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Heartland, Hinterland, + the Cinematic City | by Michael S. Marti Landscapes of persistence, disappearance + reemergence along a North American Corridor.






Fringe Interface


Fringe Television Series


Site History






Cinematic City


Mapping the Experience










Cinematic City


Deconstructing Place


Modge Podge Process






Cinematic City


Landscape Constructs


Intervening in the Fringe






Cinematic City


Landscape Revisited


List of Figures





Acknowledgements Chair:

Nancy Sanders M. Arch Committee:

Gail Naylor Submitted in partial fulfillment of the Requirements for the degree of:

To my mother, father, Mark, + to my #groupthesis I would like to extend a special thanks to my chair, Nancy Sanders, who throughout my architectural education helped to define my understanding and discovery of art and architecture.

Master of Architecture School of Architecture + Community Design College of the Arts University of South Florida



Introduction Heartland:

The part of a region considered essential to the viability and survival of the whole, especially a central land area relatively invulnerable to attack and capable of economic and political self-sufficiency. Hinterland:

The rural countryside residing away from the city, lying behind a coastal region. Hinterland also refers to a region which lies beyond an urban or cultural center.

Heartland, Hinterland, + the Cinematic City: Landscapes of persistence, disappearance + reemergence along a North American Corridor.

Fringe landscapes result when rural and urban conditions interface, creating zones of transition and hybridization. Heartland, Hinterland+ the Cinematic City chronicles three places, Jacksonville, IL, Titusville, FL, and Vancouver, BC, each uniquely separate yet joined with common themes, conditions, and the displacement of identity. The project begins with a series of mappings, tracing dormant notions of place, transition, memory, and artifact. Heartland traces rural vestiges specific to Jacksonville, IL and distinctive to the Midwest farmlands. Hinterland looks at the suburban trajectories of Titusville with respect to nature and NASA. And the Cinematic City looks into the projection of filmic space into Vancouver, specifically where the television series Fringe has shaped the experience and identity of the city. The project identifies each as a fringe landscape to amplifying the contrast between city and rural. Working within each landscape, three humanly scaled artifactual interventions will establish themselves as vehicles for the recovery of place and the restoration of identity.

Cinematic City:

Urban area that is heavily influenced by the presence of the film industry. Perception of the region constantly changes due to the project of cinema onto city fabric


Fringe Interface Fringe : [frinj]. Noun:

1. a decorative border of thread, cord, or the like, usually hanging loosely from a raveled edge or separate strip. 2. anything resembling or suggesting this: a fringe of grass around a swimming pool. 3. an outer edge; margin; periphery: on the fringe of the art world. 4. something regarded as peripheral, marginal, secondary, or extreme in relation to something else: the lunatic fringe of a strong political party. 5. Optics. one of the alternate light and dark bands produced by diffraction or interference. Origin 1325–75; Middle English frenge < Old French ( French frange ) < Vulgar Latin *frimbia, metathetic variant of Late Latin fimbria, Latin fimbriae fringe

The Urban Fringe can be characterized as the transition zone from urban to rural where each conflicts the other. “The changing scene at the edge and the placelessness that goes along with it has become a battleground between efforts to preserve rural land and the relentless forces of urbanization” (Qvistrom). The term fringe first appears in France during the fourteenth century as frenge, meaning thread, strand, or hem. Also derived from the Latin, fringe is used as fimbia, meaning fibers and threads. Fringe as an outer edge; margin; periphery is first recorded in 1952 (Harper). “What results is a hybrid environment, a utilitarian topography, a sustained artifice. This neo-nature has become a picturesque aesthetic, often cherished rural environment where sentimental attitudes inform our visual perception of the landscape become key. Representations of the landscape play an important role in our understanding of our environment “ (Smout and Allen).

Fringe can be described as an outer edge, periphery, or something marginal in relation to a larger whole. These landscapes in the midst of transition are typically disregarded causing the uniqueness of the landscapes to diminish. However these transition zones, “places out of order,” thrive inside the fringe. Much of our cultural heritage begins here. Historically factories and farms occurred in the fringe, where they mediated the transition between city and country. Examples of modern day programs residing in the fringe are motorways, airports, and large out-of-town shopping facilities (fig. 2.1-2.3) where their use depends on large tracts of land, and where their interaction cannot occur inside the traditional sense of city. These programs at times dwarf the fringe, where the relation to the landscape and fringe diminishes and at times goes unnoticed. Despite these programs existing inside it, much of what comprises the fringe is comprised mostly of agricultural, woodland, and agrarian use (fig. 3.1-3.2).

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Fig. 1.1: Jacksonville, IL Rural Fringe

Fig. 1.2: Titusville, FL Suburban Fringe

Fig. 1.3: Vancouver, BC Urban Fringe

Fig. 2.1: Large shopping center in agricultural area.

Fig. 2.2: Interstate interchange.

Fig. 2.3: Airport cut out of farmland.

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Fig. 3.1. Woodland and agriculture landscape.

Fig. 3.2. Heartland prairie landscape.

Fig. 3.3. Farmland

Fringe Air Dates:

2008-2013 Network:

Fox Genre:

Science Fiction Writers:

J.J. Abrams, Alex Kurtzman, + Roberto Orci Origin:

United States Filming Locations:

Vancouver, Toronto, + NYC

TV Series Fringe science is scientific inquiry in an established field of study that departs significantly from mainstream or orthodox theories, and is classified in the “fringes” of a credible mainstream academic discipline. Mainstream scientists typically regarding fringe concepts as highly speculative or even strongly refuted (Dutch). Fringe, a hybrid between the X-files and the Twilight Zone, is the title of an American science fiction television series that follows an FBI investigation team through a series of unexplained events related to a parallel universe. The series begins following the casework of two agents as they explore unexplained incidents and cases that disturb the Boston and New York City areas. Through the “Fringe Division,” these unexplained events are explored through “fringe science,” an FBI investigation technique. Many of these incidents relate to transhumanist science experiments gone askew. As the series develops, it is revealed that Agent Bishop attempts to save the life of his son by traveling to a parallel universe to cure his genetic disease. This initial crossing becomes the epicenter of all ensuing fringe events and singularities which Dr. Bishop spends a lifetime trying to correct. As the frequency of fringe events increases, weakened points in the two realties begin to overlap and deteriorate. Inside this overlap, the Fringe team operates to correct the fabric of the universe and restore order among both realties. The uniqueness of the Fringe series is the manner in which present day, future, and alternate universe are portrayed and represented. Much of the Fringe series is set in Boston and New York City, but after season one, Fringe is completely staged in the city of Vancouver. Fringe’s convincing representation of modern day Boston and New York City allows for a persuasive construction of what appears to be the future evolution of each city and their future and present parallel universe. Fringe’s representation serves as a study in stenciling. Stenciling in Fringe applies iconic architecture into foreign fabric, creating a false sense of place. This exploration of collaging in media helps to understand what elements define an experience. Figure 4.1 composes images from Fringe to understand the method, its experience and how it is communicated through media. This method applies specifically to the Cinematic City’s intervention by utilizing representation techniques in the television series.

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Fig. 4.1: Fringe screen shots overlaid.

Fig 5.1: Fringe screen shot.

Fig 5.2: Fringe screen shot.

â&#x20AC;&#x153;You are looking into a window of another world, an alternate universe just like ours and in each of them there is a version of us.â&#x20AC;? (Abrams).

Fig 5.3: Fringe screen shot.

Cinematic City: Vancouver, BC

Heartland: Jacksonville, IL

Hinterland: Titusville, FL

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Heartland Location:

Jacksonville, Illinois Area:

10.67 sq. miles Population:

19,446 Founded:

1825 Economy:

Agriculture, Industrial

Jacksonville, IL The term heartland first originated from the writings of English geographer H.J. Mackinder in 1904 with the prefix “heart” meaning center or core (Harper). Heartland describes a region that is central in relation to geographical or non-geographical conditions. A “Heartland” holds high significance to a country and culture. The United States typically designates the Midwest as America’s heartland. According to the United States Census Bureau, the Midwest is one of the four U.S. geographic regions comprised of twelve states: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. This region serves as America’s primary manufacturing and agriculture center, while acting as a broad representation of American culture. It is also known to hold fast to traditional American values and is vital to America’s economy and politics. Jacksonville Illinois can be looked at as a prime example of America’s heartland. It is situated between the region’s largest city, Chicago, IL and St. Louis, MO. The city is characterized by treeless open prairies, fertile land, and strong core values which are characteristic to the heartland. Inhabitants of this region have a strong sense of community, responsibility, and idealized American core values: “You talk straight, you work hard, you take care of your own, and you look forward not back” (Cohen). These values are exemplified in Jacksonville through their interweaving within the landscape

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Fig. 6.1: Lindner family farm.

