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YEAR 3 - FINAL PROJECT BRIEFING DOCUMENT RECONSTITUTING THE COTTON INDUSTRY: A Hemp Production

MICHAEL NICHOLSON 4116552 UNIT 5A


CONTENTS Architectural Concept & Stratagy/ Project requirements

Heritage - Title of project Opening statement

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- Industry

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- Introductory Statement

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- Site

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Contemporary Technology / Research - Modern Textile Industry - Sustainability of Cotton

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- Cotton Alternative

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- Hemp as a textile

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- Hemp and it’s uses

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- Hemp Production and products made by this project

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- Proposal

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- Manufacturing on Site

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- Concept and Stratagy

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- Project Requirements

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- Sizes of Machinery

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- Flexible Space Schedule

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Building Precedents / Further Reasearch - Landscaft Park, Duisberg - Nord

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- Celcon factory, Borough Green

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- Ruhr Museum

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HERITAGE Project 3:

Heritage / Vision

- Title of project Opening statement

- Introductory Statement - Industry - Cotton Industry - Site - Site selection - Site history - Location of site

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Reconstituting the Cotton Industry: A Hemp Production Reconstituting present participle of re-con-sti-tute (Verb)

Verb 1. Build up again from parts; reconstruct 2. Change the form and organization of (an institute) This Project aims to investigate and evaluate the cotton trade and industry. To review the economical value of reinstating a once prosperous industry with a new sustainable material.

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An Introduction Reconstituting the Cotton Industry.

Project 3 aims to explore the heritage of the Cotton industry within the Peak District and the rest of Britain. It also aims is to consolidate and re-evaluate the idea of reintroducing an industry back into the Peak District via new and more sustainable means. The basis of this project has been influenced by research into the Peak District National Park, looking at the history and modern day life. The research focused on what the peak district needs and what part of the spectrum of there economy this could affect.

Farming within the peak district was chosen as a subject of interest for this project. The reason being that farming within the peak district has been taxing in most recent years. Most noticeably over the last 10 years with the threat of BSC, foot and mouth and rapidly declining milk prices with an average of 7% of dairy farmers going out of business each year.

Deserted farmhouse, Youlgreave, Peak District National Park (Jeff Gynane, 2006)

The ‘PDNA Fact sheet 3 – Farming in the PDNP’ states that farming has shaped the landscape we see today and today around 83% is classed as farmland with 51% of that left as grass land and 41% rough grazing. Over half of the farms in the Peak district are small (less than 20 hectares), which has an effect on their owners, many of which have to take a second career due to insufficient profits from their primary work source. Because of this there has been an increase of hobby farmers buying farmhouses but only “playing” with the land.

Therefore this project aims to try and create an industry where the farmers within the peak district are able to gain a steady source of income by growing a raw material. Looking back over the history of the peaks its evident to see what industries where once prosperous, mining for example and the textile industry, which also spreads out into Derbyshire and Lancashire. These textile factories provided numerous amounts of jobs for the nearby local population; so bringing this industry back would certainly restore jobs and create security for people’s livelihoods.

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An Introduction Continued

‘Traditional and modern economic development that is innovative, well managed and appropriate to the landscape will be supported’ (NPMP 2012-2017 ES4) which seems to be a key concept of the Peak District National Park.

Richard Arkwright’s cotton mill at Matlock bath, Derbyshire (flickr)

By using this advice reintroducing an unchanged industry would certainly not be viable, ‘innovative’ here is the key word, the industry must be changed this can be through, production of raw materials, manufacture and architecture as the PDNP try to look for other alternatives to pastiche. Cotton inevitably would have to be replaced if reintroducing a textile industry for a more sustainable crop, this links in well with the Peak District Management Plan.

‘Farming and land management in the national park have a growing role in the provision of environmental goods and services’ (NPMP 2012-2017)

Cotton plant

Choosing this alternative to cotton is crucial, if the product could be grown locally the benefits would be huge, it would create a new industry, not only in ‘cotton’ manufacturing, but a sustainable farming culture as well. This will help lead towards a more environmental Peak District.

Scene depicting workers at a cotton mill during the 18th century (Discovering Our Cities: Where Cotton Was King Doughty, C.L)

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Industry - The Cotton Inndustry Sir Richard Arckwright and the Cotton Trade The Cotton trade began in England a long time ago, it wasn’t until 3rd June 1757 that the first recorded transaction of cotton dealing in Liverpool in the press appeared. Cotton arrived in Liverpool for up to 50 years previous with other cargo such as coffee and sugar from Jamaica. 6 years later James Hargreaves invented the spinning Jenny to try and keep up with the demand for cotton, it enabled several threads to be spun at once.

James Hargreaves’ Spinning jenny (Webster, NA)

The biggest change came in 1769 when Richard Arkwright patented the water-frame laying one of the cornerstones of the industrial revolution. It provided a ‘strong twist using wooden and metal cylinders, rather than human hands it was the first time inexpensive yarn could be used to manufacture similarly inexpensive calicoes’ (ica-ltd.org), which ultimately led to the expansion of the cotton industry.

