ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR The University of Melbourne Lee Qianning Michelle | 590224
Infobox Vienna Central Station Source: http://www.karamba3d.com/infobox-competition/
7 11 12 14
ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCOURSE
Previous Studio Works Experience with Digital Architecture Alila Villas Uluwatu Row House
CUT CASE STUDY
36 38 40 41 42
BKK- Pavilion for the New Architecture Reverse Engineering Attractors & Perception Aims & Objective Matrix Exploration
EXPRESSION OF INTEREST
44 Precedent Studies for EOI 46 Morphogenesis •Developed Technique 48 Morphogenesis •Evolution of Design 50 Model Making Process 51 Final Model 52 EOI Presentation Feedback •Further Development
16 COMPUTING IN ARCHITECTURE 18 22
National Musuem of the American Indian Milwaukee Art Mtusuem
24 PARAMETRIC ARCHITECTURE 26 28 30
The Guangzhou Opera House Kartal-Pendik Masterplan One North Masterplan
32 PARAMETRIC DESIGN EXPERIENCE 34
Case Studies •Dynamic Performance of Nature
72 Australian Livestock Fence •Execution on Site 74 Construction of Final Model 76 Material and Construction Details 78 Parametric Experience 79 Final Presentation Feedback •Further Development
54 56 57 58 60 62 64 66 68 69 70
THE GATEWAY PROJECT
Morphogenesis Part Three •Evolution of Design Wyndham City Site Chosen Concept & Technique Further Studies for Final Design •Craigieburn Bypass Morphogenesis Part Four •Evolution of Design Screenplay Bench Morphogenesis Part Five •Evolution of Design Prototype model (Study Model) Process with Parametric •Parametric Diagram Application of Design •Essence No.1 •Essense No.2 •Essense No.3
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‘Architecture should speak of its time and place, but yearn for timelessness.’ -Frank Gehry
Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health by Frank Gehry ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 5 Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/29820142@N08/4586001600/
grew up in Singapore and is always very fascinated and excited about designs and facades of houses especially shophouses since I was young. My passion in design of houses then grew and playing with lego became my favourite past time as I can build whatever designs I wanted in my â€˜houseâ€™. I came to The University of Melbourne straight to 3rd year as I graduated from Singapore Polytechnic with a Diploma in Architecture which was given extra credit points and advance standing. A few months before starting university, I worked in a local architecture firm for three months on a university project located in Singapore and I also had an attachment to an architecture company during my studies in Singapore Polytechnic. However, I prefer to do residential landed projects as a smaller group of architects are involved and the project takes a shorter period of time to complete unlike commerical projects which requires large amount of planning. Heeren Shophouse, Malacca Malaysia http://www.scdaarchitects.com/web/index.html
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PREVIOUS STUDIO WORK â€œAllowing nature to evolve into an interactive space.â€?
uring my 1st year in Singapore Polytechnic, we are to proposed an Eco House for a family of 4. The design concept was to allow nature to evolve into an interactive space. As the owner wanted the house to be eco-friendly, nature is seeped into the space and less enclosures is used. The spaces between the outdoor and indoor spaces are interconnected and an outdoor deck is built bigger for interactive purposes. A courtyard and open terrace is placed in the middle of the house to allow the spaces to be interactive among its users. To allow nature to seep in, protruding elements are built and there is a use of large transparent sliding glass doors and window panels. Trees, bushes and water features are also placed around the house to block off unwanted views and sounds which gives the owner a sense of privacy. Weighing openness and enclosure, the use of less walls and columns allow air ventilation throughout the house. The house is also cross ventilated to allow the air to cool the interior spaces.
From top to bottom: Rendering of eco house using 3Dmax, Physical model of the eco house
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From top to bottom: Rendering of bedroom using V-Ray for Sketchup, back view of physical model facing the park connector, Front view of physical model facing the main road
Planter boxes are located directly outside every units to allow users to be closer to nature. In addition, green walls and planter boxes with creepers are located at the shelthered terraces allowing users to relax and view nature. In my 2nd year, we designed a SOHO (Small Office Home Office) for an artist who requires a large and condusive space to paint his work. He would usually spend most of his time in his artist studio and needs smoothing music for him to do his work. The design intent is to experience tranquility within living spaces. Thus the strategies were to allow the views to be facing greenery. Also when I thought of experiencing tranquility within living spaces, I thought of having a quiet and condusive environment and lastly a spacious work area and at the same time having a clear segegration between work and living spaces. The artist studio is designed whereby it is segregated away from the living and dining area, allowing a quiet and condusive environment for the artist to paint his work. I also created the views of the different units to be different, the studio apartment is facing the Alexandra park connector while the units with two bedrooms and the penthouse is facing the landscape design. Thus the windows of the living room are designed bigger to maximize the views of the user.
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â€œThe juxtapositioning of spaces and having connections between the public and the dancers.â€?
Moving on to the 3rd year final year project, we proposed a dance centre for T.H.E Dance Company. The site is located within the Central Business District of Singapore and walking distance from numerous historical sites, monuments and institutions. The aim of the company is to create a building that reflects its unique function as a dance centre, to focus on the experience and expression of movement in space and to create a space that inspire learning and creativity. Thus the concept was to explore the movement of a dancer which I came out strategies such the juxtapositioning of spaces and having connections between the public and the dancers.
From top to bottom: Rendering of dance centre using Revit, Rendering of resource centre
Double volume spaces are designed to allow maximum interaction between the dancers and the public.
The feature space of the dance centre is the resource centre located on the 4th and 5th storey. It is cladded with curtain wall. Part of the 5th storey floor uses glass structural floor. This allows light to pass thru to the 4th storey and the users from 5th storey is able to see the users on the 4th storey. Users from the 4th and 5th storey are able to having connection with each other. The 4th storey of the resource centre is mainly for the public while the 5th storey is mainly for the dancers. Another feature space is the dance studios located on the 2nd storey. When users are at the lift lobby, they are able to take a peek into the dance studios. The dance studios are naturally ventilated as glass blocks are used. These glass blocks allow air flow throughout the studios cooling the spaces.
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igital architecture is the â€˜inâ€™ thing in this century where many architects use to generate and share their ideas. One of the Architects that uses digital architecture is Frank Gehry. Hand built models are built to capture the design intent. After these models are refined, Gehry Partners uses Catia software to create threedimensional computer models. In prior to digital architecture, I have used 3d softwares such as 3d Studio Max, Google Sketchup,Vray (a plug-in for Sketchup), Autocad and Revit Architecture to generate forms for my project massings. I also used these programes to do renderings of exterior and interior views for my projects. I prefer using Revit to render and draw out my plans as when I draw out my walls in plans, the three dimensional view of the wall is automatically shown. In addition, the elements used in Revit are able to be edited with different physical properties such as the materials, dimensions and internal or external locations. I haven exactly used Rhinoceros and Grasshopper for my previous projects thats why I am pretty excited to start this semester to learn more about these programmes.