Fig. 6.2: Lindner family farm.

Fig. 6.3: Beecher Hall, Jacksonville, IL first college structure.

Jacksonville, IL has been home to three generations of my family. It has been our family’s escape from the city of St. Louis to country and open prairies of the America’s Midwest. As a child it was a yearly ritual to make the journey from the bustling city life to the calmness of the country. Growing up I experienced what the heartland had to offer for a young child… open fields to play and the feeling of security and safety. Looking back upon those memories of childhood I find myself deeply connected to values of working the land and the sense of independence that the heartland advocates.

Hinterland Location:

Titusville, Florida Area:

34.2 sq. miles Population:

43,761 Founded:

1867 Economy:

Titusville, FL Originating from German, hinterland translates as the land behind a city or port and describes an area with few inhabitants and underdeveloped infrastructure. Hinterland was first used in 1888 by geographer George Chisholm in his Handbook of Commercial Geography as reference to a coastal settlement (Encyclopedia Britannica Inc). The term hinterland is also applied to areas surrounding a city, which are not part of the city itself, but fall under its influence. Hinterland can also refer to the rural territory surrounding an urban area, a remote undeveloped area, it may also occur as an “export hinterland “ with the forelands surrounding the originating port from which goods are exported or an import hinterland with the forelands surrounding the originating port from which goods are received.


Founded in 1867, Titusville, FL is a rich example of an American hinterland due to its geographical and economical conditions. Located on Florida’s Atlantic Coast, 40 miles east of Orlando, Titusville, FL is set between a highly constructed entertainment area (Disney Land) and Florida’s protected coastland. The development of Titusville is highly constricted with much of its surrounding landscape being home to wildlife preserves and national parks (fig. 8.1). This protected landscape is the unlikely home of America’s National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA. In the 1950’s NASA acquired large amounts of land adjacent to Titusville, resulting in the careful protect of the surrounding hinterland (figs. 7.1-7.2). This shifted Titusville economy from citrus cultivation and processing to the aerospace industry as a primary means of sustaining the region. The hinterland in this case applies itself and influences the city of Titusville where normally the relationship would be inverted and Titusville would influence the hinterland. Part of a hinterland’s characteristics is its relationship to a port. In the case of Titusville, its hinterland is related to two ports, the space port and Port Canaveral. Port Canaveral is a traditional port serving as a major gateway to leisure activities in Orlando. The space port at NASA provides a gateway to undiscovered frontiers at the fringes of science but at the core of American consciousness. These ports promote a transgressional journey through the hinterland’s forelands, traveling through its core where the progression from the natural landscape to the man-made is understood. The intervention captures the end point of this journey as a reflection upon the preceding hinterland while also looking forward to the journey beyond the fringe.

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Fig. 7.1: Shuttle landing strip.

Fig. 7.2: Vehicle Assembly Building

Fig. 7.3: Vehicle Assembly Building

I have had an awareness of the natural and historic since a very young age that was fostered just outside of Titusville, FL, at the Cape Canaveral Wildlife Refuge, where I learned to appreciate the natural Florida landscape. Originally my family was brought to the Titusville area due to the NASA Apollo Program. With the end of the Apollo Program my family was transplanted back to St. Louis, MO. With the beginning of the Shuttle Program my family again moved to Titusville, FL to work at NASA and the space industry. The majority of my life has been spent in the shadow of NASA, where I was continually exposed to its ideals and aspirations. My grandmother believed and taught that the education of the natural landscape was just as important as a standard public education. It is with her and Titusvilleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s wildlife refuges that I learned how to interact and impact the natural landscape.

Fig. 7.4: Blackpoint Wildlife Refuge, Titusville, FL.

Cinematic City Location:

Vancouver, BC Area:

44.39 sq. miles Population:

603,502 Founded:

1886 Economy:

Film Industry, Mining, Industrial

Vancouver, BC The “cinematic city” is a city that possesses a picturesque quality continuously developed through filmic form. The relationship between cinema and city is twofold: the city is given a new life through a filmic lens and the cinematic city is given a constant evolving backdrop. Much the nature of cinema comes from the historical development of city fabric (Clark). The city fabric’s nature and architecture must respond well to the moving image to be a cinematic city (Clark). Through cinema the viewer is taken on a constant tour through the streets and cityscape. The viewer becomes acquainted and no longer is a distant stranger. The success of the cinematic city is in the relationship it creates with its participants. Connections and attachments take hold as the viewer gains a vested interest in a place. “’Glasgow is a magnificent city,’ said Thaw.’… Think of Florence, Paris, London, New York. Nobody visiting them for the first time is a stranger, because he’s already visited them in paintings, novels, history books and films. But if a city hasn’t been used by an artist not even the inhabitants live there imaginatively” (Clark).

Vancouver, British Columbia takes on the very essence of a cinematic city. Founded in 1886 along the mouth of the Frasier River, Vancouver has been part of the film industry since the beginning of the 20th century but more recently has taken a larger. Vancouver hosts the production of ten percent of Hollywood’s movies and is North America’s second largest producer of television shows. Factors such as Vancouver being in the same time zone as Los Angeles and British Columbia film tax credits have allowed the film industry to flourish here. The unique city fabric and environment allows for Vancouver to be portrayed as if it were located in a variety of different places. Celebrity-spotting has become such a normal occurrence that Vancouver has been designated “Hollywood North.” Vancouver offers more opportunities to film within the landscape due to its varied topographical conditions. “’Every story is a travel story- a spatial practice.’ Film is the ultimate travel story. Film narratives generated by a place, and often shot on location, transport us to a site. Sometimes, the site itself would move” (Bruno).

Landscape comes into play within American culture’s fascination with country /city oppositions (Clark). Film explores this American fascination by critiquing it through the portrayal of the city’s relationship with the landscape, harmonic or distant. Cities that have a balanced relationship with the natural landscape add another layer in which the cinematic city can build upon. On-site filming in Vancouver disrupts the natural rhythm of the city, creating an imbalance in the landscape. This imbalance poses a challenge in residential life where residents become desensitized. The intervention in this thesis attempts to develop its inhabitants a more harmonious relationship between the cinematic city and its landscape. | 22 |

Fig 9.1: City sidewalk.

Fig 9.2: Vancouver Public Library.

Fig 9.3: Vancouver city view.

On a routine school trip I was under the impression that I was to discover and experience a new city for the very first time, but to my surprise I realized I had subconscious knowledge of this place, a feeling of déjà vu. As I explored the streets of Vancouver I became overwhelmed with the sense I had somehow experienced this place before. To my discovery, previous experience of the television show Fringe was informing my current experience of Vancouver. The combination of a past experience further enriched my present discovery of the city and without that, my experience of Vancouver would have been completely different.

Fig 9.4: Grouse Mountain. “Peak of Vancouver.”

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Mapping sten·cil : [sten-suhl] noun, verb, sten·ciled, sten·cil·ing or ( especially British ) sten·cilled, sten·cil·ling. Noun:

1. a device for applying a pattern, design, words, etc., to a surface, consisting of a thin sheet of cardboard, metal, or other material from which figures or letters have been cut out, a coloring substance, ink, etc., being rubbed, brushed, or pressed over the sheet, passing through the perforations and onto the surface. 2. the letters, designs, etc., produced on a surface by this method. verb (used with object) 3. to mark or paint (a surface) by means of a stencil. 4. to produce (letters, figures, designs, etc.) by means of a stencil. Origin 1375–1425; earlier stanesile, late Middle English stansele to ornament with diverse colors or spangles < Middle French estanceler, derivative of estencele a spark, ornamental spangle < Vulgar Latin *stincilla, metathetic variant of Latin scintilla scintilla

The Architectural Stencil A stencil is a device for applying a pattern, design, or words to a surface or to mark or paint with the use of a stencil, providing a means for explaining elements and conditions that are repetitious. Cai Guo Qiang is an artist that developed his own method of stenciling through his career. He was trained in stage design at the Shanghai Theater Academy and since then has incorporated multiple mediums of art into his work. While living in Japan from 1986-1995, Cai Guo Qiang experimented with the properties and limits of gunpowder in his drawings. In his process (fig. 11.1-11.7) Cai Guo Qiang uses the stencil as the means of control (fig. 11.4). The stencil controls precisely how the gunpowder is shaped and ignited (fig. 11.5-11.6). This process looks into “Eastern philosophy and contemporary social issues as a conceptual basis, each project and event aims to establish an exchange between viewers and the larger universe around them, utilizing a site-specific approach to culture and history” (Cai Guo-Qiang). “When I began playing with gunpowder back in 1984, these were not so clear. With the benefit of hindsight, we can deduce a few reasons why I began and continue to work with this medium. Living just across from the Taiwan Strait, I grew up with the sound of bombardment from both the Nationalists and Communists, so Taiwan was always bombing us, and we were bombing them – it was a part of life.” Cai Guo Qiang

My use of stenciling began when mapping each city, where a new method to map was needed, allowing for the information to be continually layered. The Cai Guo Qiang process helped to focus my approach and view on architectural stenciling, allowing for the control of a particular medium. The architectural stencil uses a method of layering that continuously transforms the preceding layer, focusing the mapping on the experiential aspect of place rather than centering the control on the application of the medium. Cai Guo Qiang defines a stencil as a destructive element that brings about a reconstruction (Guo-Qiang). The architectural stencil looks into reconstructing place through taking past history and layering experience and memory upon the current fabric. This allows for the final mapping to respond layer by layer in a unique fashion rather than in a preconceived manner.