Arkwright began his career in Nottingham, where he experimented with the idea of mechanized/ power mills at first he used a horse driven loom and in 1771 he ‘moved to Derbyshire to take advantage of the potential water-power available from the streams and rivers there’ (peakdistrictinformation.com) Cromford was chosen and was the first cotton mill to be built although want until 1793 when the Cromford canal was opened did Arkwright find a cheap and easy way of transporting the raw material and finished goods. By 1840 Arkwright’s mills where out of date and had been overtaken by Lancashire mills

Industrial manufacturing at Cromford Mill didn’t start till 1775 after Arkwright patented a carding machine, it was the carding machine that enabled raw cotton into yarn. It was this machine along with the water-frame that launched mass production of cotton and made Richard Arkwright and his partner a fortune. After Arkwright’s death in 1792 Cromford mill pasted to his son Richard Arkwright Jnr.

Cromford mill (Nicholson, 2012)

Arkwright’s Water-frame (Booth, 2011)

Wool carding machine (Rahr, NA)

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SITE Site Selection The Site for this project is equally important to the other design influences. The site requires many different qualities; some of these have been listed:

There are multiple options available for this type of project a selection of different topographies and typologies will be listed below.

- Location close to growing fields The location of the growing fields is equally as important, local growing ensures job create benefiting the local community and reduces transport cost.

Quarries Another viable option would be to use quarries due to the strict planning laws in the Peak District National Park, could provide security for the factory and growing areas additionally.

- Historical Context The site must have some relevance to the cotton trade in some shape or form, if there is no connection the project could be placed anywhere in the world and wouldn’t be able to make conscious links.

- Transport links Its one thing that the growing fields are close but the site also needs good connections to the out side world for example near main roads or a rail link. -Interesting location The topology of the location needs to be interesting to inspire deign generators and the processes.

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Disused Mills Disused mill provide an instant link to the cotton industry and sustainable power (water) is already there. However original forms and plans constrict them with not too much room for expanding

Disused Estates / Manors Empty estates provide a good opportunity, as many sites local residents would like to see restore/ put to good use. The key for estates is to find a link between a said building and the cotton industry.


Site Samples

Cromford mill (Nicholson, 2012)

An example of an old Cotton mill that could be transformed

Birch Vale Quarry (Reeve, 2005)

Birch Vale Quarry located in the PeakDistrict, Currently being used for landfill

Wingfield Manor (Geograph.org.uk)

Wingfield manor is an example or a derelict building that could be re-inhabited by an industrial process

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Sutton Scarsdale Hall After looking and many different sites across the range mentioned earlier I have chosen Sutton Scarsdale Hall, Chesterfield.

‘Sutton Scarsdale Hall was built in the Baroque style on the site of an existing house between 1724 and 1729 for the fourth Earl of Scarsdale’ (English heritage). Currently a grade 1 listed Georgian manor house, built of mellow sandstone, boasting two spectacular facades to the East and to the North.

The architect was Francis Smith who incorporated the earlier building of around 1469 within his design. The hall was sold in the 19th century when the heirs of the hall could no longer afford to run it. Richard Arkwright junior son of Sir Richard Arkwright brought the industrialist it in 1824.

Richard Arkwright jnr. continued with his fathers business until his father’s death then decided to go into property and development. During his time at Sutton Scarsdale hall he allowed parts of the estate to be used for mining leading to the development of Arkwright town. In 1919 the hall was eventually sold by relatives of the Arkwright family, selling it to assetstrippers the interiors where all taken away for architecture reclaim or saved as some of the finely decorated rooms where exported to America. The house now stands as a roofless shell with the original driveway still intact.

Sutton Scarsdale Hall provides a great location with links to the Arkwright family giving reason to introduce and industry to this site due to mining also happening on the estate. 8

Ground floor plans (paranormalinvestigations.co.uk)

Entrance Hall (wikipedia)


Sutton Scarsdale Hall - Photographs

All photograph’s copyright of Michael Nicholson 2013

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SITE - Location // Maps

CHESTERFIELD

Old coal Chesterfield train A617 main A road to Bolsover colliery located Sutton Scarsdale Hall station chesterfield on old estate A632 main A road to M1 Motorway chesterfield Transportation This map above firstly highlights transport links in the surrounding area of Sutton Scarsdale, its essential that it has close by main roads to allow easy access for HGV bring material to and from the site and 10 for the public to be able to find the site easily.

Glapwell

Arkwright town


NORTH

Second location map: closer detail of existing infastructure of Sutton Scarsdale (former estate) and surrounding landscape

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Product growing fields

HA HA DITCH New access track?

SITE GROUNDS slope gradient average 0.083 per metre

Entrance to site

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SITE MAP SCALE 1:1250

NORTH This map highlight several things

Aerial photos - show different areas of land of interest

Fields - show rapeseed growing could easily grow replacement cotton material Scarsdale hall - highlighted to show a glimpse of deserted shell

Track - could be used to bring HGV’s into site, so local residence will not be affected

Ha ha - ditch used to keep cattle/ dear out, could be used to collect rainwater for manufacturing processes. Land adjacent to hall North to East, potential building site. Gentle slope, drop of 5m over 55-70m stretch

Chesterfield - Not Peak District? Chesterfield is not located within the Peak district; it’s to the East in Derbyshire. The reasons for choosing a site not located in the Peak District came down to 3 justifiable reasons

1. The site chosen has a vast majority of the characteristics identified previously

2. Peak District National Park have strict building regulations, thus in reality building a new industry within the Peak District would not be viable. Also comes down to the growing of the raw product, rape seed for example is banned from being grown in the Peak District so would be more viable to move elsewhere.