Reference: Jigsaw24 2012, Nottingham viewed 1 August 2012, <http:// www.jigsawcad.com/articles/an-industry-view-the-true-benefits-of-revitarchitecture>
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WOHA, ALILA VILLAS ULUWATU, ULUWATU, BALI, INDONESIA, 2009 â€œThe design of this hotel and villa is a fusion of vernacular architecture with a modernist design and uses Balinese architecture.â€?
lila Villa Uluwatu sits on a ecologically sustainable development located in the southern cliffs of Indonesia, Bali. The design of this hotel and villa is a fusion of vernacular architecture with a modernist design and Balinese architecture. The buildings are inspired by the local farmer terraces. Thus rather then using typical steep pitched Balinese pavilions which would have block the paranomic views, loose piled limestone boulders and a terraced low pitched roof are used. The material of the roof is natural insulating and it blends with the natural landscape. Individual villas are tiered and oriented at different angles to allow maximum Above: View of the private pool in the villa Source: http://housevariety.blogspot.com.au/2011/10/ alila-villas-uluwatu-by-woha.html#.UEUqxpbvr0M
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Above: View of the infinity pool Source: http://housevariety.blogspot.com.au/2011/10/alila-villas-uluwatu-by-woha.html#.UEUqxpbvr0M
views of the sea and the horizon. The villa rooms are designed more like a inhabited garden rather than an interior room like any other villas. This make staying in Alila Villas interesting as it would make us feel closer to nature. The room allows extensive sunlight to enter which would reduce the use of artificial lighting. Every villa has a pool overlooking the sea which makes us â€˜wake up to natureâ€™ every single morning. The materials used around the villa are mostly natural or sourced locally such as stone walls, timber, bamboo and even coconut. This makes the building environmental friendly. Reference: Archdaily 2010, viewed 1 August 2012, <http://www.archdaily. com/59740/alila-villas-uluwatu-woha/>
Above: View of the interior of the villa Source: http://housevariety.blogspot.com.au/2011/10/alila-villasuluwatu-by-woha.html#.UEUqxpbvr0M ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 13
TADAO ANDO, ROW
HOUSE (AZUMA HOUSE),
‘In its simple but rich spatial composition, in its expression of enclosure, and in the way light gives character to daily-life spaces, this house encapsulates an image of my architecture.’ -Tadao Ando
Above: Interior view of the Row House Source: http://livegso.blogspot.com.au/2010/10/light-artist-tadao-ando.html
From clockwise direction (left to bottom): Exterior Facade of the house, Courtyard which brings in natural daylight, External staircase in the house from the courtyard
ndoâ€™s work is sensitive towards the relationship between nature, climate and also subjects to social and cultural influeneces. The house sits on a simple, narrow rectangular site and is divided in two spaces. Ando designed the house to be in contact with light, air, rain and other natural elements to connect back to the Japanese life-style. The living areas in the house surround an inner atrium which is exposed to wind and light to allow the user to interact with the environment. The courtyard separates the living room from the kitchen, dining and bathroom. An internal private street is designed within its enclosure to give users a sense of itimacy and privacy which separates the childrenâ€™s room from the master bedroom. I like how Tadao Ando design his houses to be closer to the environment. This allows the use of less energy and electricity and it makes me feel relax and at peace when I am closer to nature. The selection of materials such as concrete allows the house to look natural and blend in the environment as a whole. Source: http://www.ananasamiami.com/2011/01/row-house-azumaReference: Great Buildings 2012,Artifice, USA viewed 1 August 2012, <http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Azuma_House.html>
house-by-tadao-ando.html ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 15
COMPUTING IN ARCHITECTURE
I loved logic, math, computer programming. I loved systems and logic approaches. And so I just figured architecture is this perfect combination.â€? -Maya Lin
The 21st century digital age has brought computers to a whole new level. We can say that using the computers are inevitable. Many Architects in the industry has been using computers as a tool to communicate their design concepts and ideas to their clients. In architectural design, it uses both sides of our brain- the analytical and the creative. Computers never get tire or make any silly arithmetrical mistakes, it also helps us in collating all the infomation, storing it into its memory and has different types of programmes which helps us in completing our tasks efficiently. As our human memory do not have the ability to store every single memories we have, the computers are really good in this area. For example, it could store our work and even what we do on the programmes that we use in the computers.
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Source: http://fineartamerica.com/featured/home-architecture-plans-soultana-koleska.html http://www.southcoastarchitecture.com/services/
Communication plays an important role in sharing information between humans, especially in communicating with designers, architects and their clients. Computers are able to represent ideas graphically and numerically. For example, it allows architects to work on 2-demensional and 3-demensional programmes such as computeraided design to draw out plans or 3-demensional models. Images to show ideas are easily found on the internet or architects could easily use programmes such as Adobe Photoshop to communicate their ideas. In addition, audios can also be used to communicate ideas. For example, a song, audio message or a video will allow the client, designer or an architect to understand or learn about situation better or would even give them inspirations for their design work, As computers advance, more programmes are invented and it help designers to communicate with one another. Computers help to preserve the drawings as compared to the hand drawn drawings. Bolder, more organic and innovative designs were designed by architects with the use of digital architecture. The forms of the buildings are slightly more complex and has curvilinear forms. Some of the examples are from Frank Gehryâ€™s Walt Disney in Los Angeles, California, National Muesuem of American Indian and Milwaukee Art Museum. However, computers and CAD softwares has its downside to it as they may be expensive to purchase these softwares and designers or architects require extensive trainning to be proficient in computer design which then the process could be time consuming. Also despite all the rendering options that the softwares provide, many will still perfer to make a physical model instead of the computer rendered model to a able to visualise the spaces better and more efficiently.
Reference: Yehuda E. Kalay, Architectureâ€™s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 2004), pp 1-10
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JONES & JONES ARCHITECTS AND LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS LTD, NATIONAL
MUSEUM OF THE AMERICAN INDIAN, WASHINGTON, D.C, 2004
Exterior view of the National Musuem of the American Indian Source: http://inzumi.com/en/travel/point-of-interest/d_id/New-York-City/c_id/Sightseeing/p_ id/National-Museum-of-the-American-Indian
he fast paced world including digital technology and computer-aided design have radically transformed the design and efficiency of Architectural drawings and planning. The National Musuem of the American Indian in Washington, D.C. designed by Jones & Jones Architects and Landscape Architects Ltd. and SmithGroup. The form of the Musuem is organic and innovative, far different from the designs of classical and old traditional museums. One unique feature of this building is the organic flow of the facade is brought Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/75905404@N00/669287692/ into the interior of the building where the walls sizes/l/in/photostream/ http://siarchives.si.edu/blog/challenge-preserving-digital- are mostly curved with almost or no sharp corners. architectural-drawings
MiniCAD is used in designing the National Museum of the American Indian. The programe is much easier for designers and architects as there are many basic drawing tasks and it thinks in a graphical manner rather than in engineering terms. In addition, MiniCAD’s method of sketching is more intuitive and user friendly as compared to other CAD softwares or programmes. The programe was implemented into one of the major projects at the exbition gallery in the National Museum of the American History, ‘Audubon & the Smithsonian’. Minicad helped the designer in designing the project efficiently as many of the symbols and elements that the designer had created could be reuse in the exhibit. Not only it helped to save time and effort, MiniCAD allowed the CAD model to do ‘flyovers’ of the 3D models, where visitors and designers are able to see the exhibit case-by-case. Furthermore, MiniCAD not only saves times in modeling in 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional, it also helps to save time in coordinating efforts as well. The data stored can be read by AutoCAD. Also, the Cultural Resources Centre (CRC) is also designed by Computer-aided Design (CAD) programe. The design of CRC represents a Native approach to architecture and its landscape shows a flow with the building. The roof of the building are curve with an organic shape and the radial walls compliments with the spiral forms which are commonly found in nature.