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Fig. 10.1: Firework Book

Fig 10.2: Study for Sunflower

Fig. 10.3: Odyssey, Museum of Fine Arts, Houston

Fig. 10.4: The Universe of People

Fig 11.1

Fig 11.2

Fig 11.3

“For me, above all, no law is the law, no method is the method.” Cai Guo Qiang

Fig 11.4: Cai Guo Qiang using stencils to control the gunpowder’s ignition onto canvas.

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Fig 11.5: Ignition of gunpowder through the stencil.

Fig 11.6: Ignition of gunpowder through the stencil.

Fig 11.7: Final reveal.

Mapping map·ping : [map-ing] noun:

1. a representation, usually on a flat surface, as of the features of an area of the earth or a portion of the heavens, showing them in their respective forms, sizes, and relationships according to some convention of representation. 2. a maplike delineation, representation, or reflection of anything. 3. Mathematics , function. Verb:

4. to represent or delineate on or as if on a map. 5. to sketch or plan (often followed by out ) Origin

1350–1400; Middle English mappe- ( mounde ) < Medieval Latin mappa mundī map of the world; special use of Latin mappa napkin, said to be < Punic

The Experience Mapping with the use of the architectural stencil allowed for the study of fringe conditions within the landscape to begin. I began by layering stencils on top of each other to depict each place while continuing to evolve experience and memory of place (fig. 12.1-12.3). The diagrams build upon the foundation of experience, while the mapping focuses on traces of memory left behind. Conditions that shape the region, space, materiality, and the fringe itself, are mapped in relation to memory and experience. This relation begins to pose the question of what happens in the in-between zone, where memories and experiences overlap. Each mapping focuses on a particular scale that looks into the memory and experience of each location. Figure 12.1 looks at the intimate scale of a family home in Jacksonville, IL, Figure 12.2 looks at the region that defines Titusville, FL and Figure 12.3 studies the city scale in Vancouver, BC. “The roots of architectural understanding lie in our architectural experience: our room, our house, our street, our village, our town, our landscape – we experience them all early on, unconsciously, and we subsequently compare them with the countryside, towns, and houses that we experience later on. The roots of our understanding of architecture lie in our childhood, in our youth; they lie in our biography” (Zumthor).

The progression of time becomes an important factor in the mappings. In each city the progression of time differs in relation to the background and history of each location. Interpreting its meaning in time allows for a clearer understanding of the experience and deeper understanding of the memory. The mapping extends itself beyond the present, into the past, looking at what shapes the place and landscape into its present day form (fig. 12.2). Understanding past conditions and circumstances allows for clarity when looking into the depth of the overlap. In figure 12.1, the overlap contains a fringe condition of its own that affects individuals simultaneously by past and present. This circumstance is found in all three locations where past experiences influence the present. “The intensity of a brief experience, the feeling of being utterly suspended in time, beyond past and future – this belongs to many, perhaps even to all sensations of beauty” (Zumthor)

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Fig. 12.1: Heartland Mapping: Construction of the Lindner family house in Jacksonville, IL.

Fig. 12.2: Hinterland Mapping: Historical construction of Cape Canaveral in relation to Titusville, FL.

Fig 12.3: Cinematic City Mapping: Historical construction of Cape Canaveral in relation to Titusville, FL.

Mapping ret·ro·spect : [re-truh-spekt] noun:

1. directed to the past; contemplative of past situations, events, etc. 2. contemplation of the past; a survey of past time, events, etc. 3. looking or directed backward. 4. to produce (letters, figures, designs, etc.) by means of a stencil. Origin 1595–1605; probably retro- + (pro) spectv

America’s Heartland This retrospective analysis looked specifically into a single family house in Jacksonville, IL that remained in my family for three generations. This mapping aims to develop a logic that reassembles a place through the mapping of the experiences that occur in it. Broken into three diagrams, the mappings build upon each preceding diagram as a means of expressing where memories of place overlap. Stenciling is used in this series as a means of examining where each experience overlaps and to further build upon the memory. Diagram one (fig. 14.1) focuses on the boundaries that control, shape, and bind. These boundaries consist of elements that further define the limits of each experience. Binding elements in architecture and outside of architecture constrain and control experience. Outside elements such as objects and furniture contribute to the definition of experience. Without these defining elements, the experience may possibly change. Diagram two (fig. 14.2) explores the movement of past experiences, where they occurred, and how they interact within new ones. A hierarchy is established where experiences take an importance over others. Primary experiences occur around the hearth of the residence, in this instance the dining room, while supporting experiences occur along the periphery. Diagram three (fig. 14.3) focuses on the relationship of past experiences and their interrelationship. The process of mapping connections led to the discovery of the inability to separate past experiences and occurrences from current and future ones. This discovery helped to identify a physiological fringe where the past is always affecting the present. Time in this section of the Heartland appears to be standing still as if frozen for a generation. Jacksonville, IL has remained the same for decades. As the mapping of the family’s residence progressed the awareness of time’s slower pace heightened. In comparison to the other locations of study Jacksonville is still the same quaint town today as it was when my mother was growing up. In a way this slower progression balances the other two, remaining true to itself and its identity as heartland.

Fig 13.1: Diagram focusing on the bind element’s spatial qualities

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Fig. 14.1: Diagram One. Outside boundaries and conditions that control, shape, and bind the experience.

Fig. 14.2: Diagram Two. Overlap of past and present experience that bind and inform each other.

Fig. 14.3. Diagram Three. Interconnected experience. All revolve around the central hearth of the residence.

Figure 17.1. Retrospect. This set of drawings maps the memory of place and how it defines experience. This single family house contains generationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s worth of memories where they overlap and define new ones. The past and present coexist and together create place.

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Figure 15.1

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Figure 16.1

Figure 17.1. Retrospect. This set of drawings maps the memory of place and how it defines experience. This single family house contains generationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s worth of memories where they overlap and define new ones. The past and present coexist and together create place.

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Mapping con·junc·ture: [kuhn-juhngk-che] noun:

1. a combination of circumstances; a particular state of affairs 2. a critical state of affairs; crisis. 3. conjunction; joining. 4. a combination of events, esp a critical one 5. rare a union; conjunction Origin 1595–1605; conjunct + -ure

America’s Hinterland Mapping the Hinterland studies the conjuncture and combination of circumstances that created Titusville, FL and Cape Canaveral. Historical influences, natural conditions, and the development of NASA are major factors that overlap and shape Titusville into its current state. This mapping explores the relationship between local historical and personal factors and their effect on the understanding of place. Figure 18.1 shows the natural landscape and the journey from Titusville to the Cape. Diagram one (fig. 19.1) focuses on present boundaries existing in the Hinterland. These boundaries over time have shaped the development of Titusville and the surrounding cape. A major element in the organization and progression of the Hinterland is the series of west to east thresholds. These thresholds control the transitions between the built and natural landscape and the public to private realms, through a series of linear progressions. The area lying in between the thresholds is where the Hinterland’s fringe occurs. Diagram two (fig. 19.2) analyzes the historical events that define the Hinterland. The 1879 land survey by Captain J. Francis Lebaron laid out much of Titusville and the surrounding area. Traces of that original survey can still be seen today. Historically the fruit industry acted as one the region’s main exports and influences itself onto the landscape. The diagram focuses on the density of historic and existing groves by highlighting their placement into the landscape. The acquisition of land by NASA has had a severe impact on the landscape and development of Titusville. NASA’s Kennedy Space Center establishes a man-made boundary that clearly defines the public and private realms. Diagram three (fig. 19.3) explores the hinterland’s sense of place through its defining elements and conditions. These conditions and elements are analyzed through my experiences that helped define an understanding of Titusville. As a means of interpreting, the placement of each experience’s location is assigned a value where the higher the value the larger it impacts the overall sense of place. An example of this impact would be NASA’s role, which has in part determined Titusville���s future. (fig 19.3). This primary element is then drawn as the hierarchical piece, supporting the larger whole. Secondary experiential conditions develop around the primary to complete a sense of place and are designated as a smaller scaled element. The beauty in this diagram is the relationship between the primary and secondary experiences/elements. Not one singly defines a sense of place; only through the separation and overlapping of experience can a sense of place emerge.