3. A Vast majority of Textile mills in this area where built just outside the Peak District National park for example Sir Richard Arkwright’s Cromford Mill located at Matlock. Thus as long as the project has relevance to where it is set than this should not be an issue.

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CONTEMPORARY TECHNOLOGY Project 3:

Contemporary Technology / Research

- INDUSTRY - Modern Textile Industry - Sustainability of Cotton - Cotton Alternative

- HEMP - Hemp and it’s uses - Hemp as a textile

- Hemp Production and products made by this project

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INDUSTRY Mordern Textile Industry WWII was a turning point for the Lancashire cotton industry and the Liverpool cotton market. During the war there was a high demand for cotton in India and China; the mills in Japan and India were meeting this demand; Britain simple couldn’t compete with the cheap labour and products.

Today in the 21st century the textile market has completely changed however it’s still highly competitive. The big change has been seen in the introduction of man made fibers, in 2010 man made fibers were expected to reach 70% of the textile market.

Synthetic fibres have almost taken over the textile market to some degree, although in more recent years natural fibres are starting to come back. Synthetic fibres such as nylon and acrylic are used heavily in the apparel industry, with advantages of being easier to wash, more water resistant and cheaper than natural fibres. The biggest disadvantage of synthetic fibres is that they are not biodegradable.

Geocomposite/ Geotextile uses (Terram.com)

So what does this mean for cotton? One possibility is the opportunity for cotton to branch out into nonwovens. Nonwovens refer to ‘a fabric-like material made from long fibres, bonded together by chemical, Mechanical, heat or solvent treatment’ (wikipedia). Nonwovens play an important part in the textile industry which can be seen in its growth rate of average 4.5%, they predominately have hygiene (bandages etc) and medical (surgical gowns etc) but recently further development has allowed progress into geotextiles. Geotextiles are permeable fabrics which, when used in association with soil, have the ability to separate, filter, reinforce, protect, or drain.

Modern textile factory, China (Burtynsky, 2007)

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Is Cotton Sustainable? Is cotton a sustainable product?

No is the short answer, there are no commodities as polluting as cotton ‘about 10% of all agricultural chemicals used world wide are processed by the cotton sector’ (idhsustainabletrade.com). Cotton has a high maintenance cost, requires pesticides and leaves the soil completely depleted of nutrients so why is such a damaging crop still used today? A lot of research around the cotton plant has taken place yet it still remains the first choice however we are starting to see demand outweighing supply.

‘No other natural fibre has been as an alternative to ‘white gold’ that is cotton’ (camira). Which shows whilst there is still a demand for cotton, the farmers will still produce it. And in today’s society businesses’ seek cheaper alternatives due to the increase of oil prices meaning there looking for cheaper more local alternatives to cotton.

Synthetics have been considered but are not everyone’s first choice; due to cotton t-shirts for example are more comfortable to wear.

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Finding an alternative to cotton is important as cotton and polyester take up to 80% of the textile market. here are some of the energy consumptions.

How much energy is required during the production stage:

Cotton: 8.6 - 9.4 kWh per pound of fibre Polyester (recycled): 13.8 kWh

Polyester (non-recycled): 18.3 kWh


Cotton Alternatives Cotton of the future -clothing companies are on the hunt for an eco-friendly cotton substitue

Key

Conventional Cotton

Conventional Cotton

Cotton...

.Takes up 2.5% of world cultivated land .Accounts for 10% of worlds pestercides . 16% of worlds insecticides

Organic Cotton Bamboo

Cotton require 2.5 Acres of land per ton of fibre

Tencel (eucalyptus leaves)

A pound of conventional cotton needs between 700-2,000 gallons of water per pound of fibre

Industrial Hemp Comparison icons

Energy Land required Consumption

Water consumption

Pesticides

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TENCEL

Bamboo Tencel is a man made fibre, it comes from eucalyptus leaves. .Grows quickly on low-grade land .Requires more energy to harvest than natural fibre .Has a closed-loop manufacturing systems which means nothing is waster

Cotton requires 2.5 Acres per ton of fibre

Cotton : 7002000 gallons of water

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Tencel requires half Acre per ton of fibre

Tencel requires 155 gallons or water per pound of fibre

.Little water .No pesticides required .Requires less nutrients .Can be harvested once a year once fully matured

Cotton requires pesticides

Bamboo doesnt require any pesticides


Organic Cotton

Industrial Hemp

.Grown without synthetic pesticides .Use’s more land than conventional cotton

.Industrial Hemp has been used for centuries .Saliors used it for rope .Requires more energy to harvest than organic cotton .Processing of hemp hasnt changed in over 50 years .Dependant on good weather conditions and low labour cost’s Cotton require 2.5 Acres of land per ton of fibre

Conventioanl Cotton requires 2.5 Acres of land per ton of fibre

Organic cotton requires 3.5 Acres per ton conventional cotton : 700-2,000 gallons of water per pound of fibre

Hemp requires half the amount of land as cotton does

Organic cotton, water needed varies depending where you are in the world.

