CONSTRUCTING ENVIRONMENTS. FINAL LOGBOOK SUBMISSION
Figure 1. Brick and columns 2014
Figure 2.Brick and columns 2014
Figure 3. Paper star 2014
Figure 4. Paper star and brick 2014
During the theatre session we looked at different shapes which are effective in bearing a point load (in this instance a brick) with a piece of paper. Some shapes I experimented with were triangles and columns. Both were successful in supporting the brick through compression force. Triangles are a strong shape and figure 6, below, demonstrates the relationship between the load and the triangular shape and how the compression and tension forces work together to support the weight of the load. Figure 5, shows how diagonal bracing can be used to add strength to a structure. I have observed triangles used often in various structures, for example Sydney Harbour Bridge.
Figure 5. Diagonal brace 2014
Figure 6. Triangle 2014
Michelle Curnow 661589
Figure 7. Columns 2014
Figure 8. Loads 2014
Figure 9. Load transfer 2014
Figure 8. demonstrates the different types of loads. Static loads are applied slowly, with little fluctuation eg people/cars. These moveable loads are known as live loads. The building structure itself is a load, and is considered a dead load. It can also include fixtures and other elements in the building. A dynamic load is applied suddenly and rapidly, for example a tornado/strong winds.
I viewed Newtonâ€™s youtube video on load paths. Figure 9. demonstrates how a load is transferred to the ground. It is important to note it will take the most direct route to the ground, which is why some parts of the beams are not supporting or transferring the weight. (we will see this again on the following page with the tower built in the studio). At the ground level reaction force is occurring, which enables a stable structure. To create this stability the reaction must be equal and opposite to the force of the applied load.
Figure 11. Beam 2014
Figure 10. Beam 2014
While constructing towers in the studio session we explored how loads can be transferred down through a building to the floor. By using a beam we were able to create an opening in our tower (see figure 10). As detailed in Figure 11, the beam has both compression and tension forces, which work together to allow the beam to support loads, in this case a static load. The material used was suitable to the task as it was strong yet light enough to allow for multiple stacking, which enabled us to build quickly to achieve height.
We later attempted to remove some of the blocks from the tower which were not load bearing (see Figure 12). It was interesting to see the large amount we could remove before the tower collapsed. We removed almost one whole side before it fell down, which indicates the weight was not evenly distributed. While the weight of the load will take the most direct route to the ground, in a better planned structure you would Figure 12. Deconstructing the tower. 2014 expect the load bearing blocks to be more evenly spaced. Figure 13. shows clearly the completed, and slightly uneven tower.
Figure 13. Tower 2014
Figure 14. Former CUB 2014
Figure 15. Bluestone on Queen st 2014
As Dr Rose (2014) mentions in the elearning content, bluestone is commonly found in Melbourne buildings due to basalt being a readily available resource in Victoria. I observed figures 14 and 15 while walking through the CBD . When selecting materials for construction, the availability is important as choosing local resources impacts on our economy and environment. Newton (2014) identifies the other key areas to consider when selecting materials are strength, stiffness, shape and how the material behaves. As I discover in the next studio, the type of material you use can have a big impact on your project.
Figure 16. triangle brace 2014
Figure 17. Columns supporting weight 2014
Figure 18. Columns collapsing 2014
During the second theatre session we explored how different shapes can add strength to building structures. Through the use of straws and pins (see figure 16) we attempted to support a heavy weight. Ching (2008) he discusses the importance of bracing to create stability. At home I recreated this experiment, and building on my knowledge from week one on the triangular shape, I attempted to create a brace between the straws for added strength. This was unsuccessful, however I suspect this had a lot to do with the materials (cheap plastic straw, than the technique itself). As you will see later in this log book entry, the use of bracing and triangular shapes for strength was quite successful during our studio session. I also experimented with columns, as the elearning content had reiterated the strength columns together can have. I cut the straws in quarters and attached them around the base of the container, and as you can see in figure 17, this was quite successful in holding an increasingly heavy weight. In figure 18, you can see there was a limit to how much weight the columns could hold, and my thick text book was far too heavy!