From clockwise direction (far left to above): A typical 2D CAD drawing which portays an aerial view of the plan for the NMAI, Main Entrance of the NMAI, Framework of the spiral-shaped roof at the main entrance, Cultural Resource Centre, Interior of the Cultural Resource Centre Source: http://nmai.si.edu/explore/collections/crc/ Reference: National Museum of the American Indian 2012, Smithsonian Institution, Washington viewed 7 August 2012, <http://nmai.si.edu/explore/collections/crc/>
Plans, sections and elevations are cadded out to show its precision so that the engineers were able to read from the plans efficiently. With the aid of CAD programe, the design of the organic facade was able to come to realization. Less work was needed to hand drawn and computers were able to calculate the length and degree of the roofs and facades.
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SANTIAGO CALATRAVA, MILWAUKEE ART MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE, WISCONSIN, 2001
On this: Movable sunscreenthe Burke Brise Soleil
The Milwaukee Art Museum (MAM) also known as the Quadracci Pavilion is located on Lake Michigan in Milwaukee, Wisconsin and designed by Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava. Itâ€™s most interesting feature of the building is its movable sunscreen - the Burke Brise-Soleil with a 217-foot which could be raised and lowered to provide shade to the interior of the musuem. Calatravaâ€™s buildings are known to be innovative, cutting edge and has a flowy and curved form. He often uses materials like steel, concrete, glass and also computer modeling for his compositions and forms which make his structure possible.
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â€œThis is a monumental project, encompassing an exceptional architectural and engineering masterpieceâ€?. -Russell Bowman Director Milwaukee Art Museum
Top: Overall view of the Milwaukee Art Museum Source: http://www.jjr-us.com/index.aspx?id=1092§ion=34
He added Quadracci Pavilion to the Milwaukee Art Museum in 2001. The Quadracci Pavilion served as the grand entrance to the expanded museum. The structure of the roof has seventeen built A-frames. Calatrava and his team used computers to design the A-shaped rafters were custom-fabricated. The A-frame shapes were determined digitally from a computerized model. These frames the movable wings of the Brise Brise-Soleil which allow natural lighting into the building during day and artificial illumination at night. To see if the structure works, it was modeled out using CAD program as a truss in the finite element analysis. Reference: Solaripediat 2011, Viewed 7 August 2012, <http://www. solaripedia.com/13/375/5128/milwaukee_art_museum_lake.html>
Top: Interior view of the Quadracci Pavilion Source: http://www.jjr-us.com/index.aspx?id=1092§ion=34 ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 23
PARAMETRIC ARCHITECTURE â€œAs a style, parametricism is marked by its aims, ambitions, methodological principles, and evaluative criteria, as well as by its characteristic formal repertoire.â€? -Patrik Schumacher
Above: Parametric Design Studies on Novel Interiorities for Existing Structural Systems / 0RN8 Source: http://www.evolo.us/architecture/parametric-design-studies-on-novel-interiorities-for-existingstructural-systems-0rn8/
Parametric architecture is the new technology in this 21st century. In parametric design many of the forms which seems unrealistic in the past are now able to put to past using parametric softwares. Parametricism means all architecture elements and complex are parametrically malleable. There is a shift between the use of elements. Parametrics has evolve from CAD and has exceeded the expectation of just being a drafting tool. It has introduced a level of both control and possibilities to create new forms. Instead of using rigid geometrical figures, the new primitives of parametricism are animate geometrical entities- splines, nurbs and subdivs. The use of parametric modelling have inspired a new collective movement with many radical and new ambitions and values. There are also fundamental geometrical building blocks for dynamical systems which could be made via scripts. Scripting can be used to differentiate and correlate all elements and subsystems of a design. The style of parametricism is rooted in digital animation techniques. Advances of the deconstructivism have been form through the use of parametricism. Parametricism have returned to a form of pragmatic modernism and also a form of eclecticism by mixing and matching different elements together.
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Above: Parametric Design Studies on Novel Interiorities for Existing Structural Systems / 0RN8 Source: http://www.evolo.us/architecture/parametric-design-studies-on-novel-interiorities-for-existing-structuralsystems-0rn8/
However every tool we use has a downside to it. Parametricism too, has a number of disadvantages. Parametric software such as Bentley’s GenerativeComponents which is based on their Mircostation CAD software is very complex and it requires extensive training and amount of time to master. The softwares and also relatively expensive. Thus it is difficult to introduce to individuals, schools and even smaller architectural practices. Other alternatives are using Grasshopper, a plug-in for Rhino but it does not slove the problem of the issues of complexity of the software. Grasshopper users must write scripts (using Visual Basic, C++ or RhinoScript) to generate the geometry which may put designers and architects off as they may feel learning to code is a boring and tedious process.
Above: An example of Grasshopper Scripting Source: http://www.alexhogrefe.com/louver-orientation-grasshopper/2009/6/7/ multi-object-orientation-grasshopper-script-2.html Reference: Patrik Schumacher, 2008, ‘A New Global Style for Architecture and Urban Design’, AD Architectural Design - Digital Cities, Vol 79, No 4, July/August 2009
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ZAHA HADID ARCHITECTS, GUANGZHOU OPERA HOUSE, CHINA, GUANGZHOU, 2010 â€˜The two buildings are embedded in an artificial landscape impregnated with progam and spaces.â€™ -Patrik Schumacher
he Guangzhou Opera House by Zaha Hadid is designed in collaboration with Patrik Schumacher. The outer crystalline was formed in Rhino while the inner, more complex and fluid surfaces inside the auditorium in Maya. These organic forms are created through logaruthms, splines, blobs, NURBS and particles organized by scripts of the dynamic systems of parametric design. The opera house structure is a volume within a volume where the auditorium and fly tower is a concrete box with terraces cantilevering into the auditorium and lobby. The geometry of the auditorium represents a different mathematical species which uses the software Maya to develop as NURB surfaces. In working with Maya, the architects sent digital files to the factory where the
Top to Above: Exterior overall view of the Opera house, Interior of 1,800 seat grand theatre Source: http://www.zaha-hadid.com/architecture/guangzhou-opera-house/
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“From the perspective of lighting, the architectural complexity of Guangzhou Opera House does not lie in its structure, but in its space form and architectural shape which is different to our familiar conventional style,” -Rongxing Yan, Beijing Light & View’s Chief Engineer
From clockwise direction (above to right): Sweeping staircase in the main volume, view of the column free foyer, Structural Source: http://www.zaha-hadid.com/architecture/guangzhou-opera-house/ system view of the interior
data will be translated and milled into molds. The use of materials such as glass fiber- reinforced gypsum could be cast. Thus the buildings were not conceived planimetrically but rather were modeled dynamically in 3D. The lobbies of the opera house are voluminous and column free and the cantilevered staircases and terraces cantilever from the threater volumn provide a grand architectural promenade which guides visitors throughout the voloume. In the grand entrance hall, the windows are composed of many triangular pieces of glass which allows sunlight in by day and the neighbourhood’s neon-lit skyscapers and towers by night. Reference: Michael Ting, Alexander Price, Michael Smith, Erica Henrysson, 2011, Designing with Grasshopper, MtJoseph Giovannini 2011, Guangzhou Opera House, ARCHITECT The Magazine of the American Institure of Architects, Washington, viewed 15 August 2012, <http://www.architectmagazine. com/cultural-projects/guangzhou-opera-house.aspx>
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ZAHA HADID ARCHIECTS, KARTAL-PENDIK MASTERPLAN, ISTANBUL, TURKEY, 2006
Above: Rendered aerial view of the city centre
he Kartal- Pendik Masterplan is a winning competition proposal for the new city centre in Instanbul. The plan is to redevelop the abandoned site into a new sub-centre of Instanbul, with a central business district, high-end residential development and cultural facilities.
