complexity of the software. Grasshopper users must write scripts (using Visual Basic, C++ or RhinoScript) to generate the geometry which may put designers and architects off as they may feel learning to code is a boring and tedious process.

Parametric architecture is the new technology in this 21st century. In parametric design many of the forms which seems unrealistic in the past are now able to put to past using parametric programmes. Parametricism means all architecture elements and complex are parametrically malleable. There is a shift between the use of elements. Parametrics has evolve from CAD and has exceeded the expectation of just being a drafting tool. It has introduced a level of both control and possibilities to create new forms. Instead of using rigid geometrical figures, the new primitives of parametricism are animate geometrical entities- splines, nurbs and subdivs. The use of parametric modelling have inspired a new collective movement with many radical and new ambitions and values. There are also fundamental geometrical building blocks for dynamical systems which could be made via scripts. Scripting can be used to differentiate and correlate all elements and subsystems of a design. The style of parametricism is rooted in digital animation techniques. Advances of the deconstructivism have been form through the use of parametricism. Parametricism have returned to a form of pragmatic modernism and also a form of eclecticism by mixing and matching different elements together. Above: An example of Grasshopper Scripting Source: http://www.alexhogrefe.com/louver-orientationgrasshopper/2009/6/7/multi-object-orientation-grasshopper-script-2.html ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 24

ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 25


‘The two buildings are embedded in an artificial landscape impregnated with progam and spaces.’ -Patrik Schumacher

Source: http://www.interiorholic.com/architecture/guangzhou-opera-house-by-zaha-hadid/

ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 26

ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 27


Urban Planning

Source: http://www.patrikschumacher.com/Texts/Parametricism%20-%20A%20New%20 Global%20Style%20for%20Architecture%20and%20Urban%20Design.html


“Parametricism aims to organise and articulate the increasing diversity and complexity of social institutions and life processes...” - Patrik Schumacher, Let The Style Wars Begin - The Architects’ Journal (May 2010)

Source: http://www.core.form-ula.com/wp-content/ uploads/2007/12/zaha_hadid.jpg


PARAMETRIC DESIGN EXPERIENCE To me, there is no precise defination to parametric design as it can include many other types of designs into it, such as computating, computer aided and even digital designs. Parametric is a very broad term and it uses computer to design instead of regular pen and paper. In rhino and grasshopper, we are able to use algorithms and formulas to work out and figure out our designs. These use of techniques help designers and architects to visualize and maximise their ideas. However while in the process of using rhino and grasshopper, I found it difficult to adapt to the software as grasshopper is rather different from other programmes. Rhino and grasshopper has taught me new insights about parametric designs which could be done so easily by just playing around with the functions. With one element, many different variables are created with the use of different functions in Grasshopper. In addition, the use of attractor point allows the designer or architect to simply visualize the object in a different point of view and style by just changing the location of the attractor point.

Source: http://www.evolo.us/architecture/eco-sustainable-housing-parametric-design/

One of a parametric design is by Federico Rossi in a housing competition during 2007. The design is generated through using variables which is grouped into a system and thus generating different variations of outcomes. The housing unit of the project uses a rhomboid framework which are constrained within two strips which form the above parametric model. The model is able to have different outcome by just changing the length, width and thickness of each elements. ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 22

Source: http://www.evolo.us/architecture/eco-sustainable-housing-parametric-design/

Thus, I feel that though the process of learning rhino and grasshopper may be tough in the starting, once I know how to use the programe, it can save me alot of time and hassle. My designs could be more bold and out of the box.

ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 23


CASE STUDIES

DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE OF NATURE This interactive media installation is designed by Yong Ju Lee and Brian Brush, partners of New York/ Portland-based design collaboration EB office. When the visitors to the musuem visit the installation, every different angle of the installation will look differently and also the installation changes its colour through its temperatures and its wind speed. Visitors are able to interact with installation by using twitter to send messages to change the colours of the panels. ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 24

ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 25


BBK- PAVILLION FOR NEW ARCHITECTURE The Pavillion type was first chosen as a starting point because of its typically experimental nature and the absence of programmatic requirements. It was then designed by a digital software before making its physical contruction. The form of the Pavillion was inspired by geometric and structural forms of mainly two buildings; Buckminster Fuller’s Montreal Expo geodesic and Toyo Ito’s orthogonal Serpentine Pavilion. Both structure of the buildings uses steel frames which has a ‘transparent’ skin over the structure.

Source: http://www.sial.rmit.edu.au/Projects/Pavilions_for_ New_Architecture.php

Variables can be made by just changing the position of the centre point or the size of the intersecting cubes. The resulting individual cells are then formed to create templates. The final product was made by first testing out on a 1:5 scale paper and cardboard prototypes to try out its materiality, lighting fixing and suspension methods. In order to build this structure, firstly, a geodesic sphere is created then using a centre point, it is then trimmed against an inner and outer cube.

The Pavillion for the New Architecture was then completed as a 2m cube constructed from handcut 2mm white cardboard fixed together with double-sided tape and suspended from the gallery ceiling by stainless steel cables. ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 26

ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 27


REVERSE ENGINEERING

To create the BKK- Pavillion for New Architecture, first a box is created, then population 3D is used to populate the region with points, randomly. Voronoi is then used to create different shapes with the points created using population 3D. However, we found out using population 3d is the wrong technique. Thus, we tried using population 2D instead as we wanted to extrude thru the surface instead of the cube.

We then connected voronoi to population 3D and came out with the 3D image on the left.

Next the cube is scaled bigger to allow the planes to loft each other. As we had an attractor point, the planes all loft towards the attractor point.

Another problem we encounter was that we could not offset the lines to give the form thickness. We also couldnt pair up the geometries. This was the form we got after extruding the planes.

ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 28

ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 30


MATRIX EXPLORATION

VARIATION 1

TECHNIQUE 1

2 3

2

3

Analysis

4

The different types of matrices are a play of using different modules, thickness, denisty, image sampler and size of the modules. 4.1

4.2 5

1

The use of panels were more directional and less complicated and by having it break down to smaller modules allowed more flexibility to play with more options. Panalisation also allowed us to play within rhythms

2

3

4

ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 30

ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 31


MORPHOGENESIS DEVELOPED TECHNIQUE

Source: http://artpause.com/abstract/100637mondrian-inspired-3d.html

ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 30

ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 31


ATTRACTORS & PERCEPTION Our group’s idea is to use to attractors and perception to create a pleasing visual impact by using a polychromatic modular system with the use of different colours and a play of solid and transparency of materials

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

Source: http://fineartamerica.com/featured/polychromatic-charles-yates.html

The main objectives are to create visual impact, having a not too complex model and the scale of the structure is within the field of the driver. By allowing the the structure to have a visual impact, a variety of perspectives is created where there is a colour contrast in it and also capture the attention of the drivers driving from both sides of the highway. As the structure is incomplex, drivers would be able to appreciate it in a short timing while driving past it. Also, by placing the structure horrizontally along the road, it is more visible within the field of view of the driver.

ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 32

ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 33


PRECEDENT STUDIES

SPANISH PAVILION

asfdsfdsfdsf

ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 34

ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 35


ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 31


ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 32

ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 33


MODEL


REFERENCES:


ADS AIR