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The numberof Americanswho read for pleasurehas beendropping for decades,and now recentdatashow the lowest levels ever,especiallyamongAmericansages15 to 24. At the same time, readingscoresamongteenagersare dropping.Someliteracy expertsare declaringthe situationa crisis. They warn that with fewer fluent, habitualreaders,America may soonlack not only the skilled workers neededfor an information-basedeconomybut also the informed voters crucial to democracy.Othersdismisssuchviews as alarmist,arguingthe datadon't capturethe large amountof online readingtoday, especiallyby young adults.Technologyexpertsalso note that computersand video may be simply changingthe form of literacy neededtoday,just as the printing pressand typewriter did in agespast.While book readingformed the core of 20thcenturyliteracy, in the 21st centuryliteracy is more likely to meanwriting blogs and instant messagesas well as skimming online video and audio,along with text, to gatherinformation. Literacy: 1. readingand writing - is moving swiftly from paperto the Internet,especiallyfor young people,youngpeopleactually are doing a lot more with text, a lot more making meaning of text." 2. Literacy is changingso fast that young adultsmay not identify themselvesas readersand writers even when they read and write daily 3. The skills and practicesthat online-informationseekersdevelopare indeedrevolutionary comparedto traditionalLiteracy, and they will dominatethe lives of the next generation 4. Most troubling to many is the possibility that today'sstrugglingstudentswill be left further behind as online Literacy,joins traditionalreadingas a vital skill. Today's struggling student: 1. The test-scoregap for traditionalreadingis widening betweentop studentsand struggling students,many of whom are low-income 2. As the online world grows dominant,"it's a huge challenge,becausewe've neverbeenin a position where every month or every year there are new readingand writing skills" that one must acquireto cope with new technologies,suchas understandinghow to use search engineseffectively 3. low-income schoolsand studentsare at a disadvantageonline, The very students"who requirethe most supportand who havethe leastaccessto the Internetat home" arethe leastlikely to learn online-readingstrategiesin classbecausetheir schoolshavefewer resourcesand must spendmore time preppingstrugglingstudentsfor stateachievement tests. Future of Reading: As technologyadvances,few doubt that book and periodicalreadingwill continueto decline.It isn't clear what elsethe shift portends,althoughsomefear it will meana less-informedand reflectivepublic. But for many educators,a top worry is that low-incomeAmericans,already falling behind their peersin traditionalLiteracy, will be further disadvantaged by policies that underminetheir ability to learnthe new Literacy skills demandedby 21st-centurymedia.


'7

Selectinga Topic It is so important that you selecta topic that interests you, and you believe will interest your audience.X'or many students choosing a topic is one of the hardest things to do in this class.You are not the only one who is having trouble selectinga topic. I would suggestthat you start brainstorming possibletopics. It may help if you brainstorm with a friend or family member that knows you well. Start with your interests.What do you like to do? What do you do well? Essentially you are teaching us about something. You are informing us about something-anything. If it is something unique to us or new to us---that will usually interests us. Sometimes when you think something you do or are interested in is "boring" or not very exciting---it may be exciting to your audience.Your brainstorming sessionwill, hopefully, get you a list of possibletopics.

Onceyou havea topics(or list of topics)askyourselfthe followingquestions.

1. Am I interestedin the topic? 2. Will I enjoyresearchingthis topic? 3. Will I enjoytalking aboutthis topic and 4. Sharingmy informationwith my audience? 5. Will my audiencebe interestedin my topic? 6, Am I passionateaboutthis topic? If you can answeryesto all of the abovequestions then you haveselecteda greattopic for you and your audience.


List of Topics Abandoned children

Alzheimer's disease

Abuse of animals

Alternative medicine

Abuse of children

Amusement parks, safety

Abuse of medication

Animal communication

Abuseof spouse

Animal experimentation

Abuse of the elderly

Animal extinction

Academic dishonesty

Animal training

Academic freedom

Anti-theft devicesfor cars

Accidents. aircraft

Antibiotics

Accidents. fraudulent

Antioxidants

Accidents,industrial

Antismokingmovement

Accidents, prevention

Anxiefy attacks

Accidents,sports

Aquariums

Accidents, traffic

Architectural design

Acid rain

Art therapy

Addiction to drugs

Art treasures

Adoption of children

Assassinations

Adoption of wild animals

Assistedsuicide

Advertising

Asteroids

Aerobic exercise

Astronauts

African killer bee

Athletes,nutrition

Age and discrimination

Athletes, psychology

Age and intelligence

Athletes.women

Agricultural pests

Auctions

AIDS

Automobiles, electric

Air bags,automobile

Automobiles, safety

Air pollution

Back pain

Alcohol and drugs

Bald eagle

Alternative fuels

Behavior, compulsive

Alternative imprisonment

Bicycles,commuting


l.l

Exampleof MLA Book Okuda,Michael, andDeniseOkuda.StarTrekChronolosv: TheHistorvof the Future.NewYork:Pocket,1993.

JournalArticle Wilcox,RhondaV. "ShiftingRolesandSynthetic Womenin $tar Trek:TheNextGeneration." $tudiesin PopularCulture13.2(1991):5365.

Book pkuda, Michael,and DeniseOkudq, the Future.lllf ew Yot(il?o_!gt, 19931,

Journal Article gl4llheiieWoinpnt;lnl$f lwiicor, RhondaV.l[i$hirtinginbles,,aind,


Other Citations Citing the Internet Format: Author's lastname,first nameandmiddlenameor initial (if any).Descriptoror "Title of articlein quotationsmarks."Internet.(Datethe articlewasposted,if given.)Available: Intemetaddress.Dateyou accessed the material. Example: Honeycutt,Lee.CommunicationandDesignCourseWeb Site.Intemet.(L997) gn/class1.html, Jan.I 998. Available: http://dcr.rpi.edu/commdesi Find websitesandcite themaccordinsto the MLA Stvle. Find informationaboutsmoking: Find informationaboutdrinkingalcohol: Find informationaboutschoolviolence: Find informationaboutbisfoot: Find informationaboutghost:


LiteraryAllusions- pg 1 A Profusionof Allusions Abraham and lsaac: In Genesis,Abrahamwasaskedby Godto sacrificehis belovedson,Isaac.Abraham madereadyto obey.At the last moment,an angelofthe Lord stayedhis hand.Isaacwas sparedand Abrahamieceivedthe Lord's blessing.This story is sl.rnbolicof man'swillingnessto makethe ultimate sacrificeto demonstratehis faith andtrust in God. It is also symbolicof the ideathat faith shallbe rewarded. Absalom:In Samueltr. AbsalomwasDavid'sfavoritesonwho waskilled in battlewhile attemptingto usurphis father'sthrone.David grieved:"0 my sonAbsalom,my son,my sonAbsalom!"Theword alludes Absalom!Absalomlasthetitle of a to paternalgrief, andto a lost andfaithlessson.William Faulknerused. novel. Achilles: In Greeklegend,Achilleswasthe heroof Homer'sIliad who wasthe modelof valor andbeauty' He slewthe Trojan heroHector but was himself invulnerableto woundsbecausehis motherThetishad held him by the heelanddippedhim in the river Sryx.Laterhe wasslainby Pariswho shotan arrowinto his heel,which hadnot gottettwet. Todaythe term "Achilles'heel"refersto the wlnerablepart of a person's character. Agamemnon:ln Greekmythology,he wastheking who sacrificedhis daughterIphigeniato win the gods' favor for his war againstTroy. Also father of Orestesand Electraandunfaithful husbandof Clytemnestra. Antigone: Daughterof Oedipuswho performedfuneralritesoverher brotherPolynicesin defianceof the gods'authorityandcivil of the choicebetr,veen Creon'sorder.Her storycanbe seenas s5rmbolic authority,or the choicebetweenjusticeandlaw. Armageddonis the locationof the final cosmic Armageddon:In Revelation,which predictsapocalypse, usedin literatureto refer to an apocalyptic is often good The term and evil. battlebetweenthe forcesof climax,or to a time ofjudgment. Atalant.a: In Greekmythology,shewasa huntresswho promisedto marryanymanwho couldoutrunher who threwthreegoldenapplesto distracther assheran. in a footrace.Shewasdefeatedby Hippomenes, Sheis the archetypeof speed,strength,anddaringfoiled by a trick of the intellect. Atlas: In Greekmythology,Atlas was oneof the Titanswho rebelledagainstZeus.As punishmentfor his to for- everhold up the heavenson his shoulder(literally: "hasthe weightof actions,he wascondemned the world on his shoulders"). blind leadingthe blind: "And if the blind leadthe blind, both shallfall into the ditch."In the Bible, from Matthew This particularreference a lack of spiritualenlightenment. blindnessfrequentlyrepresents impliesthat wisdomcannotbe atlainedthroughtheteachingsof the unenlightened. burning bush: In Exodus,Godusedthis deviceto catchMoses'attentionwhenhe wishedto assignhim the tashof bringing the Israelites out of Egypt. Becausethe bushburnsbut is not consumed,this tale is symbolicof initial reluctance,followed by proof of authoritativetruth. The burningbushalsorepresents physicalproof of divinity. by bread alone:In Matthew,Christsaid"Man shallnot live by breadalone,but by everyword. . . of God." ln otherwords,not all humanneedsare met by food; humankindnessis importanttoo. (An exampleis Lear's"O! Reasonnot the need"speech.)Also refersto the ideathat frith canprovidespiritualsustenance. Cain and Abel: In Genesis,Cainmurderedhis brotherAbel out ofjealousy.This becamea theological conflict. reference to innocentblood,andthe archetypalbrother-versus-brother


LiteraryAllusions- Pg2 camel througtr a needle'seye: Jesuscriticizedthe Phariseesfor striving to strainout a gnat,yet being willing to sw-allowa camel.In Matthern'andLuke, he statedthat it would be easierfor a camelto pass throughthe eyeof a needlethan for a rich manto get into heaven. the gift wasa daughterof Priam,king of Troy, who possessed Cassandra:In Greekmythology,Cassandra of prophecybut was fatedby Apollo neverto be believed.As an allusiorLsherepresentsan accuratebut un- heededprophetof doom. castthe first stone:In John,a womancaughtin adulterywasto be publicly stoned.But Jesussaid,"He that is without sin amongyou, let him first casta stoneat her. . . ." This is a warningagainsthypocris.v. this injunctionadvisesus to shareour wealthwith castthy bread upon the waters: From Ecclesiastes, retumed to us. it be that shall thosewho needit and says the new Christianbelievers. conversion of Saul: In Acts, Saul,a Romancitizen,activelypersecuted Saulwasblindedby a "light from heaven"andheardthe wordsof God. While on the roadto Damascus, and "thescales"fell from his eyes.Saulis knownas St.Paul,oneof he baptism later, accepted Threedays the major figuresin the early Christianchurch. fallen crucifixion: The deathof Christon the cross,believedby Christiansto bethe sacrificethat redeemed humankind. Daedalusand Icarus: ln Greekmythology,Daedalus,thegreatarchitect,designedthe labynnththat held captivethe Minotaur of Crete.Imprisonedalong with his sonIcarus,he designedwings of wa:r andfeathers that would allow themto escape.Despitewarningsnot to fly too high, Icarussoaredtoo closeto the sun god Apollo. Thewa:<on his wingsmelted,andhe plungedto his death.It is symbolicof the danger involvedin daringto enter"therealmof the gods."JamesJoyce'sprotagonistStephenDaedalus,in.,4 Portrait of theArtist as a YoungMan, daredto questionthe strictteachingsof his Catholicupbringing. Damoclessword of: A symbolof impendingperil in Greekmythology.Damocleswasseatedat a by a threadoverhis head.This spoiledhis banquetonly to look up to seea swordsuspended sumptuous pleasure.[n modemliteraryusage,the term indicatesimpendingdisaster. friendswho would lay downtheir Damon and Pythias: ln Greekmythology,theseweretwo inseparable livesfor oneanother.Theysymbolizelastingfriendship. Daniel: This biblical herowascastinto ttrelions'dento punishhim for his fidelity to his ChristianGod;he was divinely delivered.Thetale of Daniel in the lions' denis representativeof extremebraveryandundream;thus an allusionto waveringfaith in the face of adversity.Daniel also interpretedNebuchadnezzar's to the handwritingon ability "read uncanny Daniel in literaturemay alsobe interpretedas referringto an thewall." Whenshe David and Bathsheba:In Samuel,David hadan adulterousrelationshipwith Bathsheba. Bathsheba David and he was killed. into where husband" battle, pregnant, David her Uriah, sent became gave Solomon. later birth to Bathsheba married. The child conceivedduringtheir affair died,but David and Goliath: As a youngman,David slewthe "giant"(5 feet 9 inches)Philistinechampion, Goliath.Thebattleandvictory becomesymbolicof thejust defeatingthe unjust,despitethe latter'ssuperior strength.Modernexample:"Jackandthe Beanstalk." Dionysusor Bacchus:GreekandRomanname,respectively,of the god of wine,revelry,thepowerof nature,fertility, and emotionalecstasy.He is usuallythoughtof in termsof overuseor excess.Ancient dramafestivalswere dedicatedto him. Todayhe is representativeof the Nietzscheanphilosophy,the principle.Modemexample: the movie^4nimal H ouse. creative-intuitive


LiteraryAllusions- Pg3 divide the sheepfrom the goats:This phraserefersto the biblical parableexplainingthetime of judgment,whenthe fuithful (goodand saved)would be separatedfromthe unfaithful (condemned).It utt td.s to the division of the true from the false,the worthy from the unworthy. the eyefor an eye:In Leviticus,thepassage"Breachfor breach,eyefor eye,toothfor tooth" recommends a killing piacticeof exactingspecificand equalpunishmentfor a transgressionor rnj.try; for example, murdererfor his crimeof killing another.(Ihis waslaterrevisedin Matthew:" . . . whoevershallsmite theeon thy right cheehturn to him the otheralso.") the endof the world, ttrefinal struggle four horsemenof the apocalypse:In Revelation,Johnprophesies powerful horsemenastheultimate betweengoodandevil. He usesthe metaphorof four enormously destructiveforcesof divine retribution:war, death,plague,andfamine.ln literature,the four horsemen remainsymbolicof powerfuldestructiveforces. wherethe agonyandbetrayalof Jesustook gardenof Gethsemane:This is the gardenoutsideJerusalem place.Symbolically,it is a placeof greatphysicalor psychologicalsuffering. a good mutualhatredbetweenJewsand Samaritans, goodSamaritan:In spiteof a long-standing prototlpe of a the becoming thereby thieves, by had waylaid help Jew who been to a stopped Samaritan in need. help a stanger to stops mean who anyone goodneighbor.Theterm hascometo Grail or Holy Grail: Subjectof multiplelegends,mostprominentlyasthe chaliceor cupthat caughtthe bloodfrom Christ'ssideandwhich he hadusedat the Last Supper;probablyof evenmoreancientorigin as a fertility symbol.In Arthurianlegend,it is the objectof a queston the partsof the Knightsof the Round to thosewho hold it andmaybe foundonly by the pure Table.TheHoly Grail bringshealthandsustenance IndianaJones,Monty Python. of heart.Modernexamples: heapcoalsof fire: In Proverbs,it is saidthat if you treatyour enemywith kindness,it will stinghim as thoughyou had "heap[ed]coalsof fire" uponhim. Teachesa lessonin mercyandcautions"be kind to your gnemy." Herod: King of the Jewswho ruledJudeaat thetime of Jesus'birth. In orderto assurehis reign,he is malechildrenbornwithin a yearof Christ'sbirth. ("To of Bethlehem's reputedto haveorderedthe massacre authorHerod"is to surpassthe evil of the worsttyrant.) househas many mansions:In John,ChristassuredPeterthat his father'shouse(i.e.,heaven)hasmany mansions..In otherwords,thereis room in heavenfor all who believe. Iphigenia: In Greekmlthology shewasthe eldestchild of AgamemnonandClltemnestra.Shewas sacrificedby her fatherin exchangefor a guaranteeof fair winds for the Greekfleet on its way to Troy. (Compareto AbrahamandIsaac.) Isaac:In Genesis,Isaac'ssonJacobwasa recipientof the promiseor covenantwith God. Jacob:The biblicalpatriarchwhosetwelve sonswerethe foundersof thetwelvetribesof Israel;his name was later changedto Israel. Jacoband Esau:In Genesis,JacobandEsauwerethetwin sonsof IsaacandRebekah.Esau,r,vhowas born firs! was strongerthan his brother,but lacob wasthe more cleverof the two. EsausoldJacobhis birthright in a momentof weakness;later, tlrough artfirl manipulation,Jacobreceivedhis fathels blessing, originally meantfor Esau.A literary referenceto the pair may alludeto discordbetweensiblings,to the politics of the birthright, or to the idea of the fortunateor favoredson.


LiteraryAllusions- Pg4 Jacob's ladder: In Genesis,Jacobdreamedof a ladderfrom Earth to heavenandheardthe voice of God He awoketo placethe stoneon which he hadbeensleepingas promiseland and favor to his descendants. ihe first stoneof a futuretempleof God. The ladderis symbolicof the pathto God andto heaven.The to the PromisedLandandto the covenantwith the "chosenpeople." dreamalsocontainsreferences Jephthah,s daughter: In Judges,this is the story of anotherfather'ssacrificeof a daughterto keepa vow. fepntnanvowedio sacrificewhateverliving creatureemergedfirst from his housein returnfor victory over tfre Ammonites.His daughter,who wasthe first to leavethe house,would not let him breakhis vow but askedfor two months'respiteto walk the mountainsand mournher virginity-which sheretained.Sheis the modelfor laterChristianiaints who diedto protecttheir virginity. Modernexample:Keats'"TheEve of St. Agnes." Jezebel:ln Kings, shewas a Phoenicianprincesswho marriedKing Ahab andurgedhim to sin; she becamea formidableenemyof the prophetElijah. In Revelation,Jezebelis the namegiven to a false prophet.In literaturethe term usually refersto a seductivewomanwho leadsthe heroastray.Modern example:MargaretAtwood's TheHandmaidsTale. John the Baptist.: Theprophetwho preparedthe way for his cousinJesusas Messiah;the forerunnerof him at the requestof Salome. Christ'sministry.Herodbeheaded Josephand his brothers: In Genesis,Josephwasthe eleventhof Jacob'ssons.His brothersbecamejealous of him andsoldhim into slavery.He accuratelyinterpretedthe pharaoh'sdreamof sevenleancattle swallowingup sevenfat cattleto meanthat faminewould follow yearsof plenty. The pharaohheededhis warning,grain was stored,andEgypt was saved.Josephultimately forgavehis brothersand sharedgrain with their tribes. Josephand Potiphar's wife: In Genesis,Potiphar'swife tried to seduceJoseph.Whenhe refused,she by the pharaohin orderto interpret accusedhim of attemptedrape,andhe wasimprisoned.He was released his dream. Josephin Egypt: Josephwas madegovernorof all the landsof Egypt, sharedgrain with his brothers' tribes,andbroughtaboutthe migration of Jacobandall his family to Egypt. by Godto wam Ninevehof its sinful condition.Instead,he Jonah: Old Testamentprophetcommanded the ship with a terrible storm,andthe crewtlrew Jonah God struck direction. in the opposite took his ship overboard.God causedJonahto be swallowedby a hugewhale. Jonahprayedand repented,andafter three daysthe whalede- positedJonahsafely onto dry land. This eventis thoughtto prefigureChrist'sdeath, threedaysin the tomb, andresurrection.Modernexample:Pinocchio. Judas Iscariot.: Oneof the originaltwelveApostles,he betrayedJesusby sellinghim out for thirty piecesof silverandidentif ing him with a kiss.Laterhecommittedsuicide.Regardedasthe prototypeof the ultimatebetrayer. judgment of Paris: In Greekmythology,a beautycontestwasheldto determinethe fairestof the goddesses. Paris,the handsomestman in the world, was thejudge; the contestantswereHera,Athena,and Angeredat not being prowessin battle,andlove,respectively). of greatness, Aphrodite(representative invitedto Thetis'wedding,Eris,the goddessof discord,threw an applemarked"To the Fairest"into the gathering,provokingthe goddesses to fight over it. Parisultimately choseAphroditeandwaspromisedthe love of Helen in return.This sparkedthe eventsthat led to the TrojanWar. Considersimilar elementsin "SnowWhite" ("Mirror, mirror, who is the fairest?");the appleas fruit of discord;the disastrouschoiceof love andbeautyover lessephemeralattributes.Consideralsothe following similaritiesbetweenParis and Oedipus:both wereexposedon a hillsideasinfantsto protecttheir fathers;bothwererescuedby shepherds; andbothwerecursedby fate.


LiteraryAllusions- Pg5 know them by their fruits: In Matthew, Christ wanrsagainstwolves in sheep'sclothing. He instructshis followersto larow themby their fruits: "A goodtree cannotbring forth evil fruit, neithercana comrpttree bring forth goodfruit." This injunction entreatsus to judge othersby their actions,ratherthan by appearances. labors of Hercules:In Greekmythology,Herculeshadto perform12fabuloustasksof enornousdifficulty beforebecomingimmortal: killing the Nemeanlion; killing the Hydra; capturingthe hind of Artemis; killing the man-iating Stymphalianbirds; capturingthe oxenof Geryon;cleaningthe Augeanstables; *ptri"g the Cretaniull; capturingthe horsesof Diomedes;capturingthe girdle of Hippolya (queenof the Amazoni);killing the monsterGorgon;capturingCerberus;andtakingthe goldenapplesof Hesperides. Laius: In Greekmythology,Laius wasthe father of Oedipusandthe original husbandof Jocasta.Killed by mlth in which the Oedipusin fulfillment of the oracle,Laius is a major figure in the Laius-Jocasta-Oedipus sonkills his fatherandtakeshis placeas both king andhusband.The tale is symbolicof the inevitable usurpationof fatherby son,a fumiliar themein folklore. Iamb to the slaughter:Originally,in Isaiah'sprophecy,this wasttreservantof the Lord who took the sins of his peopleon fiimseHandsacrificedhimself for their expiation,muchas actualgoatsor lambswere sacrificed.In the New Testament,Christ is frequentlyreferredto asthe sacrificial lanio. The Christian belief is that he atonedfor the sinsof all menby taking themupon himself and sacrificinghis life in fi.rlfillmentof Isaiah'svery specificprophecy. Last. Supper:The Last SupperwasJesus'lastmealwith his disciplesbeforehis crucifixion.Virtually everyaspectof the story hasboth literal andsymbolic associations.During this dinner,Christ instituteda becomethe especiallyCommunion,in which breadand wine after transubstantiation nr.Le. bf sacraments, him as their accept of Christ followers and wine, the bread "bodyandblood" of Christ.ln consuming savior. Lazarus: Inthe New Testament,he is the brotherof MarthaandMary of Bethany,whom Jesusraisedfrom the deadafter four days,prefiguringthe resurrection.Lazarusis symbolicof onewho lives after a declared death.(Compareto Sisyphus.) Leda: ln Greekmythology,Zeusis saidto havecometo Ledain the shapeof a swanto fatherfour legendarychildren: Castor,Clytemnestra,Pollux, andHelen.The story of Leda andthe swanis a favorite themeof artistsfrom Michelangeloto Dali. lilies of the field: In Matthew,this is usedas an exampleof the way God caresfor the faitbfrrl. If he the lilies sobeautifully,surelyhe will provideraimentfor his chil&en. "dresses" lion lies down with the lamb: In Isaiah,this is the classicimageof the idyllic harmonyanduniversal peaceof the earthlyparadisethat will comeinto beingwhenthe Messiaharrives. loavesand fishes: In Matthew,Christ multiplied five loavesof breadandtqi'ofishesinto a sufficient amountto feeda crowd of s,000(not countingwomenandchildren).When all had eatentheir fill, there of scrapsleft over. werestill 12baskCIs Lot:llot's wife: In Genesis,Lot wasa moralinhabitantof the sinfi.rlcity of Sodom.A nephewof Abraham,Lot escapedthe destructionof the crty by the angelsof the Lord. Abrahamhad arguedwith the Lord over his intendeddestructionof the innocentalongwith the guilty. Lot andhis family werewarnedof their impendingdoorq but his sons-in-law "thoughthe werejoking." Lot took his wife anddaughtersand fled. God warnedthem not to look back,but Lot's wife could not resist,andwasturnedinto a pillar of salt. The tale of Lot's wife is illustrative of the ideathat God punishesthosewho are disobedient.


LiteraryAllusions- Pg0 magi: Latin plural of magus,"w-iseman." Traditionally, they havethe namesMelchior, Gaspar,and Bafhazar.The gifts the magi broughtto the Christ child were gold (symbolicof royalty); frankincense(the emblemof divinity); andmyrrh (the symbolof death).The Chdstmasstory of the tlree wise menvisiting ttre mangerrepresentsthe "showingforth" of the newbornChrist child to the Gentiles(non-Jews).This momenfof awarenessis known liturgically as "the Epiphany,"the term JamesJoyceusedfor his andhis Modernexample:o. Henry'sshortstory"The Gift ofthe Magi." of enlightenment. characters'moments mammon:Fromthe Aramaicword for wealth,asusedin the Bible. Mammonbecamethe evil Tke personification of richesandworldliness,andthe god of avarice.Modernexamples:In Spenser's greed wealth. and of personifies the evils Mammon Zosr, Faerie Queenand Milton's Paradise Mary (the Virginl: In the gospelsof Matthew,Marh Luke,andJohn,Mary is the motherof Jesusand wife of Joseph.Symbolicof purity, virginity, andmaternallove, sheis the objectof specialdevotionin the RomanCatholicchurchandthe major subject,alongwith her son,of thousandsof worksof art, especially (Compareto the GreeVRomangoddessArtemis/Diana,known variouslyas the art of the Renaissance. goddessof the hunt, virginrty, andmotherhood.) Mary Magdalene:Sheis ttrereformedprostitutewho may havebeenthe womansavedfrom the mob in the "let him castthe first stone"story. ShewashedJesus'feet with her tearsanddriedthem with her hair. Shewaspresentat the Crucifixion and is saidto havebeenone of the first to seethe tomb opent}ree days later (EasterSunday).Sherep- resentsthe meaningof tme contrition andthe power of forgiveness. massacreof the innocents:At thetime of the birth of Jesus,Herod,the king of Judea,hopingto squelch anypossiblethreatto his throne,orderedthe deathof all malebabiesbornin Bethlehemduringa two- year perioddeterminedby the appffrnrnceof an extraordinary"star in the East."Joseph,warnedin a dream,took (SeeHerod.) Mary andJesusandfled to Egypt,thusescapingthe massacre. who had snakesfor Medusa: In Greekmythology, Medusawasthe chief of the threeGorgons-monsters hair, andfacesso horrifying that just the sight of themturnedmento stone.Shewas killed by Perseus,who the wingedhorse,sprangfrom her blood. took herheadwith a swordgivento him by Hermes.Pegasus, Minotaur: ln Greekmythology,this was a monsterwith a bull'sheadanda man'sbody.Poseidonsenta bull from the seaas a signalof favor to Minos. As a result,Minos was crownedking of Crete,but he to become neglectedto sacrificethebull to Poseidon.Angered,PoseidoncausedMinos'wife Pasiphae enamoredof the bull. The offspring of their union wasthe Minotaur, which was imprisonedby Minos in the la$rinth designedby Daedalus.Modernexamples:Mary Renault'snovelsBull From theSeaardThe KingMust Die. from Jehovahon Mt. Sinai.Followingthe patternof the Moses:He receivedthe Ten Commandments archetypalhero'slife, Moseswas a foundling child rescuedby Pharaoh'sdaughterandraisedto be a prince of Egypt. As an adult, he led his own people,the children of Israel,out of bondagein Egypt,throughthe Red Seaon dry land, andon a 4O-yearjourney searchingfor the PromisedLand. Becausehe committedone ant sin-strikinga rock to bring forth neededwater-hehimself flot permittedto enterthe PromisedLand. (Compareto all caution-alesfrom mythologythat wamedheroesnot to fly too high, or to me godlike powers.Like Moses,Icarus,Prometheus, andBellerophonalsosufferedfor their arrogance.) Achillesat the siegeof myrmidons: In Greekmythology,thesewerepeoplefrom Thessalyaccompanied legend they were originally ants According to for brutatity savagery. They known their and Troy. were who weretumed into humanbeingsto populateone of the Greekislands.


LiteraryAllusions- Pg7 king of wasthemostpowerfulandlongest-reigning Nebuchadnezzar'sdream:Nebuchadnezzar and is creditedwith B.C. century sixth power the during its of lts Babylon to the Mesopotamia.He brought of Solomon, Temple bumed the Jerusalem, He creatingthe fabledHangingGardensof Babylon. conquered prophetic which visions, dreams or and exiledthe Israelitesto Babylon. During his reign, he had a seriesof themto death all the wise menof his kingdomandcondemned he wasunableto interpret.He questioned the dreamof a that and explained forward Daniel came Then interpret his dreams. noi they could because feet of iron legs iron, and of bronze, of thighs and silver, belly gold, of chest and arms statuewith a headof glorious than less each Nebuchadnezzat's follow would andclay foretoldthe successionof kingdomsthat rewarded Daniel was of God. the last. Daniel alsoforetoldthe emergenceof an indestructiblekingdom with a highposition. nemesis:In Greekmythology,shewasthepersonificationof right- anger.Nemesispunishedthosewho uponthe naturalorderof things, eitherthroughhubris or tbroughexcessivelove of material transgressed goods.Currenfly,the word usuallyrefersto an unbeatableenemy. nirvana: This Sanskritword means"goingout," like a light. Buddhistsbelievethat in this doctrineof release,a stateof perfectbliss is attainedin life through the negationof all desiresa:r.dthe extinctionof the self. Nirvana is union with the Buddha,an ideal conditionof harmony. Noah and the flood: In Genesis,whenGod decidedto punishthe wickedof the world with a terrific flood, he choseNoah, a goodman,to build an ark. Noah,his family, andpairs of the animalsof the world on the ark duringthe 40 daysand40 nights of the deluge,while everyoneand everythingelseperished.After the ark cameto rest on the top of Mt. Araraf Noah,his wife, his sonsandtheir wives, andthe animalsemerged to repopulateEarth.The rainbowthat appearedrepresents:God'spromisethat neveragainwould he a covenantwith GodandNoah/mankind)Flood destroyEarthby flood. (Mrs. T note: actuallyit represents themesappearfrequentlyin mythology.Examples:theepicof Gilgameshin Sumerianlegend;Vishnuin Hindu mythology,Deucalionin Greekmythology. Odyssey:Ninth-centuryB.C. epic poem,attributedto Homer,which recountsthe story of the ten-year-long homewardjoumey of Odysseusandhis menafter the ten year TrojanWar. The Odysseyis a sourceof our knowledgeof manyof the majorGreekmyttrsandlegends,aswell asthebasisfor manymodemworks. The most outstandingof theseis JamesJoyce'sUysses.More recently,the movie 0 Brother; WhereArt Thou?wasbasedlooselyon the Odyssey. to an oracle, Oedipus:In Greekmythology,Oedipuswasthe sonof LaiusandJocasta.In response at birth andraisedasttre sonof PolybusandMerope,king andqueenof Corinth. Oedipuswasabandoned He did no know this. Whengrowr, Oedipuslearnedof theprophecythat foretoldthat he would kill his father andmarry his mother-twoof the worst taboosin humancivilization. In an attemptto avoid fulfilling the prophecy,he left his adoptedland, Corinth, andfled to Thebes,his actualbirthplace.En route,he - andin his prideandignoranceslew - Laius,the king of Thebes(hisfatler). He alsoanswered encountered the riddle of the sphinx,savingThebesfrom payrngthe annualtribute of its bestyouth to the monster.As a reward,he was madeking of Thebesand he marriedJocasta"the queen(andhis mother),thus fulfilling the prophecyandcontinuingthe curseofthe Houseof Atreus.Freudbasedhis well-knowntheoryof the "Oedipuscomplex"on this myth. Pandora: In Greekmythology,shewas the first woman,comparableto Eve in biblical allusion.Like Eve, Pandora,whosenamemeans"all gifts," wasgiven the powerto bring aboutthe ruin of mankind.Zeusgave her a closedbox filled with all the evils of the world andwarnedher not to openit. Her curiosity got the betterof her, and whensheopenedthe box" all the evils flew out, andthey havecontinuedto harm human beingseversince.Today,Pandora'sbox refersto a grft that turns out to be a curse.It alsorefersto the of one'sactions,as in "openinga canof worms." unanticipatedconsequences


LiteraryAllusions- PgI Persephone:(Romanname:Proserpine)In GreekandRomanmythologyshewasthegoddessof fertiltq andqueenof the underworld.The daughterof Zeusand Demeter(Ceres),shewaskidnappedby Pluto (Hades).Her mothergrievedso deeplythat all earthly cropsdied andperpetualwinter threatened.A autumnandwinter-andrewould spendhalf the year with Hades-hence bargainwas stuck: Persephone turn to her mothsrfor half the year,allowing the revival of the cropsduring springand summer.The myth is the classicalexplanationfor the seasons. of Persephone of strictobservance Pharisees:In Matthew,theseweremembersof an ancientJewishsectthat emphasized the kind. their Consequently, not of any the Law. Self-righteousandseparatist,they refusedcontactwith termPhariseesdevelopeda negativeconnotation,andis usuallyinterpretedto meanhypocrites. Philistines:Thesetraditionalenemiesof the IsraelitesfoughtagainstSamson,David,andothermajor usagetheterm connotesan ignorant,crude,andrudepersonlackingin Jewishheroes.In contemporary cultureandartistic appreciationand characterizedby materialisticvalues. phoenix: This mythicalbird lived for 500 years,burnedto death,andthen rosefrom its own ashesto begin life anew.For this reason,the phoenix frequentlysymbolizesdeathandresurrection,or eternallife. PontiusPilate: The Romangovernorbeforewhom Jesuswasfiied. Whenhe couldnot convincethe mobs to releaseJesus,he washedhis hands,symbolicallycleansinghimselfof whatwasto follow, andtumed usage,a PontiusPilateis onewho betrayshis own moral Jesusoverfor crucifixion.In contemporary convictionsand submitsto the pressureof ottrers,"washinghis handsof the matter." wasa thief of Attica who placedanyonehe capturedon an Procrustes:In Greekmythology,Procrustes iron bed.If the personwastoo tall, he cut offwhateverhungover;if too short,he stretchedthepersonuntil he fit. The term "Procrusteanbed" connotesa rigid standardto which exactconformity is enforced. this is the youngersonwho wasteshis "portion,"or his ProdigatSon: In oneof Jesus'parables, his homecomingoverhis olderbrothers'protests. him and celebrates His father forgives inheritance. HenryI- Part II; thechildren'stale "PeterCottontail." Modernexamples:PrinceHal in Shakespeare's Prometheus:(Greekfor "forethought.)A Titan andthe championof menagainstthe gods,Prometheus stolefire from Mount Olympusandgavethe preciousgift to humans.As punishmentfor his traasgression, Zeushad him chained(or nailed)to a mountainwherean eagletore out his entrailseachday.The organs regenerated overnight.He was eventuallyfreedby eitherHerculesor Zeus(accountsdiffer). He is the hero Unbound."He is alsothe subjectof the BoundandShelley'spoem"Prometheus of Aeschylus'Prometheus goldenstatueabovethe skatingrink at RockefellerCenterin New York City. herdsmananda prophet.He wasa seagodwho Prot.eus:In Greekmlthology, ProteuswasPoseidon's proteanmeansversatile. usage, form he wished. In current any or shape couldassume Pygmalion: ln Greekmythology,Pygmalionwas a sculptorandking of Cypruswho createda statueof Aphrodite.He fell in love with his own creation,andAphroditeherselfansweredhis prayer:The statue cameto life, andhe marriedher. The statueis namedGalateain otherversionsof the story. GeorgeBemard Shaw'splayPygmalionandthemusicalMyFair Lady+hestoryof ProfessorHigginsandhis "creation," Eliza Doolittle-arebasedon this myth. Pyrrhus: King of Epirus in ancientGreece.For 25 yearshe wageda seriesof wars.He often won, but lost too many soldiersin the process.At the time of his death,he had succeededonly in bringing Epirusto ruin. A pyrrhic victory is onethat was won at muchtoo high a price.