Above: 3D Rendered view of the city centre Source: http://www.zaha-hadid.com/masterplans/kartal-pendikmasterplan/#
The project ties together the infrastructural and urban context of the surrounding site. The use of lateral line stitch together the major road connections of the site. Then these connections integrates and connects with the main longutudinal axis which creates a soft grid that forms the underlying framework for the whole project. The net can be bundled to form areas of higher programmatic intensity as well as to have a vertical build-up of the city fabric.
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Above: Rendered sea view of the city centre
The fabric is then articulated by an urban script that helps to generate different typologies of buildings that respond to the different demands of each district. This is done using a parametric software. Then the calligraphic script creates different forms and open conditions which can be transform from the buildings. The soft grid incorporates possibilities of growth. The masterplan by Zaha Hadid in collaberation with Patrik Schumacher is a dynamic system that generates an adaptable framework for urban form.
Above: 3D Rendered view of the city centre Source: http://www.zaha-hadid.com/masterplans/kartal-pendik-masterplan/#
Reference: Arcspace 2007, viewed 15 August 2012, <http://www.arcspace.com/architects/hadid/ kartal_pendik/kp.html>
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ZAHA HADID ARCHITECTS, ONE NORTH MASTERPLAN, SINGAPORE, 2003
Above: Rendered Massing blocks Masterplan of One North Source: http://www.urbanarchnow.com/2012/03/bldg-list-singapore.html
Above: Rendered Masterplan of One North Source: http://www.zaha-hadid.com/masterplans/one-north-masterplan/#
Reference: Arcspace 2001, viewed 15 August 2012, <http://www.arcspace.com/ architects/hadid/One_North_Masterplan/>
aha Hadidâ€™s One-North Masterplan is a next-generation urban model for a new mixed development site in Singapore. The plan of OneNorth Masterplan is to accomodate to 50,000 new residents and 70,000 workers which will incorporate a uniquely designed transporation infrastructure. Zaha hadid researched into the manipulation of groundforms and experimentation with the spatial quality. The approach for the master plan stresses the connecting lines between the fabric and physical programme of the development. The use of parametric software was put to good use in planning and coming out with renders for the master plan.
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“Parametricism aims to organise and articulate the increasing diversity and complexity of social institutions and life processes...” - Patrik Schumacher, Let The Style Wars Begin - The Architects’ Journal (May 2010)
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PARAMETRIC DESIGN EXPERIENCE
To me, there is no precise defination to parametric design as it can include many other types of designs into it, such as computating, computer aided and even digital designs. Parametric is a very broad term and it uses computer to design instead of regular pen and paper. In rhino and grasshopper, we are able to use algorithms and formulas to work out and figure out our designs. These use of techniques help designers and architects to visualize and maximise their ideas. However while in the process of using rhino and grasshopper, I found it difficult to adapt to the software as grasshopper is rather different from other programmes. Rhino and grasshopper has taught me new insights about parametric designs which could be done so easily by just playing around with the functions. With one element, many different variables are created with the use of different functions in Grasshopper. In addition, the use of attractor point allows the designer or architect to simply visualize the object in a different point of view and style by just changing the location of the attractor point. One of a parametric design is by Federico Rossi in a housing competition during 2007. The design is generated through using variables which is grouped into a system and thus generating different variations of outcomes. The housing unit of the project uses a rhomboid framework which are constrained within two strips which form the above parametric model. The model is able to have different outcome by just changing the length, width and thickness of each elements.
Top: Parametric model of housing unit Source: http://www.evolo.us/architecture/eco-sustainable-housing-parametric-design/
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Top: Variation of different types of modules Source: http://www.evolo.us/architecture/eco-sustainable-housing-parametric-design/
Thus, I feel that though the process of learning rhino and grasshopper may be tough in the starting, once I know how to use the programe, it can save me alot of time and hassle. My designs could be more bold and out of the box.
Reference: Evolo, 2012, United States viewed 21 August 2012, <http://www.evolo.us/architecture/ ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 33 eco-sustainable-housing-parametric-design/>
EB OFFICE, DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE OF NATURE, SALT LAKE CITY, 2011
This interactive media installation is designed by Yong Ju Lee and Brian Brush, partners of New York/ Portlandbased design collaboration EB office. The installation acts as a transitional space between the exhibit spaces in the museum and it helps to communicate global environmental information through a dynamic and interactive interface. The installation uses panels, static materials and the colour spectrum given out from the installation to allow its viewers to see a flow of spectral waves. When the visitors to the musuem visit the installation, every different angle of the installation will look differently and also the installation changes its colour through its temperatures and its wind speed. Visitors are able to interact with installation by using twitter to send messages to change the colours of the panels. ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 34
From Clockwise direction (Left to above): Installation located in Salt Lake Cityâ€™s Leonardo Museum of Art, Science and Technology, Colours of panels which reacts to the global weather, the use of Parametric software for the geometry Source: http://www.hz-journal.org/n17/brush.html
The installation uses the parametric software, Grasshopper to come out with the scripting. Grasshopper allowed the design process to shift from manual manipulation of geometry, to allow the design of mathematical relationships between geometric entitles. What we draw from this project is the dynamic flow of views and the rhythm that it gives the users. Reference: Bustler, 2011, Viewed 21 August 2012, <http://www.bustler.net/index.php/article/dynamic_ performance_of_nature_by_eb_office>
2012, Dynamic Performance of Nature: Augmenting Environmental Perception Through Social
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PAVILLION FOR NEW ARCHITECTURE, MONASH BBK ARCHITECTS,
UNIVERSITY MUSEUM OF ART, 2005
Above: Overall view of the Pavilion for the New Architecture Source: http://www.sial.rmit.edu.au/Projects/Pavilions_for_ New_Architecture.php
The Pavillion type was first chosen as a starting point because of its typically experimental nature and the absence of programmatic requirements. It was then designed by a digital software before making its physical construction. The form of the Pavillion was inspired by geometric and structural forms of mainly two buildings; Buckminster Fuller’s Montreal Expo Geodesic Dome and Toyo Ito’s Orthogonal Serpentine Pavilion. Both structure of the buildings uses steel frames which has a ‘transparent’ skin over the structure. The pavilion for the new architecture gives the impression of a sphere caught within a cube.