Figure 19. Bracing to add strength 2014
Figures 19 and 21 show good examples of other students who have incorporated triangles throughout their structure for bracing. Figure 21 especially looks very strong, and far more stable than our tower (figure 20).
During the studio session we constructed towers from balsa wood using the knowledge we had gained regarding strong shapes, joints and materials. From Ching (2008) and the elearning modules. As the balsa wood is very flimsy we had to think of a way to over come this so we could increase the height in our tower without it toppling over. We used triangular shapes throughout the building process (figure 20) to provide support. We used fixed joints throughout the structure to aid with stability. However, our tower was not very strong and would not have held much weight at all. One key factor missing was a foundation, which would have added much more stability. To overcome this we could have built a wider base which would have provided more support. Figure 20. Tower 2014
Figure 21. Good example of strong tower 2014
Joints and Structures
Figure 22. Roller joint 2014
Figure 23. Pin joint 2014
Figure 24. Fixed joint 2014
KEY POINTS Roller Joint: restricts up and down movement, but can still rotate and move side to side. â€“ common in bridges Pin Joint: restricts up and down, and side to side movement, but can still rotate. Very common, used in houses. (Good for when you only want a little movement) Fixed Joint: there is no movement, and if used incorrectly can cause bending at the joint. Figure 25. Structural Systems 2014
Load Path: See Figure 9. Compression: The force of two objects pushed together. Tension: The force of two objects being pulled/stretched. Eg trampoline. Reaction Force: Acts in opposite direction to action force. Equal in magnitude, opposite in direction. Point Load: A bearing weight is intense and transferred to the foundation. Beam: See Figure 11. Structural Joint: roller, fixed and pin joints. See figures 22,23 and 24. Stability: Important element in building structures, can be provided at both substructure and superstructure levels. Frame: Part of the structural support system of a building. The surface/skeleton of a structure. Bracing: Additional support to a structure to make it more stable. Columns: structural members designed to support loads applied.
FOOTINGS AND FOUNDATIONS The foundations of a building form part of the substructure of a building. They are the lowest division of a building and provide support, and anchor it to the ground. They need to be able to support live and dead loads acting vertically, as sudden horizontal impacts such as wind/earthquakes. (Ching, 2008). Settlement is the gradual subsiding of a structure as the soil beneath the foundation compacts under loading. (Ching, 2008). Footing work to anchor the building in the soil. Pad footings are the most common type. (Ching, 2008).
Fig 3.1 Foundations. Curnow 2014
Fig 3.2 Pad Footing. Curnow 2014
Fig 3.3 Settlement. Curnow 2014
THEATRE SESSION Olympic Park Alan Pert spoke to us about the process for designing and building Olympic Park for the 2012 Summer Olympics. Some issues identified: Site soil. 200ha of neglected land. Remediation process Urban regeneration in East London Need to design a temporary site designed for the Olympics which could then be reused Fast tracked process â€“ environmental factors need to be considered Considerations of landscape surrounding the park Fig 3.4 Site Plan. Unknown artist
Material selection: Steel chosen for aesthetic appeal and also abundantly available. Recyclable materials were chosen to fill the span between the bridges (old sneakers) to provide an interesting focal point while also serving a purpose as a temporary infill.
Fig 3.5 Infill Central Park Bridge. Unknown artist
STUDIO SESSION Some of the structures observed on the campus walking tour.
Fig 3.6 Shade Cloth. Curnow 2014
Fig 3.7 Stairwell. Curnow 2014
Shade Cloth. Membrane structural system. Hole for rain, and drainage system below. Acts in tension when under horizontal wind force.
Stairwell. Galvanised Steel. The cantilever is not supporting the weight Dynamic weights (people) so needs to allow for movement. Pin joints allow for this
Fig 3.8 Swimming Pool Curnow 2014
Swimming Pool Solid structure comprising of walls and columns. Tertiary structure â€“ loadbearing, windows carry own weight. Weepholes to allow for moisture to leave. Painted steel to prevent rusting.