Fig. 18.1: Natural landscape conditions that create the fringe and Hinterland.

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Time in the hinterland moves continually forward at a normal rate of progression. The uniqueness in Titusville’s progression is the period of time where movement forward abruptly ceases to exist. Instances of interruption occur many times in Titusville’s history, always in conjunction with NASA’s current space program. As a program reaches its terminating point, Titusville is left in an unclear transitional period, where time pauses in anticipation of the next program. With the new introduction of a space program, time resumes and Titusville progresses forward.

Fig. 19.1: Diagram One. Understanding the arrangement of place through natural conditions in the Hinterland.

Fig 19.2: Diagram Two. Mapping the historic conditions and elements that shaped Titusville, FL and the Hinterland.

Fig 19.3: Diagram Three. Hinterland deconstructed through personal experience and local occurrence.

Fig. 21.1 Conjuncture. The combination of circumstances define and contribute to experience that falls within its realm. Circumstance such as the acquisition of NASA and historic fruit industry extend themselves into everyday experiences whose memory would not exist without these influences

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Figure 20.1

Fig. 21.1 Conjuncture. The combination of circumstances define and contribute to experience that falls within its realm. Circumstance such as the acquisition of NASA and historic fruit industry extend themselves into everyday experiences whose memory would not exist without these influences

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Fig. 22.1 This drawing looks into the assembly of place through my memories of Titusville ,FL. Through mapping, values are assigned to experiences which in turn provide a clear understanding of what elements shape a place and its identity.

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Mapping rep·re·sen·ta·tion: [rep-ri-zen-tey-shuhn, -zuhn-] noun:

1. the act of representing. 2. the state of being represented. 3. the expression or designation by some term, character, symbol, or the like. 4. In architecture, representation encompasses personal expression through graphic (e.g. sketches) or plastic (e.g. physical models) means, as well as graphic languages and conventions to represent a building at different scales, using plans, sections and elevations. Origin 1375–1425; late Middle English representacion < Latin repraesentātiōn- (stem of repraesentātiō ), equivalent to repraesentāt ( us ) (past participle of repraesentāre to represent) + -iōn- -ion

Cinematic City The final set in this series concludes by looking into the representation of the cinematic city, specifically Vancouver’s filmic urbanism and its ability to project, shape, and influence the readings of the city. The representation of this influence is a main factor in this series, as it affects the experience of viewing the city from the inside and outside. Figure 23.1 challenges the Fringe series representation of Vancouver and explores New York City’s influence in it. The stencil develops as a means of locating the overlap by transposing sets of experiences on top of each other to discover mutual connections. The moment intersections occur, the stencil identifies them by densifying the moment. Diagram one (fig. 24.1) looks at a journey through the heart of the city. Memories are used as a generator for the representation of the city. Through these experiences, key moments in the city are pulled out to capture the essence and fabric of the city. In diagram two (fig. 24.2), Vancouver is represented as the cinematic city. Here the experience of Vancouver is through the television series that constantly reinvents itself. The mapping begins by looking at where “fringe events” occur in the city in relationship to actual experience in the city. These “fringe events” take place throughout the city where opportunities to film have occurred. On-location filming sites are projected to viewers as a representation of future “NYC” when in reality they are representing modern day Vancouver. With this representation, cinematic elements are also being projected onto the fabric of Vancouver. The diagram uses stenciling as a means of comparing the represented cinematic Vancouver to the actual Vancouver by overlaying the experience in the previous diagram. It becomes clear that these cinematic elements project themselves into reality and, in a sense, become reality. As I experienced Vancouver for the first time I was overcome by the inability to separate my previous experience with the television show Fringe. At times I discovered the representation of Fringe to be false. These false moments in the representation are from projected New York City and Boston elements which cannot live outside the cinematic realm. The fast paced progression of time in Vancouver allows for its continual evolution, and through cinema, its continual critique. This rapid evolution of time incorporates the past to further enrich current experience.

Fig. 23.1: This drawing looks into the projection of New York City into Vancouver’s fabric. The result is a hybrid construction of a “Fringe Event” where the event is the intersection of both the projected and real.

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Diagram three (fig. 24.3) conveys the representation of the experience that Vancouver projects onto itself. As a means of further enriching the experience of tourists and residents, Vancouver implemented “Poetry in Transit” in 1996. In this program, writings from British Columbian poets are displayed on Vancouver’s bus and skytrain systems. Writings are routinely exchanged as a means to constantly promote local artists. Residents and tourist refer to these writings as a means of mapping the date and location of their experience in Vancouver. The diagram focuses on mapping where the potential for these experiences can occur, where one encounter of the writing can occur in multiple areas, and at times progress throughout the city. “What you see is what you get to come home to. Flickering in the night, the city flirts with its own shadow, charms what you see. Is what you’ll get drawn into the front porch lit with someone waiting eagerly, or a darkened for? What you see, is. What you get to come home to flickers in the night “ Poetry in Transit (Shreve).

Fig: 24.1: Diagram One. A journey through iconic Vancouver.

Fig. 24.2: Diagram Two. The Cinematic city in relation to the real. Moments of overlap where the Fringe comes through.

Fig. 24.3: Diagram Three. Poetry in Transit. Authored experiences through Vancouver.

Figure 27.1. This set looks into the representation of place through the mapping of experience and memory. Here place is determined through key moments in memory and where they intersect with supporting elements of reality. These supporting elements help to construct memories in a way that express how the past can project itself upon the present.

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Figure 25.1

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Figure 26.1

Figure 27.1. This set looks into the representation of place through the mapping of experience and memory. Here place is determined through key moments in memory and where they intersect with supporting elements of reality. These supporting elements help to construct memories in a way that express how the past can project itself upon the present.

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Deconstruction de·con·struc·tion: [dee-kuhn-struhk-shuh] verb:

1. to break down into constituent parts; dissect; dismantle. apply the theories of deconstruction to (a text, film, etc) 3. expose or dismantle the existing structure in (a system, organization, etc) Origin: de- + construction modge·podge [moj-poj] noun:

1. the art or technique of decorating something with cut-outs of paper, linoleum, plastic, or other flat material over which varnish or lacquer is applied. verb:

2. to decorate by decoupage 3. to apply or use as decoupage or by decoupage technique

Experience in Terms of Place The deconstruction phase begins by looking deeper into the fringe as a way of understanding what roles the landscape and spatial conditions play within experience. To understand landscape and its impact on experience, a system of measuring key features and conditions developed. Patterns, rhythms, and intervals emerged in each diagram which further develop the fringe conditions in each specific landscape. Measuring reveals the conditions that are site-specific and commonplace in relation to each location. Key thresholds are identified as a means of understanding where the fringe occurs. In each diagram, defining edges of landscape are mapped to show a transition between town and country, which is mediated through the fringe. Graphite is chosen to measure and depict how boundaries transition (figs. 29.1, 29.3, + 29.5). In some instances the transition is loose while at times it is quite severe. In order to capture the essence of place, site-specific photos are layered upon the graphite drawings to focus on key elements in the landscape (figs. 29.2, 29.4, + 29.6). These elements further define and measure boundaries within the landscape. The process of stenciling fully develops in this stage as a method to depict conditions in the landscape (figs. 30.1-30.6). Through the process of “modge podge” the stencil becomes a new method of experiencing each place. The goal here was to create a stencil that remains and becomes part of one piece. To begin, the modge podge bonds the drawing onto canvas. As the paper cures to the canvas, water is sprayed to remove layer after layer of paper until the drawing is again revealed on the final layer (figs. 30.4-30.6). This creates a process of discovery where each stencil reveals a unique print and view of the original drawing and landscape. Through the use of laser cutting and hand cuts, the canvas is deconstructed, becoming a new means of analyzing fringe conditions in the landscape.

Fig. 28.1: Stencil onto Canvas. Beginning Evolution of stencilling process where mapping the experience of place through an abstracted lens.

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Fig 29.1: Measuring the arrangement of the Jacksonville, IL in the natural heartland landscape.

Fig. 29.3: Mapping the historic conditions and natural elements that shaped Titusville, FL and the Hinterland.

Fig 29.5: Looking into the past framing the present. Traces of memory from long ago thriving in a modern day city.

Fig 29.2: Understanding the heartland experience through fabric. Fabric is overlaid into the landscape.

Fig.29.4: Deconstructing place through a comparison of personal memories with the historic conditions and natural landscape of Titusville, FL.

