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speed evolution architectural landscapes jia zhengyang, March ad tutor: phil watson


Content 1.Introduction 2.Exploring Morphological Structure 2.1 The Hurricane as a Speed Evolution Tactic 2.2 Morphology to Achieve Mobility 2.3 Two-dimensional Slices as Morphological Units 2.4 Dynamics Collage Experiments 2.5 Develop the Prototype of the Morphological Structure

3. Exploring High Speed Materials 3.1 Impressionist Paintings as the Resource of High Speed Materials 3.2 Using Impressionist Perceptions to Speed Up a Room 3.3 Broken Colour as the Technique to Construct the Structure 3.4 Finding High Speed Materials from Impressionism Paintings 3.5 Develop the Prototype of High Speed Materials Bicycles in hurricane, a digital drawing to develop how hurricane forms new material (Nov,2010)

4. Design Project 4.1 Speed Variation to Change the Depth of Field 4.2 Reforming a Room by Morphological Structure and High Speed Materials 4.3 Conclusion


A series of period rooms in the Geffrye Museumw, photography to show how English living rooms change from 1600 to present, (Feb,2011)

1. Introduction: This project explores the idea of speed evolution in architectural landscapes. It develops morphological structures that comine spaces and materials in time frames at differing speeds. If we were to observe the changes and speed them up we would see the idea of construction fragmentation demolition and reconstruction as an architectural practice.This could be used to form a speed -time-based architectural system that animates the actual. Cities develop over time and change gradually evolving over hundreds of years. As the external fabric continuous the process of reconstruction, the interior spaces have other types of changes, these are reinhabited altered reconfigured redecorated and refurnished at different speeds. Variations in the speeds of these changes makes interpreting them and any possibility of forecasting them difficult.This is part of the dynamic of a city and its composition. Light fabric scale and time creating constant changes in its spatial fields. Traditional architectural tools have proven to be inadequate when faced with the complexity of the process. Cities appear to be governed by chaos. An architecture with mobility is seen as a method for responding to this. One that can reconstruct and adapt itself to rapid fluctuations and changes in the system.

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A series of period rooms in the Geffrye Museum, photography to show how English living rooms change from 1600 to present, (Feb,2011)

Usually, if an object changes through a period of time, position, state, etc., Then this object has a speed attribute. It is a fact that most traditional architecture is very slow to respond to accelerating changes in the environment. One crucial reason is the immobility attributes of the materials of traditional architecture. Wood, stone, brick, glass, concrete and steel, which are the fundamental materials used to construct traditional architecture, these are normally not capable of deformations in pattern, shape and colour, traditional architectures are not designed for fast reponses. The only way that the architects can modify these buildings is to continuously reformat the structure or update by refurbishing with traditional techniques. Taking the change in urban middle class homes of England as an example, in the G effrye museum there are a series of period rooms representing the tastes and values of people belonging to the middle ranks of urban society, from merchants and manufacturers to designers and teachers. These displays cover the period from 1600 to the present day and focus on the main living room, where the family gather and where guests are made welcome. We can see that these rooms have changed over time;as domestic life has evolved. This change has been processed mainly by furnishing and decorating the interiors with new materials, colours and patterns and introducing products such as porcelain from china or rugs from turkey. The traditional architectural practices of the built form being relatively unchanged apart from style. The natural landscape never keeps still; it constantly evolves and responds to the dynamics that constitute it environment. It is not only that the physical geometry of the systems endlessly develop themselves by meteorological and geographical influences ,but there are also other phenomenological events: the colour of natural forms infinitely varies in light and shadow according to circumstances. For instance, the hurricane, as