Fig 3.9 Brick. Curnow 2014
Fig 3.10 Stone. Unknown Artist
Fig 3.11 Concrete Block. Curnow 2014
See page 70 for further details on material properties.
Settlement: The gradual subsiding of a structure as the soil underneath consolidates under loading. Retaining Wall: Used to hold back earth when there is a change in elevation. (Needs to be able to resist the pressure of the soil being retained). Pad Footing: Used to support columns and transfer their weight to the ground. Spread Footings: The lowest part of a shallow foundation. Strip Footing: The continuous spread footings of foundation walls. Slab on Ground: Can serve as a combined floor and foundation system if placed at or near grade level. Substructure: Underlying structure forming the foundation of a building.
FLOOR SYSTEMS Span and Spacing
Fig 4.1 Joist Span. Curnow 2014
The spacing of bearers is the same as the span of a joist, the spacing of joists is the same as a timber floor span. Deflection
Fig 4.2 Deflection. Curnow 2014
A floor system needs to be stiff, while also maintaining elasticity, deflection is the critical controlling factor.
Concrete floor slabs
Fig 4.3 Concrete slabs. Curnow 2014
Concrete slabs and planks may be supported by planks or load bearing walls. They transfer their loads horizontally .
MATERIALS Steel Girder
Fig 4.4 Steel Girder. Unknown Artist
Part of the structural framework. Provides support and transfers loads. Steel is high in elasticity and so is strong in both tension and compression. (Newton, 2014).
Fig 4.5 Concrete. Unknown Artist
Concrete is a mixture of cement and aggregates binded together with water. It is strong in compression, and with steel reinforcement it can handle tensile and shear stresses. (Newton, 2014).
THEATRE SESSION-KNOWLEDGE MAP
SECTION •Vertical cut of a plan •Tells heights, thickness, levels •Foundation
SITE PLAN •Location on site, consideration of surrounding environment. •Measurement Fig 4.6 Site Plan. Curnow 2014 (example of site plan from last semester Designing Env).
Fig 4.8 Section. Unknown Artist
ELEVATION •Explains what looks like on outside •Explains materials •Heights
FLOOR PLAN •More detailed •Shows materials
Fig 4.7 Floor Plan. Unknown Artist
Fig 4.9 Elevation. Unknown Artist
Joist: Length of timber or steel, supporting part of a structure, running parallel to support a floor or ceiling. Steel Decking: Steel floor system. Has short span system. Span: Length of a joist. Spacing: Distance between parallel joists. Girder: Steel beam, part of the skeletal framework. Concrete Plank: Pre cast concrete planks used in a floor system.
THEATRE SESSION Peter Ashford spoke to us about the construction process of the new Architecture building. Some areas he discussed: Basement construction Strip Drains for drainage Shotcrete used for reinforcement FaĂ§ade Stops soil from coming back into the basement Steel support system Walls and Columns: Pre cast
Fig 5.2 Steel Cantilever. Curnow 2014
Shallow foundation, Pad Footing Slab: Poured on site â€“ steel reinforcing mesh in the slab.
Fig 5.3 Mesh in Slab. Unknown Artist
Structural Steel Cantilever Fig 5.1 Footing. Curnow 2014 Extended 12m from building Triangular structure with the diagonal taking most of the load (SKETCH) Building needed to be fully constructed before attaching cantilever so it could bear its weight.
We attempted to construct structural sections of the Oval Pavilion to scale. This helped us to identify which parts of the pavilion were the sub structure and which were parts of the super structure. We identified the foundation walls and piles, and built parts of this to scale, which were of course part of the sub structure.
Fig 5.4 Model. Curnow 2014
We season timber (remove the moisture) to make it stronger. Knots are a natural feature which occur in wood, and can provide weakness if not positioned correctly in construction. They only work in compression, and not in tension. For the most strength it is best for force to be applied parallel to the grain instead of perpendicular. (Newton, 2014).