Top left, right: Toyo Ito’s Orthogonal Serpentine Pavilion, Buckminister Fuller’s Montreal Expo Geodesic Dome Source: http://www.toyo-ito.co.jp/WWW/Project_Descript/2000-/2000-p_08/4-800.jpg http://www.flickr.com/photos/christiangates/4708789561/
In order to build this structure, firstly, a geodesic sphere is created then using a centre point, it is then trimmed against an inner and outer cube. A number of variations could be created using parametric software by just changing the position of the centre point or the size of the intersecting cubes. The bkk installation creates a visual illusion for the user as when the user stand on the outside of the installation, it looks rather solid. However when the user is inside and the head is placed specifically on the point of origin or the attractor point, the boundary of thick lines seems to disappear into thin lines, blurring the boundary between the internal and external space and creating a sense of infinite projection. What we draw from this project is the qualities of contrast we get from the play of attractors and the directional qualities it gives which inferred from the “infinite projection”. Above: View from the interior of the pavilion Source: http://www.sial.rmit.edu.au/Projects/Pavilions_for_New_ Architecture.php
Reference: RMIT University 2006, Australia viewed 28 August 2012, <http:// www.sial.rmit.edu.au/Projects/Pavilions_for_New_Architecture.php>
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To create the Pavillion for New Architecture by BKK Architects, first a box is created in grasshopper, then population 3D is used to populate the region with points, randomly. Voronoi is then used to create different shapes with the points created using population 3D. However, we found out using population 3d is the wrong technique. Thus, we tried using population 2D instead as we wanted to extrude thru the surface instead of the cube.
Above: Grasshopper scripting of using population 3d and Voronoi
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Above: Grasshopper scripting of using population 2d and Voronoi
We then connected voronoi to population 3D and came out with the 3D image on the left.
Next the cube is scaled bigger to allow the planes to loft each other. As we had an attractor point, the planes all loft towards the attractor point.
Another problem we encounter was that we could not offset the lines to give the form thickness. We also couldnt pair up the geometries. This was the form we got after extruding the planes.
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ATTRACTORS & PERCEPTION
Our groupâ€™s idea is to use to attractors and perception as our starting research to create a pleasing visual impact by using a polychromatic modular system with the use of different colours and a play of solid and transparency of materials.
Above: A photo of a polychromatic art painting Source: http://fineartamerica.com/featured/polychromatic-charles-yates.html
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AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The main objectives are to create visual impact, having a not too complex model and the scale of the structure is within the field of the driver. By allowing the the structure to have a visual impact, a variety of perspectives is created where there is a colour contrast in it and also capture the attention of the drivers driving from both sides of the highway. As the structure is incomplex, drivers would be able to appreciate it in a short timing while driving past it. Also, by placing the structure horrizontally along the road, it is more visible within the field of view of the driver.
Above: Photo of Wyndham highway
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ANALYSIS The different types of matrices are a play of using different modules, thickness, denisty, image sampler and size of the modules. The use of an image sampler gave us the different depth of different modules which related back to the image we put in. However, we found that the image given out was of no use and turned out looking messy and complicated. We then tried playing use of panels which we found it more directional and less complicated and by having it breaking down to smaller modules allowed more flexibility to play with more options and different variations. Panalisation also allowed us to play with rhythms and the flow of the modules and forms. We then decided to choose panalization with the use of attractor points which would attract the attention of the driver at different points.
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PRECEDENT STUDIES FOR EOI
FOREIGN OFFICE ARCHITECTS, SPANISH PAVILION, JAPAN, 2005
Above: Overall patterns of the Hexagons Source: http://www.architecture.com/Awards/RIBAInternationalAwards/2005/Spanish-Pavilion.aspx
The spanish Pavilion designed by Foreign Office Architects was to give an expression to the hybridization of Jewish- Christian cultures and the Islamic influence on the Iberian Peninsula, both so evident in the history of Spanish architecture. The different type of architecture elements of the this culture of synthesis were chosen and it was the types of spatial organization, structural elements and the eneveloping and decorative elements. The lattice created for the pavilion is an appropriate cladding solution for the existing pavilion box and it consisted of six different tiles, based in a hexagonal grid, coded with a colour. The pavilion produces a polychromatic system where by the hexegonal pieces never repeat itself, thus producing a varying pattern of geometry and colour. The six colour of the tiles chosen are the variations of red and yellow of the national flag, reflecting the colours of wine, roses, and the blood of the bullfights, sun and sand- colours universally associated with spain.
Above: Non repeated tilin composing six elements of distinct colour and shape Source: http://digiitalarchfab.com/portal/wpcontent/uploads/2012/01/Spanish-Pavilion.pdf
Above: The play of solid and voids used in the facade of the pavilion Source: http://designmuseum.org/__entry/4876?style=design_image_popup
The building not only plays with the different colour scheme but also the selection of solid and voids of the facade for various reasons. The ventilation and lighting of space plays a huge role in the pavilion where by it concerns the lighting effect and qualities given which impact both emotion and impression of the user.
What we draw from this project is the use of polychromatic modular system which gives some rhythm to the pavilion. The correct selection of solid and voids also helps the pavilion to look aesthetically pleasing and also help the building in many technical functions. Reference: Digiitalarchfab 2007, viewed 7 September 2012, <http://digiitalarchfab. com/portal/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/Spanish-Pavilion.pdf>
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MORPHOGENESIS PART ONE DEVELOPED TECHNIQUE
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Above: Plan view of the model
EXPLORATION OF TECHNIQUES We chose panalization with the use of different amount of attractor points. From these matrices, we can see the evolution of our design, starting from the panels which we then break down into modules. After which, we added the technique that is related to our area of interest- attractor and perception. The use of attractor points helped to orienatate the panel in a certain direction. We also tested out of using layers of modules. Selection of the amount of layers and points is a subjective but critical analysis is being carried out through group discussion to strike a balance of effectiveness of the objective and level of distraction. This is how we decide on using 6 attractors and 3 levels. We felt that using 6 attractors would be ideal to allow the driver to have a variety of views whereas by using 2 or 4 attractors would be too little to attract the attention of the driver. The use of 3 levels would be almost perpect to allow the view of the driver to see as he/she drives pass as one level of the module would be 2 metres in height. Next we move on to make it attractive through colours/addition of materials. This selection goes through two level of study, which gives the project 2 levels of rhythms for drivers who drive pass. First was the study of solid and voids by using the play of opacity and transparency of the material, next was the colour selection and arrangement. The selected arrangement and colours are chosen in relation to the polychromatic effect that is similar to our precedent study whereby there is order and system in a chaotic arrangement.
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MORPHOGENESIS PART TWO EVOLUTION OF DESIGN PLAY OF SOLIDS AND VOIDS WITHOUT THE USE OF COLOURS
TESTING OUT OF DIFFERENT COLOUR COMPOSITIONS
Left: Final 3D view of the model in Illustrator
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FINAL COMPOSITIONS USING THE CHOSEN LAYOUT OF SOLID AND VOIDS
We first studied the use of solids and voids by coming out different variations without using any colour to see the results of it. By playing around with the solid the voids we came out with linear patterns which we found it rather boring and mundane which doesnt give a visual impact to the drivers. We then play around and came out with different interesting patterns. The selected pattern was based on the amount of solids and voids in each area and the solid and voids are spread which does not look complex or messy. The chosen composition also give a sense of rhythm and it is a modular system of 5. At the same time, we also tried playing with colours to get the variations of colour compositions and patterns. However, we went back to our chosen composition with just the solid and voids as we wanted to focus on the quality it gives us. Then by using our choosen composition, we used colours to analyse and explore even further. The selected arrangement and colours are chosen in relation to the polychromatic effect that is similar to our precedent study whereby there is order and system in a chaotic arrangement.