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Hurricane observing from International Space Station, A photography to show how hurrican to form landscape,by Astronaut Ed Lu (Sep,2003)

part of the meteorological dynamics system, continuously changes the geographical and atmospheric environment and speeds up variations in natural landscapes . In respect of colour in natural objects, light and shadow never remain the same. Reflection and refraction change more or less every colour and shadow in a constant flux of spatial reordering. The impressionists were excited by the contemporary developments in colour theory, which helped their search for a more exact analysis of the effects of colour and light in nature. A great number of those effects are recorded by impressionist paintings. Nothing in nature ever keeps still. A form of object always has a speed attribute. Moreover, speed can be seen as the main reason for the form to be shaped continuously, such as the speed of a flower growing, the speed of colour variation in leaves or the speed of wind in shaping a desert. The form of an object is a diagram of speed. According to this, our perception of space is actually a perception of various speeds. The method of this project begins with research into the dynamics system of hurricanes and the effects of colour and light in impressionism paintings. The purpose of this is to develop a morphological structure of speed materials and to use these to reform a room as an architectural landscape with speed attributes causing shape deformation and colour variation. The spaces that appear are reread as those of spatial depth in a constant fluctuation of light. These construct sites within sites incorporating spontaneous fast alterations in the depth of field. Looking through the gaps to the spaces beyond which are constantly being reshaped and reinformed.These become vertical penetrations in the field of vision outside of the immediate foreground.

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Le bassin aux nympheas, harmonie rose, an oil painting to show the color variation in nature landscape, by Claude Monet (1900)


2 Exploring Morphological Structure 2.1 The Hurricane as a Speed Evolution Tactic As mentioned before, the hurricane is one of the meteorological dynamics systems, continuously changing the geographical and atmospheric environment and speeding up the variations of natural landscape forms on earth. This fundamental concept of speed evolution architecture commenced from using the hurricane as a tactic and the airplane as a method. The first stage is to study the motion of hurricanes and create a geometrical system to reflect this motion. Although hurricanes are large systems generating enormous energy, their movements over the earth's surface are controlled by large-scale winds: the streams in the earth's atmosphere. The path of motion is referred to as a tropical cyclone's track and has been compared by dr. Neil frank, former director of the national hurricane center, to “leaves carried along by a stream.�

Hurrican Andrew, A scientifical data analyse by photography to show the motion of hurricane, by NOAA (1992)

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A tropical cyclone's primary energy source is the release of heat from water vapour condensing, with solar heating being the initial source of the evaporation. Therefore, a tropical cyclone can be visualised as a giant vertical heat engine supported by mechanics and driven by physical forces, such as the rotation and gravity of earth. In another view, tropical cyclones could be seen as a special type of mesoscale convective complex that continues to develop over a vast source of relative warmth and moisture. While an initial warm core system, such as an organised thunderstorm complex, is necessary for the formation of a tropical cyclone, a large flux of energy is needed to lower atmospheric pressure more than a few millibars (0.10 Inch of mercury). The inflow of warmth and moisture from the underlying ocean surface is critical for strengthening tropical cyclones. A significant amount of the inflow in the cyclone is in the lowest 1 km (3,300 ft) of the atmosphere.

Dynamic system of hurricane, a digital drawing to study the motion of hurricane (Dec,2010)

Through the study of the hurricanes dynamics systems, hurricane can be visualised as being formed by numerous motional rotation forces. Geometry grids are introduced to be interacted with by these motional rotation forces and generate deformation, based on the mapping of a certain number of typical tropical cyclones motional tracks and the calculation of the measure of storm size. This deformational grid can be used as an orientation system for the motion of rotational forces.

Bicycles in hurricane, a digital drawing to develop how hurricane forming new material (Nov,2010)

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In the second stage, an airplane was set to fly through a hurricane. It can be said that a city is moving. The movement of a city is captured in the body of the airplane, so this movement is controlled by both the geometries of the airplane and the hurricane’s motion. Under these forces, the pieces of the city are rotated, twisted and stretched. Therefore, the airplane and the hurricane provided a potential condition to make the city or architecture speed up. In these high speed conditions, some new typologies or phenomena of cities can be generated.

Airplane flying through hurricane, a digital drawing to develop the idea of using the dynamic of hurricane to make city speeded up (Jan,2011)

Twisting geometries, a digital drawing to develop how hurricane forming new goemetries (Dec,2010)

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2.2 Morphology to Achieve Mobility When the same material is moving at high speed in a tenuous atmosphere some 50 or 100 miles above the earth’s surface, where friction first causes it to glow, it comes within the province of observational astronomy and, if it were observed by radar during daylight or when the sky is overcast, it would come within the most recent sub-division of observational astronomy. Thus, natural objects may be classified by their appearance, use and other characteristics and also with regards to technological rereading these conditions as a system of observations or mapping of their properties .