Fig 5.5 Seasoned Wood Process. Curnow 2014
Long slender columns buckle under stress while short thick columns are subject to crushing. The higher the slenderness ratio of a column the lower is the critical stress to cause it to buckle. The slenderness ratio can be reduced by shortening the columns effective length. (Ching, 2008).
WALL SYSTEM TERMINOLOGY
(Additional Wall System information in Week 10).
Fig 5.9 Terminology. Curnow 2014
Fig 5.6 Columns. Curnow 2014 Fig 5.8 Lintel. Curnow 2014
Fig 5.10 Terminology. Curnow 2014 Fig 5.7 Effective Length Factor. Curnow 2014
Stud: Structural members which form part of the framework. Noggings: Horizontal piece of timber, prevents stud buckling. Lintel: Horizontal member above a door or window opening, which provides support to the structure. Axial Load: A load parallel to the axis of the object in question. Buckling: Occurs in long slender columns. The sudden lateral or torsional instability of a slender structural member induced by the action of an axial load before the yield stress of the material is reached. Seasoned Timber: Treated timber to strengthen and remove moisture.
During the Studio session Dermot McGeown presented three case studies around Melbourne. 171 Collins St: BHP Bilton HQ Considerations: Use of space: Small amount of space, height restrictions. Use of natural light. Interests/rights of neighbours â€“ not legally responsible but obligated. Building an atrium provided natural light to the tower and also provided light for the neighbouring apartments, which although they were not obligated to do, was a fundamental consideration in the design as it established a good relationship with the neighbours.
Fig 6.1 Atrium. Unknown Artist
Fig 6.2 Reflective Glass. Curnow 2014
The atrium makes use of natural sun light and includes over 650 individual shards of glass which capture and reflect light into the building
STUDIO SESSION 35 Spring Street A 43 storey apartment building with luxury shops, cafes and restaurants. The designers wanted to ensure the building fit aesthetically within its surrounds (Flinders Lane & masonry history). Again, the relationship with the neighbouring properties was an important consideration in the planning stage. At certain levels the building is set back approximately 1m to allow for light in the neighbouring properties.
Fig 6.3 Spring St. Unknown Artist
“Aluminium and horizontal box fins featured on the façade” These elements are double glazed and then finished with a powder coat paint for durability. Sustainable, ESD initiatives – solar panels & rainwater tanks on the roof.
STUDIO SESSION Royal Childrenâ€™s Hospital The project was a global benchmark, featuring over 4000 rooms. Location was an important consideration, as the hospital is surrounded by parklands providing a unique view and psychological experience for patients. Again, the concept of space and light has been used to provide park views for patients, which studies have shown can speed recovery.
Fig 6.4 RCH Garden. Unknown Artist
Fig 6.5 Royal Childrens Hospital. Unknown Artist
Studio Session Zianna, Stephen & Shiran visited a double storey dwelling in Williamstown. The construction was in its early stages and they were not able to view a lot. They visited the underground basement of the structure and viewed the foundations including temporary steel columns to support the loads during construction. They observed pile foundations, approximately 6m long. Hollow concrete block walls were observed (enabling space for steel rods to be inserted).
Fig 6.6 Concrete Slab. Curnow 2014
Fig 6.7 Concrete Block. Curnow 2014
The concrete slab the group observed is an example of a plate structure; that is, â€˜A monolithic structure that disperses applied loads in a multidirectional pattern, with the loads generally following the shortest and stiffest routes to the supportsâ€™. (Ching, 2008)
MIND MAP FOR WILLIAMSTOWN SITE VISITS
STUDIO SESSION Gabrielle explained for the built project she is building a section of a house designed by Glen Murcutt. She is building from the plans provided, a small section of the house, to scale.