LiteraryAllusions- Pg9 Racheland Leah: In Genesis,thesearethetwo wives of Jacob.JacobhadbeenpromisedRachelin mamageif he workedsevenyearsfor her father.He wastricked into marryingLeah,Rachel'solder sister. After p-romisingto work anothersevenyearsfor Laban,the girls' father,he alsomarriedRachel.Rachel andLeahare referredto togetherasthe matriarchsof Israel. Romulusand Remus:ln Romanmythology,thesearelegendarytwins, sonsof Mars anda vestalvirgin who wasput to deathat their birttr. The boysweretbrown into the Tiber but werewashedashore(compare to Mosesiand suckledby a she-wolf.They were found by a herdsmanandhis wife, who broughtthemup astheir own. As adults,itomulus and Remusdecidedto found a city (Rome)on the spot wherethey had beenrescuedfrom the Tiber. When an omendeclaredRomulusto be the true founderof the city, the brothersfought, andRomuluskilled Remus.Note the similaritiesbetweenthis story andthat of Cain and Abel (thedemigodstatusof the foundingfather)andOedipus(thecoincidentalraisingby a herdsman). of Aeneid,was so titled becausethe twins were saidto be descendants Virgilis greatRomanepic poem, tJrre Aeneas. Ruth: Ruthwasa Moabitewidow who refusedto abandonher mother-in-law,Naomi.Her lovingly loyal behaviorbecamethe modelfor goodwomento follow. Eventually,shemarriedBoazandbecamethe greatgrandmotherof David. Her intertribal marriageto Boaz alsorepresentsopennessto the world. Sabinewomen,rape of: In Romanlegend,Romulus"solved"the problemof finding wivesfor the menin his new settlementby stealingand rapingthe virgins of the Sabinesafter luring the menawayto a war, the tribes intermarriedby accord,andthe settlementflourished. celebration.After a subsequent Salome:In Matthew,becauseSalomeso pleasedHerod"the governorof Judea,by dancingat his birthday feast(legendhasit that it wasthe "Danceof the SevenVeils"), Herodpromisedher anldring sheaskedfor. the Salome'smotherhaddivorcedher husbandandmarriedHerod.Johnthe Baptisthaddenounced marriageandwas imprisonedfor doing so. Salomeaskedfor Johnthe Baptist'shead,and shewas given it on a platter. woodlanddemigods,with thetail satyrs:In Greekmythology,a raceof goat-men,sometimesconsidered andearsof a horseandthe legsandhornsof a goat.Theywerefollowersof Dionysusandwerebestknown for chasingwood nymphs.Satyrswerea major featureof the satyrplay, which traditionally followed a usedvestiges tragic trilogy. The satlr play teated seriousmattersin a grotesquelycomic way. Shakespeare figure in alludes to the satyr Rushdie Salman Dream. plays Nights as AMidsummer such of the form in SatanicVerses.Also, e. e. cummings'"goat-footedballoon-man." Scyltaand Charybdis: In Greekmythology,a jealousCirceturnedthe nymphScyllainto a seamonster with twelvefeet,six headson long necks,andmenacingrowsof teethwith which shedevouredsailors.The terribleCharybdis,hurledinto the seaby Zeus,hid underrocksandcreateda whir$ool. Togetherthey were a formidabledangerto shipspassingthroughthe Straitsof Messina.They cameto be under-stoodas metaphorsfor the dangerousrocks on one sideof the passageanda devastatingwhir$ool on the other.The popularphraserelatedto the pair is "betweena rock anda hard place." Sermonon the Mount.: This is tle sermongivenby Jesus(asre- cordedby Matthew)in which he of his teachings.The serrnonbeginswith the beatitudes:"Blessedarethe poor""the the essence expresses for promisereligioushappiness meek,the sorrowful,etc.Thebeatitudes(theword means"happiness") thosewho lack materialgoodsandare in needof the spiritual blessingsof God. The sermonas a whole outlinesrules for behavioraccordingto God'slaw. The speechis usuallyinterpretedasthe fulfillment of the law ofthe Old Testament.


LiteraryAllusions- Pg10 Sisyphus:In Greekmythology, Sisyphuscheateddeathby telling his wife to forgo the usualburial rites engeredZeus, *t.n tt" died thusgiving him per- missionto retum from the underworldto punishher. This hugerock roll a to eternally condemned he was andwhen Sisyphuslied a secondtime, manyyearslater, as Sislphus up a hill, only io haveit roll back down as he was aboutto reachthe top. Albert Camusused He servesas a constantmetaphorfor the the metaphoifor modernman'ssituation in TheWth of Sisyphers. still morehurdles. by to be thwarted only task, complete one's to struggle oe,,,er-eo-ding Sodomand Gomorrah: Thetwo majorcities,accordingto Genesis,whichweredestroyedby heavenwith fire andbrimstone(traditionalelementsof hell) becauseof their wickedness.They standas symbolsof debauchery. Solomon:Traditionallythe wisestandgrandestof the kingsof Israel,Solomonwasthe sonof Davidand heart,"and "an understanding Batlsheba.Whenaskedby Jehovahwhatgift he mostwanted,he responded the to be claimed who both everafter he was renownedfor his wisdom.The story of the two women motherofthe samebabyremainsasthe modelof the "Solomon-like"decision.Solomondecreedthe baby be cut in half to give eachwomanher'Just" due.The falsemotheragreed,but the true motherwaswilling to give up her claimsothe babywould live. Solomonreturnedthe babyto thetrue mother,of course.He alsodirectedthe constructionof the greattemplethat borehis name. Sphinx: In Greekmythology,the sphinxwasa monsterwith the faceof a woman,thebody of a lion, and thl wingsof a bird. Sheposeda riddleto the citizensof Thebesanddevouredthe youngmenwho could not answerit. When Oedipus,en routeto Thebes,correcflyansweredthe riddle, the sphinxkilled herselfin '\Mhat walks on four legsin the morning,on two at midday,andon chagrin.The riddle is usuallygiven as, threein the evening?"(Answer:Man, who crawlson all fours as a baby,walks upright as an adult, anduses a G1nein old age.)In Egypt the sphinxwas usually seenasa hugestatuewith the body of a lion andthe headof a ma4 representingthe sungod Ra. The largestremainingsphinxis two-thirdsthe lengthof a football field. The sphinxalsorep- resentsmonumentalsilencein literary references. werethe daughtersof stealingthe applesof the Hesperides:In Greekmythology,the Hesperides labors wasto slaythedragon Hercules' Hesperuswhosegoldenappleswereguardedby a dragon.Oneof andstealthe apples.(Compareto the serpentandthetreein the Gardenof Eden.) Styx: In Greekmythology,ttre Styx was oneofthe five rivers ofhell (the othersareAcheron,Cocytus, Phlegethon,andLethe).Charonferried the deadacrossthe river Styx to the underworld.The Sgx figures heavily in Dante'sInferno. Letheturns up frequentlyin literatureas an allusionto forgetfulness. swordsinto ploughshares:Althoughthe swordappearsasa weaponof war or a symbolof wrathmore than 400 times in the Bible, this usein Isaiatrrefersto the hopethat a peacefulagewill eventuallyeliminate the needsfor weaponsof war. Beatingswordsinto farm implementsis comparableto the practiceof convertingmunitionsfactoriesinto homeappliancefactoriesafter times of war in the twentieth century. Speakersadvocatingpeaceoften usethe phrase. Tantalus: ln Greekmythology,Tantaluswas a progenitorof the Houseof Atreus (sourceof manyof the extendedGreektragediesfrom Agamemnonto Orestes)who is bestknown for his punishmentin Hades. He sufferseternalhungerandthirst while standingin the middle of a body of clear, cold waterthat driesup ashe reachesfor it. The fruit of a heavily ladenboughhangsabovehis head,but remainsjust out of reach. His namegivesus the word tantalize. thirty piecesof silver: This is the amountpaid to JudasIscariotfor betrayingJesusby identifuing him with a kiss, leadingto Jesus'arrestand Crucifixion. Legendhasit that hethrew it back at the Jewishpriestsjust beforehe hangedhimself.Thephrases"thirty piecesofsilver" and "Judas'kiss"referto betrayaland treachery.


- pg 11 Literary Allusions a through a glassdarkly: Writrngto the Corinthianson thegift of Christ'sperfectlove,Paulprophesied time of perfectlove andclarity of knowledgeof God, in contrastto thetime whenpeoplesawGod indistinctly or "througha glassdarkly." This passageis usedfrequentlyin weddingceremoniesand, conversely,by writers who wish to conveythe oppositeof perfectlove and clear knowledgethroughirony. of Noahbuilt a towerthat wasmeantto reach Tower of Babel: In Genesis,aftertheflood,the descendants their speechsothey could to heaven.But Jehovatqunhappywith their iuroganceandhubris,"confounded" not understandoneanother,andthen he scatteredthem over the Earth.This is the biblical explanationfor the diversity of languagesin the world. The Tower of Babel hascometo representa madly visionary It is also uproarin which nothingcanbe understood. scheme,andthe wordbabelnow meansa senseless relatedto the word babble.Onceagain,this is a cautionarytale warningthat humankindshouldnot aspire to the heightsof thegods. asa gift to Athena. Trojan horse:A largewoodenhorsedesignedandbuilt by the Greeks,supposedly Becausethe Greekshadbeenunableto takethe walledcity of Troy duringtheir ten-yearsiege,they instead tried deception.Placinga troop of soldiersinsidethe hollow woodenhorse,the Greekspretendedthat they Trojansbroughtthe horseinsidethe walls.Latethat night,the weresailinghomeward.The un- suspecting Greekscreptout of the horseand openedthe gatesof the city, let- ting in their comrades,andthey took Troy at last.Thephrase"bewareof Greeksbearinggifts" hasits originsin this tale. Utopia: In literature,thetitle of the 1516bookby Sir ThomasMore,who gavethe name,meaningnowhere the idealsocietyaccordingto the idealsof the English in Greek,to his imaginaryis- land.More describes humanists,who dreamtof a land whereignorance,crime, pove4y, and injusticedid not exist. Sincethen the namehasbeenappliedto all attemptsto describeor establisha societyin whichtheseidealswould prevail.lnterestingly,manytwentieth-century writershavefocusedon the anti-utopian,or dystopian, include Aldous Huxley'sBraveNew World,GeorgeOrwell's1984, world. Examplesof this kind of work andRay Bradbury'sFahrenheit451. Waterloo: Thetown in BelgiumwhereNapoleonwasresoundinglydefeatedin 1815.In currentusage,the term refersto a crushineandfinal defeat.


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Lesson 11

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In the Land of Allusion

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Objective . To demonstrate how allusion enriches a poem's structure of meaning

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Notes to the Teacher

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Allusion provides a substructure of significance on which the poem can build. The poet interfaces the meaning of a poem with the potential rational or emotional evocation of another literary work, an historical event, or a cultural phenomenon.

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the Vtetnam War, the qnti-usar protests, and Gene r al Rober t M cN o,maro. Purpose: to underscore the historic despatr of tttose uho tried to bring to a close wleat theg uieued as a meoningless uar. Handout 2z The title of Frost s poetT"t, "Out, Out-," is an alluston to linesfrom Shake spear e's M acbeth. Out, out, brief candle! Life's but a walking shadow. Purpose : to emphasize Macbeth's realization concerning the meontng of Life and death as tt poralLels the theme in Frost's poem Handout 4: Both selections allude to the histo ric Sacco -Vanzetti triaL. Handouts 6 and 7: ALLof the selections rnag allude to autobiographical details, but u e canno t r ule out the possib ilitg that theg reJlect Jictionalized experiences or distorted or edited uersions offacts. Handout L2: The ode tn general assumes that the reader has some understanding of what a decoratlue rrrn, used bg the Greeksfor storage purposes, looks ltke. Handout l4z The selectton bg Pope atIudes to uarious cho,racters in Greek mgth. Zephgrus is the god of the uest usind. Ajax is the Latin for Aias, usho uas second onlg to Achtltes tn strength and brauerg in the Trojan War. From Latin mgth, Ca,mitlrr u)as q brau e warrlor maiden in The Aeneid. Timotheus ts an cncientpoet. Handout 15: Paul Simon's "I AmaRock" posstblg contains an tronlc allusion to John Donne's serrrLortin uhtch he states that "No man is rl,nisland." BruceSpring' steen's "The Promised Land" o,lludes to the biblical "promtsed Land" u:here the wandering Israelites expected to Jind "a land flouing usith rnitk and honeg" after their fortg Aears in the desert. The speaker implles that onlg "Jaith" tuilLatlouu hirn rrndhts dreorns to suruiue.

Anthologies have eased the effort required to research many allusions. However, students should be encouraged occasionally to go beyond what is often a superficial footnote and explore the complete depth of the original source. Likewise, they should attempt to derive a sense of what is referred to by means of contextual clues. Some poets are more inclined to build poems in "the land of allusion" than others. Milton's "On the Late Massacre at Piedmont" and Byron's "The Destruction of Sennacherib" are entirely related to historical and biblical events. Students will no doubt eventually conclude that most poets write for an audience that is educated to both life and literature and that they depend heavily on the reader's background to realize the total impact of the poem.

Procedure 1. Ask students to define "allusion" and to cite some examples which come to mind. Distribute Handout 23, and ask students to work together in small groups in order to review the use of allusions in previous handouts. Students should have access to their folders of materials while completing this work. Suggested Responses: Handout L: The three poems obout Norntan Morrison altude to the news report,

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tu ff F Handout 21: Claude McKag's sonnet probablg alludes to the actiutties of the KKK, but there is no textual support for this. Likeuise, there is nothing uithlnthe text to indlcate ttrr;,t the poem dea:ls with aracirrL lssue. The reader's knouledge of historg and of the author's background. relates fhese circumstances to a reading and interpretation of the text.

cial protest. In this sonnet he voices his personal, poetic protest against ..the bloody Piedmontese," the "Triple T)rrant,' (the Pope's triple crown), and the..Babylonian woe" (a Puritan term for the Roman Catholic church). "When all our fathers worshipped stocks and stones" alludes to the fact that England was still a pagan country when the Waldensians first grouped together into a sect. The reference to sowing the "martyred blood and ashes" from which new life will grow parallels asimilarincident in Greek myth. "The Destruction of Sennacherib": According to the Bible (Kings IV l9:3b), the anny of King Sennacheri-b of Assyria was destroyed in their camp ovgrnight by an "angel of the Lord." This occurred the night before a planned attack on Jerusalem. Ashur was another name for Assyria, and $ael was a divinity. These events historically occurred in the eighth century B.c., and a plague is usually the attributed cause of tl:e destruction of Sennacherib's forces.

2 . Distribute

Handout 24. Students. although not necessarily familiar with the historical or biblical allusions, should still have some access to the poems. The context provides essential information. Supply missing information and ask students how it affects their responses. It should provide a greater understanding and appreciation of the poet's purposes in employing allusion.

Background Information : "On the Late Massacre in piedmgnt": On April24, 1653, the Duke of Savoy ordered the slaughter of over seventeen hundred Waldensians, a Protestant sect living in isolation in the Italian Alps. As Latin Secretary to Cromwell, Milton wrote an offi-

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The Land of Allusion Directions:

Give examples of the use of allusion in the following poems, indicating how allusion adds a new level of meaning to the way the poems are developed.

Handout 1: "Norman Morrison" (Mitchell)

"Norman Morrison" (Ferguson)

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"Justice Denied ln Massachusetts" (Millay)

Handout6: "Daddy" (Middleton)

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Advanced Placement Poetrv Lesson 1 I Handout 24 (page 1)

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Saints and Assyrians Examine the following two poems. Determine to what extent allusion affects your ability to interpret each poem. Record your responses with marginal notes, indicating any parts of the poems with which you experience difficulty. Be prepared to present your conclusions for the questions following each poem, based entirely on evidence withinthe poem.

On the Late Massacre in Piedmont Avenge, O Lord, Thy slaughtered saints, whose bones Lie scattered on the Alpine mountains cold; Even them who keptThy truth so pure of old, When all our fathers worshiped stocks and stones, Forget not: in Thy book record theirgroans Who were Thy sheep, and in their ancient fold Slain by the bloody Piedmontese, thatrolled Mother with infant down the rocks. Their moans The vales redoubled to the hills, and they To heaven. Their martyred blood and ashes sow O'er all the Italian fields, where still doth sway The triple T)rrant that from these may grow A hundredfold, who, having learnt Thy way, Early may fly the Babylonian woe. -John 1. Whowas killed?

2 . By whom? why? 4. How? 5. Where? 6. Whatis left unexplained?

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e Advanced Placement PoetrY Lesson 1-1 Handout24 (pa$e 2)

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The Destruction of Sennacherib The Assyrian came down like the wolf on the fold, And his cohorts were gleaming in purple and gold; And the sheen of their spears was like stars on the sea, When the blue wave rolls nightly on deep Galilee. Like the leaves of the forest when summer is green, That host with their banners at sunset were seen: Like the leaves of the forest when autumn hath blown, That host on the morrow lay withered and strown. For the Angel of Death spread his wings on the blast, And breathed in the face of the foe as he passed; And the eyes of the sleepers waxed deadly and chill. And theirhearts butonce heaved-and forevergrew stiil!

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And there lay the steed with his nostril all wide, But through it there rolled not the breath of his pride; And the foam of his gasping lay white on the turf, And cold as the spray of the rock-beating sud.

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And there lay the rider distorted and pale, With the dew on his brow and the rust on his mail; And the tents were all silent. the banners alone, The lances unlifted, the trumpet unblown.

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And the widows of Ashur are loud in their wail. And the idols are broke in the temple of Baal; And the might of the Gentile, unsmote by the sword, Hath melted like snow in the glance of the Lord!

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Selecting literacyMaterials:A Checklist Readability Range Wouldyou teachthe multisyllabic words? Would you expectstudentsto readthem independently? Dothe longsentences havetoo manyideas,or do theyclearlyconnectideas? Dothe shortsentences seemchoppyor clear? Considerate Format Doesthe Tableof Contents showan orderlysequence? Doesthe bookcontainreaderaids,likean index,bibliography, and glossary? Dothe introductionandsubheads clearlyrepresent the chapter's organization? Arethe illustrativematerials clearandconnected to the text? Considerate Context How manyideasarepresented? ls that numberreasonable? Are the ideasexplained clearlyandconnected explicitly? Dothe examples andanalogies matchthe students'background knowledge? principleevident? ls an overarching Fairness Do the itlustrations havea fair representation of raceor ethnicity,gender,andclass? Dothe illustrations havepeoplein nonstereotypical roles? Dothe examples and problemsin the text represent a fair andnonstereotypicat representation of raceor ethnicity,gender,andclass? Doesthe text usenonsexistlanguage?


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tttrIr PASSTVEAGGRESSTVA by Martin Galvin It's like I just like haveto kiss aboy in everycity whereI am like at. It's just so totally like I do this. Kiss. So I am like last yeafl in Florence? Italy? Soweird. I meantotally it was like soweird I hado'tlike kissedlike one of them? And I was so totally like bummed. So I seethis really like old man at the airport and like it's what I do so I go totally up to him and like kiss him and it was totally like weird. He was like twenty-sevenandhis wife -it was like Like. Shewas like so passiveaggressive.Like sulked. I wasjust like. It was like I did it? Like totally kept my kiss list going?Weird.


THOMAS HARDY

ChannelFiring That nighc your grearguns,unawares, Shook all our cof6.nsas we Iay, And broke the chancelwindow squares,a We rhoughr it was rheJudgmenr-day s And sar uprighr. W'hiledrearisome Arosethe howl ofwakenedhounds: The mouseler fall the alar-crumb,s The worms drew back inro rhe mounds, The glebecorlf drooled.Till God called ,,No; to lt's gunnerypracticeouc at sea Just asbeforeyou wenr below; The wodd is asit usedto be: "All nations striving scrongto make Redwar yecredder."Madai harcers ts They do no more for Christ6ssake Than you who are helplessin such ma$ers. "That chisis not chejudgmenr-hour For someof rhem'sa blessedthing For if it werethey'dhaveco scour zo Hell'sfloor for so much threatening.. . "Ha, ha, Ic will be warmerwhen I blow rhe crumpet(if indeed I everdo; for you *err, "r. need).,, And rest erernalsorely zs So down we lay again."I wonder, Will rhe wodd eversanerbe,,, Said one,"rhan when He sent us under In our indifferent cenruryl,, And many a skeleronshook his head. 30 "Insreadof preachingfotty year,,' My neighborParsonThirdly said, "I wish I had stuck to pipes and beer.,, Again the guns disrurbedrhe hour, Roaringtheir readinessco avenge. rs As far inland as ScourtonTower, .dnd Camelot,and scarlirS-ronehenge.T I April 1914


SEAMUS HEANEY

Dr.ggtng Berween my finger and my rhumb trle squaEPen rests; snug ;rs a gun. U-nder my window, a clean rasping sound. spade sinks into grave$ gro;"a, |jh1n ghe s My farher, digging. r look down Till his straining rump :rmong the flowerbeds 5enc|'slow' comes uP twenry years awav S-coopingin rhychrn- rhrougi'potato dii[s, Where he was digging. to The coarse boot nestled on rhe lug, rhe shaft Against che inside knee was leveref, firmlv. He roored our call rops, buried che brighi edge deep To scacrern.w por.toes rhat we pickef Lovlng their cool hardness in oui hands. ts py God, rhe old man could handle a spad.e. Jusr like his old man. My grandfather cut more rurp in a d.av Than any ocher man on Toner,s bon. ' Once I carried him milk in a bomle" zo Corked sloppilv with paper. He straighcened. up To drink ir, ihen fe[;;ishr;w;;. "..-"'^ Nicking and slicing neady] heavirig sods \Jver.nts shoulder, going down and down t or rhe good rurf Digging.

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I've a Pain in mv Headbv JaneAusten 'I'vea painin my head' Saidthe sufferingBeckford; To her Doctorso dread. 'Oh! what shallI takefor't?' Saidthis Doctorso dread Whosenameit wasNewnham. 'Forthis pain in your head Ah! Whatcanyou do Ma'am?' SaidMiss Beckford,'Suppose If you think there'sno risk, I takea goodDose Of calomelbrisk.'-'Whata praiseworthyNotion.' RepliedMr. Newnham. 'You shallhavesucha potion And sowill I too Ma'am.'


Sonnet43 - How do I lovethee?Let me countthe waysby ElizabethBarrett Browning How do I love thee?Let me countthe ways. I love theeto the depthandbreadthandheight My soulcanreach,whenfeelingout of sight For theendsof BeingandidealGrace. I lovetheeto thelevelof everyday's Most quietneed,by sunandcandle-light. I love theefreely,asmen strivefor Right; I love theepurely,asthey turn from Praise. I love theewith the passionput to use In my old griefs,andwith my childhood'sfaith. I love theewith a love I seemedto lose With my lost saints,-I love theewith the breath, Smiles,tears,of all my life!-and, if Godchoose, I shallbut love theebetterafterdeath.


Partingby CharlotteBronte THERE'Sno usein weeping, Thoughwe arecondemned to part: There'ssucha thing askeeping A remembrance in one'sheart: There'ssucha thing asdwelling On thethoughtourselveshavenurs'd, And with scornandcouragetelling The world to do its worst. We'll not let its folliesgrieveus, We'll just takethemasthey come; And theneverydaywill leaveus A merrylaughfor home. Whenwe'veleft eachfriend andbrother. Whenwe'repartedwide andfar, We will think of oneanother, As evenbetterthanwe are. Everyglorioussightaboveus, Everypleasantsightbeneath, We'll connectwith thosethatloveus, Whomwe truly love till death! In the evening,whenwe'resitting By the fire perchance alone, Thenshallheartwith warm heartmeeting, Give responsivetonefor tone. We canburstthe bondswhich chainus, Which cold humanhandshavewrought, And wherenoneshalldarerestrainus We canmeetagain,in thought. Sothere'sno usein weeping, Beara cheerfulspirit still; Neverdoubtthat Fateis keeping Futuregoodfor presentill !


The rainy day by Henry WadsworthLongfellow

The day is cold,anddark,anddreary; It rains,andthe wind is neverweary; The vine still clingsto the molderingwall, But at everygustthe deadleavesfall, And the day is dark anddreary. My life is cold, anddark,anddreary; It rains,andthe wind is neverweary; My thoughtsstill cling to the molderingPast, But the hopesof youthfall thick in the blast And the daysaredark anddreary. Be still, sadheart!andceaserepining; Behindthe cloudsis the sunstill shining; Thy fate is the commonfateof all, Into eachlife somerain mustfall, Somedaysmustbe dark anddreary.


BecauseI could not stop for Deathby Emily Dickinson

BecauseI couldnot stopfor Death, He kindly stoppedfor me; The caniageheld butjust ourselves And Immortality. We slowly drove,he knewno haste, And I hadput away My labor,andmy leisuretoo, For his civility. We passedthe school,wherechildrenstrove At recess,in the ring; We passedthe fields of gazinggrain, We passedthe settingsun. Or rather,be passedus; The dewsgrewquiveringandchill, For only gossamer my gown, My tippetonly tulle. We pausedbeforehousethat seemed A swellingof the ground; Theroof wasscarcelyvisible, The cornicebut a mound. Sincethen'tiscenturies, andyet each Feelsshorterthanthe day I first surmisedthehorses'heads Weretowardeternitv.


The rainy day by Henry WadsworthLongfellow

The day is cold,anddaxk,anddreary; It rains,andthe wind is neverweary; Thevine still clingsto the molderingwall, But at everygustthe deadleavesfall, And the day is dark anddreary. My life is cold,anddark,anddreary; It rains,andthe wind is neverweary; My thoughtsstill cling to the molderingPast, But the hopesof youthfall thick in the blast And the daysaredark anddreary, Be still, sadheart!andceaserepining; Behindthe cloudsis the sunstill shining; Thy fate is the commonfateof all, Into eachlife somerain mustfall, Somedaysmustbe dark anddreary.


Alone by Edgar Allen Poe

Fromchildhood's hourI havenot been As otherswere I havenot seen As otherssaw- I couldnot bring My passions from a commonspringFromthe samesourceI havenot taken My sorrow- I couldnot awaken My heartto joy at the sametoneAnd all I lov'd- I lov'daloneThen- in my childhood- in the dawn Of a moststormylife - wasdrawn Fromev'rydepthof goodandill Themysterywhichbindsme still Fromthe torrent,or the fountainFromthe red cliff of the mountainFromthe sunthat 'roundme roll'd In its autumntint of goldFromthe lightningin the sky As it pass'dme flying by Fromthethunder,andthe stormAnd the cloudthattook the form (Whentherestof Heavenwasblue) Of a demonin my view -


Winter by WiIIiam Shakespeare(1s64-1616) WHEN icicleshangby the wall And Dick the shepherdblowshis nail, And Tom bearslogsinto the hall, And milk comesfrozenhomein pail; Whenblood is nipt, andwaysbe foul, Thennightly singsthe staringowl Tu-whoo! To-whit,Tu-whoo!A merrynote! While greasyJoandothkeelthe pot.

5

Whenall aboutthewind dothblow, 10 And coughingdrownsthe parson'ssaw, And birdssit broodingin the snow, And Marian'snoselooksredandraw; Whenroastedcrabshissin the bowlThennightly singsthe staringowl 15 Tu-whoo! To-whit,Tu-whoo!A merrynote! While greasyJoandoth keelthe pot.


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EdgarAllan Poe:TheRaven

http//www.heise.de/brlravenlliteraturelloreff heRaven.html

Edsar Allan Poe

The Raven in 1845] [Firstpublished Onceupon a midnight dlggdy,while I ponderedwea! andr1pgy, Over manya quaintand curiousvolume of fggp$ggrlore, While I nodded,nearlynapping,suddenlytherecamea tapping, As of someone gentlyrapping,rappingat my chamberdoor. 'tapping "Tis somevisitoro'Imuttered, at my charnberdoorOnly this, andnothingmors.' Ah, distinctlyI rememberit wasin the blg\December, And eachseparatea:igg emberwrought its ghostuponthe floor. EagerlyI wishedthe morrow; - vainly I had soughtto borrow From my bookssurceaseof sorrow' solrow for the lost LenoreFor the rareandradiantmaidenwhom the angelsnamedLenoreNamelessherefor evennore. And the silken sadr.rnggglgin rustling of eachpurple curtain Thrilled me - fiGd me with fantastiptgggrs n*"r felt before; Sothat now, to still the beatingof my heart,I stoodrepeating "Tis somevisitor entreatingentranceat my chamberdoor Somelate visitor entreatingentranceat my chamberdoor; This it is, andqgthiggmore,' Presentlymy soul grew stronger;hggltaliggthenno longer, 'Sir,' 'or saidI, Madam,truly your forgivenessI implore; But the fact is I wasnapping,and so gentlyyou camerapping, And so faintly you cametapping,tappingat my chamberdoor, That I s-carc,e was sureI heardyou' - hereI openedwide the door; Darknessthere.andnothins more. '

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Deepinto that derB:ss peering,lgng I stoodtherewond.fug, 9*irg, Doubting,dreamingdreamsno mortal everdaredto dreambefore But the silencewas unbroken,andthe dgrknerygave!g token,

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EdearAllan Poe:TheRaven

http://www.heise.de/ixlravenlLiter atwe lLore/TheRaven.html

'Lenore!' And the only word therespokenwasthe whisperedword, This I whispered,andan echomurmuredbackthe word, 'Lenore!'4f Merely this andqg1s!$gmore. Back into the chamberturning, all my soul within me b3g!49, SoonagainI hearda tappingsomewhatlouderthan before. 'Swely,'said 'surely I, that is somethingat my window lattice; Let me seethen,what thereatis, andthis mysteryexploreLet my heartbe still a momentandthis mysteryexplore; 'Tis thewind andnothiggmore!' OpenhereI flung the shutter,when,with manya flirt and flutter, In theresteppeda statelyravenof the saintly daysof yore. Not the leastobeisancemadehe; not a minute stoppedor stayedhe; But, with mien of lord or lady,perchedabovemy chamberdoor Perchedupona bustof Pallasjust abovemy chamberdoor - ( Perched,and sat,andng[lgg3nore. Thenthis ebonybird beguilingmy qg[ fancyinto smiling, By the ryve and stemdecorumof the c &gggqe it wore, 'Though 'art thy crestbe shomand shaven,thou,'I said, sureno craven. gnr4 and ancientravenwanderingfrom the nightly shoreGhastly -{-Tell me whatthy lordly nameis on the Night'sPlutonianshore!' 4! '\gr"rmo$.' Quoththe raven, Much I marvelledthis ugglg$ fowl to heardiscourseso plainly, Thoughits answerliule meaning- little relevancybore; For we cannothelp agreeingthat no living humanbeing Everyet wasblessedwith seeingbird abovehis chamberdoor Bird or beastabovethe sculpturedbust abovehis chamberdoo4 <4. With suchrurmeas'Nevermore.' But the raven,sitting lglgly on the placid bust, spokeonly, That oneword, asif his soul in that oneword he did outpour. Nothing firther thenhe uttered- not a featherthen he fluttered Till I scarcelvmorethanmuttered'Otherfriendshaveflown beforeOn the morrow he will leaveme, asmy hopeshaveflown before.' qf 'Nevermore.' Thenthe bird said, 4f Startledat the qtilbggsbfgkeg.byreply so aptly spoken, 'ngubtlg$,' 'what it uttersis its only stockandstore, saidIo Caughtfrom someunhappymasterwhom rry{ul 4!sast".r Followedfast and followed fastertill his songsoneburdenboreTill the dirgesof his hopethat metangbglybrgleg bore { Of "Never-nevennore .u'< But the ravenstill beguiling all my sadsoul into smiling,

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Edgar Allan Poe: The Raven

http://www.heise.de/xhav enlLiterature/Lore/TheRaven.html

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StraightI wheeleda cushionedseatin front of bird andbust and door; Then,uponthe velvet sinking,I betookmyself to linking Fancyunto fancy,thinking what this ominousbird ofyore what this gg3g urg3gry, @lly, B@, and ominousbird of yore ( Meantin croaking'Nevermore.' This I satengagedin guessing,but no syllableexpressing To the fowl whosefiery eyesnow b-urnedinto my bosom'score; This andmoreI satdivining, with my headat easereclining On the cushion'svelvetlining thatthe lamp-lightgloatedo'er, But whosevelvetviolet lining with the famp-figfrigtoutiog llo, 4 Sfteshallpress,ah,nevermore!g

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Thenomethought,the air grew denser,perfumedfrom an unseencenser Swungby Seraphimwhosefoot-fallstinkled on the tuftedfloor. 'Wretch,'I 'thy cried, Godhathlent thee- by theseangelshe hassentthee Respite respiteandnepenthefrom thy memoriesof Lenorel quaffthis oh kind nepenthe, and forget this lost Lenorct' ? Qgg$, 'Nevermore.' auottl the raven, 'Prophet!' 'thing saidI, of evil! - prophetstill, if bird or devil! Whethertemptersent,or whethertempesttossedtheehereashore, Desolateyet all undaunted, on this desertland enchanted On this homeby hglroJfuggQd - tell me truly, I implore Is there- is thereEIimln Gilead?- tell me - tell me,I implore!'â&#x201A;Ź 'W*r"*.] ( Quoththe raven, 'Prophet!' 'thing saidI, of e,Jil,!- prophetstill, if bird or devil! By that Heaventhat bendsaboveus - by that Godwe both adoreTell this soul with sry ladenif, within the distantAidenn, It shall claspa saintedmaidenwhom the angelsnamedLenoreClaspa gg.and radiantmaiden,whom the angelsnamedLenorc?' (. 'Nevermore.'( Quoththe raven, tnat word our signof pg!!gg, bird or fiend!'I shrieke$upstarting * -\ fne I | 'C"t theebackinto the terifiEfand theNight'sPlutoffi-shore! Leaveno b!gg! plume asa token of that lie thy soul hath spoken! - quit the bustabovemy door! Leavemy loneliness.unbroken! Takethy btffffiut my heart,andtakethy form from off my door!' ( 'Nevermore.' the raven, ( Quoth And the raven,ngJgrfliuing, still is sitting, still is sitting On the pallid bustof Pallasjust abovemy chamberdoor; And his eyeshaveall the seemingof a demon'sthat is dreaming, And the lamp-light o'erhim streamingtm;i3 his shadowon the floor; And my soul from out that shadowthat lies floating on thefloor 4 Shallbe lifted - nevermore!(

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LanguageArts Assessment The purposeof the LanguageArts Assessmentis to provide the teachercandidatean opportunity to developa literacy-focusedinstructionalexperience.All teachercandidatesat Illinois State University will successfullycompletethe LanguageArts AssessmenLTo successfullycomplete the LanguageArts Assessment,teachercandidatesmust perform at leastat the "Developing" stageon the rubric. A teachercandidatemay not receivean "IJnacceptable"on any part of the rubric. Overall use of conventionsis evaluatedfor all written productspostedon LiveText and is includedon the LanguageArts AssessmentRubric. The LanguageArts Assessmentassesses teachercandidatesaccordingto the CORE Language Arts Standards for All Teachers (ISBE): l. All teachersmust know a broad rangeof literacy techniquesand strategiesfor every aspectof communicationand must be able to developeachstudent'sability to read,write, speakand listen to his or her potentialwithin the demandsof the discipline. 2. All teachersshouldmodel effectivereading,writing, speaking,and listening,skills during their direct and indirect instructionalactivities.The most importantcommunicator in the classroomis the teacher,who shouldmodel English languagearts skills. 3. All teachersshouldgive constructiveinstructionand feedbackto studentsin both written and oral contextswhile being awareof diverselearnerneeds.Teachersshouldeffectively provide a variety of instructionalstrategies,constructivefeedback,criticism, and improvementstrategies. In this languagearts assessment, text refersto all typesof literacy and all sourcesof literacy. "Text" is contentspecific;therefore,teachercandidateswill determineand definehow "text" is primary usedin their specificcontentareas. Someexamplesincludeprint, visuals,speeches, sources,plays, works of art, and performances.Literaciesaddressedin this PBA include reading,writing, speakingand listening. Description of the Requirementto be Postedin LiveText Part I. Insishts into Learner(sl The teachercandidatewill assessa learnerto determinehis/herliteracy needs.Assessment methodsshouldbe appropriatelyselectedto demonstratean understandingof assessment. Someideasto be consideredwhen assessinglearnersare: ability, knowledgeof the various literacy processes,development(social,cognitive,physical),motivation, and background knowledge/experiences. What to post in LiveText: o

A narrative introducing the learner(s),the context in which the data was gathered,the informal and/orformal assessment methodsused,and results.