Hemp requires 1/4 of the water that cotton requires during processing

Cotton energy consumption

Hemp energy consumption

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HEMP Hemp and it’s uses The alternative that is most suited to the U.K is hemp. There is ‘early evidence of hemp being grown and used in Britain can be traced back as far as the Roman times and beyond’ (Jackson, 2008). Hemp rope has been found and dated at 140AD at the Antoine Wall. So what are the advantages to using such a product?

- Due to recent technology developments, processing blast fibres has been made possible. - Textile industry seen a demand for alternative natural fibres - Can be grown in the UK under license - Industrial hemp strains contain little or no THC content, the active chemical to get ‘high’

Hemp can be grown with fewer inputs

- Pesticides are not needed - Smaller area of land needed to grow in comparison with cotton - Longest, strongest and most durable of all natural fibres - Creates a durable, sustainable, flame retardant fabric

Hemp has many different applications some are described below.

Car Manufacturing - Car manufactures substituting polypropylene for hemp in door panels, over 60 years since Ford first proposed the idea of making cars out of hemp. Fibre - Gives a soft, silky and durable thread ideal for the textile industry.

Paper - Quicker growing rate than trees and can be recycled more times than conventional paper.

Plastics - Mix of conventional plastics and hemp produces a strong and durable product, Zelfo is a company that does this.

Feul - Bio-diesel / biomass fuel, as hemp is carbon neutral any CO2 created in its burning is offset by the carbon it absorbs in growing. Concrete / Hempcrete - Locks up more carbon in itself than is released in its production. Insulating effect of plant material means no need for cavity walls. Consumer textile uses - Apparel, diapers, fabrics, handbags, denim, shoes, fine fabrics

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Industrial textile uses - Twine, rope, nets, canvas, tarps, carpets, geotextiles, brake/ clutch lining caulking and argo-fibre composites


Hemp as a Textile Hemp has many advantages of being a textile

-Hemp is stronger, more durable than other natural fibres including linen -Longer lifespan than other natural fibres -Stretches less / holds it shape

-Benefits from being washed, becomes finer and more luxurious with use -Sheds a microscopic layer each time it is washed, eliminating soiling & stains are removed more easily

-The more times hemp clothing is used the softer it gets, wears in not out

Hemp jacket (buygreen.com)

-Hemps superior absorbency, due to its porous nature means its very breathable and dry’s quickly -Hemp has a resistance to UV light meaning it will not fade as quickley as other fibres -Hemp is fully biodegradable and easily recycled

Hemp textiles ( O Ecotextiles)

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Hemp Production - flowchart INDUSTRIAL HEMP Hemp stalks

Hemp seeds Hulling Meat

Food

Shell

Flour

KEY

Harvest

Intermediate processing Further processing 22

Pressing / Crushing Oil

Food

Fuel Paint Personal-care products

Cake

Food Beer Feed

Decorticating Hackling

Primary (line) �ibre Fabric

Insulation Carpeting Paneling

Fibre

Secondary

Cordage

Pulp Recycling additive

Scutching Tow

Hurds

Fibre board Cordage bagging

Fibre board

Compost Paper �iller Absorbant Bedding

Chemical feedstock

Plastics Paint Sealant


Main processes and what they mean

Hemp seed processes

Decorticating

Hulling

Refers to the separation of inner fibers from the external hurd.

The process of removing the outer shell from the seed, keeping the seed intact.

Hackling

A process, where a machine is used to separate the different grades of fibre. Scutching

The separation of the hurd’s from tow.

Pressing / Crushing Refers to pressing the seeds in a oil seed press resulting in two products; oil and hemp cake Note: both of these processes can be done using the same industrial machine.

Process for the production of yarn/ fabric

Additional processes

Silver to rove

Hemp seed cleaning machine

A process where each fibre is drawn out longer and thinner, at each stage more fibres are twisted together and collected on a bobbin.

A machine used to clean the seed before pressed/ hulled.

Spinning machine

Bio-diesel machine Used to convert oil into bio-diesel.

Wet ring spinning produces quality hemp yarn for apparel standard.

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ARCHITECTUAL CONCEPT & STRATAGY Project 3: Architectural Concept & Stratagy/ Project requirements

- Proposal

- Project Requirements

- Manufacturing on Site - Bio-fuel - Hempcrete - Sizes of Machinery

- Concept and Stratagy

- Flexible Space Schedule

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Project Proposal / Brief This overall aim of this project is to reconstitute the Cotton industry in the form of a Hemp production facility located on the site of Sutton Scarsdale Hall. There are two additional ‘sub’ aims within the project

1. To produce an industry where farmers are able to produce a sustainable raw material that will be constantly in demand, thus creating job sustainability and security for local farmers/ community with the idea that this proposal can be in principle reconstituted /designed for other site specific locations creating work in suffering rural/ semi rural areas. 2. Secondly this project aims to tackle the stereotype of factories. The project will aim to act as an exhibition not only for produce (manufactured goods) / sustainable industry but in terms of design as well, to turn away from the stereotype of factories being ‘sheds’, its encouraged that the design be expression whilst also respecting the surrounding landscape.