Figure 29.6: Study of past projection onto Vancouverâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s city fabric where the projection helps to define the present.

Fig. 30.1

Fig. 30.2

Fig. 30.3

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Fig. 30.4

Fig. 30.5

Fig. 30.6

Deconstruction core: [kawr, kohr] noun:

1. the central, innermost, or most essential part of anything. 2. the source of an influence, action, force, etc Origin: 1275–1325; 1945–50 for def 11; Middle English; origin uncertain; perhaps < Old French cors body < Latin corpus

America’s Heartland From the beginning, landscape has been a driving factor in defining America’s heartland. Essential to the American way of life, the heartland is vital in supporting not just the local region, but much of America that resides outside it. Its integral relationship with the landscape allows for its role to be studied through the landscape. In Jacksonville, IL, the landscape is a place of livelihood. The dependence on landscape causes the balance between its relation with the built realm to shift, where the built becomes less important as you progress into the landscape (fig. 33.1). This shift compels the viewer to assume that the landscape is the backbone to experience in the heartland region. However, to much surprise, Jacksonville, IL presents a clear distinction between landscape and the built environment. Separation between the built and natural landscape is very clear, where transitioning between the two can be compared to night and day. This explicit threshold creates a distinction where even a visitor can understand the amount of importance each holds. The sections of Jacksonville, IL (figs. 31.1 + 31.2) refer to this transition from the built landscape to the natural, where the built creates a clearly defined edge and boundary. This boundary marks the beginning of the fringe, where the fringe begins to exist as the in-between zone these two worlds create. Out of necessity, the fringe begins to mediate that transition into the heartland landscape. Stenciling on canvas reveals spatial conditions developed around the heartland. The first stenciled canvas (fig. 34.1) focuses on the built environment, where experience and memory are directed inward and away from the landscape. The second set moves through the fringe and out into the natural landscape: a landscape of fields, agriculture, and tractors. The first experience created by this separation differs from the stereotypical view of the heartland and ignores the very essence of it. This rebellion against the traditional sense of the heartland creates an experience defined by boundary, where the built environment becomes a wall to the outside, protecting its interior from what sustains it.

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Fig. 31.1: Section deconstructing the edge condition the fringe created when the natural landscape meets the built edge.. The built edge creates a definite boundary whereby it separates and excludes itself from the surrounding landscape and fringe.

Figure 31.2: Section through Jacksonville focusing on transition from city to landscape. The city rapidly dissipates as the threshold between the built and nature approaches and the fringe begins.

Fig. 33.1: The deconstruction specifically looks at the heartlandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s relationship between the natural and built landscape. Movement is defined within the landscape through man-made boundaries that measure and divide the landscape. These divisions influence the relationship between the parts and occupy the fringe.

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Figure 32.1

Fig. 33.1: The deconstruction specifically looks at the heartlandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s relationship between the natural and built landscape. Movement is defined within the landscape through man-made boundaries that measure and divide the landscape. These divisions influence the relationship between the parts and occupy the fringe.

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Fig. 34.1: The canvas deconstruction investigates how the landscape defines the heartland as a place and how the city defines the landscape. Jacksonville defines the landscape and city as two distinct realms that are connected but have separate identities.

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Deconstruction be·hind : [bih-hahynd] preposition:

1. not keeping up with, later than; after 2. originating, supporting, or promoting 3. on the farther side of; beyond Origin: before 900; Middle English behinde ( n ), Old English behindan; for adv. suffix -an cf. before. See be-, hind1

America’s Hinterland Titusville, FL remains deeply connected within the surrounding hinterland. Their symbiotic relationship allows for the existence and protection of the natural landscape inside the built environment. This relationship creates a unique experience where the mutual experience of both environments comes through. Deconstruction probes the unity developed through the fringe where elements of the natural landscape work in conjunction with the built environment that without each other could not possibly exist (fig. 37.1). This relationship is derived from NASA’s influence and extension into the local area where previously nature was viewed as an edge. NASA’s primary goal is the exploration of the space frontier. In order to complete its mission the space industry resides in a semi-remote area surrounded by large bodies of water. NASA protects this surrounding landscape in order to sustain itself for the future. Overtime this stance on nature has been ingrained into the surrounding hinterland and city of Titusville. The sectional diagrams shown here look into the relationship NASA has created and promoted between the hinterland’s landscape, built environment, and fringe which, in conjunction, define the hinterland’s experience. This relationship develops over time where the diversities in the landscape transform into the experience of place and hinterland. Titusville integrates itself with natural conditions allowing for the thresholds in-between the built and natural, the fringe, to be seamless and go unnoticed (fig. 25.2). This natural flow between the fringe creates a journey that extends itself from the center of the state into the hinterland. The canvas deconstruction (fig. 38.1) looks into the physical connections and local cultural awareness that have been created through the presence of the space industry. These physical connections link the built environment to the natural environment through local infrastructure set in place by NASA. A cultural awareness is ingrained into the experience of the hinterland through its careful protection of natural resources. This inherited awareness is mapped into the fabric of the canvas through local images of its landscape. The interconnected spatial conditions read as one, as the landscape weaves the built realm into the natural. At all points in the hinterland the natural landscape is viewed through the fringe. This view crosses the divide, Indian River Lagoon, and brings the surrounding landscape and NASA facility into Titusville’s fabric. The canvas deconsturction looks into the implications that this creates in the experience, where two separate entities exist, respect, and protect each other in harmony.

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Fig. 35.1: The extension of landscape into the city is illustrated inside the fringe where edge conditions between the two become blurred. This hinterland landscape creates a dependency where the builtâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s role defines the boundary and the fringe.

Fig. 35.2: The integration of the landscape into the built environment becomes apparent in the Titusvilleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s fringe. In these in-between spaces the hinterland comes through, continually connecting back to the natural.

Fig. 37.1: The landscape in the hinterland becomes interconnected by the built. Series of waterways create a disconnect where the fringe occurs and thrives. This drawing deconstructs a portion of the fringe condition where its edges blur into the built and natural landscape.

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Figure 36.1

Fig. 37.1: The landscape in the hinterland becomes interconnected by the built. Series of waterways create a disconnect where the fringe occurs and thrives. This drawing deconstructs a portion of the fringe condition where its edges blur into the built and natural landscape.

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Fig. 38.1: The canvas deconstruction in the hinterland begins by spatially mapping conditions that shaped the landscape into its current state. The combination of man-made structures and interventions in the landscape alter and redefine the fringe. This redefinition is conducted through dredging, altered seawalls, and the encroachment of waterfront development.

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Deconstruction cin·e·ma : [sin-uh-muh] noun:

1. chiefly ( Brit ) a. a place designed for the exhibition of films b. ( as modifier ): a cinema seat 2. the cinema a. the art or business of making films b. films collectively

Origin: 1899, “a movie hall,” from Fr. cinéma, shortened from cinématographe, coined 1890s by Lumiere brothers, who invented it, from Gk. kinema “movement,” from kinein “to move” (see cite). Meaning “movies collectively, especially as an art form” first recorded 1918.

America’s Cinematic City The projection of film onto the city fabric is where the fringe occurs in Vancouver, BC. This projection creates a void between fiction and reality, and the in-between becomes a transition where the viewer becomes transported between the two. This interaction with a wide audience acquaints them with the city of Vancouver but also the projection and construction of film. This projection continually challenges and explores the essence of place and relation to popular culture. As the cinematic explores the fringe, it continually challenges the city’s defining role in its sense of place. The sectional diagrams (fig. 39.1 + 39.2) show how the city forms itself around the natural landscape, allowing for it to become malleable and pliable for the projection of cinematic elements. Vancouver interweaves its built landscape into the natural as film interweaves into the city fabric. This relationship with the topography of the natural landscape creates the opportunity to become the cinematic city that it is today. In this urban environment the fabric becomes the urban landscape, backdrop, and the filmic base layer. The canvas deconstruction looks into the fabric of Vancouver’s Gastown district (fig. 42.1). Historically Vancouver began its development in this portion of the city and traces of that historic development are left as grid collisions and the points where they clash ( fig. 41.1). In these collisions, traces of memories and past experiences exist through the fringe. This highly constructed landscape thrives in these collisions. The collisions are constantly torn in the direction of reality and the construction of place. The canvas reveals where collisions continually influence the present day and where the present city looks back through the fringe into the past. Where this occurs, the fringe comes to life as a combination of both past and present. Like film, the collisions project themselves onto the city fabric, controlling and influencing the movement, form, and experience of the in-between. This dynamic in-between space catches the cinematic eye, where the cinematic city elevates the fringe as it is experienced through the viewer’s subconscious

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Fig. 39.1: In Vancouver, natural topography and urban fabric work together with cinema to produce the fringe. This in-between realm is brought to life primarily through the progressive city of Vancouver but also through natural conditions that shape the city.