Psrt II. Insishts into Text


The teachercandidatewill assessa content-specific"text." Someideasto be consideredwhen assessingthe appropriatenessof a content-specifictext for a learner are: text difficulty, structure, interest of the text to the learner, author assumptions,and pu{posefor choosing this text. What to post in LiveText: o

A narrative describingthe text, the methodsused to assessappropriateness,and the results.

Psrt IIL Lesson Plannins and Implementins of the learner(s)and the text, createand Basedon the knowledgegainedfrom the assessments implement a plan for instruction that includes literacy strategiesfor supporting learnerswith reading,writing, speakingand listening.Somesuggestionsfor componentsof lessonplanning are listed below; however,the instructormay include other componentsspecificto course content.

o o o o o o o

Purpose/Importanceof teachingthe content Instructional resources/materials Objectives Assessment Feedbackto Students Accommodationsfor Diversity (if applicable) Post assessment

While implementingthe lessonplan, the teachercandidatewill model effectivereading,writing, listening,and speakingskills. What to post in LiveText: r

A plan for instruction that demonstratesa link among all required componentsof lessonplanning.

Part IV. Reflection on Teachine and Learninp After completingthis literacy-focusedinstructionalexperience,the teachercandidateis required to reflect on hisftrer own instructional behaviorsand decisions.Reflection may addresssuch ideasas the followins: a. What did you find to be effective and ineffective? b. How could the instructional strategiessupport/limit achieving your instructional goals? c. How might you improve your instruction? (if d. What progressdid learnersachievefrom pre-assessment to post-assessment? applicable)


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214lnquiry Group Assignment Description: The life of a professionalteacherincludesfurtheringthe understandingof teachingfrom manyperspectives.Many schoolsform study groupsarounda topic of concernbasedon ISAT scoresandothertesting information. For this assignmen!you will parallel what teachersat a schooldo, andbe apart of a professionalinquiry groupcenteredon comprehensionand/or th,euseof literacy strateqiesin vour contentarea. Usethe informationI have postedon Blackboard(SevenKeysto Compreh ) asa startingpoint. Become familiar with each"key.'o with your group,find one article on any areaof comprehension thatyou will ALL read. Then,eachpersonin the groupwill find his/trerown article on a specificareaof comprehensionand/orthe useof literacy strategiesandphotocopyor print that article. During the courseof the studygroup meetings,eachpersonwill presenthis/herarticleto the groupto summarizethe article and to promote discussion.After the presentation eachgroupmember will write a onepagereflection. Think abouthow eacharticle relatesto your contentareaandyour futurerole asa teacher.How will it impactyour instruction now andin the future? Readanddiscussthe articlesin a professionalstudygroupformatoverthe course of five sessions.Eachdiscussionsessionshouldlast approximately20 minutesand shouldbe doneduringclass. Elect a recorderto summarizeandtakenotesat each inquiry group meeting. use the forms on Blackboardto recordyour group meetings.Your groupwill submitall documentation in a paperfolder. Assignmentdue: April 2 214.04 April 3 214.05


C&I 214Discourse CommunityProject Each teachingdiscipline includesa discoursecommunity: traditionsthat dictatehow literacy is constructedand usedand how knowledgeis structuredand taught. In this task, you will collaboratewith 2-3 classmateswithin your disciplineto focus on the unique nature ofyour subject area: a) texts,_how they are organizedand how they differ from texts outsidethe discipline; b) leamers,how they learnwithin your disciplineand the role literacy plays in that process; c) context,how teachingand learningare revealedin classroomnorns, values,and belief systems. Sign up to sharethis presentationwith the class.

RUBRIC FOR DISCOURSECOMMUNITY PROJECT Points Points Possible Earned

5

15

CategoryDescription

All partsof projectcompletedas assigned. Creativelyand professionally presented.No evidenceof mechanicalerrorsin materials. Each memberof group shows evidenceof activeparticipation.

15

Projectshowsthoughtful reflectionusingspecifics to supportideas.

l5

Projecthas a clear focus showing how your discoursecommunity is unique.

Notes


!

c&r214 Checklistfor Inquiry Group Presentation Each personin the group will submit this paper individually. Name: Topic:

Section:

GroupJournalArticle (Title, Author,Journal,Date IndividualJournalArticle (Title, Author,Journal,Date):

(GroupArticle) Brief summary/synopsis:

IndividualArticle Summarv:

*:t*Attachyour individualarticleto thispaperandincludeit in theDocumentation Folderwith recordingsheets from eachsessionandan individualreflectionon whatyou leamedor whatimpactthis articlepresentation will have on your teachingor futureteaching.Eachreflectionshouldbe aboutonepagein lengthandbe written immediately followingthegroupdiscussion.

Due:

Total points=-L2g-E!g-


Inquiry GroupPlanningSheet(Joumals) Topic: MeetingLResearchingand SelectingArticles: Find commonarticle.Eachstudentfindsown article.Meetto determinedateswheneachpersonwill presenthis/herarticleto the group. Recordthe schedulebelow. Dateto Present

Title of Article

Name

2. a 1

-Meetto discusscommonarticleat school,Each Meeting2CommonArticleDiscussed:

n bri

GroupRecordername: (Eachtime the erouo meetsa differentrecordershouldbe electedto take notesaboutthe discussion.The notes shouldbe includedin the final folder.)

Meeting3ArticlePresented: Presented by: GroupRecordername: Meeting4ArticlePresented: Presented bv: Recordername: Meeting5ArticlePresented: Presented by: Recordername: Meeting6-(onlyto be usedif you havean extrapersonin your group) ArticlePresented: Presented by: GroupRecordername:


,/'

virtually free from errors in grammar,spelling, punctuation

TOTAL

GRADE


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SITUATION4: PASSINGNoTEs You thinkthat yottt students arebu-rywodcingon an assignmmt when you noti*e tlnt two stud.mts.arepassitts notes to eachothq insteaL f-n

ott yo: to do is ask studentsto put the notes away, Most stgdents arâ&#x201A;Ź so conU'\ :""d \J cerned tlrat others wjll read their notes that they wi[tmply iamediately. Stand nearbyto make sure that the notes have been p"i ,*rv

2. Eeqausenotqs were lot vritten foryou.to rea4 dont read their. Whe4 you do this

you violate your students'prinacy and embarrassthem. some teachers.eveuhundliate students by r.ading their notes aloud to the a.s, oruy posting them on -a bul-lptin boand.lbis is hot only unnecessarybut a cnrel *irusJor "airtpr** 3. If you really think that pu should read ,sttdeqt .notes,ire you preparedto deal wittr lnformation

the

a

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Considerwhy yolr students-hane time andopportunityto passnotesi!, yo,urc6ss. Perhapsyou can improve your monitorrng o. ioroo plans toF;*.rai *i, "tnr problem.


What is your classroom management profile? Answerthese12questionsandlearnmoreaboutyour classroommanagement profile. The steps aresimple: . . . . U) Z' 3. @ 5.

Readeachstatementcarefirlly. Write your response, from the scalebelow, on a sheetof paper. Respondto eachstatement basedupon eitheractualor imaginedclassroomexperience. Then,follow the scoringinstructionsbelow.It couldn'tbe easier! : StronglyDisagree :Disagree : Neutral : Agree : ShonglyAgree

(1) If a studentis disruptiveduring class,I assignhimlher to detention,without further discussion.

\

'1

(2) I don'twant to imposeanyruleson my students.

1 (3) The classroommust be quiet in orderfor studentsto learn. g

(4) I am concernedaboutboth what my studentslearn andhow they learn.

I

(5) If a studentturnsin a latehomeworkassignment,it is not my problem.

\l

(6) I don'twantto reprimanda studentbecauseit might hurt his/trerfeelings. | 5

(7) Classpreparationisn't worth the effort. (8) I alwaystry to explainthe reasonsbehindmy rulesanddecisions.

L, Q) I will not acceptexcusesfrom a studentwho is tardy. '*

(tO) The emotionalwell-beingof my studentsis moreimportantthanclassroomcontrol.

\

tttl My studentsunderstandthat they can intemrpt my lectureif they have a relevantquestion.

t \\

(12) If a studentrequestsa hall pass,I alwayshonortherequest.


To scoreyour quiz, Add your r.rpoirm to statements l, 3, and9. This is your scorefor the authoritarianstyle. O Statements 4, 8 and 11 referto the authoritativestvle. F,l Statements 6, 10, and12referto theiaissez-faire style.J Statements 2,5, andT referto the indifl'erentst-r4e

3

The resultis your classroommanagement profile. Your scorefor eachmanagement stylecan rangefrom 3 to 15.A high scoreindicatesa strongpreferencefor that particularstyle.After you havescoredyour quiz, anddeterminedyour profile, readthe descriptionsof eachmanagement style.You may seea little bit of yourselfin eachone. As you gainteachingexperience, you may find that your preferredstyle(s)will change.Over time, your profile may becomemorediverseor morefocused.Also, it may be stiitableto rely upona specificstylewhenaddressing a particularsituationor subject.Perhapsthe successful teacheris onewho canevaluatea situationandthenapplythe appropriatestyle.Finally, rememberthat the intentof this exerciseis to inform you andarouseyour curiosityregarding classroom management styles. The classroommanagement stylesareadaptations of the parentingstylesdiscussedin Adolescence, by JohnT. Santrock.Theywereadaptedby Kris Bosworth,Kevin McCracken, PaulHaakenson, MarshaRitt er Jones,Anne Grey,LauraVersaci,JulieJames,andRonen Hammer. Copyrightel996IndianaUniversity- Centerfor AdolescentStudies,all rightsreserved. GaryM. Ingersoll,Ph.D.- Director Availableat: http;//eduoat ion.indiana.edr_r/cas/ttlv I i 2/rvhathtml


Authoritarian The authoritarianteacherplacesfirm limits andcontrolson the students.Studentswill oftenhave assignedseatsfor the entireterm.The desksareusuallyin straightrows andthereareno deviations.Studentsmustbe in their seatsat the beginningof classandthey frequentlyremain therethroughoutthe period.This teacherrarelygiveshall passesor recognizesexcusedabsences. Often,it is quiet.Studentsknow they shouldnot interruptthe teacher.Sinceverbalexchangeand discussionarediscouraged, the authoritarian's studentsdo not havethe opportunityto learn and/orpracticecommunicationskills. This teacherprefersvigorousdisciplineandexpectsswift obedience. Failureto obeythe teacher usuallyresultsin detentionor a trip to the principal'soffice. In this classroom,studentsneedto follow directionsandnot askwhy. At the extreme,the authoritarianteachergivesno indicationthat he\she.ur", forihe students. Mr. Doe is a goodexampleof an authoritarianteacher.His studentsreceivepraiseand encouragement infrequently,if at all. Also, he makesno effort to organizeactivitiessuchasfield trips. He feelsthat thesespecialeventsonly distractthe studentsfrom learning.After all, Mr. Doe believesthat studentsneedonly listento his lectureto gainthe necessary knowledge. Studentsin this classarelikely to be reluctantto initiateactivity,sincethey may feel powerless. Mr. Doetells the studentswhatto do andwhento do it. He makesall classroomdecisions. Therefore,his styledoeslittle to increaseachievement the settingof motivationor encourage personalgoals. OneMiddle-schoolpupil reactsto this teachingstyle: I don'treally carefor this teacher.He is really strict anddoesn'tseemto wantto give his students a fair chance.He seemsunfair,althoughthat'sjust his way of gettinghis point across.


a

Authoritative The authoritativeteacherplaceslimits and controlson the studentsbut simultaneously encourages independence. This teacheroftenexplainsthe reasonsbehindthe rulesanddecisions. If a studentis disruptive,theteacheroffersa polite, but firm, reprimand.This teachersometimes metesout discipline,but only aftercarefulconsideration of the circumstances. The authoritativeteacheris alsoopento considerable verbalinteraction,includingcritical debates.The studentsknow that they can intemrpt the teacherif they havea relevantquestionor comment.This environmentoffers the studentsthe opportunityto learnand practice communicationskills. Ms. Smith exemplifiesthe authoritativeteachingstyle. Sheexhibits a wann andnurturing genuineinterestandaffection.Her classroomabounds attitudetowardthe studentsandexpresses with praiseandencouragement. Sheoftenwrites commentson homeworkandofferspositive remarksto students.This authoritativeteacherencouragesself-reliantand socially competent behaviorand fostershigher achievementmotivation. Often, shewill guidethe studentsthrougha project,ratherthan lead them. A studentreactsto this style: I like this teacher.Sheis fair andunderstands that studentscan'tbe perfect.Sheis the kind of teacheryou cantalk to without beingput down or feelingembarassed.


w

Laissez-faire The laissez-faireteacherplacesfew demandor controlson the students."Do your own thing" describesthis classroom.This teacheracceptsthe student'simpulsesandactionsandis lesslikely to monitortheir behavior. Mr. Jonesusesa laissez-fairestyle.He strivesto not hurt the student'sfeelingsandhasdifficulty sayingno to a studentor enforcingrules.If a studentdisruptsthe class,Mr Jonesmay assume that he is not giving that studentenoughattention.Whena studentintemrptsa lecture,Mr. Jones acceptsthe intemrption with the belief that the studentmust surelyhave somethingvaluableto add.Whenhe doesoffer discipline,it is likely to be inconsistent. Mr. Jonesis very involvedwith his studentsandcaresfor themvery much.He is more concernedwith the students'emotionalwell-beingthanhe is with classroomcontrol.He sometimesbasesclassroomdecisionson his studentsfeelingsratherthan on theff academic concerns. contactoutsidethe classroom. Mr Joneswantsto be the students'friend.He may evenencourage He hasa difficult time establishingboundariesbetweenhis professionallife andhis personallife. andselfwith studentslack of socialcompetence However,this overindulgentstyleis associated behaviorwhenthe teacheris so control.It is diffrcult for studentsto leam sociallyacceptable permissive.With few demandsplaceduponthem,thesestudentsfrequentlyhavelower motivationto achieve. Regardless, studentsoften like this teacher.A Middle Schoolstudentsays: This is a prettypopularteacher.You don'thaveto be seriousthroughoutthe class.But sometimesthingsget out of controlandwe learnnothingat all.


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Indifferent few demands, in the classroom.This teacherplacesjust involved very not is teacher The indifferent doesn't oni"t"'"'t"d' The indifferentteacher worth the if any,on the studentsandappearrg"rr"ruuv not oft"t feelslhat classpreparationis ,rrrfrijJ" n, rA"nir. ,t rft" on wantto impose questiin' This teachersimply 'r.in" efforr.Thingslike field trips and9n*i"iiffi"it "tt "t" he/she*ill the samematerials'year ifmetimes, time'. preparation necessary "t" the won,ttake afteryear' L -_to lack the skills' confidence'or coulage may teacher This lacking' is Also, classroomdiscipline disciplinestudents. little learning indifferentattitude.Accordingly,very teacher's the reflect and sense The students aloof environment' ;; *otio"'" andkilling time' In this occurs.Everyoneis just "goingthrough skills' with few observeor practi"eiommunication to opportumtres few very have the students motivation discrpline,studentshaverow achievefrent demandsplacedon rri"* *d u"ry rittre andlack self-control' Accordingto onestudent: ever learnanythingin there.Thereis hardly never we and class the control can,t This teacher books' frorn.*ort andpeoplerarelybring their

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2OO7AP@ENGLISH TANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION

FREE.RESPONSE OTTESTIONS

ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION SECTIONII Totaltime-2 hours

QuestionI (Suggested time-40 minutes.This questioncountsfor one-thirdof thetotal essaysectionscore.) six sources. Directions: The following promptis basedon the accompanying refersto a varietyof sourcesinto a coherent,well-writtenessay.Synthesis This questionrequiresyou to synthesize accurately citing and toutc.s(r,,, argument supporte-d your position a cohesive, to form and sources the combining argumentshouldbe cental; thesourcesshouldsupportthis argument.Avoid merelysummaizingsources.f Rememberto attributeboth directandindirectcitations. Introduction

That advertisingplaysa hugerole in societyis readilyapparentto anyonewho watchestelevision,listensto radio, usesthe Internet,or simplylooksat billboardson streetsandbuses.Advertisinghasfiercecritics readsnewspapers, while advocatescounterthat is propaganda, Criticsclaimthat advertisement as well as staunchadvocates. advertisingfostersfreetradeandpromotesprosperity. Assignment Readthe following sources(includingtheintroductoryinformation)carefully.Then, write an essayin which you a*vetopg-Ultion on the effectsof advertising.Synthesizeat leastthree of the sourcesfor support. You may referto thesourcesby their titles(SourceA, SourceB, etc.)or by thedescriptionsin parentheses. SourceA SourceB SourceC SourceD SourceE SourceF

(RedCross) (Shaw) (Culpa) (Day) (Schrank) (Sesana)

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7 AP@ENGLISH I,ANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION FREE.RESPONSE OUESTIONS

20

SourceA AmericanRedCrossposter,2004

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2OO7AP@ENGT,ISH LANGUAGE

AND COMPOSITION

FREE.RESPONSE OT'ESTIONS

SourceB Shaw,Eric H. andStuartAlan. "Cigarettes."The AdvertisingAge Encyclopediaof Advertising.Ed. JohnMcDonoughandKarenEgolf. 3 vols.New York: FitzrayDearborn,2003.

of aAtertising. is excerptedfroman encyclopedia Thefollowing passage The successof cigaretteadvertisingis a potentexampleof advertising'senormouspowerandeconomicvalue.From thebirth of thecigaretteindustry,advertisingwasinstrumentalin creatinga massmarketandapportioningshares consumerresearch,advertising amongbrands.At the endof the 20thcentury,guidedby increasinglysophisticated of health risksandincreasing awareness continuedto increasethe sizeof the market,despiteanexpanding consumernicheand becameadeptat targetingeveryconceivable advertisingrestrictions.Cigaretteadvertisers developingan impressivearrayof advertisingandpromotionaltoolsto reachthem. that in additionto directlyincreasingprimarydemandfor Campaignsthroughoutthe 20thcenturydemonstrated cigarLttJs,advertiiingcouldbe highlyLffectivein developingselectivedemandfor individualbrands,particuiarly duringtheir introduction.Advertisingalsohadotherlessquantifiablebenefitsfor cigarettecompanies:it promoted the inconectbeliefthatthe majorityof peoplesmoke. thecontinuedsocialacceptabilityof smokingandencouraged for cigaretteadvertising. bothuniqueopportunitiesandgrowingchallenges The startof the21stcenturypresented AlthoughU.S.salesweredeclining,marketsin Asia,EasternEurope,SouthAmerica,andAfrica offeredsignificant for the industry.Internationaladvertisingrestrictionsforcedcompaniesto become financialopportunities media,suchasthe aswell asto rely on new,unregulated in theirpromotionalstrategies, increasinglysophisticated Intemet.If thehistoryof cigaretteadvertisingin the 20thcenturyis anypredictorof thefuture,it clearlysuggests to the powerof andremaina vivid testament thatin the 21stcenturythetobaccoindustrywill adapt,persevere, advertising.

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ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION TREE-RESPONSE OT'ESTIONS lzOOLAP@

SourceC Culpa,Maria."AdvertisingGetsAnotherBum Rap." Unpublishedlecture.26 July2004.

Thefollowing passageis excerptedfroma recentlecture. Peoplecancomplainall theywant aboutadvertising,but at its mostbasicform advertisingis teaching,pureand simple.No onecomplainswhenhigh-schoolteachersput mapsof the world on the wall, or kindergarten teachers put funny little dancingalphabetsall overthe room.Why shouldtheycomplainwhencompanies put advertisements for milk or housesor carson billboards?Theseadstell us thatmilk makesour bonesstrong,wherewe canbuy affordablehouses,andwhich car will fit our needsandgetus to work safely.Justaswe needthe informationfound in maps,we needthe informationin adsto buy the necessities of life*which hasto be asimp6rtantasknowingthat New ZealandlooksREALLY smallnextto Australia!

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2OA7AP@ENGLISH I.ANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION

TREE.RESPONSE OT'ESTIONS

SourceD Day, Nancy.Advertising:Informationor Manipulation? BerkeleyHeights:EnslowPublishers,1999.

Thefollowingpassageis excerptedfroma bookthatexaminesthe role of advertisingin society. '

told us to, who worriedaboutdandruff?Who was Advertisingtells you whatyou need.Beforeadvertisers by teeththat weren'tblindingwhite,toiletsthat didn't smellfresh,or waterspotson drinkingglasses? embarrassed sprays,plug-indevices,stick-onscentdispensers, Who knewthathouseshadto be deodorizedwith perfume-packed 'potpouni, simmeringherbs,andodorneutralizers Advertisingisn't all bad,however.By payingfor advertisingspace,companiesfund mostof whatyou readin andbooks,whatyou hearon theradio,andwhatyou watchon television.It alsoincreasinglypaysfor magazines whatis on thelntemet. runningfor office.It tells us aboutimportantissuessuchas It informsus aboutcandidates Advertisingalsoeducates. thebenefitsof seatbeltuse,thedangersof drugs,andtheproblemof drunkdriving. waysin whichwe canchangeour homesand It explainshow to useproducts,givesus recipes,anddemonstrates . placesof business.It teachesus groominghabits.Unfortunately.. .[i]t canreinforceracial,cultural,andsexual It canmakeusunsatisfiedwith who we are,greedyfor whatwe don't have,andobliviousto the atereotypes. miseriesof millions who haven'ta fractionof the comfortswe takefor granted.. . . magazinehaveshown Teensestablishbuying habitsthey will carryinto adulthood.Studiesconductedfor Seventeen and41 percentbuy the same that29 percentof adult womenstill buy thebrandof coffeetheypreferredasteenagers, "thenyou may missherfor ever.She'sat brandof mascara."If you missher," the magazinewarnsits advertisers, . . . Reachfor a girl inhet Seventeen are established. brand loyalties being tastes and thatreceptiveagewhenlooks, yours for life." yearsandshemay be

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2OO7AP@ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION FREE-RESPONSE OT'ESTIONS

SourceE Schrank,Jeffrey.DeceptionDetection.Boston:Beacon Press,1975.

; Thefollowing passage is excerptedfroma bookthatexarnines theeffectsof adverrising. Althoughfew peopleadmitto beinggreatlyinfluencedby ads,surveysandsalesfiguresshowthat a well-designed advertisingcampaignhasdramaticeffects.A logicalconclusionis thatadvertisingworksbelowthe level of consciousawareness and it worksevenon thosewho claim immunityto its message. Ads aredesignedto havean effectwhile beinglaughedat, belittled,andall but ignored. A personunawareof advertising'sclaim on him is preciselytheonemostvulnerableto the aJs attack.Advertisers ' delightin anaudiencethat for suchan audienceis rendereddefenseless believesadsto be harmlessnonsense, by its beliefthatthereis no attacktakingplace.The purposeof classroomstudyof advertisingis to raisethe level of awareness aboutthepersuasivetechniques usedin ads.Oneway to do this is to analyzeadsin microscopicdetail. Ads canbe studiedto detecttheir psychologicalhooks,how theyareusedto gaugevaluesandhiddendesiresofthe common[person].They canbe studiedfor their useof symbols,color,andimagery.But perhapsthe simplestand mostdirectway to studyadsis throughan analysisof the languageof the advertisingclaim.

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2OO7AP@ENGLISH T,ANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION

FREE.RESPONSE OT'ESTIONS

SourceF Sesana, RenatoK. "ExerciseYour Moral Judgement Throughthe Way You Buy." Wajibu:A Journalof SocialandReligiousConcern15.4(2002). 8 Feb.2005 <htp ://web.peacelink.it/w ajlbu/12-issue/pi.htmb.

Thefollowing passageis excerptedfrom an onlinej oumal. Nowadays,marketingexecutiveswill useall availablemethodsto convinceus of theneedto buy their company products.Theyarenot sellingsoapor petrol,but a vision,a way of life. Usingthemostsophisticated knowledge andtechniques, theycreateunfulfilled desiresandthenthey pushus to buy theproductsthat we do not need.But we shouldnot takeall theinformationwe receiveatfacevalue. Thedesirefor profit andtheappealfor a "healthyeconomy"hasled manycompanies andgovemmentsto put aside the necessary moralresponsibilities in the ageof theglobalmarket. Oneoftenhearsthecommentmadeafterwatchingfastcars,semi-nudebodies,or amorousencounters during televisionadvertsor on hugebillboards:"I neverdid figure out whatthey wereadvertising."Thereis no connection andtheproductsold.For instance,sport or indeedthereoftenis a contradictionbetweentheway of life presented know thatrationalityis not andbeer,sportandhardliquor do not go togetherin real life, but the advertisers what impact. Advertisers claim that it is up to theconsumerto makemoral important, is importantis theemotional decisions.The advertisers simplypresenttheir products.. . but not without spendinga greatdealof time andmoney to studyhow bestto attractandcontrolconsumers of everyage,sex,raceandreligion. It is interestingto notethatwhat we really needdoesnot needadvertising.For instance,nobodyspendshugesums advertisingflour. Peoplewill buy it evenwithoutit beingadvertised. But softdrinksmay stopsellingaftera few monthswithoutadverts.Theneedfor it is createdby the advert.Otherwiseeverybodywouldconsiderit a rip-off to pay [$1.00]for a glassof waterwith a bit of sugar,artificial colouringandflavouringwhosereal valuemustnot be overa [few cents].. . . Anothercaseis themarketingof productssuchaspowderedmilk in countrieswhichhaveno sanitarywatersupply to makethemsafefor use,thuscausingdiseases anddeathto a greatnumberof babies.However,no onehasan economicinterestin advertisingbreast-feeding, whichis the bestandcheapest way naturehasprovidedfor babies to grow strongandhealthy.But manyhavean interestin advertisingpowderedmilk. It is a form of violenceto psychologically forcein the mind of a rural womanthat to be modernshehasto feedherbabieswith powderedmilk. Reprinted by permissionof WAJIBU Magazine.

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AP@ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION 2OO7SCORING GUIDETINES Question 1 The score shouldreflect a judgrmentof the essay'squahty as a whole. Rememberthat studentshad only 1.b minutes to read and 40 minutes to write; therefore,the essayis not a finished product and shouldnot be judged by standardsthat are appropriatefor an out-of-classassigmment.Evaluatethe essayas a draft, making cerlain to reward studentsfor what they do well. All essays,eventhose scored B or g, may contain occasionalflaws in analysis,prosestyle, or mechanics. Such featuresshouldenter into the holistic evaluation.ofan essay'soverallquallty. In no casemay an essaywith many distracting elTorsin gnammarand mechanicsbe scoredhigher than a 2. I

I

Essaysearning a scoreof 9 meet the criteria for 8 essaysand, in addition, are especially geblsfie!9d in their argument,skillful in their synthesisof sources,or lryyg in their dontrolof language

Effective

Essaysearninga scoreof 8 effectively developa position on the effectsof advertising.They supportthe position by successfullysynthesizing*at least three of the sources.The argmmentis convincing,and the sourceseffectivelysupport the student'sposition. The prosedemonstratesan ability to controla wide range of the elementsof effectivewriting but is not necessarilyflawless. 7

Essaysearning a scoreof 7 fit the description of 6 essaysbut are dlstingruishedby more nnrnnlataor more purposefirlargnrmentationand synthesisof sources,or a more matue prose style.

6 Adeguate Sssaysearninga scoreof 6 adequately developa position on the effectsof advertlsing.They synthesize It least three of the sources.The argrumentis generallyconvincing and the sourcesgenerallysupportthe ;tudent's position,but the argumentis lessdevelopedor less cogent than the argumentsof essayseaming righer scores.The langnragemay containlapsesin diction or syntax, but generallythe proseis ciear. 5 Essaysearning a scoreof 5 developa position on the effectsof advertising.They supportthe nncitinn l. pvorLavrr ^-lysynthesizingat leastthree sources,but their argrumentsand their use of sourcesare somewhatlimited, inconsistent,or uneven. The argrurrr-ent is generallyclear,and the sources generauysupport the student'sposition, but the links between the sourcesand the argmment may be strained.The ltniting may contain lapsesin diction or slmtax,but it usuallyconveysthe writer's ideas adequately. nana-^l'1"

I

Inadequate

issays earninga scoreof 4 inadequately developa position on the effectsof advertising. They attempt to )resent an algument and support the position by synthesizingat leasttwo sourcesbut may nisunderstand,misrepresent,or oversimplifyeither their ornmargument or the sources they include.The ink between the argrumentand the sourcesis weak. The proseoi 4 esr"ys may suggest immaturecontrol )f writing. For the puposes of scoring,synthesisrefersto combiaingthe sources and the wdter's position to form a cohesive,supported Jgument, and accuratelyciting souices.

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AP@ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION 2OO7SCORING GUIDETINES Question 1(continued) 3

2

Essaysearning a scoreof 3 meet the criteria for a scoreof 4 but demonstrateless understandingof the sources,lesssuccessln developingtheir own position,or less controlof writing.

Little Success

Essaysearning a scoreof 2 demonsfiatelittle success in developinga position on the effectsof advertising.They may merely alludeto knowledgegained from reading the sourcesrather than citing the sourcesthemselves.Theseessaysmay misreadthe sources,fail to present an argument,or substitute a simplertask by merelyrespondingto the questiontangentiallyor merely summarizingthe sources.The proseof 2 essaysoften demonstratesconsistentweaknessesin writing, such as a lack of developmentor organization,g[ammaticalproblems,or a lack of control. 1 Essaysearning a scoreof 1 meet the criteria for a scoreof 2 but are especiallysimplistic, are weak in their control of writing, or do not cite even one source.

.

0

Indicates an on-topic responsethat receivesno credit, such as one that merelyrepeatsthe prompt.

-

Indicates a blank responseor one that is completelyoff topic.

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Conference for IllinoisTeachers of English- April2008 Jim Meyer,Departmentof English,Millikin University,1184W. Main, Decatur,IL 62522 jmeyer@millikin.edu

qewyesLwrhevwatLc'.twLts twtwLttlLe Literacyin multiple genres:a thematicunit on NativeAmericans Main languageartsgoal of this unit (llinois learninggoalsfor English): 3C: Comprehend a broadrangeof readingmaterials. 54: Locate,organize,anduseinformationfrom varioussourcesto answerquestions,solve problemsandcommunicate ideas. Classactivities: 1. Introducefolk tales,using Wo speaks for wolf: A NativeAmericanlearningstory by paula Underwood(Georgetown, TX: A Tribe of Two press,lgBZ). 2. Assignstudentsto groups;eachgroupreceivesa packetof informationaboutNativeAmerican groupsin a particulargeographicarea. (Packetsareever-changing; the list belowreflectsmy currentpacketsbut is not meantto be authoritative.) 3. Providea setofquestionsfor studentresearch: A. How did thesegroupscometo live wherethey do? B. Whatwasdaily life like for them? Considerdifferentkindsof people,suchasboys, girls,men,women,elders,warriors,chiefs. C. Whateventsintemrptedthis daily routine? D. How weredecisions madein thisgroup? E' How did peoplein this groupthink aboutwhatwould makea goodlife? GENERALREFERENCE(photocopies of relevantsectionsincludedin eachpacketor booksto useasreadalouds): Non-fiction Ciment,James.Scholasticencyclopedia of theNorthAmericanIndian. Scholastic,1996. Smith-Baranzini, MarleneandEgger-Bovet,Howard. Bookof theAmericanIndians: BrownPaperSchoolUSKidsHistory. Liftle Brown, 1994. Folk talesandpoetry ortiz, simon. Thepeopleshall continue. Chirdren's Book press,19gg. Bruchac,Joseph:Theearth underSlqtBear'sfeet: NativeAmericanpoemsof theland. PaperStar,1995. Underwood,Paula. Whospeal<sforwolfl A NativeAmericanlearningstory. Tribeof Two Press.1994. Underwood, Paula. Three strands in the braid: A guidefor enablersof learning. Tribe of Two Press,1994. Olson,DennisL. Specialgifts: In searchof loveand honor. North Word, 1999. I. GREAT PLAINS Non-fiction Freedman,Russell. An Indianwinter. Scholastic,1991. McGovem, Awl ...lfyou lived with the SiouxIndians. Scholastic, 1974. Iannone, Catherine. Sitting Bull: Lqkotaleader. Franklin Watts, 1998. Shemie,Bonnie. Houses of hide and earth. Tundra Books. 1991. Freedman,Russell. Bufalo hunt. Scholastic,l9gg.


Folk tales

Novel

Nelson,S.D. Gift horse:A Lakotastory. HarryN. Abrams,1999. Cohlene,Terri. Quillworker:A Cheyenne legend.WatermillPress,1990. Goble,Paul. Iktomi and the boulder. Orchard,1998. Ackerman,Ned.Splrlfftorse. Scholastic,1998. Fowler,Christineet ql. Shotaandthestar quilt. Zeroto Ten, 1998.