Morphological lines, two digital drawings to develop morphology of simple geometrical elements (Feb,2011)

The speed of an object is the magnitude of its velocity, the rate of change of its position. In the newtonian language of elementary physics, an object would change its speed as a result of outside forces, recognised by its action in producing or changing motion, preventing change of motion or in maintaining rest. The form, then, of any portion of matter, whether it be living or dead, the changes of form that are apparent in its movements and growth, may in all cases be described as due to the action of forces, or the speed. Therefore, the form of an object may be considered as a diagram of its speed. The study of form in nature goes by the name of morphology, a branch of bioscience dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features. This includes aspects of the outward appearance; for example, shape, structure, colour and pattern, as well as the form and structure of the internal parts like bones and organs. Morphology is not only a study of material things and of the forms of material things; it also has a dynamic aspect under which we deal with the interpretation, in terms of force, of the operations of energy. To test a form as a diagram of speed architecturally, an experimental modelling method was developed. A menger sponge, a sort of typical fractal geometry that includes various levels of boxes inside, was considered as a prototype to experiment with the morphological dynamics of regular geometry. There are three rules in this experiment. Initially, the force of twisting was selected as the basic force. Secondly, the scale of the boxes was the criterion used to categorise the speed level. Thirdly, the twisting speed ratio and the scale of the boxes are in an inverse relationship. Under these three rules, a series of forming and shifting is shown and some new forms are generated into a morphological system. The smaller boxes are twisted at a relatively higher speed compared with bigger boxes of menger sponge. The inside boxes gradually came outside to mix with the skins of bigger boxes; new geometries are then generated. This becomes the main architectural tool for creating an anomorphic distorted geometric field.

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Morphological Menger sponge, a digital drawing to study the possibility of morphology which is based on various speed and test morphology as a tool to achieve architectural mobility (Mar,2011)

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2.3 Two-dimensional Slices as Morphological Units If we consider objects such as furniture, rooms or other architectural structures or decorations as having the potential to shift form, the prototype of this form may be defined as the fundamental or primary substance of a morphological unit. The solid objects in the system are be deconstructed into a large number of slices by the x, y or z axes. The aim of constructing slice modelling is to explore the prototype of transformation that includes the fundamental dynamics. Each slice is two-dimensional, rather than three-dimensional. The work of architect is always two-dimensional: it expresses itself as a plan and a section, two diagrams that reduce the complexity of space into planes. With the advent of modelling software, the elaboration of form increasingly takes place directly in three dimensions, yet these computer-generated forms may not be drawn or built rationally without being reduced in some way or other back to the two-dimensional medium of the architect. Structural engineers refer to this process as ‘rationalising a form’. To begin with twodimensional profiles means that we choose to pre-rationalise the construction of complex three-dimensional forms. At the same time, each two-dimensional slice can be seen as the prototype of morphology to further the research of dynamics. If we aim to speed up a room, every single element (e.g. the furniture, decorations, walls and windows) should be considered to be potentially morphological. The experiment begins with furniture. Different types of furniture are chosen to test two-dimensional slices. At this stage of the experiment, every type of furniture is firstly considered as an entire solid object then cut to two-dimensional slices by the same distance. After slicing, every type of furniture is twisted or bent in various directions. The results of these actions can be reflected on each slice. In other words, every two-dimensional slice (as a morphological unit) describs the speed and illustrats the dynamics of the motion of the system.

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Morphological furniture(plan),a digital drawing to develop the possibility of twodimesional slices as morphological units to achieve mobility of deformation (Mar,2011)