Hemp being chosen due to the ability to be grown under license and its ability to be grown in the UK weather conditions. Hemp production all over the world is starting to take off due to the limitations with cotton and man-made plastics; it will help the UK in its path to re-establish itself in a sustainable textile industry.

Existing Hall

Development land

Existing driveway / access

Potential fields for growing

Map showing openness / constraints of scheme proposal (not to scale)

The location of the project on the site is not restricted it is able to establish itself within the building or on the surround land. However it must allow visitors to still use the existing heritage hall. Existing driveway must also be retained for access onto the site however additional access may be built to accommodate larger goods vehicles.

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Project Requirements: Requirements:

The list of spaces required for the hemp facility:

. The factory must have two entrances, one for the loading/ unloading of raw material / finished product and another entrance for public access.

External growing space A small example area on site, main growing spaces located in nearby farms

. Transport planning must be carefully considered due to the village surrounding the site on the southwest side; new roads may be introduced.

. The hemp facility must also create several end products such as yarn and hempcrete to become an exhibitional facility of what industrial hemp can produce. . Additional artisan manufacturing shops must also be present within the project to provide another source of job creation and links in with the ‘exhibition’ theme.

. An information centre/ point must also be present within the scheme to give extra knowledge on the estate first and foremost and about industrial hemp. The scale of the factory must also be considered due to the size of the site, and a limitation imposed of 5,000m2 Another key requirement is that two different thermal zones must be used and a floor change of at least 3m

Delivery/loading area Able to dock a lorry/ large trailer

Scutching zone Scutching refers to the mechanical process of separating the fibres from the bark and woody core

Hackling zone The fibre bundles are further refined, they are combed with pinned elements (hackling)

Sliver to rove: preparation system Each fibre is drawn out longer and thinner, additionally at each stage more fibres twisted together. Collected on a bobbin. Spinning zone Wet ring spinning produces quality hemp yarn for clothing standard. Manufacturing zone Small scale production of chosen products.

Artisan manufacturing Allow for small shops where entrepreneur’s can set up small businesses 26

Information point Supplies information to the public about Sutton Scarsdale hall and industrial hemp


Manufacturing on Site The project aims to create several products through the industrial hemp facility. The products chosen are:

Main product - Hemp yarn

Yarn can then be made into apparel either on site or can be transported to apparel factories.

Hemp yarn (cyarn)

Side product - Hemp Oil / Bio-fuel

Hemp oil can be used to make cooking oil/ other oil based products / produce bio-fuel to be used in machinery on site or in vehicles. Side product - Hempcrete

Hemcrete will also be produce/ prepared on site as part of the exhibition side of the project, it shows how versatile product hemp is and produces a relatively low cost building material.

Hemp Bio-fuel

Hempcrete

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Hemp Biofuel In 2008 the European commission and UK government almost but irradiated the biofuel industry, due to new research documents suggesting biofuels could potentially be doing more harm than good. However they left out one crop... HEMP

Hemp is more environmentally friendly to produce than other biofuels such as sugar beat, palm oil and corn etc. It has the ability to be grown in any temperature climate, doesnt require high quality land and leaves the soil in a better condition. Hemp biodiesel has shown a high efficiency of conversion at 97%, another advantage is that it can be used at lower temperatures than any other biodiesel on the market.

“if someone is already growing hemp then they might be able to produce enough fuel to power their whole farm with the oil from the seeds they produce� (Banks, 2010).

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Hemp biodiesel (Brannon, 2011)


Hempcrete / Hemplime Hemp lime Hemp lime is a low-carbon building material with good insulation and robustness. It consists of hemp hurds and lime used more for insulating properties.

Its most commonly used in conjunction with timber frames, but can act as a non-structural walling element for a variety of construction types, including lining masonry walls.

The mix has to dry to reach optimal thermal resistance, but protected by lime binder and a render (or other vapor-permeable external finish. Must not be used below ground level, and must be detailed to avoid rising moisture.

Hemp House-Asheville (hempnews,2011)

Hempcrete

‘House built from hemp have been found to use less energy, create less waste and take less fuel to then conventionally constructed homes’ (Rolf, 2009) Hempcrete is similar to hemp lime, however it also has additional concrete components making it a lot stronger and able to be used for foundations, which claim to be 7 times stronger than those made out of concrete.

Superior strength and flexibility means it’s a great material to use in earthquake-prone areas. A sixth century hemp reinforced bridge in France is testimony to the stone like strength and durability of this material, which has become known as Hempcrete.

Hemp House-Asheville 2 (mindnovelty,2013)

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Sizes of Machinery Hemp yarn production

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Decorticating machine Size: 5000 x 3500 x 1750 mm

Silver to Rove Size: 11436 x 2204 x 2000 mm

Hackling machine Size: 16500 x 4800 x 3000 mm

Spinning (wet spin) Size: 12328 x 1525 x 2230 mm


Hemp seeds

Hemp seed cleaning Size: 3750 x 1650 x 2750 mm

Oil Seed press Size: 1540 x 510 x 680 mm

All photograph on pages 30 and 31, copyright belongs to alibaba.com

Bio diesel

Distilling machines Size: 6000 x 4000 mm

Hempcret production Size: 10000 x 8000 mm + storage 31


Concept and Stratagy The concept and architectural strategy for project 3 aims to design a sustainable Hemp factory on the site of Sutton Scarsdale Hall using the concept of Inconspicuous / Conspicuous landscape.