Left: Elevation of the final structure drawn out using CAD Software
MODEL MAKING PROCESS
Use of triangles as the base for different levels of each modules
After many thoughts and discussions, we final settled on our form of the structure and scale and size of our modules. We then decided to laser cut our model which we found would be the most efficient and fastest way for us to build the model.
From clockwise direction (top left to bottom): Laser cut perspex ready to build our model, Different colours of modules we used, Final outcome of our model
However our group came up with problems as we could not find a solution as to how we place our modules on top of each other as the moduleâ€™s surface area between each other was very little and it will not glue well and fall off easily when glued to each other. We also had another problem as the panels would be too heavy and could not be glued to our base. We then came out with a solution to cut out little triangles as the base for the different levels of each modules. As for the base, we decided to use perspex and cut out slits to slot in for each panels. By doing that, each panels would be secured and we need not worry on how the model is going to stand. For material wise, we chose to use perspex that the FabLab offered as it gives us the opacity of different colours and transparency of the materials which would save us time by having to paint each modules if we were using other materials. One of the thought was that the perspex might be too heavy and could not be glued using super glue. However, it turned out fine and the each module was rather light due to the size we cut out. Thus using super glue to glue the pieces together turned out good. ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 50
From top to bottom: Final outcome of our model, Close up shot of each modules
The final model shows a sense of rhythm and the use of polychromatic modular system. The model was built horizontally along the highway instead of vertically so that it can be seen within the view of the driver. As the structure is not complex, it will not distract the driver while driving. The different attractor points of the modules attracts the drivers at different points.
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EOI PRESENTATION FEEDBACK FURTHER DEVELOPMENT The Expression of Interest presentation brought me many new insights from learning from the other groups and how they presented their ideas and arguments. The critque overall was better than what I have expected as we received many good comments as well as ideas for our groupâ€™s improvement. What we had presented with our techniques were going in the correct direction. The panel like our idea of the play of opacity and transparency in the model. The many feedbacks given from the panels helped us to move on from what we have now. The panel feels that we have so much more to explore and gain with our model by using parametric tool that we should push ourselves even more. We should work on the buildabilty of the model as of now, the model is not being able to be build on site. One idea is to have a proper core stacking of the modules so that it can be build easily. Another idea is to have a weaving and wraping technique where one panel does not stand alone but its all interlink into one model. Next we should relate our model back to the wyndham site context to explore the site and allow the freeway art to be more adaptable to the site.
Top to bottom: Site of the Wyndham highway
For the modules, it should be smaller and more dense as of present, drivers who drive pass our freeway art could not notice there are actually attractors in it. The feedback given was to look at works of ARM Architecture which some of the buildings has similiar qualities to ours.
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“All architecture is great architecture after sunset; perhaps architecture is really a nocturnal art, like the art of fireworks.”
-G. K. Chesterton
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THE GATEWAY PROJECT MORPHOGENESIS PART THREE EVOLUTION OF DESIGN
From the mid-semester design, the model is being manipulated and redesigned to the comments from the mid-semester panel. Layers and directions of each modular system is being changed and edited to bring a different sense to how we want our model to be.
The curve used is standardised which is made up of two arcs. This is to allow the design to have a more modular system.
The orientation of the different modules were taken into consideration as from the previous design as it looked too far apart and random. It also did not give a focal point as there were too little modules use which made it not obvious for the user. The use of parametric tool has made it easier with the manipilation of the design.
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“The proposed site for the Western Gateway offers a high exposure location to those entering the urban precinct of the municipality, as well as to those travelling along the freeway.”
-Western Gateway Design Project
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Above: Aerial view of the Princes highway which includes Site A, B and C
BRIEF The brief of the Western Gateway Design Project is to create a Gateway into Wyndham for city bound traffic on the Princes Freeway. The project is to design an exciting, eye catching installation at Wyndhamâ€™s Western Gateway and it will be viewed by motorist travelling at high speed providing them the first indication of arrival into metropolitan Melbourne. The purpose of the freeway art installation is to develop a proposal that inspires and enriches the municipality.
SITE DESCRIPTION Wyndham City is located around the suburbs of Werribee, Hoppers Crossing, Point Cook, Wyndham Vale, Truganina and Tarneit. It has before a city of more than 430, 000 people. The site is located on the road reserves adjacent to the Princes Freeway, at the interchange with the Princes Highway (Geelong Road). Site A is located at the 90 metre wide road reserve with the sound-bound and north-bound traffic along the Princes Freeway. Site B form the part of the gateway treatment and is the verge between north-bound traffic along the Princes Freeway and the freeway off-ramp onto the Princes Highway. Site C is located to the west of the freeway off-ramp onto the Princes Highway.
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NORTH BOUND SOUTH BOUND
LOCATION PLAN (NOT TO SCALE)
SITE A Site A was chosen as it is the main focal point for the project. The installation is placed at the start of site A. Thus motorist driving from both North and South Bound on Princes Highway is able to appreciate the installation. Another reason for choosing site A is also due to the its horizontal linearity of our installation.
From top to bottom: Photo of site from North bound, Photo of site from South Bound
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CONCEPT To replicate a visual image that represents the character of the site
TECHNIQUE The techniques used are to create movement by having a variation in density of lines and heights.
FURTHER STUDIES FOR FINAL DESIGN
TONKIN ZULAIKA GREER ARCHITECTS,
Above: The blue blades of the bypass follows the unfolding sweep of the road which then falls away as they peel away at the ring road Source: http://www.tzg.com.au/projects/craigieburn-bypass
e then look at examples of highway art installation which was similar to what we were looking at. The Craigieburn Bypass is a highway installation which continues the extension of Melbourne’s vibrant design culture into the city’s periphery was designed to be experienced by motorist at a freeway speed of 110km per hour. It creates a linear sculptural experience for motorist driving along the highway. There are three series of sculptural sound walls, a pedestrian bridge and a set of design parameters. The bypass allows driving along the gently rising and curling bypass which is created with an extended tilting arc of Corten steel. The peak of the curve and gradient of this tframes the first view of the central city on the horizon. The blue blades complement the rusting orange and as the driver passes the long curve, these blades follows the unfolding ‘S’of the bend. However, it coils back again as they begin to fall away from the road until it peels away.
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â€œA second series of walls by Taylor Cullity Lethlean, are translucent and transparent, preserving light and views from residential areas.â€?
