GRADUATE WORK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Intro to CAD/CAM: Methods in Digital Fabrication Harvard University Graduate School of Design with John Nastasi - Fall 2011
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Museum of Contemporary Art: Rethikning the White-Cube. Gallery Harvard University Graduate School of Design with Farshid Moussavi - Spring 2011
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Dense + Green: High-Density, Sustainable Housing Solutions Harvard University Graduate School of Design with Thomas Schroepfer - Fall 2010
UNDERGRADUATE WORK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 RISD Nature Lab Extension: The Display Case as Architecture Fifth Year Design Studio with Roco Ceo; University of Miami - Fall 2008
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Open City Studio: Travel Sketches, Ink-on-Mylar Documentation Summer abroad trip to Tokyo with A. Cure and C. Penebad; University of Miami - Summer 2008
The Miami Hotel: A Tropical . .Tower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Fourth Year Design Studio with Roberto Behar; University of Miami - Fall 2007
COMPETITIONS Miami Pier Museum: A Horizontal Monument to Latin American Immigrants . . . . . . . . 42 Independent Design Competition with Antonia Botero - May 2009
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Nordhavnen Sustainable City: Open Ideas Competition Professional Collaboration with Roberto Behar of R & R Studios - August 2008
Tofteg책rds Plads Syd: Open Ideas Competition (PURCHASE . . PRIZE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Professional Collaboration with Roberto Behar of R & R Studios - May 2008
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Mexico City Bicentennial Plaza: Open Ideas Competition Professional Collaboration with Roberto Behar of R & R Studios - November 2007
PROFESSIONAL WORK . . 2. &. 6) . . . . . . . . 66 Workforce Affordable Housing: Seven Housing Projects (Houses Professional Collaboration with Nik Nedev of NC-Office - September-April 2007
Coconut Grove Residence: Creating Tropical Indoor/Outdoor . . Living . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Associate with J. Mikael Kaul Architect Inc. - August 2007-July 2010
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Mousepad Jewelry: Digitally Fabricated Accessories Accessible Rapid Prototyping Partnership with Antonia Botero - September 2011-Present
INTRO TO CAD/CAM: METHODS IN DIGITAL FABRICATION 4ft x 8ft Ceramic Wall Prototype - Academic Research with John Nastasi; Harvard GSD 2011 The goal of this project was to illustrate how complex geometries can be fabricated in ceramics using a production process that re-uses the form-maknig tools in the final wall assembly. In order to achieve 54 unique ceramic tiles that conform to the complex geometry of the wall, high-density foam milled on a CNC router to make “tools” that could then be used to form the raw ceramic extrusions. Once the tiles were fired and ready to be installed, the foam underlays were re-cut on the CNC to fit within the wood frame. The result is an insulated wall assembly that re-uses its form-works as insulation. Digital Project was used to demonstrate the continuous and dynamic work-flow from the design phase to the fabrication phase. By sharing geometries and data within the project, the milled form-works were able to be re-cut with high precision in order to fit back into the wood frame. The applications of this process can be expanded to a larger scale where time and materials are saved by not discarding custom “tools” that are used to create complex geometries, rather, the tools can be post-processed and incorporated in the final product.
This Page: Digital Project (Gehry Technologies) was used in order to share date between the different parts of the project (surface/ceramic tiles, frame and foam) and create a continuous and dynamic work flow model. Any change to any part of the parent geometries would result in the adjustment of the fabrication sheets and models. Opposite: The final assembly on display.
HOTEL DEL PARQUE 93 Bogota, Colombia - Permitting Description
Top Left: The raw ceramic slabs drying on the foam underlays. Bottom Left: One of the eight foam underlays cut on a CNC router using the geometries from the Digital Project model. Bottom Right: The eight foam underlays that are each 2ft x 8ft x 3in took a little under 3.5 hours of milling time.
Top Left: The press-fit birch wood frame under construction. All the joints were tight enough to not require any hardware. Top Right: The wood frame drying; we applied glue to the joints to reinforce the press-fit joints. Bottom: The 4ft x 8ft birch sheets that make up the final wood assembly.
Below: The final glazed and fired ceramic tiles on the foam that will be placed in the frame. Bottom: The first few pieces of foam after being cut and prepared to go into the wood frame.