N. SOUTHEAST Non-fiction Bealer,Alex. Only thenqmesremain:the Cherokees and the Trail of Tears.Little Brown,1996. Roop,PeterandConnie. ...1fyou livedwith theCherokee.Scholastic,1998. Pennington, Daniel. Itse selu:Cherokeeharvestfestival. Charlesbridge, 1994. Folk tales Cohlene,Teni. Dancingdrum:A Cherokeelegend.WatermillPress,2001. Smith,CynthiaLeitich. Jingledancer.Morrow,2000. Novels George,JeanCraighead.Thetalkingearth. HarperTrophy,1983. journey. Dial, 1999. Harrell,Beatrice.Longwalker's III. SOUTHWEST Non-fiction Roessel,Monty. Kinaaldd:A Navajogirl growsup. Lerner,1993. Roessel,Monty. Songsfromtheloom:A Nnajo girl learnstoweqve. Lerner-I995. Kamma,Anne. ...If you lived with theHopi. Scholastic,I 999. Yue,CharlotteandDavid. Thepueblo. HoughtonMifflin, 1986. Folk tales Cohlene,Tenl Turquoiseboy:A Nnajo legend Watermill,1990. McDermott,Gerald. Arrow to thesun:A PuebloIndian tale. Ytking,1974, Novels O'Dell, Scott. Sr'ngdownthenoon. Dell,1970. Momaday,NatacheeScott. Owl in the cedarnee. IJniv of Nebraska,l99l. Vick, HelenHughes. lMalkerof time. CourtWaynePress,1998. IV. NORTHEAST Non-fiction Peters,RussellM. Clambake:A lYampanoag tradition. Lemer,1992. Shemie,Bonnie. Housesof bark: tipt, wigwamand longhouse.Tundra,1990. Levine,Ellen. ...Ifyou lived with thelroquois. Scholastic,1998. Sewall,Marcia. Peopleof the breakingday. Aladdn 1990. Folk tales Swamp,Chief Jake. Giving thanl6. Lee& Low, 1995. Orie, SandraDe Coteau.Did you hearwind singyour name? Walker,I 995. Novel Donis,Michael.Seesbehindtrees.Hyperion,l996. Poetry McCurdy,Michael. An Algonquiqnyear:Theyearaccordingto thefull moon. HoughtonMifflin, 2000. V. NORTHWEST Non-fiction Shemie,Bonnie. Housesofwood. Tundra,1992. Kamm4 Arne. ...Ifyou livedwith theIndiansof theNorthwestcoast. Scholastic,2002. Paul,FrancesLackey. Kahtahah:A Tlingitgirl. AlaskaNorthwest,1976. McConkey,Lois. ,Seaand cedar. Firefly, 1973. Folk tales McDermoft,Gerald. Rqven:A tricl$tertalefrom thePacificNorthwest.Voyager,1993. Vaughan,RichardLee. Eagleboy. Sasquatch,2000. Novel Hobbs,Will. Ghostcanoe. Avon,1997.

Assessment A varietyof final activitiescanbe assessed: -An oral presentation --A posteror othervisualrepresentation -A written paper --An artifact -A demonstration


What is your classroom management profile? Answerthese12questionsandlearnmoreaboutyour classroommanagement profile. The steps aresimple: . . . . \l) Y 3. O 5.

Readeachstatementcarefully. Write your response, from the scalebelow, on a sheetof paper. Respondto eachstatement baseduponeitheractualor imaginedclassroomexperience. Then,follow the scoringinstructionsbelow. It couldn'tbe easier! : StronglyDisagree :Disagree = Neutral : Agree : StronglyAgree

U (1) If a studentis disruptiveduringclass,I assignhim/herto detention,without further \ discussion. "l

(2) I don'twant to imposeanyruleson my students.

1 (3) The classroommustbe quietin orderfor studentsto learn. 5 t+l I am concemedaboutboth whatmy studentslearnandhow they learn.

\

,

(5) If a studenttums in a latehomeworkassignment,it is not my problem.

I

fel I don'twantto reprimanda studentbecauseit might hurt his/herfeelings.

|

(7) Classpreparationisn't worth the effort.

5

(8) I alwaystry to explainthe reasonsbehindmy rulesanddecisions.

Lt Q) I will not acceptexcusesfrom a studentwho is tardy. *

(tO) The emotionalwell-beingof my studentsis moreimportantthanclassroomcontrol.

I rl

Lt (11) My studentsunderstand that theycaninterruptmy lectureif they havea relevantquestion.

\

(12)It a studentrequestsa hall pass,I alwayshonorthe request.


LITERATURE BY GENRE AND COMPOSITION I |

^ LL

tr1--^)^ ct^-^^-a-- A^----^ Semester 9th Grade Course

|I

I .tI

I

oBJECTIvES The studentswill be ableto:

I ll

.

Recognize,recall,andsummarizeinformationfrom materialread.

It r

A

I

U.

- ' - - -give - -for - - each - - ' - - -prior r - to, during,and afterreading. Generate -'- ' - questions andpredictionsand a - rationales '

I It lr II

{b .

Understandthe various purposesfor reading and identify text to accomplish each purpose. -1

I

I I

fl

A

I

.

I II

. 4 n

l. II l-

A F

Recognize the difficulties of the text, requirementsof the task, and their own abilities and motivation.-

Justify---------J andexplain -'-r---" answe;sto questionsaboutmaterialread.

.

Readandunderstand differenttypesofliterature.

.

Recognizeandunderstand theelementsof literature.

F . , f .

Readandunderstand literaryworksthatpresentdifferentvaluesystemsandphilosophies.

*

.

Compareandcontrastthethemes,values,beliefs,or prejudicesrepresented in similar literaryworks.

.

Assessthe effectiveness and strategiesin achievinga specificpurposein a given of the writer'stechniques literarywork.

.

Write for a varietyof purposesandaudiences usingappropriatelanguageandstyle.

ff tf

Evaluateandrespondto selectedliteraryworks.

V ,

Developandmaintaina focuswith a cleartheses,a main idea,themeor unifying event.

h .

Supportandelaboratethemainpointwith specificinformationor reasons.

F .

Organizeideasclearly,coherentlyandlogicallywithin the appropriate major discoursestructures.

L .

Usestandard English.

rl

L. . 1\l

Revise,editandproofread.

BASIC TEXTBOOKS GlencoeLiterattre: The Reader's Choice, Course 4 Elementsof l(riting,9th grade Great Expectarions (Glencoe Literature Library) OYAnimal Farm (Glencoe Literature Library) ORThe Pearl

OUTLINE OF LITERATURE CONTENT l. -

ShortStories A. O. Henry B. Saki

RevisedSpring2002

"TheGift of theMagi" "TheOpenWindow" 1

(optional)

p.7 p. 19

Literatureby GenreandComposition


\,,* ,-i r/ ,/

F C. -D. - E. --1. O G. H. () l.

FrankR. Stockton RichardConnell EdgarAllan Poe I='5i' Toniâ&#x201A;Źadsffiara Guy deMaupassant W. D. Wetherell . JamesHurst

"The Lady, or the Tiger?" (optional)

"TheMost Dangerous Game" "TheCaskof Amontillado"

Pieu it' "' ::Tl!i,:;,:',:otato

p.45 p.67 D.87

fi8-211

p. 169 "TheBass,TheRiver andSheila Mant"(optional) p.199 p.257 "TheScarletIbis"

(Teachat least6 stories: 5 from the list aboveandtheneither"SweetPotatoPie" or an,:thermulticulturalstory Add other stories as desired.) *CompositionIdeas:

Write a comparison betweenthe story"The MostDangerousGame"andthemovie versionof the story. After redding"The Bass,theRiver,andSheilaMant" and"The ScarletIbis," havestudentswrite a storyinspiredby eventsin theirown lives.

II. Non-Fiction(optional) A. RichardWright B. Elie Wiesel C. SandraCisneros D. MayaAngelou E. YashikoUchida

" fromBlackBoy" "fromNight" "OnlyDaughter" "fromAll God'sChildrenNeedTraveling Shoes" "Of Dry GoodsandBlackBowTies"

p. 329 p.395

F. TrumanCapote

"A ChristmasMemory'!

p. 405

p.297 p.305 p.314

(Add otherselections asdesired.) *CompositionIdea: Writelettersto theeditorfor theschooVlocal newspapers on contemporary issues. IiI. Poetry (Choose selections fromthislist or others.Use3-5poems.) A. Life Lessons L Mary Oliver "TheBlackSnake" 2. Alma Luz Villanueva "I Wasa SkinnyTomboyKid" ttPurchase" 3. NaomiLongMadgett 4. Alice Walker "GoodNight,Willie Lee,I'll Seeyou in theMorning" 5. Nikki Giovanai "ThelVorld Is Not a Pleasant Placeto Be" 6. GabrielaMistral "Serenity" B. Expressions l. DeniseLevertoy "TheSecret" 2. KatyPeake,Chiyo, Haiku MatsuoBasho,PaulaYup 3. JimmySantiago Baca "I Am OfferingThis Poem" 4. EdgarLeeMasters "Rainin My Heart" 5. PabloNeruda "To theFoot FromIts Child" C. Inspirations 1. WendellBerry "ThePeaceof Wild Thines" 2. JoyHarjo "Remember" 3. MargaretWalker "Lineage"

p.449 p.456 p.458 p.472 p.477 p.477 p,493 p.499 p. 505 p. 509 p.514 p. 528 p. 540 p.546

D. SelectionsftomThe Odysseyby Homer ("Cyclops")

*Composition ldea: Write an analysisof a poem or a comparison of two poems. ' Write an original poem.

RevisedSpring2002

Literatureby GenreandComposition


l*

IV. Drama William Shakespeare

Romeoand Juliet

p. 580

*CompositionIdeas: Havestudentswrite a cause/effect compositionrelatedto "tragicoutcome." Write a comparison of a movieversionof RomeoandJuliet andtheplay. Write a comparison discussingthevarioususesof dramaticirony in RomeoanclJuliet. Write a compositionon therole of fatein theplayRomeoandJttliet. Write a causeandeffectcompositionbasedon a quotationfrom theplay RomeoandJtiliet, suchas ,.Wiselyand slow. Theystumblethatrun fast." (p. 618) Discusswho or whatis responsible for the deathsof RomeoandJuliet. Choosethreepartiesthatyou feelshould sharetheblame,but arguethatoneparfyis themostresponsible. Showthe 1996movieversionof Romeoandhtliet andhavestudentswrite a criticismof it, or arguewhetherit has educational value.

V. Novel: Teachoneof thefollowingnovels.(Optional) A. CharlesDickens GreatExpectations GeorgeOrwell G. AnimalFarm

c.

D. Independent ReadingNovel .Video - GreatExpectatiotts, Animol Farm *Composition Ideas: write a compositioncomparingAnimalFarm with theRussianRevolution. write a characteranalysison a charactetftomAnimalFarm or GreatExpectations. Thatmoneyhaspowerto changepeople'sattitudestowardoneanotherwasa favoritesubjectof Dickens.Write an essaydiscussinghow he developsthisthemein GreatExpectations.

COMPOSITIONGUIDELINES Studentswill write oneextendedparagraph (multi-draft)composition.Shrdentswill learn andusethe threedivisionstructureby writing two multi-paragraph papers(4 diafts). Of the two multi-paragraph papers: Shrdents will writeat leastonecause/effect paperor analyticalpaper. Studentswill write at leastonecomparison/contrast paper. In additionto thetwo multi-paragraph processpapers,studentswill write at leastoneimpromptupaperfrom a prompt. Teacherfeedbackwill be givenon organizedprewritingor a preliminarydraft of all multi-draftcompositions.

RevisedSpring2002

Literature by Genre and Composition


COMPOSITIONAND LANGUAGE SKILLS Usethefollowingchaptersin theTheElementsof Writing,gth Gradetextbookasreferencein teachingparagraph andcompositionstructure: If you teachLiteratureby GenreandCompositionlst semester usethefollowingchaptersfor referencein teaching paragraphandcomposition stucture. (If studentstakeWrittenandOral Communication lst semester, theywill coverthesechaptersin WOC.) PartOne:

Chapter1 Chapter2 Chapter3

Writing andThinking Understanding Paragraph Structure Understanding CompositionStructure

you teachLiteratureby GenreandComposition: Usethefollowingchaptermaterialsno matterwhichsemester Part One:

Chapter5 Chapter6 Chapter9 Chapter11 Chapter12

UsingDescription(optional) CreativeWriting: Narration(optional) Writing AboutLiterature WritingComplete Sentences Writing EffectiveSentences

PartTwo: Useanychapterswhichseemappropriate to theneedsofyour studentsor your own teaching. Thisportionof thetext is designated for usein WOC only.] [Note: PartThree"Resources":

GRAMMAR AND USAGE Note: Elementsof usageshouldbe taughtthroughcomposition.Focusshouldbe on sentence structure: completesentences and avoidingfragments,run-onsentences, and commasplices.Also, lbcuson comma usage. Conceptsthatmustbe coveredincludethe following: UsageStrand: IdentifyingSubjects/Verbs Distinguishing Main/Subordinate Clauses

SpecialNote: Seepage20 of EnglishDepartmentHigh SchoolAssessments. is requiredfor This assessment all studentsin Lit. and Comp.

RESEARCHSKILLS Teachingofresearch skillsin thiscourseis optional.Ifyou chooseto coverresearch with any skillsin conjunction pieceof literaturein thecourse,usethedepartment Research Paperbooklet,usingtheWorks Citedform aswell as documentation form dictatedin thebooklet. Teaching theconceptof paraphrasing (e.g.RomeoandJuliet, poetry,etc.) if applicable

RevisedSpring2002

Literature by Genre and Composition


MODERN NOVELS l2th GradeSemesterElective This courseemphasizes the variouselementsof thenovelandinvolvesthestudyof a numberof important novels.studentswill beinvolvedin an in-depthstudyof theliteraryselections.

GOALS .

Thestudentwill beableto: .

Gainexposure to contemporary novels.

r

Gainexperience iir identiffingandunderstanding variousstylesandformsof novels.

r

Defineandidentiffin variousnovels:setting,character development, symbolism,pointof view, theme,conflict,etc.

r

Completein-depthanalyses of novels.

o

Useexpository skillsto write criticalpaperson theparticularliterature understudy.

o

Useinformationfrom outsidesources to completean analyticalresearchpaperabouta modern novel.

Note:A minimumo.f.fournovelsmustberead duringthesemester. CORE NOVELS: EachteacheJ mustteachbothof thesenovets. A SeparatePeace(classsets) TheGreatGatsblt(classsets) coRE NovEL oPTIoN: Eachteachermustteachoneof thenovelsbelow. The SecretLife of Bees Sula REQUIRED

NovELS:

Eachteachermustteachoneor two of rhesenovels.

Catcherin theRye A Farewellto Arms OneFlew Overthe CuckoobNest Slaughterhouse-Five

RESEARCHPAPERNOVELS (Teacher discretionfor additionaltitles) TheColor Purple TheBell Jar BraveNew llrorld 1984 Fahrenheit451 TheirEyesWereWatchingGod


\

English/Language Arts Gradel2 RequiredAssessment Goal#l:

Readwith an understanding and fluency.

Goal#3:

write standardEnglishin a grammatical, well-organized and coherentmannerfor a variefyof purpose.

Goal#3.1:

Choose, organize,and developideasclearly,coherentlyand togically for variousaudiences and writing purposes.

Goal#5:

usethelanguage artsto acquire,assess and communicate information.

Assessment InstrumentDescription : The students will writea multi-paragraph literaryanalysisto a specificaudience on a chosen novel. Exceeds: (A)

Organizationalplan is clear,all pointsarelogicallyconnected, alt majorpointsareelaborated with specificsecondoid.r support,no digression fromthesis;audience andpurpose arespecificaily identified.

Meets:

Organizationalplan is evidentareasaresupported with second orderreasoning, ideasdevelopthesis,andwriting identifies audience andpurpose.

(B or C) DoesNot Meet: (D or F)

organizationalplan is noticeable, but not appropriate; supportattempted but ambiguou,o, unrelaied;thesisnot developed; writingdoesnotclearlyidentifyaudience andpurpose.

DoesNot Attempt An Answer: (F)

Doesnot attemptananswer.

Expectation:

At Unit#5 highschool,basedon information whichhasbeen collected duringthe schoolyear(s),we expect70oZ of ourstudents who completethisassessment to meetor exceed thestandards whichhavebeenset.


I

W'#

MODERN NOVELS 12th GradeSemesterElective

This courseemphasizes the variouselementsof the novelandinvolvesthestudyof a numberof important novels.Students will be involvedin an in-depthstudyof theliteraryselections.

GOALS Thestudentwillbe ableto: .

Gainexposure to contemporary novels.

o

Gainexperience ifi identiSingandunderstanding variousstylesandformsof novels.

r

Defineandidenti$rin variousnovels:setting,character development, symbolism,pointof view, theme,conflict,etc.

r

Complete in-depthanalyses of novels.

o

Useexpository skillsto writecriticalpaperson theparticularliteratureunderstudy.

o

Useinformationfrom outsidesources to completean analyticalresearchpaperabouta modem novel.

Note:A minimumo-ffournovelsmustbereadduringthesemester. CORE NOVELS: Eachteachermustteachbothof thesenovels. A SeparatePeace(classsets) TheGreatGatsby(classsets) CORE NOVEL OPTtrON:Eachteachermustteachoneof thenovelsbelow. TheSetet Life of Bees Sula REQUIRED

NovELS:

Eachteachermustteachoneor two of thesenovers.

Catcherin the Rye A Farewellto Arms OneFlew Overthe Cuckoo'sy'y'est Slaughterhouse-Five

RESEARCHPAPERNovELS (Teacher discretionfor additionalritles) TheColor Purple TheBell Jar BraveNew World 1984 Fahrenheit45I TheirEyesWereWatchingGod


lrr-7

i

.

<

--._

.1

OutlineofContent

.li

Studyofcorenovels-l SeparatePeace(Knowles)and TheGreatGatsby (Fitzgerald)(AIl studentsreadthesenovelsandtheteacherguidesan analysisdealingwith the following literaryelementsto preparestudents for furtherstudyof novels.) A. Setting B. Characterdevelopment C. Thcme D. Conflict E. Style F. Form G. Symbolism H. Pointof view I.

II.

Studyof othernovels-two or moreadditionalnovels A, EthanFrome (Wharton) B. Catcherin theRye(Salinger) (Vonnegut) B, Slaughterhouse-Five C. OneFIew Aver theCuckoo't/fest (Kesey) D. A Farewellto Arms(Hemingway) E, TheSecretLife of Bees(Kidd) F. Sula

III. Techniques ofcritical analysisofthe novel Studentswill write a minimumof two essays, oneof which will be an analyticalresearchpaperon an independently readmodernnovelor a novelstudiedin the course(at theteacher'sdiscretion). CORE NOVELS:

Eachteachermustteachboth of thesenovels.

A SeparatePeace(classsets) TheGrealGatsby(classsets) CORE NOVEL OPTION: Eachteachermustteachoneof thenovelsbelow. '

TheSecretLife of Bees Sula

REQUIRED

NOVELS:

Eachteachermustteachone or two of thesenovels.

Catcherin theRye A Farewell to Arms OneFlantOvertheCuckoo'sNest

)

RESEARCH PAPER NOVELS (Teacherdiscretionfor additionaltitles) TheColor Purple TheBell Jar BraveNew lYorld 1984 Fahrenheit45I Their Eyesllere l{atching God Spring2005

..:l


FORPOSITIVEINTERACTIONANDQUAIITY LEARMNG CHAPTER8 GROUPINGANDASSIGNMENTS

rany young people, instant high-paying employment >r iobs that entail more fun than hard work' In light of ris cultural phenomenon, we are on your side: the lassroom teacher is on the firing line each day and is instantly and entertainxpected to perform-perhaps rgly, but most certainly in a highly competent and prosituations that ate far from ideal. :ssional manner-in I any case, you must gain your srudents' attention betre you can teach them. In this final section of the chapteq you will find an anLotatedlist of ideas, many of which have been offered over 3cent years by classroom teachers. (See also Figote 8.4 at re conclusion of this chapter.) Although the ideas are rganized according to discipline, and some may be oore appropriate for one group of sfudents than another, 'ou may profit from reading all entries for each field. Alhough a parricul^r entry might be identified as specific c one discipline, it might also be useful in others (many rf them can be used in interdisciplinary teaching-for :xample number one can clearly be combined with nathematics and science, as well as arr), or it might stimlate a creative thought for your own stock of motivaional techniques, such as an idea fot away to utilize the heory of multiple learning capacities, or to emphasize he multicultural aspect of a lesson in math, or social ;tudies, or whatever the central discipline or theme of a esson or unit of instruction.

lhe Visualand PerformingAfts 1. As part of a unit combining design or creativiry vith science, have students construct, design, and dec>rate their own kite. 'Jrhen the projects are complete, lesignate a time to fly them. 2. Use lyrics from popular music to influence classwork, such as by putting the lyrics into pictures. 3. IJtllize the outdoors or another environment for a iee drawing experience. 4. Invite a local artist who has created a community mural to speak to the class about the mural' Plan and ?reate a class mural, perhaps on a large sheet of plywood or some other location approved by the school administration. 5. Use a mandala to demonstrate the importance of individual experience, as in interpreting paintings and in interpreting poetry. 6. Collect books/magazineslposters/fiLms/videos,/computer software programs and so forth that show different kinds of masks people around the world wear. Ask sh:dents to identify the similarities and differences in the masks. Have them research the meanings that mask characters have in various cultures. Have students design and create their own masks to illustrate their own Personalities, cultures, and so forth.

245

7 . As part of a unit on the creative process, have each student draw or sketch on a piece of paper, then pass it on to the next person, and that person will make additions to the drawing. Instructions could include "improve the drawing," "make the drawing ugly," and "add what you think would be necessary to complete the composition." 8. Imagine that you're a bird flying over the largest city you have visited. \fhat do you see, hear' smell, feel, and taste?Draw a "sensory" maP' 9. Assign a different color to each student. Have them arrange themselves into warm and cool colors and explain their decisions (why blue is cool, etc.). Discuss people's emotional responsesto each of the colors. 10. \fatch videos of dances from various countries and cultures. Have students identify similarities and differences. Have students research meanings and occasions of particular dances. 11. Have students discover ways in which music, art, and dance are used around them and in their community' 12. Find a popular song that students like. Transpose the melody into unfamiliar keys for each instrument. This makes the student want to learn the song, but in the process the student will have to become more familiar with his or her instrument. 13. Set aside one weekend morning a month and hold small, informai recitals (workshops) allowing students to participate/ observe the performance siruation(s) among their peers and themselves. (Students might be told previously about these "special days" and encouraged to prepare a selection of their own choosing.) 1.4. Play a rhythm game, one such as the "Dutch Shoe Game," to get students to cooperate, work together, and enjoy themselves using rhlthm. Participants sit in a circle, and as the song is sung, each person passesone of his or her shoes to the person on the right in rhlthm to the music. Shoescontinue to be passed as long as verses are sung. Those with poor rhythm will end up with a pile of shoes in front of them! 15. Choose a rhythmical, humorous poem or verse to conduct. The students read the poem in chorus, while the teacher stands before them and conducts the poem as if it were a musical work. Students must be sensitive to the intonation, speed, inflection, mood, and dynamics that the teacher wants them to convey in their reading. 16. Start a Retired Senior Citizens Volunteer Program (RSCVP) with senior citizens presenting folk art workshops with students, and where the students and seniors then work together to create artworks for the school. For example, students at one school make tray favors, napkin rings, place mats, door decorations, and cards and treat cups for the residents of the local Veterans home.


286

pARTm

sTRATEGIES,AIDs,MEDTA,ANDRJSoTJRCES FoREFFEcTTvETNSTRUcTIoN

FamilyandConsumerEconomics, Foods,and Textiles 17. Often the foods we like originated from another part of our country or the world. Have the students iden_ tify such foods and from where they came-foods such as spaghetti,enchiladas,fajitas,wontons, tacos,quiche, croissants, teriyaki, fried rice, pizza, hot dogs, ham_ burgers, noodles, tomatoes,chocolate,potatoes,hoagy, chop suey, ice creamcones,submarines,and poor boys. Have them list the names and origins, and put pictures of the food in place on alarge world map. 18. Take still photos of class members at special events such as dinners, fashion shows, field trips, and special projects. Build a scrapbook or bulletin board with these and display on campus. 1.9.Plan thematic units on cultural foods, using the traditions, costumes,and music of a particular culture. Have the studentsdecoratethe room. Invite the princi_ pal and perhaps community representativesfor a meal and visit. 20. Have students plan and createa bulletin board displaying pictures of 10O-calorieporrions of basic nu_ tritional foods and popular fad foods that contain only empty calories.The display can motivatea discussionon foods with calories and nutrients versus foods with empty calories. 21,.Pin the namesof different garmentson the backs of students.The studentsare then to sort themselvesinto different wash loads. 22. For a clothing unit, hold an.idea day." Ask each student to bring in an idea of something that can be done to give clothes a new look, a fi:n touch, or an extended wearing life. Ideas they may come up with include ap_ pliqu6s, embroidery,tie-dye,batik, colorful patches,and restyling old clothes into current or creative fashions. 23. Have the students write, practice, and present skits, for videotape presentation,on consumerfraud. 24. Once a month have studentsplan a menu, pre_ pare the food, and seryeit to invited senior citizensfrom the community. 25, Organize a program with senior citizens and stu_ dents working together on a cornmunity garden. 25. Plan a programat a senior citizens center whereby studentsand seniorswork together on planning and dec_ orating the center for special occasionsand holidays. 27. \Y,/ithyour students, plan a community service program. For example,ar DiscoveryMiddle School(Vancouver, uflA), snrdents provide childcare, cross_agetu_ toring, and cgmpanionship to preschool, elementary, and elderly clients at off-campuslocations. English, Languages,and the Language Arts 28. Organize a letter wdting actMty between senior citizens and your students.

29. For a unit on the Renaissance, creat

to-wall mural depicting a village of the times total team project. Somestudentscan rese2r.I costumes, and architecture. Others may paint, 30. On a U.S. road map, have students names of places that sound ,,foreign," and names according to nationality or culture,

31. To enhanceunderstandingof partsof up this problem: Provide several boxes ferent parts of speech.Each student is to form tence from the fragments chosen from each allowed to discard only at a penalty. The nonverbally make trades with other shrdents

coherentand perhaps meaningfully amusingse A student may trade a noun for a verb but will keep in mind what parts of speech are sentence.Resultsmay be read aloud as a cu this activity. 32. Have students match American British English words (or any other combinauon guages),such as cookies and biscuits;hood and canned meat and tinned meat; elevator and liftl and torch; subway and tube; garbage collector

man; undershirt and vest; sweaterand jumper; and petrol. Or, have students compare pronu and spellings. 33. English words derive from many other Have students research and list some. such as

(Malay), alcohol (Arabic), kindergarten (German), (French), shampoo (Hindi), bonanza (Spanish), (Italian), kosher (Yiddish), and smorgasbord( 34. Try this for an exercise in obiective versus jective writing: After a lesson on descriptle bring to the classa nondescript object, ,,r.h a, ", a and place it before the class.Ask them to write graph either describing the potato in detail (i.e., its

size, markings, and other characteristics)or how the potato feels about them.

35. Readto the classa story without an ending, ask the students (as indMduals or in think-write-s pairO to create and write their own endings or sions, which they will share with the rest of the 35. ask studentsto createin groups of no more three students each an advertisement using a ganda device of their choice. Video record their tations.

37. Ask studenrs to (individually or in dyads)

and design an invention and then to write a ,,Datent scription" for the invention.

38. Using think-write-pair-share, have students a physical description of some well-known (but named) public figure, such as a movie star. ooliti

athlete,or musician.Other classmembersmay enjoy ing to identify the ',mystery,,personality from the wri description.


CHAPTER 8

GROIJPINGANDASSIGN}IENTS

39. A bulletin board may be designated for curent events and news in the wodd of writers. Included may be new books and recording releases as well as reviews. News of poets and authors (student authors and poets, roo) may also be displayed. 40. Everyone has heard of or experienced stereofyping. For example, gids are not as athletic as boys, boys are insensitive, women are better cooks than men, men are more mechanical. Ask srudents to list some stereorypes they have heard, and examples they find in newspapers, magazines, movies, and television. Have students discuss these questions: How do you suppose these stereotypes came to be? Does stereotyping have any useful value? Is it sometimes harmful? 41.. Remove the text from a Sunday newspaper comic strip and have the students work in pairs to qeate a story iine; or, give each pair a picture from a magazine and have the pair create a story about the picture. 42. Ilse newspaper want ads to locate jobs as a base for completing job application forms and creating letters of inqury. Use videotape equipment to record employeremployee role-play situations, interviews for iobs, or childparent situations to develop language and listening skiils. 43. Have students choose a short story from a text and write it into a play and perform the play for parents. 44. When beginning a poetry unit, ask sfudents to bring in the words to their favorite songs. Show how these fit into the genre of poetry. 45. Have students look for commercial examples of advertisements that might be classed as "ecopornographic," i.e., ads that push a product that is potentially damaging to our environment; or have students analyze advertisements for the emotions they appeal to, techniques used, and their integriry. Try the same thing with radio, teen magazines, the Internet, and other media. 46. Change the environment by moving to an outdoor location, and ask students to write poetry to see if the change in surroundings stimulates or discourages their creativeness. Discuss the results. For example, take your class to a large supermarket to write, or to a lake, or into a forest, or to the school athletic stadium. 47. To introduce the concept of interpretations, use your state's seal to start the study. Have students analyze the seal for its history and the meaning of its various symbols.

-' 48. \{/hen learning a second language,provide pupprctsin native cosfumefor studentsto use while practic,grgdialogue. ',.:.49. gr. the Internet to establishcommunicationwith $nidentsfrom another areaof the country or woild; es50. Use drama to build a student's Ianguage arts and

skills. Have studentswrite dialogue,set scenes, communicate emotions through expressive lanand mime.

FOR POSITWE INTERACTIONAND

QUAUTY LEARNING

2E7

51. Establish a community-service learning literacy project. For example, students from Greenville High School (Greenville, TN) serve as mentors to local elementary school students to help the students develop their reading and comprehension skills, and sfudents from Urbana High School (Urbana, IL) are trained to give one-on-one tutoring in reading to students from a local elementary school.

Mathematics 52. Collaboratively plan with sD.rdentsa simulation where members role-play the solar system. Students calculate their weights, set up a proportion system, find a large field, and on the final day actually simulate the solar system, using their own bodies to represent the sun, planets, and moons. Arrange to have the event photographed. 53. Encourage students to look for evidence of the Fibonaccn i u m b e r s e r i e s( i . e . ,1 , 1 , 2 , 3 , 5 , 8 , 1 . 3 , 2 1 .e, t c . ) outside of mathematics, such as in nature and in manufactured objects. Here are examples of where evidence may be found: piano keyboard, petals on flowers, spermatogenesis and oogenesis. Perhaps your students might like to organize a Fibonacci Club and through the Internet establish communication with other clubs around the world.26 54. Have students research the history of cost of a first-class U.S. postage stamp, and ask them to devise ways of predicting its cost by the year they graduate, or are grandparents, or some other Iarget year. 55. Give students a list of the frequencies of each of the 88 keys and strings of a piano (a local music store can provide the information). Challenge students to derive an equation to express the relation between key position and frequency. After they have done this, research and tell them about the Bosendorfer piano (Germany) with its nine extra keys at the lower end of the keyboard. See if students can predict the frequencies of those extra keys.

26For

further information about Fibonacci numbers see C. Andreasen, "Fibonacci and Pascal Together Again: Pattern Exploration in the Fibonacci Sequence," Matberratics Teacber 9L(3):25V253 (March 1998); T. H. Garland and C. V. Kthn, Matb and Music: Harmonious Connections(Palo Alto, CA: Dale Seymour, 199); A. Johnson, "Fiber Meets Fibonacci; The Shape of Things to Come," Matbenxatics Teacber 4(4):256-252 Qamary 1999); R Lewand, "Fibonacci Melodies," Hulnanistic Matbenxatics NetxaorkJournal, (14):36-39 (November 1996); l. L. Morgan andJ. L. Ginther, "The Magic of Mathematics," Matbenatics Teacber 87(3):L50-1 53 (March 7990 ; B. Rulf, "A Geometric Puzzle That Leads to Fibonacci Sequences," Matbematics Teacber 97(1):21-23 (January 1998); D. L. Shaw and L Aspinwall, "The Recurring Fibonacci Sequence; Using a Pose-andProbe Rubnc," Matbematics Teacber 92(3):1)2-l)5 (March 1999); and M. J. Zergel "The Dating Game," Mathematics Teacber 91(2) :172-17 4 (February 1998).


288

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STRATEGIES,AIDS, MEDIA,AND RXSOIJRCES FOREFFECTIVEINSTRUCTION

56. Using a light sensor to measure the intensity of a light source from various distances, have students graph the data points and then, with their scientific calculators, find the relevant equation. 57. Establish a service-learning project at your school. 58. Eighth-grade students at George \)TashingtonMiddle School (Alexandria, VA) participate in a parachute creation contest. Using plastic from trash bags, string, and a paperclip as the skydiver, the challenge is to design a parachute with the least surface area arrd longest hang time.27 Physical Education 59. Have students choose individually (or in dyads) a famous athlete they most (or least) admire. A short report will be written abour the athlete. The srudent will then discuss the attributes and,/or characteristics that they admire (or dislike) in the athlete, and how they feel they can emulate (or avoid) those qualities. After all pairs of students have made thqir presentations, as a class, devise fwo lists, one of cornmon attributes admired, the other of qualities to avoid. 60. Have students in cooperative learning groups make up an exercise routine to their favorite music recording, then share it with the class and discuss how they arived at decisions along the way. 6'1. Have the class divide into groups. Given the basic nonlocomotor skills, have each group come up with a "people machine." Each student within the group is hooked up to another demonstrating a nonlocomotor skill and adding some sort of noise to it. Have a contest for the most creative people machine. 62. Give students a chance to design abalance-beam routine that has two passes on the beam and that must include: front-support mount, forward roll, leap, low or high turn, visit, chass6, and cross-support dismount. These routines will be posted to show the variery of ways the different maneuvers can be put together. 63. Divide the class into groups. Have them create a new game or activity for the class, using only the equipment they are given. Let the class play their newly created games. 64. Have the students plan ways of educating the school and local community about general nutrition and exercise.

Science 65. Have sn;dentscreateand test their own rucroscopes using bamboo rods with a drop of water in each end.

"L. Mann, "Recalculating Middle School Math,,' Education 42(1):24, 8 (January 2000).