-Tonkin Zulaika Greer Architects
Above: The screen with LED lights at night Source: http://www.tzg.com.au/projects/craigieburn-bypass
The panels are both visible throughout the day and night as it has a continous perspex screen which helps to be seen at night. These walls are translucent and transparent, pererving light and views from residential areas. The screen is etched in a pattern to fifty per cent of its surface area, with an array of LED lights and are overlaid with coloured precast concrete blades. These panels acts as a sound insulation for the neighbouring neighbourhood lessen the noise pollution of cars from the highway. From this precedent, it helps us understanding the use of highway installation and how it is different to other installation as the users are only allow to appreciate it for a short period of time. The use of installation for day and night brought us into discussion of how we wanted our users to view during the night. The use of colours in the bypass was similar to our mid-semester design. Site context is important to the installation as it can be used to influence the neighbouring sites. The use of walls in the installation gives a visual impact to the drivers and at the same time helps to frame views. Reference: Leon Van Schaik, 2005, Craigieburn Bypass, Architecture Australia, July/August, https://www.architecturemedia.com/aa/aaissue.php?iss ueid=200507&article=12&typeon=2 ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 61
MORPHOGENESIS PART FOUR EVOLUTION OF DESIGN
The mid-semester design was then explored by having small modules which could be stacked on top of each other allowing each module to be more fluid and organic. This helped to create a more dynamic form as compared to the previous design of having each vertical module pastedt onto a transparent triangular base with different angle of rotation. By having smaller modules, it helped in sloving the previous problem of buildability. The stacking and twisting of modules is similar to a helix design.
Above: Helix design http://www.clipartof.com/portfolio/kjpargeter/ illustration/three-twisting-double-helix-dna-strandsspanning-horizontally-over-a-white-background-24631.html ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 62
By allowing the installation to have more depth, a hollow helix frame was designed. This gave a depth and allowed a multiple layering effect to the installation. The variation of height and sizes of each module were taken into consideration and were placed on a curve. Then modules were then coloured in different colours. The placing of each module on a curve and its colour give a visual impact to motorist and it enchances the layering effect.
However, this design was not feasible as it had a problem on buildability and each module was placed individually which had no connection between each other. The idea of twisting was still strong and we researched on different precedent projects to allow our idea to work.
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OYLER WU COLLABORATIVE,
SCREENPLAY BENCH “We like to fully explore a material and seeing what it can offer before moving away from it.” -Wu
Above: Dense application of rope creates a dense like effect Source: http://www.suckerpunchdaily.com/2012/08/07/screenplay/
he Screenplay Bench project is created for the Dwell on design 2012 festival in Los Angeles, California. The concept for this project mainly explores the use of materials which plays with visual perception by weaving around the lightweight steel frames to create an optical illusion. The steel framework with the rope forms a thickened undulating screen made up of dense line work. The screen wall is made up is seen as a series of patterns which is recognized by the viewer and there is a fourth dimension as the viewer walks
‘As the viewer moves around the wall, its three-dimensional qualities reveal a more complex system of deep sectional cavities, twisting surfaces, and material densities.’ around the installation which reveals its complex nature, oscillating between series of twisted surfaces and by the intriguing play of cavities and material densities. Thus, this creates an intention of provoking a sense of curiosity as it slowly reveals its form and complexity through physical and visual engagement with the installation.
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â€œTwisted surfaces form different sections of the piece, creating a pattern.â€? -Oyler Wu Collaborative Above: Project serves as a furniture piece Source: http://www.frameweb.com/news/screenplay-bench-by-oyler-wu-collaborative
The installation is also made into a furniture which is a seating place. As for its structural design, there was a need for dynanism and visual continuity. This had led to the exploration of methods which then introduced geometric complexity. The study of the Screenplay Bench has further pushed our design in visual continuity which was previously lacking during the midsemester. We decided to take on the technique of weaving by using a rigid frame as a structural support. The play of variation in cavities and material density is similar to what we want to achieve in our design.
Reference: Suckerpunch Daily, 2012, SuckerPUNCH, California, Viewed 7 November 2012, <http://www.suckerpunchdaily.com/2012/08/07/screenplay> Frame Web, 2012, California, Viewed 7 November 2012, <http://www.frameweb. com/news/screenplay-bench-by-oyler-wu-collaborative>
Above: The use of rope giving a weaving effect Source: http://www.frameweb.com/news/screenplaybench-by-oyler-wu-collaborative ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 65
MORPHOGENESIS PART FIVE EVOLUTION OF DESIGN
The evolution of the design has taken a rigid form which were then lofted to the achieve different aesthetic qualities. A hexagon shape was used as the frame as it has different sides which allow lofting with different layers between the different modules. The exploration and variation of the design starts from the top all the way to the final last design. The colours used are mainly to show the different layers of lofting and weaving patterns. Firstly, we tested by the exploration of weaving techinique and by using lines as to how Screenplay Bench uses ropes. Next it is being lofted together as a whole to see its effect. However, the model was not what we wanted to see as it does not have the dynamic flow to it. Then the model is being lofted to together in another variation. However, we felt that this model did not have a sense of continuity.
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The model was changed to and there was in introduction to different layers being lofted together The density and cavity of the lofting then varied making it more dynamic and allowing it to have a sense of flow and fluidity. It was then tested again by the adding of different heights to allow a strong flow to the installation. However, the dynamisn of it was not what we wanted to acheive. Lastly, we tried to explore on the the variation of size and how we can manipulate the shape. We came up with four variations of the shape which has three different sizes; small, medium and large and another shape was two small hexagon stacking on top of each other. The variation of heights created a dynamic flow which had different sizes of cavities due to the different shapes. The distance of the shapes placed were also put into consideration as it form different sizes of cavities. Lastly, the shapes are placed along a curve. The lofting was then weaved using strings by adjusting the amount of density and were tested out in a prototype model.
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PROTOTYPE MODEL (STUDY MODEL)
First Layer of Strings
A prototype model is made to show its spatial qualities between the use in numbers of layers of strings and the density of it. In the first layer of strings, it tend to be vastly open and there are little or no qualities seen in the space. The strings are being tied to the first module and it looks rather messy seeing the knots. Thus, the end of the string are complied and being tied back to the base which has a neater finish to it. Each string is being looped around as they weave from one module to another. However, by looping the strings around each other, it did not allow its position to stay in place and it was difficult to have tension of the strings.
Second Layer of Strings
Third Layer of Strings
With the second layer of strings, the weaving technique is slowing beginning to be seen and there is a sense of fluidity and flow. The placement of strings is given thought to as how it is place which would affect the final form. The final layer of strings gives depth to the whole model as the wrapping around the different modules gives allows different height to the model. This create a sense of movement. However, the strings used in the model were too thick which affected the density used. Thus, it was difficult to achieve the effect we wanted.
Third Layer of Strings
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PROCESS WITH PARAMETRIC PARAMETRIC DIAGRAM
From top to above: Different views of Parametric model, Grasshopper scripting of the model
Next we moved on to the digital model using Rhino and Grasshopper. The model is created firstly by creating the 4 different hexagonal frames; small, medium, large in sizes and the last frame having two small hexagons stacked on top of each other. The lines were then weaved through the frames and different variations of weaving were tested to allow the maximum qualities we wanted. The difference in weaving through the different profiles affected the model as a whole which would allow different cavities to be seen at different parts of the model. Density played a huge part in the model whereby it
also shows how much we wanted to emphasize on each turn. A graph mapper was used to determine the placing of each holes which would then be fabricated to allow the wires to go through them. Different graph created different effect that we wanted. There were some weaving which were straight and some which are reversed to give it a more dynamic flow. The position of each weave also affected the height of the overall model. Thus, after many discussions we came of with our three layers of weaving which was ready to be sent for fabrication.