One: The frame was cut so that no hardware was necessary; the joints are all press-fit and only a small amount of glue was used to reinforce the the assembly.
Two: After the foam underlays were used to form the raw ceramic slabs, they were re-cut with on the CNC to fit the wood frame. This will give them a consistent surface on which the ceramic tiles can be secured as well as provide a layer of insulation from the re-used foam underlays.
Three: The assembly as a complete thermal barrier made from the tools that were used to make the finished surfaces.
Below: Some of the foam pieces that have been inserted into the wood frame. Bottom: The wall assembly under construction.
Four: Once the foam is in the frame, the ceramic panels can then be adhered to the assembly.
The final assembly with the ceramic tiles and the wood frame that holds the post-processed foam underlays.
Left: The rear of the wall assembly with the all the foam in place and some of the ceramic tiles. The front surface converges in the holes and protrudes to the back. Right: The rear of the assembly with all the ceramic tiles in place.
The final assembly has 54 unique ceramic tiles that were adhered to a foam and wood sub-structure.
MUSEUM OF CONTEMPORARY ART: RETHINKING THE WHITE-CUBE GALLERY New York, USA - Academic Research with Farshid Moussavi; Harvard GSD 2011 This project challenges the current condition of the contemporary art museum as a never-ending white cube with little intervention on the part of the architect; especially as it relates to the art that fills the space. Various gallery configurations, lighting conditions and acoustical considerations that are specific to the content of certain art galleries have been studied using photometric modeling software in an effort to give specificity to different galleries. The layout is based on a structural aperiodic ceiling grid that creates spatial and organizational variation by providing a multitude of combinations of acoustic and lighting conditions.
Museum Lobby: The variation of ceiling assemblies gives flexibility and a large amount of atmospheric conditions.
Top: Structural System - The primary structure of the museum is made up of a plywood shear assembly that is CNC cut to enable a level of customization not possible with conventional construction methods. Above: Base Units - To create different conditions in the various galleries, the physical make-up of the shear plywood system changes to accommodate different light, acoustic, height and structural needs of specific art.
Opposite: The art requirements as they relate to light, sound, height, weight, temperature and structure determined the adjacencies and the ceiling characteristics of the galleries. Above: A typical section of one of the base units showing how their aggregation and organization can easily allow the collection of water. Below: Painting Gallery; this is an example where base units that utilize natural light and sound absorption were used to create ideal conditions for 2D paintings.
Media Lab Gallery
Top: The Dream Gallery provides totally artificial and controlled lighting conditions. The ceiling geometries are concealed by a translucent glazing and allow the distribution of an even glow. Above: The Opera Gallery uses the ceiling to create optimal acoustic conditions that reverberate the sound according to the size of the room.
H-GSD 1312The Media Lab Gallery has several differeant ceiling conditions Below: FUNCTION OF TIME that allow the gallery to have exhibitions that range from dark and MICHAEL MAHAL quiet to bright and loud. FINAL REVIEW, MAY 02, 2011 Bottom: Detailed section between the White Cube Gallery, the Black MEDIA GALLERY Box Gallery and the Media Lab Gallery.
GALLERY RENDERINGS 1
DENSE + GREEN: HIGH-DENSITY, SUSTAINABLE HOUSING SOLUTIONS Tanjong Pagar, Singapore - Academic Research with Thomas Schroepfer; Harvard GSD 2010 This proposal for a dense + green tower in Singapore dealt with the issues of density and sustainability by aggregating the hundreds of units in such a way to create individual private terraces while also providing several community-based public areas within the tower that relate directly to amenities on each of the public floors. This is done in conjunction with sustainable faรงade systems and passive cooling techniques that deal directly with the organization of the units, as well as the layers of screens that integrate selected native plants with methods of cooling that require very few mechanical measures in order to create optimum comfort in the building. The screens, composed of two shading and planting systems, create opportunities for individualization amongst the residents, while inherently creating a mosaic of differentiation on the facades of all the towers. The elevated public plaza was lifted off the ground plane in order to create a haven for visitors to interact with native plant and animal species while seeking refuge from the intense sun. The raised platform creates a public space that is easy to access and resembles the system of planted parks and jungle canopies found throughout Singapore.