2.4 Dynamics Collage Experiments Speed has the dimension of a length divided by a time. Therefore, speed evolution is highly related to the perception of space and time. Time is frequently reported as flowing faster or slower, expanding or contracting, and it may even be experienced as being severely discontinuous (‘fragmented’). In extreme cases, it can stop completely or expand unlimitedly. The sense of space is likewise powerfully affected. Space can appear amplified or compressed, condensed or rarefied, or even change its dimensionality; it can, for example, become just two-dimensional (‘flat’), acquire other dimensions or be reduced to a dimensionless point in consciousness. The Kappa effect is a term relating to the human perception of time. The Kappa effect can be displayed when considering a journey made in two parts that take an equal amount of time. Between these two parts, the journey that covers a greater distance will appear to take longer than the journey covering a shorter distance, even though they take an equal amount of time. Practically speaking, a faster journey over a longer distance will still appear more time-consuming than a slower journey over a shorter distance. According to the Kappa effect, the distance or the events people experience in a certain time can influence their perceptions of time. Therefore, several typical inside spaces of buildings that contain different experience distances can be selected as the prototypes from which to construct speed evolution architecture. An object is in motion when it is continuously changing its position relative to a reference point and as observed by a person or detection device. For example, you can see that an automobile is moving with respect to the ground. The distance the object travels in a period of time is its speed. If the speed of an object is in a specific direction, it is called velocity. The change in velocity over a period of time is the acceleration of the object. Morphological furniture (elevation), a digital drawing to develop the possibility of twodimesional slices as morphological units to achieve mobility of deformation (Mar,2011)

Therefore, if we combine two dynamical systems with different perceptions of time together, the observers in a separate space would experience relative speed perception. In other words, if we mix a still-time space and a high speed time space together, both of them would undergo a change in speed level that could be seen as a self-speed-evolution system.

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Morphological room experiment 1, a digital drawing to test the possibility of a room as a morphological system (Mar,2011)

There are two experiments being attempted at this stage. The first experiment aims to test the possibility of a room as a morphological system. A classical room of a gentlemen’s club, Brook’s, was chosen to be the experimental subject. The whole room was considered as a solid item and was transformed into two-dimensional slices by modelling both the x and y axes. Compared with the rules in the furniture experiment before, in this experiment each slice that contained different fragments of furniture, walls, decorations or other objects from the original room represented the morphological unit shifting by rotation, twisting, extending or shrinking forces. The result shows different a speed ratio or slice motion, creating various densities of matter and reforming the pattern of the former state. The second experiment aims to test the possibility of combining two rooms, assuming each of them was a morphological system. Two classical rooms, Brook’s and the Press Club, were selected to be the experimental subjects. The first step was to assume each of these rooms was a morphological creation with its own independent motional trace. In the second step, the two motional traces had an intersection leading to a crash. As a result, the two systems were mixed together to form a new system. After that, the new system was sliced with two-dimensional slice modelling. As in the first experiment, each slice that contained different fragments of furniture, walls, decorations or other objects from the new system was seen as a morphological unit shifting by rotation, twisting, extending or shrinking forces. Finally, the new system shows a different speed ratio or slice motion, creating various densities of matter and reforming the pattern of former states.

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Morphological room experiment 2, a digital drawing to test the possibility of collaging two rooms assuming each of them was a morphological system (Mar,2011)


Morphological room experiment 2, a digital drawing to test the possibility of collaging two rooms assuming each of them was a morphological system (Mar,2011)

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2.5 Develop the Prototype of the Morphological Structure The experiments reveal , several ideas for further research. Firstly, two-dimensional slice modelling is not only a visual way to observe dynamic transformation inside a system, but it is a practical method to control or operate form shifting. Secondly, collage dynamics is a viable tactic for creating a self-transformation system. Moreover, compared with the two attempts at dynamic collage experiments, mixing two rooms resulted in a physical rather than a generative morphological evolution of speeds.

A prototype of morphological structure, a digital drawing to architecturally and morphologically set up a model of speed evolution system with

Based on the conclusions from former experiments, a prototype of morphological structure has been further developed. This prototype aims to architecturally and morphologically set up a model of a speed evolution system with various speeds and motions, which can achieve mobility of architecture. Several pieces of a gentlemen’s club, including the furniture, decoration and architectural structure, were selected as elements of the prototype for transformation into two-dimensional slice modelling. It is assumed that furniture and walls in the prototype can potentially shift form spontaneously. For instance, the dinner table is capable of twisting itself. Kitchen facilities can stretch and twist to extend. The clock has the ability to rotate into a spiral form. All of these motions or dynamics are time-based. Moreover, the walls, whose main role is to define the space of the room, can shift their form under the influence of the furniture dynamics. For example, when the piano morphologically stretched and twisted towards the wall, the geometry of the wall changed automatically by creating an opening to allow the extended geometry of the morphological piano to penetrate it. Another wall also changed its shape by the force of twisting and rotation near the kitchen facility and dinner table. Every object in the room shifted its form by various speed ratios and dynamics over time.