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APPLICATION OF DESIGN ESSENCE NO. 1
The weaving of lines showing from left to right into different frames is similar to the motorists driving on the highway whereby roads have bends at different points. This shows a sense of movement by translating it into the weaving of wires used in the model.
ESSENCE NO. 2
Above: Movement of lines, turning left and right Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/tamchungman/5898248758/lightbox/
The lines in the model are weaved from top to bottom or vice versa in some of the weaving. This is to show the wrapping of lines around the profiles to give it a dynamic flow. The weaving is also similar to highways as it have different loops to enter different places which gives a sense of motion and speed as it weaves from the top down to the bottom.
Above: Movement of lines, moving up and down Source: http://www.flickr.com/search/?q=long+exposure%2C+traffic&f=hp#page=5
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ESSENCE NO. 3
Above: Density of lines by long exposure traffic Source: http://www.flickr.com/search/?q=long+exposure%2C+traffic&f=hp#page=6
â€œ...the major traffic connection from Geelong and the south west coast to the CBD.â€? -Western Gateway Project
The density of lines reflects lines in a long exposure traffic. These lines in the model thus emphasizes on the density and flow of the traffic in a highway. As the density of highways are usually high, the use of lines are shown in the model whereby the holes are placed together densely.
Above: Density of lines ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 71
AUSTRALIAN LIVESTOCK FENCE
The Australian livestock fence gives an identity to the site which is similar to our final design.
Above: Photo of an Australian Livestock Fence Source: http://www.erikhenne.com
The structural frames of the design are made of wood are steel wires are used to weave through the frames.
EXECUTION ON THE SITE
Above: Idea of a spider web Source: http://digital-photography-school.com/how-tophotograph-a-spiders-web
The nature of a spider web is being seen in the model where there is an idea of â€˜growingâ€™ from a point of origin. The growing idea embraces the landscape and nature surrounding it. Thus the installation is placed where it embraces nature with it.
Above: Starting point of the model ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 72
"There are several reasons why models should be part of every design process. Perhaps the most important one is the understanding to be gained by seeing form in physical space."
-Criss B. Mills, author of "Designing with Models"
CONSTRUCTION OF FINAL MODEL
From clockwise direction (above to bottom right): Laser cut profiles before and after varnish stain, Box cardboard used for contours, sloting in of the profiles into the cardboard, weaving of the first layer of wires
irstly, before the construction of the final model, materiality is put into great consideration. Plywood is used for the base, then the contour is made of box cardboard, the hexagonal profiles are made of plywood and lastly wires are used to weave the frames together. The use of plywood and steel wires gives a contrast to the model. In addition, it was used to relate back to the australian livestock fence. The laser cut profiles are stained with varnish give the wood a dark finish. This would then go well the the wires when they are weaved together, giving it a better contrast between the two colours. The contours are then glued together and the profiles are slotted in to the contours to allow it to have better stability. The weaving of the wires starts from weaving through each layer. Each layer has twenty holes. The wires are weaved through each of the holes carefully. As each hole is rather small, it was quite difficult to put the wires through. A lot of time was spent on the weaving of wires.
From left to bottom: Broken piece of a frame, 2nd layer of weaving, finished final model
As the frames were quite thin and it came out of the slot, we tried to push it back in. However the frame broke and we needed to laser cut the profile again in order to continue our weaving. Time was wasted as we needed to take out th wires from the other profiles and weave them together again. We finally finished weaving the first layer and moved to the second and third layer. The weaving of wires took as a whole day to complete the model. Trees, pebbles, cars and human figure were added to enhance the model as to relate to scale and the wrapping around nature.
MATERIAL AND CONSTRUCTION DETAILS
DETAIL 2 DETAIL 3 & 4 Above: Details at different part of the model
Construction details is also put into consideration of building it in reality. Firstly is the construction of frames. The timber frames are broken down into 5 individual profiles for easy transportation to the site. The profiles are made of teak wood. Steel bolts are used to secure each side of the profile together which
DETAIL 1 CONSTRUCTION OF FRAMES
can be seen in detail 1.
Secondly, thought of how the frames are going to sit on the site are put into consideration. The bottom frame will be pre-fabricated with a base plate and it will be secured onto a concrete slab on site which is shown in detail 2.
DETAIL 2 SITTING OF FRAMES ON SITE
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PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT
PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT
20MM DIA GALVANISED STEEL CABLES 100MM DIA STEEL ROD PIN JOINT TO MANUFACTURER'S DETAIL
PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT
DETAIL 3 STEEL CABLE JOINTS
Above: Swagging unit, used to attach end fittings to a wire rope cable Source:http://www.ingalcivil.com.au/flexfenceswaging-unit.html
PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT 50MM THK CONCRETE BASE PLATE
PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT
100MM THK RETAINING WALL
Lastly, the steel cables are joint together at a point on a structural element shown in detail 3. These cables are hidden with the surrounding landscape to achieve the idea of growing from a point.
PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT
Above: Safety Road Barrier Source:http://www.ingalcivil.com.au/flexfence-swaging-unit.html ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 77
PARAMETRIC EXPERIENCE My parametric experience with grasshopper had been an interesting yet frustating time. It was my first time learning grasshopper and there were many new things I had to figure out. I had to go thru the tutorials and try out many exercises. Thru these exercises it had helped me in understanding the software and how it works. However, the tutorials mainly only teaches us the basics. We then had to remodel the cut case study of the Pavilion for New Architecture by BKK Architects which we faced many difficulties trying to find the correct component to connect to get the results we wanted to. We then tried to consult the tutors and by going thru online tutorials which has helped us greatly in learning the software. Next during our mid-semester, we managed to come out with our grasshopper defination which was what we wanted to acheive in the digital model. We came out with different sets of matrix to show our exploration and development. Though the defination was quite simple, it was able to impress the panel as we had our physical model which backed us up. We then manipulate our idea which we added and edited our defination to come out with our final design. Though, we know what we want to achieve in the model, it was frustrating as we could not create the digital model. However, thru the help of the tutors and tutorials, we finally managed to produce our final design. This parametric experience was indeeed tough but I get to learn many new things.
From top to bottom: Top view of rendered model, perspective view of rendered model both rendered in v-ray ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 78
FINAL PRESENTATION FEEDBACK FURTHER DEVELOPMENT Overall, the final presentation went well and the feedback given were constructive for the group if there was a chance to further develop our scheme. The presentation of the other groups gave us many new ideas on how we can improve on our design and concept. The designs of other groups also gave me many new insights from learning from each other. The panel liked the idea of the blurred headlights which represents the lines and density in our model. The physical model was nice as it shows the unintentional bending of wires which the panel liked. The use of materials were a good selection as it shows a contrast between the two materials and the presentation was good. If the scheme could be improved, there could be a variation in the density used and more layers could be introduced. The idea of the australian livestock fence was too general as it is located all around australia, not only the site. The model tend to look like an installation placed on a garden or nature instead.
From top to bottom: Intricate shadows cast when light is shined on the model, weaving of wires in the model, overall final model ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR | 79
â€œThe job of every architect and every designer is to give the world more art, more new, beautiful, and fascinating things to see.â€?
Above: Perspective rendering rendered in V-ray for Rhino