Wdate

iitmus indicators. 67. tlse cassette-taperecordersto record ,orrd. oi the environment. Compare and write about day and night sounds. 68. On the first day of a life scienceclass,give each student one live guppy in a test fube and one live cac. tus plant in a three-inch pot. Tell the students that the minimum they each need to passthe course is to brins their pet plant and fish back ro you during the final weef of school,alive. 59. plan a yearlong project where each student, e1 small group of sfudents,must develop knowledge and understanding of some specific piece of technology: Each project culmination presentation must have five components:visual, oral, written, artistic,and creative., 70. If you are altfe scienceteacher,make sure your classroomlooks like a:placefor studying life rather than a place of death. 71. Students of one urban school used landlord_ tenant situationsto develop a simulation of predator-prey relationships. 72. Ulirh each student playing the role of a cell part, have studentsset up and perform a role-play simulation of cells. 73. DMde your class into groups, and ask each group to create an environment for an imaginary animal using discardeditems from the environment.By asking questions, each group will try and learn about other groups' "mystery" animals. 74. Have each student, or student pair, ,,adopt,,a chemical element.The studentthen researchesthat element and becomesthe classexpert whenever that particular substancecomes up in discussion.There could be a special bulletin board for putting up questionson interestingor little-known facts about the elements. 75. Milk can be precipitated,separated,and the solid product dried to form a very hard substancethat was, in the days before plastic, used to make buttons. Let students make their own buttons from milk. 76. As a class or interdisciplinary team project, obtain permission and "adopt" a wetlands area near the school. 77. Have studentsresearchthe composition and development of famliar objects.For example,the ordinary pencil is made of cedarwood from the forestsof the pacific Northwest. The graphite is often from Montana or Mexico and is reinforced with clays from Georgia and Kentucky. The eraser is made from soybean oil, latex from treesin SouthAmerica,and reinforcedwith pumice from California or New Mexico, and sulfur, calcium, and barium. The metal band is aluminum or brass, made from copper and zlnc, mined in no fewer than 13 states and nine provinces of Canada.The paint to color the wood and the lacquer to make it shine are made from a


i i,,il

j.:, CTIAPTER 8

GROIJPINGANDASSIGNMENTS

varieLy of different minerals and metals, as is the glue that holds the wood together. 78. Have students locate and design large posters to hang on the classroom walls that show the meaning of words used in science that are not typical of their meaning in everyday language usage-the word "theory" for example. 79. To bridge cross-cultural differences, have sflrdents design large posters to hang on the classroom walls showing potential differences in perceptions or vigwg according to ethnoscience and formal science. \80.1\fith your students, plan a communify service pro)edt. For example, students from classes at Hollidaysburg Area Senior High School (Hollidaysburg, PA) joined to renovate a local cemetery. 81. Sometimes projects become ongoing, permanent endeavors with many spin-off projects of shorter duration. For example, what began as a science classroom project at \7. H. English Middle School (Scottsburg, IN) has become the largest animal refuge shelter in the Midwest. While nursing animals back to health, the students study them and learn about environmental policies. Over the years, students in the program have shared their work by making presentations in ten states and as guests of the International Animal Rights Convention in Russia.28

SocialSciences 82. Organize an Intergenerational Advocacy program, in which sfudents and senior citizens work together to make a better society for both groups.'e For example, at Burns Middle School (Owensboro, KY) students work in collaboration with a retired senior volunteer program to develop their understanding of personal and social responsibilities. 83. Initiate a service-learning project where, for an extended period of time, sfudents work directly with community organizations and agencies. For example, at John Ford Middle School (St. Matthews, SC) students incorporate The Constinrtional Right Foundation "City Youth" program into the curriculum, helping to make decisions about areas of the communiry that need improvement. 84. Develop a yearlong three-stage proiect. During the first, stage students individually research the ques-

B;.

Arnold, "High Expectations For All: Perspective and Practice," Middle Scbool Journal 28(3):52 Qanuary 1997). 2esee, for example: R. Cuevas, "I Can Help," and G. R. Hopkins, "How Important Are Intergenerational Programs in Today's Schools?" both in Pbi Delta KappanS2(4):3tG and 377-319, respectively, (December 2000). Additional information about intergenerational programs can be obtained from the Center for Intergenerationai Learning, Temple University, 1601 N. Broad St., Room 206, Philadelphia, PA 79122 (http://www.temple.edu/ci1l).

FOR POSITIVE INTERACTIONAND

QUAIITY LEARNING

289

tion "Who Am I?"; during the second stage, "\7ho Are They?"; and in the third stage, "'Who Are We?" Multimedia pJesentations should be part of the culminating presentations. 85. During their study of Ancient Egypt, have sfudents create and build their own model pyramids. 86. Let students devise ways they would improve their living environment, beginning with the classroom, then moving out to the school, home, community, and global. 87. Start a pictorial essay on the development andlor changes of a given arca in your community, such as a major corner or block adjacent to the school. This is a study project that could continue for years and that has many social, political, and economic implications. 88. Start a folk hero study. Each year ask, "\0flhat prominent human being who has lived during (a particular period of time) do you most (andlor least) admire?" Collect individual responses to the question, tally, and discuss. After you have done this for several years you may wish to share with your class (for discussion purposes) the results of your surveys from previous years. 89. Start a sister school program. Establish a class relationship with another, similar class from another school from around the country or the wodd, perhaps via the Internet. 90. Role-play a simulated famiy movement to the \(i'est in the 1800s. r07hatitems would they take? rUfhat would they throw out of the wagon to lighten the load? 91.. Have students collect music, arI, or athletic records from a particular period of history. Have them compare with today and predict the future. 92. Using play money, establish a capitalistic economic system within your classroom. Salaries may be paid for attendance and bonus income for work well done, taxes may be collected for poor work, and a welfare section established in a corner of the room. 93. Divide your class into small groups and ask that each group make predictions as to what world governments, world geography, wodd social issues, or some other related topic will be like some time in the fuure. Let each group give its report, followed by debate and discussion. Plant the predictions in some secret location on the school grounds for a future discovery, 94. As the opener to a unit on the U.S. Constitution, have students design their own classroom "bill of rights." 95. One day, organrze your students in class as if your class were a socialist society; the next day tteat them as if they were a fascist society; on another day as a communist society; etc. At the end of the simulation, have students discuss and compare theif,feelings about each day. 96. Using LegosrM as construction blocks and assigned roles, have students simulate the building of the Great ufall of China or the Great Pyramids of Egypt.

;''",


29O

PARTTII STRATEGIES,AIDS, MEDIA,AND RESoTJRcES FoR EFFECTTvE INsTRUCTIoN

97. At Indian Trail Junior High School (Addison, IL) all eighth graders and teachers from not only social studies but various other content areas, including English, mathematics, physical education, and science, work together on a "real world" problem-based project titled rhe Inspector Red Ribbon Unit, which focuses on a social problem that has truly occurred too many times-the prom night automobile accident. During the study, under guidance from teachers of the various classes, students interview witnesses, visit and assessthe scene of the accident, review medical reports, and make their recommendations in a press conference.3o 98. Establish a cadng and anti-violence program. For example, at Lynn High School (Haven, FL) students work as tutors/mentors with elementary school children to help boost confidence and self-esteem among both groups of students. 99. Students at Northern u7ayne Vocational-Technical School (Wayme,W) study castles and build model castles that are shared with srudents at Wayne High School 30K.

Rasmussen, "Using Real-Life Problems to Make Real-rfforld Connections," ASCD Curriculum tlpdate (Summer 199D, p.2.

who are in an interdisciplinary thematic unit of sh about the history and literature of medieval Europe. 100. At Davis Senior High School (Davis, CA), r dents in U.S. History are given this assignment for an tivity titled "Creating a Candidate." The assignmen done in pairs. Research electronic and print media ab the progressive movement in eady California histc Determine relevant issues a candidate for governor the state in 1910 would need to address. Create a fi tious candidate. Your exhibition must include: (a) election poster, (b) a slogan, (c) a theme song that 1 must sing, and (d) a five-minute pladorm speech dressing the issues, your solutions, and the position your opponents.

Vocational-Career Education 1.01.At Bell County High School(pineville, Ky), s dents operate an on-campusbank where the stude can acfually make deposits,earn interest, and borr, money. 1.02.At North Penn High School(Lansdale,pA), s dents designed and built equipment for the scho< child developmentplayground.

All subiects,lessons,units,and projectideas . ColumbiaEducationCenterLessonP|anshttp://www.col-ed.org/curl . GlobalSchoolhouse http://www.gsh.org . Intercultural E-MaiI ClassroomConnections, http://www.iecc.org/. . TeachersNet LessonExchangehttp://www.teachers.neVlessons Art . Eyes on Art hltp!lwww.kn.pacbell.com/wi red/arVart. html . KinderArt http://www.bconnex.neV-jarea/lessons.htm . WorldWideArts Resourceshttp://wwar.com/ Dance . CyberDance http://www.cyberdance.org . Dance Iinks hllpl lwwwSapphireSwan. com/dance/ Dramaand film . PertormingArts Resources, http://wwweducationindex.com/theater/ . Screensite http://www.tcf.ua.edu/screensite Environmentalissues . Environmental linkshttp://www.nceet.snre.umich.edu/ ' NorthAmericanAssociation for Environmentat Educationhttp://www.naaee.org . World Bank'ssffehttp://www.worldban k.org/depweb . WorldResourceshttp://www.wri.org History/socialstudies . Amigo! Mexico WebCenter http://www. mexonIine.com/ . FedWorld http://www.fedworld.gov . Historical TertArchive http://historicaltextarchive. com . The Hi story Net http://www,the hislorynet.com ' History/social studiesresourceshttp://www.execpc.com/-dboals/boals.html. . HoughtonMiffIin Social Studies Center httpl/vw,tw. eduplace.com/ss/


"I

Exhibir 4.3

CHAMPs Classroom Activity Worksheet: Reproducible Template Activity:

CoNvsRSArIoN Canstudentsengagein conversationwith eachother during this activity? If yes,aboutwhat? With whom? How manystudentscanbe involvedin a singleconversation? How long canthe conversationlast? u

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Hrrp How do students get questions answered?How do students get your attention?

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If students have to wait for help, what should they do while theywait?

Acrnnrv What is the expectedendproduct of this activity?(This mayvary from dayto day.)

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MovrnnENT Canstudentsget out of their seatsduring the activity? reasonsinclude: If yes,acceptable Restroom Pencil Hand in/pick up materials Drink Other , Do theyneedpermissionfrom you?

PnnrrcrPATroN What behaviorsshowthat studentsareparticipating fully and responsibly?

What behaviorsshowthat a studentis not participating?

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Erhibir 4.4

ACHIEVE ClassroomAc cible Ti

Worksheet: te

Achieve-To succeed in something! Activity

(for example,lecture,labs,independentwork, tests,cooperative groups)

Corro""ration Can studentstalk to eachother? If so,aboutwhat? Towhom? How many canbe involved? How long shouldconversations last? !,

H"lp How should studentsgetquestion.s answeredduring this activity?

;. v| od

o =

How shouldstudentsgetyour attention? r

Integrity What areyour exPectationsfor studentsworking together,quoting sources,and so forth? In other words, definewhatyou considerto be,for example,cheatingor not cheating,plagiarismor not plagiarizing.

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Effort What behaviorswould demonstrateactiveparticipation? What behaviorswould demonstratea lack of participation?

V"t,r" How would activeparticipation be of benefit for students?

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-Efficiencv Canyou provide tips to increasestudentproductivitr?

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Exhibit 4.i

F*e+plsI Astipfv"lY-"-{t'pheqqi "QpnplefeilgllAUl3r Activity: 7eaaiptrilntfre'dinfn&on

CorvrnRSATIoN Can students engagein conversation with each other during this activiqrz./14 If yes,about what? With whom? How many studentscan be involved in a single conversation? How long can the conversationlast?

Hsrp How do studentsget questionsanswered?How do students get your attention? Ralrr?tlllrrhand If studentshaveto wait for help, what should they do while they wait? Kref halrdralful, aMfrg/id#

Acrrvlrv What is the orpectedendproductof this activiry?(Thismayvary from dayto day.) tQAhrfafuzl*altdaffi,yfr?*n,{qtd/alfl?lrtudra'Ueulal,,a//duluffiennupu*btuatsr W,t?rlfrdhr**

MovgivlENT Canstudentsgetout of their seatsduring the activff

1/*

reasonsinclude: If yes,acceptable Restroom W no Pencil Handin/pickupmaterials Onltitdlnwfedbffuadu/Y Drink ft, Other Do theyneedpermissionfrom you? Ary l&flht 0t rut nufi hatprrilt1i'ltlrtk

PenncrPArIoN L,t'lint What behaviorsshowthat studentsareparticipatingfirlly and responsibly? atteaxlzaRalarrr/,andMft, ,rlilufriryto tay Auwerwyglp{tantulirr m/ledm n a$nld 0Wa*il'astdldf tudtt, fu.L/r('#lnfi-a/fi2ntqfu/adi?tfu fir ar?Atsa What behaviorsshowthat a studentis not participating? TAilrhg-fu o&afl?al"d,//?ediffid not Laol:h$tornafur'tp /ati Gffin{,out4 ,ut w#tnt p?,Qllndflbta t?'iqnaht u//t Tlat aruwahg /tand /r dnffi** TlAMAg' /r//"u4fi;rn/t


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Classroorn, Second. E d'ition

Exhibit 4.10

ACHIEVE ClassroomActivitv Worksheet: Example 2 Achieve-To Activity

succeed in something!

groups) (for example,lecture, labs,independentwork, tests,cooperative

Cotpaafr'ue, gauft

Corr.r"tration Can students talk to eachother?'l/**-tlat*t4o

wfur{ada/

If so, about what? 0n1w7rr,alifudfuAk aufltt'filnna nan'/aen*of To whom? 0n/# wtfrL,t/w Vong+oulr How many can be involved?7frwfi' t'on thf:whhdWatc/, ,* conplel auffizftne, How long should conversationslast?L/nfrL,tu,fal,b thp rrue'zlzad/:tnot,

H"lp wilfun duringthis activity?T,tyfuaruwau How shouldstudentsgetquestionsanswered

ttuwry t2tth,eWulrha*thp &re:flonc,n'et How should studentsget your attention?If euvtt/t'na nmba, rtt'ffiz trlt/t4rmn/c(/m"*d N *. r Integrity for studentsworkingtogether,quotingsources'andso What areyour expectations forth?In otherwords,definewhatyou considerto be,for example,cheatingor not duatuitn, oa' iltu/d conhibufetr,frp cheating,plagiarismor not plagiaizing.Earl'parat,o bsfwaitv taz,4urnle/dfttn" It ,hnotlalrrtoffiz ofltanun/ae'wfu

Effort What behaviorswould demonstrateactiveparticipation?7i/hirVtaffie g*ry lffi*W arntant amdrirg'oatpau bafrinVat tourtnnafrrial Str tE; na,b etVo m,6nVon What behaviors would demonstrate a lack of participation? Vle'wta//at'ng ort4nadgwwta wt arntti/arfugdeat altd u{8}.

V"l r" w{lltrauva, How would activeparticipationbe of benefitfor students?Sane'Taafu ufrb */1, f.ellrry" ttltco(d fafud Wie(i fr,lntaz,4*wilLW lon tTfanaftrrtufzvce*torftaf andm/( duatatVowundatfandiiry othtuazagrrln"r,t* aoto*fu $fi62 confuf.

Effr"i.rr"y Canyou providetips to increasestudentproductivity?It'Vounguuyfre@fu *il, ne nu i,tcCIrq?hte Vaucanhat'vnap l:tmpanthptaa(attd/ car fiu;t/t'betrotz


Strategy:FreeWriting Freewriting is an unstructured approachthat allowsstudentsto generatetheir own ideasin rapid fashionwithoutthe constraintsof predetermined conceptsof structureandform. The termfree is used becausethe writing is not limitedto a specifictopic andit is seldomevaluatedfor a grade.Freewriting is a processof havingstudentswrite aboutanything;exploringwhatthey know about.Freewriting stimulatesstudentcuriosity,especiallyfor thosestudentswho arereluctantto write. Freewriting should its limited focus.Freewriting servesasa positive be usedonly in specificcontextsthat acknowledge they areallowedtime to examinewhatthey know abouta topic. For strategyfor studentsbecause example,whenstudentsarerequiredto find a topic; they canuserewritingto comeup with a topic. ConceptMap/GraphicOrganizer A conceptmapis a specialform of a webdiagramfor exploringknowledgeandgatheringand sharinginformation.Conceptmappingis the strategyemployedto developa conceptmap.A conceptmap consistsofnodesor cellsthatcontaina concept,itemor questionandlinks.The linksarelabeledand denotedirectionwith an arrowsymbol.The labeledlinks explainthe relationshipbetweenthe nodes.The arrowdescribes thedirectionof therelationship andreadslike a sentence. -#

Concept

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BasicOutlining An outlinepresents a pictureof themainideasandthesubsidiary ideasof anysubject.Some typicalusesof outliningare:a classreadingassignment, an essay,a termpaper,a bookreviewor a speech.For anyof these,an outlinewill show a basicoverviewandimportantdetails. BASIC OUTLINE FORM Belowis a synopsis of theoutlineform.Themainideastakeromannumerals. Sub-points under eachmainideatakecapitallettersandareindented.Sub-points underthecapitalletters,if any,takeitalic numbersandarefurtherindented. I. MAIN IDEA A. Subsidiary ideaor supporting ideato I B. Subsidiary ideaor supporting ideato I


l. Subsidiary ideato B 2. Subsidiaryideato B ideato2 a) Subsidiary b) Subsidiaryideato2 II. MAIN IDEA A. Subsidiaryor supportingideato II B. Subsidiary ideato II C. Subsidiary ideato II III. MAIN IDEA It is up to the writer to decideon how manymain ideasandsupportingideasadequately describethe subject.However,if thereis a I in the outline,therehasto be a II; if thereis an A, therehasto be a B; if thereis a l, therehasto be a2, andso forth. OUTLII\ING EXAMPLE you areoutlininga speechon AIDS, andthesearesomeof the ideasyou feel shouldbe included: Suppose AZT, Transmittal,AIDS babies,Teenagers, Safesex,Epidemicnumbers,Research. To puttheseideasinto outlineform,decidefirst on themainencompassing ideas.Thesemightbe:I. Transmittal, II. SocietalConsequences, III. Research. Next, decidewherethe restof the importantideasfit in. Are they part of AIDS transmittalor AIDS societalconsequences or AIDS research solutions?Thecompleteoutlinemightlook like this: MajorAspectsof Aids L Transmittalof AIDS A. Transfusions B. Bodyfluids 1. Sexual 2. Non-sexual II. SocietalConsequences of AIDS A. Epidemicdiseasepattern l. Teenagers 2. Women 3. Homosexuals B. AIDS babies C. Increased homophobia D. Overburdened healthcare IIL ResearchSolutionsto AIDS A. AZT B. HIV virus C. Otherviruses It is only possibleto makean outlineif you havefamiliaritywith the subject.Not only in the initial outline,but duringthe courseof the research, the writer may find it necessary to add,subtractor change thepositionof variousideas.This is acceptable aslongasthelogicalrelationship amongideasis preserved.


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Structureto a basicfive paragraphEssay IntroductoryParagraph GeneralTopic Sentence L SubtopicOne 2. SubtopicTwo 3. SubtopicThree Transition First SupportingParagraph RestateSubtopicOne l. First Supporting Detailor Example 2. SecondSupportingDetail or Example 3. Third SupportingDetail or Example Transition SecondSupportingParagraph RestateSubtopicTwo 1. First SupportingDetail or Example 2. SecondSupportingDetail or Example 3. Third SupportingDetail or Example Transition Third SupportingParagraph RestateSubtopicThree 1. FirstSupporting Detailor Example 2. SecondSupporting Detailor Example 3. Third Supporting Detailor Example Transition Closingor SummaryParagraph Synthesisof maintopic 1. Synthesis of SubtopicOne 2. Synthesisof SubtopicTwo 3. Synthesis ofSubtopicThree

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VerbsCommonlyUsedfor StatingBehavioralObjectives CognitiveDomain 1.

Knowledge:remembering previouslylearnedmaterials.

Cite Define Identify 2.

Label List Match

Name Quote Recite

Reproduce Pronounce State

Comprehension:abilityto graspthe meaningof materials.

Alter Change Convert Depict Describe

Discover GiveExamples Illustrate Paraphrase Interpret

Manage Rephrase Represent Reword Restate

Relate Substitute Summarize

vary Translate

Application: Ability to use learnedmaterial in new and concretesituations.

Applv Compute Demonstrate Direct

Discover Employ Evidence Manifest

Manage Predict Prepare Present

Relate Show Solve utilize

Analysis: abilityto breakdownmaterialinto its componentpartsso that its organizational structuremavbe understood. Ascertain Analyze Associate Designate Determine

Diagnose Diagram Differentiate Discriminate Dissect

Distinguish Divide Examine Find Infer

Outline Point Out Reduce Separate

Synthesis:abilityto put partstogetherto form a newwhole. Combine Compile Compose Conceive Create Design Develop

Devise Expand Extend Generalize Hypothesize Integrate Invent

Modify Originate Plan Pose Propose Project Rearrange

Revise Rewrite Synthesize Theorize Write

Evaluation: abilityto judgethe valueof materialfor a givenpurpose. Appraise Conclude Critique Judge Assess Contrast Deduce Weigh Compare Citicize Evaluate


PsychomotorDomain 1.

Perception:becomingawareofthe actionto beperformedthrough sensorystimulation.

Detect Examine Feel Handle

Hear Hold Note Notice

Observe Perceive Recognize See

Sense Smell Taste Touch

set: becomingreadyto act mentally,physicallyandemotionally. Adjust Check Confirm Decide

3'

Estimate Familiarize Locate Place

Position Ready Regulate Set

SetUp Sit Situate Stand

Guided Response:performingthe actionundersupervision throughimitationor trial and erTor.

Attempt CarryOut copy Duplicate

Experiment Follow Imitate Mimic

Practice Repeat Reproduce Test

Try

IVrechanism:performingthe act habituallywith somedegreeof confidence. Acquire Assemble Complete Conduct Construct

5'

Do Execute Gain Improve Maintain

Make Manipulate Operate Pace Perform

Proceed Produce Progress

Complex Overt Response:performingthe act automatically with a high level

Achieve Accomplish Advance Attain

Exceed Excel Master Perfect

Reach Refine Succeed Surpass

of skill.

Transcend


{ffective Domain 1.

Receiving:attendingandbecomingawareof a situation,ideaor processthroughthe sensoryorgans.

Acknowledge Attend Be Aware 2.

Consent Contribut0 Cooperate Discuss FollowUp Indicate Inquire

Obey Participate Pursue Question React Read Reply

Request Respond Seek Visit Volunteer

Commit Desire Display Endorse

Exhibit Express Form Initiate

Prefer Sanction

Organization: Arrangingvaluesin priority accordingto a system.

Adapt Arrange Categorize 5.

View Watch

Valuing: developingattitudesby choosing,prizingandcherishing.

Accept Adopt Approve Choose 4.

Receive ShowAlertness Tolerate

Responding:doingsomething abouta situatioqideaor process.

AgreeTo Answer Ask Assist Be Willing Communicate Comply 3.

Listen Look PayAttention

Classify Establish Formulate

Group Order Organize

Prioritize Rank Rate

Characterization:choosingthe samevaluesconsistently with a cohesivephilosophyof life.

Act Advocate Be Consistent Behave Characterize Conform Continue Defend

Devote Disclose Encourage Endure Exemplify Function Incorporate Influence

Justify Maintain Pattern Persist Preserve Recommend Remain Retain

Reveal Serve Support Uphold Urge Verify


Figure 3.1 Desks in Rows, Front to Back

DDDDD =DDDDD I *DDDDD DDDDD DDDD

Desks in Rows, Front td Back (Figure 3.1) ' Excellent if you frequently schedulewhole-classinstruction or have students do tasks at the board ' For occasionalcooperativelearning activities, students can be trained to move quickly into and out ofgroups offour ' Allows students to interact, but the spacesbetween deskswill help to keep off-task conversationdown . Directs student attention to the front of the room . Allows easycirculation among students . Effective for medium- to high:structure classes


r 60

Disciyiline in the Secondary Classroorn, Secomd.Edition

Figure 3.2

Desks Side to Side

DDD DDD DDD DT)D DDD DDD

Desks Side to Side (Figurc 3,2) . Excellentif you usefrequentwhole-classinstructionwhereyou havestudentsdo tasks for which theymust seetheboard . For occasionalcooperativelearningactivities,studentscanbetrainedto movequickly from the rowsinto groupsof four andbackto the rowswhenthe cooperativeactivity is completed . Allowsmore studentinteraction,which is helpful for groupstudybut canresultin off-topicconversation . Directsstudentattentionto the front of the room ' Bestfor a low- to medium-structureclassroom . May be necessary for largerclasses ' Groupingdesks in rowsof threecreatesaisresfor easvaccess


Figure 3.3

Desks in Clusters

$ffi & ffiffi

&ffie Desks in Clusters (Figure 3.3) . Allows easycirculation and accessto all studentsat any time . Excellentif you schedulefrequent cooperativelearning tasks . If students are easilydistracted,the small groupings may draw attention away from activities . Requires some students to turn in their seatsto seethe board for teacher-directed instruction . May lead to off-topic conversationdue to student proximity . Bestfor low-structure classes;cluster may prompt inappropriate student interaction in a classneedinghigh structure


62

Discipline

in thc Seconilary Classroom, Second Eilitioro

Figure 3.4

Desks ln U-S

nnflfifin D D D D D

UUUUUUUU

Desks in U-Shape (Figure 3.4) ' Excellent for class discussion and teacher-directed instr+rction with student participation . Excellent for teacher proximity and circulation . Does not lend itself to group activities ' Inefficient use of space;may not be useful for labs and small group instruction, for example . Cannot be used with a large class '

U shapemay require breaksto allow easierstudent circuiation-for teacher'sdesk or the exit

'

Bestfor classesthat need lowto medium classroomstructure;can be adaptedto work for a smaller high-structure classif the teacheris committed to circulating and giving frequent feedback

example,to the


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,/

Interview/ResearchAssessment Part One: interviewing (in-class)

Name: Name of Student Interviewed:

ulnterview a classmateand write the answersto the questions down" How long haveyou lived in Bloomington-Normal? Are you originally from Bloomington-Normal? Do you havea smallor largefamily? How many siblingsdo you have?What are their agesand gender? Pleasedescribeyour relationshipwith your family. What type of activitiesdo you participate in with your family? Why did you chooseUniversityHigh Schoolfor your studies? Do you want to go to college?/ What do you plan to major in College? What schooUorcommunityactivitiesare you involvedin? What is your favoritebook? What is your favorite color? I

Do you haveany hobbies?Tell me aboutit, please. Do you havea job? Tell me about it, please. What is your favorite sport?Why? What is your favoritekind of music?Why? What is your favoriteTV? show?Why? If you had One Million Dollars,what would you do with it?

l lPage


F

Part Two: write a paragraph (homework) Write/type on a separate sheetof paper one paragraph that would sum up the information you have gotten from the person you interviewed. In other words, write a paragraph about the person you interviewed.

Part Three: Research(Homework) Find at leastthree booksaboutthe hobbies,favoritesports,favorite musicand other interestof the personyou interviewed.Look up and find the informationaboutthosethree bookson Milner's library on-linecard catalog.Write down all necessary informationaboutthosethreebooks.Name(s)of the Author, the Title of Book,the Placeof Publication,the Nameof publisher,the datethe book was published.

Part Four: MLA Style (homework) Log onto Noodle from the University High Schoolweb pagerCreate a list using MLA style from the three books you found. Print out that list and turn it end with this page and the paragraBh you have written about the personyou have interviewed. The assignmentis due Tuesday,April S'",2008

2lV age


Conductingan Interview Introduction Interviews are particularly useful for getting the story behind a participant's experiences.The interviewer can pursue in-depth information around a topic. Interviews may be useful as followup to certain respondentsto questionnaires,e.g., to further investigatetheir responses.Usually open-endedquestionsare askedduring interviews. Before you start to design your interview questionsand process,clearly articulate to yourself what problem or need is to be addressedusing the information to be gatheredby the interviews. This helpsyou keep clear focus on the intent of eachquestion. Preparation for Interview l.

Choosea setting with little distraction. Avoid loud lights or noises,ensurethe intervieweeis comfortable(you might ask them if they are),etc. Often, they may feel more comfortableat their own placesof work or homes.

2 . Explain the purposeof the interview. (Becarefulhere. Addressterms of confidentiality.Noteanytermsof confidentiality. Rarelycanyou absolutelypromiseanything.Courtsmay get accessto information,in to theiranswersandhow their Explainwho will getaccess certaincircumstances.) answerswill be analyzed.Iftheir commentsareto be usedasquotes,gettheir written permission to do so. 4 . Explain the format of the interview.Explainthetypeof interviewyou areconducting andits nature.If you wantthemto askquestions,specifyif they'reto do so astheyhave themor wait until the endof the interview.

a J.

5. 6. 7. 8.

Indicate how long the interview usually takes. Tell them how to get in touch with you later if they want to. Ask them if they have any questions before you both get startedwith the interview. Don't count on your memory to recall their answers.Ask for permissionto recordthe interview or bring along someoneto take notes.

Types of Interviews L Informal, conversational interview - no predeterminedquestionsare asked,in orderto remain as open and adaptableas possibleto the interviewee'snature and priorities; during the interview, the interviewer "goes with the flow". 2 . General interview guide approach - the guide approachis intendedto ensurethat the samegeneralareasof information are collected from each interviewee; this provides


t7 more focus than the conversationalapproach,but still allows a degreeof freedom and adaptability in getting information from the interviewee. 3. Standardized, open-endedinterview - here,the sameopen-endedquestionsare askedto all interviewees(an open-endedquestionis where respondentsare free to choosehow to answerthe question,i.e., they don't select"yes" or "no" or provide a numericrating, etc.); this approachfacilitates faster interviews that can be more easily analyzedand compared. 4. Closed, fixed-responseinterview - where all intervieweesare askedthe samequestions and askedto chooseanswersfrom amongthe sameset of alternatives.This format is useful for those not practiced in interviewing. Types of Topics in Questions 1. Behaviors - aboutwhat a personhas doneor is doing 2. Opinions/values- aboutwhat a personthinks abouta topic 3. Feelings- note that respondentssometimesrespondwith "I think ..." so be carefulto note that you're looking for feelings 4. Knowledge - to get facts abouta topic 5. Sensory- aboutwhat peoplehave seen,touched,heard,tastedor smelled 6. Background/demographics - standardbackgroundquestions,suchas age,education, etc. Note that the above questionscan be askedin terms of past, presentor future. Sequenceof Questions l. Get the respondentsinvolved in the interview as soon as possible. 2. Before asking about controversial matters (such as feelings and conclusions),first ask about somefacts. With this approach,respondentscan more easily engagein the interview before warming up to more personalmatters. 3. Intersperse fact-basedquestionsthroughout the interview to avoid long lists of factbasedquestions,which tendsto leaverespondentsdisengaged. 4. Ask questions about the present before questionsabout the past or future. It's usually easierfor them to talk about the presentand then work into the past or future. 5. The last questionsmight be to allow respondentsto provide any other information they prefer to add and their impressionsof the interview.


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I

Wording of Questions L Wording should be open-ended.Respondentsshouldbe able to choosetheir own terms when answeringquestions. 2. Questions should be as neutral as possible.Avoid wording that might influence answers,e.g., evocative,j udgmentalwording. 3. Questions should be asked one at a time. 4. Questions should be worded clearly. This includesknowing any terms particularto the program or the respondents'culture. 5. Be careful asking "whyt' questions.This type of questioninfers a cause-effect relationship that may not truly exist. Thesequestionsmay also causerespondentsto feel defensive,e.g.,that they haveto justify their response,which may inhibit their responses to this and future questions. Conducting Interview l. Occasionallyverify the tape recorder (if used) is working. 2. Ask one questionat a time. 3. Attempt to remain as neutral as possible.That is, don't show strongemotional reactionsto their responses. 4. Encourage responseswith occasionalnods of the head,"uh huh"s, etc. 5. Be careful about the appearancewhen note taking. That is, if you jump to take a note, it may appearas if you're surprisedor very pleasedabout an answer,which may influence answersto future questions. 6. Provide transition between major topics, e.g.,"we've beentalking about(sometopic) and now I'd like to move on to (anothertopic)." 7 . Don't lose control of the interview. This can occur when respondentsstrayto another topic, take so long to answera questionthat times beginsto run out, or evenbegin asking questionsto the interviewer. Immediately After Interview 1. Verify if the tape recorder, if used,worked throughout the interview. 2. Make any notes on your written notes,e.g.,to clarify any scratching,ensurepagesare numbered;fill out any notes that don't make senses,etc. 3. Write down any observationsmade during the interview. For example,where did the interview occur and when, was the respondentparticularly nervous at any time? Were there any surprisesduring the interview? Did the tape recorderbreak?

FreeManagement Library: Copyright I 997-2008, Authenticity LLC.Writtenby Consulting, CarterMcNamara.MBA" PhD.AuthenticityConsulting. LLC. Copyright1997-2008. Adaptedfrom the FieldGuideto ConsultingandOrganizational Development.


Interview Schedulefor Classmate I.

Opening A.

(Establish Rapport) [shakehands] My name is and as a member of the same English class,i thought it would be a good idea to interview you, so that I can better inform the rest ofthe classaboutyou.

B.

(Purpose) I would like to ask you somequestionsabout your background,your education,some experiencesyou have had, and some of your hobbies and interestsin order to leam more about you and sharethis information with our class.

C.

(Motivation) I hope to usethis informationto help our classbecomemore comfortable Speakingto and with you by knowing you better

D.

(Time Line) The interview shouldtake around 10 minutes. Are you availableto respondto somequestionsat this time?

(Transition: Let me begin by askingyou somequestionsaboutwhere you live and your family) II

Body A.

(Topic) Generaldemographicinformation 1.

How long have you lived in Bloomington-Normal? a. Are you originally from Bloomington-Normal?

2.

Do you have a small or large family?

c.

a.

How many siblings?

b.

Pleasedescribeyour relationship with your family.

What type of activitiesdo you do with your family?

(Transition to the next topic: (Topic) Education B. l.

Why did you chooseUniversity High School for your studies? 2. a.

What do you plan to major in College?/ Do you want to go to college?

How many classeshave you taken so far in your major? b.

Would you recommend the Major? If so Why?


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(Transitionto the next topic:

(Transitionto the next topic: (Topic)ActivitiesAlobbies/Interests C. 1.

What schooUorcommunitv activitiesare vou involved in?

a. Whatdo you like bestaboutit? (Transition:Well, it hasbeena pleasurefinding out more aboutyou. Let me briefly summarizethe information that I have recordedduring our interview.)

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Closing A.

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(MaintainRapport)I appreciate B the time you took for this interview. Is thereanything elseyou think would be helpful for me to know sothat I cansuccessfullyintroduceyou to our class? C.

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(I would suggestthat you put your closingon a separate pagesoyJu ,* allow your for room to summarize interview-vou will want a more detailedsummarythan the oneshownhere.) (Summarize)You arevery involvedin You planto pursuea careerin Your hobbiesandinterestsare

(Actionto be taken)I shouldhaveall the informationI need. Would it be alrightto call you at Homeif I haveanymorequestions?Thanksagain. I look forwardto introducingyou to the rest Of our class.


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enddon't Product/Servicedescription:Whatis it, what doesit do, rvhywould it be successfi.rl, forgetto nameit. Company/Name:Be creative@ andbe ableto Type of Ownershipof Company:Corporation,LLC, S-Corp,Partnership, deftndwhy you chosethis in your paperandpresentation. and Democratic,Laissez-Faire, ManagenoentStytefor Company:Authoritarian,Paternalistic, be ableto defbndwhy you chosethiein your paperandpresentation. And don't for getvihy. How Witl You Gather SecondaryFunds:stocks,bonds,cr loans?? Pamphlet"Menu: seethe attachedsamplefor an exarnpleof rvhatit shouldlook like (doesn't needtc be exactlylike this astheypaidmoneyto ha'rethis andyou won't be) ErtraCredit: Video shouldbe lesstban2 minutesin length,andit shouldadvertiseyour by me, Haveftmwithit, and product.It needsto be appropriate, andideamustbe pre-approved he nreafirza

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The Google Game By Katrine Watkins and Kathleen Elder -- School Library Journal, 7/7/2OO6 The purpose of this game is to make your internet searches more efficient so that they end up with as few hits as possible. L . OpenyourWebbrowser. Dothisby doubleclicking on the iconon yourdesktop, or in

oneofyourcontrolmenus. 2 . Typewww.goosle.com intothe address baron top of the page.You'llseea pagewith in big,colorfulletterson thetop. "Google" 3 . Advanced searches selectthe typeof searchyouwant.Youcansearchfor Webpages, newsgroups, images, news,books,videosor youcanchooseAdvanced Search for more complexsearches. Forexample, Retrievers" inthesearch box.Youcanset typein "Labrador preferences for yourGooglesearches linknextto the Google by usingthe Preferences searchbox.