various speed and motion which can achieve mobility of architecture (Mar,2011)

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Impression sunrise, an oli painting to show that impressionist capture a certain moment effect of different weather conditions on lanscape rather than an instant, by Claude Monet (1873)

3. Explore high speed materials 3.1 Impressionist Paintings as the Resource of High Speed Materials As mentioned before, the colours of natural forms infinitely vary in light and shadow, these have been used by. Impressionists to captured those speeds of colour variations in their paintings. The Starry Night, an oli painting to show that impressionist to express their spatial perception by color variation to suggest speed and dynamics in nature, by Van Gogh (1889)

Impressionism was a 19th century art movement that originated with a group of Paris-based artists whose independent exhibitions brought them to prominence during the 1870s and 1880s. The name of the style is derived from the title of a Claude Monet work. Impressionists abandoned the conventional idea that the shadow of an object was made up from its colour with some brown or black added. Instead, they enriched their colours with the idea that the shadow of an object is broken up with dashes of its complementary colour. For example, in an Impressionist painting, the shadow of an orange may have some strokes of blue painted into it to increase its vitality. The Impressionists sought to capture the atmosphere of a particular time of day or the effects of different weather conditions on the landscape. In order to capture these fleeting effects, they had to work quickly. They applied their paint in small brightly coloured strokes, which meant sacrificing much of the outline and detail of their subject. The most important concept of impressionism is that the paintings express certain momentary effects of different weather conditions on the landscape, rather than an instant view. In other words, Impressionist paintings combine the paintings of landscapes at different times into one piece to express what they experience of the nature in front of them in that minute or in those hours or in that season. As a result of this, the development of impressionism can be considered as a reaction by artists to the challenge presented

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Speed up a room, a series digtial drawings to show that using impressionism perception of space to add more and more moment in a single moment to speed up the furniture and decoration evolution. Light and color were continuously bent (like hurricane twisting landscape) by the activities or the motions of users or observers (May,2011)

by photography, which seemed to devalue the artist's skill in reproducing reality. Both portrait and landscape paintings were deemed somewhat deficient and lacking in truth as photography “produced life like images much more efficiently and reliably”. The Impressionists sought to express their perceptions of nature, rather than create exacting representations. This allowed artists to depict subjectively what they saw with their “tacit imperatives of taste and conscience”. Photography encouraged painters to exploit aspects of the painting medium, like colour, which photography then lacked: “the Impressionists were the first to consciously offer a subjective alternative to the photograph”. The speed of colour variation in certain conditions is the focus of impressionists. The impressionists’ ideas on colour were rooted in one particular approach to the relationship between nature and colour: forms should not be modelled primarily on tonal gradations from dark to light, but instead form and space should be suggested by contrasts and variation of colour. Monet said “for me, a landscape does not exist in its own right, since its appearance changes at every moment; its surroundings bring it to life - the air and the light, which vary continually…” therefore, the paintings of impressionism are time-based drawings that express their perceptions of the speed of colour variation in the natural system. In other words, high speed materials, which relate to traditional architectural materials, can be developed from the methods used in constructing impressionist art. Speed is the essential substance of impressionism shifting the moment from its stoppages . 21


Speed up a room, a series digtial drawings to show that using impressionism perception of space

3.2 Using Impressionist Perceptions to Speed Up a Room

to add more and more moment in a single moment to speed up the furniture and decoration evolution. Light and color were continuously bent (like hurricane twisting landscape) by the activities or the motions of users or observers (May,2011)