Fig 6.8 Murcutt House. Unknown Artist
MATERIALS METALS Nonferrous Metals: metals containing no iron. Aluminium, copper and lead are nonferrous metals which are common in building. Ferrous metals: Metals with iron. Examples include steel, cast iron, wrought iron, and galvanised iron.
Fig 6.9 Metals. Unknown Artist
SPACE FRAMES AND TRUSSES Space framing: 3D long spanning plate structure based on the rigid triangle shape, composed of elements subject only to axial tension or compression. Image: Trusses are structural frames based on the rigid triangle shape, composed of elements subject only to axial tension or compression. Observable differences between trusses and space frames are the joints. The truss has pin joints joining the chords, allowing for some movement and rotation, while the space frame has rigid joints, generally welded.
Fig 6.10 Truss. Curnow 2014
Fig 6.11 Roof Terminology. Curnow 2014
Additional definitions (Ching, 2008) HIP: the inclined projecting angle formed by the junction of two adjacent sloping sides of a roof. VALLEY: the intersection of two inclined roof surfaces toward which rainwater flows.
Rafter: Wood or steel. Part of a sloping roof structure. Purlin: A horizontal roof member. Part of a sloping roof structure. Cantilever: A beam or girder, fixed only at one end, overhanging the structure at the other. Portal Frame: Rigid frame? Eave: The overhanging part of a roof which meets the wall. Alloy: Combination of two or more metallic elements. Soffit: The underside of an eave. Top Chord: The top beams in a truss.
MATERIALS We looked at three materials in the e learning which are all useful in aiding the control of heat and moisture.
Fig 7.1 PVC. Unknown Artist
Fig 7.2 Paint. Unknown Artist
Fig 7.3 Rubber. Unknown Artist
PLASTIC Three different types; thermoplastics, thermosetting and elastomers. Medium to low hardness, not fragile, flexible (when heated), waterproof. Examples: PVC, polystyrene.
PAINTS Three parts; binder, diluent and pigment. Main role is to protect a colour or element. Starts as a liquid when applied, but becomes a solid after being exposed to air. Oil or waterbased available, but waterbased is more common. When being used in construction, needs to be chip and fade resistant.
RUBBER Natural or synthetic rubber. Natural comes from the rubber tree sap. Good for sealing, is waterproof, very flexible and durable. Examples of how it is used in buildings: seals, gaskets, control joints, hosing and piping.
BUILDING STRUCTURES ARCHES Curved structures for spanning an opening. They support a vertical load by axial compression. Famous arch: Gateway of India – Mumbai.
Fig 7.4 St Peter’s Basilica. Unknown Artist
Fig 7.5 Shell. Curnow 2014
Fig 7.6 Arch. Curnow 2014
DOMES Spherical surface structure, having a circular plan, constructed of stacked blocks, continuous rigid materials or short linear elements. Compression near the crown and tension in the lower portion. Famous dome: St Peters Basilica
Fig 7.7 Gateway of India. Unknown Artist
Fig 7.8 Dome. Curnow 2014
SHELLS Thin curved plate structure. It can sustain large force if uniformly applied. Famous shell: Sydney Opera House. Fig 7.6 Opera House. Unknown Artist
MOISTURE CONTROL Techniques to prevent the entering of water into a building involve three main components. Remove openings, Keep water away from openings, and neutralise the force that moves water through openings. One method is sufficient but two or more is ideal. See below for further moisture prevention strategies. (Ching, 2008).
Fig 7.9 Moisture Control Strategies. Curnow 2014
Fig 7.10 Drip and Flashing. Curnow 2014
Drip: between surfaces to prevent water clinging to the underside of surfaces. (see fig. ) Vapour Barrier: material used to prevent water from entering a building. Gutter: catches water from the roof which then drains into downspouts. Typically vinyl, galvanised steel or aluminium. Parapet: a small wall extending from the roof. Down pipe: gutters empty into the down pipes which empty water away from the building. Flashing: thin continuous pieces of sheet metal or other impervious material, used to prevent water from entering into a building through an angle or joint. Insulation: material used to clad a building to aid with controlling heat and moisture. Sealant: material used to fill in gaps to make parts of a building waterproof or airtight. Sarking: weather stripping used around the roof and walls. Used to prevent water from penetrating a building. Tanking: The use of a waterproof membrane, used to prevent water from penetrating below ground parts of a building. (eg basement).