Above: Illustration of the tropical staircase that is a means of accessing the roof as well as a destination in itself. Right: Diagram of how the circulation works (a)through the block, (b)up the stairs to the roof and (c)within the towers.
View of the main residential tower from the North West
Above: Exterior close-up view; alternating louver and planter facade systems allow inhabitants to choose how they would like to protect their balconies and outdoor spaces from the sun. This ultimately creates a mosaic of colors due to the various types of plants places in the planters. Below: Section of the base cut through the stairs (left) and the roof deck; the roof deck is a planted, raised public platform inhabited by a multitude of native flora to both shield from the sun and educate users on local plant types.
Mechanical units to pull hot air up and out before it enters the units
Mechanical units to pull hot air up and out before it enters the units
Louvers to protect from excessive sun and heat gain
Planters to grow specific plants to provide a cooling zone
Top: The aggregation of units utilizes stacking and rotating in order to create residual space that creates private, outdoor spaces for the inhabitants. Above: Detail sections of the two types of facade systems. On the left, the operable louver system reduces sun and heat-gain. On the right, the planters also reduce the effects of heat and the sun, but also provide an opportunity for planting and customization. Both systems include a combination of minor mechanical cooling and passive cooling strategies that promote cross ventilation horizontally through the units and mechanically bring hot air up and out of the buffer-zone between the facade and the units; these mechanical fans occur about every four floors and reduce the need for airconditioning every unit. Right: Exploded axonometrics illustrating how the two facade systems are attached to the overhangs of the building.
RISD NATURE LAB EXTENSION: THE DISPLAY CASE AS ARCHITECTURE Providence, Rhode Island, USA - Studio Project with Roco Ceo; University of Miami 2008 The extension of the RISD Nature Lab called for artist housing, studio spaces for drawing and storage for the holding of natural specimens. The central hall of the project is reserved for the large and special collections of taxidermal animals. This is also the main circulation space of the building and where students are constantly in contact with the specimens they are drawing. The central hall acts like a large piece of furniture that houses natural artifacts and allows students to live amongst the past. In this way, the Nature Lab becomes part storage case and part museum. The increase in scale of this oversized display case provides students with the unique opportunity to actually inhabit the same space as the animals they are drawing.
Below: Photosphoped photograph of study model within chipboard site model. Opposite: Ground floor plan of RISD Nature Lab extension (above) and projected oblique elevation (below).
Nature Lab and studio volumes pull back from neighboring building to create a public entrance plaza activated by the entrance to the great hall, Nature Lab, studios and visiting artist apartments.
Periodic study niches give students space to draw and read while also having close proximity to the natural specimens.
Vertical museum; doubling as student drawing space and specimen storage
Typical floor plan with open studio space, great hall in the center and visiting artist apartments
Axonometric of great hall; animal specimens float within the space like a large-scale display case
Visiting artist apartments
The great hall functions as circulation but also acts as a vertical museum where students can draw and utilize the large specimen collection
Studio space; the thick wall of the central space opens at moments to allow the natural specimens to enter the studio space and enable students to sketch without leaving the room
Interior walls of the great hall are made of wood to reduce the over-bearing scale and become analogous with a large scale piece of furniture.
Double cavity wall with two materials on either side enhances the tension when walking from the great ahll to the studio spaces
Animal specimens and display cases penetrate the thick wall so they can be seen from within the great hall while circulating up and from the studios, no view of the specimen is lost
Exterior view of the entrance to the RISD Nature Lab
OPEN CITY STUDIO: TRAVEL SKETCHES, INK-ON-MYLAR DOCUMENTATION AND PHOTOS Tokyo, Japan - Summer abroad with Adib Cure and Carie Penabad; University of Miami 2008 During the studio, I also took multiple independent trips to Kanazawa, Fukuoka and Kyoto. I studied, drew and photographed several contemporary buildings including SANAAâ€™s 21st Century Museum and Il Palazzo by Aldo Rossi. Exploring these buildings by drawing, measuring and photographing, I was able to better understand their context within Japanese architecture and culture. The primary focus of the studio was to document an aspect of Japanese culture. I chose to document the Kanda Myojin Shrine in Kanda, Tokyo. The documentation of this shrine exposed an element of complexity in the development of shrine restoration and preservation. Japanese shrines have been restored and rebuilt for centuries through multiple wars and natural disasters. Through these reconstructions, there is still constant evolution: contemporary refurbishing consists of prefabricated concrete members that exactly replicate wood members. This shows that rebuilding ancient and historic monuments does not exclude evolution and reinterpretation parallel to the times.