As mentioned before, Impressionist paintings present a dynamic moment of a natural landscape, rather than an instant view. Moreover, from the Impressionist’s perspective, space and form are suggested by contrasts and variation of colour. If we use those concepts, use drawings of moments rather than instant drawings to suggest a room that has been changing over hundreds years, recording the speed variation in this period, then a series of speed evolution architecture data that reflects the speed and geometry variation using colour can be constructed. In addition, speeding up a room can become more possible using this method. The selected rooms in the displays at the Geffrye Museum reflect the homes of urban and particularly London middle classes; a moderately prosperous sector of society, comprised of people able to afford a comfortable and well-furnished home. The display shows eleven living rooms that have been used and furnished from 1600 to the present, reflecting changes in society and patterns of behaviour as well as style, fashion and taste. An experiment explores eight moment drawings . The lengths of moments get longer from the first drawing to the last one. The blue dot traces in every drawing are the motions of users or observers. Those motions used as a method for changing furniture or decorations. A series of images have been created based on these shifts. Every material in the room was considered as being formed of colour and light. More and more moments were layered into a single image for the purpose of making a room speed up. Colour and light mixing in four dimensions. These create materials formed by colour variations from the twisting of activities or the motions of observers.. A series of data based shift architecture is created in this experiment.

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Speed up a room, a series digtial drawings to show that using impressionism perception of space to add more and more moment in a single moment to speed up the furniture and decoration evolution. Light and color were continuously bent (like hurricane twisting landscape) by the activities or the motions of users or observers (May,2011)

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High speed materials in impressionism paintings,a digtial drawing to explore the highspeed attribute in color variation of silk and grass(Lady with umbrella, Monet).A fracital structure which contains more potential of color variation is created from this painting. (May, 2011)

3.3 Broken Colour as the Technique to Construct the Structure

High speed materials in impressionism paintings, a digtial drawing to explore the highspeed attribute in color variation of woolen and feather (Madame Monet on the divan, Manet).A fracital structure which contains more potential of color variation is created from this painting.(May, 2011)

Broken colour is the main technique of Impressionism. Broken colour refers to a painting technique 'invented' by the Impressionists that is still used today by some artists. Technically speaking, it is based on the perception that “no shadow is black. It always has a color. Nature knows only colors … white and black are not colors”. In accordance with that, Impressionists will normally break white and black into various colours by brushwork to capture the motion and speed of the light variation. For example, Monet painted his moody interiors of Saint-Lazare station, where the steam trains and glass roof created dramatic highlights and shadows, without earth pigments. He created his astoundingly rich array of browns and greys by combining new synthetic oil-paint colours, such as cobalt blue, cerulean blue, synthetic ultramarine, emerald green, viridian, chrome yellow, vermillion and crimson lake. He also used touches of lead white and a little ivory black. No shadow was considered as being without colour and the deepest shadows are tinged with green and purple. If broken colour can be a viable way to express the perception of the speed of the light motional in paintings, a design method to break the colour of a structure can be developed through this painting technique.

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High speed materials in impressionism paintings, a digtial drawing to explore the highspeed attribute in color variation of steam(The Station Saint-Lazare in Paris, Monet).A fracital structure which contains more potential of color variation is created from this painting. (May, 2011)

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High speed materials in impressionism paintings, a digtial drawing to explore the high-speed attribute in color variation of rope (The bridge of Argenteuil, Monet). A fracital structure which contains more potential of color variation is created from this painting. (May, 2011)

3.4 Finding High Speed Materials in Impressionism Paintings There are two series of experiments that attempt to develop high speed materials. The purpose of the first series of experiments is to explore the colour structure system based on the different colour variations of various materials in Monet’s impressionist paintings. There are five sorts of materials that have been selected for this next experiment.

High speed materials in impressionism paintings, a digtial drawing to explore the high-speed attribute in color variation of leaves (Apple trees in blossom, Monet).A fracital structure which contains more potential of color variation is created from this painting. (May, 2011)

The first material is the representation steam in the oil painting the Station Saint-Lazare in paris, 1877. The motion of the steam is painted with a diverse range of colours, at one time deep blue against light blue sunlight or at another blue-purple against dark. It also has as a settingl the associated contrasts between the dark green of the covered space and the city beyond. The way in which he used thick paint, blending numerous small bright touches of colour, was especially forceful in capturing the suggestion of mechanical power that the subject demanded. To reform the structure of the steam of this painting, i construct a unit form with a handkerchief-like structure which represents monet’s track of brushwork to illustrate the spatial motion of the steam. The inside of each unit is divided into a certain number of light guide lines which performs as the self-luminous medium to show the broken colors (deep blue, light blue, blue purple, dark green, etc) in the paintings. The proportion of different colors is based on data of the original paintings. A large number of these unit forms combine into a layer of material. This material is time-based with its composition with being altered by the dynamics of its environment.