Fig. 39.2: Vancouverâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s sectional qualities reveal a relationship between local landscape and cinema. Cinema and landscape project themselves onto the urban fabric, while the city extends itself through its architecture.

Fig. 41.1: The deconstruction canvas shows the present and historic fabric in Vancouverâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s landscape. This fabric has continually evolved to the point where the constructed landscape no longer resembles the natural.

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Fig. 40.1

Fig. 41.1: The deconstruction canvas shows the present and historic fabric in Vancouverâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s landscape. This fabric has continually evolved to the point where the constructed landscape no longer resembles the natural.

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Fig. 42.1: The canvas deconstruction in the cinematic city reveals the voids where projections occur. In these voids, movement through the fringe and encounters with the projected fabric take place. These in-between zones intersect with reality and the projected realm to hybridize the perceived view of Vancouver.

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Figure 43.1: Cinematic City construct. This construct takes fig. 23.1â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s representational projection of New York City on Vancouver and explores the effects of its spatial qualities. Combing these two cities, the construct develops a landscape that integrates itself into the city fabric.

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Fig. 43.2: Hinterland landscape construct. Progression from Titusville, FL through NASA and ending on the Hinterland coast. The landscape defines each piece of the journey through its thresholds in the hinterland.

Fig. 43.3: Heartland landscape construct. Farmland is bounded by Jacksonvilleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s edge. This edge marks the transition between city and country by completely enveloping their borders.

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Intervening in·ter·vene: [in-ter-veen] Verb:

1. to come between disputing people, groups, etc.; intercede; mediate. occur or be between two things. occur or happen between other events or periods: Nothing important intervened between the meetings. 4. (of things) to occur incidentally so as to modify or hinder: interfere with force or a threat of force: to intervene in the affairs of another country. Origin: 1580–90; < Latin intervenīre to come between, equivalent to inter- inter- + venīre to come; see convene

The integration of the Fringe This section discusses three interventions in the fringe. An artifact was chosen from the region’s landscape developing from the region’s values, conditions, and their essence of place. The relationship that each region holds within its fringe is utilized as a driving principal in each design. The fringe conditions shape and set limits for each design, allowing them to exist only in the in-between zone. The location of each intervention is defined by the boundaries created by the fringe, allowing each intervention’s relationship between the built and natural landscapes to resonate. The site models on the right (figs. 44.1-44.3) take a portion of each region’s fringe and reveal the prime issues/core conditions that define the place and its landscape at three different scales. Heartland (fig. 44.1) addresses the most personal human scale; the Hinterland intervention (fig. 44.2) addresses the largest; and the Cinematic City (fig. 44.3) addresses intermediate scale. The Heartland site model depicts a strip of land where the city of Jacksonville, IL transitions into the surrounding farming communities (fig. 44.1). This transition is abrupt where each zone is clearly defined with little overlap in-between. The landscape rapidly digresses from the built realm to agriculture with traces of Jacksonville scattered throughout it. Even through these traces, the Heartland exists on its own in the fringe of farmlands. The Hinterland’s site model depicts the rapidly developing in anticipation of the NASA complex (fig. 44.2). This progression into the natural landscape interacts similarly to the Heartland’s fringe but in a much larger area, stretching from the city to sea. NASA’s space center disrupts the natural progression through the landscape, where if it was left untouched, would end at the Atlantic. This interjection into the landscape is where the intervention occurs. The Cinematic City’s fringe occurs at a much smaller scale in comparison to that of the Heartland and Hinterland. This scale develops from the scale of filming processes where the natural landscape becomes an afterthought. Focus is pushed to the interior where the other sites push the focus to the cities exterior (fig. 44.3). Vancouver’s localized fringe creates an opportunity to speak to the larger impact of cinema while addressing the everyday impact it has on Vancouver’s inhabitants.

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From the top down, fig. 44.1: Heartland, fig. 44.2: Hinterland, and fig. 44.3: Cinematic City. These models compare fringe conditions present in each location, showing the transition from the built landscape into the natural landscape through the fringe. Here the fringe plays a primary role in defining each region.


Fringe as the outside boundary The artifact selected to mediate the heartland’s fringe incorporated elements of the natural landscape and built environment. An issue relevant to life in the Heartland is a need for protection from the elements, specifically tornadoes. The heartland exists in “tornado alley,” a region that is accustomed to severe weather that often spawns tornadoes. Out of necessity, storm shelters have been designed to protect its inhabitants from this phenomenon. Historically, storm shelter typologies range from low lying structures to highly sophisticated structures that become completely integrated into residences and businesses (figs. 45.1 + 45.2). These modern day storm shelters range from stand alone shelters implanted into the landscape offering protection for two to six people to shelters incorporated in the foundation offering protection for ten to twenty. As a child I remember my first encounter with a tornado. It happened on a typical summer day when I was with my family spending the day playing in downtown Jacksonville’s City Park. As we were confronted with the screech of tornado sirens, my siblings and I were ushered into the theaters basement where we waited for the tornado and storm to pass. Luckily, the tornado missed downtown, sparring Jacksonville. This experience always stays in the back of my mind when I return to the heartland, keeping me alert for the approaching storm.

The stand alone shelter typology offers a means of mediating the fringe from the farmland to the residence (fig. 45.3). Typically made of precast concrete with one small door to enter and exit, users sit in silence and, at times, complete darkness with no awareness of the outside realm. Typically a storm shelter is roughly six to seven feet deep. The heartland intervention looks into a deeper condition where there is a stronger connection within the fringe, allowing for it to completely bind the space and allow for a stronger feeling of safety. The storm shelter intervention looked to the fringe as the outside boundary that contains, controls, and shapes what is happening in the interior. Using this fringe condition, the intervention focuses itself inward with glimpses of the outside to bring an awareness of it. These glimpses filter light into the space allowing for an understanding of what is taking place on the other side (fig. 45.3). Inside, the space revolves around the center allowing for its habitants to focus on each other instead of the impending danger. Figure 45.4, a plexi construct, explores each layer of the storm shelter through one foot intervals. It is designed as a plug-in that can be inserted into the fringe as a method of mediating the transition between the field and farmhouse. The placement of the storm shelter is between the farmhouse and field, stitching together these disjointed zones (fig. 45.5). The layout of the shelter promotes the users focus to shift to the inside of the intervention but also to keep an awareness of outside conditions. Figure 45.6 shows the storm shelter and its integration into the landscape. | 92 |

Figure 45.1 + 45.2: Storm shelter typologies. 45.1 shows interior shelter example. 45.2 shows a traditional exterior shelter residing in the landscape.

Figure 45.3: Storm shelter plan and section in the heartland landscape.

Figure 45.4:Storm shelter intervention. Plexi construct. Plan perspective. | 94 |

Figure 45.5: Storm shelter section. Placement of intervention inside the fringe.

Figure 45.6:Storm shelter intervention. Plexi construct. Plan perspective.


Fringe as the gateway and terminus A beacon to the Titusville region since its completion in 1966, the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) was built to facilitate the completion of space craft. At 526 feet tall this NASA’s VAB is the tallest single story structure in the world and is the United States’ tallest building outside an urban area. This structure dwarfs the hinterland’s flat landscape, imposing itself as the most dominate structure in its surrounding environment. The function of the VAB has changed dramatically as the space program evolved, beginning with the Apollo program and ending with the Space Shuttle program. Currently the VAB is in the midst of transition, as the end of government funding forces it to look to private institutions as a means to survive. The VAB’s size creates and symbolism unforeseen opportunities to view the hinterland landscape as a whole, but also places itself in the journey from Florida’s interior to the Atlantic coast The VAB building has always been a landmark in my childhood. Growing up in Titusville, it was always on the periphery of my view. It becomes one with the natural landscape and without it the atmosphere of Titusville and the hinterland would not be the same. As a child, the VAB always stood as a disruption in the landscape that continually griped my imagination. In school it was always an object of comparison and as I grew older I developed an appreciation for its presence in my hometown.