Photograph of the 21sr Century Museum by SANAA
Above: Measured sketches of the Kanda Myojin Shrine in the Kanda Ward of Tokyo; the shrine was originally built in heavy timbers and has since been rebuilt in lacquered precast concrete that looks exactly like its timber predecessor. Below: Travel sketches of Aldo Rossiâ€™s Hotel Il Palazzo in Fukuoka
Front elevation drawing of the Kanda Myojin Shrine, Tokyo, Japan; ink on mylar 24x36.
THE MIAMI HOTEL: A TROPICAL TOWER Miami, Florida, USA - Studio Project with Roberto Behar; University of Miami 2007 The hotel is part of the waterfront master plan that the University of Miami developed in an effort to generate ideas for better waterfront planning along Miamiâ€™s extensive shore. The covered portico, at the base of the tower, provides shelter, access to the waterfront and organizes the guest and residential entries around the open space it creates. The facade is broken up into single bands of glazing every two floors, in an effort to reduce the scale of the 34 story tower. View of the Miami Hotel seen from Brickell Key looking west
Left: Site plan showing the proposed waterfront development Below Left: Ground floor plan of the Miami Hotel Below Right: Typical floor plan of the hotel
Transverse section of the Miami Hotel looking south
MIAMI PIER MUSEUM: A HORIZONTAL MONUMENT TO LATIN AMERICAN IMMIGRANTS Miami, Florida, USA - Independent competition with Antonia Botero; May 2009 The Miami Pier Museum acts as a lantern for Miami, calling its immigrants to a new life in America while forming a physical link to the past, that commemorates the lives, as well as the journey taken by so many immigrants from Latin America. The design abstracts the lighthouse, found frequently on local coasts, into a horizontal monument that marks Miami Beach historically as a place of refuge for the many immigrants of Latin America. The plan and longitudinal section are organized around the central exhibition space forming a circuit that allows continuous public access to the pier, while also restricting admission to the more private and exclusive parts of the building. The wooden corridor to the south of the museum, separated by a thick fortress-like wall, is emblematic of the journey taken by Latin American immigrants. The relationship between the corridor and the museum illustrates a longing for a new life in America, by providing limited views of the museum. Like the fortresses found in Latin America, the limestone base provides a solid foundation on top of which wooden louvers are placed. The louvers allow indirect light into the exhibition space and transmit a communal beacon of light to the surrounding community like a lantern does to incoming ships.
View of the Miami Pier Museum from the ocean.
Left: View looking South East towards the beach entrance of the museum which also functions as a public meeting area. Below: Site plan of the Miami Pier Museum.
Below: Progression of the transverse section from East to West (left to right) the commemorative corridor is highlighted in red on the right of each section. Middle: Ground floor plan. Bottom: Longitudinal section
NORDHAVNEN SUSTAINABLE CITY: OPEN IDEAS COMPETITION Copenhagen, Denmark - Professional Collaboration with Roberto Behar; R & R Studios 2008 The new design of the city district north of Central Copenhagen is an urban model for Twenty-first Century sustainable urban development and vibrant metropolitan life. I was directly involved in the conception of the plan and responsible for the development of typologies, diagrams, presentation boards and views. The project proposes to organize Nordhaven in a series of water and pedestrian circuits that are populated with green areas and public plazas. The plan for Nordhaven provides multiple alternatives for waterfront living in a sustainable urban, social and economical environment. Designed for 40,000 new inhabitants, the plan also focuses on instigating bicycles and public transit as the sole means of civic and private transportation. The new network of water taxis, electric buses and bicycle provisions set up a civic transit structure, where cars can eventually be alleviated and where life on Nordhaven is completely sustainable.
Below: Aerial view from the South of the Nordhavnen urban proposal Opposite: Proposed plan of Nordhavnen, old Copenhagen is shown in the bottom left corner.