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High speed materials in impressionism paintings, a digtial drawing to explore the highspeed attribute in color variation of water(The Waterlilies, Monet).A fracital structure which contains more potential of color variation is created from this painting.(May, 2011)

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Refraction of Light, a scientifical drawing to illustrate refraction of light at the interface between two media of different refractive indices.(2006)

Four other sorts of high speed materials were then developed from the material of monet’s oil paintings: ripple, feather, rope and silk. Different structures have been attempted based on an imaginary space caused by enlarging the scale of the trace of the brushwork in the original paintings. The light guidelines are motional with the variation of lights to construct the material with various dynamics. The purpose of the second series of experiments is to explore the self-dynamic system of high speed materials. I tried to neglect the dynamic influences from the outside, concentrating instead on the variation of each unit form and the spatial results created by the dynamic itself. Using the same technique as before, a high speed material from ripple was developed. If we assume that light passing by the light guidelines leads to different dynamics, such as rotation, twisting and waving, the spatial motion can result in pattern and colour variation, these become the basic attributes of the method of speed architectures.

3.5 Light refraction in High Speed Material Experiments Divide light through prism.a scientifical drawing to illustrate that a prism refracts light at different directions to form a rainbow. (1999)

After the above experiment, i tried to consider how to draw light refraction in different sorts of material to achieve a dividing of light and high speed colour variations as broken colours, as in impressionist paintings. Refraction is the change in direction of a wave due to a change in its speed. This is most commonly observed when a wave passes from one medium to another at any angle other than 90° or 0°. Refraction of light is the most commonly observed phenomenon, but any type of wave can refract when it interacts with a medium, for example when sound waves pass from one medium into another or when water waves move into water of a different depth. Refraction is described by snell's law, which states that the angle of incidence θ1 is related to the angle of refraction θ2 by:

where v1 and v2 are the wave velocities in the respective media, and n1 and n2 are the refractive indices. In general, the incident wave is partially refracted and partially reflected; the details of this behaviour are described by the Fresnel equations. Dynamic of High speed material, a digtial drawings to explore that how dynamic of geometries leading to color variation. The unit on highspeed material are motional as twisting and rotation, which results in high-speed of color variarions(Jun, 2011)

Light changes speed as it moves from one medium to another: for example, from air into the glass of the prism. This speed change causes the light to be refracted and to enter the new medium at a different angle, according to Huygens’ principle. The degree of bending of the light's path depends on the angle that the incident beam of light makes with the surface and on the ratio between the refractive indices of the two media, according to Snell's law. The refractive index of many materials, such as glass, varies with the wavelength or colour

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Liquid crystals, a series of

Light travelling, a digital

scientifical photography to show

drawing to research how light

color variation in liquid crystal by changing its refractive indices in different parts inside itself by electricity. (2006)

traveling on a material which including several refractive indices which are enable to bent and divide light with their geometries.(Jun, 2011)

of the light used, a phenomenon known as dispersion. This causes lights of different colours to be refracted differently and to leave the prism at different angles, creating an effect similar to a rainbow. This can be used to separate a beam of white light into its constituent spectrum of colours.

Liquid crystals, a series of scientifical photography to show The appearance of a liquidcrystal film to which single stranded DNA has been added (left) changes following the addition of complementary single-stranded DNA. (2008)

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In accordance with those refraction methods, a drawing was created to research how light travels on a material that includes several refractive indices that are able to bend and divide light with their geometry. Liquid crystal was chosen as the material to achieve this. Liquid crystals (LCs) are a state of matter that has properties between those of a conventional liquid and those of a solid crystal. The reason liquid crystal was selected is that liquid crystal can change its refractive indices in different parts inside itself by electricity. Owing to this, if liquid crystal materials are produced as motional geometry forms, these geometries twist or rotate with different speed ratios; light is bent and divided when traveling through these changing geometries.


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4.Design Project 4.1 Speed Variation to Change the Depth of Field In optics, particularly as it relates to film and photography, depth of field (DOF) is the distance between the nearest and farthest objects in a scene that appear acceptably sharp in an image. Although a lens can precisely focus at only one distance at a time, the decrease in sharpness is gradual on each side of the focused distance so that within the DOF, the lack of sharpness is imperceptible under normal viewing conditions.