The intervention occurs in the mammoth doorway of the VAB (fig. 46.1) becoming the terminus of the fringe. This gateway opens roughly 400 feet to allow fully assembled space craft to enter and leave the building, and it is situated in the midst of the fringe. The journey through the hinterland ends at the VAB as it becomes a gateway to space. The intervention focuses the individual on the journey through the hinterland’s landscape, beginning in the built environment and transitioning through the natural landscape While inside the gate the individual looks backwards to where they came from, to the historical development of NASA, and the idealized discovery of what lies beyond Earth (fig. 46.3). The program inside the intervention occurs throughout the vertical threshold of the doorway, causing it to be both part of the hinterland landscape and the built realm, fully embracing the fringe condition as a gateway and terminus to the known. The intervention challenges the local vernacular through the VAB and places itself atop the hinterland. This position entitles it to challenge the landscape and to bring vestiges of the fringe into the built form. Figure 46.2 looks at the spatial qualities created inside the VAB doorway. Through the intervention the view of the individual alternates between looking forward at the artifacts of the space quest, and backwards to the memories of their journey through the hinterland. Figures 46.3 and 46.4 explore the progression through the gateway while evoking the journey, creating a sense of overlap. The section (fig. 46.5) shows the suspension of the intervention inside the doorway. The doors remain fully operable to change the role of the landscape. When fully open they allow it to become part of the hinterland landscape and the built but when closed force the it to remain solely in the built realm.

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Fig. 46.1: Section perspective of the Vehicle Assembly Buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s doorway. Hinterland intervention is suspended inside this gateway.

Figure 46.2: VAB intervention plexi construct.

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Figure 46.3: VAB intervention plexi construct.

Figure 46.4: VAB intervention plexi construct.

Figure 46.5: VAB section. Intervention suspended inside the gateway


Fringe as the crossing Filming on-location requires security. Portions of the city are blocked off with temporary fencing as a means of controlling the filming process. This secure environment impinges upon resident life where daily activities are disrupted. This disruption causes residents to find other means of travel through the blocked portions of the city. Controlling the filming environment at times challenges the production crew with added effort to contain the view/shot desired. To do this, portable “green screens” are placed on temporary walls or lifted onto forklifts to block off portions of the city or to allow for cinematic projection. This creates an opportunity where the artifact becomes a part of the projection of cinema back onto the city fabric. Residents in Vancouver have become accustomed to routine disruptions of city life in Vancouver as the cinematic city continues to develop and grow. Through social media like Twitter and Facebook, celebrity spotting has become a new part of life. Residents race to meet stars on location. This new experience developed solely out of the cinematic city and adds a new layer of discovery onto Vancouver.

The proposed intervention aims to mediate the crossing of two dynamic worlds: fiction and reality. The intersection of these two worlds creates a fringe which is far removed from the center, reality. The cinematic city intervention is made to be placed anywhere in the city, wherever a filming location is desired. The intervention developed as a series of green screen panels that, when fully applied, creates a secure environment for filming (fig. 47.1). The integration of green screens into the panels facilitates the projection of cinema onto Vancouver’s fabric. When not in use the panels fold flat and slide away. When pedestrian crossings are needed, panels rotate to create movement between the public and private spheres. These openings create potential interaction with residential life where they can pass through and around the filming location in a controlled manner. These promote local interest which in turn elevates the cinematic city. Through the joining of filming and city life, the navigation of the journey through the fringe becomes clearer and a better understanding of the cinematic develops. This intervention proposes a new experience of where the cinematic and residential realms work in conjunction to continually evolve the fringe. Figure 47.2 shows both stages of the intervention. To the left, the intervention acts as a barrier and to the right it creates a transition between the cinematic and city realm. The section (fig. 47.3) shows the intervention’s ability to be deployed in any part of the city. This allows for it continue with the fictional realm by always defining the boundary on location. When needed, the barrier fully assembled secures the on-site location and provides for a controlled backdrop.

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Fig. 47.1: Section perspective of the Vancouver intervention shows the green screen/barrier in its two stages. Stage one, barrier is rotated ninety degrees allowing for the filming and city environments to blend. Stage two completely separates the two environments allowing for the projection of film to occur.

Figure 47.2. Cinematic City intervention as a barrier and transition.

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Figure 47.3. Section showing intervention deployed in a city park.

Figure 48.1: Intervention in the hinterland landscape | 104 |

Figure 48.2: Intervention in the heartland landscape

Figure 48.3: Intervention in the construction cinematic landscape

When fringe landscapes interface with rural and urban conditions, a transition zone is created that hybridizes the two. Heartland, Hinterland + the Cinematic City examined this overlap developing a set of interventions that explored each distinct place in terms of its memory and fringe. Beginning with mapping, the journey begins through the study of memoryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s role in defining place. Deconstructing experience led to the discovery of landscapeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s impactful role in the fringe. The interventionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s purpose was not to be a complete set of architecture but an experiment of the possibilities that can take place inside the fringe. Heartland proposes the question of what can break the wall that separates farmland from the built, Hinterland asks how can architecture can respond to the natural and man-made environment, and the Cinematic City explores how can the projection of fictional elements define place.

List of Figures Figure 1.1: Satellite aerial -Jacksonville, Illinois

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Figure 1.2: Satellite aerial- Titusville, Florida

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Figure 1.3: Satellite aerial- Vancouver, British Columbia

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Figure 2.1: Shopping complex


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Figure 2.2: Interstate interchange


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Figure 2.3: Rural Airport


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Figure 3.1: Woodland and agriculture landscape <>

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Figure 3.2: Heartland prairie landscape

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Figure 3.3: Farmland<>


Figure 4.1: Fringe Construction. Photoshop collage.

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Figure 5.1: Fringe screen shot

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Figure 5.2: Fringe screen shot

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Figure 5.3: Fringe screen shot

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Figure 6.1: Lindner family farm

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Figure 6.2: Lindner family farm

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Figure 6.3: Jacksonville, IL Beecher Hall. 1829 Figure 7.1: Shuttle landing strip

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Figure 7.2: Vehicle Assembly Building


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Figure 7.3: Vehicle Assembly Building


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Figure 8.1: Blackpoint Wildlife Refuge, Titusville, FL

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Figure 9.1: City sidewalk, Downtown Vancouver, BC

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Figure 9.2: Vancouver Public Library. Fringe headquarters.

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Figure 9.3: Vancouver city view, Vancouver Convention Center.

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Figure 9.4: Grouse Mountain. Photo taken from Coal Harbour.

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Figure 10.1: Cai Guo Qiang “Firework Book.” 1991


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Figure 10.2: Cai Guo Qiang “Study for Sunflower.” 1991


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Figure 10.3: Cai Guo Qiang “Odyssey.” Museum of Fine Arts, Houston 2012 Figure 10.4: Cai Guo Qiang “The Universe of People.” 1992



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Figure 11.1: Cai Guo Qiang process <> Figure 11.2: Cai Guo Qiang process <> Figure 11.3: Cai Guo Qiang process <> Figure 11.4: Cai Guo Qiang stencil <> Figure 11.5: Cai Guo Qiang gunpowder ignition <> Figure 11.6: Cai Guo Qiang gunpowder ignition <> Figure 11.7: Cai Guo Qiang stencil removed after ignition. Canvas reveal. <> Figure 12.1: Heartland Mapping. Graphite on watercolor paper. Figure 12.2: Hinterland Mapping. Graphite and transfer on watercolor paper. Figure 12.3: Cinematic City Mapping. Graphite, transfer, and sticky back on watercolor paper. Figure 13.1: Memoryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s binding spatial qualities. Graphite on watercolor paper. Figure 14.1: Heartland Mapping (Lindner House). Conditions that define boundary. Graphite on watercolor paper. Figure 14.2: Heartland Mapping (Lindner House). Overlap of past and present experience. Graphite on watercolor paper. Figure 14.3: Heartland Mapping (Lindner House). Centrality of experience. Graphite, color pencil, and sticky back on watercolor paper. Figure 15.1: Heartland Mapping (Lindner House). Centrality of experience. Graphite, color pencil, and sticky back on watercolor paper Figure 16.1: Heartland Mapping (Lindner House). Overlap of past and present experience. Graphite on watercolor paper. Figure 17.1: Heartland Mapping (Lindner House). Conditions that define boundary. Graphite on watercolor paper. Figure 18.1: Hinterland natural landscape condition. Transfer on watercolor paper. Figure 19.1: Hinterland Mapping. Arrangement of place. Graphite and transfer on watercolor paper. Figure 19.2: Hinterland Mapping. Historic conditions. Graphite and transfer on watercolor paper. Figure 19.3: Hinterland Mapping. Place defined through experience. Photoshop and transfer on watercolor paper. Figure 20.1: Hinterland Mapping. Arrangement of place. Graphite and transfer on watercolor paper. Figure 21.1: Hinterland Mapping. Historic conditions. Graphite and transfer on watercolor paper. Figure 22.1: Hinterland Mapping. Place defined through experience. Photoshop and transfer on watercolor paper. Figure 23.1: Cinematic City. Exploration of the cinematic landscape. Graphite, transfer, and sticky back on watercolor paper. Figure 24.1: Cinematic City Mapping. Journey through downtown Vancouver, BC. Sticky back and transfer on watercolor paper. Figure 24.2: Cinematic City Mapping. Fringe overlaid on Vancouverâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s fabric. Graphite and transfer on watercolor paper Figure 24.3: Cinematic City Mapping. Poetry in Transit. Transfer on watercolor paper.