The concept of Inconspicuous / Conspicuous landscape has been derived from project 1.

Project 1: Aimed to highlight the potential development and dereliction of the Peak district. it used Sheffield city as a precedent and argue what would happen if cities where allowed to be constructed in the Peak District. It also counteracts this argument and tries to show what could happen if developement laws are not relaxed, with the idea of people eventually moving out of the Peak District and the heritage in this area slowly decaing and lost forever. Inconspicuous / conspicuous landscape for this specific site came about after a talk with a local residant, acknowledging the specific characteristics that the residant would like to keep. The resident talked about the views from the existing village across the landscape thus meaning if a structure was to be placed in view of existing dwellings this would undermine this. Additional on the site itself, how the views allow for a grand panorama of the surrounding country side, with views over to Bolsover castle. 32

The concept thus leads to an approach of concealing aspects of the design to hide them from the publics view and this plays respect to the existing grand Sutton Scarsdale Hall, whilst other aspects and landscape will stand out creating the conspicuous element of the concept.

Project 2, ‘cycle station’ at Millers Dale station in the peak district, has also reinforced this approach. Here the project has two main elements a new design element that is connected to the existing structures on the site, the existing structures has subtle new elements added to them to create a connection between all the elements. Its this ‘linking’ elements that are important to the scheme, as through project 2 i have defined for project 3 that the existing building must be kept mainly whole with the factory not being directly located within it. This is to respect the heritage site but also allows the public to enjoy the hall without having to be within a factory where noise pollutants may be of an issue.


Project 1: Inconspicuous / Conspicuous Landscape (Nicholson, 2012) dipicting what the potential out comes of the Peak District could look like with over developement or non at all.

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Project 2 Elevation render, showing new build element of design (Nicholson, 2012)

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Another approach Another design generator has also been based partly on the conversation with the local resident. He mentioned that his children love exploring the old hall and finding things they haven’t seen before.

This coupled with an element of floor tile found in the now missing connection with Saint Mary’s church. From this the scheme will subtly guide people round the scheme, sometimes to dead ends / view points as part of the exploring the site. This design idea links with the hemp factory, as it’s all about discovering and exploring the potential of industrial hemp, additional fits in with inconspicuous / conspicuous landscape as you are exploring your surroundings which bring certain elements of the project to life.

Remains of floor tile ‘exploring site’ (Nicholson, 2012)

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Flexible space schedule First flexible space schedule:

This diagram was the initial though process for the first draft. The diagram shows different processes and how they could possible all relate to each other on the site of Sutton Scarsdale Hall.

It focuses on the main linear formate of the main production process, linear form is natural to a manufacturing system as it helps efficiency and in result productivity.

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Flexible space schedule 2:

This diagram has gone back to the beginning; it looks at an overview comparison of the 3 separate main elements to the scheme. 1. Sutton Scarsdale Hall 2. Hemp Facility

3. Hemp growing fields

An important aspect of this diagram is the understanding of the amount of crop that would be needed to supply even a small facility all the year round and what effect this has on the amount of land needed.

Growing space’s

Hemp facility

Sutton Scarsdale Hall

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Flexible space schedule 3:

This diagram focuses on the relative sizes of each individual process and there machines. This is helpful to understand the spatial sizes and qualities of each area of the hemp facility.

Loading / Unloading

Decorticating, Can be done off site

Scutching / Hackling

Hemp seed cleaning

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Silver to Rove

Oil seed press

Spinning

Biodiesel Hempcrete


Flexible space schedule 4:

Here the diagram is showing how the different areas of the facility can fit and work together. It takes into account the order of the specific manufacturing processes, noticing the hempcrete and biodiesel are opposite each other just after the same where the hemp material is sorted and graded. The grey boxes / routes are a indication as to what areas the general public may be able to go into, and to help with the idea of circulation around the facility.

Key Spinning

Hemp seed cleaning

Oil seed Biodiesel Hempcrete Silver to Rove Decorticating, Scutching / Can be done Hackling press off site

Loading / Unloading

Storage Public access

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Flexible space schedule 5:

This final diagram applies schedule 4 to the existing site map of Sutton Scarsdale hall. Idea is to highlight the potential different locations of the facility within the estates grounds.

Specific location will be determined through further investigations taking into account the overall concept approach. Notice the facility is not intruding too much into the existing building to keep the essences of a inconspicuous landscape.

Already from these forms being expressed an understanding of the formality of the site can start to be seen.

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BUILDING PRECEDENTS Project 3:

Building Precedents / Further Reasearch

- Landscaft Park, Duisberg - Nord - Ruhr Museum

- Celcon factory, Borough Green

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Landscaft Park, Duisberg - Nord Landscaft Park, a former coal and steel production plant which was abandoned 1985, leaving ground severely polluted.

Now a public park designed by Latz and Partner (Peter Latz). Designed in 1991 with an intention that the new park aimed to heal and understand the industrial past, rather than reject it. Biggest problem was polluted soil, Latz decided to leave contaminated soil in place and let it be remediated through phytoremediation (the use of plants to clean soil).