BUILT WORKSHOP In the e-learning content we learnt about deformation and how it can occur to beams when a tranverse load is applied. During the built workshop we were able to see this in action, and so I have included the built workshop summary in the week eight entry to demonstrate my understanding of the topic.
Fig 8.1 Braced Plywood. Curnow 2014
Fig 8.2 Finished Structure. Curnow 2014
WORKSHOP BRIEF: Build (using specific cuts of timber) a structure which spanned 1 metre then test the strength of by increasing the weight of a load until the structure would break. We chose to cut our timber and create pin joints which we then braced with smaller sections of plywood. We hoped the arched shape would provide us with additional strength.
BUILT WORKSHOP Unfortunately our structure was unsuccessful in even bearing a small amount of weight. The joints weakened the structure, and in fact the elasticity in the plywood without the joints would have allowed for a higher bearing capacity than we achieved through our attempts to make it stronger. The external force created compression and tension stresses on the structure and the joints we created were weaknesses which buckled almost instantly.
Fig 8.3 Deflection. Curnow 2014
BUILT WORKSHOP Other designs were far more successful as unlike our team, they had not created weaknesses in their structure and instead had used techniques to strengthen it such as adding further support to the cross section. In fig. you can clearly see the deflection on the design, while it is has 340kg bearing down on it.
Fig 8.4 Other attempts. Curnow 2014 Fig 8.5 Testing deflection. Curnow 2014
E LEARNING CONCEPTS
Fig 8.9 Shear Force. Curnow 2014 Fig 8.6 Moment of Inertia Curnow 2014
Concepts covered in e-learning, which although donâ€™t directly relate to the theatre activity, are important concepts to consider in any type of construction. In the theatre we spent time reading and analysing the Oval pavilion construction drawings, and I learnt the difference between structural and architectural drawings. The e â€“learning was focussed more so on material selection and door and window placement. The architect s designing the oval pavilion would have made these selections based on efficiency, availability, cost and environmental factors.
Fig 8.10 Float Glass Process. Curnow 2014
OTHER TYPES OF GLASS
Fig 8.11 Reflective Glass. Curnow 2014
Fig 8.12 Tinted Glass. Curnow 2014
Fig 8.13 Insulating Glass. Curnow 2014
Fig 8.15 Door. Curnow 2014
Fig 8.14 Door Terminology. Curnow 2014
Fig 8.16 Door Leaf Detail. Curnow 2014
Fig 8.17 Window Detail. Curnow 2014 Fig 8.18 Window. Curnow 2014
Window Sash: The fixed/moveable framework of a window which the panes of glass are set into. Deflection: The perpendicular distance a spanning member deviates from its course under tranverse loading. Moment of Inertia: A geometric property that indicates how the x sectional area of a structural member is distributed, does not reflect the actual physical properties of a material. Door Furniture: The additional features on a door, eg handle, lock etc. Bending Stress: The combination of tension and compression stresses occurring at a cross section of a structural member to resist a tranverse force. (Tranverse: situated or extending across something). Shear Force: Two forces pushing in opposite directions.
STUDIO SESION EXCURSION We visited the construction site of a luxury apartment block in North Melbourne. The roof top is a concrete slab of approximately 200 -250mm thickness, and will be tiled upon completion which will provide a waterproof seal. To aid with drainage and for aesthetic purposes there will be a roof top garden for occupants to use. Most of the structure was made from concrete (a monolithic material), with the majority being poured in situ. Although I was unable to observe any there would be reinforced beams which would provide support and assist in resisting applied forces. As in the fig. the concrete floors on each level need to support live loads such as people, and transfer their loads across to columns or loadbearing walls. (Ching, 2008).