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List of Figures Figure 25.1: Cinematic City Mapping. Poetry in Transit. Transfer on watercolor paper.

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Figure 26.1: Cinematic City Mapping. Fringe overlaid on Vancouverâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s fabric. Graphite and transfer on watercolor paper

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Figure 27.1: Cinematic City Mapping. Journey through downtown Vancouver, BC. Sticky back and transfer on watercolor paper.

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Figure 28.1: Canvas Construction. Stenciling process experiment. Modge podge on canvas.

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Figure 29.1: Heartland Deconstruction. Graphite on watercolor paper.

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Figure 29.2: Heartland Deconstruction with memory overlay. Photoshop collage.

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Figure 29.3: Hinterland Deconstruction. Graphite on watercolor paper

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Figure 29.4: Hinterland Deconstruction with memory overlay. Photoshop collage.

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Figure 29.5: Cinematic City Deconstruction. Graphite and sticky back on watercolor paper.

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Figure 29.6: Cinematic City Deconstruction with historic overlay. Photoshop collage.

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Figure 30.1: Stenciling process. Modge podge on canvas.

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Figure 30.1: Stenciling process. Modge podge on canvas.

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Figure 30.1: Stenciling process. Modge podge on canvas.

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Figure 30.1: Stenciling process. Modge podge on canvas.

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Figure 30.1: Stenciling process. Modge podge on canvas.

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Figure 30.#: Stenciling process. Modge podge on canvas.

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Figure 31.1: Heartland Section. Deconstruction of edge. Graphite and color pencil on watercolor paper.

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Figure 31.2: Heartland Section. Transition from the built to the natural. Graphite and color pencil on watercolor paper.

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Figure 32.1: Heartland Deconstruction with memory overlay. Photoshop collage.

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Figure 33.1: Heartland Deconstruction. Measuring defining elements in the landscape. Graphite on watercolor paper

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Figure 34.1: Heartland Canvas Construction. Stencil and modge podged onto canvas. Laser cut.

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Figure 35.1: Hinterland Section. Extension of landscape into the city. Graphite and color pencil on watercolor paper.

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Figure 35.2: Hinterland Section. Integration of landscape into the built environment. Graphite and color pencil on watercolor paper.

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Figure 36.1: Hinterland Deconstruction with memory overlay. Photoshop collage.

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Figure 37.1: Hinterland Deconstruction. Measuring defining elements in the landscape. Graphite on watercolor paper.

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Figure 38.1: Hinterland Canvas Construction. Stencil and modge podged onto canvas. Laser cut.

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Figure 39.1: Cinematic City Section. Natural topography and urban fabric relationship. Graphite and color pencil on watercolor paper.

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Figure 39.2: Cinematic City Section. Natural topography and urban fabric relationship. Graphite and color pencil on watercolor paper.

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Figure 40.1: Cinematic City Deconstruction with memory overlay. Photoshop collage.

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Figure 41.1: Cinematic City Deconstruction. Measuring historical influences on the landscape. Graphite and sticky back on watercolor paper

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Figure 42.1: Cinematic City Canvas Construction. Stencil and modge podged onto canvas. Laser cut.

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Figure 43.1: Cinematic City Landscape Construct. Museum, canvas paper, and basswood.

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Figure 43.2: Hinterland Landscape Construct. Museum,and basswood.

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Figure 43.3: Heartland Landscape Construct. Museum, canvas paper, and basswood.

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Figure 44.1: Heartland Fringe Model. Basswood and masonite.

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Figure 44.2: Hinterland Fringe Model. Basswood and masonite.

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Figure 44.3: Cinematic City Fringe Model. Basswood and masonite.

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Figure 45.1: Modern interior storm shelter. <>

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Figure 45.2: Traditional exterior storm shelter. <>

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Figure 45.3: Storm shelter Intervention Drawdel. Graphite on watercolor paper and canvas.

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Figure 45.4: Heartland Intervention Construct. Plexiglass and sticky back.

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Figure 45.5: Heartland Intervention Section. Photoshop and V-ray.

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Figure 45.6: Heartland Intervention Construct. Plexiglass and sticky back.

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Figure 46.1: Hinterland Intervention Section Perspective. Vehicle Assembly Building. Graphite on watercolor paper.

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Figure 46.2: Hinterland Intervention Construct. Plexiglass and sticky back.

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Figure 46.3: Hinterland Intervention Construct. Plexiglass and sticky back.

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Figure 46.4: Hinterland Intervention Construct. Plexiglass and sticky back.

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Figure 46.5: Hinterland Intervention Section. Photoshop and Autocad.

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Figure 47.1: Cinematic City Perspective. Graphite and sticky back on watercolor paper.

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Figure 47.2: Cinematic City Construct. Plexiglass and sticky back.

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Figure 47.3: Cinematic Intervention Section. Photoshop and V-ray.

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Figure 48.1: Intervention in the Hinterland

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Figure 48.2: Intervention in the Heartland

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Figure 48.3: Intervention in the Cinematic City

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References: Bachelard, Gaston, and M. Jolas. The Poetics of Space. Boston: Beacon, 1994. Print. Bast, Gerald. Undisciplined: The Phenomenon of Space in Art, Architecture and Design = Undiszipliniert : Das Phänomen Raum in Kunst, Architektur Und Design. Wien: Springer, 2009. Print. Berelowitz, Lance. Dream City: Vancouver and the Global Imagination. Vancouver, B.C.: Douglas & McIntyre, 2005. Print. Brunette, Peter, and David Wills. Deconstruction and the Visual Arts: Art, Media, Architecture. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1994. Print. Bruno, Giuliana. Public Intimacy: Architecture and the Visual Arts. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2007. Print. Cai Guo-Qiang. n.d. Website. 15 04 2013. Clarke, David B. The Cinematic City. London: Routledge, 1997. Print. Cohen, Roger. “In America’s heartland, a battle over values.” World Security Network 02 06 2004. Article. Corner, James, and Alex S. MacLean. Taking Measures across the American Landscape. New Haven: Yale UP, 1996. Print. Encyclopedia Britannica Inc. Encyclopedia Britannica. 2013. Website. 25 04 2013. Fringe. Dir. J.J Abrams. Perf. John Noble. 2008-2013. Television Series. Harper, Douglas. Online Etymology Dictionary. 2012. 19 04 2013. < frame=0>. Hushak, Leroy J. “The Urban Demand for Urban-Rural Fringe Land.” Land Economics 51.2 (1975): 112-23. Print. Lefebvre, Martin. Landscape and Film. New York: Routledge, 2006. Print. McQuire, Scott. The Media City: Media, Architecture and Urban Space. Los Angeles, CA: Sage, 2008. Print. Pauli, Lori, Kenneth Baker, Michael Torosian, Mark Haworth-Booth, and Edward Burtynsky. Manufactured Landscapes: The Photographs of Edward Burtynsky. [Ottawa]: National Gallery of Canada in Association with Yale UP, 2003. Print. Qvistrom, Mattias. “Landscapes out of Order: Studying the Inner Urban Fringe beyond the Rural - Urban Divide.” Geografiska Annaler. Series B Human Geography B 89.3 (2007): 269-82. Print. Rattenbury, Kester. This Is Not Architecture: Media Constructions. London: Routledge, 2002. Print. Schwarzer, Mitchell. Zoomscape: Architecture in Motion and Media. New York: Princeton Architectural, 2004. Print. Shreve, Sandy. Landing, In Fine Form. Vancouver: Polestar Books, 2005. Print.

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Smout, Mark, and Laura Allen. Augmented Landscapes. New York: Princeton Architectural, 2007. Print. Vidler, Anthony. Warped Space: Art, Architecture, and Anxiety in Modern Culture. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2000. Print. Weibel, Peter. Der Pavillon Der Medien: Eine Neue Gleichung Zwischen Kunst Und Architektur : Coop Himmelb(l)au (Wolf D. Prix, Helmut Swiczinsky), Peter Kogler, Richard Kriesche, Constanze Ruhm, Peter Sandbichler, Eva Schlegel, Ruth Schnell : Österreichs Beitrag Zur 46. Biennale Di Venezia 1995. Wien: Springer-Verlag, 1995. Print. Zumthor, Peter. Atmospheres: Architectural Environments, Surrounding Objects. Basel: Birkhäuser, 2006. Print. Zumthor, Peter, Maureen Oberli-Turner, and Catherine Schelbert. Thinking Architecture. Basel: Birkhäuser, 2006. Print.

Heartland, Hinterland, + the Cinematic City