Below Left: Public and semi-public spaces Below: Neighborhoods Bottom Left: Civic spaces and infrastructure Bottom Right: Public transportation
Innerhavnen development showing the connection between the old city center and the new Nordhavnen extension.
Opposite: Nordhavnen typologies and their corresponding neighborhoods. Below: Aerial view showing the green spaces in the Nordhavnen proposal. Bottom: Typical street sections; Pedestrian zone only (left), vehicular zone showing public transit lane (middle) and waterfront street section (right).
Waterfront view at night of Nordhavnen, the Sustainable City.
TOFTEGARDS PLADS SYD: OPEN IDEAS COMPETITION (PURCHASE PRIZE) Copenhagen, Denmark - Professional Collaboration with Roberto Behar; R & R Studios 2008 Toftegards Plads Syd creates a new type of urban space for the people of Copenhagen. It celebrates the Danish culture and highlighting important aspects of everyday life in Valby. The plaza introduces a new urban experience at an architectonic scale that provides the city with a landmark to the place as well as a cultural activator. The square is inserted into its context by shaping the plaza within a new architectural fabric that respects the neighboring historic buildings and responds to existing urban conditions and corridors. The quality of the space is created by directing not only the architecture but also the community into the square. The new elements of the plaza conform to the urban context while also creating a warm and welcoming interior that represents the communityâ€™s new home in Valby. The space not only represents a home for the neighborhood, it also functions as a catalyst for retail and market life. My primary role in the project was developing a plausible design as well as testing the various scales needed to create such a plaza. I was also responsible for the presentation boards and the specific development and drawing of the plan and sections.
View of Toftegards Plads Syd from Toftegards Plads Nord
Left: View of the three towers in Toftegards Plads Syd from the road leading to Downtown Copenhagen looking West. Below: Proposed plan of Toftegards Plads Syd within the context of Valby, a suburb just outside of Downtown Copenhagen.
Left: Plan of Tolftegards Plads Syd Below: View within Toftegards Plads Syd looking North Opposite: Section through Toftegards Plads Syd
Left: View from the south-west looking at the exterior of Toftegards Plads Syd. Below: Rendered view from within Toftegards Plads Syd looking south-east. Opposite: Section through Toftegards Plads Syd
Aerial view of Toftegards Plads Syd looking south
BICENTENNIAL PLAZA: OPEN IDEAS COMPETITION Mexico City D.F., Mexico - Professional Collaboration with Roberto Behar; R & R Studios 2007 The competition called for a plaza and symbol for the Bicentennial of the independence and Centennial of the Revolution. The design merges the pyramid with the plaza in a contemporary interpretation that recalls Mexican history and creates a symbol for the Mexico of the future. The aerial plaza raises the peopleâ€™s civic experience to the sky and celebrates the richness of the Mexican society from within the open pyramid. My role in the project was heavily design based and also focused of drawing development. As the presentation requirements were not extensive, a lot of effort was given to concept development, the study of massing and the projectâ€™s integration to the urban context.
Below: Rendered view of the Open Pyramid looking south Opposite Top: Section through the Open Pyramid looking west. Opposite Bottom: Proposed plan of the Open Pyramid and the immediate urban context with a possible traffic solution and restructuring of the plaza in front.
Right: Exterior view of the rear of the Open Pyramid looking north-east. Below: Urban section showing the relationship between the proposed Bicentennial Plaza and the Zocalo Square in the historic center of Mexico City. Bottom: Urban plan showing the immediate context around the proposed Bicentennial Plaza, the urban intervention and the relationship to the Zocalo Square and its cathedral.
WORKFORCE AFFORDABLE HOUSING: SEVEN HOUSING PROJECTS (HOUSES 2 & 6) Miami, Florida, USA - Professional Collaboration with Nikolay Nedev; NC-Office 2007 The project consists of seven, site specific, affordable houses. The layouts of the houses were efficient and used the site to the advantage of the design. I developed a series of study models in an effort to determine appropriate massing, layouts and circulation. House two consists of two shifted volumes that are contained within the typical massing of a gabled house. The porches and semi-private living spaces encompass the private program and define the shifted volume. The organization of the two units in house six is based on a central axis, adjacent to which are the most private areas. From the street, the house reads as a single story volume because of the large scale entry. Behind this is the most public space in the house: a double height living area. A later development in the project produced a shift between the two units that created a more private entry for the second unit.