Fig 9.1 Load Path. Curnow 2014
Fig 9.2 Roof Top. Curnow 2014
MATERIALS IDENTIFIED Concrete walls, roof and foundations. I observed a ribbed concrete surface on the outer of the building. (See Fig 9.5) Aluminium frames. (See Fig 9.3) Safety Equipment: scaffolding and railing around stairwells. (See Fig 9.4)
Fig 9.3 Aluminium Frames. Curnow 2014
Fig 9.4 Scaffolding. Curnow 2014
Fig 9.5 Ribbed Concrete. Curnow 2014
OTHER OBSERVATIONS I observed a shadow line joint: the meeting of two materials, in the roof of the building.
Fig 9.6 Shadow Line Joint. Curnow 2014
The apartment complex we visited was still in the construction stage, but later we would expect to see finishing features such as skirtings and cornices. I have observed both these features in my own home. See figs 9.7 and 9.8
Fig 9.7 Cornice. Curnow 2014
Fig 9.8 Skirting. Curnow 2014
Sandwich Panel: Composite material of aluminium pieces with a non-aluminium centre. Used for cladding. Skirting: Protects walls (eg plasterboard) from damage occurring from occupancy. Composite Beam: Combination of solid timber, engineered timber and galvanised pressed steel. Shadow Line Joint: Where two surfaces meet. A small gap. Cornice: Decorative piece around the wall just below the ceiling. See fig. Polymers: Plastics Monolithic: Single materials combined so the components are indistinguishable. Composite: Two or more materials combined in a way that the individual materials remain easily distinguishable. Expansion Joints: Gaps between two parts of a building allowing thermal or moisture expansion to occur without damage. Control Joints: Continuous grooves in concrete ground slabs and masonry walls to make a plane of weakness which will regulate the location and amount of cracking resulting from drying shrinkage, thermal stresses, or structural movement. Isolation Joints: Divide a large or complex structure into parts so different movement/settlement can occur between the parts.
THEATRE SESSION As we have learnt the Oval Pavilion has gone through a complex process, following procedures and policies before construction could commence. With our 1:1 drawings we analysed the specific materials used to construct small parts of the pavilion. These materials would have been selected with considerable efforts made to choose materials which were affordable, efficient, resistant to weathering and wear, which require minimal upkeep. Melbourne University is committed to a sustainable campus so I believe there would have been careful selection where possible to choose materials with a low embodied energy rating. An example would be the timber used would most certainly be Australian grown, most likely from a plantation. (Newton, 2014). Materials identified: External timber lining Thermal insulation Impact and fire resistant plasterboard Flashing Metal deck roof Acoustic Insulation
Fig 10.1 Oval Pavilion Detail
Fig 10.2 cladding, timber and plasterboard. Unknown Artist.
THEATRE SESSION The pavilion would be designed to withstand any natural forces such as strong winds which may cause damage to the structure, and techniques such as braced frames and shear walls would have been implemented. See fig 10.3 (Ching, 2008).
Other problems which could arise are cracks in the masonry or concrete, which could compromise the strength of the building. To counteract these types of stresses movement joints have been implemented. (Ching, 2008). See Fig 10.4
Fig 10.4 Joint Movement. Curnow 2014
Fig 10.3 Frames. Curnow 2014
Shear wall: A wood, concrete or masonry wall capable of resisting changes in shape and transferring lateral loads to the ground foundation Soft storey: Has lateral stiffness or strength significantly less than the above stories. Braced frame: A timber or steel frame braced with diagonal members Lifecycle: How long a material lasts. Defect: A weak point/problem in a material Fascia: A piece of material such as a plywood which covers fixtures Corrosion: The deteriorating of an element, in particular metals IEQ: Indoor environmental quality
MATERIAL PROPERIES WKS 1-10 (Newton, 2014).