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for,try puttingyoursearch 4. lf youarehaving troublefindingwhatyouaresearching findthewhole"string"asa single"word" markswhichmakesGoogle stringin quotation you'relookingfor content Suppose ratherthansearching for eachwordindividually. intotheGooglesearch Retrievers Insteadof typingLabrador Retrievers. aboutLabrador for thephrase.To do this,simplyenclosethe explicitly box,you'llbe betterotf searching searchphrasewithindoublequotes. Explicit Phrase Exampl e: "LabradorRetrievers" 5. lf youwantto searchfor contentaboutLabrador Retrievers, butyouwantto exclude resultsthatcontainthetermhunting, doesthisby usingthe"-"signin frontof theword youwantto exclude. place Youcan a minussignin fronta wordthat youwantto omit fromyoursearchresults. Exclude Words - hunting Example:Search:"LabradorRetrievers" page. 6. Place a + signnextto anywordyouwantto besureis included in yourresults Addedwords +hunting Example:Search:"Labrador Retrievers"


I 7, To limit a searchto Web sites by certaingroups,suchas collegesand universitiesor organizations, use the site operator(for example,site:eduor site:org).If a studentis searchingfor informationabout lacrosse,for instance,and only wants resultsfrom educationalinstitutions,she would type lacrossesite:eduin the searchbar. Example: LabradorRetrievers: org Therearethreecrucialsearchtips a) Usequotationmarks-'Labrador Retrievers" b) Usea plus/minus signto include/exclude a wordfromyoursearch - LabradorRetrievers +/- hunters anduniversities or c) Limita searchto websites by certaingroups,suchascolleges Retrievers:org organization by adding.eduor.org- Labrador Playingthe game With your newfoundsearchskills,you are readyto play the GoogleGame-and the team w i t h t h e f e w e s tn u m b e ro f h i t s i n w i n s .T h e r u l e sa r e s i m p l e :w h i l ew o r k i n gi n p a i r s ,y o u u s e your new searchtechniquesto answera question.The team with the fewestnumberof hits and the correctanswerwins the game. Hits: is the numberof resultsthat is found after a searchis performed F o re x a m p l e : Question H o w i s E d g a rA l l a nP o ea n d V i r g i n i aC l e mr e l a t e d ? How do I answer this question? " E d g a rA l l a nP o e "" V i r g i n i aC l e m " : e d u "This is called a sting. Each part of the string is a bead on the string"


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The Gooqle Game Sure, your kids are familiar with Google(even to the exclusionof other search engines). But how effective are they at using it? By Katrine Watkins and Kathleen Elder -- School Library Journat, 7/7/2006 I t ' s 1 0 a . m . a n d K a t eE l d e r ' sn i n t h - g r a d eE n g l i s hc l a s si s i n t h e l i b r a r y Also in this article: researchingearly 19th-centuryParis,the settingof Victor Hugo'sclassic Diminishing Returns F Les Miserables.In her first attempt to learn about the FrenchRestoration,Emilyenterswww.restoration.com in the addressbar, and finds herselfat the site of a swankyhardwarestore basedin Pasadena,CA. She tries again,this time typing the word "restoration"into Google.No luck."RestorationHardware"is the first of 69.2 millionhits, which includeresultsrangingfrom religiousmovementsto ways to restorefiles from a computer's recyclingbin. Emily isn't alone.Tom, who's been askedto researchthe BourbonDynasty,one of the most powerful ruling familiesof Europe,is siftingthrough pagesabout KentuckyBourbonand mixed drinks. In 45 minutes,the bel rings, and both frustratedstudentsleavefor their next class.This assignmentis olficiallya bust, Over the years, we've watchedour studentsaimlesslysearchthe Internet in an effort to completetheir assignments, so we decidedto designa Googlegame with enoughappealto help teens searchthe Web more effectively,We chose , n d e v e nt h o u g ho u r l e s s o ni s g e a r e d G o o g l eb e c a u s ei t ' s t h e m o s t c o m m o ns e a r c he n g i n eu s e db y o u r s t u d e n t s a toward our gifted ninth graders,it can easilybe modifiedto suit sevenththrough 10th graders.The point of the game i s s i m p l e :t o s h o ws t u d e n t sh o w t o r e f i n et h e i r s e a r c h e sb y t h i n k i n gc r i t i c a l l y . Beforebeginning,we read up on a few things about our target audience.For one, contraryto popularbelief,kids are easilybored and frustratedby the Web and are less adept at onlinesearchesthan adults.They may be whizzesat i n s t a n tm e s s a g i n ga n d d o w n l o a d i n tgu n e s ,b u t w h e n i t c o m e st o s e a r c h i n gt,h e y ' r ej u s t l o s t p u p p i e sa, c c o r d i n gt o researchfirm. Otherthings we had "Teenagerson the Web," a study by the NielsenNormanGroup,a user-experience to keep in mind for our lesson?Kids'aestheticsare pretty sophisticated;they like cleanand simple-lookingsites. They're impatient,so any lessonshouldincluderegularsearches,rather than advancedsearches.And sinceteens like to keep things simple,our lessonwould only teach them a few basic,but essential,skills.Lastly,teens want to have fun, so the game is interactive. With those key bits of informationin mind, we devisedthe "GoogleGame,"with tl1g-ggglgfraking our students' perioO Internet at lorsrlle. we taugfrti6Fsftffin-e ---------a-searchesmgre gtrici:"t ro thu

atTFe*ffiin9ortnei}i6ilfffi_niliiwereamazedffiecame'notjustintermsofour students'schoolassignments,but in all of their Web searches.

We beginthe lessonby tellingstudentsthat each searchterm is like a bead on a string.To make things simple,we limit everyone'ssearchto 10 terms, explainingthat the additionof each word or phraseis like addingone more bead to a string.The aim, of course,is to end up with the informationyou're lookingfor with as few hits as possible. Then we supplyour studentswith three crucialsearchtips: u:g-ggglgligg1!9 (for example,"FrenchRestoration," "human rights,""affirmativeaction")to look for words in th his may seem like yout common knowledge,but most kids don't know to use quotationmarks. Ur" u rinrr rign to "r sljcl'r sgglgh (for example, vikings -Minnesota).And to limit a search_toWeb site_sbv certainjrojps, and g:..gol]e,ge: (for example,site:eduor site:org).If a studentis searchingfor universitiesor organizations, use the site,.opelator ;-.-*.."'.# infdiffia-ti6h about lacrosse,for instance,and only wants resultsfrom educationalinstitutions,she would type lacrosse s i t e : e d ui n t h e s e a r c hb a r .

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Studentsoften make the mistakeof conductingsearchesby askingquestions,which isn't the way Googleworks best. qn4_exclq9'lS3lg-s._9.,$gl*eig-.if5leyg1t_toyour-search. Effectivesearchesconsist of typing in F o r e x a m p l e ,w h i l e r e s e a r c h i !a.ldepression,a mental disorderthat occursat the same time eachyear, a cduple choosingthe right words can hundred.Usingthe searchterms depression-great (to excludehits that includethe Great Depression)will result in -great seasonalFAQsite:edusymptoms,will lead to 650 hits 42.6 million hits, while searchingthe words de-pidssion becausethe searchwas limitedto Web sites by educationalinstitutionsthat were restrictedto frequentlyasked questionsrelatedto symptomsof seasonaldepression.Usingthese basicstrategiesto graduallyreducethe number of resultsfrom more than 74 millionto just 650 makesstudentssit up in their seats. But we don't stop there. Showingkids how to searchfor informationabout the Great Depressionof the 1930sreally pg!.!,t_qing gets their attention.Usingthe searchterm the "sfgqt {g_ple:_:i9!."-fgsultt the te_rms"the i! 5,1 pilti-onhitg. grqq! dgprgssion"site:o1gokies pccupa,tipns, res-.u.lts in only'89 hits. With their newfoundsearchskills,studentsare ready to play the GoogleGame-andthe-team with the fewest number o f . h i t si n 1 5 m i n u t e sw i n s .T h e r u l e sa r e s i m p l e :w h i l ew o r k i n gi n p a i r s ,s t u d e n t su s e t h e i r n e w s e a r c ht e c h n i q u e tso qqgo_rd pose_d the search terms that they used to get their by 9 llQqgrlan9r-!-9a-c-he1; answer a g,r.qg-s-!ign 9-tgQgnlq

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O n e o f o u r f i r s t g a m e sc o n s i s t e do f a s k i n gs t u d e n t st h e f o l l o w i n gq u e s t i o n :C a ny o u e x p l a i nh o w E d g a rA l l a nP o eu s e d { /\ t h " r a v e na s a s y m b o li n h i s p o e m" T h e R a v e n " ?A p a i r o f s t u d e n t sw o n b y t y p i n gi n t h e t e r m s" E d g a rA l l a nP o e " r a v e ns y m b o ls i t e : e d ua n d g e t t i n g2 5 3 r e s u l t s . T h e s e a r c hr e s u l t sf o r t h e n e x t q u e s t i o ns i m p l yb l o wt h e i r m i n d s :H o w w a s E d g a rA l l a nP o er e l a t e dt o V i r g i n i aC l e m ? I n 1 5 m i n u t e s ,a n o t h e rp a i r o f k i d s h i g h - f i v ee a c ho t h e rw i t h e x c i t e m e n tB. y t y p i n gi n " E d g a rA l l a nP o e "" V i r g i n i a c o u s i n .A n d t h e i r s e a r c ht e r m s r e s u l t e di n C l e m "s i t e : e d u ,t h e p a i r f o u n do u t t h a t P o em a r r i e dC l e m ,h i s 1 3 - y e a r - o l d just threehits!

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K e e Di n m i n d t h a t l i b r a r i a n sn e e dt o t e s t t h e i r o w n q u e s t i o n sb e f o r et h e b e g i n n i n go f a c l a s st o s e e h o w m a n y s e a r c h resultsthey end up with. The resultschangefrom day to day becausesitesfrequentlycome and 9o on Google,so it's best to constructquestionsshortly beforethe lessonis taught. Althoughthe librarianguidesstudentsthrough the searchprocessand updatesthe questionsused to demonstrate that the searchstrategiesare effective,the classroomteacherplays an equallycriticalrole in the lesson'ssuccess' S t u d e n t sa r e e n g a g e di n t h e l e s s o ni f t h e i r t e a c h e rm o n i t o r st h e i r p r o g r e s sa, n d i f s h e e n c o u r a g eas f r i e n d l y c o m p e t i t i o na m o n gt h e t e a m s b y e g g i n go n o n e t e a m t o b e a tt h e o t h e r ' W h e ns t u d e n t sa r e f i n i s h e ds e a r c h i n gt,h e w i n n i n gt e a m ( o r t e a m s )c o p i e si t s s e a r c hs t r i n go n a w h i t e b o a r da n d t h a t t h e l e s s o ni s c o n s t r u c t e tdo . h e t e a c h e ra n d l i b r a r i a ns h o u l de m p h a s i z e e x p l a i n si t s s o l u t i o nt o t h e c l a s s T demonstratemore effectiveways to search,and that there is no guaranteethat every searchwill produceso few results. I n t h e w o r d so f o n e s a t i s f i e ds t u d e n tw h o t r i e d h i s n e w s e a r c hs k i l l sa s s o o na s h e g o t h o m e f r o m s c h o o l ", I f o u n d e x a c t l yw h a t I w a s l o o k i n gf o r i n l e s st h a n 1 0 m i n u t e s ,w h i c hn o r m a l l yw o u l dt a k e m e a b o u ta n h o u r , I t h i n k t h e t e c h n i q u es h o u l db e t a u g h tt o o t h e r c l a s s e ss, o i t w i l l h e l pt h e m l i k e i t d i d m e . " A n d i t w a s m u s i ct o o u r e a r sw h e n anotherstudentsaid,"I have alwaysbeen annoyedwith searchenginesbecauseI could never get the Web sites I w a n t e do n t h e t o p i c I w a n t e d . .u. n t i l [ I p l a y e dt h e G o o g l eg a m e ] y e s t e r d a y . " t o a p p l yw h a t t h e y ' v el e a r n e di n o u r G o o g l eg a m e t o a l l t h e i r W e ' v eb e e nv e r y p l e a s e db y o u r s t u d e n t se' n t h u s i a s m Internet searches,but we're more gratifiedby the fact that teachingthis lessonhas earnedus increasedcredibility. Now, when we recommenda book or a subscriptiondatabaseas the best placeto start researching,our students a c t u a l l vl i s t e nt o o u r a d v i c e .

Author Information Librarian Katrine Watkins and Enqlish teacher Kathleen Elder work at Shaler Area Intermediate School in Glenshaw, PA.

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Diminishing Refurns More questions that students have really enjoyed... What are the methods of tattoo removal that a teen might consider? Optimal search terms: "tattoo removal"teen site:gov(82 hits) Answer: Lasersurgery,dermabrasion,surgicalexcision Which of William Shakespeare's plays has been said to refer to the Gunpowder Plot of 16O5? O p t i m a l s e a r c h t e r m s : " W i l l i a mS h a k e s p e a r ep"l a y " G u n p o w d ePr l o t "1 6 0 5s i t e : e d u( 8 2 h i t s ) Answer: Macbeth What does Don Colgan have to do with cloning an extinct tiger? O p t i m a l s e a r c h t e r m s : " D o n C o l g a n "c l o n i n ge x t i n c tt i g e r s i t e : o r g( 2 1 h i t s ) Answer: Headof researchteam Who is the Prince of Pop, and what is the blotted line that he made famous? Optimal search terms: "Princeof Pop""blotted line" (12 hits) A n s w e r : A n d y W a r h o l ' se a r l yd r a w i n gt e c h n i q u e Who was head of the Woman's Peace Party during the Progressive Era? Optimal search terms: "Woman'sPeaceParty""ProgressiveEra" site:org(seven hits) A n s w e r : J a n eA d d a m s What connection does the ferris wheel have to Pittsburgh? site:edu(35 hits) Optimal search terms: "ferris wheel""PittsburghPennsylvania" Pittsburgh bridge builder Answer: Invented by GeorgeFerris,a What sport was Mamie Peanut Johnson playing when she got her nickname? O p t i m a l s e a r c h t e r m s : " M a m i eP e a n u Jt o h n s o n s" p o r tn i c k n a m es i t e : g o v( t w o h i t s ) Answer: NegroLeaguebaseball <<Back I Print @ 2008, ReedBusinessInformation,a divisionof ReedElsevierInc, All RightsReserved.

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BilloJRights Figure 6'6 Assessment All studentsare entitledto the following: ''authentic") I. Worthwhile (engaging, educative' and intellectualp,out"ms"thatarevalidatedagainstworthy''realworld" intellectual problems, roles' and situations' applied teacher criteria -2. Clear,apt, published, and consistently and published models of excellent work that in g.uaittgiork exemPlifies standards' 3. Minimal secrecy intesting and grading' that they can be proud 4. Ample opportunities to p-roducework and instruction of ithus, arnple opportunity in the curriculum work)' to monitor, self-assess,and self-correct their varied opportunities 5. Assessment, not just tests: multiple and and options in achievement' their document and to display tests ihaiallow them to play to their strengths' policies necessaryto 6. The freedom, climate, and oversight fear or retribution' question grades and test practices without for students 7. For*, of Iesting that allow timely opportunities wrong but that they io exptain or iultify answers marked as believe to be aPt or correct' on their strengths and 8. Genuine feedback usable information weaknessesandanaccurateassessmentoftheirlong-term framed in terms progress toward a set of exit-level standards of essential tasks' and 9. Scoring/grading policies that provide incentives seeing and p:{ot^Tce Progress opport"rrr,"iti"sfoi imptovit'g standards' uiuit tt exit-level and real-world Source:Wiggins (1'993)'P 28'

Norm-Referenced System

Criterion-Referenced System

Self-Referenced System

Whatcomparison is made?

Pupilto otherpupils

Pupilto predefined criteria

Pupilto pupil's earlierperformance

Methodof companson

curve;percent Grading whocanget of pupils e a c hg r a d e

of performance; Standard scorespupllsmust to geta given achieve grade

of Standard amount improvement; of improvement pupilsmustexhibit to geta grvengrade

Whatthe grade describes

performance Pupil's to othersin compared the class

percentage of Pupil's masteryof course objectives

Pupil's improvement fromearlier performance(s)

of a Availability grade particular

by grading Limited curve

Nolimiton grade availability

No limitongrade availabilitv


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v|ultipleIntelligences

Mr*, ?Lefift,LtffiNw Thetheoryof multiple intelligences wasdeveloped in 1983by Dr.Howard lt suggeststhatthe Gardner,professorof education at HarvardUniversity. is traditional notionof intelligence, basedon l.Q.testing, far toolimited. proposes for a Instead, Dr.Gardner eightdifferent intelligences to account rangeof humanpotential in children broader andadults.Theseintelligences are: *

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("wordsmart"): Linguisticintelligence smart") ical-mathematical intel ligence("number/reasoning Log ("picture smart") Spatialintelligence ("bodysmart") Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence ("musicsmart") Musicalintelligence ("people lnterpersonal intelligence smart") ("selfsmart") Intrapersonal intelligence smart") Naturalistintelligence("nature

on Dr,Gardner saysthatourschoolsandculturefocusmostof theirattention linguistic intelligence. We esteemthe highlyarticulate andlogical-mathematical Dr.Gardnersaysthatwe shouldalso or logicalpeopleof ourculture.However, placeequalattention whoshowgiftsin theotherintelligences: on individuals dancers, therapists, theartists,architects, musicians, naturalists, designers, andotherswhoenrichtheworldin whichwe live.Unfortunately, entrepreneurs, forthem manychildren whohavethesegiftsdon'treceivemuchreinforcement disabled," in school.Manyof thesekids,in fact,endup beinglabeled"learning whentheirunique deficitdisorder," or simplyunderachievers, "ADD(attention or waysof thinking aren'taddressed by a heavilylinguistic andlearning proposes logical-mathematical intelligences classroom. Thetheoryof multiple that a majortransformation in thewayourschoolsarerun.lt suggests present in variety of ways using teachersbetrainedto theirlessons a wide roleplay,multimedia, fieldtrips, music,cooperative learning, artactivities, in theClassroom), innerreflection, andmuchmore(seeMultiple Intelliqences hasgrabbed the Thegoodnewsis thatthetheoryof multiple intelligences of schoolsare attention of manyeducators aroundthecountry, andhundreds Thebad children. currently usingits philosophy to redesign thewayit educates newis thattherearethousands of schoolsstillouttherethatteachin thesame The andtextbooks. olddullway,throughdrylectures, andboringworksheets get is many more teachers, school challenge to thisinformation outto so thateachchildhasthe administrators, andotherswhoworkwithchildren, opportunity to learnin waysharmonious withtheiruniqueminds(seeIn Their OwnWav). Thetheoryof multiple for adult intelligences alsohasstrongimplications learning anddevelopment. Manyadultsfindthemselves injobsthatdo not (forexample, makeoptimaluseof theirmosthighlydeveloped intelligences the highlybodily-kinesthetic individualwho is stuckin a linguistic or logical desk-job whenhe or shewouldbe muchhappierin a jobwheretheycould movearound,suchas a recreational leader,a forestranger,or physical givesadultsa wholenewwayto Thetheoryof multiple intelligences therapist). potentials lookat theirlives,examining thattheyleftbehindin theirchildhood (suchas a lovefor ad or drama)butnowhavetheopportunity to develop (see7 Kinds hobbies, of self-development throughcourses, or otherprograms of Smart). It

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vlultipleIntelligences

Howtg Teachor LearnAnything8 DifferentWays is featuresof thetheoryof multipleintelligences Oneof the mostremarkable howit provideseiqhtdifferentpotentialpathwavs to learning.lf a teacheris or logical linguistic havingditficulty reaching a studentin themoretraditional severalother intelligences suggests waysof instruction, thetheoryof multiple waysin whichthe materialmightbe presented to facilitateeffectivelearning. or an Whetheryouare a kindergarten teacher,a graduateschoolinstructor, on anysubjectof adultlearnerseekingbetterwaysof pursuingself-study youareteaching or interest, thesamebasicguidelines apply.Whatever learning, seehowyoumightconnectit with * + * + + + * +

words(linguistic intelligence) intelligence) numbers or logic(logical-mathematical pictures (spatialintelligence) music(musical intelligence) (intrapersonal intelligence) self-reflection (bodily-kinesthetic intelligence) a physical experience (interpersonal intelligence), andior a socialexperience (naturalist intelligence) in the naturalworld. an experience

if you'reteaching aboutthelawof supplyanddemand Forexample, or learning youmightreadaboutit (linguistic), studymathematicalformulas in economics, examine a graphicchartthatillustrates thatexpressit (logical-mathematical), (spatial), or in the the principle observethelawin thenaturalworld(naturalist) (interpersonal); humanworldof commerce examine the lawin termsof your ownbody[e.9.whenyousupplyyourbodywithlotsof food,the hunger demand for demandgoesdown;whenthere'sverylittlesupply,yourstomach's goes you get (bodily-kinesthetic andintrapersonal); food wayup and hungryl the law song)thatdemonstrates and/orwritea song(orfindan existing (perhaps Dylan's"TooMuchof Nothing?"). Youdon'thaveto teachor learnsomething in alleightways,justseewhatthe youthe pathways possibilities interest are,andthendecidewhichparticular tools.Thetheoryof most,or seemto bethe mosteffective teaching or learning it expandsourhorizonof multiple intelligences is so intriguing because linguistic andlogical teaching/learning toolsbeyond theconventional available (e.9. writingassignments, methods usedin mostschools lecture, textbooks, you'reinterested in formulas, etc.).To getstarted,putthetopicof whatever teaching or learning aboutin thecenterof a blanksheetof paper,anddraw eightstraightlinesor "spokes"radiating outfromthistopic.Labeleachline ideasfor teaching or witha different intelligence. Thenstartbrainstorming (thisis a learning thattopicandwritedownideasnextto eachintelligence youmightwantto do thisin other spatial-linguistic approach of brainstorming; havinga groupbrainstorming session, waysas well,usinga tape-recorder, etc.).Havefun! Resources Alexandria, VA: Armstrong, Thomas.Multiple lntelliqences inthe Classroom. 1994. for Supervision Development, Association andCurriculum YourManv Thomas.7 Kindsof Smartldentifvinq andDevelopinq Armstrong, Intelligences, NewYork:Plume,1993. Your Armstronq, Thomas.In TheirOwnWav:Discoverinq andEncouraqinq lof 3

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1' Studentsmurst. rnake cortner:tionsbenssar',nerr,infrlrnration anctLhcrinfcrnnationthey alrcadvpossess. ?. .{'nxions strtclentsshr-rulcibe given successfirlacarJelnic:anci so(:iirl experiences. 3' Teacherssliouid give greaterattel'lriouro helping strrcicnrs lcaln nir.rrc al>outthemsclvcs. +. Ncw irtlbrrriadortmLrstbe logicallvoleanizeciancipr-esente([ to srn(lenls.

3 tl;i' s' Inftrt'mertion presenteclt.ostrrclenrs shoulclbe ass<-rciatccl rr,itlrsluicthins thev like or lvilDt. 6. Stlrdcnts'behaviori.smo.stl,v the resultof their leelirrEsof confidence. sr::lf-rvorth, and personaldignitv. 7. Stl.tclenl.s -=fbrgt:t intonrrirf.ir-rn unlessrhcv rehe:.rrscr or. think aborrtit. S n. Stuclentsshoulclbe rntrcleawirrer:lf'specificallv lvltilt rhe-r,lnust kn()\\,and barilt"rletr: do ?tt.the ctndof inst-r.ru:tion. ,, ;F 9. Sluclentsshorrlclbe encounagedto believe that rlrev ar-r:ilc.;rrlerricirilv anclsclciilllvcapable, 10. Studet'rt.s _* shouldinterirctwith teachersanclbe encouriigeclto a^sk rluesl.ions. I l. Reintbrcenrentof appropriatcstudentlearning behar,iclris csscnriirl. _12. Studelrussltotrlclbc given a sccul'ccnvirtnmeur in w,hichrht,r,arc r.u_corrrirgeclto makc rviseacaclcmicand socialchoices. 13. whe' studentsdiscoversonrethineon rhcir o*r:r. rheYlearu tretter. ,l4. Srudentsneeclto $eeothcr studeut.sandr/or lhc rcirc]rcrclernonsrraung _appropriatc learning behzrvior. iir' Studentsshoulclbe accepteclregarcllcss of thcir scho<.rl achieverierrt, t-eelings,ol- orher behavior.. .l6. Student-s neecltt.rlcarn horvtcllt:afn. 17' Parc'rs mtrst'einf'crrcc rheir childrer's leil'rirre rrelra'irrr. I 18. Strtclenf,s -should lcarrutu rcspccr.thsmselr.esancl others. 'I q

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20. Mzrterialto be leameclshcrrrlc{ be prcsentcclin sniilll, scquentialsr(rps 2l' studentsshouldbc encouragcdto pursuetheir.orr,nintt:rc:slr.

Kuy (bgrritivel,v or.ientecl slarcnlcnrs or.ffi 7. 10,l:1,16,l9 Behar,iolally or.ienred srarenlcrlLs are2S@l^f , l+, O 20 I{unranisrically orienrecl sratcjn(:nrs are.e}-tr@ 12,l;, lg, 2l

RTFMENCTS Anclersou.R., Rt'<ler,[_.& Sinrou,]I. ( l!)$ii), Sitrratedlear.nirrg aud eclrrc:rtiorr. l..dutil iottaI .[fusaan.Ita.. 25(+l, o-Ll. Bandtrt'a.A. (19t16i..Sridal jinndztions ttl' tl"toughla,ndu.ition:.4 sacictlcogtti1hrc il'reon.L,nglor'oori Cllif},s.NJ: prerrtice Hrll.

PART ONE TheBackdrop of Teaching 94

Blansltrrrl,.|.,Brorvn.A.. & Coo.king.lt. (2002) . l.Iou putliIe /,qnr?.. \{:ashi nsr.rxr (:onnr:il, D(l: Nar.i<>ual Rcscar.<:h Bringing Real-\{or.lclprr>blerlst<r Olassrronis.llox Q.L Brophv..J.(10{)3,.frrne). Au intcir.ien r+ithJele llrophv, Lth rctLti rtnnl PsydtologRninrt, Ii i2), lgir-10.1.

Iltrrer'..J.(?0()3,'2004).ln surch tl'. . . brairrbosul tdt nu.Lion. ..\ttit unl Editions:Ed uttztiort rtl I'stch.olo;r;. (l rrilli:tl, (lT: :VcGrarr'ljillr Drrsbkirr. (l<rrrrbs. A. \\'. ( l9ti5t. 'l'itc brofis.titnol ulutttLion'.if'teadutrs. Bosrurn:Allr rr and Birt:on.

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i9Ti) ma-vhe usexJ(o actir.atesluclelnts'rcler,:rlt experiences<)r" Qr-rickWrilcs (F.lbr:rr.', l:a,,rlsgror"ttcJ krrnrvlt:cigeril ir iopic. thr"rsihcilitailng connectionsbetrr'gennew ancl exis(ing knolr'lelcige, A.sthe n;rnresuggest$,studentsquic{rlt qrite abcruta tclJrir:.}Jeciirset}ris 1slr qrric'kli'u'ritlctt1:iece.stuclclnts.sheu-r]cl n'itlr thc forrn ol tfr*ir u'ritnr:t [:e cr:ncrerneci 'fire ing (i.e.. spellirtg,grfirumar.organiz:,tti<"rn ol'icieas)r'rtlhis trnre. poirif is rclget ic{eason paper, SLttclcnl5 nlily be gir,en a rrore t:r'less clpen prorTtpt,r\n ex.ampkrof ln opcn prolllll{ is ''Quicklv qrrite n'hat ,vou hnon' ahr:ut fhe respiraton,svstenl,' Sorneo1:en pf()l]1I)t'.5reqtr1lcsinr1rlelist.irrgs.asinl:raitrst<-trrrtittg.sttcltit.s..1Vril,eastrtanvrt:al.lifuse of pcrr<-'errtlge$ rts\r()r.lcan l.hinl<r>filr 1 minutc." A. lgssop{::11 prorn!)t asksstuclerrtlo c()t1lr plerc a scnten(o ancl then cll.holate, i::or exa.nrple,r:rjclcllcschr.rq:lels nriglrt be asked lo cotnpletc the fnllot,ing $tiltenentr "j\'lan-vJa1:anesc-Anrericanij \\.cfre1:lliecrcl in internrnent ca!ltl)$wl:cn,.."

lt+W 1. T)e\rrlop il rJrompt that u'ill clravi on snrdents'knowlectgeor extr:eriencesrvirh rlre (:()nteltt.

2. llliln whether and ]:r:r' studentswill slrnretheir $,ritins.

t.. Tell strrclentsabout the to;ric of tlre upcor:ringunit of ,stucl1,. F<.tr exirr:uplc.y<:urniglrt

2

inftlrrn sttttlenlsthat yor"rareraboul to begin a srurcly of cii.il rights.r\lening str,rdenrs tc: the r.ipcolningr-lnitof study, however, is optional; 1'nr"rs:;11r11,ic!1 to har,e students engagein the Quick \t(/riteprior to.informing rhem of fhe conrexrr:f tlre prompr. Ask str;clentsto qlrir:kivwrite in rCspolrseto dle prurlpt yuu pnlvicle.

3. Alloq' stucl*rTtsto shi{rerheir rvJitings'ith one another.Hncolrrage\rolunteersto share u'itlr th* eltdre class.

1.' To increasefluency in str-rdenrswriting, which c;ln l:e especiallyhelpful li:r stuclcnts ncquir:inglirrglish, try these ,suggestionsin isolation r.tr in a comhination th*t suit$ v0ur pilrpO.5es: a. Require $tudent$to think fcrr a specified an:ount of time (30 sel*:rncls?) heli:re rhey pick up their pencils rt: r.rite. b. Allorv $tudent$to mlk q'ith a pref fcrra brief anlount r.rftirne {3{j scconcls'r) he&lrc th*y writr. Tatking iirst can lreli: student$ acce$stheir nremories.

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Alternatives onal In$ructi ofThirty-0ne 0verview At the beginning of the chapter, we indicated that a brief overview of 3l instructional alternatives would follow the indepth information on Presentation, discussion, independent study, and individualized instruction. Here they are, presented alphabetically. You will note that some have characteristics in common with others. ,For example, presentations and recitations are both normally led by the teacher' . Academic games or competitions-Learners compete with each other one to K one or team to team to determine which individual or group is superror at a t I given academic task such as in "spelldowns," anagrams, or project completion. Some well-known commercially available academic games inchtde Probe (vocabulary and spelling) and Rook(mathematics). Cooperative learning, presented in the next chapter,may incorporate games and competition. 'Brainslelg;ng-To generate creative ideas, learners are asked to withhold 4 f judgment or lriticism and produce a very large number of ways to do -rsomething, may such as resolve a particular problem. For example, learners 'be asked to think of as many ideas as they can for eliminating world hunger' j'Once they have generated a large number of ideas, the ideas are subjected to inspection in respect to their feasibility. nts make detailed analysis of some specific, usually compelling, nt or series of related events so that learners will better understand its ture and what might be done about it. For example, learners in a science issmight investigate the occurrence of El Nifro, or a disaster of human in such as the infiltration of the zebra mussel in the Great Lakes. nters of interest and displays-Collections and displays of materials are used interest learners in themes or topics, For example, children may bring to

7 CHAPTER FourInstructionalAlternatives: Discussion.lndependent Presentation, Study,andIndividualizedlnstruction 221


school and display family belongings rhat reflect their ethnic heritage. The intention may be to interest the class in the notion of culture. Or, the teacher might arrange a display of different measurement devices to prompt interest in and exploration of that topic. colloquia-A guest or guests are invited to class to be interviewed. Thus, a guest musician might serve as a stimulus for arousing interest in music and musical performance.

{.

constructivisn-ls21nqrs (seeChapter 8).

coming to learn through purposeful experiences

Contracts-Written agreements students and teachers may enter into d.escribe the academic work students plan to accomplish in a particular period of time such as over a week or month. cooperative learning-AXA student-team learning. students working in groups & reworded for collective effort (see Chapter 8). Debates-In this form of discussion, a few students present and contest varpng points of view on an issue.For example, secondary students could debate the issue "should public schools be financed by real estate tax, sales tax, or tax on personal income?" Demonstrations-In this form of presentation, the teacher or learners show how something works or operates, or how something is done. For example, a teacher could demonstrate how to use a thesaurus, how to operate a handheld calculator, or what happens when oil is spilled on water (as when an oil tanker leaks). Direct instruction-A teacher gives explici t, step-by-step instruc tion (Rosenshine,1987) (seeChapter 8). Discovery-In discovery learning, students are encouraged to derive their own understandings or meanings (see Chapter 8). "It uas a aerysuccessful fdd t"p I managed, to losef.ue of'them." a

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Discussion-Described in this chapter, discussions occur when a group assemblesto communicate with one another by speaking and listening about a topic or event of mutual interest. Drill and practice-In this form of independent study, the teacher explains a task and then learners practice it. After students learn how to use a thesaurus, for example, they could be asked to locate and use synonyms. Field observation, fieldwork, field trips-students make observations or carry out work in an outside-the-school setting. Students might visit the local museum of natural history to see displays about dinosaurs, or they might begin and operate a small businessto learn about production and marketingl Independent study or supervised study-Described in this chapter, independent study requires learners to complete a common task at their desks or as a home study assignment. Individualized instruction-Described in this chapter. Any of a number of teaching methods that tailor teaching and learning to meet a learner's unique characteristics. Learni'"g modules-These are a form of individualized instruction that allow students to use a self-contained package of learning activities. The activities guide learners to know or to be able to do something. Students might be given a learning module that contains activities intended to help them understand good nutrition. Mastery learning-As a class, students are presented with information to be learned at a predetermined level of mastery. The classis tested.,and individuals who do not obtain adequate scores are retaught and retested. Those who pass undertake enrichment study while classmates catch up (see chapter 4).

PARTTWO TheAct of Teaching

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Oral reports-Individuals or groups of learners are assigned or choose topics. Us For example, each may be asked to find out about one planet in our solar { system. They share what they learn with other class members through oral / presentations. Presentations-Described in this chapter. Students listen to a person who talks fi about a topic. The teacher, or a guest speaker, might tell the class all about the]4 artist Dali, for example. or groups of learners are presented with a Problem solving-Individuals perplexing, difficult question or situation and are asked to think about and try to resolve it (see Chapter 4). this form of individualized Programmed and computer-assisted instruction-In instruction, students learn information in small, separate units either by reading programmed texts or by using computer-presented teaching programs. A correct answer to a question or problem enables the learner to advance, while an incorrect response requires repetition or relearning (see Chapter 4) . this form of individualization, learners choose Project or activity method-In and work on projects and activities on related topics. Students might write on or present in graphic presentation "Life in the South" or "Life in the North during the Civil War." Learners not only choose topics but also the project that will show what they've learned. (See this chapter, Independent Study,) Protocols-Learners study an original record or records of some important event and then try to understand the event or its consequences.They might watch a film depicting actual instances of discr-imination and then consider its causesand effects.