Study model of House 6 showing the volume shift that resulted in a more private entrance for the rear tenant.
Left: Exterior view of House 6 Middle: Longitudinal section Bottom: Photographs of study models
Top: Front elevation Middle: Rear elevation Left: Ground floor plan
Above: Exterior rendering of House 2. Right: Study model of House 2 showing the interior partitions and their relationship to the exterior porches. Below: Photograph of House 2 study model.
COCONUT GROVE RESIDENCE: CREATING TROPICAL INDOOR/OUTDOOR LIVING Coconut Grove, Florida, USA - Associate at J. Mikael Kaul Architect Inc.; August 2008 This house follows the ideas of a tropical home where indoor and outdoor spaces become one. The use of transition spaces like porches and tropical courts diminish the contrast between interior and exterior. The central living spaces in the house become an extension of the outdoors through folding glass panels that retract into the walls. The front tropical court and rear porch are both informal gathering areas that double as transit layers between what can become indoor and outdoors spaces by closing the folding panels. The large number of bedrooms all stem from the main living space avoiding a cumbersome network of hallways. Pushing the sleeping quarters of the house away from the main living space also liberates it from private program. This allows an uninterrupted view from the front of the site to the back and brings nature into the living areas of the house. Rending of backyard showing the rear veranda that functions as an indoor/outdoor space opening both onto the interior living room and the exterior backyard.
Left: Diagrams illustrating private space (top), outdoor/indoor gradient (middle) and the main living spaces (bottom). Below: Section through the center of the house cutting throught the veranda (left) the main living room (middle) and the tropical forecourt (right).
Below: Ground floor plan Bottom Left: Construction photo of the rear veranda. Bottom Right: COnstruction photo of the tropical forecourt.
MOUSEPAD JEWELRY: DIGITALLY FABRICATED ACCESSORIES Accessible Rapid Prototyping- Partnership with Antonia Botero; September 2011 The firm was set up to pursue digital fabrication research on a smaller, more accessible scale. The jewelry is produced and sold with almost no overhead cost and custom pieces are just as expensive and accessible as other pieces that are mass produced. We use digital tools (3D printers, laser cutters and CNC mills) and rapid prototyping methods to show that customized digital fabrication is available to designers and consumers alike. We are working with manufacturers to push the envelope of tolerances, composite materials and production efficiencies. So far, we have produced rings, cuffs, cuff links, earrings, pendants and bangles in a multitude of materials: high-grade plastic, alumide (composite aluminum dust and plastic), stainless steel, gold-plated steel, silver, ABS plastic, wood and chip board. Our goal is to have a fully automated process that allows for maximum design time and interaction with the client as well as optimized production and fabrication processes. We try to outsource as little as possible and do everything from packaging, modeling and financing in-house.
One of the original prototypes in ABS plastic; the design is a continuous 2mm circular profile that is swept to make the profile of the Open Flower, one of our signature pieces.
Left: Close-up of two t1 rings in alumide and white high-grade plastic. Below: A series of photos showing the t1 ring in alumide, indigo high-grade plastic and white highgrade plastic and the t2 ring in black high-grade plastic.
Above Right: Close-up of the Open Flower Ring in black high-grade plastic. Right: Photos of the Open Flower Ring; the profile matches a pendant that is sold with the ring. Below: The Chipped Bangle is a single geometry that is sliced at 1/16â€? increments, cut on a laser cutter and glued together. The next step for this piece will be to mill a mahogany bangle with a similar shape.
Left Column: Renderings of high-grade plastic and stainless steel cuff links using Rhino and V-Ray. Right Column: Photographs of the high-grade plastic cuff links in the Open Flower shape as well as the signature mouse profile.
Above Right: Close-ups of the Kathy Ring in red and white high-grade plastic. Right: The Kathy Ringin white and red highgrade plastic as well as stainless steel.
Above: Cut-away rendering of the inside of the cage showing the name “TONI” captive within the ring. Middle: Close-up of the Captive Ring; the 3D printing process allows us to trap objects within the cage of the ring; customers have “captured” their name, an anniversary date or one of our mice within the ring. Left: Photograph of the Captive Ring in red highgrade plastic.