STONE VARIES CONCRETE BLOCKS MED-HIGH
FLEXIBILITY/ RECYC COST FRAGILITY DUCTILITY PLASTICITY PERMEABILITY DENSITY CONDUCTIVITY DURABILITY LABLE SUSTAINABILITY EFFECTIVENESS LOW EMBODIED ENERGY IF LOCALLY MED VERY LOW VERY LOW MED-LOW MED POOR VERY HIGH PRODUCED COST EFFECTIVE LOCAL - LOW DEPENDS VERY EMBODIED DEPENDENT ON ON TYPE VERY LOW VERY LOW VARIES VARIES POOR EXTREMELY HIGH ENERGY TYPE MEDI NOT VERY BUT IS MED VERY LOW VERY LOW MEDIUM MEDIUM POOR VERY UM INCREASING COST EFFECTIVE
VARIES LIQUID, BECOME SOLID WHEN EXPOSED TO AIR
MEDMEDIUM HIGH POOR HIGH BUT EXTREME HIGH FLEX, DEPENDS ON LY MED-LOW LOW MED PLAST FINISH VARIED POOR VERY HIGH FLEX, HIGH MEDVERY GOOD LOW VERY LOW PLAST IMPERMEABLE HIGH CONDUCTOR VERY LOW LOW
HIGH WHEN HEATED
MANY TYPES WATERPROOF LOW MEDVERY LOW VERY HIGH WATERPROOF HIGH HIGH
VARIES VERY, BUT VARIES
MED - HIGH EMBODIED LOW ENERGY COST EFFECTIVE VEERY LOW VERY EMBODIED HIGH ENERGY COST EFFECTIVE HIGH EMBODIED HIGH ENERGY COST EFFECTIVE VARIES NATURAL:YES, SYNTHETIC:MEDI YES UM COST EFFECTIVE
POOR TRANSMITS HEAT
YES YES DEPENDENT YES, ON TYPE HIGH VARIES COST EFFECTIVE VERY HIGH EMBODIED VERY HIGH ENERGY EXPENSIVE
Reference List Ashford, P 2014. Guest Speaker, Lecture five “Constructing Environments”. University of Melbourne. Ching, F 2008, Building Constructed Illustrated, 4th Edition, John Wiley and sons, New Jersey Groves, M 2014, Melbourne’s Bluestones, You Tube http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=CGMA71_3H6o&feature=youtu.be Newton, C 2014, W01m1 Introduction to Materials, You Tube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s4CJ8o_lJbg&feature=youtu.be Newton, C 2014, W01 s1 Load Path Diagrams, You Tube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y__V15j3IX4&feature=youtu.be Newton, C 2014, W03 m1 Bricks, You Tube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4lYlQhkMYmE&feature=youtu.be Newton, C 2014, W03 m4 Stone, You Tube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Vn5_dk4RtQ&feature=youtu.be Newton, C 2014, W03 m5 Concrete Blocks, You Tube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=geJv5wZQtRQ&feature=youtu.be Newton, C 2014, W04 m1 Concrete, You Tube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c1M19C25MLU&feature=youtu.be
Reference List Newton, C 2014, W05 m2 Timber Properties and Considerations, You Tube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ul0r9OGkA9c&feature=youtu.be Newton, C 2014, W06 m1 Introduction to Metals, You Tube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RttS_wgXGbI&feature=youtu.be Newton, C 2014, W07 m1 Rubber, You Tube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OPhjDijdf6I&feature=youtu.be Newton, C 2014, W07 m3 Paints, You Tube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WrydR4LA5e0&feature=youtu.be Newton, C 2014, W07 m2 Plastics, You Tube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5pfnCtUOfy4&feature=youtu.be Newton, C 2014, W08 m1 Glass, You Tube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_I0Jqcrfcyk&feature=youtu.be Newton, C 2014, W09 m1 Composite Materials, You Tube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uem1_fBpjVQ&feature=youtu.be Pert, A 2014. Guest Speaker, Lecture Week three “Constructing Environments”. University of Melbourne.