Scuba tank (Nicholson, 2012)

The park has been completely reformed, old gas tanks now being used as a pool for scuba divers, park tours, rock climbing and high wire walking are just some of the activities available on site and even holds concerts.

The park uses the memory of the site as a key strategy, illuminating the park at night by coloured lights, the different colours respond to different activities of the former steel works; for example red - holt areas such as blast furnace or where molten steel could be seen.

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Red Lighting (Nicholson, 2012)

View from blast furnace (Nicholson, 2012)


Converted into gardens (Nicholson, 2012)

Mechanical fan extracts (Nicholson, 2012)

landscafts Park (Nicholson, 2012)

view form blast furnace(Nicholson, 2012)

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Ruhr Museum Ruhr museum at the Zollverian colliery

The processing, storage and distribution of coal have been left behind in this spectacular building, leaving a varied legacy of interesting spaces: huge walls with gargantuan machinery etc. Main aspect of this museum is that it highlights interaction with the old factory; this interaction is evident throughout your exploration of the site. The existing machinery and other industrial elements define the path we take, opening up spaces and merandering through various elements of steel work.

concrete elements in one of the exhibition rooms (Nicholson, 2012)

Within the building the remains of coalbunkers have been kept to great effect, giving an impossing feeling with other parts additionally making you feel enclosed getting a real sense of the factory in its working days.

Similar to Landshaft Park the Ruhr museum also uses lights, but in a different way. The escalators at the entrance of the site are illuminated orange as well as an additional staircase within the main building. They appear to have used lighting to highlight the transitional spaces.

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Old control board (Nicholson, 2012)

View looking down side of stair case (Nicholson, 2012)


Lights used on entrance escalator (Nicholson, 2012)

Entrance view of site (Nicholson, 2012)

Lights in deatil of entrance staircase (Nicholson, 2012)

Interior steel construction (Nicholson, 2012)

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Celcon - Borough Green Celcon is part of the H + H Celcon group, the UK’s largest manufacturer of aircrete products. The company manufactures the market leading range of Celcon blocks.

Its an example of a concrete manufacturing facility, being used as an example of industrial scale factories and how large there footprint is to produce a building material; as on site the project aims to produce hempcrete blocks. This precedent also highlights problems, as when the company applied for planning to expand the plant there were concerns over pollutants in the surrounding landscape.

Celcon 3 (Frank & Bangay 2005)

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Celcon 1 (thisiskent.com, 2012)

Celcon 2 (thisiskent.com, 2012)


Materials The material pallet for this project will have a huge outcome on the final building. The project aims to utilise as many products from hemp as possible, this will be used at least for the rendering on the new facility build. This will provide a huge contrast of the mellow sandstone of the existing hall.

Weathering steel Weathering steel best known as COR-TEN steel, is a part of a group of steel alloys which where developed to eliminate the need for painting and form a stable rust like appearance.

Additionally to this between the existing structure and the new element there has to be a material element that is used in both parts this will allow the two buildings to come together in greater detail. The material proposed for this element will be steel. This is because within Sutton Scarsdale Hall the project aims to utilise part of the existing space inserting a new structure that has been identified to be stand alone due to the moving nature of the existing walls. Using steel here makes it a viable option to use else where in exposed conditions to make the link more visible.

Can Gil footbridge by Alfa Polaries (Dezeen, 2010)

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Bibliograph / References Quotes.

Banks, GB, 2010, Hemp biofuels blazes competition, Available at: http://www.gizmag.com/hemp-biodiesel-dope-biofuel/16852/ [Accessed 11th April 2013] Camira, NA, [Online] Available at: http://camirafabrics.com/blog/are-there-sustainable-alternatives-cotton [Accessed: 3rd Feb 2013]

English-Heritage, NA, [Online] Available at: http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/daysout/properties/sutton-scarsdale-hall/history-and-research/ [Accessed: 9th April 2013] Idhsustainabletrade, NA, [Online] Available at: http://www.idhsustainabletrade.com/cotton [Accessed: 3rd Feb 2013]

Jackson, 2008, Hemp growing in the UK, Available at: http://www.simeonjackson.co.uk/2008/03/11/hemp_uk/ [Accessed 10th April 2013]

National Park Management Plan 2012 – 2017, Section ES4 [Online] Available at: http://www.peakdistrict.gov.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/274298/npmp-summary.pdf [Accessed: 8th April 2013] Peak district Farming, [Online] Available at: http://www.peakdistrictonline.co.uk/peak-district-farming-c2399.html [Accessed: 7th April 2013]

Peak District National Park Management Plan 2012 – 2017 [Online] Available at: http://www.peakdistrict.gov.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/274298/npmp-summary.pdf [Accessed: 8th April 2013] Rolf, BR, 2009, Hempcrete – Hemp building materials – Hemp for houses, Available at: www.hemp.org/news/hempcrete-hemp-building-materials [Accessed: 10th Feb 2013)

