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URBANA STORMWATER MANAGEMENT URBANA, IL Fall 2011 - Community design studio Collaboration with CLAIRE SANDERS, University of Illinois The project was broken into two phases. The first phase was an intensive analysis of a 1 mile long by half mile wide section in Urbana, IL. Students were encouraged to analyze aspects that could lead to new and abstract information that couldn’t be mapped. This included several site visits, vigorous inventory recording, and speaking with residents. The target area of the project contained a portion of the University campus, a hospital, areas of retail, both single family and multi-family housing zones, a grade school, a large park, and several religious institutions. Factors and elements recorded included lawn chairs on porches, vacant lots, benches around campus, fast food restaurants, abandoned buildings, and also physical and socioeconomic boundaries/edges. The second phase was to design guidelines and a proposal for a storm water management system for the neighborhoods. In the commercial districts, parking lot runoff was acknowledged by underground storage cisterns that would retain water and slowly filter it into the ground, or store it for later irrigation purposes. Vacant lots could be purchased by the city to be turned into community gardens or pocket parks. Along the busier streets, tree filters could be implemented to allow for water to flow directly into them and off the street. A tax reduction program would encourage residents to install and practice new water saving techniques (such as rain barrels, bioswales, rain gardens, or filter strips) so that water would stay on their property. Further utility tax cuts would be offered for those residents willing to allow water to flow off the street into their yards. The most prominent boundary through the site - the railroad - would be converted into a linear park with pocket parks in adjacent vacant lots. This would serve as a new point of interaction between the north and the south residents, as well as pedestrians from off site.


0’

375’

750’

1500’


SEATING SEATING SEATING

houses with chairs counted: 135 In groups of two, intensive analysis of the site was conducted. While walking down every individual street, our goal was to find an analyze factors that couldn’t be mapped from an aerial view. This analysis led to conclusions based on the type of people who lived in the area, where physical or socioeconomic boundaries existed, and also how people interact with each other in their neighborhood.

street with the most chairs: N. Gregory Street- 64%

houses with chairs counted: 135

street with the most chairs: N. Gregory Street- 64%

Fairview

street with the least chairs: Ellis Street- 16%

W Hill

Goodwin

(9/14)

W Beslin

W Dublin st

Beech St

Tremont St

Eureka St

W Hill

Eads St

The primary measurement taken was on which houses had lawn chairs on their front porch. Because of the University’s location directly south of the sector, the majority of residences immediately adjacent to it were apartments without porches. An apparent boundary through the site was the abandoned rail road track. Those who lived north of it in houses were mainly of poorer families. Those who lived south of it were students. Along the tracks and the main highway were several fast food and commercial destinations. N Ellis Dr

W Beardsley

Matthews Bradley

(4/24)

W Hill

Fairview

(9/14)

Goodwin

Romine

street with the least chairs: Ellis Street- 16%

N

average: 33.7% on each street

W Hill

W Beslin

W Dublin st

Beech St

Eads St

Ellis Dr

Tremont St

Eureka St

Bradley

W Beardsley

Matthews

(4/24)

Romine

0’

average: 33.7% on each street

375’

750’

0’

Lincoln

375’

750’

The seating measurement showed us where the more social residents in the neighborhood were. Lawn chairs often faced the street or other neighbor’s houses, and provided more opportunities for communication between neighbors and passingby pedestrians. Public benches were also measured, however, we noticed not a single person using them. This could be attributed to the views they offered, which were to parking lots or electrical stations. All benches surveyed were located on campus.

Gregory

total number of benches counted - 17

Stoughton

Main

Clark

Springfield

Harvey Lincoln

Gregory

0: number of people using benches

total number of benches counted - 17 0: number of people using benches

Wright

N

135 Wright

Springfield

Stoughton

Certain streets had higher number percentage of houses with chairs. These were often found farther away from vacant lots, which were more nearby houses that we noticed were for sale. Apartments generally had their possessions locked up, N because they had shared yards, whereas it was noticed the houses left their belongings unattended.

0’

375’

0’

135

Main

Clark

Harvey

750’

375’

750’

17 CHAIRS

BENCHES

17 CHAIRS

BENCHES

Interaction between the two communities was mostly around the main street that divided the two. We noticed this through seeing residents from the north walking south in fast food uniforms on their way to work. In the south section, we saw residents walking away from the center with bags of the fast food from those restaurants. Those who walked to work often had much longer travel times than those who walked to get food.


FOR RENT

FOR SALE


N. Lincoln

N. Goodwin

N. Matthews

FAST FOOD RESTAURANTS FAST FOOD RESTAURANTS

N. Harvey

N. Gregory

W. University N

Fairview Ave

N. Lincoln

N. Goodwin

N. Matthews

N. Wright St.

EMPLOYEES’ MILES & COMMUTE FROM WORK

0 mi

.25 mi

.60 mi

1.2 mi

1.5 mi

5min

Employees of Fast Food Chains

N. Gregory

N. Harvey

12 min

W. University

24 min

W Clark St.

Customers of Fast Food Chains

CUSTOMERS’ MILES & TIME FROM FOOD

W Main St. 0 mi

.1 mi

.2 mi

.3 mi

5min 2min 4min 6min

N W Stoughton

Springfield Ave

.75 mi


STORMWATER MANAGEMENT PROPOSAL Railroad strip lined with pocket parks developed from unused spaces. Offers a bike path and an area to interact as a community

Community gardens watered with captured runoff water. Water is stored in cisterns underneath the parking lots.

Revamped parks designed to utilize unused space and maximize potential of fallen rain water. Demonstrates a high profile water management technique.

0’

375’

750’

Commercial buildings contain rain barrels connected to the gutter spouts to store storm water Water retention basin on the north quad of the University. Fills with water that lands on surrounding roofs. Older buildings that aren’t fit to hold green roofs are equipped with rain barrels.

Residential streets are lined with swales or rain gardens. These allow for an efficient flow of storm water.

Cisterns under parking lot store runoff from the hospital and surrounding sites.

1500’

SECTION 1 POCKET PARKS

HOSPITAL/INSTITUTIONAL GREEN ROOFS

SLOPED BACKYARD LAWNS

UNDERGROUND WATER STORAGE RAILROAD RESTORATION


PAVEMENT RUNOFF

Because of the many parking lots found in the sector, different techniques are used to filter the water directly into the ground so as to prevent water from pooling on the pavement. One such practice is curb inlets on streets that divert water into tree planters found in the right of way. This water filters into the ground while also supplying the tree with water. Another technique is draining water in parking lots by sloping the parking stalls towards a gravel bed.

Curb

Water from street is collected in tree filters

Flow of water on street to tree filter Curb inlet

Infiltration of water into ground eliminates connection to storm drain

GRAPHIC BY CLAIRE SANDERS

High rate biofilter

RAILROAD RESTORATION

Along the decommissioned rail road tracks, swales are installed on either side of the right of ways. Wild grasses are grown and trees are planted to create a linear park that further reinforces the edge the rail road represents between the single family housing in the north and the student apartments in the south. However, the park attracts both and serves as a meeting point. A bike path is planned where the train tracks are. Pocket parks extend off of each side to create resting spaces.


PARKING LOT WATER CALCULATIONS

RESIDENTIAL BIOSWALE SECTION GRAPHIC BY CLAIRE SANDERS

Downspouts disconnected from storm drains and redirected to release water onto lawns

Infiltration of water going into ground

Remaining water from roof, lawn and street flows into the bioswale.

Native plantings Curb cut allows water from street to flow into bioswale

Water from street flows into bioswale


GRAPHIC BY CLAIRE SANDERS


Urbana Stormwater Management