A speed evolution landscape, a digital drawing to develop a room constructed by furniture and decoration with morphorlogical structure and high speed materials.The speed variations lead to the change of the depth of field. The detail of a clock that is in a low speed variation in a far distance can be observed clearer than a piano nearby that is in a high-speed variation. The traditional spatial perceptions about colour, light, distance and form can be changed.(Jun,2011)

One characteristic of Impressionist paintings is that the paintings make the depth of field vanish to give the observer an impression rather than an expression of single details. In other words, Impressionists make use of colour variation or speed to change the DOF to influence the spatial perception of the observer. The eyes of people, like a lens, can also focus on different distances to form different perceptions of space. When we focus on one object in a far distance, the other things near us will be blurred in the same view. Moreover, we can perceive the focused object more clearly and in more detail than the unfocused or blurred thing. According to this, we can use high speed variation to blur or unfocus some selected objects to let the observer focus on the objects that keep still or change at low speeds.

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4.2 Reforming a Room by Morphological Structure and High Speed Materials In the final project, I choose one exhibition room in the Geffrye Museum as my site to create a speed evolution architectural landscape. This landscape will display the evolution of furniture and decoration of the homes of the English urban middle classes by speed and colour variation. The walls, windows and all furniture and decorations are formed by morphological structures and high speed materials. All the materials in this room have high speed potential, which provides different motions to form various geometries, dividing light and changing the speed of colour variations at a micro-scale. In addition, the morphological structure behind the high speed materials will be motional to enhance the speed variations. The perception of space in this room of observers is based on speed. As mentioned before, the form of an object is a diagram of speed. Speed variation can change spatial perception by changing the depth of field. In this room, speed variation can make observers focus on the objects that keep still or change at low speeds. For example, the detail of a clock that is in a low speed variation in a far distance can be observed clearer than a piano that is in a high-speed variation. The traditional spatial perceptions about colour, light, distance and form can be changed.

4.3 Conclusion The aim of the speed evolution architectural landscape is to provide the observer with a different spatial perception based on speed. This spatial perception is based on time, motion, light or various speeds of variation. Everything in the speed evolution architectural landscape, shape, colour, light and distance, is a diagram of speed. In this project, speed is the main architectural tool to achieve the mobility . In the next stage, the design work will be constructed as a series of time-based drawings to explain the conditions of this architectural system. As the morphological deformation of spaces objects and their implicit but non static landscapes.

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Bibliography: Ferrater.B.2006.Synchronizing Geometry: Landscape, Architecture & Construction / Ideographic Resources: Actar Coac Assn of Catalan Arc Leyton.M.2006. Shape as Memory: A Geometric Theory of Architecture: Birkhäuser Basel Woods.L. 2001.Earthquake: a post-biblical view: Springer Virilio.P. 2007. Speed and Politics: Semiotext Finizio.G. 2006. Architecture & Mobility: Tradition and Innovation: Random House Inc Thompson.D.1992. On Growth and Form: Cambridge University Press Humphries.L.1968. Aspects of Form: Lund Humphries Publisher Gaunt.W.1988. The Impressionists: with 108 plates in full color: T&H House.J.1986. Monet: nature into art: Yale University Press Maurice Gui.J.1983. Claude Monet au temps de Giverny: Centre Culturel du Marais Sandison.C.2006. Claude Monet: Argol Musee d`Orsay Temkin.A.2009. Claude Monet: Water lilies: The Museum of Modern Art Dewing.D. 2008. The Geffrye, Museum of the Home, A Guide to the Museum: Beacon Press John.P. 2006. Mathematical Form: John Pickering and the Architecture of the Inversion Principle: Chronicle Books Llc Lejeune.A.1984.The Gentlemen’s Clubs of London: Bracken Books Matthews.P.1991.Morphology: Cambridge University Press Michel.L. 1995. The Shape of Space: Designing with Space and Light: Wiley Hunter.F. 2007. Science and Magic: An Introduction to Photographic Lighting: Focal Press Chandrasekhar.S. 1993. Liquid Crystals: Cambridge University Press


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Speed evolution architectural landscape  

This project aims to explore the speed evolution in architectural landscapes by developing the morphological structure and high speed materi...