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Recitation-Students are given information to study. They then recite what they have learned when the teacher questions them. For example, students might read about what causesdifferent weather patterns, and the teacher might then question them to determine the extent and nature of their knowledge and understanding (see Thble 7.3).

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r Role playing-Learners take on the role of another person to see what it would be like to be that person. Thus, a student could play the role of an imaginary student no one likes or the role of an individual with handicaps.

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would work togbther to find the answers, Finally, team members would take a quiz on division of fractions, and the team members' scores would be added to make up a team score. wwwmhhe.com/cru ickshank4e

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Reciprocal Teaching-Teacher gradually shifts teaching responsibility to learners (see Chapter 4, Learning Style Differences) .

r Simulations-lsa1ns1s engage with something intended to simulate-to give the appearance or have the effect of-something else. Thus, students may engage in a simulation of the United Nations General Assembly in order to have "firsthand" experienee with how the Assembly works and what its delegates do. . Student-team, pupil-team, cooperative learning-Described in Chapter 8. Learners are placed in groups or teams of four to six. Sometimes the groups are as diverse or heterogeneous as possible. In such cases,team members are often rewarded for the teamls overall success.Under one type of cooperative learning, student teams might see a teacher presentation on division of fractions. They would then receive worksheets to complete.-Team members

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Whichinstructional doyou alternatives prefer?Why?

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CHAPTEF 7 FourInstructionalAlternatives: lndependent lation,Discussion. Instruction ----,1.andlndividualized 28

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CloudRubric **This can be donein partners-No more than two studentsworking togetherper paper!!** 1. Go to the websiteslistedbelowto find mostof your informafion: 2. Make sureto type in the websiteexactlyasit appearson this sheet httn ://www.srh.noaa.gov/srh/i etstream/svnoptic/clouds. htm httn ://rvrvw.srh. noaa.sov/srh/i etstream/svnoptic/clouds max.htm http://cloudman.com/ httn ://vortex.nlvmouth.edu/clouds. htmV 3. Also try this: o Go to www.phschool.com o In the left hand columnoclick on "scienceo' o Click on the l't link .stextbookcompanionsiteso' o Selectyour state$IL" and program"Earth Science" o Click *Go' o Scrolldown to'6Chapterl8-Moisture,Clouds,Precip" o Click on'oOnlinefield trips" and/or"Web resources" o Explore all of the cloud resourcesthey have to offer there!! 4. I am expectinga L to 2 pagesummarybasedon the following questionsbroken into different paragraphsasyou seefit Make your summaryflow smoothly. * How are cloudsformed? {. What are the typesof cloud classifications? * How are they determined? t List the weatherconditionsassociated with eachcloud. â&#x201A;Ź. Choosea cloud from eachlevel(low, mid-level,and high) and go into depth explainingwhat it lookslike and its function * How is fog and mist different from a cloud 5. Mechanicsof paper: Doublespaced,TimesNewRoman, 12 font


Classroom Accommodations ldeas Meeting

Building Bridges Program the Learning Needs of A11 St,udents

Peggy Swerdlik, Instructj-onal Assistant Professor Department of Special Education Illinois State Universitv General

Instructional

Practices

.

Many technigues Lhat will help disabilities wi}] aLso benefit

o

Begin with

o

Provide period.

.

rntroduce technical vocabulary both has a hearing impairment earlier if

.

Speak directly to students and use gest,ures and natural expressions further meaning (st,udents may be using cassetLe recorders) .

o

Give

o

Make reading

o

Provide

.

At

a brief

review

previous

an advanced orqanizer

assi-gnments both

the

of

lists

adeguate conclusion

oralIy

available

or

in

the

class,

materiaL.

session's

outline

and in

opportunities of

students who have sensory or learning all the students in vour cl-ass.

material-

of

visually possible)

written

to

be covered

(give

and oraIly .

form to

avoid

to

in

that

sEudent who

to

convey

confusion.

advance. for

questions,

briefly

cl-arification,

and review.

summarize key points.

General Tips for teachers to foster an inclusive environment, for st,udents with disabilities

cl-assroom

r

Provide

r

Ask your studenEs to clarify any speciaL needs. Students are usually their own best advocates, and they know the techniques and adaptations that best suit their needs.

.

Recognize the

.

May need to be flexibLe about attendance and prompt.ness. SEudents who use wheelchairs may encounter physical barriers in getting to c1ass. other st.udents may sometimes feel fatigued or have difficulty concentrating as a result of their disabilitv or their medication.

Lhe student, wiEh an opportunity

student

as a person

first

to

clarify

(not the

special

disability

needs.

first).


CLassroom Accommodations Impairments

for

and Suggestions

with

Students

Hearing

r

Students with hearing impairments need to use note takers in cLass. They must so are unable to also and interpreLers spend class time watching instrucLors t,o share notes. take notes. In most cases, oLher sLudents in class are willing You may be asked to help locate volunteers.

r

Discuss with your student where it woufd be best for him/her and Lhe would be for the Lo sit in the cfassroom. The optimum siLuation interpreter and for the student to be in the fronE to be near the instructor interpreter the room for a clear view.

of

.

on the board) Try not to Lecture with your back to the cfass (when writing facial- or lip reading because it destroys any chance of your studenE getting Ehis problem. often alleviates cues. Using an overhead projector

o

When questions are being asked from the repeaE the question before answering it

.

cannot look at you or the impairment Be aware that your student with a hearing inr-arnratoand do other work at the same time. A]Iow enough Eime for students (such as handouls, charts, fo strrdv nrinted fi-]1 out and over-heads), material you've just described before continuing. paperwork, or complete the task/step

o

Feel free to call upon your student wouLd do with anv other student.

o

Using said.

o

must be reduced, check to see that sufficient If the room lighting signs and lip for the student to see the interpreter's available

.

Get your physical

.

which must be answered by more than Use open-ended questions, Don't assume that your student has understood your message if nod in acknowLedgement. open-ended quesEions ensure Lhat your been communicated.

visuaL

materials

student's contact,

helpful

to

a hearing

supplement

and Suggestions

for

impairment

and reinforce

in

class,

whaL is

as you

being

light is movements.

may necessitate

This

Studenta

you would

if

woufd help

it

before beginning Eo speak. attention such as a tap on the shouLder.

Testing Accommodations Impairments .

is

with

class,

"yes", or "no." only required to information has

with

Hearing

Your student with a hearing impairment may have a great, difficulty idiomatic undersLanding questions on a written exam due to English syntax, language, or vocabulary used. Allow the interpreter to sign each quesEion l-hrf rrnrrr ct-r1dsn! may fu11y comprehend the gueStion being asked.

so


Accomrnodat,ions for

Classroom

Students

with

Visual-

o

Students may need textbook information at so that they may make taping arrangements

r

Visual aids during lectures can be adapted by using clear visual materiaL presented. This would incLude verbalizing presented on the overhead/slide. visually

.

Due to

the

time

needed to

schedule

Impairments

feast eight weeks prior with outside resources.

to

term

descriptions of what is being

"pop quizzes"

a reader/writer,

the

the

require

^1 ^-.*l -.yr4rurJrrY.

r

Give verbaL as well as written meetings, or assignments.

.

Preferentialseating is important for the student. When visualavaifable, the student, musE receive alL audit,ory cues possible.

r

Be sure aLl handouts and tests are typed clearly sor students in dark print. print-style, with Low-vision contrast, and spacing are very important.

o

OrienL your st,udent the room and inform

o

Keep doors

.

Don't assume your student will recognize you by your voice even though you have yourself met before. Identify by name, maintain normal voj-ce volume, speak directly Eo Lhe person, and maintain eye contact.

Testing

fully

open or

for

Allow your student and reader be disturbed by others.

o

Try

o

onfy

.

EnLarge the

quesEions

long

use graphs test

or

room or homework changes,

special

cues are not

closed.

o

avoid

of

to the room by explaining where things are Locat,ed around has been rearranqed. vour student when cLassroom furniture

Acconmodations

to

notice

charts

questions

Students to

work

with in

Visual

a room where

and mu1t,iple-choice

those

students

they

options

on exams that, have already for

Impairments

with

will

that

not

confuse

been introduced some vision

disturb

or

students. in

class.

capabitities.


Classroom

Accommodations

for

Students

wit,h Learning

Disabilities

o

All-ow students

r

with printed Students who have difficulty symbols may need to use tape-recorded you well textbooks to listen and read simultaneously. They may need to contact in advance to get textbook information assignments in and a schedul-e of reading order to make taping arrangements.

.

Their work Some students are unable to communicate effectively through writing. may appear careless, They thoughts guite slowly. or they often write out their may be able to demonstrate learning ideas to a better by dictating their writer, tape recording their reports, or having a time extension on due dates.

.

Extra

o

Students that the

r

Students may need assislance in locating When they don't have to focus on taking being said in class.

Testing

time

to

tape

record

may be needed to

may ask you to information is

Accommodations

lectures.

complete

longer

repeat instructions correct.

for

Students

or more detaifed or

appointment

a volunteer notes, they

assignments. det,ails

Eo ensure

classmate tl sfrare notes. can concentrate on what is

wit,h Learning

Digabilitieg

.

Keep physical transferring of information to a minimum. Allow your students write answers on the test itself rather than having to record answers on a separate sheet. Scantron forms are especially difficult to use for students with tracking difficulties. Circling or checki-ng answers would be the best alternative.

r

Vocabulary

used on tests

shoul"d have been used

in

cIass.

to


Claesroom Accommodations

for

with

Students

Mobility

Impairments

in locating Students with limited hand use may need assistance c]assmate to share notes or to help with cLass activities. Assignment

due dates

may need extensions

if

a volunteer

hand use.

have Limited

students

When talking to your student who is in a wheelchair and the conversation continues for more than a few minutes, it is helpful to sit down, kneeL, or squat if convenienE. Communication may be enhanced and neck strain a11eviated. Feel free Lo use words in wheelchairs use the

such as "walking," same words.

or

"standing"

in

people

conversation;

If students' speech is difficult to undersLand, ask to hear it again. AIso, aflow sLudents to speak for themselves and complete the communication; never it for them. .

Your student may be a few minutes late the other side of the campus or if the

.

occasionally st,udents will have a dog helping them. it can be hazardous for them if the dog is animals, owner's preference before petting the dog.

Test

Accommodations

Time extension

(time

for

to cl-ass if the class before yours is accessible route is out of the wav.

St,udents with

and a half

Student,s who have difficul-ty writ,er word processor with

Since these distracted.

Mobility

Students

using

be divided

wheel-chairs

on

are working Check for the

Impairments

or doubled).

writing may require the assisLance special adaptive equipment.

of

Due to the time needed Lo make arrangements, require "pop quizzes" planning, your st,udent, must be given prior either notice of tests. Exams may need to f at,igues.

do

int,o

severaL

sections

may need a raised

if

workspace

the

to

student

complete

a test

special

is

easily

their

exams.


Be Aware of Learning

"Hidden Disabilities"

!!

disabilities

o

Learning disabilities hinder students from easily and dependably processing

r

In general, using a variety modes enhances learning for such of instructional ct-rrrlanfc id it dOes for all students, by allowing them to master material that may be inaccessibl-e in one particufar mode.

I'IiId o

t,o moderate

sensory

above-average int,elligence of information.

of average or various types

impairments

(1ow-Ieve1 vision, Mild to moderate sensory deficits slight hearing shou}d be accommodated by appropriate seating and room lighting.

Chronic

impairment)

illness

.

chronic disabilities conditions, lupus, and alertness.

.

The attendance and performance of affected may need flexibiLity in the scheduling of

Fostering

class

(diabetes, seizure disorders, cardiac or respiratory cancer, AIDS) may interfere with stamina, attention span,

students may be erratic, assignment,s.

and they

participation

.

Arrange

r

Students who cannoL raise their hand to answer or ask questions may feel isolated or ignored in class. private During your first meeting with such a student, ask how he or she wishes to be recognized in the classroom. Some students wiLl- want to be called on; others may prefer to meet periodically with you before or after class to ask guestions about course content.

Tlpical-

cl-ass participation

for

Mathemat,ics

or

an alternative

method.

Adaptations

.

Pocket calcuLators

o

HaLf-inch

o

Highlighted

o

Short assignments that. address extensive practice.

o

SeLf-correcting

.

Peer or professionaltutors or a study group that is members who have been successful- in the approaches.

.

Tape recorded

o

TesL retakes

for

graph paper

computaEions. to

or underl-ined

materials

reviews

of

and averaging

help

the

student

key words,

i-mportant

align

function

one concept

to provide

the

to

instant

signs,

in

feedback

scores.

problems.

and related

a variety

topics.

two t,est

mathematics

of

in

quantities.

ways and provide

regard

composed of

to

accuracy.

other

c]ass


Tlpica1

Test

Taking

Adaptations

.

In

r

When talking best to sit

.

Repeat comments or speaking) .

r

When a student is speaking out of the range of vision of sLudent who has a who is speaking hearing impairment repeat the quesEion or comment and indicate (by motioning) To accommodate so the student can follow the discussion. studenLs wit.h visual disabilities, identify by name the studenE who is speaking or idenEify the person to whom you are speakJ-ng

o

List,en

.

Never pretend to understand if you are having repeat what you have understood and allow the

o

Provide

class

Physical Ensure

directlv

discussion

student

to a student in a wheelchair down so that you can talk at

attentively

for

address

questions

from

alternative

with

methods for

oral

Accesg

clagsroom

Ensure access

access

t,o out

of

and seatinq class

needs.

r"tiliti.".

the

interpreter.

for more than eye 1eve1.

classmates

when a student

not

(Iet

a minute

t,he student

is

a speech disability difficulty to student

presentations,

or

it

is

know who is

speaking.

doing so. respond. if

two,

Instead,

necessary.


ADAPTATIONS OF ASSIGNMENTS If o o o o o o o o o o o o o o

If o o o o o o o o o

If o o o o o o o o o o o o

Student

has Difficulty

Reading Textbooks

Find a text. writLen at a l-ower l-evel Adapt t,he studenE's text by highlighEing and reorganizing Rewrite the st,udent' s text Tape the student's text Allow student or parent to read t,ext aloud to student Shorten t.he amount of reguired reading Look for same contenE in another medium (movie, filmstrip, tape) Have class read aloud in small groups on a volunteer being certain basis, reader with a disability can contribute some other way later. A]]ow extra t.ime for reading. Limit reading requirements. Substitute study guides which identify key ideas and terms as the only reading assignment. - interest Motivate students in the subject. Use worksheets which ask for information teacher wants learned and provide page numbers. Put main ideas of text on index cards which can easily be organized in a file box divided by chapters.

Student

has Difficulty

Reading

St,udy Sheet,s or Tests

Tape record the questions or give oral tests. Use more site space between sections. Provide a buddy or allow group he1p. Make test, more manageable; reorganize for clarity. Pre-teach vocabulary. Reduce the vocabulary leve1. Tlpe worksheets rather than write by hand for easier Gi-ve a Eake-home tesE. Use larger type.

Student

haE Difficulty

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Reduce the }anguage level Become more concrete by using manipulatives and pictures. Reduce amounE of new ideas int,roduced at one time. Provide experience before and after reading as a form of reference for concepts. Stimulate. Relate to previous experience or something student already knows. Provide study guides. Provide categoricalcues. Give organj-zational help. Teach student to visuaLize what, is read via role playing or providing passages f or pract,ice. descript,ive Provide alternative media (using a fil-m instead of a l_ecture) Add additional input source (put text on tape so student can hear what read) .

new

is


Environmental o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o

Use study carrels. Use proximity seating. Seating arrangements in horseshoe (2-3 rows deep) Preferential seating based on individual needs. Frequent changes in assigned seating. Build rapport with students during the "before-school" time wiEh informal and music. practices. learning Groups of Four philosophy adopted from cooperative Assign a peer tutor or uEilize cross-age tuEoring to review information. Seat students in area free from distracti-ons. Let student select the place which is best for student to study. Student seated near someone who will be helpful and understanding. Help keep student's space free, of unnecessary materials. Use checkl-ists to help student get organLzed. Use notebook for organized assignments, materials, and homework. Provide opportunities for movement.

Organizational o o o o o o o o o o o

Strategies

Ealk

Strategies

Provide list of materials needed at the beginning of each grading period. Post assignments and class activities in the same place each day and explain verbally. Help student use a monthly calendar. Provide structured format for journal/notebook and illustrate the entries format with each focused assignment. journal. Use daily Ask students to repeat directions. Provide structure with timelines for completion of each part of long assignments. Give parents information about long-term assignments. Use color coding to focus attention. Establish daily routine and attempt to maintain it. Make clear rules and be consistent enforcinq them.


The Universally DesignedClassroom

(pp. 1a9- 172) Chapter6 - UDL Implementation Overview UDL is a theoreticalframework for flexible and supportivelessonplanning and implementation inspired by the universal design movement in architectureand product developmentwhich calls for designsthat from the outsetaccommodatethe greatest variety of individuals.In educationthe UDL framework guidesthe developmentof curriculaby meansof threeprinciples. . Multiple, flexible methodsof presentation . Multiple, flexible methodsof expressionand apprenticeship . Multiple, flexible methodsoptionsfor engagement The UDL processof curriculum planning and delivery includesfour steps. r Set goals- the contextof the lessonis driven by statestandardsthen fo-llowedby the designof instructionalgoals. . Analyzestatus- Do all learnershave accessto materials?Are all learnersable to expressthemselveswith currentmethodsand materials? . Apply UDL to lesson/unit- Selectgoals,methods,assessments, and materials that support all learners. . TeachUDL lesson- minimize barriers.value studentdifferences.and maximize engagement. UDL and Differentiated Instruction Differentiatedinstructionprovidesmultiple ways for studentsto learn and assimilate concepts.It providesopportunitiesfor studentsto experiencesuccessin increasingly diverseclassroomsettines. Elements The principlesand guidelinesof direct instructionare rooted in the conceptsof "readiness"and the "zone of proximal development". Content . severalelementsand materials are usedto support instruction r tasksand objectivesare alignedto learninggoals I assuresinstructionis conceptfocusedand principle driven Process . employsflexible grouping . demandsskillful managementand organizationof lessondelivery Products I useson-going formative, summative,and perfonnanceassessments . providesinteresting,engaging,and accessibletasks . allows varying expectationsand requirementsfor studentresponses


Background/Prior Knowledge Instruction Studentswho lack appropriatebackground information or are unable to activate schema becomestruggling,unsuccessfulleamers. Strategiesfor activating prior lcnowledge . reflection and recording - studentsstate,write down what they already know r interactivediscussion- socio-culturallearningtheory I answerquestionsbeforereading- settingpurpose r K-W-L strategy- usedbefore,during, and after reading ' Computerassistedapproachesto integratingschemawith new knowledge BackgroundKnowledge Instructionand the UDL Principles Supportingbackgroundknowledgeis an essentialelementof UDL. It supportsstudents' schemabuilding, learningpreference s, and metacognition. . Principle I : Recognitionlearning l|/henproviding background knowledge,it is important to recognizeand {upport students' varying strengths,weaknesses,and learning preferences. . Principle 2: Strategiclearning Teachersshould use a variety of modelsand meansof support. Scaffoldsshould be provided, as well as, ongoing and relevantfeedback. . Principle 3: Affective learning Provideflexible optionsfor engqgement.Challenge studentsat the oppropriate level of motivation and skill (ZPD concept).Finally, offer choices of learning contexts,i.e. amount of structure, individual or group settings,or inside or outside of the classroom.


,I The Seven Keys to Comprehension How to Help Your Kids Read ft. and Get. It. ! h t t p : / / v r v r wd. e l - a n o . k t 2 . m n . u s / s i t e p a g e s / p i d l - 3 4 5

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By: Susan Zimmermann Author of Mosaic of Thouqht. S o u n di n g o u t o r d e co d ing wor ds is par t of the r eading puzzJ-e but fall-s short of real reading. If children don't, understand what they read, they're not realIy reading. If they don't unl-ock meaning as they read, t h e w o rd s a re b o ri n g babble and they will never r ead well or enjoy reading. So, how is meaning unl-ocked? In the 1980's, a breakthrough oceurred: r"".urlhers identified t.he specific thinking strategies used by proficient re a d e rs. They found that, r eading Is an i n t . e r a ct,i ve p ro ce ss i n which good r eader s engage in a c o n s t a n t i n te rn a l - d i a l ogue wit.h the text. The ongoing d i a l o gu e h e l p s th e m under stand and elabor ate on what. t h e y re a d . B y i d e n t.i fy ing what. good r eader s do as they r e a d , th i s re se a rch g ave impor tant new insights about how to t.each children to read it and set iE. G o o d re a d e rs meaning:

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7 Keys to unlock

1 - . C re a te me n t,a l i mages: Good r eader s cr eat.e a wide r a n g e o f vi su a l -, a u d i teyy, and other sensor y im ages as t h e y re a d , a n d th e y becom e emotionally invol- ved wit.h w h a t th e y re a d . 2 . U se b a ckg ro u n d knowledge: Good r eader s use their r e l - e va n t, p ri o r kn o w l e dge befor e, dur ing, and after r e a d i ng to e n h a n ce th eir under standing of what they,r e reading. 3 . A sk q u e st,i o n s: Good r eader s gener at.e questions before, during, and after reading to cl-arify meanirg, make predictions, and focus their attention on what,,s important. 4. Make inferencâ&#x201A;Źs: good readers use their prior knowledge and information from what, they read to make predictions, seek answers to questions, draw / (

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concLusj-ons, and create interpretations Lhat, deepen their undersfanding of the text, 5. Determine the most important ideas or Lhemes: Good readers identify key ideas or themes as t.hey read, and they can dist,inguish between important and unimportant information. 6. Slmthesize information: good readers track their thinking as it evolves during reading, to get the overall meaning, 7 . Use f ix up strategj.es: Good readers are aware of when they understand and when they don,t,. If they have trouble understanding specific words, phrases, or longer passages, they use a wide range of problemsolving strategies including skipping ahead, rereading, asking questions, using a dictionary, and readiflg the passage aloud. Good readers use lhe same strategies whether they,re reading Reader's Digest, or a calculus textbook. There is nothing f ancy about, these st,rategies. They are commonsense. But to read welL, readers must use them. Excerpted from: 7 Keys to Comprehension: How to Help Your fids Read IE and Get it I Aut,hors: Susan Zimmermannand Chryse Hut,chins. Three Rivers Press, New York, 2OO3


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KtxXh'sLcmrxx&xng $tyXe-$xrverl$ury Kolb'sLearningStylelnventory(Kolb,D. A. 1984)is basedon JohnDewev'semphasis on the needfor learningto be groundedin experience, KurtLewin's,workthatstressed the importance of a person's beingactivein learning, andJeanPiaqet's theoryon intelligence as the resultof the interaction of the personandthe environment. Kolb'sfourstagetheoryis basedon a modelwithtwodimensions. Youcanthinkof the firstdimension, as shownin the modelbelow,runninghorizontally and it is basedon fask.The leftendof the dimension is doingthetasks(performing), whilethe rightendis watching thetask(observing). Theseconddimension runsvertically andis basedupon ourthoughtandemotional processes. Thetop of the dimension is feeling(responsive feelings- suchas HenryDavidThoreau), whilethe bottomof thedimension is thinking (controlled feelings- suchas Dr.Spockof StarTrek).

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M Youmightalso thinkof the horizontal dimension as howwe reactto theenvironment aroundus jump in anddo it, introverts (extroverts observefromthe sidelines). Whilethe vertical dimension is the soulor egowithinus (theleftsideof the brainis iogical, whilethe right sideof the brainis creativeandemotional). Noticethatthis is verysJmilar to othertwo dimensional models,suchas theManaqeriat Grid. Thesefourpositionson the two dimensions describea four-steplearningprocess(note thateachpositionis represented by a bluecoloredboxin the abovediagram): - perceiveinformation. *lFeefing or Sensing(Concrete Experience) A highscorein the concreteexperience dimensionrepresents a receptive experience basedapproachto learning thatrelieson feelingbasedjudgments. Thus,peopletendto be empathetic. Theygenerally findtheoretical approaches to be unhelpful and preferto treateach


situationas a uniquecase.Theylearnbestfromspecificexamplesin whichtheycan be involved. Theselearnerstendto relateto peers,notauthority(theyare people persons theywantto get alongwithothers,not be bossedaround).Theoretical readingsare not alwayshelpfulwhilegroupworkand peerfeedbackoftenleadsto success.Planned activities shouldapplylearnedskills.The instructor actsas coach/helper for thisself-directed autonomous learner. - reflecton how it will impactsomeaspectof our 6Watching (ReflectiveObseruation) life.A highscorein reflective observation indicates a tentative,impartialand reflective approach to learning. Theseindividuals relyheavilyon carefulobservation in making judgments. Theypreferlearningsituations suchas lecturesthatallowthe roleof impartialobjectiveobservers. Theseindividuals tendto be introverts. Lecturesare helpfulto this learner(theyarevisualandauditory). Thislearnerwantsthe instructor to provideexpertinterpretation. Theylookfor an instructor who is botha taskmaster and a guide.Thislearnerwantstheirperformance to be measuredby externalcriteria. - comparehow it fits intoour or Conceptualization) 6Thinking (AbstractGeneralization ownexperiences. A highscorein abstractconceptualization indicates an analytical, conceptual approach to learning thatreliesheavilyon logicalthinkingandrational evaluation. Theseindividuals tendto be moreoriented towardsthingsandsymbols, and lesstowardsotherpeople.Theylearnbestin authority-directed, imp6:rsonal learningsituations thatemphasize theoryandsystematic analysis.Theyarefrustrated by andgainlittlefromunstructured "discovery learning"approaches suchas exercises andsimulations. Casestudies, theoretical readings and reflective thinking exerciseshelpthis learner.Verylittleelsehelpsthis learner. - thinkabouthowthis gDoing (testingin newsituationor ActiveExperimentation) information offersnewwaysfor us to act.A highscorein activeexperimentation indicates an active"doing"orientation to learning thatreliesheavilyon experimentation. Theseindividuals learnbestwhentheycanengagein suchthings as projects, homework, or groupdiscussions. Theydislikepassivelearning situations suchas lectures. Theseindividuals tendto be extroverts. Thislearnerwantsto touch (kinesthetic everything or tactile). Problem solving, smallgroupdiscussions or games, peerfeedback, andselfdirected workassignments all helpthislearner. Thislearner likesto see everything anddetermine theirowncriteriafor the relevance of the materials. Thesetwo linesintersect eachotherandformfourquadrants(represented by the pink circlesin the abovediagram). Thesequadrants personal formthe learning styles: qTheorists (or Assimilator)liketo learnusingabstractconceptualization and reflective (lecture,papers,analogies) observation and liketo ask suchquestionsas "Howdoes - casestudies, thisrelateto that?"Training approach theoryreadings, andthinking alone.Theirstrengths liein theirabilityto createtheoretical models.Theytendto be lessinterested in peopleand lessconcerned withpracticalapplications of knowledge. Theyare oftenmoreconcerned withabstractconcepts. Theoristsare oftenfoundin research andplanning departments. Thislearning styleis morecharacteristic of basic scienceandmathematics thanappliedsciences. andactive 6Pragmatists(or Converger)liketo learnusing abstractconceptualization experimentation (laboratories, fieldwork,observations). Theyask "Howcan I apply - peerfeedback; thisin practice?" Training approach activities thatapplyskills;trainer is coach/helper for a self-directed autonomous learner.The pragmatist's greatest strengthis in the practicalapplication of idea.Theytendto be relatively unemotional. Theypreferto dealwiththingsratherthanpeople.Theytendto havenarrowtechnical interestsandquiteoftenchooseto specialize in the physicalsciences. gActivists (or accommodator) liketo learnusingconcreteexperienceand active experimentation (simulations, casestudy,homework). Theytellthemselves "t'mgame


- practicing for anything." Training approach the skill,problemsolving, smallgroup peerfeedback; discussions, trainershouldbe a modelof a professional, leavingthe learnerto determineherowncriteriafor relevance Theirstrengthslie in of materials. doingthingsandinvolving themselves in newexperiences. Theyarecalled accommodators becausetheyexcelin adaptingto specificimmediate circumstances. Theytendto solveproblemsintuitively, relyingon othersfor information. Accommodators are oftenfoundworkingin marketing and sales.The accommodator is at easewithpeoplebut is sometimes seenas impatient andpushy.Thislearner's practical educational background is oftenin technical or fieldssuchas business. (or diverger) like learn to reflective using observation and concrete 6Reflectors (logs,journals, experience brainstorming). Theyliketimeto thinkaboutthe subject. - lectures Training approach withplentyof reflection time;trainershouldprovide - taskmaster/guide;judge expertinterpretation performance by externalcriteria.Their strengths lie in an imaginative ability. Theytendto be interested in peopleand emotional elements. Peoplewiththislearning styletendto becomecounselors, organizational development specialists andpersonnel managers. Theyhavebroad culturalinterestsandtendto specialize in the arts.Thisstyleis characterizes individuals fromhumanities andliberalartsbackgrounds. A reminder thatwe learnfromallfourexperiences (quadrants), butoneof thefouris our favorite. The idealtraining environment wouldincludeeachof thefourprocesses. For example, the cyclemightbeginwiththe learner's personal involvement through concrete experiences; next,the learnerreflects on thisexperience, lookingfor meaning; thenthe learnerappliesthismeaning to forma logicalconclusion; andfinally,the learnerexperiments withsimilarproblems, whichresultin newconcrete experiences. The learning cyclemightbeginanewdueto newanddifferent experiences. Thetrainingactivities shouldbe flexibleso thateachlearnercouldspendadditional time on hisor herpreferred learning style.Also,youcanenterthe learning cycleat anyone of the fourprocesses.


Exploring readingnightmaresof middle and secondaryschoolteachers. Authors:Bintz,William P. Source:Journal of Adolescent& Adult Literacy;Sep97,Vol. 41 Issue1, plZ,14p,1 chart DocumentType:Article Subject Terms:READING (Secondary) Abstract:Looksinto the problemsfacing middle and secondaryschoolteachersin teaching reading.Decline in interestand slow down in developmentin readingbasedon high school grades;Nightmaresfacedby readingteachersin the classroom;Need for higher educationto reassess the role readingeducationplays within the teachereducationcurriculum; Changing students'perceptionof reading. Full Text Word Count:8272 ISSN:1081-3004 AccessionNumber:9709226049 Persistentlink to this record: http ://www.mlb. ilstu.edr-r/cgibin/redirect.cgi?http:llsearch.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct:true&db:tfh&AN:9709226049& loginpage:Login.asp&site:ehost-live&scope=site Cut and Paste:<A hreF "http ://www.mlb. ilstu.edu/cgibin/redirect.cgi?http:llsearch.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?directnrue&db:tftr&AN:9709226049& loginpage:Login.asp&site:ehost-live&scope:site">Exploring readingnightmaresof middle and secondaryschoolteachers.</A> Database:ProfessionalDevelopmentCollection

EXPLORING READING NIGHTMARES OF MIDDLE AND SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS Teachersoften feel unableor unwilling to teachreadingin the contentareas.By viewing reading as a lifelong process,theseteacherscan begin to supportone anotherin helping studentsbecome betterreaders. My nightmare is that I am insecurebecauseas an English teacher,somehow I am expectedto know aboutreading,but at the collegelevel I was only trainedin English content.(high school Englishteacher,1996) My nightmareis that many middle schoolstudentsaren'treadingat gradelevel, or if they are, won't readthe classassignmentsanyway.Consequently,I find myself trying to avoid getting studentsinvolved in readingby assigningas little readingas possible.I teacharoundreadingin orderto make surestudentsunderstandscience.(middle schoolscienceteacher,1996) I have beena middle gradeand high schoolEnglish/languagearts teacherfor over l0 years, During this time, I have had many nightmares,like the onesabove,lurking in my readingcloset. One nightmare in particular just never seemedto go away. I was educatedas a middle and secondaryschoolEnglish teacher.This experiencetaughtme, amongother things,how to plan readingassignmentsfor junior and seniorhigh schoolstudents. Unfortunately, it didn't teach me how to deal with studentswho were not very interestedin or very good at reading theseassignments.Many studentsflatly refusedto read them. Others read the material, but only reluctantly, and more out of fear of reprisal from their parentsfor not completing their assignmentsthan out of a burning desireto leam specific information. Still others read the material, but understoodvery little. Even worse, this experiencedidn't teach me how to deal with studentswho wanted to read the assignmentsbut struggledbecausethey weren'tvery good readers.I didn't know how to help


them becausemy teachereducationprogram included no coursesin reading. I knew that reading was critical to my content area,yet I knew very little about the reading process.Over time, I becameincreasingly frustrated and ineffective. Finally,lrealizedthat I neededto learn more about the nature of reading. Since then, I have spent much of my professionallife learning about the complex nature of reading,readinginstruction,and readingassessment in middle and secondaryschool. Specifically,I have tried to use my own experiences,as well as thoseof others,to think differently about my reading nightmares.The purposeof this article is threefold: (a) to share some nightmaresthat have plaguedthe field of reading educationfor some time by situating my nightmare within a larger historical context, (b) to sharewhat junior high and senior high school teacherssay about their own reading nightmares,and (c) to sharewhat I have learnedfrom these teachersaboutsomeold problemsand new possibilitiesin readingacrossthe curriculum in middle and secondaryschool. Reading nightmaresat national and statelevels RecentU.S. researchat both the nationaland statelevels indicatesthat studentsexperiencea declining interestand slowing developmentin readingthroughthejunior high and seniorhigh schoolgrades(Fan, Fay, Myers, & Ginsberg,1987).For example,the 1986National Assessment of EducationProgress(Applebee,Langer,& Mullis, 1988,p. 6) reported: Studentshave difficulty with tasksthat require interpretationsof what they have read. Poor readershave insufficient time in schoolfor independentreadingand do lessindependent readingthan good readers. Poor readersuse a nalrower rangeof strategiesto guide their own readingthan good readers. Studentsfrom at-risk populations perform poorly when comparedto the national population at eachgradelevel. Similarly, the 1990National Assessmentof EducationProgress(Humphrey,1992,p. 4-5) reported: Readingproficiency increasessubstantiallyfrom Grades4 to 8 but lessdramaticallybetween Grades8 and 12. Studentsdo little readingin schooland for homework. Interestin books decreases as studentsadvancethrough school. Two thirds of fourth gradersuse the library at least weekly, comparedto 24o/oof the eighth gradersandl2o/oof 12thgraders. Approximately one third of eighth and 12th graderssaythey never discussreadingat home. Finally, the 1994National Assessmentof EducationProgress(p. 1) reported: Thereis a slight declinein readingskills among 12thgraders. Twenty-four percent of fourth graders,slightly more eighth graders,and more than33Yoof 12th gradersscoredat a "proficient" level. Across fourth, eighth, and 12thgrades,fewer than SYoreachedan "advanced"level. At least30ohat eachgradelevel failed to reacha "basic" level. Similarly, Chall (1983) notesthat "althoughstudentsdemonstrategains in readingduring the early years,thesegainsseemto taperoff in the middle and upper grades,and declineduring the high schoolyears"(p. 4). Likewise, Anderson,Tollefson,and Gilbert (1985) useappetiteas a metaphor to describehow "the reading diet of primary studentsfar exceedsthat of intermediate and secondarystudents--theprimary studentsclearly demonstratea much more voracious appetitefor reading than do their older counterparts"(p. 189). How do we explain this trend? Here are somehints and hunches. Goodlad(1984) suggeststhat part of the problem might exist in the relationshipbetweenreading decline and time spent on reading instruction, noting that "excluding the eommon reading


activity of oral tum taking from a common text, reading occupiesonly approximately 6Yoof classtime in elementaryschool,3% in junior high school,and2oh in seniorhigh school" (pp. 106-107).Humphrey (I992a) indicatesthat readingis losing the battle for time againstan increasingamount of outside studentinterests,most notably television, noting that "nationally, 8th gradestudentsspendan averageof 21.4 hoursper week watchingtelevision,but only 1.8 hoursper week readingnon-schoolmaterials"@.23). How much time are they spendingper week readingschool-basedmaterials,assumingthey are readingthem at all? Moreover,in a surveyof the currentstatusof readingin middle,junior, and seniorhigh schools in one state,Humphrey (1992b,p. 2) reportedthe following: Teacherssaid that, on average,they spendless than 4 hours per year in staff development activitiesrelatedto reading,including conferences,collegeor university classes,visitations,and locally sponsoredmeetings. Prior to the adventofjunior high schoolsin the 1940s,most studentshad a readingperiod every day from the hrst through the eighth grades.Today, older studentsdo not participate in reading classesor, when they do, they spendlesstime than in the pastbecausereadinghasbeenmerged with English/languagearts.Almost one out of every five middle,junior, and seniorhigh school studentswas not enrolledin a classwhere readingwas emphasizedduring the 1991schoolyear. Thirty-eight percentof studentswhosereadingability falls two or more gradelevelsbelow their actualplacementare not providedany specialassistance. A quarterof the surveyedschoolsdo not have remedial programs,while the others do not have enough support to provide help to all the studentswho needit. High schoolsoffer the leastassistance. Most of the schools surveyedreportedthat they provide neither programs that encourage teachersto shareand discussbooks nor programsthat allow them to stressthe value of reading books. Middle gradesschoolsspend,on average,US$1.92 per studentper year on readingmaterials other than textbooks--lessthan the cost ofone paperback. Readingnightmaresin readingeducation Readingeducation,as a professionalfield of study,has also beenplaguedby nightmares.For instance,considerthat over 50 yearsago Bond and Bond (1941) stated,"The fact that in the secondaryschoolthe continuedimprovementin readinghasbeenleft to chanceis a dark cloud on the readinghorizon.No betterresultsshouldbe expectedfrom this procedurethan from leaving a vegetablegardento grow by itself without any outsidecareafter it is once started"(p.

s3).