Images

Arkwright’s mill at Matlock, Flickr [online] [ Photograph ] Available at: http://farm5.staticflickr.com/4060/4405170534_f465f94086_z.jpg?zz=1 [Accessed: 2nd April 2013] Booth, TB, 2011, Arkwright’s water frame [Drawing] Available at: http://www.belper-research.com/strutts_mills/strutt_history.html [Accessed: 2nd Feb 2013] Brannon, DB, 2011, Biodiesel [Photograph] Available at: http://www.bakedlife.com/2011/05/hemp-bio-diesel-by-david-brannon.html [Accessed: 11th April 2013]

Burtynsky, 2007, Modern textile factory – Chine [Photograph] Available at: http://www.boston.com/ae/theater_arts/articles/2007/01/31/an_uneasy_beauty_through_the_lens_of_stark_reality/?page=full [Accessed: 2nd Feb 2013] Buygreen.com, NA, Hemp Jacket, [Photography] Available at: http://www.buygreen.com/hempcasualsportscoat.aspx [Accessed: 10th April 2013] Cyarn, NA, Hemp Yarn [Photograph] Available at: http://www.cyarn.com/products/spun-yarn/hy1.htm [Accessed: 10th April 2013]

Davies, JW, Hemp biofuel [Photograph] Available at: http://www.hemp.com/2010/10/us-scientists-to-develop-hemp-biofuel/ [Accessed: 10th April 2013]

DeZeen, 2010, Can Gil footbridge [photograph] Available at: http://www.dezeen.com/2010/08/28/can-gili-footbridge-by-alfa-polaris/ [Accessed: 22 April 2013].

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Doughty, C.L.D, Discovering Our Cities: Where Cotton Was King, [Painting] Available at: http://www.lookandlearn.com/history-images/A003171/Discovering-Our-Cities-Where-Cotton-Was-King [Accessed: 2nd April 2013] Frank & Bangay, 2005, Celcon 3 [photograph] Available at: http://bgphotos.wordpress.com/photos-year/2005-mike/borough-green-road/ [Accessed: 14th April 2013]

Geography.org.uk, NA, Wingfield Manor, [Photograph] Available at: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Wingfield_Manor_-_geograph.org.uk_-_6280.jpg [Accessed: 8th April 2013]

Hempnews, 2011, Hemp House-Asheville [Photograph] Available at: http://www.hemp.com/2011/03/hemp_house_ashville_north_carolina_video_on_using_hempcrete/ [Accessed: 11th April 2013]

Jeff Gynane, 2006, Deserted farmhouse, Youlgreave, Peak District National Park [Photography] Available at: http://www.123rf.com/photo_313929_deserted-farmhouse-youlgreave-peak-district-national-park-derbyshire-england-uk-taken-in-january-200.html [Accessed 8th April 2013] Johnson, TJ, 2009, Hempcrete [Photograph] Available at: http://www.apartmenttherapy.com/hempcrete-building-with-hemp-94439 [Accessed: 10th April 2013]

Mindnovalty, 2013, Hemp house-Asheville 2 [Photograph] Available at: http://www.mindnovelty.com/cannabis-hempcrete-being-used-in-latest-green-building-designs/ [Accessed: 11th April 2013] Nicholson, MN, 2012, Inconspicuous / Conspicuous landscape [Drawing] Nicholson, MN, 2012, Project 2 elevation render [Drawing] Nicholson, MN, 2012, ‘exploring site’ [Photograph]

Nicholson, MN, 2012, Cromford water mill [Photograph]

O Ecotextiles, NA, Hemp fabric, [Photograph] Available at: http://www.treehugger.com/sustainable-product-design/11-eco-upholstery-textiles-revolutionizing-the-global-market.html [Accessed: 10th April 2013] Paranormalinvestigators, Ground floor plans, [Drawing] Available at: http://www.paranormalinvestigators.co.uk/investigations/sutton/sutton.htm [Accessed: 2nd Feb 2013]

Rahr, WR, NA, Wool carding machine [Drawing] Available at: http://invention.smithsonian.org/centerpieces/whole_cloth/u2ei/u2materials/eipac3.html [Accessed: 2nd Feb 2013] Reeve, MR, 2005, Birch Vale Quarry, [photograph] Available at: http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/92830 [Accessed: 8th April 2013]

Terram.com, NA, Geocomposite/ Geotextiles [Drawing] Available at: http://www.terram.com/applications/drainage.html [Accessed: 3rd Feb 2013]

Thisiskent, 2012, Celcon 1 [Photograph] Available at: http://www.thisiskent.co.uk/Lorry-park-plan-prompts-traffic-congestion/story-14973640-detail/story.html#axzz2QRQRyxYM [Accessed: 14th April 2013)

Thisiskent, 2012, celcon 2 [Photograph] Available at: http://www.thisiskent.co.uk/Borough-Green-health-fears-plans-recycle-building/story-16895070-detail/story.html#axzz2QRQRyxYM [Accessed: 14th April 2013] Webster, HW, NA, James Hargreaves’ Spinning jenny [Drawing] Available at: http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/79800/79828/79828_jenny.htm [Accessed: 2nd Feb 2013]

Wikipedia, NA, Entrance Hall, [Photograph] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Entrance_hall_Sutton_Scarsdale_Hall_1919.jpg [Accessed: 2nd Feb 2013]

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brief  

project 3 brief

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