Theseeducatorswere challenginga numberof importantassumptionsaboutreadingand reading instruction.Theseassumptionsinclude (a) Readinginstructionis primarily, if not exclusively, the role of elementary,not middle and secondary,schoolteachers;and (b) readingis an isolated skill; once it is masteredin the elementarygrades,studentsrequire no further direct instruction in the upper gradelevels. What is nightmarish is that theseassumptions,and many others like them, remain prevalent in middle and secondaryschool.It is assumedthat providing readinginstructionis thejob of elementary,not secondary,teachers,and that studentsshould be enteringjunior and senior high schoolalreadyknowing how to readproficiently and strategically.But they aren't. In addition,considerthe following. In 1963,Umans wrote: "One of the most difficult tasksis to help subject-matterteachersseethe necessityof teachingskills directly relatedto the readingof the particularsubject.Somehow,the feeling persiststhat readingis alwaystaught'elsewhere'and 'at anothertime"' (p. 7). Similarly, in 1965,Andresen(in Burnett,1966) stated:"High schoolteachersmust face their responsibilitiesas teachersof readingas well as teachersof history, literature,science,and


home-making if they are to preparestudentsfor the demandsof fuither educationor for the experienceof life" $.323). ln 1964,Artley (in Burnett,1966) wrote: "secondaryreadingis changingas largenumbersof secondaryschool people administrators,curriculum consultantsand coordinators,teachers,and reading specialists-arebeginning to concedethat to acceptanything less than the eventual involvement of every teacherin the reading program of the high school is to fall short of meeting the needsof today'sstudents"(p.323). In 1965,Summers(seealso Muskopf & Robinson,1966,p.76) stated:"Perhapsthe most immediate concern in meeting the reading needsof secondarystudentsis staffing schoolswith teacherswho have the necessarytraining to provide adequateinstruction in reading in their contentsubjects"(p. 94). Theseeducatorswere challenginga numberof assumptionsdriving the role of teachersin secondaryschool, as well as calling for substantivechangesin teachereducationprograms.For instance,Andresen and Artley were challenging the assumptionthat secondaryschool teachers are strictly subjectspecialists,teachersof content,and not teachersof reading.They were calling for a new perceptionand a new definition of what it meansto teachin secondarysg:hool. Specifically,they were proposingthat every secondaryschoolteacherbe perceivedas, and educatedto be, both a subjectspecialistand a teacherofreading. Thus,teacherswho assigned reading in their content areawere obligated to help studentsread the materials that were assigned.Summers(1965),however,warnedthat in orderto do this preserviceteacherswould need "the necessarytraining" in reading in the content areasas part of their teachertraining program. What seemsnightmarishis that many of thesecalls have gonevirtually unanswered.Today, severaltrendsremainprevalentin secondaryeducation:(a) Secondaryschoolteacherscontinue to seethemselvesprimarily, if not exclusively,as teachersof content,not teachersof reading;(b) to a large extentsecondaryschoolteachersbelievethat ifreading needsto be taught in secondary school,it shouldbe integratedinto the languagearts cuniculum and taught by English teachers; and (c) students(typically English majors)majoring in secondaryeducationand enrolledin teachereducationprogramscontinueto receivevery little education(typically one course)in the areaof reading in general,and reading acrossthe curriculum in particular. Finally, considerthe following. In 1964, Artley (in Burnett,1966)predicted:"When the history of readinginstructionis written it will show that one of the major points of emphasisof the 1960'swill be the organizedextensionof the developmentalreadingprogram into the secondary grade"(p.323). Likewise, in 1966Burnett predicted:"Perhapsthe teachingof readingwill becomeacceptedas an integralpart of the high schoolcurriculum beforethe elapseof another25 years" (p. 328). At the time, theseeducatorswere making powerful and hopeful predictions for the future of readingand readinginstructionin secondaryschool.Thesepredictions,however,appearnot to have beencorrect.On the one hand,Artley (in Burnett, 1966,p. 323) predictedthat "the organizedextensionof the developmentalreading program into the secondarygrade," a major emphasisof the 1960s,would continueinto the 1970s,80s,90s,and into the 21st century. Excluding remedial reading programs,very little progresshas been made on extending developingreadingprogramsinto secondaryeducation.Similarly, Burnett (1966) predictedthat reading would becomean integral part of the high school curriculum. Yet, 30 years later, the teaching of reading in secondaryeducationcontinuesto be at best an infrequent visitor, and at worst a total stranger,acrossthe high school curriculum.


Readingnightmaresin teachervoices Secondaryteachersexperiencereading nightmaresevery day in the classroom.One way to understandthesenightmaresis to listen to a variety of teachervoices. Over the past 3 years,I have conducteda number of professionaldevelopmentworkshopson reading acrossthe curriculum for middle school and high school teachers.I beganthese workshopswith an oral readingof There'sa Nightmarein My Closet(Mayer, 1968),a humorous fantasy about a little boy who confronts his fear of the dark by planning to "get rid of the nightmare once and for all." After reading, I explainedthat I wanted to use this story as a metaphorfor hearingsomenew voicesand startingsomenew conversationsaboutreading.To this end, I modified the title to readThere'sa Nightmarein My ReadingCloset,and usedit as an invitation to teachersto explore and sharereading nightmares. Specifically,I invited teachersto spenda few minutesthinking abouttheir pastexperienceswith readingin the classroom.Then, I askedthem to write responsesto the following prompts: There'sa nightmarein my readingcloset ... Somepluses... Somequestions... And onewish ... The first prompt invited teachersto jot down somereadingnightmares;someproblems,issues, or concernswith which they were struggling.The secondprompt invited them to sharesome successes with readingthat they had experiencedin the classroom.The third prompt invited teachersto record somequestionsthat they were currentlyaskingthemselvesfor which they did not have answers.The fourth prompt invited teachersto make a wish that would enablethem to "get rid of my nightmareonce and for all." A total of 13I teachersprovidedresponsesacrossthesefour prompts.Of these,29 taught in middle school and 102 in high school. First, I readnonstopthrough all the responses,recordingno commentsand not stoppingfor any length of time to reflect on what I was reading.At this point I was trying to get a preliminary understandingand intuitive feeling by constantlyasking "What are theseteachervoicesreally saying?"Second,I readthroughthe responsesmore critically and reflectively,trying to construct working hypotheses.Here, I was trying to seesomepreliminary categoriesand pattemsby constantlyasking "What do theseteachersreally mean?"Third, I readthroughthe responses focusingon refining emergingpatternsby constantlyasking "What do theseteachersmean collectively?"(Glaser& Strauss,1967;seealsoLincoln & Guba,1985). The Figure is a sampleof teachervoices acrosscontentareas.For identificationpurposes,MS indicatesmiddle schoolteacherand HS indicateshieh schoolteacher.Different contentareasare also identified. Learningnew lessons I have learnedseveralnew lessonsabout the current statusof reading from listening to middle and secondaryschoolteacherstalk aboutreadingnightmaresacrossthe curriculum.These nightmareswill be very familiar to many middle and secondaryschool English/languagearts teachers,which suggeststhat little has changedover the years;indeed,if anl.thing,it indicates that things have gotten worse. However,what seemsmost problematicis that thesevoiceshave becomemore collective and less individual. That is, different teachersacrossthe curriculum use different words to describe their individual nightmares,but they are all saying essentiallythe samething. For example,math teachersstatethat studentscan't read and understandmath problems; scienceteachersstatethat


studentscan't read texts to conduct laboratory experiments;home economicsteachersstatethat studentsdon't understandand therefore can't follow instructions; industrial arts and vocational educationteachersstatethat studentscan't read and don't follow proceduresand thus often put themselvesin physical dangerwhen operating certain machinery and equipment; English teachersstatethat studentscan't read and don't comprehendpoems, short stories,and novels. Eachpersonalvoice describesa sharedprofessionalreality: Increasingnumbersof middle and secondaryschool studentsdo not perceive reading as meaningful, and thus do not value the act or the process.Thesestudentsare apathetic,almost disdainful,aboutreading.As a result, increasingnumbers of teachersare left feeling bewildered and frustrated, almost paralyzed,about how to teach.This situation is further exacerbatedfor teachersworking in a climate of highstakesassessment where the improvement(or lack thereof)in test scoresacrossindividual content areasdeterminesthe extent to which schoolsand teachersare rewarded or punished. Students'reasons for devaluingreadingas they progressthrough middle and secondaryschool are complex.Yet, thesevoices indicatethat teachersacrossthe curriculum sharea common conceptionof what the problem is and a set of interrelatedbeliefs that partially explain why it currentlyexists. By breakingdown any complexproblem into componentsand discussingeachone thereis the risk of oversimplifying,and evendiluting, the very complexity of the problem. Therefore, readersare urgedto keep in mind the adviceof Carolyn Burke (personalcorrespondence, 1993): "We certainlycan talk about complexproblemsin simple terms,but that no lessreducestheir complexity." Problem: Studentscan'tread,won't read,or will readbut fail to comprehendmost important information from text. Belief 1: "It's a studentthing ..." Teachersacrossthe curriculum seethe problem with readingas a studentthing. Studentscan'tread,are passive,and arereluctantto readbecausethey do not find school-basedreadingpersonallymeaningfulor socially relevantto their lives. To a large extent, this is due to the fact that many studentsdo not have a history of successand enjoymentwith reading.Over time, studentsdo not gain the positive experiencesnecessaryto be successful readers.As a result,as they progressthrough formal schooling,studentsbecomelessable to comprehendincreasinglycomplextexts.Frustrationbegetsfrustrationand failure begetsfailure, until at the high schoollevel studentsnot only devalue,but virtually dismiss,readingas a tool to learn. Belief 2:"It's a teacherthing ..." Teachersin middle and secondaryschoolbelievesomeof the problemsassociatedwith readingare really a teachingthing. On the one hand,they believethat if studentsat age16, for example,would bring to the classroomthe samecuriosity aboutreading and learningthat children do at age 6, then they would not have to dealwith readingat all, However, sinceit is clear that readingneedsto be addressed, they preferthat othersdealwith the problem (e.g., "I wish I had an English teacherwith my classto help with readingand writing"). Few believethat all teachersare ultimately teachersof reading,despitethe obviousneedto be so. Teachersexpresseda number of personaland professionalreasonsfor having difficulty dealing with reading.Surprisingly,many teachersdo not necessarilyseethemselvesas voraciousand sophisticatedreaders,unlessperhapswhen readingin their specificcontentarea.Not surprisingly,then, they f,rndit difficult to seethemselvesteachingreading,much lessbeing able to motivate others to read. It is also not surprising that at a professionallevel teachersexpressbetrayal, frustration, and confusion.In an interestingturn of events,it is now teacherswho feel "at risk." Teachersfeel


betrayedbecausethey were given no formal knowledge of reading in their teachereducation training, frustrated becausethey have no personalexperiencewith the teaching of reading, and confusedbecausethe number of readingspecialistsin schoolsis being reducedat the sametime administratorsare calling for improvementsin readingscores.Moreover,teachersfeel overwhelmed becausethey were "trained and hired to teach content,but are now being askedto also teachreading." The bottom line is that teachersfeel they are being askedto teach what they do not know how to teach in addition to an already bloated curriculum in their content area.Individuals who know the least about reading are being askedto teach reading to studentswho need it the most. Belief 3: "It's a textbook thing ..." Teachersalso believethat readingproblemsmay be relatedto textbooks.Increasingnumbersof teachersare startingto seriouslyquestionthe efficacy of using a single text as the basis for instruction in content areas.Teachersbelieve that many textbooks are written at a level far above the current reading abilities of students,and thus are unnecessarilyconfusingand complex.They also believethat textbooksare strictly content driven, and therefore are boring and uninterestingto students. In addition,teachersbelievethat the use of a singletextbook is driven by a "one size fits all mentality." The assumptionis that one book can accommodatedifferent personalinterestsand varied reading abilities. Teachersacrossthe curriculum know firsthand that studentsbring with them into the classroomdifferent histories of reading, and therefore different values about readingand the role it plays in their lives. They also know that a singletextbook can't and doesn't accommodatethe students'widerangeof readingabilities.A more powerful assumptionis that varied readingmaterialscan betteraccommodatevaried readingabilities. What is problematicaboutthis assumptionis that for the most part middle and secondaryschool teachershave had little experienceand even lessformal educationin selectingalternativeor supplementaryreadingmaterials.Another problem is that in moving to a multiple-textversusa single-textmentality,teachersfeel caughtbetween(a) trying to accommodatestudents'reading needswhile meeting the curricular demandsof the school and (b) trying to balancereading of student-selectedmaterials with teacher-assignedmaterials deemedimportant for content area knowledge. Belief 4: "It's a somebodyelsething ..." Finally, middle and secondaryschoolteachersbelieve parents,colleagues,and elementaryschoolteacherscontri,buteto the problem of readingin junior and seniorhigh school.Parents,for example,do not seemto stressand supportreadingat home as in yearspast.Instead,readingat home has beenreplacedby watchingtelevisionand playing video gamesto the point where readingstruggles,mostly unsuccessfully,to competefor young people'stime. Similarly, many teachersbelievethat colleaguesdo not recognizeandstressthe importanceof reading and teaching reading acrossthe curriculum in middle and secondaryschool. The pervasiveview is that teachersdon't and won't take responsibility for what they believe was the irresponsibilityof otherswho were obviouslyremissin their duty to teachchildren how to read. This view is perhapsbest expressedby one high schoolteacherwho stated:"It seemsthat not only am i now expectedto teachwhat I don't know, which is reading,becausethosewho precededme didn't teachit, but also I am now being held accountablewith reading,which is like me being held responsiblefor others'irresponsibility." In many cases,the "others" referred to are elementaryschool teachers.To a large extent, upper level teachersbelieve that primary grade teacherssimply aren't teaching children the basic skills of how to read, or are not recognizing andremediating reading problems early enough.As a result, when elementaryteacherspromote children who can't or don't like to read, middle and


secondaryschool teachersfeel they, not parentsor the elementaryteachers,have to suffer the consequences. Exploring new possibilities I beganthis article by identifying some old reading nightmaresof middle and secondary teachers.Their voices,heardcollectively,representa constellationof individual realitiesthat, up to this point, depict the current statusof reading mostly in terms of problems. Now, I want to focus on exploring new possibilitiesbecause,as Harste(seeCrafton et al., 1995)once stated, "when reality becomessynonymouswith possibility, it is time to get out of the teaching profession."In essence,exploring new possibilitiesmeanscreatingnew realitiesfor teachersand students.To this end, I want to proposeseveralstartingpoints for seeingnew possibilitiesin reading. It seemsobviousthat collegesand universitiesneedto reevaluateand rethink the role reading educationplays within the teachereducationcurriculum. Otherwise,universities will continue to graduatestudentswho are not only unawareof the nature of reading and the important role it plays in learning,but also ill-equippedto teachreadingin a contentarea,much lessacrossthe cuniculum. Clearly, preserviceteachersneed significantly more understandingof reading and experienceteaching it to meet the complex demandsof teaching reading in middle and secondary school. Therefore,universities needto increasethe quantity and enhancethe quality of experiencesthat preserviceteachershave in teachereducationprograms. Moreover,schooldistrictsand statedepartmentsof educationneedto reexaminethe currentlevel of commitment in the areaof reading. Teachersneed and want more information about and more experiencewith teaching reading. Otherwise,they will continue to feel uninformed and therefore unableto help thosestudentswho needhelp the most. Teacherswill also continueto feel frustrated given the fact that, with or without additional help in reading, school districts and departmentsof educationare still holding them accountablefor students'readingacrossthe contentareas.Schools,schooldistricts,and statedepartmentsof educationalso needto hold themselvesaccountable.This meansproviding ongoingprofessionaldevelopmentthat will support teachersin better understandingthe complex nature of reading and the art of teaching readingto adolescentsin middle schooland young adultsin secondaryschool. Schoolscan help themselvesby intentionallyand systematicallymaking readinga high priority with studentsand teachers.Schoolscan intentionallycreatea climate that saysto teachersin professionalways and to studentsin practicalways that "we value readingin this school."For example,schoolscan (a) plan ongoingprofessionalstaff developmentfor teachersin reading acrossthe curriculum; (b) organize in-school programs that encouragestudentsand teachersto read;(c) assistteachersin building collaborativerelationshipswith representatives of tradebook companiesto explorewhat readingmaterialsbeyondtextbooksare currentlyavailablefor use in the classroom;(d) createa faculty library repletewith a variety of resourceson recentadvances in reading,readinginstruction,and readingassessment in middle and secondaryschool;(e) invite teachersfrom acrossthe curriculum to sharereading strategieswith colleaguesat faculty meetings;and (f) provide teacherswith time and encouragement to discusswith colleagueswhat new insights about reading and teaching they learnedfrom trying new strategiesin the classroom. On a practicallevel, teacherscan (a) use mini-lessonson readingas a part of their daily or weekly lessonplans, to provide powerful demonstrationsto studentsof what good readersdo when they read; (b) use different frameworks to support reading acrossthe curriculum such as literaturecircles (Harste,Short,& Burke, 1988),readersworkshop (Atwell, 1987),reading aloud, paired reading, and reading responselogs (Rief, 1992);(c) set up a Readersin Residence program as a part of a library media center,in which studentvolunteershelp other studentswith reading; and (d) begin faculty meetingsand even the school day with an oral reading of a


children'spicture book, poem, shortfable, or an excerptfrom a short story, novel, or play. The idea hereis to help teachersand studentschangetheir old perceptionofreading in order to create a new reality that seesreading less as a nagging problem, and more as a tool for learning and thinking. Changing perceptionsof reading, however, is no small task. For instance,all too often teachers in middle and secondaryschool assumethat the solution to reading problems is primarily an instructional issue.That is, teachersfeel they lack a variety of reading strategiesthat they could use to spark studentinterest,which, in turn, could help them better comprehendcomplex reading assignments. This assumptionpartially explainswhy teachersassociatedreadingplusesmostly in terms of individual readingactivitiesand popularreadingprograms(seeFigure).Thesepluses are important. They indicate that teachersare aware of reading problems, and are exploring different strategiesto incorporatereading into their content area.Perhapsteacherswill start some new conversationsabout the power and potential of teaching reading acrossthe curriculum, basedon experiencesusing thesestrategiesin the classroom. Changingperceptionsof reading,however,hasto occur on at leasttwo levels--oneinstructional, the other theoreticaland curricular.Solving readingproblemsis not just a matterof teachers using more informed instructionaltechniques,althoughthat is clearly a stepin the right direction.It also involves a commitmentby teachersto interrogateassumptionsaboutlearning and conceptionsof curriculum that underpin different methodsof reading instruction. Teachers should question to what extent theseassumptionsrepresentthe best we currently know about learningand reading.The solutionalso requiresteachersto seetheir instructionalstrategiesas expressionsoftheir personalvaluesabouthow peoplelearn in general,and learnto readin particular, and to reflect on the extent to which thesevalues reflect recent advancesin learning and readingtheory. What teachersvalue most can be seenby looking at what they devotethe most time to. Conversely,what teachersdon't value tendsnot to be includedin the curriculum or presentin the classroom.In this instance,teachervoices acrossthe curriculum echoedsomediscomfortwith what they have valued over the years,and teachersare starting to changewhat they value most with reading.This shift was expressedby one high schoolteacherwho said, "I've beena social studiesteachernow for 25 years,and I'm starting to think that maybe,just maybe, studentshave a problem in readingbecauseas teacherswe've beenvaluing the wrong things all this time." For instance,someteachersare placing more value on the socialnatureof reading;that is, on the view that readingis not strictly an individual activity, but a social engagement.Othersvalue integratingreadingwith other disciplines,suchas writing, art, and drama.Still othersare using a wider variety of materialsand supportingself-selection,and using readingmaterialsthat are personallymeaningfuland socially relevantto students. Perhapsmost important, however, is that teachersare placing more value on the notion that an interest in reading is ultimately an interest in learning. For instance,elementary,middle, and high schoolteachersall believethat learningto learn is a lifelong process,and that schoolsare designedto help studentsbecomemore informed and more sophisticatedleamersas they progressthrough different grade levels. Teachershave not necessarilybelieved that learning to readis also a lifelong process,and that one of the purposesof schoolsis to help studentsbecome more strategicreaders.Rather, teachershave assumedthat studentslearnedto read in elementary schooland then readto learn in middle and secondaryschool. Now, middle and secondaryschool teachersare placing more value on the notion that learning to read and reading to learn are actually the sameprocess.This meansthat individuals of all ages have the potential to learn about reading and from reading. In this sense,reading isn't something children learn to do just in elementaryschool. Rather, learning to read and reading to learn are


interrelatedprocessesthat lifelong learnersdo to outgrow what they currently know and believe about the social world.

Interestingly enough,placing more value on the interrelationshipbetween learning to read and reading to learn also opensup the door for new relationshipsbetweenelementaryschool and middle and secondaryschoolteachers.By seeingreadingas a lifelong process,teachersin GradesK-12 can start some new conversationsabout how they can support one anotherin helping all studentsbecomebetter readersand better learners.Moreover, by seeingreading as a tool for learning, teacherscan help one anothernot only to use reading to spark studentinterest in content arealearning, but also to use content arealearning to spark interest in reading. In this sense,teaching reading in middle and secondaryschool isn't just an addition to an already bloated curriculum; it also provides the potential for teachersto use reading to createpersonally meaningful curriculum with students.In the long run, thesenew values may not be a cure for all our reading nightmares,but at least we will be able to teach better by day and sleepbetter at night. Teachervoicesacrossthe curriculum Legendfor Chart: A - Content area B - Reading nightmares C - Readingpluses D - Reading questions E - Readingwishes A

B C D E Science My nightmare is reading comprehension.Studentsdon't comprehendwell becausemany are very behind with readingabilitiesto begin with, plus a majority of sciencetextbooks are written on a level well above most high school students(HS). Using groups to do reading assignments,and tying assignmentsto everyday life. Why can't the staterevise its textbook adoption list? How can I get studentsto read assignmentsin science textbooks when the text can often be very difficult to understand? I wish that all kids coming to us could read. I also wish that all studentswould strive for learning and read insteadof watching television and playing video games.


Science I have a two-part nightmare: One, very few of my studentswill actually read the textbook. They depend on me for lecture notes or simply read a question and searchfor similar words in the text. Two, most studentsare not intrigued with scienceliterature, They passit off as boring. I feel this may come due to their lack of vocabulary and reading skills (HS). Using role-playing models, getting studentsto read an article dealing with scienceand then describewhat it has to do with their life, and writing a children's sciencebook and illustrating it. How can I get vital information acrosswithout reading?How do I make factual reading more interesting? I wish every studentwould cometo high schoolstill hungry to learn like small children are. Math My nightmare is that studentswill have trouble comprehendingand I won't know how to help them, and/or studentswon't be motivated to read and I'll have to make them (MS). Exploring whole languageand selectingmaterials that relatedto students.not teachers. How can I use children'sbooks in math?How can I teach reading in my math class without getting away from the math material I'm supposedto teach? I wish I knew how to teach reading and math together. Math Having uninterestingtextbooks, and no experience choosing material that gets studentsinvolved and reachesall levels of students(MS). I'm increasingthe use of word problems that reflect everyday life. How do I get more involved in reading when I don't read much myselfl I wish to have total classparticipation. Math


Working with studentswith large differencesin readingability, being able to help poor readersenjoy reading which, in turn, will keep their attention, and helping studentsuse reading to broadentheir interests(MS). I am trying to spark studentinterest by finding more interestingreading materials. How do I leam about strategiesthat incorporate reading and math? I wish that all studentsenjoyed reading and were competentreaders.This would make teaching subjectsa lot easier.

Math So many studentsstruggle in math becauseof not being able to read and understandthe problem, and I don't have time to go back and teach them how to comprehend what they are reading(HS). Many studentscan read; in fact, they want to read all the time. I have to make them put down their books in order to have math class. How am I able to help studentscomprehendwhat they are readingwhen no one elsehas? I wish elementaryteacherswould recognizeproblemsin reading and correct them early. Math Many studentsmake it through elementaryand middle school and still do not know how to read. Others can call out all of the words, but they don't understand what it means. I am asking studentsto restateword problems in their own words. How do I have time to work on reading when I don't have time to presentthe subject matter I teach?Do other math teachershave trouble incorporating reading into math? I wish I had more resourcesfor readingin math. Also, I wish I had an English teacherwith my classto help with reading and writing. Social studies


Studentsdon't read assignedmaterials. Often, reading a textbook chapterbrings a "I'd rather take a zero" from most students.Social studiesis not the least bit interestingto students(HS). Doing journal writing, reading newspapers,and making children'sbooks abouthistoricalpeopleand events. How can I get studentsto read something and relate the information to the class? I wish all studentshad that certain somethinginside themselvesto motivate themselvesand realize the importanceof educationand how much they're missing now insteadof realizins it later on in life. Social studies There are so many studentsin my classeswho are not proficient readers.They are so far behind many of the other studentsthat they have basically given up and have quit trying in school(HS). I am allowing them more time to readin class. How can I reachthose studentswho have little ability in readingand also supplythe needsof thosestudents who are proficient readers? I want to be effective in helping studentsto understandthe importanceof history enoughthat they will be interestedin readineaboutit. Social studies My nightmareis that I really don't know how to choose literaturethat both the high and low level children can enjoy and understand(MS). Literaturetoday seemsmore diverseand there is more integrationin the classroom. How do you find a balancebetweenassigninggood literature and assigningliterature that will be of interest to students? I wish history teacherswould incorporatemore fi ction/literature into the curriculum. Social studies My nightmare is not only that I might have a student who can barely read, but also studentswho read better than I do. While reading out loud, I am afraid I will


stammer,stutter, or mispronouncea word (MS). Setting aside time for reading, and making books accessibleto all rangesof students. How do I get studentsto read when they are so apathetic?How can I get my studentsinterestedin reading about history when most history books are so boring, and that's why studentshave such dislike for the subject? I wish that I can instill in my studentsa love for reading. English Studentsare not motivated to read the assignmentsI give, or if they do readthey are often misinformedor get a confusingview of the material(MS). Using prereadingstrategiesand guiding questions during free reading time. How do I make sure that studentsgraspthe important conceptsin reading? I want to be able to motivate studentsto want to read for more than iust becausethev have to. English My nightmareis that kids will leavethis high school and neverreadagainbecausethey don't value reading. It doesn'tseemimportantto them (HS). Using readinglogs, readingaloud,and integrating reading and writing. How do we teachersget away from dependingon only one way of teachingreading? I wish that every teacherregardlessof the content areawould recognizethe importanceof reading. English My nightmare is that studentscan read the words on the page, but have difficulty comprehendingwhat they are reading(HS). Allowing studentschoice in required reading. Ownership is important in reading. What is the best method for assessingreading


comprehension? I wish I had the power to motivate studentsto read and love it.

Art My nightmare is that people will grow less and less aware of the importance and the power of words--that they will read only insofar as they must and will not know the joy and triumph of being able to share subtle,precisethoughtsand feelingsby reading. I am assigningdrawing and painting projects students must complete by reading. They learn that drawing providesevidenceof comprehension. What do i do about the great discrepancybetween studentsof different readingand ability levels? I wish studentscould seewords as elementsof art, as lines,texture,colors,shapes,which compose beautiful individual statementsfrom the heart.

Title I I have a fifth grader reading at a third-grade level. I help him pronouncewords, and he'll get it once,but when askeda minute later he can'tremember(MS). I am using the acceleratedreadingprogram.It's helping. How can I get curiosity and excitementtowards a textbook? I wish I could stoptime so I could catchall kids up in reading. Home economics My nightmare is that many of my studentsread and write so poorly that they are unable to help their own childrenwith simple tasks(HS). I have studentsdevelop lessonswhere they read to children in our preschoolprogram. How do I actually teach reading skills within a contentarea,like home economics? I wish that studentswould be able to use what they learn in schoolto have a more viable life.


Foreign language Finding ways to get my studentsto read about other cultures that will interest them without sacrificing the integrity of what I want them to know. This is becomingincreasinglymore difficult becauseas a rule studentsread even less than they did in the past (HS). I am using simple novels that studentsenjoy reading. It seemsthat everyone can get involved in a good story. How can I teach foreign languageto studentswho have no graspof English? I wish reading were an inborn, genetic gift that did not have to be taught, but rather could be expandedon through interestsurveysand discussion. Vocationaleducation Studentsdo not absorbwhat they read and usually do not passa test or quiz over what theyjust read. Also, somestudentsdo well at readingand like to readwhile otherssit and stareinto space(HS). Using readingin labs,and providing time to read. How much time shouldI spendon reading?How do studentsrespondto reading? I wish I had more time for reading and that students would enjoy readingand take time to do it. Industrial arts My nightmare is that studentscan't comprehendthe materialsselectedfor my cowse, including reading simple instructionsand taking tests(HS). I'm trying to connect industrial arts to real life situations. Exactly what should studentsbe able to understand when reading? I wish I had time to read what I want rather than what I must, and that studentswould read and comprehend all assignments. Administrator As a principal my nightmare is studentsthat are


noffeaders or whose reading performanceis far below their peers,and that fewer of thesestudentsnow qualify for assistancethrough special education(MS). Our school is now emphasizingtrade books and using Reading Is Fundamentaland Book It. How do we give individualized reading instruction without pullout programs like Title I? I wish that all children would have print-rich home environmentswith timers on TV and video sames. Administrator Reading scoresare low and declining, and yet due to staff reduction and cutbacks,we have had to reassign and lay off our sixth-gradereading teachers(MS). Reading accountability has been moved up to seventh grade. How can we better intesrate readins acrossthe cuniculum? I wish we could raiseour readingscores. Administrator Children are learning to read, but the pressuresof standardizedtesting and educationalreform soon have us focusingon other disciplinessuchas math and science,sayingwe are "integrating"readingwhen in fact we slight the advancesthat would assiststudents in later life (HS). Someteachersare using the acceleratedreading program. Will the controversybetweenwhole languageand phonics take center stagerather than focus on improving readingskills? I wish that every studentwould be reading at grade level or above. Administrator I have two nightmares.One is all too often a simple method of teaching reading is employed for all with not enough emphasison allowing studentinterest and curiosity to drive reading. And two, reading is not being adequatelyintegratedacrossthe curriculum (MS).


Basals are not the only way. Books and choices of reading are great. We are trying to use a wider variety of topics and thematic instruction. Why do studentsdislike reading after the first or second grade?Why is reading such a struggle for the majority of students? I wish children could be children and take the time they need to question and learn. Administrator That teachersdo not have enoughtraining in the reading processand not seeall the connections involved in skills instruction(MS). I am trying to do some continuoustraining in reading instruction. How can we find, select,and use materials that better reflect studentinterest and reading ability? I wish that teacherswould believe that when kids are having problems in reading there may not be anything wrong with the child, but rather there may be somethingwrong with the way they are teaching the child. Administrator My nightmare is that few high school teachersassume any responsibilityfor helping kids leam to read (HS). Trying to connectreading and real-life situationsto help kids get pastjust calling words. What training exists to help content areateachers better understandhow high school age studentslearn to read and how teacherscan incorporatereading acrosscontent areas? I wish that the walls come down; that is, that school truly becomesa learning center for all on that site. Undeclared My nightmare is that studentsempty of good reading experiencesare drowning with demandsto read chapters of text they do not relate to and failing becauseof "lack of effort."


NoticethatKolbsmodelis actually two modelsin one: A foursteplearning process: 1. 2. 3. 4.

- reflection] Watching [introvert Thinking [mind] Feeling[emotion] - muscle] Doing[extrovert

Whichthengoeson to describe thefourlearning stylesusedwithinthe learning process 1. 2. 3. 4.

Reflectors Theorists Pragmatists Activists


Learningobjectivesfor teachingthe readingof literature,from ElaineShowalter's Teachiig Literature. Oxford:BlackwellPublishing,2003. ,/ in language use. 1 How to recognizesubtleandcomplexdifferences literal and between distinguish How to readfigurativelanguageand 2 metaphorical meaning. How to seekout furtherknowledgeaboutthe literarywork, its author,its 3 content,or its interpretation. underlyingwritingsfrom a differenttime How to detectculturalassumptions 4 to becomeawareof one'sown cultural or society,andin theprocess assumptions. How to relateapparentlydisparateworksto oneanother,andto synthesize 5 ideasthat connecttheminto a traditionor a literaryperiod. eitherto communicate How to useliteraturemodelsasculturalreferences, 6 with othersor to clarifyone'sown ideas. How to think creativelyaboutproblemsby usingliteratureasa brdadeningof 7 one'sovr'nexperience andpracticalknowledge. 8 How to readclosely,with attentionto detaileduseof diction,syntax, metaphor,andstyle,not only in high literaryworks,but in decodingthe to. streamof languageeveryonein modernsocietyis exposed How to createliterarytextsof one'sown,whetherimaginativeor critical. 9 .10 How to think creativelywithin andbeyondliterarystudies,makingsome connections betweentheliterarywork andone'sown life. How to work andlearnwith others,takingliteratureasa focusfor discussion 11 andanalysis. How to defenda criticaljudgmentagainstthe informedopinionsof others. 12

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